Sample records for sampling sampling methods

  1. Sampling system and method (United States)

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee


    The present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit.

  2. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L


    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  3. Sampling system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee


    In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for supporting a tubing bundle during installation or removal. The apparatus includes a clamp for securing the tubing bundle to an external wireline. In various examples, the clamp is external to the tubing bundle or integral with the tubing bundle. According to one method, a tubing bundle and wireline are deployed together and the tubing bundle periodically secured to the wireline using a clamp. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit. In a specific example, one or more clamps are used to connect the first and/or second conduits to an external wireline.

  4. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K


    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  5. Neonatal blood gas sampling methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood gas sampling is part of everyday practice in the care of babies admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, particularly for those receiving respiratory support. There is little published guidance that systematically evaluates the different methods of neonatal blood gas sampling, where each method has its individual ...


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    .... Our article aims to study audit sampling in audit of financial statements. As an audit technique largely used, in both its statistical and nonstatistical form, the method is very important for auditors...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Our article aims to study audit sampling in audit of financial statements. As an audit technique largely used, in both its statistical and nonstatistical form, the method is very important for auditors. It should be applied correctly for a fair view of financial statements, to satisfy the needs of all financial users. In order to be applied correctly the method must be understood by all its users and mainly by auditors. Otherwise the risk of not applying it correctly would cause loose of reputation and discredit, litigations and even prison. Since there is not a unitary practice and methodology for applying the technique, the risk of incorrectly applying it is pretty high. The SWOT analysis is a technique used that shows the advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities. We applied SWOT analysis in studying the sampling method, from the perspective of three players: the audit company, the audited entity and users of financial statements. The study shows that by applying the sampling method the audit company and the audited entity both save time, effort and money. The disadvantages of the method are difficulty in applying and understanding its insight. Being largely used as an audit method and being a factor of a correct audit opinion, the sampling method’s advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities must be understood by auditors.

  8. Distance sampling methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Buckland, S T; Marques, T A; Oedekoven, C S


    In this book, the authors cover the basic methods and advances within distance sampling that are most valuable to practitioners and in ecology more broadly. This is the fourth book dedicated to distance sampling. In the decade since the last book published, there have been a number of new developments. The intervening years have also shown which advances are of most use. This self-contained book covers topics from the previous publications, while also including recent developments in method, software and application. Distance sampling refers to a suite of methods, including line and point transect sampling, in which animal density or abundance is estimated from a sample of distances to detected individuals. The book illustrates these methods through case studies; data sets and computer code are supplied to readers through the book’s accompanying website.  Some of the case studies use the software Distance, while others use R code. The book is in three parts.  The first part addresses basic methods, the ...

  9. Sample processing device and method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A sample processing device is disclosed, which sample processing device comprises a first substrate and a second substrate, where the first substrate has a first surface comprising two area types, a first area type with a first contact angle with water and a second area type with a second contact...... a sample liquid comprising the sample and the first preparation system is adapted to receive a receiving liquid. In a particular embodiment, a magnetic sample transport component, such as a permanent magnet or an electromagnet, is arranged to move magnetic beads in between the first and second substrates....

  10. New prior sampling methods for nested sampling - Development and testing (United States)

    Stokes, Barrie; Tuyl, Frank; Hudson, Irene


    Nested Sampling is a powerful algorithm for fitting models to data in the Bayesian setting, introduced by Skilling [1]. The nested sampling algorithm proceeds by carrying out a series of compressive steps, involving successively nested iso-likelihood boundaries, starting with the full prior distribution of the problem parameters. The "central problem" of nested sampling is to draw at each step a sample from the prior distribution whose likelihood is greater than the current likelihood threshold, i.e., a sample falling inside the current likelihood-restricted region. For both flat and informative priors this ultimately requires uniform sampling restricted to the likelihood-restricted region. We present two new methods of carrying out this sampling step, and illustrate their use with the lighthouse problem [2], a bivariate likelihood used by Gregory [3] and a trivariate Gaussian mixture likelihood. All the algorithm development and testing reported here has been done with Mathematica® [4].

  11. Towards Cost-efficient Sampling Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Luo; Chong, Wu


    The sampling method has been paid much attention in the field of complex network in general and statistical physics in particular. This paper presents two new sampling methods based on the perspective that a small part of vertices with high node degree can possess the most structure information of a network. The two proposed sampling methods are efficient in sampling the nodes with high degree. The first new sampling method is improved on the basis of the stratified random sampling method and selects the high degree nodes with higher probability by classifying the nodes according to their degree distribution. The second sampling method improves the existing snowball sampling method so that it enables to sample the targeted nodes selectively in every sampling step. Besides, the two proposed sampling methods not only sample the nodes but also pick the edges directly connected to these nodes. In order to demonstrate the two methods' availability and accuracy, we compare them with the existing sampling methods in...

  12. A method of language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik; Hengeveld, Kees


    created with this method will reflect optimally the diversity of the languages of the world. On the basis of the internal structure of each genetic language tree a measure is computed that reflects the linguistic diversity in the language families represented by these trees. This measure is used...

  13. Sample normalization methods in quantitative metabolomics. (United States)

    Wu, Yiman; Li, Liang


    To reveal metabolomic changes caused by a biological event in quantitative metabolomics, it is critical to use an analytical tool that can perform accurate and precise quantification to examine the true concentration differences of individual metabolites found in different samples. A number of steps are involved in metabolomic analysis including pre-analytical work (e.g., sample collection and storage), analytical work (e.g., sample analysis) and data analysis (e.g., feature extraction and quantification). Each one of them can influence the quantitative results significantly and thus should be performed with great care. Among them, the total sample amount or concentration of metabolites can be significantly different from one sample to another. Thus, it is critical to reduce or eliminate the effect of total sample amount variation on quantification of individual metabolites. In this review, we describe the importance of sample normalization in the analytical workflow with a focus on mass spectrometry (MS)-based platforms, discuss a number of methods recently reported in the literature and comment on their applicability in real world metabolomics applications. Sample normalization has been sometimes ignored in metabolomics, partially due to the lack of a convenient means of performing sample normalization. We show that several methods are now available and sample normalization should be performed in quantitative metabolomics where the analyzed samples have significant variations in total sample amounts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamic Method for Identifying Collected Sample Mass (United States)

    Carson, John


    G-Sample is designed for sample collection missions to identify the presence and quantity of sample material gathered by spacecraft equipped with end effectors. The software method uses a maximum-likelihood estimator to identify the collected sample's mass based on onboard force-sensor measurements, thruster firings, and a dynamics model of the spacecraft. This makes sample mass identification a computation rather than a process requiring additional hardware. Simulation examples of G-Sample are provided for spacecraft model configurations with a sample collection device mounted on the end of an extended boom. In the absence of thrust knowledge errors, the results indicate that G-Sample can identify the amount of collected sample mass to within 10 grams (with 95-percent confidence) by using a force sensor with a noise and quantization floor of 50 micrometers. These results hold even in the presence of realistic parametric uncertainty in actual spacecraft inertia, center-of-mass offset, and first flexibility modes. Thrust profile knowledge is shown to be a dominant sensitivity for G-Sample, entering in a nearly one-to-one relationship with the final mass estimation error. This means thrust profiles should be well characterized with onboard accelerometers prior to sample collection. An overall sample-mass estimation error budget has been developed to approximate the effect of model uncertainty, sensor noise, data rate, and thrust profile error on the expected estimate of collected sample mass.

  15. Method and apparatus for sampling atmospheric mercury (United States)

    Trujillo, Patricio E.; Campbell, Evan E.; Eutsler, Bernard C.


    A method of simultaneously sampling particulate mercury, organic mercurial vapors, and metallic mercury vapor in the working and occupational environment and determining the amount of mercury derived from each such source in the sampled air. A known volume of air is passed through a sampling tube containing a filter for particulate mercury collection, a first adsorber for the selective adsorption of organic mercurial vapors, and a second adsorber for the adsorption of metallic mercury vapor. Carbon black molecular sieves are particularly useful as the selective adsorber for organic mercurial vapors. The amount of mercury adsorbed or collected in each section of the sampling tube is readily quantitatively determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  16. Fluidics platform and method for sample preparation (United States)

    Benner, Henry W.; Dzenitis, John M.


    Provided herein are fluidics platforms and related methods for performing integrated sample collection and solid-phase extraction of a target component of the sample all in one tube. The fluidics platform comprises a pump, particles for solid-phase extraction and a particle-holding means. The method comprises contacting the sample with one or more reagents in a pump, coupling a particle-holding means to the pump and expelling the waste out of the pump while the particle-holding means retains the particles inside the pump. The fluidics platform and methods herein described allow solid-phase extraction without pipetting and centrifugation.

  17. Sampling of temporal networks: Methods and biases (United States)

    Rocha, Luis E. C.; Masuda, Naoki; Holme, Petter


    Temporal networks have been increasingly used to model a diversity of systems that evolve in time; for example, human contact structures over which dynamic processes such as epidemics take place. A fundamental aspect of real-life networks is that they are sampled within temporal and spatial frames. Furthermore, one might wish to subsample networks to reduce their size for better visualization or to perform computationally intensive simulations. The sampling method may affect the network structure and thus caution is necessary to generalize results based on samples. In this paper, we study four sampling strategies applied to a variety of real-life temporal networks. We quantify the biases generated by each sampling strategy on a number of relevant statistics such as link activity, temporal paths and epidemic spread. We find that some biases are common in a variety of networks and statistics, but one strategy, uniform sampling of nodes, shows improved performance in most scenarios. Given the particularities of temporal network data and the variety of network structures, we recommend that the choice of sampling methods be problem oriented to minimize the potential biases for the specific research questions on hand. Our results help researchers to better design network data collection protocols and to understand the limitations of sampled temporal network data.

  18. Sampling methods for terrestrial amphibians and reptiles. (United States)

    Paul Stephen Corn; R. Bruce. Bury


    Methods described for sampling amphibians and reptiles in Douglas-fir forests in the Pacific Northwest include pitfall trapping, time-constrained collecting, and surveys of coarse woody debris. The herpetofauna of this region differ in breeding and nonbreeding habitats and vagility, so that no single technique is sufficient for a community study. A combination of...

  19. System and Method for Isolation of Samples (United States)

    Zhang, Ye (Inventor); Wu, Honglu (Inventor)


    Systems and methods for isolating samples are provided. The system comprises a first membrane and a second membrane disposed within an enclosure. First and second reservoirs can also be disposed within the enclosure and adapted to contain one or more reagents therein. A first valve can be disposed within the enclosure and in fluid communication with the first reservoir, the second reservoir, or both. The first valve can also be in fluid communication with the first or second membranes or both. The first valve can be adapted to selectively regulate the flow of the reagents from the first reservoir, through at least one of the first and second membranes, and into the second reservoir.

  20. Statistical sampling method, used in the audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Felicia UNGUREANU


    Full Text Available The rapid increase in the size of U.S. companies from the early twentieth century created the need for audit procedures based on the selection of a part of the total population audited to obtain reliable audit evidence, to characterize the entire population consists of account balances or classes of transactions. Sampling is not used only in audit – is used in sampling surveys, market analysis and medical research in which someone wants to reach a conclusion about a large number of data by examining only a part of these data. The difference is the “population” from which the sample is selected, ie that set of data which is intended to draw a conclusion. Audit sampling applies only to certain types of audit procedures.

  1. Perpendicular distance sampling: an alternative method for sampling downed coarse woody debris (United States)

    Michael S. Williams; Jeffrey H. Gove


    Coarse woody debris (CWD) plays an important role in many forest ecosystem processes. In recent years, a number of new methods have been proposed to sample CWD. These methods select individual logs into the sample using some form of unequal probability sampling. One concern with most of these methods is the difficulty in estimating the volume of each log. A new method...

  2. System and method for extracting a sample from a surface (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary; Covey, Thomas


    A system and method is disclosed for extracting a sample from a sample surface. A sample is provided and a sample surface receives the sample which is deposited on the sample surface. A hydrophobic material is applied to the sample surface, and one or more devices are configured to dispense a liquid on the sample, the liquid dissolving the sample to form a dissolved sample material, and the one or more devices are configured to extract the dissolved sample material from the sample surface.

  3. Some connections between importance sampling and enhanced sampling methods in molecular dynamics (United States)

    Lie, H. C.; Quer, J.


    In molecular dynamics, enhanced sampling methods enable the collection of better statistics of rare events from a reference or target distribution. We show that a large class of these methods is based on the idea of importance sampling from mathematical statistics. We illustrate this connection by comparing the Hartmann-Schütte method for rare event simulation (J. Stat. Mech. Theor. Exp. 2012, P11004) and the Valsson-Parrinello method of variationally enhanced sampling [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 090601 (2014)]. We use this connection in order to discuss how recent results from the Monte Carlo methods literature can guide the development of enhanced sampling methods.

  4. Evaluation of common methods for sampling invertebrate pollinator assemblages: net sampling out-perform pan traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony J Popic

    Full Text Available Methods for sampling ecological assemblages strive to be efficient, repeatable, and representative. Unknowingly, common methods may be limited in terms of revealing species function and so of less value for comparative studies. The global decline in pollination services has stimulated surveys of flower-visiting invertebrates, using pan traps and net sampling. We explore the relative merits of these two methods in terms of species discovery, quantifying abundance, function, and composition, and responses of species to changing floral resources. Using a spatially-nested design we sampled across a 5000 km(2 area of arid grasslands, including 432 hours of net sampling and 1296 pan trap-days, between June 2010 and July 2011. Net sampling yielded 22% more species and 30% higher abundance than pan traps, and better reflected the spatio-temporal variation of floral resources. Species composition differed significantly between methods; from 436 total species, 25% were sampled by both methods, 50% only by nets, and the remaining 25% only by pans. Apart from being less comprehensive, if pan traps do not sample flower-visitors, the link to pollination is questionable. By contrast, net sampling functionally linked species to pollination through behavioural observations of flower-visitation interaction frequency. Netted specimens are also necessary for evidence of pollen transport. Benefits of net-based sampling outweighed minor differences in overall sampling effort. As pan traps and net sampling methods are not equivalent for sampling invertebrate-flower interactions, we recommend net sampling of invertebrate pollinator assemblages, especially if datasets are intended to document declines in pollination and guide measures to retain this important ecosystem service.

  5. Sampling Methods in Cardiovascular Nursing Research: An Overview. (United States)

    Kandola, Damanpreet; Banner, Davina; O'Keefe-McCarthy, Sheila; Jassal, Debbie


    Cardiovascular nursing research covers a wide array of topics from health services to psychosocial patient experiences. The selection of specific participant samples is an important part of the research design and process. The sampling strategy employed is of utmost importance to ensure that a representative sample of participants is chosen. There are two main categories of sampling methods: probability and non-probability. Probability sampling is the random selection of elements from the population, where each element of the population has an equal and independent chance of being included in the sample. There are five main types of probability sampling including simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling, and multi-stage sampling. Non-probability sampling methods are those in which elements are chosen through non-random methods for inclusion into the research study and include convenience sampling, purposive sampling, and snowball sampling. Each approach offers distinct advantages and disadvantages and must be considered critically. In this research column, we provide an introduction to these key sampling techniques and draw on examples from the cardiovascular research. Understanding the differences in sampling techniques may aid nurses in effective appraisal of research literature and provide a reference pointfor nurses who engage in cardiovascular research.

  6. [Respondent-Driven Sampling: a new sampling method to study visible and hidden populations]. (United States)

    Mantecón, Alejandro; Juan, Montse; Calafat, Amador; Becoña, Elisardo; Román, Encarna


    The paper introduces a variant of chain-referral sampling: respondent-driven sampling (RDS). This sampling method shows that methods based on network analysis can be combined with the statistical validity of standard probability sampling methods. In this sense, RDS appears to be a mathematical improvement of snowball sampling oriented to the study of hidden populations. However, we try to prove its validity with populations that are not within a sampling frame but can nonetheless be contacted without difficulty. The basics of RDS are explained through our research on young people (aged 14 to 25) who go clubbing, consume alcohol and other drugs, and have sex. Fieldwork was carried out between May and July 2007 in three Spanish regions: Baleares, Galicia and Comunidad Valenciana. The presentation of the study shows the utility of this type of sampling when the population is accessible but there is a difficulty deriving from the lack of a sampling frame. However, the sample obtained is not a random representative one in statistical terms of the target population. It must be acknowledged that the final sample is representative of a 'pseudo-population' that approximates to the target population but is not identical to it.

  7. Method and sample spinning apparatus for measuring the NMR spectrum of an orientationally disordered sample (United States)

    Pines, Alexander; Samoson, Ago


    An improved NMR apparatus and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise orientationally disordered samples. The apparatus spins the sample about an axis. The angle of the axis is mechanically varied such that the time average of two or more Legendre polynomials are zero.

  8. Systems and methods for self-synchronized digital sampling (United States)

    Samson, Jr., John R. (Inventor)


    Systems and methods for self-synchronized data sampling are provided. In one embodiment, a system for capturing synchronous data samples is provided. The system includes an analog to digital converter adapted to capture signals from one or more sensors and convert the signals into a stream of digital data samples at a sampling frequency determined by a sampling control signal; and a synchronizer coupled to the analog to digital converter and adapted to receive a rotational frequency signal from a rotating machine, wherein the synchronizer is further adapted to generate the sampling control signal, and wherein the sampling control signal is based on the rotational frequency signal.

  9. 19 CFR 151.83 - Method of sampling. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of sampling. 151.83 Section 151.83 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Cotton § 151.83 Method of sampling. For...

  10. 7 CFR 29.110 - Method of sampling. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of sampling. 29.110 Section 29.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Inspectors, Samplers, and Weighers § 29.110 Method of sampling. In sampling tobacco...

  11. an assessment of methods for sampling carabid beetles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    particular habitat where we sampled (rugged montane rain forest) pitfall trapping has no advantage over searching methods with respect to ease of operation, low cost or efficiency. However, despite its inefficiency, pitfall trapping cannot be left out of sampling protocols because the method sampled some species that were ...

  12. New adaptive sampling method in particle image velocimetry (United States)

    Yu, Kaikai; Xu, Jinglei; Tang, Lan; Mo, Jianwei


    This study proposes a new adaptive method to enable the number of interrogation windows and their positions in a particle image velocimetry (PIV) image interrogation algorithm to become self-adapted according to the seeding density. The proposed method can relax the constraint of uniform sampling rate and uniform window size commonly adopted in the traditional PIV algorithm. In addition, the positions of the sampling points are redistributed on the basis of the spring force generated by the sampling points. The advantages include control of the number of interrogation windows according to the local seeding density and smoother distribution of sampling points. The reliability of the adaptive sampling method is illustrated by processing synthetic and experimental images. The synthetic example attests to the advantages of the sampling method. Compared with that of the uniform interrogation technique in the experimental application, the spatial resolution is locally enhanced when using the proposed sampling method.

  13. Method and apparatus for imaging a sample on a device (United States)

    Trulson, Mark; Stern, David; Fiekowsky, Peter; Rava, Richard; Walton, Ian; Fodor, Stephen P. A.


    A method and apparatus for imaging a sample are provided. An electromagnetic radiation source generates excitation radiation which is sized by excitation optics to a line. The line is directed at a sample resting on a support and excites a plurality of regions on the sample. Collection optics collect response radiation reflected from the sample I and image the reflected radiation. A detector senses the reflected radiation and is positioned to permit discrimination between radiation reflected from a certain focal plane in the sample and certain other planes within the sample.

  14. On Angular Sampling Methods for 3-D Spatial Channel Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Jämsä, Tommi; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum


    This paper discusses generating three dimensional (3D) spatial channel models with emphasis on the angular sampling methods. Three angular sampling methods, i.e. modified uniform power sampling, modified uniform angular sampling, and random pairing methods are proposed and investigated in detail....... The random pairing method, which uses only twenty sinusoids in the ray-based model for generating the channels, presents good results if the spatial channel cluster is with a small elevation angle spread. For spatial clusters with large elevation angle spreads, however, the random pairing method would fail...

  15. A random spatial sampling method in a rural developing nation (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Kent D.W. Bream; Frances K. Barg; Charles C. Branas


    Nonrandom sampling of populations in developing nations has limitations and can inaccurately estimate health phenomena, especially among hard-to-reach populations such as rural residents. However, random sampling of rural populations in developing nations can be challenged by incomplete enumeration of the base population. We describe a stratified random sampling method...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Marketing and statistical literature available to practitioners provides a wide range of sampling methods that can be implemented in the context of marketing research. Ranking sampling method is based on taking apart the general population into several strata, namely into several subdivisions which are relatively homogenous regarding a certain characteristic. In fact, the sample will be composed by selecting, from each stratum, a certain number of components (which can be proportional or non-proportional to the size of the stratum until the pre-established volume of the sample is reached. Using ranking sampling within marketing research requires the determination of some relevant statistical indicators - average, dispersion, sampling error etc. To that end, the paper contains a case study which illustrates the actual approach used in order to apply the ranking sample method within a marketing research made by a company which provides Internet connection services, on a particular category of customers – small and medium enterprises.

  17. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik


    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....

  18. Experience sampling with elderly persons: an exploration of the method. (United States)

    Hnatiuk, S H


    The daily lives of a sample of elderly widows (greater than 69 years of age) were studied using the method of experience sampling developed by Csikszentmihalyi and his colleagues. The purpose of the study was to investigate the response of elderly people to experience sampling as a means of collecting information about their activities, thoughts, and moods during the course of one week. The method proved acceptable to the majority of participants and yielded reliable, valid data about their home lives, particularly from among the younger, more physically able women. Experience sampling was, within certain limits, a useful method of obtaining information from elderly people.

  19. Evaluating Composite Sampling Methods of Bacillus spores at Low Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Becky M.; Amidan, Brett G.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Hutchison, Janine R.


    Restoring facility operations after the 2001 Amerithrax attacks took over three months to complete, highlighting the need to reduce remediation time. The most time intensive tasks were environmental sampling and sample analyses. Composite sampling allows disparate samples to be combined, with only a single analysis needed, making it a promising method to reduce response times. We developed a statistical experimental design to test three different composite sampling methods: 1) single medium single pass composite: a single cellulose sponge samples multiple coupons; 2) single medium multi-pass composite: a single cellulose sponge is used to sample multiple coupons; and 3) multi-medium post-sample composite: a single cellulose sponge samples a single surface, and then multiple sponges are combined during sample extraction. Five spore concentrations of Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura spores were tested; concentrations ranged from 5 to 100 CFU/coupon (0.00775 to 0.155CFU/cm2, respectively). Study variables included four clean surface materials (stainless steel, vinyl tile, ceramic tile, and painted wallboard) and three grime coated/dirty materials (stainless steel, vinyl tile, and ceramic tile). Analysis of variance for the clean study showed two significant factors: composite method (p-value < 0.0001) and coupon material (p-value = 0.0008). Recovery efficiency (RE) was higher overall using the post-sample composite (PSC) method compared to single medium composite from both clean and grime coated materials. RE with the PSC method for concentrations tested (10 to 100 CFU/coupon) was similar for ceramic tile, painted wall board, and stainless steel for clean materials. RE was lowest for vinyl tile with both composite methods. Statistical tests for the dirty study showed RE was significantly higher for vinyl and stainless steel materials, but significantly lower for ceramic tile. These results suggest post-sample compositing can be used to reduce sample analysis time when

  20. A method and fortran program for quantitative sampling in paleontology (United States)

    Tipper, J.C.


    The Unit Sampling Method is a binomial sampling method applicable to the study of fauna preserved in rocks too well cemented to be disaggregated. Preliminary estimates of the probability of detecting each group in a single sampling unit can be converted to estimates of the group's volumetric abundance by means of correction curves obtained by a computer simulation technique. This paper describes the technique and gives the FORTRAN program. ?? 1976.

  1. Method for using polarization gating to measure a scattering sample (United States)

    Baba, Justin S.


    Described herein are systems, devices, and methods facilitating optical characterization of scattering samples. A polarized optical beam can be directed to pass through a sample to be tested. The optical beam exiting the sample can then be analyzed to determine its degree of polarization, from which other properties of the sample can be determined. In some cases, an apparatus can include a source of an optical beam, an input polarizer, a sample, an output polarizer, and a photodetector. In some cases, a signal from a photodetector can be processed through attenuation, variable offset, and variable gain.

  2. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goheen, S C; McCulloch, M; Thomas, B L; Riley, R G; Sklarew, D S; Mong, G M; Fadeff, S K [eds.; Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) provides applicable methods in use by. the US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories for sampling and analyzing constituents of waste and environmental samples. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Laboratory Management Division (LMD) of the DOE. This document contains chapters and methods that are proposed for use in evaluating components of DOE environmental and waste management samples. DOE Methods is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities that will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), or others.

  3. Development of an automated data processing method for sample to sample comparison of seized methamphetamines. (United States)

    Choe, Sanggil; Lee, Jaesin; Choi, Hyeyoung; Park, Yujin; Lee, Heesang; Pyo, Jaesung; Jo, Jiyeong; Park, Yonghoon; Choi, Hwakyung; Kim, Suncheun


    The information about the sources of supply, trafficking routes, distribution patterns and conspiracy links can be obtained from methamphetamine profiling. The precursor and synthetic method for the clandestine manufacture can be estimated from the analysis of minor impurities contained in methamphetamine. Also, the similarity between samples can be evaluated using the peaks that appear in chromatograms. In South Korea, methamphetamine was the most popular drug but the total seized amount of methamphetamine whole through the country was very small. Therefore, it would be more important to find the links between samples than the other uses of methamphetamine profiling. Many Asian countries including Japan and South Korea have been using the method developed by National Research Institute of Police Science of Japan. The method used gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID), DB-5 column and four internal standards. It was developed to increase the amount of impurities and minimize the amount of methamphetamine. After GC-FID analysis, the raw data have to be processed. The data processing steps are very complex and require a lot of time and effort. In this study, Microsoft Visual Basic Application (VBA) modules were developed to handle these data processing steps. This module collected the results from the data into an Excel file and then corrected the retention time shift and response deviation generated from the sample preparation and instruments analysis. The developed modules were tested for their performance using 10 samples from 5 different cases. The processed results were analyzed with Pearson correlation coefficient for similarity assessment and the correlation coefficient of the two samples from the same case was more than 0.99. When the modules were applied to 131 seized methamphetamine samples, four samples from two different cases were found to have the common origin and the chromatograms of the four samples were appeared visually identical


    It has been over 10 years since the low-flow ground water purging and sampling method was initially reported in the literature. The method grew from the recognition that well purging was necessary to collect representative samples, bailers could not achieve well purging, and high...

  5. Neonatal blood gas sampling methods | Goenka | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is little published guidance that systematically evaluates the different methods of neonatal blood gas sampling, where each method has its individual benefits and risks. This review critically surveys the available evidence to generate a comparison between arterial and capillary blood gas sampling, focusing on their ...

  6. An efficient method for sampling the essential subspace of proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amadei, A; Linssen, A.B M; de Groot, B.L.; van Aalten, D.M.F.; Berendsen, H.J.C.

    A method is presented for a more efficient sampling of the configurational space of proteins as compared to conventional sampling techniques such as molecular dynamics. The method is based on the large conformational changes in proteins revealed by the ''essential dynamics'' analysis. A form of

  7. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik


    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...

  8. Comparison of sampling methods for radiocarbon dating of carbonyls in air samples via accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Matthias, E-mail:; Kretschmer, Wolfgang; Scharf, Andreas; Tschekalinskij, Alexander


    Three new methods to sample and prepare various carbonyl compounds for radiocarbon measurements were developed and tested. Two of these procedures utilized the Strecker synthetic method to form amino acids from carbonyl compounds with either sodium cyanide or trimethylsilyl cyanide. The third procedure used semicarbazide to form crystalline carbazones with the carbonyl compounds. The resulting amino acids and semicarbazones were then separated and purified using thin layer chromatography. The separated compounds were then combusted to CO{sub 2} and reduced to graphite to determine {sup 14}C content by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). All of these methods were also compared with the standard carbonyl compound sampling method wherein a compound is derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and then separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  9. Methods for collection and analysis of water samples (United States)

    Rainwater, Frank Hays; Thatcher, Leland Lincoln


    This manual contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze water samples. Throughout, the emphasis is on obtaining analytical results that accurately describe the chemical composition of the water in situ. Among the topics discussed are selection of sampling sites, frequency of sampling, field equipment, preservatives and fixatives, analytical techniques of water analysis, and instruments. Seventy-seven laboratory and field procedures are given for determining fifty-three water properties.

  10. Sampling and analysis methods for geothermal fluids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.C.


    The sampling procedures for geothermal fluids and gases include: sampling hot springs, fumaroles, etc.; sampling condensed brine and entrained gases; sampling steam-lines; low pressure separator systems; high pressure separator systems; two-phase sampling; downhole samplers; and miscellaneous methods. The recommended analytical methods compiled here cover physical properties, dissolved solids, and dissolved and entrained gases. The sequences of methods listed for each parameter are: wet chemical, gravimetric, colorimetric, electrode, atomic absorption, flame emission, x-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, spark source mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, and emission spectrometry. Material on correction of brine component concentrations for steam loss during flashing is presented. (MHR)

  11. Sampling Methods for Web and E-mail Surveys


    Fricker, RD


    London: SAGE Publications. Reprinted from The SAGE Handbook of Online Research Methods, N. Fielding, R.M. Lee and G. Blank, eds., chapter 11, London: SAGE Publications, 195-216. This chapter is a comprehensive overview of sampling methods for web and e-mail (‘Internetbased’) surveys. It reviews the various types of sampling method – both probability and nonprobability – and examines their applicability to Internet-based surveys. Issues related to Internetbased survey samp...

  12. Field evaluation of personal sampling methods for multiple bioaerosols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsun Wang

    Full Text Available Ambient bioaerosols are ubiquitous in the daily environment and can affect health in various ways. However, few studies have been conducted to comprehensively evaluate personal bioaerosol exposure in occupational and indoor environments because of the complex composition of bioaerosols and the lack of standardized sampling/analysis methods. We conducted a study to determine the most efficient collection/analysis method for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols. The sampling efficiencies of three filters and four samplers were compared. According to our results, polycarbonate (PC filters had the highest relative efficiency, particularly for bacteria. Side-by-side sampling was conducted to evaluate the three filter samplers (with PC filters and the NIOSH Personal Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. According to the results, the Button Aerosol Sampler and the IOM Inhalable Dust Sampler had the highest relative efficiencies for fungi and bacteria, followed by the NIOSH sampler. Personal sampling was performed in a pig farm to assess occupational bioaerosol exposure and to evaluate the sampling/analysis methods. The Button and IOM samplers yielded a similar performance for personal bioaerosol sampling at the pig farm. However, the Button sampler is more likely to be clogged at high airborne dust concentrations because of its higher flow rate (4 L/min. Therefore, the IOM sampler is a more appropriate choice for performing personal sampling in environments with high dust levels. In summary, the Button and IOM samplers with PC filters are efficient sampling/analysis methods for the personal exposure assessment of multiple bioaerosols.

  13. Adaptive cluster sampling: An efficient method for assessing inconspicuous species (United States)

    Andrea M. Silletti; Joan Walker


    Restorationistis typically evaluate the success of a project by estimating the population sizes of species that have been planted or seeded. Because total census is raely feasible, they must rely on sampling methods for population estimates. However, traditional random sampling designs may be inefficient for species that, for one reason or another, are challenging to...

  14. System and method for measuring fluorescence of a sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riot, Vincent J.


    The present disclosure provides a system and a method for measuring fluorescence of a sample. The sample may be a polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) array, a loop-mediated-isothermal amplification array, etc. LEDs are used to excite the sample, and a photodiode is used to collect the sample's fluorescence. An electronic offset signal is used to reduce the effects of background fluorescence and the noises from the measurement system. An integrator integrates the difference between the output of the photodiode and the electronic offset signal over a given period of time. The resulting integral is then converted into digital domain for further processing and storage.

  15. Soil separator and sampler and method of sampling (United States)

    O'Brien, Barry H [Idaho Falls, ID; Ritter, Paul D [Idaho Falls, ID


    A soil sampler includes a fluidized bed for receiving a soil sample. The fluidized bed may be in communication with a vacuum for drawing air through the fluidized bed and suspending particulate matter of the soil sample in the air. In a method of sampling, the air may be drawn across a filter, separating the particulate matter. Optionally, a baffle or a cyclone may be included within the fluidized bed for disentrainment, or dedusting, so only the finest particulate matter, including asbestos, will be trapped on the filter. The filter may be removable, and may be tested to determine the content of asbestos and other hazardous particulate matter in the soil sample.

  16. System and method for measuring fluorescence of a sample (United States)

    Riot, Vincent J


    The present disclosure provides a system and a method for measuring fluorescence of a sample. The sample may be a polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) array, a loop-mediated-isothermal amplification array, etc. LEDs are used to excite the sample, and a photodiode is used to collect the sample's fluorescence. An electronic offset signal is used to reduce the effects of background fluorescence and the noises from the measurement system. An integrator integrates the difference between the output of the photodiode and the electronic offset signal over a given period of time. The resulting integral is then converted into digital domain for further processing and storage.

  17. A random spatial sampling method in a rural developing nation. (United States)

    Kondo, Michelle C; Bream, Kent D W; Barg, Frances K; Branas, Charles C


    Nonrandom sampling of populations in developing nations has limitations and can inaccurately estimate health phenomena, especially among hard-to-reach populations such as rural residents. However, random sampling of rural populations in developing nations can be challenged by incomplete enumeration of the base population. We describe a stratified random sampling method using geographical information system (GIS) software and global positioning system (GPS) technology for application in a health survey in a rural region of Guatemala, as well as a qualitative study of the enumeration process. This method offers an alternative sampling technique that could reduce opportunities for bias in household selection compared to cluster methods. However, its use is subject to issues surrounding survey preparation, technological limitations and in-the-field household selection. Application of this method in remote areas will raise challenges surrounding the boundary delineation process, use and translation of satellite imagery between GIS and GPS, and household selection at each survey point in varying field conditions. This method favors household selection in denser urban areas and in new residential developments. Random spatial sampling methodology can be used to survey a random sample of population in a remote region of a developing nation. Although this method should be further validated and compared with more established methods to determine its utility in social survey applications, it shows promise for use in developing nations with resource-challenged environments where detailed geographic and human census data are less available.

  18. [Biological Advisory Subcommittee Sampling Methods : Results, Resolutions, and Correspondences : 2002 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a variety of information concerning Biological Advisory Subcommittee sampling methods at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Refuge in 2002. Multiple...

  19. A cryopreservation method for Pasteurella multocida from wetland samples (United States)

    Moore, Melody K.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Samuel, M.D.


    A cryopreservation method and improved isolation techniques for detection of Pasteurella multocida from wetland samples were developed. Wetland water samples were collected in the field, diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, final concentration 10%), and frozen at -180 C in a liquid nitrogen vapor shipper. Frozen samples were transported to the laboratory where they were subsequently thawed and processed in Pasteurella multocida selective broth (PMSB) to isolate P. multocida. This method allowed for consistent isolation of 2 to 18 organisms/ml from water seeded with known concentrations of P. multocida. The method compared favorably with the standard mouse inoculation method and allowed for preservation of the samples until they could be processed in the laboratory.

  20. Methods of Human Body Odor Sampling: The Effect of Freezing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lenochova, Pavlina; Roberts, S. Craig; Havlicek, Jan

    Body odor sampling is an essential tool in human chemical ecology research. However, methodologies of individual studies vary widely in terms of sampling material, length of sampling, and sample processing...

  1. Methods for sample size determination in cluster randomized trials. (United States)

    Rutterford, Clare; Copas, Andrew; Eldridge, Sandra


    The use of cluster randomized trials (CRTs) is increasing, along with the variety in their design and analysis. The simplest approach for their sample size calculation is to calculate the sample size assuming individual randomization and inflate this by a design effect to account for randomization by cluster. The assumptions of a simple design effect may not always be met; alternative or more complicated approaches are required. We summarise a wide range of sample size methods available for cluster randomized trials. For those familiar with sample size calculations for individually randomized trials but with less experience in the clustered case, this manuscript provides formulae for a wide range of scenarios with associated explanation and recommendations. For those with more experience, comprehensive summaries are provided that allow quick identification of methods for a given design, outcome and analysis method. We present first those methods applicable to the simplest two-arm, parallel group, completely randomized design followed by methods that incorporate deviations from this design such as: variability in cluster sizes; attrition; non-compliance; or the inclusion of baseline covariates or repeated measures. The paper concludes with methods for alternative designs. There is a large amount of methodology available for sample size calculations in CRTs. This paper gives the most comprehensive description of published methodology for sample size calculation and provides an important resource for those designing these trials. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  2. Using re-sampling methods in mortality studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Itskovich

    Full Text Available Traditional methods of computing standardized mortality ratios (SMR in mortality studies rely upon a number of conventional statistical propositions to estimate confidence intervals for obtained values. Those propositions include a common but arbitrary choice of the confidence level and the assumption that observed number of deaths in the test sample is a purely random quantity. The latter assumption may not be fully justified for a series of periodic "overlapping" studies. We propose a new approach to evaluating the SMR, along with its confidence interval, based on a simple re-sampling technique. The proposed method is most straightforward and requires neither the use of above assumptions nor any rigorous technique, employed by modern re-sampling theory, for selection of a sample set. Instead, we include all possible samples that correspond to the specified time window of the study in the re-sampling analysis. As a result, directly obtained confidence intervals for repeated overlapping studies may be tighter than those yielded by conventional methods. The proposed method is illustrated by evaluating mortality due to a hypothetical risk factor in a life insurance cohort. With this method used, the SMR values can be forecast more precisely than when using the traditional approach. As a result, the appropriate risk assessment would have smaller uncertainties.

  3. Self-contained cryogenic gas sampling apparatus and method (United States)

    McManus, G.J.; Motes, B.G.; Bird, S.K.; Kotter, D.K.


    Apparatus for obtaining a whole gas sample, is composed of: a sample vessel having an inlet for receiving a gas sample; a controllable valve mounted for controllably opening and closing the inlet; a valve control coupled to the valve for opening and closing the valve at selected times; a portable power source connected for supplying operating power to the valve control; and a cryogenic coolant in thermal communication with the vessel for cooling the interior of the vessel to cryogenic temperatures. A method is described for obtaining an air sample using the apparatus described above, by: placing the apparatus at a location at which the sample is to be obtained; operating the valve control to open the valve at a selected time and close the valve at a selected subsequent time; and between the selected times maintaining the vessel at a cryogenic temperature by heat exchange with the coolant. 3 figs.

  4. Fluidics platform and method for sample preparation and analysis (United States)

    Benner, W. Henry; Dzenitis, John M.; Bennet, William J.; Baker, Brian R.


    Herein provided are fluidics platform and method for sample preparation and analysis. The fluidics platform is capable of analyzing DNA from blood samples using amplification assays such as polymerase-chain-reaction assays and loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification assays. The fluidics platform can also be used for other types of assays and analyzes. In some embodiments, a sample in a sealed tube can be inserted directly. The following isolation, detection, and analyzes can be performed without a user's intervention. The disclosed platform may also comprises a sample preparation system with a magnetic actuator, a heater, and an air-drying mechanism, and fluid manipulation processes for extraction, washing, elution, assay assembly, assay detection, and cleaning after reactions and between samples.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S; Brian Culligan, B


    The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2007 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2007. A new rapid column separation method was applied directly to the NRIP 2007 emergency urine samples, with only minimal sample preparation to reduce preparation time. Calcium phosphate precipitation, previously used to pre-concentrate actinides and Sr-90 in NRIP 2006 urine and water samples, was not used for the NRIP 2007 urine samples. Instead, the raw urine was acidified and passed directly through the stacked resin columns (TEVA+TRU+SR Resins) to separate the actinides and strontium from the NRIP urine samples more quickly. This improvement reduced sample preparation time for the NRIP 2007 emergency urine analyses significantly. This approach works well for small volume urine samples expected during an emergency response event. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and strontium-90 analyses for NRIP 2007 urine samples.

  6. Sample size formulae for the Bayesian continual reassessment method. (United States)

    Cheung, Ying Kuen


    In the planning of a dose finding study, a primary design objective is to maintain high accuracy in terms of the probability of selecting the maximum tolerated dose. While numerous dose finding methods have been proposed in the literature, concrete guidance on sample size determination is lacking. With a motivation to provide quick and easy calculations during trial planning, we present closed form formulae for sample size determination associated with the use of the Bayesian continual reassessment method (CRM). We examine the sampling distribution of a nonparametric optimal design and exploit it as a proxy to empirically derive an accuracy index of the CRM using linear regression. We apply the formulae to determine the sample size of a phase I trial of PTEN-long in pancreatic cancer patients and demonstrate that the formulae give results very similar to simulation. The formulae are implemented by an R function 'getn' in the package 'dfcrm'. The results are developed for the Bayesian CRM and should be validated by simulation when used for other dose finding methods. The analytical formulae we propose give quick and accurate approximation of the required sample size for the CRM. The approach used to derive the formulae can be applied to obtain sample size formulae for other dose finding methods.

  7. Methods for Sampling and Measurement of Compressed Air Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, L.


    In order to improve the technique for measuring oil and water entrained in a compressed air stream, a laboratory study has been made of some methods for sampling and measurement. For this purpose water or oil as artificial contaminants were injected in thin streams into a test loop, carrying dry compressed air. Sampling was performed in a vertical run, down-stream of the injection point. Wall attached liquid, coarse droplet flow, and fine droplet flow were sampled separately. The results were compared with two-phase flow theory and direct observation of liquid behaviour. In a study of sample transport through narrow tubes, it was observed that, below a certain liquid loading, the sample did not move, the liquid remaining stationary on the tubing wall. The basic analysis of the collected samples was made by gravimetric methods. Adsorption tubes were used with success to measure water vapour. A humidity meter with a sensor of the aluminium oxide type was found to be unreliable. Oil could be measured selectively by a flame ionization detector, the sample being pretreated in an evaporation- condensation unit

  8. Characterizing lentic freshwater fish assemblages using multiple sampling methods. (United States)

    Fischer, Jesse R; Quist, Michael C


    Characterizing fish assemblages in lentic ecosystems is difficult, and multiple sampling methods are almost always necessary to gain reliable estimates of indices such as species richness. However, most research focused on lentic fish sampling methodology has targeted recreationally important species, and little to no information is available regarding the influence of multiple methods and timing (i.e., temporal variation) on characterizing entire fish assemblages. Therefore, six lakes and impoundments (48-1,557 ha surface area) were sampled seasonally with seven gear types to evaluate the combined influence of sampling methods and timing on the number of species and individuals sampled. Probabilities of detection for species indicated strong selectivities and seasonal trends that provide guidance on optimal seasons to use gears when targeting multiple species. The evaluation of species richness and number of individuals sampled using multiple gear combinations demonstrated that appreciable benefits over relatively few gears (e.g., to four) used in optimal seasons were not present. Specifically, over 90 % of the species encountered with all gear types and season combinations (N = 19) from six lakes and reservoirs were sampled with nighttime boat electrofishing in the fall and benthic trawling, modified-fyke, and mini-fyke netting during the summer. Our results indicated that the characterization of lentic fish assemblages was highly influenced by the selection of sampling gears and seasons, but did not appear to be influenced by waterbody type (i.e., natural lake, impoundment). The standardization of data collected with multiple methods and seasons to account for bias is imperative to monitoring of lentic ecosystems and will provide researchers with increased reliability in their interpretations and decisions made using information on lentic fish assemblages.

  9. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Thomas, B.L.; Riley, R.G.; Sklarew, D.S.; Mong, G.M.; Fadeff, S.K. [eds.


    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities for the evaluation of environmental and waste management samples from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. DOE Methods is the result of extensive cooperation from all DOE analytical laboratories. All of these laboratories have contributed key information and provided technical reviews as well as significant moral support leading to the success of this document. DOE Methods is designed to encompass methods for collecting representative samples and for determining the radioisotope activity and organic and inorganic composition of a sample. These determinations will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, or others. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Analytical Services Division of DOE. Unique methods or methods consolidated from similar procedures in the DOE Procedures Database are selected for potential inclusion in this document. Initial selection is based largely on DOE needs and procedure applicability and completeness. Methods appearing in this document are one of two types, {open_quotes}Draft{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Verified{close_quotes}. {open_quotes}Draft{close_quotes} methods that have been reviewed internally and show potential for eventual verification are included in this document, but they have not been reviewed externally, and their precision and bias may not be known. {open_quotes}Verified{close_quotes} methods in DOE Methods have been reviewed by volunteers from various DOE sites and private corporations. These methods have delineated measures of precision and accuracy.

  10. A multi-dimensional sampling method for locating small scatterers (United States)

    Song, Rencheng; Zhong, Yu; Chen, Xudong


    A multiple signal classification (MUSIC)-like multi-dimensional sampling method (MDSM) is introduced to locate small three-dimensional scatterers using electromagnetic waves. The indicator is built with the most stable part of signal subspace of the multi-static response matrix on a set of combinatorial sampling nodes inside the domain of interest. It has two main advantages compared to the conventional MUSIC methods. First, the MDSM is more robust against noise. Second, it can work with a single incidence even for multi-scatterers. Numerical simulations are presented to show the good performance of the proposed method.

  11. Advanced Markov chain Monte Carlo methods learning from past samples

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Faming; Carrol, Raymond J


    This book provides comprehensive coverage of simulation of complex systems using Monte Carlo methods. Developing algorithms that are immune to the local trap problem has long been considered as the most important topic in MCMC research. Various advanced MCMC algorithms which address this problem have been developed include, the modified Gibbs sampler, the methods based on auxiliary variables and the methods making use of past samples. The focus of this book is on the algorithms that make use of past samples. This book includes the multicanonical algorithm, dynamic weighting, dynamically weight

  12. Heat-capacity measurements on small samples: The hybrid method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaasse, J.C.P.; Brück, E.H.


    A newly developed method is presented for measuring heat capacities on small samples, particularly where thermal isolation is not sufficient for the use of the traditional semiadiabatic heat-pulse technique. This "hybrid technique" is a modification of this heat-pulse method in case the temperature

  13. Method of determining an electrical property of a test sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A method of obtaining an electrical property of a test sample, comprising a non-conductive area and a conductive or semi-conductive test area, byperforming multiple measurements using a multi-point probe. The method comprising the steps of providing a magnetic field having field lines passing...... the electrical property of the test area....


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.


    The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2008 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2008. A new rapid column separation method was used for analysis of actinides and {sup 90}Sr the NRIP 2008 emergency water and urine samples. Significant method improvements were applied to reduce analytical times. As a result, much faster analysis times were achieved, less than 3 hours for determination of {sup 90}Sr and 3-4 hours for actinides. This represents a 25%-33% improvement in analysis times from NRIP 2007 and a {approx}100% improvement compared to NRIP 2006 report times. Column flow rates were increased by a factor of two, with no significant adverse impact on the method performance. Larger sample aliquots, shorter count times, faster cerium fluoride microprecipitation and streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation were also employed. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and {sup 90}Sr analyses for NRIP 2008 emergency urine samples. High levels of potential matrix interferences may be present in emergency samples and rugged methods are essential. Extremely high levels of {sup 210}Po were found to have an adverse effect on the uranium results for the NRIP-08 urine samples, while uranium results for NRIP-08 water samples were not affected. This problem, which was not observed for NRIP-06 or NRIP-07 urine samples, was resolved by using an enhanced {sup 210}Po removal step, which will be described.

  15. Method of remotely characterizing thermal properties of a sample (United States)

    Heyman, Joseph S. (Inventor); Heath, D. Michele (Inventor); Welch, Christopher (Inventor); Winfree, William P. (Inventor); Miller, William E. (Inventor)


    A sample in a wind tunnel is radiated from a thermal energy source outside of the wind tunnel. A thermal imager system, also located outside of the wind tunnel, reads surface radiations from the sample as a function of time. The produced thermal images are characteristic of the heat transferred from the sample to the flow across the sample. In turn, the measured rates of heat loss of the sample are characteristic of the flow and the sample.

  16. Efficiency of snake sampling methods in the Brazilian semiarid region. (United States)

    Mesquita, Paula C M D; Passos, Daniel C; Cechin, Sonia Z


    The choice of sampling methods is a crucial step in every field survey in herpetology. In countries where time and financial support are limited, the choice of the methods is critical. The methods used to sample snakes often lack objective criteria, and the traditional methods have apparently been more important when making the choice. Consequently researches using not-standardized methods are frequently found in the literature. We have compared four commonly used methods for sampling snake assemblages in a semiarid area in Brazil. We compared the efficacy of each method based on the cost-benefit regarding the number of individuals and species captured, time, and financial investment. We found that pitfall traps were the less effective method in all aspects that were evaluated and it was not complementary to the other methods in terms of abundance of species and assemblage structure. We conclude that methods can only be considered complementary if they are standardized to the objectives of the study. The use of pitfall traps in short-term surveys of the snake fauna in areas with shrubby vegetation and stony soil is not recommended.

  17. Global metabolite analysis of yeast: evaluation of sample preparation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato; Højer-Pedersen, Jesper; Åkesson, Mats Fredrik


    Sample preparation is considered one of the limiting steps in microbial metabolome analysis. Eukaryotes and prokaryotes behave very differently during the several steps of classical sample preparation methods for analysis of metabolites. Even within the eukaryote kingdom there is a vast diversity...... of cell structures that make it imprudent to blindly adopt protocols that were designed for a specific group of microorganisms. We have therefore reviewed and evaluated the whole sample preparation procedures for analysis of yeast metabolites. Our focus has been on the current needs in metabolome analysis......, which is the analysis of a large number of metabolites with very diverse chemical and physical properties. This work reports the leakage of intracellular metabolites observed during quenching yeast cells with cold methanol solution, the efficacy of six different methods for the extraction...

  18. Sampling and analysis methods for geothermal fluids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon, D. W.


    The data obtained for the first round robin sample collected at Mesa 6-2 wellhead, East Mesa Test Site, Imperial Valley are summarized. Test results are listed by method used for cross reference to the analytic methods section. Results obtained for radioactive isotopes present in the brine sample are tabulated. The data obtained for the second round robin sample collected from the Woolsey No. 1 first stage flash unit, San Diego Gas and Electric Niland Test Facility are presented in the same manner. Lists of the participants of the two round robins are given. Data from miscellaneous analyses are included. Summaries of values derived from the round robin raw data are presented. (MHR)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.


    A new rapid separation method for radiostrontium in emergency milk samples was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Environmental Bioassay Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that will allow rapid separation and measurement of Sr-90 within 8 hours. The new method uses calcium phosphate precipitation, nitric acid dissolution of the precipitate to coagulate residual fat/proteins and a rapid strontium separation using Sr Resin (Eichrom Technologies, Darien, IL, USA) with vacuum-assisted flow rates. The method is much faster than previous method that use calcination or cation exchange pretreatment, has excellent chemical recovery, and effectively removes beta interferences. When a 100 ml sample aliquot is used, the method has a detection limit of 0.5 Bq/L, well below generic emergency action levels.

  20. A Frequency Domain Design Method For Sampled-Data Compensators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Jannerup, Ole Erik


    A new approach to the design of a sampled-data compensator in the frequency domain is investigated. The starting point is a continuous-time compensator for the continuous-time system which satisfy specific design criteria. The new design method will graphically show how the discrete...

  1. Effect of method of sample preparation on ruminal in situ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of method of sample preparation on the degradation kinetics of herbage when applying the in situ technique. Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum cv. Midmar) was harvested at three and four weeks after cutting and fertilizing with 200 kg nitrogen (N)/ha. Freshly cut herbage ...

  2. Neonatal blood gas sampling methods | Goenka | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indwelling arterial catheters are a practical, reliable and accurate method of measuring acid-base parameters, provided they are inserted and maintained with the proper care. Capillary blood gas sampling is accurate, and a good substitute for radial 'stab' arterial puncture, avoiding many of the complications of repeated ...

  3. A General Linear Method for Equating with Small Samples (United States)

    Albano, Anthony D.


    Research on equating with small samples has shown that methods with stronger assumptions and fewer statistical estimates can lead to decreased error in the estimated equating function. This article introduces a new approach to linear observed-score equating, one which provides flexible control over how form difficulty is assumed versus estimated…

  4. Protein precipitation methods for sample pretreatment of grass pea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein precipitation methods for sample pretreatment of grass pea extracts. Negussie Wodajo, Ghirma Moges, Theodros Solomon. Abstract. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 1996, 10(2), 129-134. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics.

  5. Sampling trace organic compounds in water: a comparison of a continuous active sampler to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods (United States)

    Coes, Alissa L.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Foreman, William T.; Iverson, Jana L.; Alvarez, David A.


    A continuous active sampling method was compared to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods for the sampling of trace organic compounds (TOCs) in water. Results from each method are compared and contrasted in order to provide information for future investigators to use while selecting appropriate sampling methods for their research. The continuous low-level aquatic monitoring (CLAM) sampler (C.I.Agent® Storm-Water Solutions) is a submersible, low flow-rate sampler, that continuously draws water through solid-phase extraction media. CLAM samplers were deployed at two wastewater-dominated stream field sites in conjunction with the deployment of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and the collection of discrete (grab) water samples. All samples were analyzed for a suite of 69 TOCs. The CLAM and POCIS samples represent time-integrated samples that accumulate the TOCs present in the water over the deployment period (19–23 h for CLAM and 29 days for POCIS); the discrete samples represent only the TOCs present in the water at the time and place of sampling. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis were used to examine patterns in both TOC detections and relative concentrations between the three sampling methods. A greater number of TOCs were detected in the CLAM samples than in corresponding discrete and POCIS samples, but TOC concentrations in the CLAM samples were significantly lower than in the discrete and (or) POCIS samples. Thirteen TOCs of varying polarity were detected by all of the three methods. TOC detections and concentrations obtained by the three sampling methods, however, are dependent on multiple factors. This study found that stream discharge, constituent loading, and compound type all affected TOC concentrations detected by each method. In addition, TOC detections and concentrations were affected by the reporting limits, bias, recovery, and performance of each method.

  6. Standard methods for sampling freshwater fishes: Opportunities for international collaboration (United States)

    Bonar, Scott A.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Hubert, Wayne A.; Beard, Douglas; Dave, Göran; Kubečka, Jan; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Lester, Nigel P.; Porath, Mark T.; Winfield, Ian J.


    With publication of Standard Methods for Sampling North American Freshwater Fishes in 2009, the American Fisheries Society (AFS) recommended standard procedures for North America. To explore interest in standardizing at intercontinental scales, a symposium attended by international specialists in freshwater fish sampling was convened at the 145th Annual AFS Meeting in Portland, Oregon, in August 2015. Participants represented all continents except Australia and Antarctica and were employed by state and federal agencies, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and consulting businesses. Currently, standardization is practiced mostly in North America and Europe. Participants described how standardization has been important for management of long-term data sets, promoting fundamental scientific understanding, and assessing efficacy of large spatial scale management strategies. Academics indicated that standardization has been useful in fisheries education because time previously used to teach how sampling methods are developed is now more devoted to diagnosis and treatment of problem fish communities. Researchers reported that standardization allowed increased sample size for method validation and calibration. Group consensus was to retain continental standards where they currently exist but to further explore international and intercontinental standardization, specifically identifying where synergies and bridges exist, and identify means to collaborate with scientists where standardization is limited but interest and need occur.

  7. Soybean yield modeling using bootstrap methods for small samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalposso, G.A.; Uribe-Opazo, M.A.; Johann, J.A.


    One of the problems that occur when working with regression models is regarding the sample size; once the statistical methods used in inferential analyzes are asymptotic if the sample is small the analysis may be compromised because the estimates will be biased. An alternative is to use the bootstrap methodology, which in its non-parametric version does not need to guess or know the probability distribution that generated the original sample. In this work we used a set of soybean yield data and physical and chemical soil properties formed with fewer samples to determine a multiple linear regression model. Bootstrap methods were used for variable selection, identification of influential points and for determination of confidence intervals of the model parameters. The results showed that the bootstrap methods enabled us to select the physical and chemical soil properties, which were significant in the construction of the soybean yield regression model, construct the confidence intervals of the parameters and identify the points that had great influence on the estimated parameters. (Author)

  8. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.


    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  9. Comparison of DNA preservation methods for environmental bacterial community samples (United States)

    Gray, Michael A.; Pratte, Zoe A.; Kellogg, Christina A.


    Field collections of environmental samples, for example corals, for molecular microbial analyses present distinct challenges. The lack of laboratory facilities in remote locations is common, and preservation of microbial community DNA for later study is critical. A particular challenge is keeping samples frozen in transit. Five nucleic acid preservation methods that do not require cold storage were compared for effectiveness over time and ease of use. Mixed microbial communities of known composition were created and preserved by DNAgard™, RNAlater®, DMSO–EDTA–salt (DESS), FTA® cards, and FTA Elute® cards. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and clone libraries were used to detect specific changes in the faux communities over weeks and months of storage. A previously known bias in FTA® cards that results in lower recovery of pure cultures of Gram-positive bacteria was also detected in mixed community samples. There appears to be a uniform bias across all five preservation methods against microorganisms with high G + C DNA. Overall, the liquid-based preservatives (DNAgard™, RNAlater®, and DESS) outperformed the card-based methods. No single liquid method clearly outperformed the others, leaving method choice to be based on experimental design, field facilities, shipping constraints, and allowable cost.

  10. The Sensitivity of Respondent-driven Sampling Method

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Xin; Britton, Tom; Camitz, Martin; Kim, Beom Jun; Thorson, Anna; Liljeros, Fredrik


    Researchers in many scientific fields make inferences from individuals to larger groups. For many groups however, there is no list of members from which to take a random sample. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a relatively new sampling methodology that circumvents this difficulty by using the social networks of the groups under study. The RDS method has been shown to provide unbiased estimates of population proportions given certain conditions. The method is now widely used in the study of HIV-related high-risk populations globally. In this paper, we test the RDS methodology by simulating RDS studies on the social networks of a large LGBT web community. The robustness of the RDS method is tested by violating, one by one, the conditions under which the method provides unbiased estimates. Results reveal that the risk of bias is large if networks are directed, or respondents choose to invite persons based on characteristics that are correlated with the study outcomes. If these two problems are absent, the RD...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.


    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for samples up to 2 grams in emergency response situations. The actinides in soil method utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA Resin cartridges. Lanthanum was separated rapidly and effectively from Am and Cm on DGA Resin. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha sources are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency soil samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinides in soil results were reported within 4-5 hours with excellent quality.

  12. Sample Selected Averaging Method for Analyzing the Event Related Potential (United States)

    Taguchi, Akira; Ono, Youhei; Kimura, Tomoaki

    The event related potential (ERP) is often measured through the oddball task. On the oddball task, subjects are given “rare stimulus” and “frequent stimulus”. Measured ERPs were analyzed by the averaging technique. In the results, amplitude of the ERP P300 becomes large when the “rare stimulus” is given. However, measured ERPs are included samples without an original feature of ERP. Thus, it is necessary to reject unsuitable measured ERPs when using the averaging technique. In this paper, we propose the rejection method for unsuitable measured ERPs for the averaging technique. Moreover, we combine the proposed method and Woody's adaptive filter method.

  13. Sediment sampling and processing methods in Hungary, and possible improvements (United States)

    Tamas, Eniko Anna; Koch, Daniel; Varga, Gyorgy


    The importance of the monitoring of sediment processes is unquestionable: sediment balance of regulated rivers suffered substantial alterations in the past century, affecting navigation, energy production, fish habitats and floodplain ecosystems alike; infiltration times to our drinking water wells have shortened, exposing them to an eventual pollution event and making them vulnerable; and sediment-attached contaminants accumulate in floodplains and reservoirs, threatening our healthy environment. The changes in flood characteristics and rating curves of our rivers are regularly being researched and described, involving state-of-the-art measurement methods, modeling tools and traditional statistics. Sediment processes however, are much less known. Unlike the investigation of flow processes, sediment-related research is scarce, which is partly due to the outdated methodology and poor database background in the specific field. Sediment-related data, information and analyses form an important and integral part of Civil engineering in relation to rivers all over the world. In relation to the second largest river of Europe, the Danube, it is widely known in expert community and for long discussed at different expert forums that the sediment balance of the river Danube has changed drastically over the past century. Sediment monitoring on the river Danube started as early as the end of the 19th century, with scattered measurements carried out. Regular sediment sampling was developed in the first half of the 20th century all along the river, with different station density and monitoring frequencies in different countries. After the first few decades of regular sampling, the concept of (mainly industrial) development changed along the river and data needs changed as well, furthermore the complicated and inexact methods of sampling bed load on the alluvial reach of the river were not developed further. Frequency of suspended sediment sampling is very low along the river

  14. Sample Selection in Randomized Experiments: A New Method Using Propensity Score Stratified Sampling (United States)

    Tipton, Elizabeth; Hedges, Larry; Vaden-Kiernan, Michael; Borman, Geoffrey; Sullivan, Kate; Caverly, Sarah


    Randomized experiments are often seen as the "gold standard" for causal research. Despite the fact that experiments use random assignment to treatment conditions, units are seldom selected into the experiment using probability sampling. Very little research on experimental design has focused on how to make generalizations to well-defined…

  15. Hand held sample tube manipulator, system and method (United States)

    Kenny, Donald V [Liberty Township, OH; Smith, Deborah L [Liberty Township, OH; Severance, Richard A [late of Columbus, OH


    A manipulator apparatus, system and method for measuring analytes present in sample tubes. The manipulator apparatus includes a housing having a central bore with an inlet end and outlet end; a plunger mechanism with at least a portion thereof slideably disposed for reciprocal movement within the central bore, the plunger mechanism having a tubular gas channel with an inlet end and an outlet end, the gas channel inlet end disposed in the same direction as said inlet end of the central bore, wherein the inlet end of said plunger mechanism is adapted for movement so as to expel a sample tube inserted in the bore at the outlet end of the housing, the inlet end of the plunger mechanism is adapted for connection to gas supply; a first seal is disposed in the housing for sealing between the central bore and the plunger mechanism; a second seal is disposed at the outlet end of the housing for sealing between the central bore and a sample tube; a holder mounted on the housing for holding the sample tube; and a biasing mechanism for returning the plunger mechanism to a starting position.

  16. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suermann, J.F.


    This Methods Manual provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. The procedures in this Methods Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site-specific procedures. With some analytical methods, such as Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, the Methods Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive characterization, the Methods Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure. Sites must meet all of the specified quality control requirements of the applicable procedure. Each DOE site must document the details of the procedures it will use and demonstrate the efficacy of such procedures to the Manager, National TRU Program Waste Characterization, during Waste Characterization and Certification audits.

  17. Angoff's delta method revisited: improving DIF detection under small samples. (United States)

    Magis, David; Facon, Bruno


    Most methods for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) are suitable when the sample sizes are sufficiently large to validate the null statistical distributions. There is no guarantee, however, that they will still perform adequately when there are few respondents in the focal group or in both the reference and the focal group. Angoff's delta plot is a potentially useful alternative for small-sample DIF investigation, but it suffers from an improper DIF flagging criterion. The purpose of this paper is to improve this classification rule under mild statistical assumptions. This improvement yields a modified delta plot with an adjusted DIF flagging criterion for small samples. A simulation study was conducted to compare the modified delta plot with both the classical delta plot approach and the Mantel-Haenszel method. It is concluded that the modified delta plot is consistently less conservative and more powerful than the usual delta plot, and is also less conservative and more powerful than the Mantel-Haenszel method as long as at least one group of respondents is small. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  18. an assessment of methods for sampling carabid beetles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Moist leaf litter was scooped onto white clothing (1 square metre beating sheet) and carabid beetles caught using a “pootah” (aspirator) or a pair of forceps. Resting beetles were sampled by manual searching under logs, stones and tree barks. Sampling effort was measured by time, each "sample" containing carabid.

  19. Interatomic force microscope and sample observing method therefor


    YAMANAKA, K; Kolosov, Oleg; Ogiso, H; Sato, H.; Koda, T


    PURPOSE:To provide a measuring technology for interatomic microscope in which the irregular sample can be separated well from the frictional force. SOLUTION :An oscillating force applied laterally relatively between a sample 8 and a probe 4 Is provided. The sample 8 tilted laterally to excite bending orthogonal oscillation. The phase and the amplitude of the oscillation of the cantilever are detected.

  20. 19 CFR 151.70 - Method of sampling by Customs. (United States)


    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.70... feasible to obtain a representative general sample of the wool or hair in a sampling unit or to test such a... clean yield if such a test is requested in accordance with the provisions of § 151.71(c), or if a second...

  1. Sampling pig farms at the abattoir in a cross-sectional study - Evaluation of a sampling method. (United States)

    Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils


    A cross-sectional study design is relatively inexpensive, fast and easy to conduct when compared to other study designs. Careful planning is essential to obtaining a representative sample of the population, and the recommended approach is to use simple random sampling from an exhaustive list of units in the target population. This approach is rarely feasible in practice, and other sampling procedures must often be adopted. For example, when slaughter pigs are the target population, sampling the pigs on the slaughter line may be an alternative to on-site sampling at a list of farms. However, it is difficult to sample a large number of farms from an exact predefined list, due to the logistics and workflow of an abattoir. Therefore, it is necessary to have a systematic sampling procedure and to evaluate the obtained sample with respect to the study objective. We propose a method for 1) planning, 2) conducting, and 3) evaluating the representativeness and reproducibility of a cross-sectional study when simple random sampling is not possible. We used an example of a cross-sectional study with the aim of quantifying the association of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial consumption in Danish slaughter pigs. It was not possible to visit farms within the designated timeframe. Therefore, it was decided to use convenience sampling at the abattoir. Our approach was carried out in three steps: 1) planning: using data from meat inspection to plan at which abattoirs and how many farms to sample; 2) conducting: sampling was carried out at five abattoirs; 3) evaluation: representativeness was evaluated by comparing sampled and non-sampled farms, and the reproducibility of the study was assessed through simulated sampling based on meat inspection data from the period where the actual data collection was carried out. In the cross-sectional study samples were taken from 681 Danish pig farms, during five weeks from February to March 2015. The evaluation showed that the sampling

  2. A Novel Fast Method for Point-sampled Model Simplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Zhi


    Full Text Available A novel fast simplification method for point-sampled statue model is proposed. Simplifying method for 3d model reconstruction is a hot topic in the field of 3D surface construction. But it is difficult as point cloud of many 3d models is very large, so its running time becomes very long. In this paper, a two-stage simplifying method is proposed. Firstly, a feature-preserved non-uniform simplification method for cloud points is presented, which simplifies the data set to remove the redundancy while keeping down the features of the model. Secondly, an affinity clustering simplifying method is used to classify the point cloud into a sharp point or a simple point. The advantage of Affinity Propagation clustering is passing messages among data points and fast speed of processing. Together with the re-sampling, it can dramatically reduce the duration of the process while keep a lower memory cost. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results show that after the simplification, the performance of the proposed method is efficient as well as the details of the surface are preserved well.

  3. A direct sampling method to an inverse medium scattering problem

    KAUST Repository

    Ito, Kazufumi


    In this work we present a novel sampling method for time harmonic inverse medium scattering problems. It provides a simple tool to directly estimate the shape of the unknown scatterers (inhomogeneous media), and it is applicable even when the measured data are only available for one or two incident directions. A mathematical derivation is provided for its validation. Two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations are presented, which show that the method is accurate even with a few sets of scattered field data, computationally efficient, and very robust with respect to noises in the data. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. A direct sampling method for inverse electromagnetic medium scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Ito, Kazufumi


    In this paper, we study the inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problem of estimating the support and shape of medium scatterers from scattered electric/magnetic near-field data. We shall develop a novel direct sampling method based on an analysis of electromagnetic scattering and the behavior of the fundamental solution. It is applicable to a few incident fields and needs only to compute inner products of the measured scattered field with the fundamental solutions located at sampling points. Hence, it is strictly direct, computationally very efficient and highly robust to the presence of data noise. Two- and three-dimensional numerical experiments indicate that it can provide reliable support estimates for multiple scatterers in the case of both exact and highly noisy data. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. Microextraction Methods for Preconcentration of Aluminium in Urine Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Farajbakhsh, Mohammad Amjadi, Jamshid Manzoori, Mohammad R. Ardalan, Abolghasem Jouyban


    Full Text Available Background: Analysis of aluminium (Al in urine samples is required in management of a number of diseases including patients with renal failure. This work aimed to present dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME and ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction (USAEME methods for the preconcentration of ultra-trace amount of aluminum in human urine prior to its determination by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS. Methods: The microextraction methods were based on the complex formation of Al3+ with 8-hydroxyquinoline. The effect of various experimental parameters on the efficiencies of the methods and their optimum values were studied. Results: Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection for USAEME-GFAAS and DLLME-GFAAS were 0.19 and 0.30 ng mL−1, respectively and corresponding relative standard deviations (RSD, n=5 for the determination of 40 ng mL−1 Al3+ were 5.9% and 4.9%. Conclusion: Both methods could be successfully used to the analysis of ultra trace concentrations of Al in urine samples of dialysis patients.

  6. Testing K. Patrick Method of Psychopathy Diagnosis in Russian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atadzhykova Y.A.,


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of a method of diagnosing psychopathy, or antisocial (dissocial personality disorder. Modern researchers mostly use the methods of experiment, expert assessment, clinical interview or different combinations for personality disorders, including psychopathy. However, nowadays there is a growing need in development of a psychopathy diagnosis method which would be less labour-intensive, less expensive and more objective. One of the recently developed models of psychopathy is Trierarchic conceptualization by C. Patrick, it offers a new way to operationalize and diagnose psychopathy. The authors had tested this method in the Russian population, including both common sample as well as criminal offender sample consisting of individuals that have been suspected, accused or convicted of violent crimes. The subject of the current research is psychopathic traits measured by the tested method. We had carried out statistical and content analyzes of the data. Our study allowed to conclude that tested Russian version of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure is effective enough to be used for research purposes. However, further research is required in order to render this measure valid to practical use.

  7. Empirical comparison of neutron activation sample analysis methods (United States)

    Gillenwalters, Elizabeth

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a research reactor used mainly for neutron activation of samples, which are then shipped to industrial customers. Accurate nuclide identification and activity determination are crucial to remain in compliance with Code of Federal Regulations guidelines. This facility utilized a Canberra high purity germanium detector (HPGe) coupled with Canberra Genie(TM) 2000 (G2K) software for gamma spectroscopy. This study analyzed the current method of nuclide identification and activity determination of neutron activated materials utilized by the USGS reactor staff and made recommendations to improve the method. Additionally, analysis of attenuators, effect of detector dead time on nuclide identification, and validity of activity determination assumptions were investigated. The current method of activity determination utilized the G2K software to obtain ratio of activity per nuclide identified. This determination was performed without the use of geometrically appropriate efficiency calibration curves. The ratio of activity per nuclide was used in conjunction with an overall exposure rate in mR/h obtained via a Fluke Biomedical hand-held ion chamber. The overall exposure rate was divided into individual nuclide amounts based on the G2K nuclide ratios. A gamma energy of 1 MeV and a gamma yield of 100% was assumed for all samples. Utilizing the gamma assumption and nuclide ratios, a calculation was performed to determine total sample activity in muCi (microCuries). An alternative method was proposed, which would eliminate the use of exposure rate and rely solely on the G2K software capabilities. The G2K software was energy and efficiency calibrated with efficiency curves developed for multiple geometries. The USGS reactor staff were trained to load appropriate calibration data into the G2K software prior to sample analysis. Comparison of the current method and proposed method demonstrated that the activity value calculated with the 1 Me

  8. Method for Sampling Alpha-Helical Protein Backbones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fain, Boris; Levitt, Michael


    We present a novel technique of sampling the configurations of helical proteins. Assuming knowledge of native secondary structure, we employ assembly rules gathered from a database of existing structures to enumerate the geometrically possible 3-D arrangements of the constituent helices. We produce a library of possible folds for 25 helical protein cores. In each case the method finds significant numbers of conformations close to the native structure. In addition we assign coordinates to all atoms for 4 of the 25 proteins. In the context of database driven exhaustive enumeration our method performs extremely well, yielding significant percentages of structures (0.02%--82%) within 6A of the native structure. The method's speed and efficiency make it a valuable contribution towards the goal of predicting protein structure.

  9. Comparison between powder and slices diffraction methods in teeth samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaco, Marcos V.; Barroso, Regina C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Porto, Isabel M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FOP/UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia; Gerlach, Raquel F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FORP/USP), Rieirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia, Estomatologia e Fisiologia; Costa, Fanny N. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear


    Propose different methods to obtain crystallographic information about biological materials are important since powder method is a nondestructive method. Slices are an approximation of what would be an in vivo analysis. Effects of samples preparation cause differences in scattering profiles compared with powder method. The main inorganic component of bones and teeth is a calcium phosphate mineral whose structure closely resembles hydroxyapatite (HAp). The hexagonal symmetry, however, seems to work well with the powder diffraction data, and the crystal structure of HAp is usually described in space group P63/m. Were analyzed ten third molar teeth. Five teeth were separated in enamel, detin and circumpulpal detin powder and five in slices. All the scattering profile measurements were carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. The LNLS synchrotron light source is composed of a 1.37 GeV electron storage ring, delivering approximately 4x10{sup -1}0 photons/s at 8 keV. A double-crystal Si(111) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth at 11 keV . Scattering signatures were obtained at intervals of 0.04 deg for angles from 24 deg to 52 deg. The human enamel experimental crystallite size obtained in this work were 30(3)nm (112 reflection) and 30(3)nm (300 reflection). These values were obtained from measurements of powdered enamel. When comparing the slice obtained 58(8)nm (112 reflection) and 37(7)nm (300 reflection) enamel diffraction patterns with those generated by the powder specimens, a few differences emerge. This work shows differences between powder and slices methods, separating characteristics of sample of the method's influence. (author)

  10. Method and apparatus for processing a test sample to concentrate an analyte in the sample from a solvent in the sample (United States)

    Turner, Terry D.; Beller, Laurence S.; Clark, Michael L.; Klingler, Kerry M.


    A method of processing a test sample to concentrate an analyte in the sample from a solvent in the sample includes: a) boiling the test sample containing the analyte and solvent in a boiling chamber to a temperature greater than or equal to the solvent boiling temperature and less than the analyte boiling temperature to form a rising sample vapor mixture; b) passing the sample vapor mixture from the boiling chamber to an elongated primary separation tube, the separation tube having internal sidewalls and a longitudinal axis, the longitudinal axis being angled between vertical and horizontal and thus having an upper region and a lower region; c) collecting the physically transported liquid analyte on the internal sidewalls of the separation tube; and d) flowing the collected analyte along the angled internal sidewalls of the separation tube to and pass the separation tube lower region. The invention also includes passing a turbulence inducing wave through a vapor mixture to separate physically transported liquid second material from vaporized first material. Apparatus are also disclosed for effecting separations. Further disclosed is a fluidically powered liquid test sample withdrawal apparatus for withdrawing a liquid test sample from a test sample container and for cleaning the test sample container.

  11. Method optimization for fecal sample collection and fecal DNA extraction. (United States)

    Mathay, Conny; Hamot, Gael; Henry, Estelle; Georges, Laura; Bellora, Camille; Lebrun, Laura; de Witt, Brian; Ammerlaan, Wim; Buschart, Anna; Wilmes, Paul; Betsou, Fay


    This is the third in a series of publications presenting formal method validation for biospecimen processing in the context of accreditation in laboratories and biobanks. We report here optimization of a stool processing protocol validated for fitness-for-purpose in terms of downstream DNA-based analyses. Stool collection was initially optimized in terms of sample input quantity and supernatant volume using canine stool. Three DNA extraction methods (PerkinElmer MSM I®, Norgen Biotek All-In-One®, MoBio PowerMag®) and six collection container types were evaluated with human stool in terms of DNA quantity and quality, DNA yield, and its reproducibility by spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, and quantitative PCR, DNA purity, SPUD assay, and 16S rRNA gene sequence-based taxonomic signatures. The optimal MSM I protocol involves a 0.2 g stool sample and 1000 μL supernatant. The MSM I extraction was superior in terms of DNA quantity and quality when compared to the other two methods tested. Optimal results were obtained with plain Sarstedt tubes (without stabilizer, requiring immediate freezing and storage at -20°C or -80°C) and Genotek tubes (with stabilizer and RT storage) in terms of DNA yields (total, human, bacterial, and double-stranded) according to spectrophotometry and spectrofluorometry, with low yield variability and good DNA purity. No inhibitors were identified at 25 ng/μL. The protocol was reproducible in terms of DNA yield among different stool aliquots. We validated a stool collection method suitable for downstream DNA metagenomic analysis. DNA extraction with the MSM I method using Genotek tubes was considered optimal, with simple logistics in terms of collection and shipment and offers the possibility of automation. Laboratories and biobanks should ensure protocol conditions are systematically recorded in the scope of accreditation.

  12. The curvHDR method for gating flow cytometry samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wand Matthew P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput flow cytometry experiments produce hundreds of large multivariate samples of cellular characteristics. These samples require specialized processing to obtain clinically meaningful measurements. A major component of this processing is a form of cell subsetting known as gating. Manual gating is time-consuming and subjective. Good automatic and semi-automatic gating algorithms are very beneficial to high-throughput flow cytometry. Results We develop a statistical procedure, named curvHDR, for automatic and semi-automatic gating. The method combines the notions of significant high negative curvature regions and highest density regions and has the ability to adapt well to human-perceived gates. The underlying principles apply to dimension of arbitrary size, although we focus on dimensions up to three. Accompanying software, compatible with contemporary flow cytometry infor-matics, is developed. Conclusion The method is seen to adapt well to nuances in the data and, to a reasonable extent, match human perception of useful gates. It offers big savings in human labour when processing high-throughput flow cytometry data whilst retaining a good degree of efficacy.

  13. Venous Sampling (United States)

    ... neck to help locate abnormally functioning glands or pituitary adenoma . This test is most often used after an unsuccessful neck exploration. Inferior petrosal sinus sampling , in which blood samples are taken from veins that drain the pituitary gland to study disorders related to pituitary hormone ...

  14. Sampling Development (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.


    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  15. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: risk assessment and management. (United States)

    Greenberg, Marc S; Chapman, Peter M; Allan, Ian J; Anderson, Kim A; Apitz, Sabine E; Beegan, Chris; Bridges, Todd S; Brown, Steve S; Cargill, John G; McCulloch, Megan C; Menzie, Charles A; Shine, James P; Parkerton, Thomas F


    This paper details how activity-based passive sampling methods (PSMs), which provide information on bioavailability in terms of freely dissolved contaminant concentrations (Cfree ), can be used to better inform risk management decision making at multiple points in the process of assessing and managing contaminated sediment sites. PSMs can increase certainty in site investigation and management, because Cfree is a better predictor of bioavailability than total bulk sediment concentration (Ctotal ) for 4 key endpoints included in conceptual site models (benthic organism toxicity, bioaccumulation, sediment flux, and water column exposures). The use of passive sampling devices (PSDs) presents challenges with respect to representative sampling for estimating average concentrations and other metrics relevant for exposure and risk assessment. These challenges can be addressed by designing studies that account for sources of variation associated with PSMs and considering appropriate spatial scales to meet study objectives. Possible applications of PSMs include: quantifying spatial and temporal trends in bioavailable contaminants, identifying and evaluating contaminant source contributions, calibrating site-specific models, and, improving weight-of-evidence based decision frameworks. PSM data can be used to assist in delineating sediment management zones based on likelihood of exposure effects, monitor remedy effectiveness, and, evaluate risk reduction after sediment treatment, disposal, or beneficial reuse after management actions. Examples are provided illustrating why PSMs and freely dissolved contaminant concentrations (Cfree ) should be incorporated into contaminated sediment investigations and study designs to better focus on and understand contaminant bioavailability, more accurately estimate exposure to sediment-associated contaminants, and better inform risk management decisions. Research and communication needs for encouraging broader use are discussed. © 2014

  16. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: Risk assessment and management (United States)

    Greenberg, Marc S; Chapman, Peter M; Allan, Ian J; Anderson, Kim A; Apitz, Sabine E; Beegan, Chris; Bridges, Todd S; Brown, Steve S; Cargill, John G; McCulloch, Megan C; Menzie, Charles A; Shine, James P; Parkerton, Thomas F


    This paper details how activity-based passive sampling methods (PSMs), which provide information on bioavailability in terms of freely dissolved contaminant concentrations (Cfree), can be used to better inform risk management decision making at multiple points in the process of assessing and managing contaminated sediment sites. PSMs can increase certainty in site investigation and management, because Cfree is a better predictor of bioavailability than total bulk sediment concentration (Ctotal) for 4 key endpoints included in conceptual site models (benthic organism toxicity, bioaccumulation, sediment flux, and water column exposures). The use of passive sampling devices (PSDs) presents challenges with respect to representative sampling for estimating average concentrations and other metrics relevant for exposure and risk assessment. These challenges can be addressed by designing studies that account for sources of variation associated with PSMs and considering appropriate spatial scales to meet study objectives. Possible applications of PSMs include: quantifying spatial and temporal trends in bioavailable contaminants, identifying and evaluating contaminant source contributions, calibrating site-specific models, and, improving weight-of-evidence based decision frameworks. PSM data can be used to assist in delineating sediment management zones based on likelihood of exposure effects, monitor remedy effectiveness, and, evaluate risk reduction after sediment treatment, disposal, or beneficial reuse after management actions. Examples are provided illustrating why PSMs and freely dissolved contaminant concentrations (Cfree) should be incorporated into contaminated sediment investigations and study designs to better focus on and understand contaminant bioavailability, more accurately estimate exposure to sediment-associated contaminants, and better inform risk management decisions. Research and communication needs for encouraging broader use are discussed. Integr

  17. Environmental sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckett, J.M.


    Environmental Sampling (ES) is a technology option that can have application in transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The basic process is to take a sample from the environment, e.g., soil, water, vegetation, or dust and debris from a surface, and through very careful sample preparation and analysis, determine the types, elemental concentration, and isotopic composition of actinides in the sample. The sample is prepared and the analysis performed in a clean chemistry laboratory (CCL). This ES capability is part of the IAEA Strengthened Safeguards System. Such a Laboratory is planned to be built by JAERI at Tokai and will give Japan an intrinsic ES capability. This paper presents options for the use of ES as a transparency measure for nuclear nonproliferation.

  18. Generalized Jones matrix method for homogeneous biaxial samples. (United States)

    Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Fade, Julien; Alouini, Mehdi


    The generalized Jones matrix (GJM) is a recently introduced tool to describe linear transformations of three-dimensional light fields. Based on this framework, a specific method for obtaining the GJM of uniaxial anisotropic media was recently presented. However, the GJM of biaxial media had not been tackled so far, as the previous method made use of a simplified rotation matrix that lacks a degree of freedom in the three-dimensional rotation, thus being not suitable for calculating the GJM of biaxial media. In this work we propose a general method to derive the GJM of arbitrarily-oriented homogeneous biaxial media. It is based on the differential generalized Jones matrix (dGJM), which is the three-dimensional counterpart of the conventional differential Jones matrix. We show that the dGJM provides a simple and elegant way to describe uniaxial and biaxial media, with the capacity to model multiple simultaneous optical effects. The practical usefulness of this method is illustrated by the GJM modeling of the polarimetric properties of a negative uniaxial KDP crystal and a biaxial KTP crystal for any three-dimensional sample orientation. The results show that this method constitutes an advantageous and straightforward way to model biaxial media, which show a growing relevance for many interesting applications.

  19. A comparison of methods for representing sparsely sampled random quantities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Vicente Jose; Swiler, Laura Painton; Urbina, Angel; Mullins, Joshua


    This report discusses the treatment of uncertainties stemming from relatively few samples of random quantities. The importance of this topic extends beyond experimental data uncertainty to situations involving uncertainty in model calibration, validation, and prediction. With very sparse data samples it is not practical to have a goal of accurately estimating the underlying probability density function (PDF). Rather, a pragmatic goal is that the uncertainty representation should be conservative so as to bound a specified percentile range of the actual PDF, say the range between 0.025 and .975 percentiles, with reasonable reliability. A second, opposing objective is that the representation not be overly conservative; that it minimally over-estimate the desired percentile range of the actual PDF. The presence of the two opposing objectives makes the sparse-data uncertainty representation problem interesting and difficult. In this report, five uncertainty representation techniques are characterized for their performance on twenty-one test problems (over thousands of trials for each problem) according to these two opposing objectives and other performance measures. Two of the methods, statistical Tolerance Intervals and a kernel density approach specifically developed for handling sparse data, exhibit significantly better overall performance than the others.

  20. Method for Hot Real-Time Sampling of Gasification Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, Marc D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a highly instrumented half-ton/day pilot scale plant capable of demonstrating industrially relevant thermochemical technologies from lignocellulosic biomass conversion, including gasification. Gasification creates primarily Syngas (a mixture of Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide) that can be utilized with synthesis catalysts to form transportation fuels and other valuable chemicals. Biomass derived gasification products are a very complex mixture of chemical components that typically contain Sulfur and Nitrogen species that can act as catalysis poisons for tar reforming and synthesis catalysts. Real-time hot online sampling techniques, such as Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS), and Gas Chromatographs with Sulfur and Nitrogen specific detectors can provide real-time analysis providing operational indicators for performance. Sampling typically requires coated sampling lines to minimize trace sulfur interactions with steel surfaces. Other materials used inline have also shown conversion of sulfur species into new components and must be minimized. Sample line Residence time within the sampling lines must also be kept to a minimum to reduce further reaction chemistries. Solids from ash and char contribute to plugging and must be filtered at temperature. Experience at NREL has shown several key factors to consider when designing and installing an analytical sampling system for biomass gasification products. They include minimizing sampling distance, effective filtering as close to source as possible, proper line sizing, proper line materials or coatings, even heating of all components, minimizing pressure drops, and additional filtering or traps after pressure drops.

  1. Sample Size Calculations for Population Size Estimation Studies Using Multiplier Methods With Respondent-Driven Sampling Surveys. (United States)

    Fearon, Elizabeth; Chabata, Sungai T; Thompson, Jennifer A; Cowan, Frances M; Hargreaves, James R


    While guidance exists for obtaining population size estimates using multiplier methods with respondent-driven sampling surveys, we lack specific guidance for making sample size decisions. To guide the design of multiplier method population size estimation studies using respondent-driven sampling surveys to reduce the random error around the estimate obtained. The population size estimate is obtained by dividing the number of individuals receiving a service or the number of unique objects distributed (M) by the proportion of individuals in a representative survey who report receipt of the service or object (P). We have developed an approach to sample size calculation, interpreting methods to estimate the variance around estimates obtained using multiplier methods in conjunction with research into design effects and respondent-driven sampling. We describe an application to estimate the number of female sex workers in Harare, Zimbabwe. There is high variance in estimates. Random error around the size estimate reflects uncertainty from M and P, particularly when the estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey is low. As expected, sample size requirements are higher when the design effect of the survey is assumed to be greater. We suggest a method for investigating the effects of sample size on the precision of a population size estimate obtained using multipler methods and respondent-driven sampling. Uncertainty in the size estimate is high, particularly when P is small, so balancing against other potential sources of bias, we advise researchers to consider longer service attendance reference periods and to distribute more unique objects, which is likely to result in a higher estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey.

  2. Verification of spectrophotometric method for nitrate analysis in water samples (United States)

    Kurniawati, Puji; Gusrianti, Reny; Dwisiwi, Bledug Bernanti; Purbaningtias, Tri Esti; Wiyantoko, Bayu


    The aim of this research was to verify the spectrophotometric method to analyze nitrate in water samples using APHA 2012 Section 4500 NO3-B method. The verification parameters used were: linearity, method detection limit, level of quantitation, level of linearity, accuracy and precision. Linearity was obtained by using 0 to 50 mg/L nitrate standard solution and the correlation coefficient of standard calibration linear regression equation was 0.9981. The method detection limit (MDL) was defined as 0,1294 mg/L and limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0,4117 mg/L. The result of a level of linearity (LOL) was 50 mg/L and nitrate concentration 10 to 50 mg/L was linear with a level of confidence was 99%. The accuracy was determined through recovery value was 109.1907%. The precision value was observed using % relative standard deviation (%RSD) from repeatability and its result was 1.0886%. The tested performance criteria showed that the methodology was verified under the laboratory conditions.

  3. Methods to maximise recovery of environmental DNA from water samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rheyda Hinlo

    Full Text Available The environmental DNA (eDNA method is a detection technique that is rapidly gaining credibility as a sensitive tool useful in the surveillance and monitoring of invasive and threatened species. Because eDNA analysis often deals with small quantities of short and degraded DNA fragments, methods that maximize eDNA recovery are required to increase detectability. In this study, we performed experiments at different stages of the eDNA analysis to show which combinations of methods give the best recovery rate for eDNA. Using Oriental weatherloach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus as a study species, we show that various combinations of DNA capture, preservation and extraction methods can significantly affect DNA yield. Filtration using cellulose nitrate filter paper preserved in ethanol or stored in a -20°C freezer and extracted with the Qiagen DNeasy kit outperformed other combinations in terms of cost and efficiency of DNA recovery. Our results support the recommendation to filter water samples within 24hours but if this is not possible, our results suggest that refrigeration may be a better option than freezing for short-term storage (i.e., 3-5 days. This information is useful in designing eDNA detection of low-density invasive or threatened species, where small variations in DNA recovery can signify the difference between detection success or failure.

  4. Methods to maximise recovery of environmental DNA from water samples. (United States)

    Hinlo, Rheyda; Gleeson, Dianne; Lintermans, Mark; Furlan, Elise


    The environmental DNA (eDNA) method is a detection technique that is rapidly gaining credibility as a sensitive tool useful in the surveillance and monitoring of invasive and threatened species. Because eDNA analysis often deals with small quantities of short and degraded DNA fragments, methods that maximize eDNA recovery are required to increase detectability. In this study, we performed experiments at different stages of the eDNA analysis to show which combinations of methods give the best recovery rate for eDNA. Using Oriental weatherloach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) as a study species, we show that various combinations of DNA capture, preservation and extraction methods can significantly affect DNA yield. Filtration using cellulose nitrate filter paper preserved in ethanol or stored in a -20°C freezer and extracted with the Qiagen DNeasy kit outperformed other combinations in terms of cost and efficiency of DNA recovery. Our results support the recommendation to filter water samples within 24hours but if this is not possible, our results suggest that refrigeration may be a better option than freezing for short-term storage (i.e., 3-5 days). This information is useful in designing eDNA detection of low-density invasive or threatened species, where small variations in DNA recovery can signify the difference between detection success or failure.

  5. An adaptive sampling and windowing interrogation method in PIV (United States)

    Theunissen, R.; Scarano, F.; Riethmuller, M. L.


    This study proposes a cross-correlation based PIV image interrogation algorithm that adapts the number of interrogation windows and their size to the image properties and to the flow conditions. The proposed methodology releases the constraint of uniform sampling rate (Cartesian mesh) and spatial resolution (uniform window size) commonly adopted in PIV interrogation. Especially in non-optimal experimental conditions where the flow seeding is inhomogeneous, this leads either to loss of robustness (too few particles per window) or measurement precision (too large or coarsely spaced interrogation windows). Two criteria are investigated, namely adaptation to the local signal content in the image and adaptation to local flow conditions. The implementation of the adaptive criteria within a recursive interrogation method is described. The location and size of the interrogation windows are locally adapted to the image signal (i.e., seeding density). Also the local window spacing (commonly set by the overlap factor) is put in relation with the spatial variation of the velocity field. The viability of the method is illustrated over two experimental cases where the limitation of a uniform interrogation approach appears clearly: a shock-wave-boundary layer interaction and an aircraft vortex wake. The examples show that the spatial sampling rate can be adapted to the actual flow features and that the interrogation window size can be arranged so as to follow the spatial distribution of seeding particle images and flow velocity fluctuations. In comparison with the uniform interrogation technique, the spatial resolution is locally enhanced while in poorly seeded regions the level of robustness of the analysis (signal-to-noise ratio) is kept almost constant.

  6. Elevating sampling (United States)

    Labuz, Joseph M.; Takayama, Shuichi


    Sampling – the process of collecting, preparing, and introducing an appropriate volume element (voxel) into a system – is often under appreciated and pushed behind the scenes in lab-on-a-chip research. What often stands in the way between proof-of-principle demonstrations of potentially exciting technology and its broader dissemination and actual use, however, is the effectiveness of sample collection and preparation. The power of micro- and nanofluidics to improve reactions, sensing, separation, and cell culture cannot be accessed if sampling is not equally efficient and reliable. This perspective will highlight recent successes as well as assess current challenges and opportunities in this area. PMID:24781100

  7. Reliability of a method of sampling stream invertebrates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chutter, FM


    Full Text Available In field ecological studies inferences must often be drawn from dissimilarities in numbers and species of organisms found in biological samples collected at different times and under various conditions....

  8. Summary Report for Evaluation of Compost Sample Drying Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frye, Russell


    .... Previous work in Support of these efforts developed a compost sample preparation scheme, consisting of air drying followed by milling, to reduce analytical variability in the heterogeneous compost matrix...

  9. A Review of Biological Agent Sampling Methods and ... (United States)

    Report This study was conducted to evaluate current sampling and analytical capabilities, from a time and resource perspective, for a large-scale biological contamination incident. The analysis will be useful for strategically directing future research investment.

  10. Field evaluation of broiler gait score using different sampling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFS Cordeiro


    Full Text Available Brazil is today the world's largest broiler meat exporter; however, in order to keep this position, it must comply with welfare regulations while maintaining low production costs. Locomotion problems restrain bird movements, limiting their access to drinking and feeding equipment, and therefore their survival and productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate locomotion deficiency in broiler chickens reared under stressful temperature conditions using three different sampling methods of birds from three different ages. The experiment consisted in determining the gait score of 28, 35, 42 and 49-day-old broilers using three different known gait scoring methods: M1, birds were randomly selected, enclosed in a circle, and then stimulated to walk out of the circle; M2, ten birds were randomly selected and gait scored; and M3, birds were randomly selected, enclosed in a circle, and then observed while walking away from the circle without stimulus to walking. Environmental temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity inside the poultry houses were recorded. No evidence of interaction between scoring method and age was found however, both method and age influenced gait score. Gait score was found to be lower at 28 days of age. The evaluation using the ten randomly selected birds within the house was the method that presented the less reliable results. Gait score results when birds were stimulated to walk were lower than when they were not simulated, independently of age. The gait scores obtained with the three tested methods and ages were higher than those considered acceptable. The highest frequency of normal gait score (0 represented 50% of the flock. These results may be related to heat stress during rearing. Average gait score incresead with average ambient temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity. The evaluation of gait score to detect locomotion problems of broilers under rearing conditions seems subjective and

  11. Detecting spatial structures in throughfall data: The effect of extent, sample size, sampling design, and variogram estimation method (United States)

    Voss, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Beate; Zimmermann, Alexander


    In the last decades, an increasing number of studies analyzed spatial patterns in throughfall by means of variograms. The estimation of the variogram from sample data requires an appropriate sampling scheme: most importantly, a large sample and a layout of sampling locations that often has to serve both variogram estimation and geostatistical prediction. While some recommendations on these aspects exist, they focus on Gaussian data and high ratios of the variogram range to the extent of the study area. However, many hydrological data, and throughfall data in particular, do not follow a Gaussian distribution. In this study, we examined the effect of extent, sample size, sampling design, and calculation method on variogram estimation of throughfall data. For our investigation, we first generated non-Gaussian random fields based on throughfall data with large outliers. Subsequently, we sampled the fields with three extents (plots with edge lengths of 25 m, 50 m, and 100 m), four common sampling designs (two grid-based layouts, transect and random sampling) and five sample sizes (50, 100, 150, 200, 400). We then estimated the variogram parameters by method-of-moments (non-robust and robust estimators) and residual maximum likelihood. Our key findings are threefold. First, the choice of the extent has a substantial influence on the estimation of the variogram. A comparatively small ratio of the extent to the correlation length is beneficial for variogram estimation. Second, a combination of a minimum sample size of 150, a design that ensures the sampling of small distances and variogram estimation by residual maximum likelihood offers a good compromise between accuracy and efficiency. Third, studies relying on method-of-moments based variogram estimation may have to employ at least 200 sampling points for reliable variogram estimates. These suggested sample sizes exceed the number recommended by studies dealing with Gaussian data by up to 100 %. Given that most previous

  12. 40 CFR 761.243 - Standard wipe sample method and size. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard wipe sample method and size... Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing Standard PCB Wipe Samples § 761.243 Standard wipe sample method and size. (a) Collect a surface sample from a natural gas...

  13. Probing methane hydrate nucleation through the forward flux sampling method. (United States)

    Bi, Yuanfei; Li, Tianshu


    Understanding the nucleation of hydrate is the key to developing effective strategies for controlling methane hydrate formation. Here we present a computational study of methane hydrate nucleation, by combining the forward flux sampling (FFS) method and the coarse-grained water model mW. To facilitate the application of FFS in studying the formation of methane hydrate, we developed an effective order parameter λ on the basis of the topological analysis of the tetrahedral network. The order parameter capitalizes the signature of hydrate structure, i.e., polyhedral cages, and is capable of efficiently distinguishing hydrate from ice and liquid water while allowing the formation of different hydrate phases, i.e., sI, sII, and amorphous. Integration of the order parameter λ with FFS allows explicitly computing hydrate nucleation rates and obtaining an ensemble of nucleation trajectories under conditions where spontaneous hydrate nucleation becomes too slow to occur in direct simulation. The convergence of the obtained hydrate nucleation rate was found to depend crucially on the convergence of the spatial distribution for the spontaneously formed hydrate seeds obtained from the initial sampling of FFS. The validity of the approach is also verified by the agreement between the calculated nucleation rate and that inferred from the direct simulation. Analyzing the obtained large ensemble of hydrate nucleation trajectories, we show hydrate formation at 220 K and 500 bar is initiated by the nucleation events occurring in the vicinity of water-methane interface, and facilitated by a gradual transition from amorphous to crystalline structure. The latter provides the direct support to the proposed two-step nucleation mechanism of methane hydrate.

  14. A simple capacitive method to evaluate ethanol fuel samples (United States)

    Vello, Tatiana P.; de Oliveira, Rafael F.; Silva, Gustavo O.; de Camargo, Davi H. S.; Bufon, Carlos C. B.


    Ethanol is a biofuel used worldwide. However, the presence of excessive water either during the distillation process or by fraudulent adulteration is a major concern in the use of ethanol fuel. High water levels may cause engine malfunction, in addition to being considered illegal. Here, we describe the development of a simple, fast and accurate platform based on nanostructured sensors to evaluate ethanol samples. The device fabrication is facile, based on standard microfabrication and thin-film deposition methods. The sensor operation relies on capacitance measurements employing a parallel plate capacitor containing a conformational aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin layer (15 nm). The sensor operates over the full range water concentration, i.e., from approximately 0% to 100% vol. of water in ethanol, with water traces being detectable down to 0.5% vol. These characteristics make the proposed device unique with respect to other platforms. Finally, the good agreement between the sensor response and analyses performed by gas chromatography of ethanol biofuel endorses the accuracy of the proposed method. Due to the full operation range, the reported sensor has the technological potential for use as a point-of-care analytical tool at gas stations or in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and beverage industries, to mention a few.

  15. Martian Radiative Transfer Modeling Using the Optimal Spectral Sampling Method (United States)

    Eluszkiewicz, J.; Cady-Pereira, K.; Uymin, G.; Moncet, J.-L.


    The large volume of existing and planned infrared observations of Mars have prompted the development of a new martian radiative transfer model that could be used in the retrievals of atmospheric and surface properties. The model is based on the Optimal Spectral Sampling (OSS) method [1]. The method is a fast and accurate monochromatic technique applicable to a wide range of remote sensing platforms (from microwave to UV) and was originally developed for the real-time processing of infrared and microwave data acquired by instruments aboard the satellites forming part of the next-generation global weather satellite system NPOESS (National Polarorbiting Operational Satellite System) [2]. As part of our on-going research related to the radiative properties of the martian polar caps, we have begun the development of a martian OSS model with the goal of using it to perform self-consistent atmospheric corrections necessary to retrieve caps emissivity from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) spectra. While the caps will provide the initial focus area for applying the new model, it is hoped that the model will be of interest to the wider Mars remote sensing community.

  16. Method for preconcentrating a sample for subsequent analysis (United States)

    Zaromb, Solomon


    A system for analysis of trace concentration of contaminants in air includes a portable liquid chromatograph and a preconcentrator for the contaminants to be analyzed. The preconcentrator includes a sample bag having an inlet valve and an outlet valve for collecting an air sample. When the sample is collected the sample bag is connected in series with a sorbing apparatus in a recirculation loop. The sorbing apparatus has an inner gas-permeable container containing a sorbent material and an outer gas-impermeable container. The sample is circulated through the outer container and around the inner container for trapping and preconcentrating the contaminants in the sorbent material. The sorbent material may be a liquid having the same composition as the mobile phase of the chromatograph for direct injection thereinto. Alternatively, the sorbent material may be a porous, solid body, to which mobile phase liquid is added after preconcentration of the contaminants for dissolving the contaminants, the liquid solution then being withdrawn for injection into the chromatograph.

  17. Improvements in Sample Selection Methods for Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Sehn Körting


    Full Text Available Traditional image classification algorithms are mainly divided into unsupervised and supervised paradigms. In the first paradigm, algorithms are designed to automatically estimate the classes’ distributions in the feature space. The second paradigm depends on the knowledge of a domain expert to identify representative examples from the image to be used for estimating the classification model. Recent improvements in human-computer interaction (HCI enable the construction of more intuitive graphic user interfaces (GUIs to help users obtain desired results. In remote sensing image classification, GUIs still need advancements. In this work, we describe our efforts to develop an improved GUI for selecting the representative samples needed to estimate the classification model. The idea is to identify changes in the common strategies for sample selection to create a user-driven sample selection, which focuses on different views of each sample, and to help domain experts identify explicit classification rules, which is a well-established technique in geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA. We also propose the use of the well-known nearest neighbor algorithm to identify similar samples and accelerate the classification.

  18. Statistical Methods and Tools for Hanford Staged Feed Tank Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountain, Matthew S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brigantic, Robert T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This report summarizes work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to technically evaluate the current approach to staged feed sampling of high-level waste (HLW) sludge to meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for transfer from tank farms to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The current sampling and analysis approach is detailed in the document titled Initial Data Quality Objectives for WTP Feed Acceptance Criteria, 24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014, Revision 0 (Arakali et al. 2011). The goal of this current work is to evaluate and provide recommendations to support a defensible, technical and statistical basis for the staged feed sampling approach that meets WAC data quality objectives (DQOs).

  19. Estimating the Expected Value of Sample Information Using the Probabilistic Sensitivity Analysis Sample: A Fast, Nonparametric Regression-Based Method. (United States)

    Strong, Mark; Oakley, Jeremy E; Brennan, Alan; Breeze, Penny


    Health economic decision-analytic models are used to estimate the expected net benefits of competing decision options. The true values of the input parameters of such models are rarely known with certainty, and it is often useful to quantify the value to the decision maker of reducing uncertainty through collecting new data. In the context of a particular decision problem, the value of a proposed research design can be quantified by its expected value of sample information (EVSI). EVSI is commonly estimated via a 2-level Monte Carlo procedure in which plausible data sets are generated in an outer loop, and then, conditional on these, the parameters of the decision model are updated via Bayes rule and sampled in an inner loop. At each iteration of the inner loop, the decision model is evaluated. This is computationally demanding and may be difficult if the posterior distribution of the model parameters conditional on sampled data is hard to sample from. We describe a fast nonparametric regression-based method for estimating per-patient EVSI that requires only the probabilistic sensitivity analysis sample (i.e., the set of samples drawn from the joint distribution of the parameters and the corresponding net benefits). The method avoids the need to sample from the posterior distributions of the parameters and avoids the need to rerun the model. The only requirement is that sample data sets can be generated. The method is applicable with a model of any complexity and with any specification of model parameter distribution. We demonstrate in a case study the superior efficiency of the regression method over the 2-level Monte Carlo method. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Validity and reliability of the Experience-Sampling Method. (United States)

    Csikszentmihalyi, M; Larson, R


    To understand the dynamics of mental health, it is essential to develop measures for the frequency and the patterning of mental processes in every-day-life situations. The Experience-Sampling Method (ESM) is an attempt to provide a valid instrument to describe variations in self-reports of mental processes. It can be used to obtain empirical data on the following types of variables: a) frequency and patterning of daily activity, social interaction, and changes in location; b) frequency, intensity, and patterning of psychological states, i.e., emotional, cognitive, and conative dimensions of experience; c) frequency and patterning of thoughts, including quality and intensity of thought disturbance. The article reviews practical and methodological issues of the ESM and presents evidence for its short- and long-term reliability when used as an instrument for assessing the variables outlined above. It also presents evidence for validity by showing correlation between ESM measures on the one hand and physiological measures, one-time psychological tests, and behavioral indices on the other. A number of studies with normal and clinical populations that have used the ESM are reviewed to demonstrate the range of issues to which the technique can be usefully applied.

  1. Effect of sample preparation methods on photometric determination of the tellurium and cobalt content in the samples of copper concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Butenko


    Full Text Available Methods of determination of cobalt and nickel in copper concentrates currently used in factory laboratories are very labor intensive and time consuming. The limiting stage of the analysis is preliminary chemical sample preparation. Carrying out the decomposition process of industrial samples with concentrated mineral acids in open systems does not allow to improve the metrological characteristics of the methods, for this reason improvement the methods of sample preparation is quite relevant and has a practical interest. The work was dedicated to the determination of the optimal conditions of preliminary chemical preparation of copper concentrate samples for the subsequent determination of cobalt and tellurium in the obtained solution using tellurium-spectrophotometric method. Decomposition of the samples was carried out by acid dissolving in individual mineral acids and their mixtures by heating in an open system as well as by using ultrasonification and microwave radiation in a closed system. In order to select the optimal conditions for the decomposition of the samples in a closed system the phase contact time and ultrasonic generator’s power were varied. Intensification of the processes of decomposition of copper concentrates with nitric acid (1:1, ultrasound and microwave radiation allowed to transfer quantitatively cobalt and tellurium into solution spending 20 and 30 min respectively. This reduced the amount of reactants used and improved the accuracy of determination by running the process in strictly identical conditions.

  2. Three sampling methods for visibility measures of landscape perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitkamp, S.G.; Bregt, A.K.; Lammeren, van R.J.A.; Berg, van den A.E.


    The character of a landscape can be seen as the outcome of people¿s perception of their physical environment, which is important for spatial planning and decision making. Three modes of landscape perception are proposed: view from a viewpoint, view from a road, and view of an area. Three sampling

  3. Microbial diversity in fecal samples depends on DNA extraction method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsepasi, Hengameh; Persson, Søren; Struve, Carsten


    BACKGROUND: There are challenges, when extracting bacterial DNA from specimens for molecular diagnostics, since fecal samples also contain DNA from human cells and many different substances derived from food, cell residues and medication that can inhibit downstream PCR. The purpose of the study w...

  4. Modern methods of sample preparation for GC analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, S.; Janssen, H.-G.; Brinkman, U.A.Th.


    Today, a wide variety of techniques is available for the preparation of (semi-) solid, liquid and gaseous samples, prior to their instrumental analysis by means of capillary gas chromatography (GC) or, increasingly, comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC × GC). In the past two decades, a large number

  5. An adaptive household sampling method for rural African communities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilizing Google Earth images and a Graphical Information System (GIS) map of Berekuso, sampling units were defined as 15-degree wedge-shaped sectors ... of Berekuso, and produced generalizable results for median household size, median age of residents, sources of potable water and toilet types, among others.

  6. Method for Hot Real-Time Sampling of Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, Marc D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Biomass Pyrolysis has been an increasing topic of research, in particular as a replacement for crude oil. This process utilizes moderate temperatures to thermally deconstruct the biomass which is then condensed into a mixture of liquid oxygenates to be used as fuel precursors. Pyrolysis oils contain more than 400 compounds, up to 60 percent of which do not re-volatilize for subsequent chemical analysis. Vapor chemical composition is also complicated as additional condensation reactions occur during the condensation and collection of the product. Due to the complexity of the pyrolysis oil, and a desire to catalytically upgrade the vapor composition before condensation, online real-time analytical techniques such as Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS) are of great use. However, in order to properly sample hot pyrolysis vapors, many challenges must be overcome. Sampling must occur within a narrow range of temperatures to reduce product composition changes from overheating or partial condensation or plugging of lines from condensed products. Residence times must be kept at a minimum to reduce further reaction chemistries. Pyrolysis vapors also form aerosols that are carried far downstream and can pass through filters resulting in build-up in downstream locations. The co-produced bio-char and ash from the pyrolysis process can lead to plugging of the sample lines, and must be filtered out at temperature, even with the use of cyclonic separators. A practical approach for considerations and sampling system design, as well as lessons learned are integrated into the hot analytical sampling system of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) to provide industrially relevant demonstrations of thermochemical transformations of biomass feedstocks at the pilot scale.

  7. Vegetation Sampling for Wetland Delineation: A Review and Synthesis of Methods and Sampling Issues (United States)


    element in several forest inventory programs. These alternative metrics to cover or frequency are not regularly used in the majority of seedlings, saplings, and overstory vegetation are routinely collected in many forest inventory methods (Schreuder et al. 1993; McRoberts and...Service collects vegetation data using strata from long-term monitoring plots as part of its Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and National Forest

  8. Modern survey sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arijit


    Exposure to SamplingAbstract Introduction Concepts of Population, Sample, and SamplingInitial RamificationsAbstract Introduction Sampling Design, Sampling SchemeRandom Numbers and Their Uses in Simple RandomSampling (SRS)Drawing Simple Random Samples with and withoutReplacementEstimation of Mean, Total, Ratio of Totals/Means:Variance and Variance EstimationDetermination of Sample SizesA.2 Appendix to Chapter 2 A.More on Equal Probability Sampling A.Horvitz-Thompson EstimatorA.SufficiencyA.LikelihoodA.Non-Existence Theorem More Intricacies Abstract Introduction Unequal Probability Sampling StrategiesPPS Sampling Exploring Improved WaysAbstract Introduction Stratified Sampling Cluster SamplingMulti-Stage SamplingMulti-Phase Sampling: Ratio and RegressionEstimationviiviii ContentsControlled SamplingModeling Introduction Super-Population ModelingPrediction Approach Model-Assisted Approach Bayesian Methods Spatial SmoothingSampling on Successive Occasions: Panel Rotation Non-Response and Not-at-Homes Weighting Adj...

  9. Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: Methods and sample quality (United States)

    Sefa, Eunice; Adimazoya, Edward Akolgo; Yartey, Emmanuel; Lenzi, Rachel; Tarpo, Cindy; Heward-Mills, Nii Lante; Lew, Katherine; Ampeh, Yvonne


    Introduction Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample. Materials and methods The survey methodology was piloted in two rounds of data collection. The final survey included 18 demographic, media exposure, and health behavior questions. Call outcomes and response rates were calculated according to the American Association of Public Opinion Research guidelines. Sample characteristics, productivity, and costs per interview were calculated. Representativeness was assessed by comparing data to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and the National Population and Housing Census. Results The survey was fielded during a 27-day period in February-March 2017. There were 9,469 completed interviews and 3,547 partial interviews. Response, cooperation, refusal, and contact rates were 31%, 81%, 7%, and 39% respectively. Twenty-three calls were dialed to produce an eligible contact: nonresponse was substantial due to the automated calling system and dialing of many unassigned or non-working numbers. Younger, urban, better educated, and male respondents were overrepresented in the sample. Conclusions The innovative mobile phone data collection methodology yielded a large sample in a relatively short period. Response rates were comparable to other surveys, although substantial coverage bias resulted from fewer women, rural, and older residents completing the mobile phone survey in

  10. Rapid method for plutonium-241 determination in soil samples


    Piekarz, M.; Komosa, A.


    A simple and rapid procedure for the determination of plutonium isotopes in the environment is presented. The procedure combines alpha spectrometry, solvent extraction and liquid scintillation measurements to ensure that both alpha- and beta-emitting isotopes are determined. Of five tested extractants, bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid was found to be the best choice. The procedure was applied to soil samples contaminated with Chernobyl fallout.

  11. Technical Evaluation of Sample-Processing, Collection, and Preservation Methods (United States)


    enhanced situational awareness of biological threats to the environment, human health, agriculture , and food supplies. Specifically mentioned is the...preparing for the possibility of biologically based attacks on military, civilian, or agricultural targets. To be fully prepared for this...from the various collected samples was extracted using an identical process—the Blood and Tissue Midi Preparation Kit (Qiagen, Inc.; Valencia , CA)—and

  12. Apparatus and method for maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling (United States)

    Felix, Larry Gordon; Farthing, William Earl; Irvin, James Hodges; Snyder, Todd Robert


    A dilution apparatus for diluting a gas sample. The apparatus includes a sample gas conduit having a sample gas inlet end and a diluted sample gas outlet end, and a sample gas flow restricting orifice disposed proximate the sample gas inlet end connected with the sample gas conduit and providing fluid communication between the exterior and the interior of the sample gas conduit. A diluted sample gas conduit is provided within the sample gas conduit having a mixing end with a mixing space inlet opening disposed proximate the sample gas inlet end, thereby forming an annular space between the sample gas conduit and the diluted sample gas conduit. The mixing end of the diluted sample gas conduit is disposed at a distance from the sample gas flow restricting orifice. A dilution gas source connected with the sample gas inlet end of the sample gas conduit is provided for introducing a dilution gas into the annular space, and a filter is provided for filtering the sample gas. The apparatus is particularly suited for diluting heated sample gases containing one or more condensable components.

  13. Comparisons of polybrominated diphenyl ether and hexabromocyclododecane concentrations in dust collected with two sampling methods and matched breast milk samples. (United States)

    Björklund, J A; Sellström, U; de Wit, C A; Aune, M; Lignell, S; Darnerud, P O


    Household dust from 19 Swedish homes was collected using two different sampling methods: from the occupant's own home vacuum cleaner after insertion of a new bag and using a researcher-collected method where settled house dust was collected from surfaces above floor level. The samples were analyzed for 16 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and total hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Significant correlations (r = 0.60-0.65, Spearman r = 0.47-0.54, P samples collected with the two sampling methods for ∑OctaBDE and ∑DecaBDE but not for ∑PentaBDE or HBCD. Statistically significantly higher concentrations of all PBDE congeners were found in the researcher-collected dust than in the home vacuum cleaner bag dust (VCBD). For HBCD, however, the concentrations were significantly higher in the home VCBD samples. Analysis of the bags themselves indicated no or very low levels of PBDEs and HBCD. This indicates that there may be specific HBCD sources to the floor and/or that it may be present in the vacuum cleaners themselves. The BDE-47 concentrations in matched pairs of VCBD and breast milk samples were significantly correlated (r = 0.514, P = 0.029), indicating that one possible exposure route for this congener may be via dust ingestion. The statistically significant correlations found for several individual polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, ∑OctaBDE and ∑DecaBDE between the two dust sampling methods in this study indicate that the same indoor sources contaminate both types of dust or that common processes govern the distribution of these compounds in the indoor environment. Therefore, either method is adequate for screening ∑OctaBDE and ∑DecaBDE in dust. The high variability seen between dust samples confirms results seen in other studies. For hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), divergent results in the two dust types indicate differences in contamination sources to the floor than to above-floor surfaces. Thus, it is still unclear which dust

  14. Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.; Spliid, Henrik


    Chemical characterization of solid waste is a demanding task due to the heterogeneity of the waste. This article describes how 45 material fractions hand-sorted from Danish household waste were subsampled and prepared for chemical analysis of 61 substances. All material fractions were subject...... of variance (20-85% of the overall variation). Only by increasing the sample size significantly can this variance be reduced. The accuracy and short-term reproducibility of the chemical characterization were good, as determined by the analysis of several relevant certified reference materials. Typically, six...

  15. Method for spiking soil samples with organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Ulla C; Ekelund, Flemming; Jacobsen, Carsten S


    We examined the harmful side effects on indigenous soil microorganisms of two organic solvents, acetone and dichloromethane, that are normally used for spiking of soil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for experimental purposes. The solvents were applied in two contamination protocols to either...... higher than in control soil, probably due mainly to release of predation from indigenous protozoa. In order to minimize solvent effects on indigenous soil microorganisms when spiking native soil samples with compounds having a low water solubility, we propose a common protocol in which the contaminant...

  16. Individual and pen-based oral fluid sampling: A welfare-friendly sampling method for group-housed gestating sows. (United States)

    Pol, Françoise; Dorenlor, Virginie; Eono, Florent; Eudier, Solveig; Eveno, Eric; Liégard-Vanhecke, Dorine; Rose, Nicolas; Fablet, Christelle


    The aims of this study were to assess the feasibility of individual and pen-based oral fluid sampling (OFS) in 35 pig herds with group-housed sows, compare these methods to blood sampling, and assess the factors influencing the success of sampling. Individual samples were collected from at least 30 sows per herd. Pen-based OFS was performed using devices placed in at least three pens for 45min. Information related to the farm, the sows, and their living conditions were collected. Factors significantly associated with the duration of sampling and the chewing behaviour of sows were identified by logistic regression. Individual OFS took 2min 42s on average; the type of floor, swab size, and operator were associated with a sampling time >2min. Pen-based OFS was obtained from 112 devices (62.2%). The type of floor, parity, pen-level activity, and type of feeding were associated with chewing behaviour. Pen activity was associated with the latency to interact with the device. The type of floor, gestation stage, parity, group size, and latency to interact with the device were associated with a chewing time >10min. After 15, 30 and 45min of pen-based OFS, 48%, 60% and 65% of the sows were lying down, respectively. The time spent after the beginning of sampling, genetic type, and time elapsed since the last meal were associated with 50% of the sows lying down at one time point. The mean time to blood sample the sows was 1min 16s and 2min 52s if the number of operators required was considered in the sampling time estimation. The genetic type, parity, and type of floor were significantly associated with a sampling time higher than 1min 30s. This study shows that individual OFS is easy to perform in group-housed sows by a single operator, even though straw-bedded animals take longer to sample than animals housed on slatted floors, and suggests some guidelines to optimise pen-based OFS success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of indoor air sampling and dust collection methods for fungal exposure assessment using quantitative PCR (United States)

    Evaluating fungal contamination indoors is complicated because of the many different sampling methods utilized. In this study, fungal contamination was evaluated using five sampling methods and four matrices for results. The five sampling methods were a 48 hour indoor air sample ...

  18. 7 CFR 28.46 - Method of submitting samples and types. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of submitting samples and types. 28.46 Section... Standards Act Sample Or Type Comparison § 28.46 Method of submitting samples and types. The method of submitting samples and types for comparison shall be the same as that prescribed in this subpart for...


    Frisch, H. P.


    SAMSAN was developed to aid the control system analyst by providing a self consistent set of computer algorithms that support large order control system design and evaluation studies, with an emphasis placed on sampled system analysis. Control system analysts have access to a vast array of published algorithms to solve an equally large spectrum of controls related computational problems. The analyst usually spends considerable time and effort bringing these published algorithms to an integrated operational status and often finds them less general than desired. SAMSAN reduces the burden on the analyst by providing a set of algorithms that have been well tested and documented, and that can be readily integrated for solving control system problems. Algorithm selection for SAMSAN has been biased toward numerical accuracy for large order systems with computational speed and portability being considered important but not paramount. In addition to containing relevant subroutines from EISPAK for eigen-analysis and from LINPAK for the solution of linear systems and related problems, SAMSAN contains the following not so generally available capabilities: 1) Reduction of a real non-symmetric matrix to block diagonal form via a real similarity transformation matrix which is well conditioned with respect to inversion, 2) Solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem with balancing and grading, 3) Computation of all zeros of the determinant of a matrix of polynomials, 4) Matrix exponentiation and the evaluation of integrals involving the matrix exponential, with option to first block diagonalize, 5) Root locus and frequency response for single variable transfer functions in the S, Z, and W domains, 6) Several methods of computing zeros for linear systems, and 7) The ability to generate documentation "on demand". All matrix operations in the SAMSAN algorithms assume non-symmetric matrices with real double precision elements. There is no fixed size limit on any matrix in any

  20. DNA Sampling Hook (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DNA Sampling Hook is a significant improvement on a method of obtaining a tissue sample from a live fish in situ from an aquatic environment. A tissue sample...

  1. Sample Size for Assessing Agreement between Two Methods of Measurement by Bland-Altman Method. (United States)

    Lu, Meng-Jie; Zhong, Wei-Hua; Liu, Yu-Xiu; Miao, Hua-Zhang; Li, Yong-Chang; Ji, Mu-Huo


    The Bland-Altman method has been widely used for assessing agreement between two methods of measurement. However, it remains unsolved about sample size estimation. We propose a new method of sample size estimation for Bland-Altman agreement assessment. According to the Bland-Altman method, the conclusion on agreement is made based on the width of the confidence interval for LOAs (limits of agreement) in comparison to predefined clinical agreement limit. Under the theory of statistical inference, the formulae of sample size estimation are derived, which depended on the pre-determined level of α, β, the mean and the standard deviation of differences between two measurements, and the predefined limits. With this new method, the sample sizes are calculated under different parameter settings which occur frequently in method comparison studies, and Monte-Carlo simulation is used to obtain the corresponding powers. The results of Monte-Carlo simulation showed that the achieved powers could coincide with the pre-determined level of powers, thus validating the correctness of the method. The method of sample size estimation can be applied in the Bland-Altman method to assess agreement between two methods of measurement.

  2. A method for the measurement of shielding effectiveness of planar samples requiring no sample edge preparation or contact


    Marvin, Andrew C.; Dawson, Linda; Flintoft, Ian Dand; Dawson, John F.


    A method is presented for the measurement of shielding effectiveness of planar materials with nonconducting surfaces such as carbon fiber composites. The method overcomes edge termination problems with such materials by absorbing edge-diffracted energy. A dynamic range of up to 100 dB has been demonstrated over a frequency range of 1-8.5 GHz, depending on the size of the sample under test. Comparison with ASTM D4935 and nested reverberation measurements of shielding effectiveness shows good a...

  3. Methods of sampling airborne fungi in working environments of waste treatment facilities


    Kristýna Černá; Zdeňka Wittlingerová; Magdaléna Zimová; Zdeněk Janovský


    Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency of a filter based sampling method and a high volume sampling method for sampling airborne culturable fungi present in waste sorting facilities. Material and Methods: Membrane filters method was compared with surface air system method. The selected sampling methods were modified and tested in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities. Results: The total number of colony-forming units (CFU)/m3 of airborne fungi w...

  4. Tissue sampling methods and standards for vertebrate genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Pamela BY


    Full Text Available Abstract The recent rise in speed and efficiency of new sequencing technologies have facilitated high-throughput sequencing, assembly and analyses of genomes, advancing ongoing efforts to analyze genetic sequences across major vertebrate groups. Standardized procedures in acquiring high quality DNA and RNA and establishing cell lines from target species will facilitate these initiatives. We provide a legal and methodological guide according to four standards of acquiring and storing tissue for the Genome 10K Project and similar initiatives as follows: four-star (banked tissue/cell cultures, RNA from multiple types of tissue for transcriptomes, and sufficient flash-frozen tissue for 1 mg of DNA, all from a single individual; three-star (RNA as above and frozen tissue for 1 mg of DNA; two-star (frozen tissue for at least 700 μg of DNA; and one-star (ethanol-preserved tissue for 700 μg of DNA or less of mixed quality. At a minimum, all tissues collected for the Genome 10K and other genomic projects should consider each species’ natural history and follow institutional and legal requirements. Associated documentation should detail as much information as possible about provenance to ensure representative sampling and subsequent sequencing. Hopefully, the procedures outlined here will not only encourage success in the Genome 10K Project but also inspire the adaptation of standards by other genomic projects, including those involving other biota.

  5. The Marker State Space (MSS method for classifying clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P Fallon

    Full Text Available The development of accurate clinical biomarkers has been challenging in part due to the diversity between patients and diseases. One approach to account for the diversity is to use multiple markers to classify patients, based on the concept that each individual marker contributes information from its respective subclass of patients. Here we present a new strategy for developing biomarker panels that accounts for completely distinct patient subclasses. Marker State Space (MSS defines "marker states" based on all possible patterns of high and low values among a panel of markers. Each marker state is defined as either a case state or a control state, and a sample is classified as case or control based on the state it occupies. MSS was used to define multi-marker panels that were robust in cross validation and training-set/test-set analyses and that yielded similar classification accuracy to several other classification algorithms. A three-marker panel for discriminating pancreatic cancer patients from control subjects revealed subclasses of patients based on distinct marker states. MSS provides a straightforward approach for modeling highly divergent subclasses of patients, which may be adaptable for diverse applications.

  6. [DOE method for evaluating environmental and waste management samples: Revision 1, Addendum 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goheen, S.C.


    The US Dapartment of Energy`s (DOE`s) environmental and waste management (EM) sampling and analysis activities require that large numbers of samples be analyzed for materials characterization, environmental surveillance, and site-remediation programs. The present document, DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods), is a supplemental resource for analyzing many of these samples.

  7. 7 CFR 32.402 - Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. 32... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF GREASE MOHAIR AND MOHAIR TOP SAMPLES § 32.402 Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. Samples certified as representative of the official standards of the...

  8. 7 CFR 32.400 - Samples of grease mohair grades; method of obtaining. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Samples of grease mohair grades; method of obtaining... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF GREASE MOHAIR AND MOHAIR TOP SAMPLES § 32.400 Samples of grease mohair grades; method of obtaining. Samples certified as representative of the official standards of the...

  9. 7 CFR 31.400 - Samples for wool and wool top grades; method of obtaining. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Samples for wool and wool top grades; method of... STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF WOOL AND WOOL TOP SAMPLES § 31.400 Samples for wool and wool top grades; method of obtaining. Samples certified as representative of the official...

  10. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: A Mixed Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples (United States)

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G.


    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research, but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data, but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-Means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data, and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a “real-world” example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities. PMID:25946969

  11. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: a Mixed-Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples. (United States)

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G


    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed-methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed-methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a "real-world" example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities.

  12. Sample-Size Planning for More Accurate Statistical Power: A Method Adjusting Sample Effect Sizes for Publication Bias and Uncertainty. (United States)

    Anderson, Samantha F; Kelley, Ken; Maxwell, Scott E


    The sample size necessary to obtain a desired level of statistical power depends in part on the population value of the effect size, which is, by definition, unknown. A common approach to sample-size planning uses the sample effect size from a prior study as an estimate of the population value of the effect to be detected in the future study. Although this strategy is intuitively appealing, effect-size estimates, taken at face value, are typically not accurate estimates of the population effect size because of publication bias and uncertainty. We show that the use of this approach often results in underpowered studies, sometimes to an alarming degree. We present an alternative approach that adjusts sample effect sizes for bias and uncertainty, and we demonstrate its effectiveness for several experimental designs. Furthermore, we discuss an open-source R package, BUCSS, and user-friendly Web applications that we have made available to researchers so that they can easily implement our suggested methods.

  13. Radiochemistry methods in DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadeff, S.K.; Goheen, S.C.


    Current standard sources of radiochemistry methods are often inappropriate for use in evaluating US Department of Energy environmental and waste management (DOE/EW) samples. Examples of current sources include EPA, ASTM, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater and HASL-300. Applicability of these methods is limited to specific matrices (usually water), radiation levels (usually environmental levels), and analytes (limited number). Radiochemistry methods in DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) attempt to fill the applicability gap that exists between standard methods and those needed for DOE/EM activities. The Radiochemistry chapter in DOE Methods includes an ``analysis and reporting`` guidance section as well as radiochemistry methods. A basis for identifying the DOE/EM radiochemistry needs is discussed. Within this needs framework, the applicability of standard methods and targeted new methods is identified. Sources of new methods (consolidated methods from DOE laboratories and submissions from individuals) and the methods review process will be discussed. The processes involved in generating consolidated methods add editing individually submitted methods will be compared. DOE Methods is a living document and continues to expand by adding various kinds of methods. Radiochemistry methods are highlighted in this paper. DOE Methods is intended to be a resource for methods applicable to DOE/EM problems. Although it is intended to support DOE, the guidance and methods are not necessarily exclusive to DOE. The document is available at no cost through the Laboratory Management Division of DOE, Office of Technology Development.

  14. Simulated Tempering Distributed Replica Sampling, Virtual Replica Exchange, and Other Generalized-Ensemble Methods for Conformational Sampling. (United States)

    Rauscher, Sarah; Neale, Chris; Pomès, Régis


    Generalized-ensemble algorithms in temperature space have become popular tools to enhance conformational sampling in biomolecular simulations. A random walk in temperature leads to a corresponding random walk in potential energy, which can be used to cross over energetic barriers and overcome the problem of quasi-nonergodicity. In this paper, we introduce two novel methods: simulated tempering distributed replica sampling (STDR) and virtual replica exchange (VREX). These methods are designed to address the practical issues inherent in the replica exchange (RE), simulated tempering (ST), and serial replica exchange (SREM) algorithms. RE requires a large, dedicated, and homogeneous cluster of CPUs to function efficiently when applied to complex systems. ST and SREM both have the drawback of requiring extensive initial simulations, possibly adaptive, for the calculation of weight factors or potential energy distribution functions. STDR and VREX alleviate the need for lengthy initial simulations, and for synchronization and extensive communication between replicas. Both methods are therefore suitable for distributed or heterogeneous computing platforms. We perform an objective comparison of all five algorithms in terms of both implementation issues and sampling efficiency. We use disordered peptides in explicit water as test systems, for a total simulation time of over 42 μs. Efficiency is defined in terms of both structural convergence and temperature diffusion, and we show that these definitions of efficiency are in fact correlated. Importantly, we find that ST-based methods exhibit faster temperature diffusion and correspondingly faster convergence of structural properties compared to RE-based methods. Within the RE-based methods, VREX is superior to both SREM and RE. On the basis of our observations, we conclude that ST is ideal for simple systems, while STDR is well-suited for complex systems.

  15. Sampling Methods for Wallenius' and Fisher's Noncentral Hypergeometric Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Agner


    Several methods for generating variates with univariate and multivariate Wallenius' and Fisher's noncentral hypergeometric distributions are developed. Methods for the univariate distributions include: simulation of urn experiments, inversion by binary search, inversion by chop-down search from t...

  16. Comparison of two methods of tear sampling for protein quantification by Bradford method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Farias


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare two methods of tear sampling for protein quantification. Tear samples were collected from 29 healthy dogs (58 eyes using Schirmer tear test (STT strip and microcapillary tubes. The samples were frozen at -80ºC and analyzed by the Bradford method. Results were analyzed by Student's t test. The average protein concentration and standard deviation from tears collected with microcapillary tube were 4.45mg/mL ±0.35 and 4,52mg/mL ±0.29 for right and left eyes respectively. The average protein concentration and standard deviation from tears collected with Schirmer Tear Test (STT strip were and 54.5mg/mL ±0.63 and 54.15mg/mL ±0.65 to right and left eyes respectively. Statistically significant differences (p<0.001 were found between the methods. In the conditions in which this study was conducted, the average protein concentration obtained with the Bradford test from tear samples obtained by Schirmer Tear Test (STT strip showed values higher than those obtained with microcapillary tube. It is important that concentration of tear protein pattern values should be analyzed according the method used to collect tear samples.

  17. 7 CFR 51.308 - Methods of sampling and calculation of percentages. (United States)


    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Methods of Sampling and Calculation of Percentages § 51.308 Methods of sampling and calculation of percentages. (a) When the numerical... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Methods of sampling and calculation of percentages. 51...

  18. IAEA Sampling Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The objectives for this presentation are to describe the method that the IAEA uses to determine a sampling plan for nuclear material measurements; describe the terms detection probability and significant quantity; list the three nuclear materials measurement types; describe the sampling method applied to an item facility; and describe multiple method sampling.

  19. Geothermal water and gas: collected methods for sampling and analysis. Comment issue. [Compilation of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, J.G.; Serne, R.J.; Shannon, D.W.; Woodruff, E.M.


    A collection of methods for sampling and analysis of geothermal fluids and gases is presented. Compilations of analytic options for constituents in water and gases are given. Also, a survey of published methods of laboratory water analysis is included. It is stated that no recommendation of the applicability of the methods to geothermal brines should be assumed since the intent of the table is to encourage and solicit comments and discussion leading to recommended analytical procedures for geothermal waters and research. (WHK)

  20. Designing waveforms for temporal encoding using a frequency sampling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    In this paper a method for designing waveforms for temporal encoding in medical ultrasound imaging is described. The method is based on least squares optimization and is used to design nonlinear frequency modulated signals for synthetic transmit aperture imaging. By using the proposed design method......, the amplitude spectrum of the transmitted waveform can be optimized, such that most of the energy is transmitted where the transducer has large amplification. To test the design method, a waveform was designed for a BK8804 linear array transducer. The resulting nonlinear frequency modulated waveform...... waveform, on the other hand, was designed so that only frequencies where the transducer had a large amplification were excited. Hereby, unnecessary heating of the transducer could be avoided and the signal-tonoise ratio could be increased. The experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS was used to evaluate...

  1. On-line sample processing methods in flow analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald


    -line dilution, derivatization, separation and preconcentration methods encompassing solid reactors, solvent extraction, sorbent extraction, precipitation/coprecipitation, hydride/vapor generation and digestion/leaching protocols as hyphenated to a plethora of detection devices is discussed in detail...

  2. Liquid Chromatographic Method for Determination of Nisoldipine from Pharmaceutical Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Gupta


    Full Text Available A simple and specific high performance thin layer chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of nisoldipine from tablet dosage form. The method was carried out at 320 nm after extraction of drug in methanol. The method uses aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F-254 as stationary phase and cyclohexane-ethyl acetate-toluene (3:3:4, v/v/v as mobile phase. Linearity was established over a range of 400-2400 ng per zone. Both peak area ratio and peak height ratio showed acceptable correlation coefficient i.e. more than 0.99. However we used peak area for validation purpose. Intra-day and inter-day precision was determined and found to have less than 6.0 % RSD.

  3. Final LDRD report : development of sample preparation methods for ChIPMA-based imaging mass spectrometry of tissue samples.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maharrey, Sean P.; Highley, Aaron M.; Behrens, Richard, Jr.; Wiese-Smith, Deneille


    The objective of this short-term LDRD project was to acquire the tools needed to use our chemical imaging precision mass analyzer (ChIPMA) instrument to analyze tissue samples. This effort was an outgrowth of discussions with oncologists on the need to find the cellular origin of signals in mass spectra of serum samples, which provide biomarkers for ovarian cancer. The ultimate goal would be to collect chemical images of biopsy samples allowing the chemical images of diseased and nondiseased sections of a sample to be compared. The equipment needed to prepare tissue samples have been acquired and built. This equipment includes an cyro-ultramicrotome for preparing thin sections of samples and a coating unit. The coating unit uses an electrospray system to deposit small droplets of a UV-photo absorbing compound on the surface of the tissue samples. Both units are operational. The tissue sample must be coated with the organic compound to enable matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and matrix enhanced secondary ion mass spectrometry (ME-SIMS) measurements with the ChIPMA instrument Initial plans to test the sample preparation using human tissue samples required development of administrative procedures beyond the scope of this LDRD. Hence, it was decided to make two types of measurements: (1) Testing the spatial resolution of ME-SIMS by preparing a substrate coated with a mixture of an organic matrix and a bio standard and etching a defined pattern in the coating using a liquid metal ion beam, and (2) preparing and imaging C. elegans worms. Difficulties arose in sectioning the C. elegans for analysis and funds and time to overcome these difficulties were not available in this project. The facilities are now available for preparing biological samples for analysis with the ChIPMA instrument. Some further investment of time and resources in sample preparation should make this a useful tool for chemical imaging applications.

  4. Sampling and P-sampling expansions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using the hyperfinite representation of functions and generalized functions this paper develops a rigorous version of the so-called `delta method' approach to sampling theory. This yields a slightly more general version of the classical WKS sampling theorem for band-limited functions.

  5. [Comparison of the designing effects (DE) among different designs related to complex sampling methods]. (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Sheng; Feng, Guo-Shuang; Yu, Shi-Cheng; Ma, Lin-Mao; Zhou, Mai-Geng; Liu, Shi-Yao


    To compare the designing effects (DE) among different complex sampling designing programs. Data from the '2002 Chinese Nutrition and Health Survey' was used as an example to generate the sampling population, and statistical simulation method was used to estimate the values of DEs from six complex sampling designing programs. It was found that the values of DEs varied among the six complex sampling designing programs. The values of the DEs were associated with the sample sizes in a positive way, with more sample stages and less stratified categories. Reduction of the numbers of sample stages and detailing stratified categories could decrease the DE values so as to improve the DE.

  6. Determination of methylmercury in marine biota samples: method validation. (United States)

    Carrasco, Luis; Vassileva, Emilia


    Regulatory authorities are expected to measure concentration of contaminants in foodstuffs, but the simple determination of total amount cannot be sufficient for fully judging its impact on the human health. In particular, the methylation of metals generally increases their toxicity; therefore validated analytical methods producing reliable results for the assessment of methylated species are highly needed. Nowadays, there is no legal limit for methylmercury (MeHg) in food matrices. Hence, no standardized method for the determination of MeHg exists within the international jurisdiction. Contemplating the possibility of a future legislative limit, a method for low level determination of MeHg in marine biota matrixes, based on aqueous-phase ethylation followed by purge and trap and gas chromatography (GC) coupled to pyrolysis-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Py-AFS) detection, has been developed and validated. Five different extraction procedures, namely acid and alkaline leaching assisted by microwave and conventional oven heating, as well as enzymatic digestion, were evaluated in terms of their efficiency to extract MeHg from Scallop soft tissue IAEA-452 Certified Reference Material. Alkaline extraction with 25% (w/w) KOH in methanol, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) with 5M HCl and enzymatic digestion with protease XIV yielded the highest extraction recoveries. Standard addition or the introduction of a dilution step were successfully applied to overcome the matrix effects observed when microwave-assisted extraction using 25% (w/w) KOH in methanol or 25% (w/v) aqueous TMAH were used. ISO 17025 and Eurachem guidelines were followed to perform the validation of the methodology. Accordingly, blanks, selectivity, calibration curve, linearity (0.9995), working range (1-800pg), recovery (97%), precision, traceability, limit of detection (0.45pg), limit of quantification (0.85pg) and expanded uncertainty (15.86%, k=2) were assessed with Fish protein Dorm-3 Certified

  7. Sampling and measurement methods for diesel exhaust aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristimaeki, J.


    Awareness of adverse health effects of urban aerosols has increased general interest in aerosol sources. As diesel engines are one significant urban anthropogenic particle source, diesel aerosols have been under intense research during the last decades. This thesis discusses the measurement issues related to the diesel exhaust particles, focusing on the effective density measurement with Elpi-Sumps and Tda-Elpi methods and presents some additional performance issues not discussed in the papers. As the emergence of volatile nanoparticles in the diesel exhaust is sensitive to prevailing circumstances there is a need to properly control the dilution parameters in laboratory measurements in order to obtain repeatable and reproducible results. In addition to the dilution parameters, the effect of ambient temperature on the light duty vehicle exhaust particulate emission was studied. It was found that turbo charged diesel engines were relatively insensitive to changes in ambient temperature whereas particle emissions from naturally aspirated gasoline vehicles were significantly increased at low temperatures. The measurement of effective density and mass of aerosol particles with Dma and impactor was studied and applied to characterisation of diesel exhaust particles. The Tda-Elpi method was used for determination of the volatile mass of diesel exhaust particles as a function of particle size. Based on the measurement results, condensation was suggested to be the main phenomena driving volatile mass transfer to the exhaust particles. Identification of the process and the separation of volatile and solid mass may become important as some health effect studies suggest the volatile fraction to be a key component causing the biological effects of diesel exhaust particles. (orig.)

  8. Sampling pig farms at the abattoir in a cross-sectional study − Evaluation of a sampling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils


    A cross-sectional study design is relatively inexpensive, fast and easy to conduct when compared to other study designs. Careful planning is essential to obtaining a representative sample of the population, and the recommended approach is to use simple random sampling from an exhaustive list of u...

  9. Microwave preservation method for DMSP, DMSO, and acrylate in unfiltered seawater and phytoplankton culture samples

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kinsey, Joanna D; Kieber, David J


    ... T ), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO T ), and acrylate (acrylate T ) concentrations in unfiltered samples to alleviate problems associated with the acidification method when applied to samples containing Phaeocystis . Microwave‐ and acid...

  10. Method to resolve microphone and sample location errors in the two-microphone duct measurement method (United States)



    Utilizing the two-microphone impedance tube method, the normal incidence acoustic absorption and acoustic impedance can be measured for a given sample. This method relies on the measured transfer function between two microphones, and the knowledge of their precise location relative to each other and the sample material. In this article, a method is proposed to accurately determine these locations. A third sensor is added at the end of the tube to simplify the measurement. First, a justification and investigation of the method is presented. Second, reference terminations are measured to evaluate the accuracy of the apparatus. Finally, comparisons are made between the new method and current methods for determining these distances and the variations are discussed. From this, conclusions are drawn with regards to the applicability and need for the new method and under which circumstances it is applicable. Results show that the method provides a reliable determination of both microphone locations, which is not possible using the current techniques. Errors due to inaccurate determinination of these parameters between methods were on the order of 3% for R and 12% for Re Z.

  11. [Comparative Analysis of Spectrophotometric Methods of the Protein Measurement in the Pectic Polysaccharide Samples]. (United States)

    Ponomareva, S A; Golovchenko, V V; Patova, O A; Vanchikova, E V; Ovodov, Y S


    For the assay to reliability of determination of the protein content in the pectic polysaccharide samples by absorbance in the ultraviolet and visible regions of the spectrum a comparison of the eleven techniques called Flores, Lovry, Bradford, Sedmak, Rueman (ninhydrin reaction) methods, the method of ultraviolet spectrophotometry, the method Benedict's reagent, the method Nessler's reagent, the method with amide black, the bicinchoninic reagent and the biuret method was carried out. The data obtained show that insufficient sensitivity of the seven methods from the listed techniques doesn't allow their usage for determination of protein content in pectic polysaccharide samples. But the Lowry, Bradford, Sedmak methods, and the method Nessler's reagent may be used for determination of protein content in pectic polysaccharide samples, and the Bradford method is advisable for protein contaminants content determination in pectic polysaccharide samples in case protein content is less than 15%, and the Lowry method--for samples is more than 15%.

  12. Purposeful Sampling for Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis in Mixed Method Implementation Research. (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Horwitz, Sarah M; Green, Carla A; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Duan, Naihua; Hoagwood, Kimberly


    Purposeful sampling is widely used in qualitative research for the identification and selection of information-rich cases related to the phenomenon of interest. Although there are several different purposeful sampling strategies, criterion sampling appears to be used most commonly in implementation research. However, combining sampling strategies may be more appropriate to the aims of implementation research and more consistent with recent developments in quantitative methods. This paper reviews the principles and practice of purposeful sampling in implementation research, summarizes types and categories of purposeful sampling strategies and provides a set of recommendations for use of single strategy or multistage strategy designs, particularly for state implementation research.

  13. Cavitation Erosion Tests Performed by Indirect Vibratory Method on Stainless Steel Welded Samples with Hardened Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian-Dumitru Nedeloni


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of cavitation erosion tests performed on two types of samples. The materials of the samples are frequently used for manufacturing and repairs of the hydro turbines components submitted to cavitation. The first sample was made by welding of an austenitic stainless steel on austenito-feritic base material. The second sample was made similarly with the first but with a martensitic base material. After the welding processes, on both samples was applied a hardening treatment by surface peening. The cavitation erosion tests were performed on vibratory equipment using the indirect method with stationary specimen. The results show a good cavitation erosion resistance on both samples.

  14. Optical method and system for the characterization of laterally-patterned samples in integrated circuits (United States)

    Maris, Humphrey J.


    Disclosed is a method for characterizing a sample having a structure disposed on or within the sample, comprising the steps of applying a first pulse of light to a surface of the sample for creating a propagating strain pulse in the sample, applying a second pulse of light to the surface so that the second pulse of light interacts with the propagating strain pulse in the sample, sensing from a reflection of the second pulse a change in optical response of the sample, and relating a time of occurrence of the change in optical response to at least one dimension of the structure.

  15. Methods and devices for hyperpolarising and melting NMR samples in a cryostat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Axelsson, Oskar H. E.; Golman, Klaes Koppel


    The present invention relates to devices and method for melting solid polarised sample while retaining a high level of polarisation. In an embodiment of the present invention a sample is polarised in a sample-retaining cup 9 in a strong magnetic field in a polarising means 3a, 3b, 3c in a cryosta...

  16. Optical Methods for Identifying Hard Clay Core Samples During Petrophysical Studies (United States)

    Morev, A. V.; Solovyeva, A. V.; Morev, V. A.


    X-ray phase analysis of the general mineralogical composition of core samples from one of the West Siberian fields was performed. Electronic absorption spectra of the clay core samples with an added indicator were studied. The speed and availability of applying the two methods in petrophysical laboratories during sample preparation for standard and special studies were estimated.

  17. An improved adaptive sampling and experiment design method for aerodynamic optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jiangtao


    Full Text Available Experiment design method is a key to construct a highly reliable surrogate model for numerical optimization in large-scale project. Within the method, the experimental design criterion directly affects the accuracy of the surrogate model and the optimization efficient. According to the shortcomings of the traditional experimental design, an improved adaptive sampling method is proposed in this paper. The surrogate model is firstly constructed by basic sparse samples. Then the supplementary sampling position is detected according to the specified criteria, which introduces the energy function and curvature sampling criteria based on radial basis function (RBF network. Sampling detection criteria considers both the uniformity of sample distribution and the description of hypersurface curvature so as to significantly improve the prediction accuracy of the surrogate model with much less samples. For the surrogate model constructed with sparse samples, the sample uniformity is an important factor to the interpolation accuracy in the initial stage of adaptive sampling and surrogate model training. Along with the improvement of uniformity, the curvature description of objective function surface gradually becomes more important. In consideration of these issues, crowdness enhance function and root mean square error (RMSE feedback function are introduced in C criterion expression. Thus, a new sampling method called RMSE and crowdness enhance (RCE adaptive sampling is established. The validity of RCE adaptive sampling method is studied through typical test function firstly and then the airfoil/wing aerodynamic optimization design problem, which has high-dimensional design space. The results show that RCE adaptive sampling method not only reduces the requirement for the number of samples, but also effectively improves the prediction accuracy of the surrogate model, which has a broad prospects for applications.

  18. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample (United States)

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.


    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  19. Estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area from LANDSAT images using the two phase sampling method (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Cappelletti, C. A.; Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.


    A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions for the estimation of sugar cane cultivated area were developed. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as the ground truth. The estimates, as a mean value of 100 simulated samples, represent 99.3% of the true value with a CV of approximately 1%; the relative efficiency of the two phase design was 157% when compared with a one phase aerial photographs sample.

  20. Superposition Enhanced Nested Sampling (United States)

    Martiniani, Stefano; Stevenson, Jacob D.; Wales, David J.; Frenkel, Daan


    The theoretical analysis of many problems in physics, astronomy, and applied mathematics requires an efficient numerical exploration of multimodal parameter spaces that exhibit broken ergodicity. Monte Carlo methods are widely used to deal with these classes of problems, but such simulations suffer from a ubiquitous sampling problem: The probability of sampling a particular state is proportional to its entropic weight. Devising an algorithm capable of sampling efficiently the full phase space is a long-standing problem. Here, we report a new hybrid method for the exploration of multimodal parameter spaces exhibiting broken ergodicity. Superposition enhanced nested sampling combines the strengths of global optimization with the unbiased or athermal sampling of nested sampling, greatly enhancing its efficiency with no additional parameters. We report extensive tests of this new approach for atomic clusters that are known to have energy landscapes for which conventional sampling schemes suffer from broken ergodicity. We also introduce a novel parallelization algorithm for nested sampling.

  1. Superposition Enhanced Nested Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Martiniani


    Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of many problems in physics, astronomy, and applied mathematics requires an efficient numerical exploration of multimodal parameter spaces that exhibit broken ergodicity. Monte Carlo methods are widely used to deal with these classes of problems, but such simulations suffer from a ubiquitous sampling problem: The probability of sampling a particular state is proportional to its entropic weight. Devising an algorithm capable of sampling efficiently the full phase space is a long-standing problem. Here, we report a new hybrid method for the exploration of multimodal parameter spaces exhibiting broken ergodicity. Superposition enhanced nested sampling combines the strengths of global optimization with the unbiased or athermal sampling of nested sampling, greatly enhancing its efficiency with no additional parameters. We report extensive tests of this new approach for atomic clusters that are known to have energy landscapes for which conventional sampling schemes suffer from broken ergodicity. We also introduce a novel parallelization algorithm for nested sampling.

  2. A single-blood-sample method using inulin for estimating feline glomerular filtration rate. (United States)

    Katayama, M; Saito, J; Katayama, R; Yamagishi, N; Murayama, I; Miyano, A; Furuhama, K


    Application of a multisample method using inulin to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in cats is cumbersome. To establish a simplified procedure to estimate GFR in cats, a single-blood-sample method using inulin was compared with a conventional 3-sample method. Nine cats including 6 clinically healthy cats and 3 cats with spontaneous chronic kidney disease. Retrospective study. Inulin was administered as an intravenous bolus at 50 mg/kg to cats, and blood was collected at 60, 90, and 120 minutes later for the 3-sample method. Serum inulin concentrations were colorimetrically determined by an autoanalyzer method. The GFR in the single-blood-sample method was calculated from the dose injected, serum concentration, sampling time, and estimated volume of distribution on the basis of the data of the 3-sample method. An excellent correlation was observed (r = 0.99, P = .0001) between GFR values estimated by the single-blood-sample and 3-sample methods. The single-blood-sample method using inulin provides a practicable and ethical alternative for estimating glomerular filtration rate in cats. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Evaluation of sampling methods for the detection of Salmonella in broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Marianne N.; Carstensen, B.; Tornoe, N.


    The present study compares four different sampling methods potentially applicable to detection of Salmonella in broiler flocks, based on collection of faecal samples (i) by hand, 300 fresh faecal samples (ii) absorbed on five sheets of paper (iii) absorbed on five pairs of socks (elastic cotton...... horizontal or vertical) were found in the investigation. The results showed that the sock method (five pairs of socks) had a sensitivity comparable with the hand collection method (60 pools of five faecal samples); the paper collection method was inferior, as was the use of only one pair of socks, Estimation...

  4. Detection and monitoring of invasive exotic plants: a comparison of four sampling methods (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner


    The ability to detect and monitor exotic invasive plants is likely to vary depending on the sampling method employed. Methods with strong qualitative thoroughness for species detection often lack the intensity necessary to monitor vegetation change. Four sampling methods (systematic plot, stratified-random plot, modified Whittaker, and timed meander) in hemlock and red...

  5. A Novel Method of Failure Sample Selection for Electrical Systems Using Ant Colony Optimization. (United States)

    Xiong, Jian; Tian, Shulin; Yang, Chenglin; Liu, Cheng


    The influence of failure propagation is ignored in failure sample selection based on traditional testability demonstration experiment method. Traditional failure sample selection generally causes the omission of some failures during the selection and this phenomenon could lead to some fearful risks of usage because these failures will lead to serious propagation failures. This paper proposes a new failure sample selection method to solve the problem. First, the method uses a directed graph and ant colony optimization (ACO) to obtain a subsequent failure propagation set (SFPS) based on failure propagation model and then we propose a new failure sample selection method on the basis of the number of SFPS. Compared with traditional sampling plan, this method is able to improve the coverage of testing failure samples, increase the capacity of diagnosis, and decrease the risk of using.

  6. Reliability of different methods used for forming of working samples in the laboratory for seed testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opra Branislava


    Full Text Available The testing of seed quality starts from the moment a sample is formed in a warehouse during processing or packaging of the seed. The seed sampling as the process of obtaining the working sample also assumes each step undertaken during its testing in the laboratory. With the aim of appropriate forming of a seed sample in the laboratory, the usage of seed divider is prescribed for large seeded species (such as seed the size of wheat or larger (ISTA Rules, 1999. The aim of this paper was the comparison of different methods used for obtaining the working samples of maize and wheat seeds using conical, soil and centrifugal dividers. The number of seed of added admixtures confirmed the reliability of working samples formation. To each maize sample (1000 g 10 seeds of the following admixtures were added: Zea mays L. (red pericarp, Hordeum vulgäre L., Triticum aestivum L., and Glycine max (L. Merr. Two methods were used for formation of maze seed working sample. To wheat samples (1000 g 10 seeds of each of the following species were added: Avena saliva (hulled seeds, Hordeum vulgäre L., Galium tricorne Stokes, and Polygonum lapatifolmm L. For formation of wheat seed working samples four methods were used. Optimum of 9, but not less than 7 seeds of admixture were due to be determined in the maize seed working sample, while for wheat, at least one seed of admixture was expected to be found in the working sample. The obtained results confirmed that the formation of the maize seed working samples was the most reliable when centrifugal divider, the first method was used (average of admixture - 9.37. From the observed admixtures the seed of Triticum aestivum L. was the most uniformly distributed, the first method also being used (6.93. The second method gains high average values satisfying the given criterion, but it should be used with previous homogenization of the sample being tested. The forming of wheat seed working samples is the most reliable if the

  7. Comparison of preprocessing methods and storage times for touch DNA samples. (United States)

    Dong, Hui; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Tao; Ge, Jian-Ye; Dong, Ying-Qiang; Sun, Qi-Fan; Liu, Chao; Li, Cai-Xia


    To select appropriate preprocessing methods for different substrates by comparing the effects of four different preprocessing methods on touch DNA samples and to determine the effect of various storage times on the results of touch DNA sample analysis. Hand touch DNA samples were used to investigate the detection and inspection results of DNA on different substrates. Four preprocessing methods, including the direct cutting method, stubbing procedure, double swab technique, and vacuum cleaner method, were used in this study. DNA was extracted from mock samples with four different preprocessing methods. The best preprocess protocol determined from the study was further used to compare performance after various storage times. DNA extracted from all samples was quantified and amplified using standard procedures. The amounts of DNA and the number of alleles detected on the porous substrates were greater than those on the non-porous substrates. The performances of the four preprocessing methods varied with different substrates. The direct cutting method displayed advantages for porous substrates, and the vacuum cleaner method was advantageous for non-porous substrates. No significant degradation trend was observed as the storage times increased. Different substrates require the use of different preprocessing method in order to obtain the highest DNA amount and allele number from touch DNA samples. This study provides a theoretical basis for explorations of touch DNA samples and may be used as a reference when dealing with touch DNA samples in case work.

  8. Quantifying Uncertainties from Presence Data Sampling Methods for Species Distribution Modeling: Focused on Vegetation. (United States)

    Sung, S.; Kim, H. G.; Lee, D. K.; Park, J. H.; Mo, Y.; Kil, S.; Park, C.


    The impact of climate change has been observed throughout the globe. The ecosystem experiences rapid changes such as vegetation shift, species extinction. In these context, Species Distribution Model (SDM) is one of the popular method to project impact of climate change on the ecosystem. SDM basically based on the niche of certain species with means to run SDM present point data is essential to find biological niche of species. To run SDM for plants, there are certain considerations on the characteristics of vegetation. Normally, to make vegetation data in large area, remote sensing techniques are used. In other words, the exact point of presence data has high uncertainties as we select presence data set from polygons and raster dataset. Thus, sampling methods for modeling vegetation presence data should be carefully selected. In this study, we used three different sampling methods for selection of presence data of vegetation: Random sampling, Stratified sampling and Site index based sampling. We used one of the R package BIOMOD2 to access uncertainty from modeling. At the same time, we included BioCLIM variables and other environmental variables as input data. As a result of this study, despite of differences among the 10 SDMs, the sampling methods showed differences in ROC values, random sampling methods showed the lowest ROC value while site index based sampling methods showed the highest ROC value. As a result of this study the uncertainties from presence data sampling methods and SDM can be quantified.

  9. Method matters: Experimental evidence for shorter avian sperm in faecal compared to abdominal massage samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Girndt

    Full Text Available Birds are model organisms in sperm biology. Previous work in zebra finches, suggested that sperm sampled from males' faeces and ejaculates do not differ in size. Here, we tested this assumption in a captive population of house sparrows, Passer domesticus. We compared sperm length in samples from three collection techniques: female dummy, faecal and abdominal massage samples. We found that sperm were significantly shorter in faecal than abdominal massage samples, which was explained by shorter heads and midpieces, but not flagella. This result might indicate that faecal sampled sperm could be less mature than sperm collected by abdominal massage. The female dummy method resulted in an insufficient number of experimental ejaculates because most males ignored it. In light of these results, we recommend using abdominal massage as a preferred method for avian sperm sampling. Where avian sperm cannot be collected by abdominal massage alone, we advise controlling for sperm sampling protocol statistically.

  10. A Method for Microalgae Proteomics Analysis Based on Modified Filter-Aided Sample Preparation. (United States)

    Li, Song; Cao, Xupeng; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Zhen; Zhang, Haowei; Xue, Song; Tian, Jing


    With the fast development of microalgal biofuel researches, the proteomics studies of microalgae increased quickly. A filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) method is widely used proteomics sample preparation method since 2009. Here, a method of microalgae proteomics analysis based on modified filter-aided sample preparation (mFASP) was described to meet the characteristics of microalgae cells and eliminate the error caused by over-alkylation. Using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as the model, the prepared sample was tested by standard LC-MS/MS and compared with the previous reports. The results showed mFASP is suitable for most of occasions of microalgae proteomics studies.

  11. Comparability among four invertebrate sampling methods, Fountain Creek Basin, Colorado, 2010-2012 (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Stogner, Sr., Robert W.; Brown, Krystal D.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering and Colorado Springs Utilities, designed a study to determine if sampling method and sample timing resulted in comparable samples and assessments of biological condition. To accomplish this task, annual invertebrate samples were collected concurrently using four sampling methods at 15 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gages in the Fountain Creek basin from 2010 to 2012. Collectively, the four methods are used by local (U.S. Geological Survey cooperative monitoring program) and State monitoring programs (Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment) in the Fountain Creek basin to produce two distinct sample types for each program that target single-and multiple-habitats. This study found distinguishable differences between single-and multi-habitat sample types using both community similarities and multi-metric index values, while methods from each program within sample type were comparable. This indicates that the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment methods were compatible with the cooperative monitoring program methods within multi-and single-habitat sample types. Comparisons between September and October samples found distinguishable differences based on community similarities for both sample types, whereas only differences were found for single-habitat samples when multi-metric index values were considered. At one site, differences between September and October index values from single-habitat samples resulted in opposing assessments of biological condition. Direct application of the results to inform the revision of the existing Fountain Creek basin U.S. Geological Survey cooperative monitoring program are discussed.

  12. Sample Proficiency Test exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, A; Gregg, H; Koester, C


    The current format of the OPCW proficiency tests has multiple sets of 2 samples sent to an analysis laboratory. In each sample set, one is identified as a sample, the other as a blank. This method of conducting proficiency tests differs from how an OPCW designated laboratory would receive authentic samples (a set of three containers, each not identified, consisting of the authentic sample, a control sample, and a blank sample). This exercise was designed to test the reporting if the proficiency tests were to be conducted. As such, this is not an official OPCW proficiency test, and the attached report is one method by which LLNL might report their analyses under a more realistic testing scheme. Therefore, the title on the report ''Report of the Umpteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test'' is meaningless, and provides a bit of whimsy for the analyses and readers of the report.

  13. Spin column extraction as a new sample preparation method in bioanalysis. (United States)

    Namera, Akira; Saito, Takashi


    Sample preparation is important in obtaining accurate data for qualification and quantification in bioanalysis. We have recently focused on monolithic silica for high-throughput analysis. These extraction processes - using monolithic silica packed in spin column - such as sample loading, washing and elution, are executed by centrifugation. There are several possibilities such as on-column derivatization for the determination of amines or carboxylic acids in the sample. The spin column extraction reduces the sample preparation time required for determination of drugs and other chemicals in biological materials and increases productivity in bioanalysis. We expect spin column extraction to become the mainstream method of sample processing in the future.

  14. Methods of sampling airborne fungi in working environments of waste treatment facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Černá


    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency of a filter based sampling method and a high volume sampling method for sampling airborne culturable fungi present in waste sorting facilities. Material and Methods: Membrane filters method was compared with surface air system method. The selected sampling methods were modified and tested in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities. Results: The total number of colony-forming units (CFU/m3 of airborne fungi was dependent on the type of sampling device, on the time of sampling, which was carried out every hour from the beginning of the work shift, and on the type of cultivation medium (p < 0.001. Detected concentrations of airborne fungi ranged 2×102–1.7×106 CFU/m3 when using the membrane filters (MF method, and 3×102–6.4×104 CFU/m3 when using the surface air system (SAS method. Conclusions: Both methods showed comparable sensitivity to the fluctuations of the concentrations of airborne fungi during the work shifts. The SAS method is adequate for a fast indicative determination of concentration of airborne fungi. The MF method is suitable for thorough assessment of working environment contamination by airborne fungi. Therefore we recommend the MF method for the implementation of a uniform standard methodology of airborne fungi sampling in working environments of waste treatment facilities.

  15. Continuous sample drop flow-based microextraction method as a microextraction technique for determination of organic compounds in water sample. (United States)

    Moinfar, Soleyman; Khayatian, Gholamreza; Milani-Hosseini, Mohammad-Reza


    Continuous sample drop flow-based microextraction (CSDF-ME) is an improved version of continuous-flow microextraction (CFME) and a novel technique developed for extraction and preconcentration of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, m-xylene and o-xylene (BTEXs) from aqueous samples prior to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). In this technique, a small amount (a few microliters) of organic solvent is transferred to the bottom of a conical bottom test tube and a few mL of aqueous solution is moved through the organic solvent at relatively slow flow rate. The aqueous solution transforms into fine droplets while passing through the organic solvent. After extraction, the enriched analyte in the extraction solvent is determined by GC-FID. The type of extraction solvent, its volume, needle diameter, and aqueous sample flow rate were investigated. The enrichment factor was 221-269 under optimum conditions and the recovery was 89-102%. The linear ranges and limits of detection for BTEXs were 2-500 and 1.4-3.1 µg L(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations for 10 µg L(-1) of BTEXs in water were 1.8-6.2% (n=5). The advantages of CSDF-ME are its low cost, relatively short sample preparation time, low solvent consumption, high recovery, and high enrichment factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Preparation of sub-standard samples and XRF analytical method of powder non-metallic minerals]. (United States)

    Kong, Qin; Chen, Lei; Wang, Ling


    In order to solve the problem that standard samples of non-metallic minerals are not satisfactory in practical work by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) analysis with pressed powder pellet, a method was studied how to make sub-standard samples according to standard samples of non-metallic minerals and to determine how they can adapt to analysis of mineral powder samples, taking the K-feldspar ore in Ebian-Wudu, Sichuan as an example. Based on the characteristic analysis of K-feldspar ore and the standard samples by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and chemical methods, combined with the principle of the same or similar between the sub-standard samples and unknown samples, the experiment developed the method of preparation of sub-standard samples: both of the two samples above mentioned should have the same kind of minerals and the similar chemical components, adapt mineral processing, and benefit making working curve. Under the optimum experimental conditions, a method for determination of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, MgO, K2O and Na2O of K-feldspar ore by XRF was established. Thedetermination results are in good agreement with classical chemical methods, which indicates that this method was accurate.

  17. Method and device for detecting a similarity in the shape of sampled signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.J.R.


    Method for detecting a similarity in shape between a first and a second sampled signal fragment. The method comprises the steps of: formation of a first fragment function from the first sampled signal fragment by means of inverse interpolation, definition of a domain interval, for example the time

  18. The mouthwash : A non-invasive sampling method to study cytokine gene polymorphisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, ML; Farre, MA; Crusius, JBA; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Pena, AS

    Background: We describe a simple, non-invasive mouthwash sampling method for rapid DNA isolation to detect cytokine gene polymorphisms. In the present paper, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1B) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) gene polymorphisms were studied. Methods: Two mouthwash samples and

  19. Sampling Methods and the Accredited Population in Athletic Training Education Research (United States)

    Carr, W. David; Volberding, Jennifer


    Context: We describe methods of sampling the widely-studied, yet poorly defined, population of accredited athletic training education programs (ATEPs). Objective: There are two purposes to this study; first to describe the incidence and types of sampling methods used in athletic training education research, and second to clearly define the…

  20. A simple method for determination of natural and depleted uranium in surface soil samples. (United States)

    Vukanac, I; Novković, D; Kandić, A; Djurasević, M; Milosević, Z


    A simple and efficient method for determination of uranium content in surface soil samples contaminated with depleted uranium, by gamma ray spectrometry is presented. The content of natural uranium and depleted uranium, as well as the activity ratio (235)U/(238)U of depleted uranium, were determined in contaminated surface soil samples by application of this method. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Large loop conformation sampling using the activation relaxation technique, ART-nouveau method. (United States)

    St-Pierre, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand


    We present an adaptation of the ART-nouveau energy surface sampling method to the problem of loop structure prediction. This method, previously used to study protein folding pathways and peptide aggregation, is well suited to the problem of sampling the conformation space of large loops by targeting probable folding pathways instead of sampling exhaustively that space. The number of sampled conformations needed by ART nouveau to find the global energy minimum for a loop was found to scale linearly with the sequence length of the loop for loops between 8 and about 20 amino acids. Considering the linear scaling dependence of the computation cost on the loop sequence length for sampling new conformations, we estimate the total computational cost of sampling larger loops to scale quadratically compared to the exponential scaling of exhaustive search methods. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Electrodeposition as an alternate method for preparation of environmental samples for iodide by AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamic, M.L., E-mail: [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Lister, T.E.; Dufek, E.J.; Jenson, D.D.; Olson, J.E. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Vockenhuber, C. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Watrous, M.G. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)


    This paper presents an evaluation of an alternate method for preparing environmental samples for {sup 129}I analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at Idaho National Laboratory. The optimal sample preparation method is characterized by ease of preparation, capability of processing very small quantities of iodide, and ease of loading into a cathode. Electrodeposition of iodide on a silver wire was evaluated using these criteria. This study indicates that the electrochemically-formed silver iodide deposits produce ion currents similar to those from precipitated silver iodide for the same sample mass. Precipitated silver iodide samples are usually mixed with niobium or silver powder prior to loading in a cathode. Using electrodeposition, the silver is already mixed with the sample and can simply be picked up with tweezers, placed in the sample die, and pressed into a cathode. The major advantage of this method is that the silver wire/electrodeposited silver iodide is much easier to load into a cathode.

  3. Method validation and uncertainty evaluation of organically bound tritium analysis in environmental sample. (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Jun; Zeng, Fan; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Chao-Feng; Qin, Hong-Juan; Wu, Lian-Sheng; Guo, Gui-Yin; Yang, Li-Tao; Shang-Guan, Zhi-Hong


    The analytical method for organically bound tritium (OBT) was developed in our laboratory. The optimized operating conditions and parameters were established for sample drying, special combustion, distillation, and measurement on a liquid scintillation spectrometer (LSC). Selected types of OBT samples such as rice, corn, rapeseed, fresh lettuce and pork were analyzed for method validation of recovery rate reproducibility, the minimum detection concentration, and the uncertainty for typical low level environmental sample was evaluated. The combustion water recovery rate of different dried environmental sample was kept at about 80%, the minimum detection concentration of OBT ranged from 0.61 to 0.89 Bq/kg (dry weight), depending on the hydrogen content. It showed that this method is suitable for OBT analysis of environmental sample with stable recovery rate, and the combustion water yield of a sample with weight about 40 g would provide sufficient quantity for measurement on LSC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Serum chromium levels sampled with steel needle versus plastic IV cannula. Does method matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Overgaard, Søren


    PURPOSE: Modern metal-on-metal (MoM) joint articulations releases metal ions to the body. Research tries to establish how much this elevates metal ion levels and whether it causes adverse effects. The steel needle that samples the blood may introduce additional chromium to the sample thereby...... causing bias. This study aimed to test that theory. METHODS: We compared serum chromium values for two sampling methods, steel needle and IV plastic cannula, as well as sampling sequence in 16 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: We found statistically significant chromium contamination from the steel needle...... significant. CONCLUSION: The chromium contamination from the steel needle is low, and sampling method matters little in MoM populations. If using steel needles we suggest discarding the first sample....

  5. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup


    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column and dimini......When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column...... and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila....

  6. Methods of sampling airborne fungi in working environments of waste treatment facilities. (United States)

    Černá, Kristýna; Wittlingerová, Zdeňka; Zimová, Magdaléna; Janovský, Zdeněk


    The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency of a filter based sampling method and a high volume sampling method for sampling airborne culturable fungi present in waste sorting facilities. Membrane filters method was compared with surface air system method. The selected sampling methods were modified and tested in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities. The total number of colony-forming units (CFU)/m3 of airborne fungi was dependent on the type of sampling device, on the time of sampling, which was carried out every hour from the beginning of the work shift, and on the type of cultivation medium (p fungi ranged 2×102-1.7×106 CFU/m3 when using the membrane filters (MF) method, and 3×102-6.4×104 CFU/m3 when using the surface air system (SAS) method. Both methods showed comparable sensitivity to the fluctuations of the concentrations of airborne fungi during the work shifts. The SAS method is adequate for a fast indicative determination of concentration of airborne fungi. The MF method is suitable for thorough assessment of working environment contamination by airborne fungi. Therefore we recommend the MF method for the implementation of a uniform standard methodology of airborne fungi sampling in working environments of waste treatment facilities. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  7. Assessing impacts of DNA extraction methods on next generation sequencing of water and wastewater samples. (United States)

    Walden, Connie; Carbonero, Franck; Zhang, Wen


    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is increasingly affordable and easier to perform. However, standard protocols prior to the sequencing step are only available for few selected sample types. Here we investigated the impact of DNA extraction methods on the consistency of NGS results. Four commercial DNA extraction kits (QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit, MO BIO Power Water Kit, and MO BIO Power Soil DNA Isolation Kit) were used on sample sources including lake water and wastewater, and sample types including planktonic and biofilm bacteria communities. Sampling locations included a lake water reservoir, a trickling filter, and a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). Unique genera such as Gemmatimonadetes, Elusimicrobia, and Latescibacteria were found in multiple samples. The Stool Mini Kit was least efficient in terms of diversity in sampling results with freshwater lake samples, and surprisingly the Power Water Kit was the least efficient across all sample types examined. Detailed NGS beta diversity comparisons indicated that the Mini Kit and PowerSoil Kit are best suited for studies that extract DNA from a variety of water and wastewater samples. We ultimately recommend application of Mini Kit or PowerSoil Kit as an improvement to NGS protocols for these sampling environments. These results are a step toward achieving accurate comparability of complex samples from water and wastewater environments by applying a single DNA extraction method, further streamlining future investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of chlorzoxazone one-sample methods to estimate CYP2E1 activity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Iza; Dalhoff, Kim; Clemmesen, Jens O


    OBJECTIVE: Comparison of a one-sample with a multi-sample method (the metabolic fractional clearance) to estimate CYP2E1 activity in humans. METHODS: Healthy, male Caucasians ( n=19) were included. The multi-sample fractional clearance (Cl(fe)) of chlorzoxazone was compared with one-time-point cl......OBJECTIVE: Comparison of a one-sample with a multi-sample method (the metabolic fractional clearance) to estimate CYP2E1 activity in humans. METHODS: Healthy, male Caucasians ( n=19) were included. The multi-sample fractional clearance (Cl(fe)) of chlorzoxazone was compared with one......-time-point clearance estimation (Cl(est)) at 3, 4, 5 and 6 h. Furthermore, the metabolite/drug ratios (MRs) estimated from one-time-point samples at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h were compared with Cl(fe). RESULTS: The concordance between Cl(est) and Cl(fe) was highest at 6 h. The minimal mean prediction error (MPE) of Cl......-dose-sample estimates, Cl(est) at 3 h or 6 h, and MR at 3 h, can serve as reliable markers of CYP2E1 activity. The one-sample clearance method is an accurate, renal function-independent measure of the intrinsic activity; it is simple to use and easily applicable to humans....

  9. Comparison of granulometric methods and sampling strategies used in marine habitat classification and Ecological Status assessment. (United States)

    Forde, James; Collins, Patrick Colman; Patterson, Adrian; Kennedy, Robert


    Sediment particle size analysis (PSA) is routinely used to support benthic macrofaunal community distribution data in habitat mapping and Ecological Status (ES) assessment. No optimal PSA Method to explain variability in multivariate macrofaunal distribution has been identified nor have the effects of changing sampling strategy been examined. Here, we use benthic macrofaunal and PSA grabs from two embayments in the south of Ireland. Four frequently used PSA Methods and two common sampling strategies are applied. A combination of laser particle sizing and wet/dry sieving without peroxide pre-treatment to remove organics was identified as the optimal Method for explaining macrofaunal distributions. ES classifications and EUNIS sediment classification were robust to changes in PSA Method. Fauna and PSA samples returned from the same grab sample significantly decreased macrofaunal variance explained by PSA and caused ES to be classified as lower. Employing the optimal PSA Method and sampling strategy will improve benthic monitoring. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular cancer classification using a meta-sample-based regularized robust coding method. (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Lin; Sun, Liuchao; Fang, Jianwen


    Previous studies have demonstrated that machine learning based molecular cancer classification using gene expression profiling (GEP) data is promising for the clinic diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Novel classification methods with high efficiency and prediction accuracy are still needed to deal with high dimensionality and small sample size of typical GEP data. Recently the sparse representation (SR) method has been successfully applied to the cancer classification. Nevertheless, its efficiency needs to be improved when analyzing large-scale GEP data. In this paper we present the meta-sample-based regularized robust coding classification (MRRCC), a novel effective cancer classification technique that combines the idea of meta-sample-based cluster method with regularized robust coding (RRC) method. It assumes that the coding residual and the coding coefficient are respectively independent and identically distributed. Similar to meta-sample-based SR classification (MSRC), MRRCC extracts a set of meta-samples from the training samples, and then encodes a testing sample as the sparse linear combination of these meta-samples. The representation fidelity is measured by the l2-norm or l1-norm of the coding residual. Extensive experiments on publicly available GEP datasets demonstrate that the proposed method is more efficient while its prediction accuracy is equivalent to existing MSRC-based methods and better than other state-of-the-art dimension reduction based methods.

  11. Estimation method for mathematical expectation of continuous variable upon ordered sample


    Domchenkov, O. A.


    Method for estimation of mathematical expectation of a continuous variable based on analysis of the ordered sample is proposed. The method admits the estimation class propagation on nonlinear estimation classes.

  12. Probabilistic finite element stiffness of a laterally loaded monopile based on an improved asymptotic sampling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahdatirad, Mohammadjavad; Bayat, Mehdi; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard


    The mechanical responses of an offshore monopile foundation mounted in over-consolidated clay are calculated by employing a stochastic approach where a nonlinear p–y curve is incorporated with a finite element scheme. The random field theory is applied to represent a spatial variation for undrained...... shear strength of clay. Normal and Sobol sampling are employed to provide the asymptotic sampling method to generate the probability distribution of the foundation stiffnesses. Monte Carlo simulation is used as a benchmark. Asymptotic sampling accompanied with Sobol quasi random sampling demonstrates...... an efficient method for estimating the probability distribution of stiffnesses for the offshore monopile foundation....

  13. Comparison of individual and pooled sampling methods for detecting bacterial pathogens of fish (United States)

    Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Evered, J.; Brunson, Ray; Levine, J.; Winton, J.


    Examination of finfish populations for viral and bacterial pathogens is an important component of fish disease control programs worldwide. Two methods are commonly used for collecting tissue samples for bacteriological culture, the currently accepted standards for detection of bacterial fish pathogens. The method specified in the Office International des Epizooties Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals permits combining renal and splenic tissues from as many as 5 fish into pooled samples. The American Fisheries Society (AFS) Blue Book/US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Inspection Manual specifies the use of a bacteriological loop for collecting samples from the kidney of individual fish. An alternative would be to more fully utilize the pooled samples taken for virology. If implemented, this approach would provide substantial savings in labor and materials. To compare the relative performance of the AFS/USFWS method and this alternative approach, cultures of Yersinia ruckeri were used to establish low-level infections in groups of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that were sampled by both methods. Yersinia ruckeri was cultured from 22 of 37 groups by at least 1 method. The loop method yielded 18 positive groups, with 1 group positive in the loop samples but negative in the pooled samples. The pooled samples produced 21 positive groups, with 4 groups positive in the pooled samples but negative in the loop samples. There was statistically significant agreement (Spearman coefficient 0.80, P < 0.001) in the relative ability of the 2 sampling methods to permit detection of low-level bacterial infections of rainbow trout.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention relates to a method for preparing a substrate (105a) comprising a sample reception area (110) and a sensing area (111). The method comprises the steps of: 1) applying a sample on the sample reception area; 2) rotating the substrate around a predetermined axis; 3) during rotation......, at least part of the liquid travels from the sample reception area to the sensing area due to capillary forces acting between the liquid and the substrate; and 4) removing the wave of particles and liquid formed at one end of the substrate. The sensing area is closer to the predetermined axis than...... the sample reception area. The sample comprises a liquid part and particles suspended therein....

  15. A standardized method for sampling and extraction methods for quantifying microplastics in beach sand. (United States)

    Besley, Aiken; Vijver, Martina G; Behrens, Paul; Bosker, Thijs


    Microplastics are ubiquitous in the environment, are frequently ingested by organisms, and may potentially cause harm. A range of studies have found significant levels of microplastics in beach sand. However, there is a considerable amount of methodological variability among these studies. Methodological variation currently limits comparisons as there is no standard procedure for sampling or extraction of microplastics. We identify key sampling and extraction procedures across the literature through a detailed review. We find that sampling depth, sampling location, number of repeat extractions, and settling times are the critical parameters of variation. Next, using a case-study we determine whether and to what extent these differences impact study outcomes. By investigating the common practices identified in the literature with the case-study, we provide a standard operating procedure for sampling and extracting microplastics from beach sand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Universal nucleic acids sample preparation method for cells, spores and their mixture (United States)

    Bavykin, Sergei [Darien, IL


    The present invention relates to a method for extracting nucleic acids from biological samples. More specifically the invention relates to a universal method for extracting nucleic acids from unidentified biological samples. An advantage of the presently invented method is its ability to effectively and efficiently extract nucleic acids from a variety of different cell types including but not limited to prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells and/or recalcitrant organisms (i.e. spores). Unlike prior art methods which are focused on extracting nucleic acids from vegetative cell or spores, the present invention effectively extracts nucleic acids from spores, multiple cell types or mixtures thereof using a single method. Important that the invented method has demonstrated an ability to extract nucleic acids from spores and vegetative bacterial cells with similar levels effectiveness. The invented method employs a multi-step protocol which erodes the cell structure of the biological sample, isolates, labels, fragments nucleic acids and purifies labeled samples from the excess of dye.

  17. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Empirical Testing. Volume 2 (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K. Preston, Jr.


    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. In this paper, the results of empirical tests intended to assess the accuracy of acceptance sampling plan calculators implemented for six variable distributions are presented.

  18. Systematic sampling with errors in sample locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegel, Johanna; Baddeley, Adrian; Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton


    Systematic sampling of points in continuous space is widely used in microscopy and spatial surveys. Classical theory provides asymptotic expressions for the variance of estimators based on systematic sampling as the grid spacing decreases. However, the classical theory assumes that the sample grid...... is exactly periodic; real physical sampling procedures may introduce errors in the placement of the sample points. This paper studies the effect of errors in sample positioning on the variance of estimators in the case of one-dimensional systematic sampling. First we sketch a general approach to variance...

  19. A new enrichment method for isolation of Bacillus thuringiensis from diverse sample types. (United States)

    Patel, Ketan D; Bhanshali, Forum C; Chaudhary, Avani V; Ingle, Sanjay S


    New or more efficient methodologies having different principles are needed, as one method could not be suitable for isolation of organisms from samples of diverse types and from various environments. In present investigation, growth kinetics study revealed a higher germination rate, a higher growth rate, and maximum sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) compared to other Bacillus species. Considering these facts, a simple and efficient enrichment method was devised which allowed propagation of spores and vegetative cells of Bt and thereby increased Bt cell population proportionately. The new enrichment method yielded Bt from 44 out of 58 samples. Contrarily, Bt was isolated only from 16 and 18 samples by sodium acetate selection and dry heat pretreatment methods, respectively. Moreover, the percentages of Bt colonies isolated by the enrichment method were higher comparatively. Vegetative whole cell protein profile analysis indicated isolation of diverse population of Bt from various samples. Bt strains isolated by the enrichment method represented novel serovars and possibly new cry2 gene.

  20. Sample collection method and sequential sampling plan for mites Oligonychus ununquis and Aphids cinaria laricifex on tamarack. Technical note No. 278

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Spider mite and aphid infestations are a recurrent problem in a number of seed orchards in New Brunswick. A study was carried out to develop suitable sampling methods for routine assessment of black larch aphid (Cinaria laricifex) and spruce spider mite (Oligonychus ununquis) populations on tamarack and black spruce. Tamarack was chosen because population levels of black larch aphid and spruce spider mite have been traditionally high. Sample collection procedures, sample processing/counting, sequential sampling, and use of the sequential sampling plan are discussed.

  1. New approaches to wipe sampling methods for antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in healthcare settings (United States)

    Connor, Thomas H.; Smith, Jerome P.


    Purpose At the present time, the method of choice to determine surface contamination of the workplace with antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs is surface wipe sampling and subsequent sample analysis with a variety of analytical techniques. The purpose of this article is to review current methodology for determining the level of surface contamination with hazardous drugs in healthcare settings and to discuss recent advances in this area. In addition it will provide some guidance for conducting surface wipe sampling and sample analysis for these drugs in healthcare settings. Methods Published studies on the use of wipe sampling to measure hazardous drugs on surfaces in healthcare settings drugs were reviewed. These studies include the use of well-documented chromatographic techniques for sample analysis in addition to newly evolving technology that provides rapid analysis of specific antineoplastic Results Methodology for the analysis of surface wipe samples for hazardous drugs are reviewed, including the purposes, technical factors, sampling strategy, materials required, and limitations. The use of lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) and fluorescence covalent microbead immunosorbent assay (FCMIA) for surface wipe sample evaluation is also discussed. Conclusions Current recommendations are that all healthcare settings where antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs are handled include surface wipe sampling as part of a comprehensive hazardous drug-safe handling program. Surface wipe sampling may be used as a method to characterize potential occupational dermal exposure risk and to evaluate the effectiveness of implemented controls and the overall safety program. New technology, although currently limited in scope, may make wipe sampling for hazardous drugs more routine, less costly, and provide a shorter response time than classical analytical techniques now in use. PMID:28459100

  2. Kinetic studies in solid state reactions by sample-controlled methods and advanced analysis procedures


    Pérez-Maqueda, Luis A.; Criado, J. M.; Sánchez-Jiménez, P.E.; Perejón, Antonio


    A comparative study of both conventional rising temperature and sample-controlled methods, like constant rate thermal analysis (CRTA), is carried out after analyzing a set of solid state reactions using both methods. It is shown that CRTA avoids the influence of heat and mass transfer phenomena for a wide range of sample sizes leading to reliable kinetic parameters. On the other hand, conventional rising temperature methods yield α–T plots dependent on experimental conditions, even when using...

  3. Comparing two sampling methods to engage hard-to-reach communities in research priority setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Valerio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective community-partnered and patient-centered outcomes research needs to address community priorities. However, optimal sampling methods to engage stakeholders from hard-to-reach, vulnerable communities to generate research priorities have not been identified. Methods In two similar rural, largely Hispanic communities, a community advisory board guided recruitment of stakeholders affected by chronic pain using a different method in each community: 1 snowball sampling, a chain- referral method or 2 purposive sampling to recruit diverse stakeholders. In both communities, three groups of stakeholders attended a series of three facilitated meetings to orient, brainstorm, and prioritize ideas (9 meetings/community. Using mixed methods analysis, we compared stakeholder recruitment and retention as well as priorities from both communities’ stakeholders on mean ratings of their ideas based on importance and feasibility for implementation in their community. Results Of 65 eligible stakeholders in one community recruited by snowball sampling, 55 (85 % consented, 52 (95 % attended the first meeting, and 36 (65 % attended all 3 meetings. In the second community, the purposive sampling method was supplemented by convenience sampling to increase recruitment. Of 69 stakeholders recruited by this combined strategy, 62 (90 % consented, 36 (58 % attended the first meeting, and 26 (42 % attended all 3 meetings. Snowball sampling recruited more Hispanics and disabled persons (all P < 0.05. Despite differing recruitment strategies, stakeholders from the two communities identified largely similar ideas for research, focusing on non-pharmacologic interventions for management of chronic pain. Ratings on importance and feasibility for community implementation differed only on the importance of massage services (P = 0.045 which was higher for the purposive/convenience sampling group and for city improvements

  4. Using a bootstrap method to choose the sample fraction in tail index estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Daníelsson (Jón); L.F.M. de Haan (Laurens); L. Peng (Liang); C.G. de Vries (Casper)


    textabstractTail index estimation depends for its accuracy on a precise choice of the sample fraction, i.e. the number of extreme order statistics on which the estimation is based. A complete solution to the sample fraction selection is given by means of a two step subsample bootstrap method. This

  5. Method and apparatus for measuring the NMR spectrum of an orientationally disordered sample (United States)

    Pines, Alexander; Samoson, Ago


    An improved NMR probe and method are described which substantially improve the resolution of NMR measurements made on powdered or amorphous or otherwise oreintationally disordered samples. The apparatus mechanically varies the orientation of the sample such that the time average of two or more sets of spherical harmonic functions is zero.

  6. A new dissolved gas sampling method from primary water of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, L., E-mail: [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Isotoptech Co. Ltd., Debrecen (Hungary); Palcsu, L. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Veres, M. [Isotoptech Co. Ltd., Debrecen (Hungary); Pintér, T. [Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Paks (Hungary)


    Highlights: • We constructed and applied a lightweight portable dissolved gas sampling device. • A membrane contactor has been used to sample the dissolved gases from the water. • Gas compound and gamma spectrometric measurements were done from the samples. - Abstract: This article describes a novel sampling method for dissolved gases from radioactive waters. The major aim was to build a portable, lightweight sampling device in which the gas sample container is not in contact with the water itself. Therefore, a membrane contactor was used to take representative dissolved gas samples from the water of spent fuel pools. Quadrupole mass spectrometric and gamma spectrometric measurements were made from the samples to determine the gas composition and to detect any radioactive gas of fission origin. The paper describes (i) the construction of the sampler in general, (ii) the operation of the sampling unit and (iii) the measurement results of the first samples and the interpretation of the data. Both small and large fluctuations were able to be detected when the freshly spent fuel rods were put into the spent fuel pool or when the head valves of the toques of the fuel rods were replaced. In the investigated period (2013–2014), the main gas composition did not show large fluctuations, it was close to the composition of dissolved air. However, the activity concentration of {sup 85}Kr varied in a broad range (0.001–100 kBq/l).

  7. Field sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods for explosives in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B.; Craig, H.D.; Jenkins, T.F.; Sisk, W.E.


    A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling because of the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult because of the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of the samples, and extracting larger samples. This publication is intended to provide guidance to Remedial Project Managers regarding field sampling and on-site analytical methods for detecting and quantifying secondary explosive compounds in soils, and is not intended to include discussions of the safety issues associated with sites contaminated with explosive residues.

  8. System and method for liquid extraction electrospray-assisted sample transfer to solution for chemical analysis (United States)

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J.


    A system for sampling a surface includes a surface sampling probe comprising a solvent liquid supply conduit and a distal end, and a sample collector for suspending a sample collection liquid adjacent to the distal end of the probe. A first electrode provides a first voltage to solvent liquid at the distal end of the probe. The first voltage produces a field sufficient to generate electrospray plume at the distal end of the probe. A second electrode provides a second voltage and is positioned to produce a plume-directing field sufficient to direct the electrospray droplets and ions to the suspended sample collection liquid. The second voltage is less than the first voltage in absolute value. A voltage supply system supplies the voltages to the first electrode and the second electrode. The first electrode can apply the first voltage directly to the solvent liquid. A method for sampling for a surface is also disclosed.

  9. Novel joint selection methods can reduce sample size for rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials with ultrasound endpoints. (United States)

    Allen, John C; Thumboo, Julian; Lye, Weng Kit; Conaghan, Philip G; Chew, Li-Ching; Tan, York Kiat


    To determine whether novel methods of selecting joints through (i) ultrasonography (individualized-ultrasound [IUS] method), or (ii) ultrasonography and clinical examination (individualized-composite-ultrasound [ICUS] method) translate into smaller rheumatoid arthritis (RA) clinical trial sample sizes when compared to existing methods utilizing predetermined joint sites for ultrasonography. Cohen's effect size (ES) was estimated (ES^) and a 95% CI (ES^L, ES^U) calculated on a mean change in 3-month total inflammatory score for each method. Corresponding 95% CIs [nL(ES^U), nU(ES^L)] were obtained on a post hoc sample size reflecting the uncertainty in ES^. Sample size calculations were based on a one-sample t-test as the patient numbers needed to provide 80% power at α = 0.05 to reject a null hypothesis H0 : ES = 0 versus alternative hypotheses H1 : ES = ES^, ES = ES^L and ES = ES^U. We aimed to provide point and interval estimates on projected sample sizes for future studies reflecting the uncertainty in our study ES^S. Twenty-four treated RA patients were followed up for 3 months. Utilizing the 12-joint approach and existing methods, the post hoc sample size (95% CI) was 22 (10-245). Corresponding sample sizes using ICUS and IUS were 11 (7-40) and 11 (6-38), respectively. Utilizing a seven-joint approach, the corresponding sample sizes using ICUS and IUS methods were nine (6-24) and 11 (6-35), respectively. Our pilot study suggests that sample size for RA clinical trials with ultrasound endpoints may be reduced using the novel methods, providing justification for larger studies to confirm these observations. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Cytotoxicity of Light-Cured Dental Materials according to Different Sample Preparation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Jin Lee


    Full Text Available Dental light-cured resins can undergo different degrees of polymerization when applied in vivo. When polymerization is incomplete, toxic monomers may be released into the oral cavity. The present study assessed the cytotoxicity of different materials, using sample preparation methods that mirror clinical conditions. Composite and bonding resins were used and divided into four groups according to sample preparation method: uncured; directly cured samples, which were cured after being placed on solidified agar; post-cured samples were polymerized before being placed on agar; and “removed unreacted layer” samples had their oxygen-inhibition layer removed after polymerization. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using an agar diffusion test, MTT assay, and confocal microscopy. Uncured samples were the most cytotoxic, while removed unreacted layer samples were the least cytotoxic (p < 0.05. In the MTT assay, cell viability increased significantly in every group as the concentration of the extracts decreased (p < 0.05. Extracts from post-cured and removed unreacted layer samples of bonding resin were less toxic than post-cured and removed unreacted layer samples of composite resin. Removal of the oxygen-inhibition layer resulted in the lowest cytotoxicity. Clinicians should remove unreacted monomers on the resin surface immediately after restoring teeth with light-curing resin to improve the restoration biocompatibility.

  11. An Abecedary of Sampling. (United States)

    Doyle, Kenneth O., Jr.


    The vocabulary of sampling is examined in order to provide a clear understanding of basic sampling concepts. The basic vocabulary of sampling (population, probability sampling, precision and bias, stratification), the fundamental grammar of sampling (random sample), sample size and response rate, and cluster, multiphase, snowball, and panel…

  12. "How" and "what" matters: Sampling method affects biodiversity estimates of reef fishes. (United States)

    Bosch, Néstor E; Gonçalves, Jorge M S; Erzini, Karim; Tuya, Fernando


    Understanding changes in biodiversity requires the implementation of monitoring programs encompassing different dimensions of biodiversity through varying sampling techniques. In this work, fish assemblages associated with the "outer" and "inner" sides of four marinas, two at the Canary Islands and two at southern Portugal, were investigated using three complementary sampling techniques: underwater visual censuses (UVCs), baited cameras (BCs), and fish traps (FTs). We firstly investigated the complementarity of these sampling methods to describe species composition. Then, we investigated differences in taxonomic (TD), phylogenetic (PD) and functional diversity (FD) between sides of the marinas according to each sampling method. Finally, we explored the applicability/reproducibility of each sampling technique to characterize fish assemblages according to these metrics of diversity. UVCs and BCs provided complementary information, in terms of the number and abundances of species, while FTs sampled a particular assemblage. Patterns of TD, PD, and FD between sides of the marinas varied depending on the sampling method. UVC was the most cost-efficient technique, in terms of personnel hours, and it is recommended for local studies. However, for large-scale studies, BCs are recommended, as it covers greater spatio-temporal scales by a lower cost. Our study highlights the need to implement complementary sampling techniques to monitor ecological change, at various dimensions of biodiversity. The results presented here will be useful for optimizing future monitoring programs.

  13. Comparative analysis of aspartic acid racemization methods using whole-tooth and dentin samples. (United States)

    Sakuma, Ayaka; Ohtani, Susumu; Saitoh, Hisako; Iwase, Hirotaro


    One way to estimate biological age is to use the aspartic acid (Asp) racemization method. Although this method has been performed mostly using enamel and dentin, we investigated whether an entire tooth can be used for age estimation. This study used 12 pairs of canines extracted from both sides of the mandible of 12 individuals of known age. From each pair, one tooth was used as a dentin sample and the other as a whole-tooth sample. Amino acids were extracted from each sample, and the integrated peak areas of D-Asp and L-Asp were determined using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer. Statistical analysis was performed using the D/L-Asp ratio. Furthermore, teeth from two unidentified bodies, later identified as Japanese and Brazilian, were examined in the same manner. Results showed that the D/L ratios of whole-tooth samples were higher overall than those of dentin samples. The correlation coefficient between the D/L ratios of dentin samples and their age was r=0.98, and that of the whole-tooth samples was r=0.93. The difference between estimated age and actual chronological age was -0.116 and -6.86 years in the Japanese and Brazilian cases, respectively. The use of whole teeth makes the racemization technique easier and can standardize the sampling site. Additionally, using only a few tooth samples per analysis made it possible to reanalyze known-age samples. Although the difficulty in obtaining a proper control sample has prevented racemization from being widely used, the method described here not only ensures the availability of a control tooth, but also enables the teeth to be used for other purposes such as DNA analysis. The use of a whole tooth will increase the application of the racemization technique for age determination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sample preparation method for the combined extraction of ethyl glucuronide and drugs of abuse in hair. (United States)

    Meier, Ulf; Briellmann, Thomas; Scheurer, Eva; Dussy, Franz


    Often in hair analysis, a small hair sample is available while the analysis of a multitude of structurally diverse substances with different concentration ranges is demanded. The analysis of the different substances often requires different sample preparation methods, increasing the amount of required hair sample. When segmental hair analysis is necessary, the amount of hair sample needed is further increased. Therefore, the required sample amount for a full analysis can quickly exceed what is available. To combat this problem, a method for the combined hair sample preparation using a single extraction procedure for analysis of ethyl glucuronide with liquid chromatography-multistage fragmentation mass spectrometry/multiple reaction monitoring (LC-MS3 /MRM) and common drugs of abuse with LC-MRM was developed. The combined sample preparation is achieved by separating ethyl glucuronide from the drugs of abuse into separate extracts by fractionation in the solid-phase extraction step during sample clean-up. A full validation for all substances for the parameters selectivity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision, matrix effects, and recovery was successfully completed. The following drugs of abuse were included in the method: Amphetamine; methamphetamine; 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA); 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA); 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDE); morphine; 6-monoacetylmorphine; codeine; acetylcodeine; cocaine; benzoylecgonine; norcocaine; cocaethylene; methadone; 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and methylphenidate. In conclusion, as only 1 sample preparation is needed with 1 aliquot of hair, the presented sample preparation allows an optimal analysis of both ethyl glucuronide and of the drugs of abuse, even when the sample amount is a limiting factor. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A New Automated Method and Sample Data Flow for Analysis of Volatile Nitrosamines in Human Urine. (United States)

    Hodgson, James A; Seyler, Tiffany H; McGahee, Ernest; Arnstein, Stephen; Wang, Lanqing


    Volatile nitrosamines (VNAs) are a group of compounds classified as probable (group 2A) and possible (group 2B) carcinogens in humans. Along with certain foods and contaminated drinking water, VNAs are detected at high levels in tobacco products and in both mainstream and sidestream smoke. Our laboratory monitors six urinary VNAs-N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR)-using isotope dilution GC-MS/MS (QQQ) for large population studies such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In this paper, we report for the first time a new automated sample preparation method to more efficiently quantitate these VNAs. Automation is done using Hamilton STAR™ and Caliper Staccato™ workstations. This new automated method reduces sample preparation time from 4 hours to 2.5 hours while maintaining precision (inter-run CV method increases sample throughput while maintaining a low limit of detection (sample data flow was created in parallel to the automated method, in which samples can be tracked from receiving to final LIMs output with minimal human intervention, further minimizing human error in the sample preparation process. This new automated method and the sample data flow are currently applied in bio-monitoring of VNAs in the US non-institutionalized population NHANES 2013-2014 cycle.

  16. New method to estimate the sample size for calculation of a proportion assuming binomial distribution. (United States)

    Vallejo, Adriana; Muniesa, Ana; Ferreira, Chelo; de Blas, Ignacio


    Nowadays the formula to calculate the sample size for estimate a proportion (as prevalence) is based on the Normal distribution, however it would be based on a Binomial distribution which confidence interval was possible to be calculated using the Wilson Score method. By comparing the two formulae (Normal and Binomial distributions), the variation of the amplitude of the confidence intervals is relevant in the tails and the center of the curves. In order to calculate the needed sample size we have simulated an iterative sampling procedure, which shows an underestimation of the sample size for values of prevalence closed to 0 or 1, and also an overestimation for values closed to 0.5. Attending to these results we proposed an algorithm based on Wilson Score method that provides similar values for the sample size than empirically obtained by simulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Method for Operating a Sensor to Differentiate Between Analytes in a Sample (United States)

    Kunt, Tekin; Cavicchi, Richard E; Semancik, Stephen; McAvoy, Thomas J


    Disclosed is a method for operating a sensor to differentiate between first and second analytes in a sample. The method comprises the steps of determining a input profile for the sensor which will enhance the difference in the output profiles of the sensor as between the first analyte and the second analyte; determining a first analyte output profile as observed when the input profile is applied to the sensor; determining a second analyte output profile as observed when the temperature profile is applied to the sensor; introducing the sensor to the sample while applying the temperature profile to the sensor, thereby obtaining a sample output profile; and evaluating the sample output profile as against the first and second analyte output profiles to thereby determine which of the analytes is present in the sample.

  18. Trace element analysis of humus-rich natural water samples:method development for UV-LED assisted photocatalytic sample preparation and hydride generation ICP-MS analysis


    Havia, J. (Johanna)


    Abstract Humus-rich natural water samples, containing high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), are challenging for certain analytical methods used in trace element analysis, including hydride generation methods and electrochemical methods. In order to obtain reliable results, the samples must to be pretreated to release analytes from humic acid complexes prior to the determination. In this study, methods for both pretreatment and analysis steps were developed. Arsenic is ...

  19. Evaluation of Legionella Air Contamination in Healthcare Facilities by Different Sampling Methods: An Italian Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Montagna


    Full Text Available Healthcare facilities (HF represent an at-risk environment for legionellosis transmission occurring after inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In general, the control of water is preferred to that of air because, to date, there are no standardized sampling protocols. Legionella air contamination was investigated in the bathrooms of 11 HF by active sampling (Surface Air System and Coriolis®μ and passive sampling using settling plates. During the 8-hour sampling, hot tap water was sampled three times. All air samples were evaluated using culture-based methods, whereas liquid samples collected using the Coriolis®μ were also analyzed by real-time PCR. Legionella presence in the air and water was then compared by sequence-based typing (SBT methods. Air contamination was found in four HF (36.4% by at least one of the culturable methods. The culturable investigation by Coriolis®μ did not yield Legionella in any enrolled HF. However, molecular investigation using Coriolis®μ resulted in eight HF testing positive for Legionella in the air. Comparison of Legionella air and water contamination indicated that Legionella water concentration could be predictive of its presence in the air. Furthermore, a molecular study of 12 L. pneumophila strains confirmed a match between the Legionella strains from air and water samples by SBT for three out of four HF that tested positive for Legionella by at least one of the culturable methods. Overall, our study shows that Legionella air detection cannot replace water sampling because the absence of microorganisms from the air does not necessarily represent their absence from water; nevertheless, air sampling may provide useful information for risk assessment. The liquid impingement technique appears to have the greatest capacity for collecting airborne Legionella if combined with molecular investigations.

  20. Evaluation of Legionella Air Contamination in Healthcare Facilities by Different Sampling Methods: An Italian Multicenter Study. (United States)

    Montagna, Maria Teresa; De Giglio, Osvalda; Cristina, Maria Luisa; Napoli, Christian; Pacifico, Claudia; Agodi, Antonella; Baldovin, Tatjana; Casini, Beatrice; Coniglio, Maria Anna; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Delia, Santi Antonino; Deriu, Maria Grazia; Guida, Marco; Laganà, Pasqualina; Liguori, Giorgio; Moro, Matteo; Mura, Ida; Pennino, Francesca; Privitera, Gaetano; Romano Spica, Vincenzo; Sembeni, Silvia; Spagnolo, Anna Maria; Tardivo, Stefano; Torre, Ida; Valeriani, Federica; Albertini, Roberto; Pasquarella, Cesira


    Healthcare facilities (HF) represent an at-risk environment for legionellosis transmission occurring after inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In general, the control of water is preferred to that of air because, to date, there are no standardized sampling protocols. Legionella air contamination was investigated in the bathrooms of 11 HF by active sampling (Surface Air System and Coriolis(®)μ) and passive sampling using settling plates. During the 8-hour sampling, hot tap water was sampled three times. All air samples were evaluated using culture-based methods, whereas liquid samples collected using the Coriolis(®)μ were also analyzed by real-time PCR. Legionella presence in the air and water was then compared by sequence-based typing (SBT) methods. Air contamination was found in four HF (36.4%) by at least one of the culturable methods. The culturable investigation by Coriolis(®)μ did not yield Legionella in any enrolled HF. However, molecular investigation using Coriolis(®)μ resulted in eight HF testing positive for Legionella in the air. Comparison of Legionella air and water contamination indicated that Legionella water concentration could be predictive of its presence in the air. Furthermore, a molecular study of 12 L. pneumophila strains confirmed a match between the Legionella strains from air and water samples by SBT for three out of four HF that tested positive for Legionella by at least one of the culturable methods. Overall, our study shows that Legionella air detection cannot replace water sampling because the absence of microorganisms from the air does not necessarily represent their absence from water; nevertheless, air sampling may provide useful information for risk assessment. The liquid impingement technique appears to have the greatest capacity for collecting airborne Legionella if combined with molecular investigations.

  1. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: Scientific rationale supporting use of freely dissolved concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Parkerton, Thomas F.; Adams, Rachel G.


    Passive sampling methods (PSMs) allow the quantification of the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree ) of an organic contaminant even in complex matrices such as sediments. Cfree is directly related to a contaminant's chemical activity, which drives spontaneous processes including diffusive upta...

  2. Non-invasive sampling methods of inflammatory biomarkers in asthma and allergic rhinitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Johan Diderik


    In this thesis, a series of clinical studies have been described, in which we applied, evaluated or modified novel and existing non- or semi-invasive sampling methods and detection techniques for the assessment of biomarkers in allergic airway inflammation.

  3. Referred Air Method 25E: Determination of a Vapor Phase Organic Concentration in Waste Samples (United States)

    This method is applicable for determining the vapor pressure of waste. The headspace vapor of the sample is analyzed for carbon content by a headspace analyzer, which uses a flame ionization detector (FID).

  4. Efficient free energy calculations by combining two complementary tempering sampling methods (United States)

    Xie, Liangxu; Shen, Lin; Chen, Zhe-Ning; Yang, Mingjun


    Although energy barriers can be efficiently crossed in the reaction coordinate (RC) guided sampling, this type of method suffers from identification of the correct RCs or requirements of high dimensionality of the defined RCs for a given system. If only the approximate RCs with significant barriers are used in the simulations, hidden energy barriers with small to medium height would exist in other degrees of freedom (DOFs) relevant to the target process and consequently cause the problem of insufficient sampling. To address the sampling in this so-called hidden barrier situation, here we propose an effective approach to combine temperature accelerated molecular dynamics (TAMD), an efficient RC-guided sampling method, with the integrated tempering sampling (ITS), a generalized ensemble sampling method. In this combined ITS-TAMD method, the sampling along the major RCs with high energy barriers is guided by TAMD and the sampling of the rest of the DOFs with lower but not negligible barriers is enhanced by ITS. The performance of ITS-TAMD to three systems in the processes with hidden barriers has been examined. In comparison to the standalone TAMD or ITS approach, the present hybrid method shows three main improvements. (1) Sampling efficiency can be improved at least five times even if in the presence of hidden energy barriers. (2) The canonical distribution can be more accurately recovered, from which the thermodynamic properties along other collective variables can be computed correctly. (3) The robustness of the selection of major RCs suggests that the dimensionality of necessary RCs can be reduced. Our work shows more potential applications of the ITS-TAMD method as the efficient and powerful tool for the investigation of a broad range of interesting cases.

  5. Sample pretretment in microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.


    When a sample, e.g. from a patient, is processed using conventional methods, the sample must be transported to the laboratory where it is analyzed, after which the results is sent back. By integrating the separate steps of the analysis in a micro total analysis system (μTAS), results can......: Sample preparation → DNA amplification → DNA analysis. The overall goal of the project is integration of as many as possible of these steps. This thesis covers mainly pretreatment in a microchip. Some methods for sample pretreatment have been tested. Most conventional is fluorescence activated cell sort...... be obtained fast and better. Preferably with all the processes from sample to signal moved to the bedside of the patient. Of course there is still much to learn and study in the process of miniaturization. DNA analysis is one process subject to integration. There are roughly three steps in a DNA analysis...

  6. Development of active and diffusive sampling methods for determination of 3-methoxybutyl acetate in workplace air. (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akito; Takigawa, Tomoko; Kawasumi, Yaeko; Yasugi, Tomojiro; Endo, Yoko; Wang, Da-Hong; Takaki, Jiro; Sakurai, Haruhiko; Ogino, Keiki


    Monitoring of the workplace concentration of 3-methoxybutyl acetate (MBA), which is used in printer's ink and thinner for screen-printing and as an organic solvent to dissolve various resins, is important for health reasons. An active and a diffusive sampling method, using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector, were developed for the determination of MBA in workplace air. For the active sampling method using an activated charcoal tube, the overall desorption efficiency was 101%, the overall recovery was 104%, and the recovery after 8 days of storage in a refrigerator was more than 90%. For the diffusive sampling method using the 3M 3500 organic vapor monitor, the MBA sampling rate was 19.89 cm(3) min(-1). The linear range was from 0.01 to 96.00 microg ml(-1), with a correlation coefficient of 0.999, and the detection limits of the active and diffusive samplers were 0.04 and 0.07 microg sample(-1), respectively. The geometric mean of stationary sampling and personal sampling in a screen-printing factory were 12.61 and 16.52 ppm, respectively, indicating that both methods can be used to measure MBA in workplace air.

  7. Sample preparation method for glass welding by ultrashort laser pulses yields higher seam strength. (United States)

    Cvecek, K; Miyamoto, I; Strauss, J; Wolf, M; Frick, T; Schmidt, M


    Glass welding by ultrashort laser pulses allows joining without the need of an absorber or a preheating and postheating process. However, cracks generated during the welding process substantially impair the joining strength of the welding seams. In this paper a sample preparation method is described that prevents the formation of cracks. The measured joining strength of samples prepared by this method is substantially higher than previously reported values.

  8. A comparative study of extraction and purification methods for environmental DNA from soil and sludge samples


    Roh, Changhyun; Villatte, Francois; Kim, Byung-Gee; Schmid, Rolf D.


    An important prerequisite for a successful metagenome library construction is an efficient extraction procedure for DNA out of environmental samples. In this study we compared three indirect and four direct extraction methods, including a commercial kit, in terms of DNA yield, purity and time requirement. A special focus was set on methods which are appropriate for the extraction of environmental DNA (eDNA) from very limited sample sizes (0.1 g) to enable a highly parallel approach. Direct ex...

  9. Field Methods and Sample Collection Techniques for the Surveillance of West Nile Virus in Avian Hosts. (United States)

    Wheeler, Sarah S; Boyce, Walter M; Reisen, William K


    Avian hosts play an important role in the spread, maintenance, and amplification of West Nile virus (WNV). Avian susceptibility to WNV varies from species to species thus surveillance efforts can focus both on birds that survive infection and those that succumb. Here we describe methods for the collection and sampling of live birds for WNV antibodies or viremia, and methods for the sampling of dead birds. Target species and study design considerations are discussed.

  10. Gel-aided sample preparation (GASP)?A simplified method for gel-assisted proteomic sample generation from protein extracts and intact cells


    Fischer, Roman; Benedikt M Kessler


    We describe a ?gel-assisted? proteomic sample preparation method for MS analysis. Solubilized protein extracts or intact cells are copolymerized with acrylamide, facilitating denaturation, reduction, quantitative cysteine alkylation, and matrix formation. Gel-aided sample preparation has been optimized to be highly flexible, scalable, and to allow reproducible sample generation from 50 cells to milligrams of protein extracts. This methodology is fast, sensitive, easy-to-use on a wide range of...

  11. Lunar Sample Atlas (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sample Atlas provides pictures of the Apollo samples taken in the Lunar Sample Laboratory, full-color views of the samples in microscopic thin-sections,...

  12. Method of evaluation of process of red blood cell sedimentation based on photometry of droplet samples. (United States)

    Aristov, Alexander; Nosova, Ekaterina


    The paper focuses on research aimed at creating and testing a new approach to evaluate the processes of aggregation and sedimentation of red blood cells for purpose of its use in clinical laboratory diagnostics. The proposed method is based on photometric analysis of blood sample formed as a sessile drop. The results of clinical approbation of this method are given in the paper. Analysis of the processes occurring in the sample in the form of sessile drop during the process of blood cells sedimentation is described. The results of experimental studies to evaluate the effect of the droplet sample focusing properties on light radiation transmittance are presented. It is shown that this method significantly reduces the sample volume and provides sufficiently high sensitivity to the studied processes.

  13. Method for producing a thin sample band in a microchannel device (United States)

    Griffiths, Stewart K [Livermore, CA; Nilson, Robert H [Cardiff, CA


    The present invention improves the performance of microchannel systems for chemical and biological synthesis and analysis by providing a method and apparatus for producing a thin band of a species sample. Thin sample bands improve the resolution of microchannel separation processes, as well as many other processes requiring precise control of sample size and volume. The new method comprises a series of steps in which a species sample is manipulated by controlled transport through a junction formed at the intersection of four or more channels. A sample is first inserted into the end of one of these channels in the vicinity of the junction. Next, this sample is thinned by transport across the junction one or more times. During these thinning steps, flow enters the junction through one of the channels and exists through those remaining, providing a divergent flow field that progressively stretches and thins the band with each traverse of the junction. The thickness of the resulting sample band may be smaller than the channel width. Moreover, the thickness of the band may be varied and controlled by altering the method alone, without modification to the channel or junction geometries. The invention is applicable to both electroosmotic and electrophoretic transport, to combined electrokinetic transport, and to some special cases in which bulk fluid transport is driven by pressure gradients. It is further applicable to channels that are open, filled with a gel or filled with a porous or granular material.

  14. Phylogenetic representativeness: a new method for evaluating taxon sampling in evolutionary studies. (United States)

    Plazzi, Federico; Ferrucci, Ronald R; Passamonti, Marco


    Taxon sampling is a major concern in phylogenetic studies. Incomplete, biased, or improper taxon sampling can lead to misleading results in reconstructing evolutionary relationships. Several theoretical methods are available to optimize taxon choice in phylogenetic analyses. However, most involve some knowledge about the genetic relationships of the group of interest (i.e., the ingroup), or even a well-established phylogeny itself; these data are not always available in general phylogenetic applications. We propose a new method to assess taxon sampling developing Clarke and Warwick statistics. This method aims to measure the "phylogenetic representativeness" of a given sample or set of samples and it is based entirely on the pre-existing available taxonomy of the ingroup, which is commonly known to investigators. Moreover, our method also accounts for instability and discordance in taxonomies. A Python-based script suite, called PhyRe, has been developed to implement all analyses we describe in this paper. We show that this method is sensitive and allows direct discrimination between representative and unrepresentative samples. It is also informative about the addition of taxa to improve taxonomic coverage of the ingroup. Provided that the investigators' expertise is mandatory in this field, phylogenetic representativeness makes up an objective touchstone in planning phylogenetic studies.

  15. Super-resolution method for arbitrary retrospective sampling in fluorescence tomography with raster scanning photodetectors (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng


    Dense spatial sampling is required in high-resolution optical imaging and many other biomedical optical imaging methods, such as diffuse optical imaging. Arrayed photodetectors, in particular charge coupled device cameras are commonly used mainly because of their high pixel count. Nonetheless, discrete-element photodetectors, such as photomultiplier tubes, are often desirable in many performance-demanding imaging applications. However, utilization of the discrete-element photodetectors typically requires raster scan to achieve arbitrary retrospective sampling with high density. Care must be taken in using the relatively large sensitive areas of discrete-element photodetectors to densely sample the image plane. In addition, off-line data analysis and image reconstruction often require full-field sampling. Pixel-by-pixel scanning is not only slow but also unnecessary in diffusion-limited imaging. We propose a superresolution method that can recover the finer features of an image sampled with a coarse-scale sensor. This generalpurpose method was established on the spatial transfer function of the photodetector-lens system, and achieved superresolution by inversion of this linear transfer function. Regularized optimization algorithms were used to achieve optimized deconvolution. Compared to the uncorrected blurred image, the proposed super-resolution method significantly improved image quality in terms of resolution and quantitation. Using this reconstruction method, the acquisition speed with a scanning photodetector can be dramatically improved without significantly sacrificing sampling density or flexibility.

  16. Phylogenetic representativeness: a new method for evaluating taxon sampling in evolutionary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passamonti Marco


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxon sampling is a major concern in phylogenetic studies. Incomplete, biased, or improper taxon sampling can lead to misleading results in reconstructing evolutionary relationships. Several theoretical methods are available to optimize taxon choice in phylogenetic analyses. However, most involve some knowledge about the genetic relationships of the group of interest (i.e., the ingroup, or even a well-established phylogeny itself; these data are not always available in general phylogenetic applications. Results We propose a new method to assess taxon sampling developing Clarke and Warwick statistics. This method aims to measure the "phylogenetic representativeness" of a given sample or set of samples and it is based entirely on the pre-existing available taxonomy of the ingroup, which is commonly known to investigators. Moreover, our method also accounts for instability and discordance in taxonomies. A Python-based script suite, called PhyRe, has been developed to implement all analyses we describe in this paper. Conclusions We show that this method is sensitive and allows direct discrimination between representative and unrepresentative samples. It is also informative about the addition of taxa to improve taxonomic coverage of the ingroup. Provided that the investigators' expertise is mandatory in this field, phylogenetic representativeness makes up an objective touchstone in planning phylogenetic studies.

  17. Method for Vanadium Speciation in Aqueous Samples by HPLC-ICP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method for Vanadium Speciation in Aqueous Samples by HPLC-ICP-OES. M Hu, PP Coetzee. Abstract. A method for vanadium speciation is proposed. The method uses a low concentration eluent, 10 mmol L–1 EDTA and 14 mmol L–1 sodium carbonate, for the ion chromatographic separation of vanadium species at a ...

  18. Optimal sampling strategies to assess inulin clearance in children by the inulin single-injection method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, Lyonne K.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Cransberg, Karlien; Vulto, Arnold G.


    Glomerular filtration rate in patients can be determined by estimating the plasma clearance of inulin with the single-injection method. In this method, a single bolus injection of inulin is administered and several blood samples are collected. For practical and convenient application of this method

  19. Methods, compounds and systems for detecting a microorganism in a sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colston, Jr, Bill W.; Fitch, J. Patrick; Gardner, Shea N.; Williams, Peter L.; Wagner, Mark C.


    Methods to identify a set of probe polynucleotides suitable for detecting a set of targets and in particular methods for identification of primers suitable for detection of target microorganisms related polynucleotides, set of polynucleotides and compositions, and related methods and systems for detection and/or identification of microorganisms in a sample.

  20. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten


    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  1. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten


    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  2. Evaluation of micro-colorimetric lipid determination method with samples prepared using sonication and accelerated solvent extraction methods. (United States)

    Billa, Nanditha; Hubin-Barrows, Dylan; Lahren, Tylor; Burkhard, Lawrence P


    Two common laboratory extraction techniques were evaluated for routine use with the micro-colorimetric lipid determination method developed by Van Handel (1985) [2] and recently validated for small samples by Inouye and Lotufo (2006) [1]. With the accelerated solvent extraction method using chloroform:methanol solvent and the colorimetric lipid determination method, 28 of 30 samples had significant proportional bias (α=1%, determined using standard additions) and 1 of 30 samples had significant constant bias (α=1%, determined using Youden Blank measurements). With sonic extraction, 0 of 6 samples had significant proportional bias (α=1%) and 1 of 6 samples had significant constant bias (α=1%). These demonstrate that the accelerated solvent extraction method with chloroform:methanol solvent system creates an interference with the colorimetric assay method, and without accounting for the bias in the analysis, inaccurate measurements would be obtained. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. A single sample method for estimating glomerular filtration rate in cats. (United States)

    Finch, N C; Heiene, R; Elliott, J; Syme, H M; Peters, A M


    Validated methods of estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in cats requiring only a limited number of samples are desirable. To test a single sample method of determining GFR in cats. The validation population (group 1) consisted of 89 client-owned cats (73 nonazotemic and 16 azotemic). A separate population of 18 healthy nonazotemic cats (group 2) was used to test the methods. Glomerular filtration rate was determined in group 1 using corrected slope-intercept iohexol clearance. Single sample clearance was determined using the Jacobsson and modified Jacobsson methods and validated against slope-intercept clearance. Extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) was determined from slope-intercept clearance with correction for the 1 compartment assumption and by deriving a prediction formula for ECFV (ECFV Predicted ) based on the body weight. The optimal single sample method was tested in group 2. A blood sample at 180 minutes and ECFV Predicted were optimal for single sample clearance. Mean ± SD GFR in group 1 determined using the Jacobsson and modified Jacobsson formulae was 1.78 ± 0.70 and 1.65 ± 0.60 mL/min/kg, respectively. When tested in group 2, the Jacobsson method overestimated multisample clearance. The modified Jacobsson method (mean ± SD 2.22 ± 0.34 mL/min/kg) was in agreement with multisample clearance (mean ± SD 2.19 ± 0.34 mL/min/kg). The modified Jacobsson method provides accurate estimation of iohexol clearance in cats, from a single sample collected at 180 minutes postinjection and using a formula based on the body weight to predict ECFV. Further validation of the formula in patients with very high or very low GFR is required. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Evaluation of various conventional methods for sampling weeds in potato and spinach crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jamaica


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate (at an exploratory level, some of the different conventional sampling designs in a section of a potato crop and in a commercial crop of spinach. Weeds were sampled in a 16 x 48 m section of a potato crop with a set grid of 192 sections. The cover and density of the weeds were registered in squares of from 0.25 to 64 m². The results were used to create a database that allowed for the simulation of different sampling designs: variables and square size. A second sampling was carried out with these results in a spinach crop of 1.16 ha with a set grid of 6 x 6 m cells, evaluating the cover in 4 m² squares. Another database was created with this information, which was used to simulate other sampling designs such as distribution and quantity of sampling squares. According to the obtained results, a good method for approximating the quantity of squares for diverse samples is 10-12 squares (4 m² for richness per ha and 18 or more squares for abundance per hectare. This square size is optimal since it allows for a sampling of more area without losing sight of low-profile species, with the cover variable best representing the abundance of the weeds.

  5. Relative efficiency of anuran sampling methods in a restinga habitat (Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. D. Rocha

    Full Text Available Studies on anurans in restinga habitats are few and, as a result, there is little information on which methods are more efficient for sampling them in this environment. Ten methods are usually used for sampling anuran communities in tropical and sub-tropical areas. In this study we evaluate which methods are more appropriate for this purpose in the restinga environment of Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba. We analyzed six methods among those usually used for anuran samplings. For each method, we recorded the total amount of time spent (in min., the number of researchers involved, and the number of species captured. We calculated a capture efficiency index (time necessary for a researcher to capture an individual frog in order to make comparable the data obtained. Of the methods analyzed, the species inventory (9.7 min/searcher /ind.- MSI; richness = 6; abundance = 23 and the breeding site survey (9.5 MSI; richness = 4; abundance = 22 were the most efficient. The visual encounter inventory (45.0 MSI and patch sampling (65.0 MSI methods were of comparatively lower efficiency restinga, whereas the plot sampling and the pit-fall traps with drift-fence methods resulted in no frog capture. We conclude that there is a considerable difference in efficiency of methods used in the restinga environment and that the complete species inventory method is highly efficient for sampling frogs in the restinga studied and may be so in other restinga environments. Methods that are usually efficient in forested areas seem to be of little value in open restinga habitats.

  6. A Mars Sample Return Sample Handling System (United States)

    Wilson, David; Stroker, Carol


    We present a sample handling system, a subsystem of the proposed Dragon landed Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission [1], that can return to Earth orbit a significant mass of frozen Mars samples potentially consisting of: rock cores, subsurface drilled rock and ice cuttings, pebble sized rocks, and soil scoops. The sample collection, storage, retrieval and packaging assumptions and concepts in this study are applicable for the NASA's MPPG MSR mission architecture options [2]. Our study assumes a predecessor rover mission collects samples for return to Earth to address questions on: past life, climate change, water history, age dating, understanding Mars interior evolution [3], and, human safety and in-situ resource utilization. Hence the rover will have "integrated priorities for rock sampling" [3] that cover collection of subaqueous or hydrothermal sediments, low-temperature fluidaltered rocks, unaltered igneous rocks, regolith and atmosphere samples. Samples could include: drilled rock cores, alluvial and fluvial deposits, subsurface ice and soils, clays, sulfates, salts including perchlorates, aeolian deposits, and concretions. Thus samples will have a broad range of bulk densities, and require for Earth based analysis where practical: in-situ characterization, management of degradation such as perchlorate deliquescence and volatile release, and contamination management. We propose to adopt a sample container with a set of cups each with a sample from a specific location. We considered two sample cups sizes: (1) a small cup sized for samples matching those submitted to in-situ characterization instruments, and, (2) a larger cup for 100 mm rock cores [4] and pebble sized rocks, thus providing diverse samples and optimizing the MSR sample mass payload fraction for a given payload volume. We minimize sample degradation by keeping them frozen in the MSR payload sample canister using Peltier chip cooling. The cups are sealed by interference fitted heat activated memory

  7. Automated PCR setup for forensic casework samples using the Normalization Wizard and PCR Setup robotic methods. (United States)

    Greenspoon, S A; Sykes, K L V; Ban, J D; Pollard, A; Baisden, M; Farr, M; Graham, N; Collins, B L; Green, M M; Christenson, C C


    Human genome, pharmaceutical and research laboratories have long enjoyed the application of robotics to performing repetitive laboratory tasks. However, the utilization of robotics in forensic laboratories for processing casework samples is relatively new and poses particular challenges. Since the quantity and quality (a mixture versus a single source sample, the level of degradation, the presence of PCR inhibitors) of the DNA contained within a casework sample is unknown, particular attention must be paid to procedural susceptibility to contamination, as well as DNA yield, especially as it pertains to samples with little biological material. The Virginia Department of Forensic Science (VDFS) has successfully automated forensic casework DNA extraction utilizing the DNA IQ(trade mark) System in conjunction with the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation. Human DNA quantitation is also performed in a near complete automated fashion utilizing the AluQuant Human DNA Quantitation System and the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation. Recently, the PCR setup for casework samples has been automated, employing the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation and Normalization Wizard, Genetic Identity version, which utilizes the quantitation data, imported into the software, to create a customized automated method for DNA dilution, unique to that plate of DNA samples. The PCR Setup software method, used in conjunction with the Normalization Wizard method and written for the Biomek 2000, functions to mix the diluted DNA samples, transfer the PCR master mix, and transfer the diluted DNA samples to PCR amplification tubes. Once the process is complete, the DNA extracts, still on the deck of the robot in PCR amplification strip tubes, are transferred to pre-labeled 1.5 mL tubes for long-term storage using an automated method. The automation of these steps in the process of forensic DNA casework analysis has been accomplished by performing extensive optimization, validation and testing of the

  8. A Comparison between Three Methods of Language Sampling: Freeplay, Narrative Speech and Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Rezapour


    Full Text Available Objectives: The spontaneous language sample analysis is an important part of the language assessment protocol. Language samples give us useful information about how children use language in the natural situations of daily life. The purpose of this study was to compare Conversation, Freeplay, and narrative speech in aspects of Mean Length of Utterance (MLU, Type-token ratio (TTR, and the number of utterances. Methods: By cluster sampling method, a total of 30 Semnanian five-year-old boys with normal speech and language development were selected from the active kindergartens in Semnan city. Conversation, Freeplay, and narrative speech were three applied language sample elicitation methods to obtain 15 minutes of children’s spontaneous language samples. Means for MLU, TTR, and the number of utterances are analyzed by dependent ANOVA. Results: The result showed no significant difference in number of elicited utterances among these three language sampling methods. Narrative speech elicited longer MLU than freeplay and conversation, and compared to freeplay and narrative speech, conversation elicited higher TTR. Discussion: Results suggest that in the clinical assessment of the Persian-language children, it is better to use narrative speech to elicit longer MLU and to use conversation to elicit higher TTR.

  9. An evaluation of sampling methods for the detection of Escherichia coli and Salmonella on Turkey carcasses. (United States)

    McEvoy, J M; Nde, C W; Sherwood, J S; Logue, C M


    The efficacy of rinse, excision, and swab methods for the microbiological analysis of prechill turkey carcasses was investigated. Aerobic plate counts from a 50-cm2 area of the breast sampled by excision and by swabbing were compared. Escherichia coli and Salmonella recoveries were determined from turkeys sampled by a carcass rinse (CR), a modified rinse with the carcass supported in a swing (MCR), a two-site swab of 50 cm2 at the back and thigh (2S), a one-site swab of 50 cm2 beneath the wing (1S), a whole-carcass swab of the inner and outer carcass surface (WS), and excision of 25 g of neck skin tissue (NE). The effect of diluent volume (25, 50, and 100 ml) on E. coli counts from swab samples was also assessed. The aerobic plate count from breast tissue sampled by excision was greater than that by swabbing (P diluent (P diluent, E. coli recoveries by the MCR, 2S, 1S, and WS methods were similar. For swabs stomached in 50 ml of diluent, Salmonella recoveries by the WS and MCR methods were higher than those by the 2S and 1S methods. Excision was more effective than swabbing for obtaining total bacterial counts from reduced turkey carcass areas. Whole-carcass sampling by rinsing or swabbing is necessary for optimum Salmonella recovery. Sampling a reduced area of the carcass is sufficient for E. coli analysis.

  10. A proteomics sample preparation method for mature, recalcitrant leaves of perennial plants. (United States)

    Gang, Deng; Xinyue, Zhong; Na, Zhang; Chengying, Lao; Bo, Wang; Dingxiang, Peng; Lijun, Liu


    Sample preparation is key to the success of proteomics studies. In the present study, two sample preparation methods were tested for their suitability on the mature, recalcitrant leaves of six representative perennial plants (grape, plum, pear, peach, orange, and ramie). An improved sample preparation method was obtained: Tris and Triton X-100 were added together instead of CHAPS to the lysis buffer, and a 20% TCA-water solution and 100% precooled acetone were added after the protein extraction for the further purification of protein. This method effectively eliminates nonprotein impurities and obtains a clear two-dimensional gel electrophoresis array. The method facilitates the separation of high-molecular-weight proteins and increases the resolution of low-abundance proteins. This method provides a widely applicable and economically feasible technology for the proteomic study of the mature, recalcitrant leaves of perennial plants.

  11. A proteomics sample preparation method for mature, recalcitrant leaves of perennial plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Gang

    Full Text Available Sample preparation is key to the success of proteomics studies. In the present study, two sample preparation methods were tested for their suitability on the mature, recalcitrant leaves of six representative perennial plants (grape, plum, pear, peach, orange, and ramie. An improved sample preparation method was obtained: Tris and Triton X-100 were added together instead of CHAPS to the lysis buffer, and a 20% TCA-water solution and 100% precooled acetone were added after the protein extraction for the further purification of protein. This method effectively eliminates nonprotein impurities and obtains a clear two-dimensional gel electrophoresis array. The method facilitates the separation of high-molecular-weight proteins and increases the resolution of low-abundance proteins. This method provides a widely applicable and economically feasible technology for the proteomic study of the mature, recalcitrant leaves of perennial plants.

  12. Nonuniform sampling and non-Fourier signal processing methods in multidimensional NMR. (United States)

    Mobli, Mehdi; Hoch, Jeffrey C


    Beginning with the introduction of Fourier Transform NMR by Ernst and Anderson in 1966, time domain measurement of the impulse response (the free induction decay, FID) consisted of sampling the signal at a series of discrete intervals. For compatibility with the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), the intervals are kept uniform, and the Nyquist theorem dictates the largest value of the interval sufficient to avoid aliasing. With the proposal by Jeener of parametric sampling along an indirect time dimension, extension to multidimensional experiments employed the same sampling techniques used in one dimension, similarly subject to the Nyquist condition and suitable for processing via the discrete Fourier transform. The challenges of obtaining high-resolution spectral estimates from short data records using the DFT were already well understood, however. Despite techniques such as linear prediction extrapolation, the achievable resolution in the indirect dimensions is limited by practical constraints on measuring time. The advent of non-Fourier methods of spectrum analysis capable of processing nonuniformly sampled data has led to an explosion in the development of novel sampling strategies that avoid the limits on resolution and measurement time imposed by uniform sampling. The first part of this review discusses the many approaches to data sampling in multidimensional NMR, the second part highlights commonly used methods for signal processing of such data, and the review concludes with a discussion of other approaches to speeding up data acquisition in NMR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Methods for collecting algal samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (United States)

    Porter, Stephen D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.


    Benthic algae (periphyton) and phytoplankton communities are characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. This multidisciplinary approach provides multiple lines of evidence for evaluating water-quality status and trends, and for refining an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. Water quality can be characterized by evaluating the results of qualitative and quantitative measurements of the algal community. Qualitative periphyton samples are collected to develop of list of taxa present in the sampling reach. Quantitative periphyton samples are collected to measure algal community structure within selected habitats. These samples of benthic algal communities are collected from natural substrates, using the sampling methods that are most appropriate for the habitat conditions. Phytoplankton samples may be collected in large nonwadeable streams and rivers to meet specific program objectives. Estimates of algal biomass (chlorophyll content and ash-free dry mass) also are optional measures that may be useful for interpreting water-quality conditions. A nationally consistent approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection, as well as information on methods and equipment for qualitative and quantitative sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data locally, regionally, and nationally.

  14. Sampling method and location affect recovery of coliforms and Escherichia coli from broiler carcasses. (United States)

    Smith, D P


    Two experiments were conducted, the first to determine whether numbers of recovered bacteria differed due to sampling method used or due to location on carcass sampled (breast or leg quarters) and the second to determine if numbers of bacteria differed between the front (ventral) and back (dorsal) side of the carcass. In both experiments, eviscerated broiler carcasses were obtained from a commercial processing plant just before the final inside-outside bird washer. In experiment 1, carcasses (3 in each of 4 replicate trials) were separated into leg quarters and breast quarters (n = 48) and either rinsed or ground and stomached for microbiological sampling. In experiment 2, for 3 replicate trials of 4 carcasses each, necks, wings, and legs were manually removed; the remaining trunks were cut through the sides to produce front (ventral) and back (dorsal) halves (n = 24); and then rinsed. For both experiments, coliforms and Escherichia coli were enumerated. In experiment 1, significantly higher numbers (P coliforms and E. coli were recovered by rinsing than by grinding from both breast and leg quarters. Leg quarters were found to have higher bacterial numbers than breasts from grind samples, but no quarter differences were found for rinse samples. In experiment 2, higher (P coliforms and E. coli were recovered from the dorsal carcass half compared with the ventral half. Bacterial counts of broiler carcasses are affected by both the sampling method used and by carcass location sampled.

  15. Efficient sample preparation method based on solvent-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction for the trace detection of butachlor in urine and waste water samples. (United States)

    Aladaghlo, Zolfaghar; Fakhari, Alireza; Behbahani, Mohammad


    In this work, an efficient sample preparation method termed solvent-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction was applied. The used sample preparation method was based on the dispersion of the sorbent (benzophenone) into the aqueous sample to maximize the interaction surface. In this approach, the dispersion of the sorbent at a very low milligram level was achieved by inserting a solution of the sorbent and disperser solvent into the aqueous sample. The cloudy solution created from the dispersion of the sorbent in the bulk aqueous sample. After pre-concentration of the butachlor, the cloudy solution was centrifuged and butachlor in the sediment phase dissolved in ethanol and determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Under the optimized conditions (solution pH = 7.0, sorbent: benzophenone, 2%, disperser solvent: ethanol, 500 μL, centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 3 min), the method detection limit for butachlor was 2, 3 and 3 μg/L for distilled water, waste water, and urine sample, respectively. Furthermore, the preconcentration factor was 198.8, 175.0, and 174.2 in distilled water, waste water, and urine sample, respectively. Solvent-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction was successfully used for the trace monitoring of butachlor in urine and waste water samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Parasitological stool sample exam by spontaneous sedimentation method using conical tubes: effectiveness, practice, and biosafety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steveen Rios Ribeiro


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous sedimentation is an important procedure for stool examination. A modification of this technique using conical tubes was performed and evaluated. METHODS: Fifty fecal samples were processed in sedimentation glass and in polypropylene conical tubes. Another 50 samples were used for quantitative evaluation of protozoan cysts. RESULTS: Although no significant differences occurred in the frequency of protozoa and helminths detected, significant differences in protozoan cyst counts did occur. CONCLUSIONS: The use of tube predicts a shorter path in the sedimentation of the sample, increases concentration of parasites for microscopy analysis, minimizes the risks of contamination, reduces the odor, and optimizes the workspace.

  17. Preparation method matters: Aiming at higher NPP diversity and representativeness in sediment samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevold, Renée; Odgaard, Bent Vad


    of palynology in archaeological and forensic sciences. NPPs in anthropogenic soils and archaeological samples may be numerous in types as well as in abundance. However, preparing these soil samples with methods based on acid digestion potentially biases NPP assemblages because of differential damage or even...... dissolution of microfossils. In spite of this potential bias standard preparation procedures for pollen analysis have, in most cases without modification, generally been applied to palynological samples used for NPP analysis. We review briefly the advantages of high diversity NPP-analysis and preparation...

  18. Method and apparatus for measuring the gas permeability of a solid sample (United States)

    Carstens, D.H.W.


    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for measuring the permeability of a gas in a sample. The gas is allowed to reach a steady flow rate through the sample. A measurable amount of the gas is collected during a given time period and then delivered to a sensitive quadrupole. The quadrupole signal, adjusted for background, is proportional to the amount of gas collected during the time period. The quadrupole can be calibrated with a standard helium leak. The gas can be deuterium and the sample can be polyvinyl alcohol.

  19. Comparison of microRNA expression using different preservation methods of matched psoriatic skin samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendorf, Marianne B; Zibert, John R; Hagedorn, Peter H


    -frozen (FS) and Tissue-Tek-embedding (OCT). We found a strong correlation of the microRNA expression levels between all preservation methods of matched psoriatic skin samples (r(s) ranging from 0.91 to 0.95 (P ... contains high levels of RNases. As microRNAs are 19-23 nucleotides long and lack a poly-A tail, they may be less prone to RNA degradation than mRNAs. We investigated whether microRNAs in psoriatic (FFPE) samples reliably reflect microRNA expression in samples less prone to RNA degradation such as fresh...

  20. Comparison of three methods for concentration of rotavirus from artificially spiked shellfish samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vysakh Mohan


    Full Text Available Background: Shellfish are a nutritious food source whose consumption and commercial value have risen dramatically worldwide. Shellfish being filter feeders concentrate particulate matters including microorganisms such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses and thus constitute a major public health concern. Effective preliminary sample treatment steps such as concentration of virus from shellfish are essential before RNA/DNA isolation for final PCR accuracy and reproducibility due to presence of PCR inhibitors in shellfish. Aim: The current study was done to compare three methods for concentration of rotavirus from shellfish samples. Materials and Methods: Shellfish samples artificially spiked with tenfold serial dilutions of known concentration of rotavirus were subjected to three different concentration methods namely; proteinase K treatment, precipitation with polyethylene glycol 8000 and use of lysis buffer. RNA was isolated from the concentrated samples using phenol chloroform method. Rota viral RNA was detected using RT-PCR. Results: Concentration of virus using proteinase K and lysis buffer yielded better result than concentration by PEG 8000 in samples with lowest concentration of virus. Among these two methods proteinase K treatment was superior as it showed better amplification of the highest dilution (107 used. Conclusion: Treatment with proteinase K was better than other two methods as it could detect the viral RNA in all three tenfold serial dilutions.

  1. Phylogenetic representativeness: a new method for evaluating taxon sampling in evolutionary studies


    Passamonti Marco; Ferrucci Ronald R; Plazzi Federico


    Abstract Background Taxon sampling is a major concern in phylogenetic studies. Incomplete, biased, or improper taxon sampling can lead to misleading results in reconstructing evolutionary relationships. Several theoretical methods are available to optimize taxon choice in phylogenetic analyses. However, most involve some knowledge about the genetic relationships of the group of interest (i.e., the ingroup), or even a well-established phylogeny itself; these data are not always available in ge...

  2. Development of New Methods and Software for Distance Sampling Surveys of Cetacean Populations (United States)


    2007). Populations of animals were created using the WiSP package of routines developed by Borchers et al. (2002). This package can produce...monotonic manner). Distance sampling methods are also incorporated into the WiSP package, and take into account imperfect detectability along transects...placed within the rectangular survey region. One limitation of the distance sampling implementation of WiSP is that the transects can only be oriented

  3. A method for disaggregating clay concretions and eliminating formalin smell in the processing of sediment samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas


    A complete handling procedure for processing sediment samples is described. It includes some improvements of conventional methods. The fixed sediment sample is mixed with a solution of the alkaline detergent AJAX® (Colgate-Palmolive). It is kept at 80-900 C for 20-40 min. This treatment facilitates...... subsequent sorting as it disaggregates clay concretions and faecal pellets ·but leaves even fragile organisms clean and unaffected. The ammonia in the detergent eliminates the formalin smell....

  4. A novel method of sampling gingival crevicular fluid from a mouse model of periodontitis. (United States)

    Matsuda, Shinji; Movila, Alexandru; Suzuki, Maiko; Kajiya, Mikihito; Wisitrasameewong, Wichaya; Kayal, Rayyan; Hirshfeld, Josefine; Al-Dharrab, Ayman; Savitri, Irma J; Mira, Abdulghani; Kurihara, Hidemi; Taubman, Martin A; Kawai, Toshihisa


    Using a mouse model of silk ligature-induced periodontal disease (PD), we report a novel method of sampling mouse gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) to evaluate the time-dependent secretion patterns of bone resorption-related cytokines. GCF is a serum transudate containing host-derived biomarkers which can represent cellular response in the periodontium. As such, human clinical evaluations of PD status rely on sampling this critical secretion. At the same time, a method of sampling GCF from mice is absent, hindering the translational value of mouse models of PD. Therefore, we herein report a novel method of sampling GCF from a mouse model of periodontitis, involving a series of easy steps. First, the original ligature used for induction of PD was removed, and a fresh ligature for sampling GCF was placed in the gingival crevice for 10min. Immediately afterwards, the volume of GCF collected in the sampling ligature was measured using a high precision weighing balance. The sampling ligature containing GCF was then immersed in a solution of PBS-Tween 20 and subjected to ELISA. This enabled us to monitor the volume of GCF and detect time-dependent changes in the expression of such cytokines as IL-1b, TNF-α, IL-6, RANKL, and OPG associated with the levels of alveolar bone loss, as reflected in GCF collected from a mouse model of PD. Therefore, this novel GCF sampling method can be used to measure various cytokines in GCF relative to the dynamic changes in periodontal bone loss induced in a mouse model of PD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Geostatistical Sampling Methods for Efficient Uncertainty Analysis in Flow and Transport Problems (United States)

    Liodakis, Stylianos; Kyriakidis, Phaedon; Gaganis, Petros


    In hydrogeological applications involving flow and transport of in heterogeneous porous media the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity is often parameterized in terms of a lognormal random field based on a histogram and variogram model inferred from data and/or synthesized from relevant knowledge. Realizations of simulated conductivity fields are then generated using geostatistical simulation involving simple random (SR) sampling and are subsequently used as inputs to physically-based simulators of flow and transport in a Monte Carlo framework for evaluating the uncertainty in the spatial distribution of solute concentration due to the uncertainty in the spatial distribution of hydraulic con- ductivity [1]. Realistic uncertainty analysis, however, calls for a large number of simulated concentration fields; hence, can become expensive in terms of both time and computer re- sources. A more efficient alternative to SR sampling is Latin hypercube (LH) sampling, a special case of stratified random sampling, which yields a more representative distribution of simulated attribute values with fewer realizations [2]. Here, term representative implies realizations spanning efficiently the range of possible conductivity values corresponding to the lognormal random field. In this work we investigate the efficiency of alternative methods to classical LH sampling within the context of simulation of flow and transport in a heterogeneous porous medium. More precisely, we consider the stratified likelihood (SL) sampling method of [3], in which attribute realizations are generated using the polar simulation method by exploring the geometrical properties of the multivariate Gaussian distribution function. In addition, we propose a more efficient version of the above method, here termed minimum energy (ME) sampling, whereby a set of N representative conductivity realizations at M locations is constructed by: (i) generating a representative set of N points distributed on the

  6. Arrangement and method for accommodating a sample in an electron microscope


    H.W. Zandbergen


    Abstract of NL 9402226 (A) The invention relates to an arrangement for accommodating a sample in an electron microscope, equipped with a sample holder which comprises sample accommodation means and is designed for at least partial accommodation in an electron microscope, where at least one sample mount is provided which can contain a sample in a position in which the sample is at least partially visible from the outside of the sample mount from at least two sides opposite one another, the or ...

  7. Effects of Heterogeneities, Sampling Frequencies, Tools and Methods on Uncertainties in Subsurface Contaminant Concentration Measurements (United States)

    Ezzedine, S. M.; McNab, W. W.


    Long-term monitoring (LTM) is particularly important for contaminants which are mitigated by natural processes of dilution, dispersion, and degradation. At many sites, LTM can require decades of expensive sampling at tens or even hundreds of existing monitoring wells, resulting in hundreds of thousands, or millions of dollars per year for sampling and data management. Therefore, contaminant sampling tools, methods and frequencies are chosen to minimize waste and data management costs while ensuring a reliable and informative time-history of contaminant measurement for regulatory compliance. The interplay play between cause (i.e. subsurface heterogeneities, sampling techniques, measurement frequencies) and effect (unreliable data and measurements gap) has been overlooked in many field applications which can lead to inconsistencies in time- histories of contaminant samples. In this study we address the relationship between cause and effect for different hydrogeological sampling settings: porous and fractured media. A numerical model has been developed using AMR-FEM to solve the physicochemical processes that take place in the aquifer and the monitoring well. In the latter, the flow is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations while in the former the flow is governed by the diffusivity equation; both are fully coupled to mimic stressed conditions and to assess the effect of dynamic sampling tool on the formation surrounding the monitoring well. First of all, different sampling tools (i.e., Easy Pump, Snapper Grab Sampler) were simulated in a monitoring well screened in different homogeneous layered aquifers to assess their effect on the sampling measurements. Secondly, in order to make the computer runs more CPU efficient the flow in the monitoring well was replaced by its counterpart flow in porous media with infinite permeability and the new model was used to simulate the effect of heterogeneities, sampling depth, sampling tool and sampling frequencies on the

  8. Network methods for describing sample relationships in genomic datasets: application to Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Oldham, Michael C; Langfelder, Peter; Horvath, Steve


    Genomic datasets generated by new technologies are increasingly prevalent in disparate areas of biological research. While many studies have sought to characterize relationships among genomic features, commensurate efforts to characterize relationships among biological samples have been less common. Consequently, the full extent of sample variation in genomic studies is often under-appreciated, complicating downstream analytical tasks such as gene co-expression network analysis. Here we demonstrate the use of network methods for characterizing sample relationships in microarray data generated from human brain tissue. We describe an approach for identifying outlying samples that does not depend on the choice or use of clustering algorithms. We introduce a battery of measures for quantifying the consistency and integrity of sample relationships, which can be compared across disparate studies, technology platforms, and biological systems. Among these measures, we provide evidence that the correlation between the connectivity and the clustering coefficient (two important network concepts) is a sensitive indicator of homogeneity among biological samples. We also show that this measure, which we refer to as cor(K,C), can distinguish biologically meaningful relationships among subgroups of samples. Specifically, we find that cor(K,C) reveals the profound effect of Huntington's disease on samples from the caudate nucleus relative to other brain regions. Furthermore, we find that this effect is concentrated in specific modules of genes that are naturally co-expressed in human caudate nucleus, highlighting a new strategy for exploring the effects of disease on sets of genes. These results underscore the importance of systematically exploring sample relationships in large genomic datasets before seeking to analyze genomic feature activity. We introduce a standardized platform for this purpose using freely available R software that has been designed to enable iterative and

  9. Experimental application of contour method for determination of residual stress in subsurface layers of milled sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Horák


    Full Text Available Determination of residual stress close to the sample surface is in the most cases performed by hole-drilling method, X-Ray diffraction or neutron diffraction. Each of these methods has its benefits and disadvantages. In case of diffraction methods the measurement speed is the main disadvantage. It is also very problematic to apply diffraction method in case of sample with mechanically deformed surface, for example by standard machining operations. Therefore, determined results are very often confusing and hard to interpret. On the other side, hole drilling method is less sensitive to quality of sample surface than diffraction methods, but measurement realization is quite expensive and equipment demanding (strain gage rosettes, miniature milling cutter, high speed milling machine, pc equipment,….Recently introduce contour method used for determination of residual stress inside the sample is very fast, can be performed with almost common laboratory equipment and combines traditional stance with modern numerical methods by FEM. Contour method was selected for determination of residual stress below the milled surface and the dependency of milling process quality on residual stress value is demonstrated.

  10. [Estimate methods used with complex sampling designs: their application in the Cuban 2001 health survey]. (United States)

    Cañizares Pérez, Mayilée; Barroso Utra, Isabel; Alfonso León, Alina; García Roche, René; Alfonso Sagué, Karen; Chang de la Rosa, Martha; Bonet Gorbea, Mariano; León, Esther M


    To look at the individual features of three different methods used to estimate simple parameters--means, totals, and percentages, as well as their standard errors--and of logistic regression models, and to describe how such methods can be used for analyzing data obtained from complex samples. Data from Cuba's Second National Survey of Risk Factors and Non-Communicable Chronic Ailments [Segunda Encuesta Nacional de Factores de Riesgo y Afecciones Crónicas No Transmisibles], which was conducted in 2001, were studied. A complex, stratified multi-stage cluster sampling design was used. Cuba's 14 provinces and the municipality of Isla de la Juventud served as the strata, while the clusters consisted of sampled geographic areas (SGA), blocks, and sectors. Samples were weighted in inverse proportion to their probability of being selected, and estimates were performed by sex and age group (15-34, 35-54, 55-74, and 75 or more years). Taylor approximations were used to estimate variances. Three statistical methods were compared: conventional analysis, which assumes all data were obtained through simple random sampling; weighted analysis, which only takes into account the weight of the samples when performing estimates; and adjusted analysis, which looks at all aspects of the sampling design (namely, the disparity in the probability of being included in the sample and the effect of clustering on the data). The point estimates obtained with the three different types of analytic methods were similar. Standard error (SE) estimates for the prevalence of overweight and of arterial hypertension that were obtained by conventional analysis were underestimated by 19.3% and by more than 11.5%, respectively, when such estimates were compared to those obtained with the other two analytic methods. On the other hand, weighted analysis generated SE values that were much smaller than those obtained with the other two types of analyses. The same pattern was noted when odds ratios were

  11. A comparison of microscopic and spectroscopic identification methods for analysis of microplastics in environmental samples. (United States)

    Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee; Jang, Mi; Han, Gi Myung; Rani, Manviri; Lee, Jongmyoung; Shim, Won Joon


    The analysis of microplastics in various environmental samples requires the identification of microplastics from natural materials. The identification technique lacks a standardized protocol. Herein, stereomicroscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FT-IR) identification methods for microplastics (microplastics were significantly (p0.05) different. Depending on the number of samples and the microplastic size range of interest, the appropriate identification method should be determined; selecting a suitable identification method for microplastics is crucial for evaluating microplastic pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Vrkljan


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine an optimal dissolution method for silicate rock samples for further analytical purposes. Analytical FAAS method of determining cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc content in gabbro sample and geochemical standard AGV-1 has been applied for verification. Dissolution in mixtures of various inorganic acids has been tested, as well as Na2CO3 fusion technique. The results obtained by different methods have been compared and dissolution in the mixture of HNO3 + HF has been recommended as optimal.

  13. Analysis of aroma compounds of Roselle by Dynamic Headspace Sampling using different preparation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; Varming, Camilla; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin


    The influence of different methods of sample preparation on the aroma profiles of dried Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) was studied. Least amounts of aroma compounds were recovered by analysis of whole dry calyxes (WD) followed by ground dry (GD), blended together with water (BTW), and ground...... and then mixed with water (GMW). The highest number of aroma compounds was found in Roselle treated in water bath (2hr/40°C) (GMWKB). GMW was chosen as the preparation method because it was shown to be an efficient extraction method without the possibility of excessive chemical changes of the sample....

  14. Grass thrips (Anaphothrips obscurus) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) population dynamics and sampling method comparison in timothy. (United States)

    Reisig, Dominic D; Godfrey, Larry D; Marcum, Daniel B


    Sampling studies were conducted on grass thrips, Anaphothrips obscurus (Müller) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in timothy, Phleum pratense L. These studies were used to compare the occurrence of brachypterous and macropterous thrips across sampling methods, seasons, and time of day. Information about the population dynamics of this thrips was also revealed. Three absolute and two relative methods were tested at three different dates within a season and three different daily times during four harvest periods. Thrips were counted and different phenotypes were recorded from one of the absolute methods. Absolute methods were the most similar to one another over time of day and within seasonal dates. Relative methods varied in assessing thrips population dynamics over time of day and within seasonal dates. Based on thrips collected from the plant and sticky card counts, macropterous individuals increased in the spring and summer. Thrips aerially dispersed in the summer. An absolute method, the beat cup method (rapping timothy inside a plastic cup), was among the least variable sampling methods and was faster than direct observations. These findings parallel other studies, documenting the commonality of diel and diurnal effects on sampled arthropod abundance and the seasonal effects on population abundance and structure. These studies also demonstrate that estimated population abundance can be markedly affected by temporal patterns as well as shifting adult phenotypes.


    This report compares simultaneous results from three woodstove sampling methods and evaluates particulate emission rates of conventional and Oregon-certified catalytic and noncatalytic woodstoves in six Portland, OR, houses. EPA Methods 5G and 5H and the field emission sampler (A...

  16. A simple and rapid cultural method for detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in environmental samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillaume-Gentil, O.; Sonnard, V.; Kandhai, M.C.; Marugg, J.; Joosten, H.


    A method was developed to detect and identify Enterobacter sakazakii in environmental samples. The method is based on selective enrichment at 45 ± 0.5°C in lauryl sulfate tryptose broth supplemented with 0.5 M NaCl and 10 mg/liter vancomycin (mLST) for 22 to 24 h followed by streaking on tryptone

  17. Comparisons among Small Sample Equating Methods in a Common-Item Design (United States)

    Kim, Sooyeon; Livingston, Samuel A.


    Score equating based on small samples of examinees is often inaccurate for the examinee populations. We conducted a series of resampling studies to investigate the accuracy of five methods of equating in a common-item design. The methods were chained equipercentile equating of smoothed distributions, chained linear equating, chained mean equating,…

  18. Estimating sample size for a small-quadrat method of botanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in eight plant communities in the Nylsvley Nature Reserve. Illustrates with a table. Keywords: Botanical surveys; Grass density; Grasslands; Mixed Bushveld; Nylsvley Nature Reserve; Quadrat size species density; Small-quadrat method; Species density; Species richness; botany; sample size; method; survey; south africa

  19. Sampling naturally contaminated broiler carcasses for Salmonella by three different methods (United States)

    Postchill neck skin (NS) maceration and whole carcass rinsing (WCR) are frequently used methods to detect salmonellae from commercially processed broilers. These are practical, nondestructive methods, but they are insensitive and may result in frequent false negatives (20 to 40%). NS samples only ...

  20. Mapping species distributions with MAXENT using a geographically biased sample of presence data: a performance assessment of methods for correcting sampling bias. (United States)

    Fourcade, Yoan; Engler, Jan O; Rödder, Dennis; Secondi, Jean


    MAXENT is now a common species distribution modeling (SDM) tool used by conservation practitioners for predicting the distribution of a species from a set of records and environmental predictors. However, datasets of species occurrence used to train the model are often biased in the geographical space because of unequal sampling effort across the study area. This bias may be a source of strong inaccuracy in the resulting model and could lead to incorrect predictions. Although a number of sampling bias correction methods have been proposed, there is no consensual guideline to account for it. We compared here the performance of five methods of bias correction on three datasets of species occurrence: one "virtual" derived from a land cover map, and two actual datasets for a turtle (Chrysemys picta) and a salamander (Plethodon cylindraceus). We subjected these datasets to four types of sampling biases corresponding to potential types of empirical biases. We applied five correction methods to the biased samples and compared the outputs of distribution models to unbiased datasets to assess the overall correction performance of each method. The results revealed that the ability of methods to correct the initial sampling bias varied greatly depending on bias type, bias intensity and species. However, the simple systematic sampling of records consistently ranked among the best performing across the range of conditions tested, whereas other methods performed more poorly in most cases. The strong effect of initial conditions on correction performance highlights the need for further research to develop a step-by-step guideline to account for sampling bias. However, this method seems to be the most efficient in correcting sampling bias and should be advised in most cases.

  1. [Simulation on design-based and model-based methods in descriptive analysis of complex samples]. (United States)

    Li, Yichong; Yu, Shicheng; Zhao, Yinjun; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Limin; Zhang, Mei; Jiang, Wei; Bao, Heling; Zhou, Maigeng; Jiang, Bo


    To compare design-based and model-based methods in descriptive analysis of complex sample. A total of 1 000 samples were selected and a multistage random sampling design was used in the analysis of the 2010 China chronic disease and risk factors surveillance. For each simulated sample, cases with probability proportional age were randomly deleted so that sample age structure was deviated systematically from that of the target population. Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure, as well as their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were determined using design-based and model-based methods (routine method and multi-level model). For estimators generated from those 3 methods, mean squared error(MSE) was computed to evaluate their validity. To compare performance of statistical inference of these methods, the probability of 95%CI covering the true parameter(mean SBP and raised blood pressure prevalence of the population) was used. MSE of mean estimator for routine method, design-based analysis and multilevel model was 6.41, 1.38, and 5.86, respectively; and the probability of 95%CI covering the true parameter was 24.7%, 97.5% and 84.3%, respectively. The routine method and multi-level model probably led to an increased probability of type I error in statistical inference. MSE of prevalence estimator was 4.80 for design-based method, which was far lower than those for routine method (20.9) and multilevel model (17.2). Probability of 95%CI covering the true prevalence for routine method was only 29.4%, and 86.4% for multilevel model, both of which were lower than that for design-based method (97.3%). Compared to routine method and multi-level model, design-based method had the best performance both in point estimation and confidence interval construction. Design-based method should be the first choice when doing statistical description of complex samples with a systematically biased sample structure.

  2. Flagging versus dragging as sampling methods for nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae). (United States)

    Rulison, Eric L; Kuczaj, Isis; Pang, Genevieve; Hickling, Graham J; Tsao, Jean I; Ginsberg, Howard S


    The nymphal stage of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), is responsible for most transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, to humans in North America. From 2010 to fall of 2012, we compared two commonly used techniques, flagging and dragging, as sampling methods for nymphal I. scapularis at three sites, each with multiple sampling arrays (grids), in the eastern and central United States. Flagging and dragging collected comparable numbers of nymphs, with no consistent differences between methods. Dragging collected more nymphs than flagging in some samples, but these differences were not consistent among sites or sampling years. The ratio of nymphs collected by flagging vs dragging was not significantly related to shrub density, so habitat type did not have a strong effect on the relative efficacy of these methods. Therefore, although dragging collected more ticks in a few cases, the numbers collected by each method were so variable that neither technique had a clear advantage for sampling nymphal I. scapularis. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  3. Determining optimal sample sizes for multi-stage randomized clinical trials using value of information methods. (United States)

    Willan, Andrew; Kowgier, Matthew


    Traditional sample size calculations for randomized clinical trials depend on somewhat arbitrarily chosen factors, such as Type I and II errors. An effectiveness trial (otherwise known as a pragmatic trial or management trial) is essentially an effort to inform decision-making, i.e., should treatment be adopted over standard? Taking a societal perspective and using Bayesian decision theory, Willan and Pinto (Stat. Med. 2005; 24:1791-1806 and Stat. Med. 2006; 25:720) show how to determine the sample size that maximizes the expected net gain, i.e., the difference between the cost of doing the trial and the value of the information gained from the results. These methods are extended to include multi-stage adaptive designs, with a solution given for a two-stage design. The methods are applied to two examples. As demonstrated by the two examples, substantial increases in the expected net gain (ENG) can be realized by using multi-stage adaptive designs based on expected value of information methods. In addition, the expected sample size and total cost may be reduced. Exact solutions have been provided for the two-stage design. Solutions for higher-order designs may prove to be prohibitively complex and approximate solutions may be required. The use of multi-stage adaptive designs for randomized clinical trials based on expected value of sample information methods leads to substantial gains in the ENG and reductions in the expected sample size and total cost.

  4. Method of separate determination of high-ohmic sample resistance and contact resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim A. Golubiatnikov


    Full Text Available A method of separate determination of two-pole sample volume resistance and contact resistance is suggested. The method is applicable to high-ohmic semiconductor samples: semi-insulating gallium arsenide, detector cadmium-zinc telluride (CZT, etc. The method is based on near-contact region illumination by monochromatic radiation of variable intensity from light emitting diodes with quantum energies exceeding the band gap of the material. It is necessary to obtain sample photo-current dependence upon light emitting diode current and to find the linear portion of this dependence. Extrapolation of this linear portion to the Y-axis gives the cut-off current. As the bias voltage is known, it is easy to calculate sample volume resistance. Then, using dark current value, one can determine the total contact resistance. The method was tested for n-type semi-insulating GaAs. The contact resistance value was shown to be approximately equal to the sample volume resistance. Thus, the influence of contacts must be taken into account when electrophysical data are analyzed.

  5. Flagging versus dragging as sampling methods for nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) (United States)

    Rulison, Eric L.; Kuczaj, Isis; Pang, Genevieve; Hickling, Graham J.; Tsao, Jean I.; Ginsberg, Howard S.


    The nymphal stage of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), is responsible for most transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, to humans in North America. From 2010 to fall of 2012, we compared two commonly used techniques, flagging and dragging, as sampling methods for nymphal I. scapularis at three sites, each with multiple sampling arrays (grids), in the eastern and central United States. Flagging and dragging collected comparable numbers of nymphs, with no consistent differences between methods. Dragging collected more nymphs than flagging in some samples, but these differences were not consistent among sites or sampling years. The ratio of nymphs collected by flagging vs dragging was not significantly related to shrub density, so habitat type did not have a strong effect on the relative efficacy of these methods. Therefore, although dragging collected more ticks in a few cases, the numbers collected by each method were so variable that neither technique had a clear advantage for sampling nymphal I. scapularis.

  6. Use of thermal neutron reflection method for chemical analysis of bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A., E-mail: [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, (ATOMKI), 4001 Debrecen, Pf. 51 (Hungary); Csikai, J. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, (ATOMKI), 4001 Debrecen, Pf. 51 (Hungary); Institute of Experimental Physics, University Debrecen (IEP), 4010 Debrecen-10, Pf. 105 (Hungary)


    Microscopic, σ{sub β}, and macroscopic, Σ{sub β}, reflection cross-sections of thermal neutrons averaged over bulk samples as a function of thickness (z) are given. The σ{sub β} values are additive even for bulk samples in the z=0.5–8 cm interval and so the σ{sub βmol}(z) function could be given for hydrogenous substances, including some illicit drugs, explosives and hiding materials of ∼1000 cm{sup 3} dimensions. The calculated excess counts agree with the measured R(z) values. For the identification of concealed objects and chemical analysis of bulky samples, different neutron methods need to be used simultaneously. - Highlights: • Check the proposed analytical expression for the description of the flux. • Determination of the reflection cross-sections averaged over bulk samples. • Data rendered to estimate the excess counts for various materials.

  7. Sampling methods for rumen microbial counts by Real-Time PCR techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Puppo


    Full Text Available Fresh rumen samples were withdrawn from 4 cannulated buffalo females fed a fibrous diets in order to quantify bacteria concentration in the rumen by Real-Time PCR techniques. To obtain DNA of a good quality from whole rumen fluid, eight (M1-M8 different pre-filtration methods (cheese cloths, glass-fibre and nylon filter in combination with various centrifugation speeds (1000, 5000 and 14,000 rpm were tested. Genomic DNA extraction was performed either on fresh or frozen samples (-20°C. The quantitative bacteria analysis was realized according to Real-Time PCR procedure for Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens reported in literature. M5 resulted the best sampling procedure allowing to obtain a suitable genomic DNA. No differences were revealed between fresh and frozen samples.

  8. Information sampling behavior with explicit sampling costs (United States)

    Juni, Mordechai Z.; Gureckis, Todd M.; Maloney, Laurence T.


    The decision to gather information should take into account both the value of information and its accrual costs in time, energy and money. Here we explore how people balance the monetary costs and benefits of gathering additional information in a perceptual-motor estimation task. Participants were rewarded for touching a hidden circular target on a touch-screen display. The target’s center coincided with the mean of a circular Gaussian distribution from which participants could sample repeatedly. Each “cue” — sampled one at a time — was plotted as a dot on the display. Participants had to repeatedly decide, after sampling each cue, whether to stop sampling and attempt to touch the hidden target or continue sampling. Each additional cue increased the participants’ probability of successfully touching the hidden target but reduced their potential reward. Two experimental conditions differed in the initial reward associated with touching the hidden target and the fixed cost per cue. For each condition we computed the optimal number of cues that participants should sample, before taking action, to maximize expected gain. Contrary to recent claims that people gather less information than they objectively should before taking action, we found that participants over-sampled in one experimental condition, and did not significantly under- or over-sample in the other. Additionally, while the ideal observer model ignores the current sample dispersion, we found that participants used it to decide whether to stop sampling and take action or continue sampling, a possible consequence of imperfect learning of the underlying population dispersion across trials. PMID:27429991

  9. Validation of the ANSR Listeria method for detection of Listeria spp. in environmental samples. (United States)

    Wendorf, Michael; Feldpausch, Emily; Pinkava, Lisa; Luplow, Karen; Hosking, Edan; Norton, Paul; Biswas, Preetha; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer


    ANSR Listeria is a new diagnostic assay for detection of Listeria spp. in sponge or swab samples taken from a variety of environmental surfaces. The method is an isothermal nucleic acid amplification assay based on the nicking enzyme amplification reaction technology. Following single-step sample enrichment for 16-24 h, the assay is completed in 40 min, requiring only simple instrumentation. In inclusivity testing, 48 of 51 Listeria strains tested positive, with only the three strains of L. grayi producing negative results. Further investigation showed that L. grayi is reactive in the ANSR assay, but its ability to grow under the selective enrichment conditions used in the method is variable. In exclusivity testing, 32 species of non-Listeria, Gram-positive bacteria all produced negative ANSR assay results. Performance of the ANSR method was compared to that of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service reference culture procedure for detection of Listeria spp. in sponge or swab samples taken from inoculated stainless steel, plastic, ceramic tile, sealed concrete, and rubber surfaces. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and probability of detection models. Only one surface, stainless steel, showed a significant difference in performance between the methods, with the ANSR method producing more positive results. Results of internal trials were supported by findings from independent laboratory testing. The ANSR Listeria method can be used as an accurate, rapid, and simple alternative to standard culture methods for detection of Listeria spp. in environmental samples.

  10. A Green Analytical Method Using Ultrasound in Sample Preparation for the Flow Injection Determination of Iron, Manganese, and Zinc in Soluble Solid Samples by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carmen Yebra


    Full Text Available A simple and rapid analytical method was developed for the determination of iron, manganese, and zinc in soluble solid samples. The method is based on continuous ultrasonic water dissolution of the sample (5–30 mg at room temperature followed by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination. A good precision of the whole procedure (1.2–4.6% and a sample throughput of ca. 25 samples h–1 were obtained. The proposed green analytical method has been successfully applied for the determination of iron, manganese, and zinc in soluble solid food samples (soluble cocoa and soluble coffee and pharmaceutical preparations (multivitamin tablets. The ranges of concentrations found were 21.4–25.61 μg g-1 for iron, 5.74–18.30 μg g-1 for manganese, and 33.27–57.90 μg g-1 for zinc in soluble solid food samples and 3.75–9.90 μg g-1 for iron, 0.47–5.05 μg g-1 for manganese, and 1.55–15.12 μg g-1 for zinc in multivitamin tablets. The accuracy of the proposed method was established by a comparison with the conventional wet acid digestion method using a paired t-test, indicating the absence of systematic errors.

  11. A Green Analytical Method Using Ultrasound in Sample Preparation for the Flow Injection Determination of Iron, Manganese, and Zinc in Soluble Solid Samples by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (United States)

    Yebra, M. Carmen


    A simple and rapid analytical method was developed for the determination of iron, manganese, and zinc in soluble solid samples. The method is based on continuous ultrasonic water dissolution of the sample (5–30 mg) at room temperature followed by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination. A good precision of the whole procedure (1.2–4.6%) and a sample throughput of ca. 25 samples h–1 were obtained. The proposed green analytical method has been successfully applied for the determination of iron, manganese, and zinc in soluble solid food samples (soluble cocoa and soluble coffee) and pharmaceutical preparations (multivitamin tablets). The ranges of concentrations found were 21.4–25.61 μg g−1 for iron, 5.74–18.30 μg g−1 for manganese, and 33.27–57.90 μg g−1 for zinc in soluble solid food samples and 3.75–9.90 μg g−1 for iron, 0.47–5.05 μg g−1 for manganese, and 1.55–15.12 μg g−1 for zinc in multivitamin tablets. The accuracy of the proposed method was established by a comparison with the conventional wet acid digestion method using a paired t-test, indicating the absence of systematic errors. PMID:22567553

  12. A combined method for correlative 3D imaging of biological samples from macro to nano scale (United States)

    Kellner, Manuela; Heidrich, Marko; Lorbeer, Raoul-Amadeus; Antonopoulos, Georgios C.; Knudsen, Lars; Wrede, Christoph; Izykowski, Nicole; Grothausmann, Roman; Jonigk, Danny; Ochs, Matthias; Ripken, Tammo; Kühnel, Mark P.; Meyer, Heiko


    Correlative analysis requires examination of a specimen from macro to nano scale as well as applicability of analytical methods ranging from morphological to molecular. Accomplishing this with one and the same sample is laborious at best, due to deformation and biodegradation during measurements or intermediary preparation steps. Furthermore, data alignment using differing imaging techniques turns out to be a complex task, which considerably complicates the interconnection of results. We present correlative imaging of the accessory rat lung lobe by combining a modified Scanning Laser Optical Tomography (SLOT) setup with a specially developed sample preparation method (CRISTAL). CRISTAL is a resin-based embedding method that optically clears the specimen while allowing sectioning and preventing degradation. We applied and correlated SLOT with Multi Photon Microscopy, histological and immunofluorescence analysis as well as Transmission Electron Microscopy, all in the same sample. Thus, combining CRISTAL with SLOT enables the correlative utilization of a vast variety of imaging techniques.

  13. Materials and Methods for Streamlined Laboratory Analysis of Environmental Samples, FY 2016 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addleman, Raymond S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Naes, Benjamin E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McNamara, Bruce K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olsen, Khris B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chouyyok, Wilaiwan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Willingham, David G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Spigner, Angel C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) relies upon laboratory analysis of environmental samples (typically referred to as “swipes”) collected during on-site inspections of safeguarded facilities to support the detection and deterrence of undeclared activities. Unfortunately, chemical processing and assay of the samples is slow and expensive. A rapid, effective, and simple extraction process and analysis method is needed to provide certified results with improved timeliness at reduced costs (principally in the form of reduced labor), while maintaining or improving sensitivity and efficacy. To address these safeguard needs the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) explored and demonstrated improved methods for environmental sample (ES) analysis. Improvements for both bulk and particle analysis were explored. To facilitate continuity and adoption, the new sampling materials and processing methods will be compatible with existing IAEA protocols for ES analysis. PNNL collaborated with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which performed independent validation of the new bulk analysis methods and compared performance to traditional IAEA’s Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) protocol. ORNL efforts are reported separately. This report describes PNNL’s FY 2016 progress, which was focused on analytical application supporting environmental monitoring of uranium enrichment plants and nuclear fuel processing. In the future the technology could be applied to other safeguard applications and analytes related to fuel manufacturing, reprocessing, etc. PNNL’s FY 2016 efforts were broken into two tasks and a summary of progress, accomplishments and highlights are provided below. Principal progress and accomplishments on Task 1, Optimize Materials and Methods for ICP-MS Environmental Sample Analysis, are listed below. • Completed initial procedure for rapid uranium extraction from ES swipes based upon carbonate-peroxide chemistry (delivered to ORNL for

  14. Rapid Active Sampling Package (United States)

    Peters, Gregory


    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  15. Maintaining and Enhancing Diversity of Sampled Protein Conformations in Robotics-Inspired Methods. (United States)

    Abella, Jayvee R; Moll, Mark; Kavraki, Lydia E


    The ability to efficiently sample structurally diverse protein conformations allows one to gain a high-level view of a protein's energy landscape. Algorithms from robot motion planning have been used for conformational sampling, and several of these algorithms promote diversity by keeping track of "coverage" in conformational space based on the local sampling density. However, large proteins present special challenges. In particular, larger systems require running many concurrent instances of these algorithms, but these algorithms can quickly become memory intensive because they typically keep previously sampled conformations in memory to maintain coverage estimates. In addition, robotics-inspired algorithms depend on defining useful perturbation strategies for exploring the conformational space, which is a difficult task for large proteins because such systems are typically more constrained and exhibit complex motions. In this article, we introduce two methodologies for maintaining and enhancing diversity in robotics-inspired conformational sampling. The first method addresses algorithms based on coverage estimates and leverages the use of a low-dimensional projection to define a global coverage grid that maintains coverage across concurrent runs of sampling. The second method is an automatic definition of a perturbation strategy through readily available flexibility information derived from B-factors, secondary structure, and rigidity analysis. Our results show a significant increase in the diversity of the conformations sampled for proteins consisting of up to 500 residues when applied to a specific robotics-inspired algorithm for conformational sampling. The methodologies presented in this article may be vital components for the scalability of robotics-inspired approaches.

  16. Surface Sampling Collection and Culture Methods for Escherichia coli in Household Environments with High Fecal Contamination (United States)

    Kosek, Margaret N.; Schwab, Kellogg J.


    Empiric quantification of environmental fecal contamination is an important step toward understanding the impact that water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions have on reducing enteric infections. There is a need to standardize the methods used for surface sampling in field studies that examine fecal contamination in low-income settings. The dry cloth method presented in this manuscript improves upon the more commonly used swabbing technique that has been shown in the literature to have a low sampling efficiency. The recovery efficiency of a dry electrostatic cloth sampling method was evaluated using Escherichia coli and then applied to household surfaces in Iquitos, Peru, where there is high fecal contamination and enteric infection. Side-by-side measurements were taken from various floor locations within a household at the same time over a three-month period to compare for consistency of quantification of E. coli bacteria. The dry cloth sampling method in the laboratory setting showed 105% (95% Confidence Interval: 98%, 113%) E. coli recovery efficiency off of the cloths. The field application demonstrated strong agreement of side-by-side results (Pearson correlation coefficient for dirt surfaces was 0.83 (p < 0.0001) and 0.91 (p < 0.0001) for cement surfaces) and moderate agreement for results between entrance and kitchen samples (Pearson (0.53, p < 0.0001) and weighted Kappa statistic (0.54, p < 0.0001)). Our findings suggest that this method can be utilized in households with high bacterial loads using either continuous (quantitative) or categorical (semi-quantitative) data. The standardization of this low-cost, dry electrostatic cloth sampling method can be used to measure differences between households in intervention and non-intervention arms of randomized trials. PMID:28829392

  17. Comparison between active (pumped) and passive (diffusive) sampling methods for formaldehyde in pathology and histology laboratories. (United States)

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Magrm, Rana; Kusti, Mohannad; Kashon, Michael L; Guffey, Steven; Costas, Michelle M; Boykin, Carie J; Harper, Martin


    This study was to determine occupational exposures to formaldehyde and to compare concentrations of formaldehyde obtained by active and passive sampling methods. In one pathology and one histology laboratories, exposure measurements were collected with sets of active air samplers (Supelco LpDNPH tubes) and passive badges (ChemDisk Aldehyde Monitor 571). Sixty-six sample pairs (49 personal and 17 area) were collected and analyzed by NIOSH NMAM 2016 for active samples and OSHA Method 1007 (using the manufacturer's updated uptake rate) for passive samples. All active and passive 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) measurements showed compliance with the OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL-0.75 ppm) except for one passive measurement, whereas 78% for the active and 88% for the passive samples exceeded the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL-0.016 ppm). Overall, 73% of the passive samples showed higher concentrations than the active samples and a statistical test indicated disagreement between two methods for all data and for data without outliers. The OSHA Method cautions that passive samplers should not be used for sampling situations involving formalin solutions because of low concentration estimates in the presence of reaction products of formaldehyde and methanol (a formalin additive). However, this situation was not observed, perhaps because the formalin solutions used in these laboratories included much less methanol (3%) than those tested in the OSHA Method (up to 15%). The passive samplers in general overestimated concentrations compared to the active method, which is prudent for demonstrating compliance with an occupational exposure limit, but occasional large differences may be a result of collecting aerosolized droplets or splashes on the face of the samplers. In the situations examined in this study the passive sampler generally produces higher results than the active sampler so that a body of results from passive samplers demonstrating compliance with the

  18. How Sample Size Affects a Sampling Distribution (United States)

    Mulekar, Madhuri S.; Siegel, Murray H.


    If students are to understand inferential statistics successfully, they must have a profound understanding of the nature of the sampling distribution. Specifically, they must comprehend the determination of the expected value and standard error of a sampling distribution as well as the meaning of the central limit theorem. Many students in a high…

  19. Transformation-cost time-series method for analyzing irregularly sampled data (United States)

    Ozken, Ibrahim; Eroglu, Deniz; Stemler, Thomas; Marwan, Norbert; Bagci, G. Baris; Kurths, Jürgen


    Irregular sampling of data sets is one of the challenges often encountered in time-series analysis, since traditional methods cannot be applied and the frequently used interpolation approach can corrupt the data and bias the subsequence analysis. Here we present the TrAnsformation-Cost Time-Series (TACTS) method, which allows us to analyze irregularly sampled data sets without degenerating the quality of the data set. Instead of using interpolation we consider time-series segments and determine how close they are to each other by determining the cost needed to transform one segment into the following one. Using a limited set of operations—with associated costs—to transform the time series segments, we determine a new time series, that is our transformation-cost time series. This cost time series is regularly sampled and can be analyzed using standard methods. While our main interest is the analysis of paleoclimate data, we develop our method using numerical examples like the logistic map and the Rössler oscillator. The numerical data allows us to test the stability of our method against noise and for different irregular samplings. In addition we provide guidance on how to choose the associated costs based on the time series at hand. The usefulness of the TACTS method is demonstrated using speleothem data from the Secret Cave in Borneo that is a good proxy for paleoclimatic variability in the monsoon activity around the maritime continent.

  20. The Alaska Commercial Fisheries Water Quality Sampling Methods and Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folley, G.; Pearson, L.; Crosby, C. [Alaska Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Soldotna, AK (United States); DeCola, E.; Robertson, T. [Nuka Research and Planning Group, Seldovia, AK (United States)


    A comprehensive water quality sampling program was conducted in response to the oil spill that occurred when the M/V Selendang Ayu ship ran aground near a major fishing port at Unalaska Island, Alaska in December 2004. In particular, the sampling program focused on the threat of spilled oil to the local commercial fisheries resources. Spill scientists were unable to confidently model the movement of oil away from the wreck because of limited oceanographic data. In order to determine which fish species were at risk of oil contamination, a real-time assessment of how and where the oil was moving was needed, because the wreck became a continual source of oil release for several weeks after the initial grounding. The newly developed methods and procedures used to detect whole oil during the sampling program will be presented in the Alaska Commercial Fisheries Water Quality Sampling Methods and Procedures Manual which is currently under development. The purpose of the manual is to provide instructions to spill managers while they try to determine where spilled oil has or has not been encountered. The manual will include a meaningful data set that can be analyzed in real time to assess oil movement and concentration. Sections on oil properties and processes will be included along with scientific water quality sampling methods for whole and dissolved phase oil to assess potential contamination of commercial fishery resources and gear in Alaska waters during an oil spill. The manual will present a general discussion of factors that should be considered when designing a sampling program after a spill. In order to implement Alaska's improved seafood safety measures, the spatial scope of spilled oil must be known. A water quality sampling program can provide state and federal fishery managers and food safety inspectors with important information as they identify at-risk fisheries. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Improved method for isotopic and quantitative analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon in natural water samples. (United States)

    Assayag, Nelly; Rivé, Karine; Ader, Magali; Jézéquel, Didier; Agrinier, Pierre


    We present here an improved and reliable method for measuring the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and its isotope composition (delta(13)C(DIC)) in natural water samples. Our apparatus, a gas chromatograph coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GCIRMS), runs in a quasi-automated mode and is able to analyze about 50 water samples per day. The whole procedure (sample preparation, CO(2(g))-CO(2(aq)) equilibration time and GCIRMS analysis) requires 2 days. It consists of injecting an aliquot of water into a H(3)PO(4)-loaded and He-flushed 12 mL glass tube. The H(3)PO(4) reacts with the water and converts the DIC into aqueous and gaseous CO(2). After a CO(2(g))-CO(2(aq)) equilibration time of between 15 and 24 h, a portion of the headspace gas (mainly CO(2)+He) is introduced into the GCIRMS, to measure the carbon isotope ratio of the released CO(2(g)), from which the delta(13)C(DIC) is determined via a calibration procedure. For standard solutions with DIC concentrations ranging from 1 to 25 mmol . L(-1) and solution volume of 1 mL (high DIC concentration samples) or 5 mL (low DIC concentration samples), delta(13)C(DIC) values are determined with a precision (1sigma) better than 0.1 per thousand. Compared with previously published headspace equilibration methods, the major improvement presented here is the development of a calibration procedure which takes the carbon isotope fractionation associated with the CO(2(g))-CO(2(aq)) partition into account: the set of standard solutions and samples has to be prepared and analyzed with the same 'gas/liquid' and 'H(3)PO(4)/water' volume ratios. A set of natural water samples (lake, river and hydrothermal springs) was analyzed to demonstrate the utility of this new method.

  2. Non-invasive sampling methods for the detection of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in archived amphibians. (United States)

    Soto-Azat, C; Clarke, B T; Fisher, M C; Walker, S F; Cunningham, A A


    Chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibians caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is associated with amphibian population declines worldwide. Investigation of the origin and spread of the pathogen requires examination of archived museum specimens of amphibians. Examination for Bd infection is usually done using histological techniques, which are often too destructive for valuable museum material. Three alternative methods for Bd detection (skin swabbing, brushing and scraping) were evaluated for ability to yield Bd DNA and destructiveness to specimens. Archived amphibians known to be Bd positive and which had been preserved in either formalin or ethanol for many years were used. Samples were analysed using a Bd-specific quantitative real-time Taqman PCR (qPCR) assay. There was no difference in the ability of each of the techniques to detect Bd infection, with the pathogen being detected in 75 to 81% of the 16 ethanol-fixed frogs examined. Visible evidence of sampling was left by scraping, but not by swabbing or brushing. The brush-qPCR technique detected higher counts of genomic equivalents than the other 2 sampling methods, although differences were not statistically significant. The qPCR assay did not detect Bd from any of the 6 formalin-fixed frogs examined, regardless of the sampling method. Nondestructive sampling techniques enable qPCR analysis of ethanol-preserved museum specimens for Bd. Recently, the incorporation of DNA cleanup steps allowed the detection of Bd in destructively sampled tissues from formalin preserved specimens. Further studies using nondestructive sampling incorporating DNA cleanup steps for the detection of Bd in formalin preserved specimens are warranted.

  3. A simple sample preparation method for measuring amoxicillin in human plasma by hollow fiber centrifugal ultrafiltration. (United States)

    Dong, Wei-Chong; Hou, Zi-Li; Jiang, Xin-Hui; Jiang, Ye


    A simple sample preparation method has been developed for the determination of amoxicillin in human plasma by hollow fiber centrifugal ultrafiltration (HF-CF-UF). A 400-μL plasma sample was placed directly into the HF-CF-UF device, which consisited of a slim glass tube and a U-shaped hollow fiber. After centrifugation at 1.25 × 10(3) g for 10 min, the filtrate was withdrawn from the hollow fiber and 20 µL was directly injected into the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for analysis. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.1-20 µg/mL (r = 0.9996) and the limit of detection was as low as 0.025 µg/mL. The average recovery and absolute recovery were 99.9% and 84.5%, respectively. Both the intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were less than 3.1% for three concentrations (0.25, 2.5 and 10 µg/mL). The sample preparation process was simplified. Only after a single centrifugal ultrafiltration can the filtrate be injected directly into HPLC. The present method is simple, sensitive and accurate. It could be effective for the analysis of biological samples with high protein contents, especially for the biopharmaceutical analysis of drugs that use traditional isolation techniques for sample preparation such as the protein precipitation method.

  4. Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) (United States)

    ... Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Chorionic villus sampling Chorionic villus sampling E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... It's been added to your dashboard . Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a prenatal test . It’s used to ...

  5. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  6. An Optimized Method for Quantification of Pathogenic Leptospira in Environmental Water Samples. (United States)

    Riediger, Irina N; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Biondo, Alexander W; Ko, Albert I; Stoddard, Robyn A


    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease usually acquired by contact with water contaminated with urine of infected animals. However, few molecular methods have been used to monitor or quantify pathogenic Leptospira in environmental water samples. Here we optimized a DNA extraction method for the quantification of leptospires using a previously described Taqman-based qPCR method targeting lipL32, a gene unique to and highly conserved in pathogenic Leptospira. QIAamp DNA mini, MO BIO PowerWater DNA and PowerSoil DNA Isolation kits were evaluated to extract DNA from sewage, pond, river and ultrapure water samples spiked with leptospires. Performance of each kit varied with sample type. Sample processing methods were further evaluated and optimized using the PowerSoil DNA kit due to its performance on turbid water samples and reproducibility. Centrifugation speeds, water volumes and use of Escherichia coli as a carrier were compared to improve DNA recovery. All matrices showed a strong linearity in a range of concentrations from 106 to 10° leptospires/mL and lower limits of detection ranging from Leptospira in environmental waters (river, pond and sewage) which consists of the concentration of 40 mL samples by centrifugation at 15,000×g for 20 minutes at 4°C, followed by DNA extraction with the PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit. Although the method described herein needs to be validated in environmental studies, it potentially provides the opportunity for effective, timely and sensitive assessment of environmental leptospiral burden.

  7. Samples 9 (2010)


    Arbeitskreis Studium Populärer Musik e.V. (ASPM)


    SCHWERPUNKTTHEMA. SAMPLING IM HIPHOP Gastherausgeber: Oliver Kautny und Adam Krims. Oliver Kautny: Talkin´ All That Jazz - Ein Plädoyer für die Analyse des Sampling im HipHop (Editorial). Adam Krims: Sampling in Scholarship (english editorial). Mark Katz: Sampling before Sampling. The Link Between DJ and Producer. Sascha Klammt aka Quasi Modo: Das Sample - eine einzigartige Momentaufnahme als Basis für eine neue Komposition. Detlev Rick aka DJ Rick Ski: Die Entstehung des A...

  8. MDMS: Molecular dynamics meta-simulator for evaluating exchange type sampling methods (United States)

    Smith, Daniel B.; Okur, Asim; Brooks, Bernard R.


    Replica exchange methods have become popular tools to explore conformational space for small proteins. For larger biological systems, even with enhanced sampling methods, exploring the free energy landscape remains computationally challenging. This problem has led to the development of many improved replica exchange methods. Unfortunately, testing these methods remains expensive. We propose a molecular dynamics meta-simulator (MDMS) based on transition state theory to simulate a replica exchange simulation, eliminating the need to run explicit dynamics between exchange attempts. MDMS simulations allow for rapid testing of new replica exchange based methods, greatly reducing the amount of time needed for new method development.

  9. The influence of sampling site and assay method on lactate concentration in response to rock climbing. (United States)

    Draper, Nick; Brent, Simon; Hale, Beverley; Coleman, Ian


    The sport of rock climbing has increased in popularity and as a focus for research. Previous studies have examined the physiological determinants for successful performance. Variation is evident between studies over lactate sampling sites and assay methods. The aim of this study was to examine the limits of agreement between the YSI 2300 analyser and the Lactate Pro for finger and ear capillary blood samples in a climbing context. Forty-five (31 males and 14 females) participants volunteered to complete the climbing trial. Blood samples were collected simultaneously from finger and ear pre, post and 5 min post climb. The repeatability results indicated a good agreement across samples. Modelling analysis indicated the use of a -0.175 mmol l(-1) adjustment to move from Lactate Pro to YSI finger concentrations. To move from finger to ear concentrations, using the Lactate Pro, modelling analysis suggested a regression equation of Y = 0.827x + 0.769 adjustment for pre climb samples and Y = 0.955x + 0.566 for post climb concentrations. To better understand the physiological demands of climbing further research on natural rock is required. Results from this study suggest the Lactate Pro and blood sampling from the ear lobe could be of benefit to future rock climbing field studies.

  10. Melting Temperature Mapping Method: A Novel Method for Rapid Identification of Unknown Pathogenic Microorganisms within Three Hours of Sample Collection. (United States)

    Niimi, Hideki; Ueno, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Shirou; Abe, Akihito; Tsurue, Takahiro; Mori, Masashi; Tabata, Homare; Minami, Hiroshi; Goto, Michihiko; Akiyama, Makoto; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Saito, Shigeru; Kitajima, Isao


    Acquiring the earliest possible identification of pathogenic microorganisms is critical for selecting the appropriate antimicrobial therapy in infected patients. We herein report the novel "melting temperature (Tm) mapping method" for rapidly identifying the dominant bacteria in a clinical sample from sterile sites. Employing only seven primer sets, more than 100 bacterial species can be identified. In particular, using the Difference Value, it is possible to identify samples suitable for Tm mapping identification. Moreover, this method can be used to rapidly diagnose the absence of bacteria in clinical samples. We tested the Tm mapping method using 200 whole blood samples obtained from patients with suspected sepsis, 85% (171/200) of which matched the culture results based on the detection level. A total of 130 samples were negative according to the Tm mapping method, 98% (128/130) of which were also negative based on the culture method. Meanwhile, 70 samples were positive according to the Tm mapping method, and of the 59 suitable for identification, 100% (59/59) exhibited a "match" or "broad match" with the culture or sequencing results. These findings were obtained within three hours of whole blood collection. The Tm mapping method is therefore useful for identifying infectious diseases requiring prompt treatment.

  11. Error baseline rates of five sample preparation methods used to characterize RNA virus populations. (United States)

    Kugelman, Jeffrey R; Wiley, Michael R; Nagle, Elyse R; Reyes, Daniel; Pfeffer, Brad P; Kuhn, Jens H; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Palacios, Gustavo F


    Individual RNA viruses typically occur as populations of genomes that differ slightly from each other due to mutations introduced by the error-prone viral polymerase. Understanding the variability of RNA virus genome populations is critical for understanding virus evolution because individual mutant genomes may gain evolutionary selective advantages and give rise to dominant subpopulations, possibly even leading to the emergence of viruses resistant to medical countermeasures. Reverse transcription of virus genome populations followed by next-generation sequencing is the only available method to characterize variation for RNA viruses. However, both steps may lead to the introduction of artificial mutations, thereby skewing the data. To better understand how such errors are introduced during sample preparation, we determined and compared error baseline rates of five different sample preparation methods by analyzing in vitro transcribed Ebola virus RNA from an artificial plasmid-based system. These methods included: shotgun sequencing from plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a basic "no amplification" method, amplicon sequencing from the plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a "targeted" amplification method, sequence-independent single-primer amplification (SISPA) as a "random" amplification method, rolling circle reverse transcription sequencing (CirSeq) as an advanced "no amplification" method, and Illumina TruSeq RNA Access as a "targeted" enrichment method. The measured error frequencies indicate that RNA Access offers the best tradeoff between sensitivity and sample preparation error (1.4-5) of all compared methods.

  12. Evaluation of a gas chromatography method for azelaic acid determination in selected biological samples (United States)

    Garelnabi, Mahdi; Litvinov, Dmitry; Parthasarathy, Sampath


    Background: Azelaic acid (AzA) is the best known dicarboxilic acid to have pharmaceutical benefits and clinical applications and also to be associated with some diseases pathophysiology. Materials and Methods: We extracted and methylesterified AzA and determined its concentration in human plasma obtained from healthy individuals and also in mice fed AzA containing diet for three months. Results: AzA was detected in Gas Chromatography (GC) and confirmed by Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS), and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMC). Our results have shown that AzA can be determined efficiently in selected biological samples by GC method with 1nM limit of detection (LoD) and the limit of quantification (LoQ); was established at 50nM. Analytical Sensitivity as assayed by hexane demonstrated an analytical sensitivity at 0.050nM. The method has demonstrated 8-10% CV batch repeatability across the sample types and 13-18.9% CV for the Within-Lab Precision analysis. The method has shown that AzA can efficiently be recovered from various sample preparation including liver tissue homogenate (95%) and human plasma (97%). Conclusions: Because of its simplicity and lower limit of quantification, the present method provides a useful tool for determining AzA in various biological sample preparations. PMID:22558586

  13. Laser based water equilibration method for d18O determination of water samples (United States)

    Mandic, Magda; Smajgl, Danijela; Stoebener, Nils


    Determination of d18O with water equilibration method using mass spectrometers equipped with equilibration unit or Gas Bench is known already for many years. Now, with development of laser spectrometers this extends methods and possibilities to apply different technologies in laboratory but also in the field. The Thermo Scientific™ Delta Ray™ Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectrometer (IRIS) analyzer with the Universal Reference Interface (URI) Connect and Teledyne Cetac ASX-7100 offers high precision and throughput of samples. It employs optical spectroscopy for continuous measurement of isotope ratio values and concentration of carbon dioxide in ambient air, and also for analysis of discrete samples from vials, syringes, bags, or other user-provided sample containers. Test measurements and conformation of precision and accuracy of method determination d18O in water samples were done in Thermo Fisher application laboratory with three lab standards, namely ANST, Ocean II and HBW. All laboratory standards were previously calibrated with international reference material VSMOW2 and SLAP2 to assure accuracy of the isotopic values of the water. With method that we present in this work achieved repeatability and accuracy are 0.16‰ and 0.71‰, respectively, which fulfill requirements of regulatory method for wine and must after equilibration with CO2.

  14. Establishment of a method of anonymization of DNA samples in genetic research. (United States)

    Hara, Kazuo; Ohe, Kazuhiko; Kadowaki, Takashi; Kato, Naoya; Imai, Yasushi; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nagai, Ryozo; Omata, Masao


    As the number of the genetic studies has rapidly increased in recent years, there has been growing concern that the privacy of the participants in such studies can be invaded unless effective measures are adopted to protect confidentiality. It is crucial for the scientific community to establish a method to anonymize DNA samples so that the public will trust genetic researchers. Here, we present a reliable and practical method of making DNA samples used in the genetic research anonymous. It assures complete anonymity by coding samples and personal information twice. Since it does not require equipment, such as bar-code readers or a software package, its cost is nominal compared with the laboratory costs. All institutions engaged in genetic research may wish to take measures such as the one described here to ensure the privacy and confidentiality of the participants in their genetic studies.

  15. Study on a pattern classification method of soil quality based on simplified learning sample dataset (United States)

    Zhang, Jiahua; Liu, S.; Hu, Y.; Tian, Y.


    Based on the massive soil information in current soil quality grade evaluation, this paper constructed an intelligent classification approach of soil quality grade depending on classical sampling techniques and disordered multiclassification Logistic regression model. As a case study to determine the learning sample capacity under certain confidence level and estimation accuracy, and use c-means algorithm to automatically extract the simplified learning sample dataset from the cultivated soil quality grade evaluation database for the study area, Long chuan county in Guangdong province, a disordered Logistic classifier model was then built and the calculation analysis steps of soil quality grade intelligent classification were given. The result indicated that the soil quality grade can be effectively learned and predicted by the extracted simplified dataset through this method, which changed the traditional method for soil quality grade evaluation. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  16. Multicenter validation of PCR-based method for detection of Salmonella in chicken and pig samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malorny, B.; Cook, N.; D'Agostino, M.


    and pig swab samples. The 3 levels were 1-10, 10-100, and 100-1000 colony-forming units (CFU)/100 mL. Sample preparations, including inoculation and pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water (BPW), were performed centrally in a German laboratory; the pre-PCR sample preparation (by a resin-based method......As part of a standardization project, an interlaboratory trial including 15 laboratories from 13 European countries was conducted to evaluate the performance of a noproprietary polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for the detection of Salmonella on artificially contaminated chicken rinse......) and PCR assay (gel electrophoresis detection) were performed by the receiving laboratories. Aliquots of BPW enrichment cultures were sent to the participants, who analyzed them using a thermal lysis procedure followed by a validated Salmonella-specific PCR assay. The results were reported as negative...

  17. Analysis of training sample selection strategies for regression-based quantitative landslide susceptibility mapping methods (United States)

    Erener, Arzu; Sivas, A. Abdullah; Selcuk-Kestel, A. Sevtap; Düzgün, H. Sebnem


    All of the quantitative landslide susceptibility mapping (QLSM) methods requires two basic data types, namely, landslide inventory and factors that influence landslide occurrence (landslide influencing factors, LIF). Depending on type of landslides, nature of triggers and LIF, accuracy of the QLSM methods differs. Moreover, how to balance the number of 0 (nonoccurrence) and 1 (occurrence) in the training set obtained from the landslide inventory and how to select which one of the 1's and 0's to be included in QLSM models play critical role in the accuracy of the QLSM. Although performance of various QLSM methods is largely investigated in the literature, the challenge of training set construction is not adequately investigated for the QLSM methods. In order to tackle this challenge, in this study three different training set selection strategies along with the original data set is used for testing the performance of three different regression methods namely Logistic Regression (LR), Bayesian Logistic Regression (BLR) and Fuzzy Logistic Regression (FLR). The first sampling strategy is proportional random sampling (PRS), which takes into account a weighted selection of landslide occurrences in the sample set. The second method, namely non-selective nearby sampling (NNS), includes randomly selected sites and their surrounding neighboring points at certain preselected distances to include the impact of clustering. Selective nearby sampling (SNS) is the third method, which concentrates on the group of 1's and their surrounding neighborhood. A randomly selected group of landslide sites and their neighborhood are considered in the analyses similar to NNS parameters. It is found that LR-PRS, FLR-PRS and BLR-Whole Data set-ups, with order, yield the best fits among the other alternatives. The results indicate that in QLSM based on regression models, avoidance of spatial correlation in the data set is critical for the model's performance.

  18. Preparation of Samples for Leaf Architecture Studies, A Method for Mounting Cleared Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Vasco


    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Several recent waves of interest in leaf architecture have shown an expanding range of approaches and applications across a number of disciplines. Despite this increased interest, examination of existing archives of cleared and mounted leaves shows that current methods for mounting, in particular, yield unsatisfactory results and deterioration of samples over relatively short periods. Although techniques for clearing and staining leaves are numerous, published techniques for mounting leaves are scarce. Methods and Results: Here we present a complete protocol and recommendations for clearing, staining, and imaging leaves, and, most importantly, a method to permanently mount cleared leaves. Conclusions: The mounting protocol is faster than other methods, inexpensive, and straightforward; moreover, it yields clear and permanent samples that can easily be imaged, scanned, and stored. Specimens mounted with this method preserve well, with leaves that were mounted more than 35 years ago showing no signs of bubbling or discoloration.

  19. Rapid, sensitive and cost effective method for isolation of viral DNA from feacal samples of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A simple method for viral DNA extraction using chelex resin was developed. The method used was eco-friendly and cost effective compared to other methods such as phenol chloroform method which use health hazardous organic reagents. Further, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR based detection of canine parvovirus (CPV using primers from conserved region of VP2 gene was developed. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of reaction, nested PCR was designed. PCR reaction was optimized to amplify 747bp product of VP2 gene. The assay can be completed in few hours and doesn’t need hazardous chemicals. Thus, the sample preparation using chelating resin along with nested PCR seems to be a sensitive, specific and practical method for the detection of CPV in diarrhoeal feacal samples. [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000: 105-106

  20. A thickness measurement method for biological samples using lensed-fiber sensors (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hyun; Ilev, Ilko K.; Han, Young-Geun


    We present a simple fiber-optic confocal method for high-precision thickness measurement of optically transparent and non-transparent objects that require noncontact measurement. The method is based on measurement of confocal backreflection responses from the opposite surfaces of objects, which imposes inessential limitations on the shape, thickness, and transparency of testing objects. A novel reference comparison method to eliminate additional errors existing commonly in confocal microscope designs is adapted. The measurement error highly depends on the axial response of confocal microscope, and was measured to be 5.0 μm using a single-mode optical fiber construction, 60× objective lenses, and a 658-nm-wavelength laser source. We demonstrate the method using lensed-fiber sensors, which reduces the size of the experimental setup so that the method can be utilized for smaller samples at in-vivo situation. We demonstrate the proof-of-concept measurement using biological samples.

  1. A quick method based on SIMPLISMA-KPLS for simultaneously selecting outlier samples and informative samples for model standardization in near infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Li, Li-Na; Ma, Chang-Ming; Chang, Ming; Zhang, Ren-Cheng


    A novel method based on SIMPLe-to-use Interactive Self-modeling Mixture Analysis (SIMPLISMA) and Kernel Partial Least Square (KPLS), named as SIMPLISMA-KPLS, is proposed in this paper for selection of outlier samples and informative samples simultaneously. It is a quick algorithm used to model standardization (or named as model transfer) in near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The NIR experiment data of the corn for analysis of the protein content is introduced to evaluate the proposed method. Piecewise direct standardization (PDS) is employed in model transfer. And the comparison of SIMPLISMA-PDS-KPLS and KS-PDS-KPLS is given in this research by discussion of the prediction accuracy of protein content and calculation speed of each algorithm. The conclusions include that SIMPLISMA-KPLS can be utilized as an alternative sample selection method for model transfer. Although it has similar accuracy to Kennard-Stone (KS), it is different from KS as it employs concentration information in selection program. This means that it ensures analyte information is involved in analysis, and the spectra (X) of the selected samples is interrelated with concentration (y). And it can be used for outlier sample elimination simultaneously by validation of calibration. According to the statistical data results of running time, it is clear that the sample selection process is more rapid when using KPLS. The quick algorithm of SIMPLISMA-KPLS is beneficial to improve the speed of online measurement using NIR spectroscopy.

  2. A method to correct sampling ghosts in historic near-infrared Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dohe


    Full Text Available The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON has been established to provide ground-based remote sensing measurements of the column-averaged dry air mole fractions (DMF of key greenhouse gases. To ensure network-wide consistency, biases between Fourier transform spectrometers at different sites have to be well controlled. Errors in interferogram sampling can introduce significant biases in retrievals. In this study we investigate a two-step scheme to correct these errors. In the first step the laser sampling error (LSE is estimated by determining the sampling shift which minimises the magnitude of the signal intensity in selected, fully absorbed regions of the solar spectrum. The LSE is estimated for every day with measurements which meet certain selection criteria to derive the site-specific time series of the LSEs. In the second step, this sequence of LSEs is used to resample all the interferograms acquired at the site, and hence correct the sampling errors. Measurements acquired at the Izaña and Lauder TCCON sites are used to demonstrate the method. At both sites the sampling error histories show changes in LSE due to instrument interventions (e.g. realignment. Estimated LSEs are in good agreement with sampling errors inferred from the ratio of primary and ghost spectral signatures in optically bandpass-limited tungsten lamp spectra acquired at Lauder. The original time series of Xair and XCO2 (XY: column-averaged DMF of the target gas Y at both sites show discrepancies of 0.2–0.5% due to changes in the LSE associated with instrument interventions or changes in the measurement sample rate. After resampling, discrepancies are reduced to 0.1% or less at Lauder and 0.2% at Izaña. In the latter case, coincident changes in interferometer alignment may also have contributed to the residual difference. In the future the proposed method will be used to correct historical spectra at all TCCON sites.

  3. A nonlethal sampling method to obtain, generate and assemble whole blood transcriptomes from small, wild mammals. (United States)

    Huang, Zixia; Gallot, Aurore; Lao, Nga T; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Foley, Nicole M; Jebb, David; Bekaert, Michaël; Teeling, Emma C


    The acquisition of tissue samples from wild populations is a constant challenge in conservation biology, especially for endangered species and protected species where nonlethal sampling is the only option. Whole blood has been suggested as a nonlethal sample type that contains a high percentage of bodywide and genomewide transcripts and therefore can be used to assess the transcriptional status of an individual, and to infer a high percentage of the genome. However, only limited quantities of blood can be nonlethally sampled from small species and it is not known if enough genetic material is contained in only a few drops of blood, which represents the upper limit of sample collection for some small species. In this study, we developed a nonlethal sampling method, the laboratory protocols and a bioinformatic pipeline to sequence and assemble the whole blood transcriptome, using Illumina RNA-Seq, from wild greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis). For optimal results, both ribosomal and globin RNAs must be removed before library construction. Treatment of DNase is recommended but not required enabling the use of smaller amounts of starting RNA. A large proportion of protein-coding genes (61%) in the genome were expressed in the blood transcriptome, comparable to brain (65%), kidney (63%) and liver (58%) transcriptomes, and up to 99% of the mitogenome (excluding D-loop) was recovered in the RNA-Seq data. In conclusion, this nonlethal blood sampling method provides an opportunity for a genomewide transcriptomic study of small, endangered or critically protected species, without sacrificing any individuals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Bats from Fazenda Intervales, Southeastern Brazil: species account and comparison between different sampling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine V. Portfors


    Full Text Available Assessing the composition of an area's bat fauna is typically accomplished by using captures or by monitoring echolocation calls with bat detectors. The two methods may not provide the same data regarding species composition. Mist nets and harp traps may be biased towards sampling low flying species, and bat detectors biased towards detecting high intensity echolocators. A comparison of the bat fauna of Fazenda Intervales, southeastern Brazil, as revealed by mist nets and harp trap captures, checking roosts and by monitoring echolocation calls of flying bats illustrates this point. A total of 17 species of bats was sampled. Fourteen bat species were captured and the echolocation calls of 12 species were recorded, three of them not revealed by mist nets or harp traps. The different sampling methods provided different pictures of the bat fauna. Phyllostomid bats dominated the catches in mist nets, but in the field their echolocation calls were never detected. No single sampling approach provided a complete assessment of the bat fauna in the study area. In general, bats producing low intensity echolocation calls, such as phyllostomids, are more easily assessed by netting, and bats producing high intensity echolocation calls are better surveyed by bat detectors. The results demonstrate that a combined and varied approach to sampling is required for a complete assessment of the bat fauna of an area.

  5. Structural and magnetic properties evolution study method using a single ribbon-shaped sample (United States)

    Moya, Javier A.


    A new type of study is presented for magnetic and structural characterization of amorphous or nanocrystalline metallic alloys in ribbon or wire-shaped samples. A single sample is subjecting to successive steps of flash isocurrent heat treatments with increasing duration in time, followed by a rapid cooling, while magneto-electric properties evolution are scanned in situ at room temperature. When one set of isocurrent heat treatments is finished, the annealing current is increased and a new set of isocurrent treatments starts. The properties studied were the saturation magnetization and the coercive field at 50 Hz, magnetic permeability at 100 kHz and electrical resistance from where we also obtained the crystalline fraction. The method was applied on two samples of Finemet-like alloys and the results were analyzed from the perspective of current literature. With the present method it is possible to obtain a general and meticulous understanding of the structural and magnetic evolution of the samples tested, with a considerable saving of time and samples.

  6. Comparison of sample preparation methods for detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by PCR. (United States)

    Maass, M; Dalhoff, K


    Amplification inhibitors can lead to false-negative results for PCR. In order to evaluate the reliability of PCR for the detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae, the presence of PCR inhibitors in 75 bronchoalveolar lavage specimens was assessed after treatment by various sample preparation methods. Specimens were collected from patients with acute respiratory infections, including four cases of proven C. pneumoniae infection. Substances inhibitory to the amplification of chlamydial DNA continued to be present in 12% of the samples treated according to the commonly used single-step proteinase K digestion and in 31% of the samples processed by heat treatment. However, the complexing of DNA-contaminating proteins and polysaccharides from digested specimens to cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) followed by DNA extraction efficiently removed inhibitors from all experimental samples and provided subsequent identification of all positive clinical samples by PCR. The CTAB method and proteinase K treatment had comparable detection limits of approximately 0.01 inclusion-forming units. CTAB-based DNA purification of respiratory specimens is recommended to increase the diagnostic sensitivity of PCR and confidence in negative results. Images PMID:7814512

  7. Method and apparatus for maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling (United States)

    Farthing, William Earl [Pinson, AL; Felix, Larry Gordon [Pelham, AL; Snyder, Todd Robert [Birmingham, AL


    An apparatus and method for diluting and cooling that is extracted from high temperature and/or high pressure industrial processes. Through a feedback process, a specialized, CFD-modeled dilution cooler is employed along with real-time estimations of the point at which condensation will occur within the dilution cooler to define a level of dilution and diluted gas temperature that results in a gas that can be conveyed to standard gas analyzers that contains no condensed hydrocarbon compounds or condensed moisture.

  8. Method and apparatus maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling (United States)

    Farthing, William Earl; Felix, Larry Gordon; Snyder, Todd Robert


    An apparatus and method for diluting and cooling that is extracted from high temperature and/or high pressure industrial processes. Through a feedback process, a specialized, CFD-modeled dilution cooler is employed along with real-time estimations of the point at which condensation will occur within the dilution cooler to define a level of dilution and diluted gas temperature that results in a gas that can be conveyed to standard gas analyzers that contains no condensed hydrocarbon compounds or condensed moisture.

  9. Steered transition path sampling. (United States)

    Guttenberg, Nicholas; Dinner, Aaron R; Weare, Jonathan


    We introduce a path sampling method for obtaining statistical properties of an arbitrary stochastic dynamics. The method works by decomposing a trajectory in time, estimating the probability of satisfying a progress constraint, modifying the dynamics based on that probability, and then reweighting to calculate averages. Because the progress constraint can be formulated in terms of occurrences of events within time intervals, the method is particularly well suited for controlling the sampling of currents of dynamic events. We demonstrate the method for calculating transition probabilities in barrier crossing problems and survival probabilities in strongly diffusive systems with absorbing states, which are difficult to treat by shooting. We discuss the relation of the algorithm to other methods.

  10. Using the Experience Sampling Method in the Context of Contingency Management for Substance Abuse Treatment (United States)

    Husky, Mathilde M.; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Barry, Danielle; Petry, Nancy M.


    Contingency management (CM) treatments have been shown to be effective in reducing substance use. This manuscript illustrates how the experience sampling method (ESM) can depict behavior and behavior change and can be used to explore CM treatment mechanisms. ESM characterizes idiosyncratic patterns of behavior and offers the potential to determine…

  11. A self-sampling method to obtain large volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions. (United States)

    Boskey, Elizabeth R; Moench, Thomas R; Hees, Paul S; Cone, Richard A


    Studies of vaginal physiology and pathophysiology sometime require larger volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions than can be obtained by current methods. A convenient method for self-sampling these secretions outside a clinical setting can facilitate such studies of reproductive health. The goal was to develop a vaginal self-sampling method for collecting large volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions. A menstrual collection device (the Instead cup) was inserted briefly into the vagina to collect secretions that were then retrieved from the cup by centrifugation in a 50-ml conical tube. All 16 women asked to perform this procedure found it feasible and acceptable. Among 27 samples, an average of 0.5 g of secretions (range, 0.1-1.5 g) was collected. This is a rapid and convenient self-sampling method for obtaining relatively large volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions. It should prove suitable for a wide range of assays, including those involving sexually transmitted diseases, microbicides, vaginal physiology, immunology, and pathophysiology.

  12. Highly Effective DNA Extraction Method from Fresh, Frozen, Dried and Clotted Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Barar


    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, with the tremendous potential of genomics and other recent advances in science, the role of science to improve reliable DNA extraction methods is more relevant than ever before. The ideal process for genomic DNA extraction demands high quantities of pure, integral and intact genomic DNA (gDNA from the sample with minimal co-extraction of inhibitors of downstream processes. Here, we report the development of a very rapid, less-hazardous, and high throughput protocol for extracting of high quality DNA from blood samples. Methods: Dried, clotted and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA treated fresh and frozen blood samples were extracted using this method in which the quality and integrity of the extracted DNA were corroborated by agarose gel electrophoresis, PCR reaction and DNA digestion using restricted enzyme. The UV spectrophotometric and gel electrophoresis analysis resulted in high A260/A280 ratio (>1.8 with high intactness of DNA. Results: PCR and DNA digestion experiments indicated that the final solutions of extracted DNA contained no inhibitory substances, which confirms that the isolated DNA is of good quality. Conclusion: The high quality and quantity of current method, no enzymatic processing and accordingly its low cost, make it appropriate for DNA extraction not only from human but also from animal blood samples in any molecular biology labs.

  13. Evaluation of surface sampling method performance for Bacillus Spores on clean and dirty outdoor surfaces.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Einfeld, Wayne; Boucher, Raymond M.; Brown, Gary Stephen; Tezak, Matthew Stephen


    Recovery of Bacillus atrophaeous spores from grime-treated and clean surfaces was measured in a controlled chamber study to assess sampling method performance. Outdoor surfaces investigated by wipe and vacuum sampling methods included stainless steel, glass, marble and concrete. Bacillus atrophaeous spores were used as a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis spores in this study designed to assess whether grime-coated surfaces significantly affected surface sampling method performance when compared to clean surfaces. A series of chamber tests were carried out in which known amounts of spores were allowed to gravitationally settle onto both clean and dirty surfaces. Reference coupons were co-located with test coupons in all chamber experiments to provide a quantitative measure of initial surface concentrations of spores on all surfaces, thereby allowing sampling recovery calculations. Results from these tests, carried out under both low and high humidity conditions, show that spore recovery from grime-coated surfaces is the same as or better than spore recovery from clean surfaces. Statistically significant differences between method performance for grime-coated and clean surfaces were observed in only about half of the chamber tests conducted.

  14. Protein Profile study of clinical samples using Laser Induced Fluorescence as the detection method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Raja, Sujatha N.; Rai, Lavanya


      Protein profiles of tissue homogenates were recorded using HPLC separation and LIF detection method. The samples were collected from volunteers with clinically normal or cervical cancer conditions. It is shown that the protein profile can be classified as belonging to malignant or normal state ...

  15. Impact of culture media and sampling methods on Staphylococcus aureus aerosols. (United States)

    Chang, C-W; Wang, L-J


    Staphylococcus aureus has been detected indoors and is associated with human infection. Reliable quantification of S. aureus using a sampling technique followed by culture assay helps in assessing the risks of human exposure. The efficiency of five culture media and eight sampling methods in recovering S. aureus aerosols were evaluated. Methods to extract cells from filters were also studied. Tryptic soy agar (TSA) presented greater bacterial recovery than mannitol salt agar (MSA), CHROMagar staph aureus, Chapman stone medium, and Baird-Park agarose (P filters and 2-min vortex of polycarbonate (PC) filters. Evaluation of two filtration (IOM with gelatin filter and cassette with PC filter), two impaction (Andersen 1-STG loaded with TSA and MSA) and four impingement methods [AGI-30 and BioSampler filled with Tween mixture (TM) and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)] revealed the BioSampler/TM performed best over 30 and 60 min of sampling (P < 0.05), while low recovery efficiencies were associated with the IOM/gelatin, cassette/PC, and AGI-30/PBS combinations (P < 0.05). In addition to BioSampler/TM, collecting S. aureus onto TSA from the Andersen 1-STG is also recommended, as it is the second best method at the 60-min sampling (P < 0.05). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Measurement of nasal nitric oxide : evaluation of six different sampling methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter-de Groot, K. M.; van der Ent, C. K.

    Specific guidelines are developed for the measurement of bronchial FE(NO), however, nasal nitric oxide (nNO) measurement is not standardised yet, resulting in divergent nNO values. This study compares six different sampling methods for nNO as described in the literature, to analyse their outcome and

  17. Precise confidence intervals of regression-based reference limits: Method comparisons and sample size requirements. (United States)

    Shieh, Gwowen


    Covariate-dependent reference limits have been extensively applied in biology and medicine for determining the substantial magnitude and relative importance of quantitative measurements. Confidence interval and sample size procedures are available for studying regression-based reference limits. However, the existing popular methods employ different technical simplifications and are applicable only in certain limited situations. This paper describes exact confidence intervals of regression-based reference limits and compares the exact approach with the approximate methods under a wide range of model configurations. Using the ratio between the widths of confidence interval and reference interval as the relative precision index, optimal sample size procedures are presented for precise interval estimation under expected ratio and tolerance probability considerations. Simulation results show that the approximate interval methods using normal distribution have inaccurate confidence limits. The exact confidence intervals dominate the approximate procedures in one- and two-sided coverage performance. Unlike the current simplifications, the proposed sample size procedures integrate all key factors including covariate features in the optimization process and are suitable for various regression-based reference limit studies with potentially diverse configurations. The exact interval estimation has theoretical and practical advantages over the approximate methods. The corresponding sample size procedures and computing algorithms are also presented to facilitate the data analysis and research design of regression-based reference limits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Statistical methods for genetic association studies with response-selective sampling designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balliu, Brunilda


    This dissertation describes new statistical methods designed to improve the power of genetic association studies. Of particular interest are studies with a response-selective sampling design, i.e. case-control studies of unrelated individuals and case-control studies of family members. The

  19. Assessment of dust sampling methods for the study of cultivable-microorganism exposure in stables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Normand, A.C.; Vacheyrou, M.; Sudre, B.; Heederik, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542; Piarroux, R.


    Studies have shown a link between living on a farm, exposure to microbial components (e.g., endotoxins or beta-d-glucans), and a lower risk for allergic diseases and asthma. Due to the lack of validated sampling methods, studies of asthma and atopy have not relied on exposure assessment based on

  20. Race and Research Methods Anxiety in an Undergraduate Sample: The Potential Effects of Self-Perception (United States)

    Eckberg, Deborah A.


    This study explores race as a potential predictor of research methods anxiety among a sample of undergraduates. While differences in academic achievement based on race and ethnicity have been well documented, few studies have examined racial differences in anxiety with regard to specific subject matter in undergraduate curricula. This exploratory…

  1. Development of sampling methods for the slash pine flower thrips Gnophothrips fuscus (Morgan), (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) (United States)

    Carl W. Fatzinger; Wayne N. Dixen


    Slash pine flower thrips typically destroy about 24% of the flowers (cones) present in slash pine seed orchards. The seasonal distribution and abundance of slash pine flower thrips are being investigated and methods for sampling field populations of the insect are being evaluated for potential use in integrated pest management strategies. The efficacies of several...

  2. 46 CFR 160.010-7 - Methods of sampling, inspections and tests. (United States)


    ... manufacturer— (1) Uses the same plastic buoyancy foam used in previous production lots, (2) Determines that the... plastic buoyancy foam controls permitted as an alternative to the buoyancy test in paragraph (e) of this... Vessels § 160.010-7 Methods of sampling, inspections and tests. (a) General. Production tests must be...

  3. Evaluation of three sampling methods for the microbiological analysis of broiler carcasses after immersion chilling. (United States)

    Giombelli, Audecir; Cavani, Ricardo; Gloria, Maria Beatriz Abreu


    Countries have different official programs and implement different sampling methods for the detection of Salmonella on poultry carcasses. In Brazil, a 25-g sample of skin and muscle excision (SME) from the wings, neck, and pericloacal parts is used; in the European Union (EU), a 25-g sample of neck skin (NSE) is used; and, in the United States, the whole carcass is rinsed with 400 ml of diluent (WCR). In the present study, these methods were evaluated to compare Salmonella occurrence and counts of hygiene indicator microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, and total viable count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria) using different carcasses from the same flock and also using different analytical units taken from the same carcass. Eighty flocks, with four broiler carcasses from each, were included in this study; three broilers were sampled according to protocols from Brazil, the EU, and the United States, and the last one by all three methods. SME, NSE, and WCR provided equivalent results (P > 0.05) for Salmonella detection on broiler carcasses when using different carcasses from the same flock and when using the same carcass. The predominant serovar was Salmonella Enteritidis. For the enumeration of hygiene indicator microorganisms, WRC provided higher counts than SME or NSE (P < 0.05), when using both the same or different carcasses. Therefore, it is possible to directly compare Salmonella results in poultry carcasses when using the methods recommended by the legislative bodies of Brazil, the United States, and the EU. However, WCR provides the best results for hygiene indicator microorganisms.

  4. Comparative study of methods for DNA preparation from olive oil samples to identify cultivar SSR alleles in commercial oil samples: possible forensic applications. (United States)

    Breton, Catherine; Claux, Delphine; Metton, Isabelle; Skorski, Gilbert; Bervillé, André


    Virgin olive oil is made from diverse cultivars either mixed or single. Those ensure different tastes and typicity, and these may be also enhanced by the region of production of cultivars. The different olive oil labels correspond to their chemical composition and acidity. Labels also may correspond to a protected origin indication, and thus, such oils contain a given composition in cultivars. To verify the main cultivars used at the source of an olive oil sample, our method is based on DNA technology. DNA is present in all olive oil samples and even in refined oil, but the quantity may depend on the oil processing technology and oil conservation conditions. Thus, several supports were used to retain DNA checking different techniques (silica extraction, hydroxyapatite, magnetic beads, and spun column) to prepare DNA from variable amounts of oil. At this stage, it was usable for amplification through PCR technology and especially with the magnetic beads, and further purification processes were checked. Finally, the final method used magnetic beads. DNA is released from beads in a buffer. Once purified, we showed that it did not contain compounds inhibiting PCR amplification using SSR primers. Aliquot dilution fractions of this solution were successfully routinely used through PCR with different SSR primer sets. This enables confident detection of eventual alien alleles in oil samples. First applied to virgin oil samples of known composition, either single cultivars or mixtures of them, the method was verified working on commercial virgin oil samples using bottles bought in supermarkets. Last, we defined a protocol starting from 2 x 40 mL virgin olive oil, and DNA was prepared routinely in about 5 h. It was convenient to genotype together several loci per sample to check whether alleles were in accordance with those of expected cultivars. Thus, forensic applications of our method are expected. However, the method needs further improvement to work on all oil samples.

  5. Assessing five field sampling methods to monitor Yellowstone National Park's northern ungulate winter range: the advantages and disadvantages of implementing a new sampling protocol (United States)

    Pamela G. Sikkink; Roy Renkin; Geneva Chong; Art Sikkink


    The five field sampling methods tested for this study differed in richness and Simpson's Index values calculated from the raw data. How much the methods differed, and which ones were most similar to each other, depended on which diversity measure and which type of data were used for comparisons. When the number of species (richness) was used as a measure of...

  6. Statistical methods for detecting differentially abundant features in clinical metagenomic samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Robert White


    Full Text Available Numerous studies are currently underway to characterize the microbial communities inhabiting our world. These studies aim to dramatically expand our understanding of the microbial biosphere and, more importantly, hope to reveal the secrets of the complex symbiotic relationship between us and our commensal bacterial microflora. An important prerequisite for such discoveries are computational tools that are able to rapidly and accurately compare large datasets generated from complex bacterial communities to identify features that distinguish them.We present a statistical method for comparing clinical metagenomic samples from two treatment populations on the basis of count data (e.g. as obtained through sequencing to detect differentially abundant features. Our method, Metastats, employs the false discovery rate to improve specificity in high-complexity environments, and separately handles sparsely-sampled features using Fisher's exact test. Under a variety of simulations, we show that Metastats performs well compared to previously used methods, and significantly outperforms other methods for features with sparse counts. We demonstrate the utility of our method on several datasets including a 16S rRNA survey of obese and lean human gut microbiomes, COG functional profiles of infant and mature gut microbiomes, and bacterial and viral metabolic subsystem data inferred from random sequencing of 85 metagenomes. The application of our method to the obesity dataset reveals differences between obese and lean subjects not reported in the original study. For the COG and subsystem datasets, we provide the first statistically rigorous assessment of the differences between these populations. The methods described in this paper are the first to address clinical metagenomic datasets comprising samples from multiple subjects. Our methods are robust across datasets of varied complexity and sampling level. While designed for metagenomic applications, our software

  7. Development of a sampling and analysis method for 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene in air. (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Tangprakorn, Bantoon; Yoosook, Witaya; Chantanakul, Suttinun


    The purpose of this research was to develop an applicable sampling and analytical method to determine airborne 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene concentrations which are usually found in the atmosphere of polybutadiene factories. A solid sorbent tube, containing two sections (100 mg in the front and 50 mg in the back) of activated coconut-shell charcoal was chosen for sampling 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene vapor. The 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene in the charcoal samples was desorbed with carbon disulfide and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector. The suitable air flow rate, adsorption capacity, sample storage stability, desorption efficiency and reliability of the method for sampling and analysis of 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene were evaluated. The method was applied to sampling and analysis of 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene in the rubber industry. The results indicated a suitable air flow rate of 0.3 to 1.5 l/min. The adsorption capacity of 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene on 100 mg of charcoal was 0.2134 mg. The 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene adsorbed on the charcoal was stable for 7 d at room temperature or 21 d in a refrigerated condition. The average percent desorption efficiency of 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene ranged from 90.45% to 97.04% with the loaded amount ranging from 0.412 to 8.250 microg using 1 ml carbon disulfide. The limit of detection of 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene was 0.044 ng. The average percent recoveries (n=6) of 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene adsorbed on charcoal ranging from 0.46 to 8.87 microg were 96.78-102.87% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.34-1.92%, respectively. The concentrations of 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene ranged from 0.011 to 0.105 mg/m(3) in the working environment of a polybutadiene factory.

  8. A Bayesian adaptive blinded sample size adjustment method for risk differences. (United States)

    Hartley, Andrew Montgomery


    Adaptive sample size adjustment (SSA) for clinical trials consists of examining early subsets of on trial data to adjust estimates of sample size requirements. Blinded SSA is often preferred over unblinded SSA because it obviates many logistical complications of the latter and generally introduces less bias. On the other hand, current blinded SSA methods for binary data offer little to no new information about the treatment effect, ignore uncertainties associated with the population treatment proportions, and/or depend on enhanced randomization schemes that risk partial unblinding. I propose an innovative blinded SSA method for use when the primary analysis is a non-inferiority or superiority test regarding a risk difference. The method incorporates evidence about the treatment effect via the likelihood function of a mixture distribution. I compare the new method with an established one and with the fixed sample size study design, in terms of maximization of an expected utility function. The new method maximizes the expected utility better than do the comparators, under a range of assumptions. I illustrate the use of the proposed method with an example that incorporates a Bayesian hierarchical model. Lastly, I suggest topics for future study regarding the proposed methods. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A general method to determine sampling windows for nonlinear mixed effects models with an application to population pharmacokinetic studies. (United States)

    Foo, Lee Kien; McGree, James; Duffull, Stephen


    Optimal design methods have been proposed to determine the best sampling times when sparse blood sampling is required in clinical pharmacokinetic studies. However, the optimal blood sampling time points may not be feasible in clinical practice. Sampling windows, a time interval for blood sample collection, have been proposed to provide flexibility in blood sampling times while preserving efficient parameter estimation. Because of the complexity of the population pharmacokinetic models, which are generally nonlinear mixed effects models, there is no analytical solution available to determine sampling windows. We propose a method for determination of sampling windows based on MCMC sampling techniques. The proposed method attains a stationary distribution rapidly and provides time-sensitive windows around the optimal design points. The proposed method is applicable to determine sampling windows for any nonlinear mixed effects model although our work focuses on an application to population pharmacokinetic models. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Arrangement and method for accommodating a sample in an electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, H.W.


    Abstract of NL 9402226 (A) The invention relates to an arrangement for accommodating a sample in an electron microscope, equipped with a sample holder which comprises sample accommodation means and is designed for at least partial accommodation in an electron microscope, where at least one sample

  11. A sampling method for estimating the accuracy of predicted breeding values in genetic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laloë Denis


    Full Text Available Abstract A sampling-based method for estimating the accuracy of estimated breeding values using an animal model is presented. Empirical variances of true and estimated breeding values were estimated from a simulated n-sample. The method was validated using a small data set from the Parthenaise breed with the estimated coefficient of determination converging to the true values. It was applied to the French Salers data file used for the 2000 on-farm evaluation (IBOVAL of muscle development score. A drawback of the method is its computational demand. Consequently, convergence can not be achieved in a reasonable time for very large data files. Two advantages of the method are that a it is applicable to any model (animal, sire, multivariate, maternal effects... and b it supplies off-diagonal coefficients of the inverse of the mixed model equations and can therefore be the basis of connectedness studies.

  12. Whither RDS? An investigation of Respondent Driven Sampling as a method of recruiting mainstream marijuana users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousineau Marie-Marthe


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important challenge in conducting social research of specific relevance to harm reduction programs is locating hidden populations of consumers of substances like cannabis who typically report few adverse or unwanted consequences of their use. Much of the deviant, pathologized perception of drug users is historically derived from, and empirically supported, by a research emphasis on gaining ready access to users in drug treatment or in prison populations with higher incidence of problems of dependence and misuse. Because they are less visible, responsible recreational users of illicit drugs have been more difficult to study. Methods This article investigates Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS as a method of recruiting experienced marijuana users representative of users in the general population. Based on sampling conducted in a multi-city study (Halifax, Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver, and compared to samples gathered using other research methods, we assess the strengths and weaknesses of RDS recruitment as a means of gaining access to illicit substance users who experience few harmful consequences of their use. Demographic characteristics of the sample in Toronto are compared with those of users in a recent household survey and a pilot study of Toronto where the latter utilized nonrandom self-selection of respondents. Results A modified approach to RDS was necessary to attain the target sample size in all four cities (i.e., 40 'users' from each site. The final sample in Toronto was largely similar, however, to marijuana users in a random household survey that was carried out in the same city. Whereas well-educated, married, whites and females in the survey were all somewhat overrepresented, the two samples, overall, were more alike than different with respect to economic status and employment. Furthermore, comparison with a self-selected sample suggests that (even modified RDS recruitment is a cost-effective way of

  13. NIST-Traceable NMR Method to Determine Quantitative Weight Percentage Purity of Mustard (HD) Feedstock Samples (United States)


    ECBC-TR-1506 NIST-TRACEABLE NMR METHOD TO DETERMINE QUANTITATIVE WEIGHT PERCENTAGE PURITY OF MUSTARD (HD) FEEDSTOCK SAMPLES David J...McGarvey RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE William R. Creasy LEIDOS, INC. Abingdon, MD 21009-1261 Theresa R. Connell EXCET, INC...Jan 2012–May 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NIST-Traceable NMR Method to Determine Quantitative Weight Percentage Purity of Mustard (HD) Feedstock

  14. Detection of PRRSV in 218 field samples using six molecular methods: What we are looking for?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toplak, Ivan; Štukelj, Marina; Gracieux, Patrice


    Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity and the specificity of six molecular methods used for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Methods 218 field samples (serum, tissues) were collected between 2009 and 2011 from 50 PRRSV p......-time) Continuesly follow the genetic evaluation of especially Type I PRRSV subtype viruses and regularly update their primer sequences....

  15. Determination of rare-earth elements in Luna 16 regolith sample by chemical spectral method (United States)

    Stroganova, N. S.; Ryabukhin, V. A.; Laktinova, N. V.; Ageyeva, L. V.; Galkina, I. P.; Gatinskaya, N. G.; Yermakov, A. N.; Karyakin, A. V.


    An analysis was made of regolith from layer A of the Luna 16 sample for rare earth elements, by a chemical spectral method. Chemical and ion exchange concentrations were used to determine the content of 12 elements and Y at the level 0.001 to 0.0001 percent with 10 to 15 percent reproducibility of the emission determination. Results within the limits of reproducibility agree with data obtained by mass spectra, activation, and X-ray fluorescent methods.

  16. Preparation of Biological Samples Containing Metoprolol and Bisoprolol for Applying Methods for Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Mahu Ştefania


    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension is a complex disease with many serious complications, representing a leading cause of mortality. Selective beta-blockers such as metoprolol and bisoprolol are frequently used in the management of hypertension. Numerous analytical methods have been developed for the determination of these substances in biological fluids, such as liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography. Due to the complex composition of biological fluids a biological sample pre-treatment before the use of the method for quantitative determination is required in order to remove proteins and potential interferences. The most commonly used methods for processing biological samples containing metoprolol and bisoprolol were identified through a thorough literature search using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Willey Journals databases. Articles published between years 2005-2015 were reviewed. Protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction are the main techniques for the extraction of these drugs from plasma, serum, whole blood and urine samples. In addition, numerous other techniques have been developed for the preparation of biological samples, such as dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, carrier-mediated liquid phase microextraction, hollow fiber-protected liquid phase microextraction, on-line molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction. The analysis of metoprolol and bisoprolol in human plasma, urine and other biological fluids provides important information in clinical and toxicological trials, thus requiring the application of appropriate extraction techniques for the detection of these antihypertensive substances at nanogram and picogram levels.

  17. A simple and rapid cultural method for detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in environmental samples. (United States)

    Guillaume-Gentil, O; Sonnard, V; Kandhai, M C; Marugg, J D; Joosten, H


    A method was developed to detect and identify Enterobacter sakazakii in environmental samples. The method is based on selective enrichment at 45+/-0.5 degrees C in lauryl sulfate tryptose broth supplemented with 0.5 M NaCl and 10 mg/liter vancomycin (mLST) for 22 to 24 h followed by streaking on tryptone soy agar with bile salts. When exposed to light during incubation at 37 degrees C, E. sakazakii produces yellow colonies within 24 h; identification was confirmed by testing for alpha-glucosidase activity and by using API 20E strips. All of the E. sakazakii strains tested (n = 99) were able to grow in mLST at 45+/-0.5 degrees C, whereas 35 of 39 strains of potential competitors, all belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae, were suppressed. A survey was carried out with 192 environmental samples from four different milk powder factories. Using this new protocol, E. sakazakii was isolated from almost 40% of the samples, whereas the reference procedure (enrichment in buffered peptone water, isolation on violet red bile glucose agar, and biochemical identification of randomly chosen colonies) only yielded 26% positive results. This selective method can be very useful for the rapid and reliable detection of E. sakazakii in environmental samples.

  18. Direct Contact Sorptive Extraction: A Robust Method for Sampling Plant Volatiles in the Field. (United States)

    Kfoury, Nicole; Scott, Eric; Orians, Colin; Robbat, Albert


    Plants produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with diverse structures and functions, which change in response to environmental stimuli and have important consequences for interactions with other organisms. To understand these changes, in situ sampling is necessary. In contrast to dynamic headspace (DHS), which is the most often employed method, direct contact sampling employing a magnetic stir bar held in place by a magnet eliminates artifacts produced by enclosing plant materials in glass or plastic chambers. Direct-contact sorptive extraction (DCSE) using polydimethylsiloxane coated stir bars (Twisters) coated stir bars is more sensitive than DHS, captures a wider range of compounds, minimizes VOC collection from neighboring plants, and distinguishes the effects of herbivory in controlled and field conditions. Because DCSE is relatively inexpensive and simple to employ, scalability of field trials can be expanded concomitant with increased sample replication. The sensitivity of DCSE combined with the spectral deconvolution data analysis software makes the two ideal for comprehensive, in situ profiling of plant volatiles.

  19. Regression modeling of particle size distributions in urban storm water: advancements through improved sample collection methods (United States)

    Fienen, Michael N.; Selbig, William R.


    A new sample collection system was developed to improve the representation of sediment entrained in urban storm water by integrating water quality samples from the entire water column. The depth-integrated sampler arm (DISA) was able to mitigate sediment stratification bias in storm water, thereby improving the characterization of suspended-sediment concentration and particle size distribution at three independent study locations. Use of the DISA decreased variability, which improved statistical regression to predict particle size distribution using surrogate environmental parameters, such as precipitation depth and intensity. The performance of this statistical modeling technique was compared to results using traditional fixed-point sampling methods and was found to perform better. When environmental parameters can be used to predict particle size distributions, environmental managers have more options when characterizing concentrations, loads, and particle size distributions in urban runoff.

  20. Survey of sampling-based methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Helton, Jon Craig; Sallaberry, Cedric J. PhD. (.; .); Storlie, Curt B. (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO)


    Sampling-based methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are reviewed. The following topics are considered: (1) Definition of probability distributions to characterize epistemic uncertainty in analysis inputs, (2) Generation of samples from uncertain analysis inputs, (3) Propagation of sampled inputs through an analysis, (4) Presentation of uncertainty analysis results, and (5) Determination of sensitivity analysis results. Special attention is given to the determination of sensitivity analysis results, with brief descriptions and illustrations given for the following procedures/techniques: examination of scatterplots, correlation analysis, regression analysis, partial correlation analysis, rank transformations, statistical tests for patterns based on gridding, entropy tests for patterns based on gridding, nonparametric regression analysis, squared rank differences/rank correlation coefficient test, two dimensional Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, tests for patterns based on distance measures, top down coefficient of concordance, and variance decomposition.

  1. An improved method for the analysis of volatile polyfluorinated alkyl substances in environmental air samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnke, Annika; Ahrens, Lutz [Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Geesthacht (Germany); University of Lueneburg, Institute for Ecology and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Lueneburg (Germany); Ebinghaus, Ralf; Temme, Christian [Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Geesthacht (Germany); Berger, Urs [Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Polar Environmental Centre, Tromsoe (Norway); Stockholm University, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm (Sweden); Barber, Jonathan L. [Lancaster University, Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lancaster (United Kingdom)


    This article describes the optimisation and validation of an analytical method for the determination of volatile polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in environmental air samples. Airborne fluorinated telomer alcohols (FTOHs) as well as fluorinated sulfonamides and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSAs/FOSEs) were enriched on glass-fibre filters (GFFs), polyurethane foams (PUFs) and XAD-2 resin by means of high-volume air samplers. Sensitive and selective determination was performed using gas chromatography/chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry (GC/CI-MS). Five mass-labelled internal standard (IS) compounds were applied to ensure the accuracy of the analytical results. No major blank problems were encountered. Recovery experiments were performed, showing losses of the most volatile compounds during extraction and extract concentration as well as strong signal enhancement for FOSEs due to matrix effects. Breakthrough experiments revealed losses of the most volatile FTOHs during sampling, while FOSAs/FOSEs were quantitatively retained. Both analyte losses and matrix effects could be remediated by application of adequate mass-labelled IS. Method quantification limits (MQLs) of the optimised method ranged from 0.2 to 2.5 pg/m{sup 3} for individual target compounds. As part of the method validation, an interlaboratory comparison of instrumental quantification methods was conducted. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by means of environmental air samples from an urban and a rural location in Northern Germany. (orig.)

  2. Sampling in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry


    A basic knowledge of the Theory of Sampling (TOS) and a set of only eight sampling unit operations is all the practical sampler needs to ensure representativeness of samples extracted from all kinds of lots: production batches, - truckloads, - barrels, sub-division in the laboratory, sampling...... in nature and in the field (environmental sampling, forestry, geology, biology), from raw materials or manufactory processes etc. We here can only give a brief introduction to the Fundamental Sampling Principle (FSP) and these eight Sampling Unit Operations (SUO’s). Always respecting FSP and invoking only...

  3. Characterization of specimens obtained by different sampling methods for evaluation of periodontal bacteria. (United States)

    Okada, Ayako; Sogabe, Kaoru; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Okamoto, Masaaki; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro


    Quantitative analysis of periodontal bacteria is considered useful for clinical diagnosis, evaluation and assessment of the risk of periodontal disease. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of sampling of saliva, supragingival and subgingival plaque for evaluation of periodontal bacteria. From each of 12 subjects, i) subgingival plaque was collected from the deepest pocket using a sterile paper point, ii) stimulated whole saliva was collected after chewing gum, and iii) supragingival plaque was collected using a tooth brush. These samples were sent to the medical examination laboratory for quantitative analysis of the counts of three periodontal bacterial species: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia. The proportions of these bacteria in subgingival plaque were higher than those in saliva or supragingival plaque, but lower in subgingival plaque than in saliva or supragingival plaque. In several cases, periodontal bacteria were below the levels of detection in subgingival plaque. We concluded that samples taken from subgingival plaque may be more useful for evaluating the proportion of periodontal bacteria in deep pockets than is the case for other samples. Therefore, for evaluation of periodontal bacteria, clinicians should consider the characteristics of the specimens obtained using different sampling methods.

  4. [An optimal selection method of samples of calibration set and validation set for spectral multivariate analysis]. (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhao, Zhong; Yuan, Hong-Fu; Song, Chun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Yu


    The side effects in spectral multivariate modeling caused by the uneven distribution of sample numbers in the region of the calibration set and validation set were analyzed, and the "average" phenomenon that samples with small property values are predicted with larger values, and those with large property values are predicted with less values in spectral multivariate calibration is showed in this paper. Considering the distribution feature of spectral space and property space simultaneously, a new method of optimal sample selection named Rank-KS is proposed. Rank-KS aims at improving the uniformity of calibration set and validation set. Y-space was divided into some regions uniformly, samples of calibration set and validation set were extracted by Kennard-Stone (KS) and Random-Select (RS) algorithm respectively in every region, so the calibration set was distributed evenly and had a strong presentation. The proposed method were applied to the prediction of dimethylcarbonate (DMC) content in gasoline with infrared spectra and dimethylsulfoxide in its aqueous solution with near infrared spectra. The "average" phenomenon showed in the prediction of multiple linear regression (MLR) model of dimethylsulfoxide was weakened effectively by Rank-KS. For comparison, the MLR models and PLS1 models of MDC and dimethylsulfoxide were constructed by using RS, KS, Rank-Select, sample set partitioning based on joint X- and Y-blocks (SPXY) and proposed Rank-KS algorithms to select the calibration set, respectively. Application results verified that the best prediction was achieved by using Rank-KS. Especially, for the distribution of sample set with more in the middle and less on the boundaries, or none in the local, prediction of the model constructed by calibration set selected using Rank-KS can be improved obviously.

  5. A headspace SPME-GC-ECD method suitable for determination of chlorophenols in water samples. (United States)

    de Morais, Paulo; Stoichev, Teodor; Basto, M Clara P; Carvalho, Pedro N; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D


    A headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detector (HS-SPME-GC-ECD) method was optimized for the determination of seven chlorophenols (CPs) with different levels of chlorination. This is the first time that HS-SPME-GC-ECD with acetylation of the analytes is used for the simultaneous determination of CPs in water samples. The influence of fibre type, derivatization conditions, salt addition, temperature and time of extraction and temperature of desorption was checked. Possible sources of contamination and analyte losses were considered. The best results were obtained with the polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene fibre, derivatization by acetylation using 100 μL of acetic anhydride and 0.1 g of anhydrous sodium carbonate per 10 mL of sample, salt addition of 100 g L(-1) sodium chloride, extraction at 70 °C for 60 min and desorption in the GC injector at 260 °C for 6 min. The limits of detection (LOD) for monochlorophenols were 12 and 122 ng L(-1) for 2-chlorophenol and 4-chlorophenol, respectively. For polychlorinated CPs, the LODs were lower than 6 ng L(-1), values similar to the existing methods that use SPME with derivatization for CPs determination in water samples. The method is suitable for the determination of CPs in most environmental aqueous samples. Repeatability and reproducibility were less than 16.8% and 11.7%, respectively. The optimized method was successfully applied for the analysis of waters with complex matrices such as river and estuarine water samples.

  6. Characterization and validation of sampling and analytical methods for mycotoxins in workplace air. (United States)

    Jargot, Danièle; Melin, Sandrine


    Mycotoxins are produced by certain plant or foodstuff moulds under growing, transport or storage conditions. They are toxic for humans and animals, some are carcinogenic. Methods to monitor occupational exposure to seven of the most frequently occurring airborne mycotoxins have been characterized and validated. Experimental aerosols have been generated from naturally contaminated particles for sampler evaluation. Air samples were collected on foam pads, using the CIP 10 personal aerosol sampler with its inhalable health-related aerosol fraction selector. The samples were subsequently solvent extracted from the sampling media, cleaned using immunoaffinity (IA) columns and analyzed by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Ochratoxin A (OTA) or fumonisin and aflatoxin derivatives were detected and quantified. The quantification limits were 0.015 ng m(-3) OTA, 1 ng m(-3) fumonisins or 0.5 pg m(-3) aflatoxins, with a minimum dust concentration level of 1 mg m(-3) and a 4800 L air volume sampling. The methods were successfully applied to field measurements, which confirmed that workers could be exposed when handling contaminated materials. It was observed that airborne particles may be more contaminated than the bulk material itself. The validated methods have measuring ranges fully adapted to the concentrations found in the workplace. Their performance meets the general requirements laid down for chemical agent measurement procedures, with an expanded uncertainty less than 50% for most mycotoxins. The analytical uncertainty, comprised between 14 and 24%, was quite satisfactory given the low mycotoxin amounts, when compared to the food benchmarks. The methods are now user-friendly enough to be adopted for personal workplace sampling. They will later allow for mycotoxin occupational risk assessment, as only very few quantitative data have been available till now.

  7. Final Report for X-ray Diffraction Sample Preparation Method Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ely, T. M.; Meznarich, H. K.; Valero, T.


    WRPS-1500790, “X-ray Diffraction Saltcake Sample Preparation Method Development Plan/Procedure,” was originally prepared with the intent of improving the specimen preparation methodology used to generate saltcake specimens suitable for XRD-based solid phase characterization. At the time that this test plan document was originally developed, packed powder in cavity supports with collodion binder was the established XRD specimen preparation method. An alternate specimen preparation method less vulnerable, if not completely invulnerable to preferred orientation effects, was desired as a replacement for the method.

  8. Real-Time PCR Method for Detection of Salmonella spp. in Environmental Samples. (United States)

    Kasturi, Kuppuswamy N; Drgon, Tomas


    The methods currently used for detecting Salmonella in environmental samples require 2 days to produce results and have limited sensitivity. Here, we describe the development and validation of a real-time PCR Salmonella screening method that produces results in 18 to 24 h. Primers and probes specific to the gene invA , group D, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis organisms were designed and evaluated for inclusivity and exclusivity using a panel of 329 Salmonella isolates representing 126 serovars and 22 non- Salmonella organisms. The invA - and group D-specific sets identified all the isolates accurately. The PCR method had 100% inclusivity and detected 1 to 2 copies of Salmonella DNA per reaction. Primers specific for Salmonella -differentiating fragment 1 (Sdf-1) in conjunction with the group D set had 100% inclusivity for 32 S Enteritidis isolates and 100% exclusivity for the 297 non-Enteritidis Salmonella isolates. Single-laboratory validation performed on 1,741 environmental samples demonstrated that the PCR method detected 55% more positives than the V itek i mmuno d iagnostic a ssay s ystem (VIDAS) method. The PCR results correlated well with the culture results, and the method did not report any false-negative results. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis documented excellent agreement between the results from the culture and PCR methods (area under the curve, 0.90; 95% confidence interval of 0.76 to 1.0) confirming the validity of the PCR method. IMPORTANCE This validated PCR method detects 55% more positives for Salmonella in half the time required for the reference method, VIDAS. The validated PCR method will help to strengthen public health efforts through rapid screening of Salmonella spp. in environmental samples.

  9. Development of high performance liquid chromatography method for miconazole analysis in powder sample (United States)

    Hermawan, D.; Suwandri; Sulaeman, U.; Istiqomah, A.; Aboul-Enein, H. Y.


    A simple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed in this study for the analysis of miconazole, an antifungal drug, in powder sample. The optimized HPLC system using C8 column was achieved using mobile phase composition containing methanol:water (85:15, v/v), a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, and UV detection at 220 nm. The calibration graph was linear in the range from 10 to 50 mg/L with r 2 of 0.9983. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) obtained were 2.24 mg/L and 7.47 mg/L, respectively. The present HPLC method is applicable for the determination of miconazole in the powder sample with a recovery of 101.28 % (RSD = 0.96%, n = 3). The developed HPLC method provides short analysis time, high reproducibility and high sensitivity.

  10. On analysis-based two-step interpolation methods for randomly sampled seismic data (United States)

    Yang, Pengliang; Gao, Jinghuai; Chen, Wenchao


    Interpolating the missing traces of regularly or irregularly sampled seismic record is an exceedingly important issue in the geophysical community. Many modern acquisition and reconstruction methods are designed to exploit the transform domain sparsity of the few randomly recorded but informative seismic data using thresholding techniques. In this paper, to regularize randomly sampled seismic data, we introduce two accelerated, analysis-based two-step interpolation algorithms, the analysis-based FISTA (fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm) and the FPOCS (fast projection onto convex sets) algorithm from the IST (iterative shrinkage-thresholding) algorithm and the POCS (projection onto convex sets) algorithm. A MATLAB package is developed for the implementation of these thresholding-related interpolation methods. Based on this package, we compare the reconstruction performance of these algorithms, using synthetic and real seismic data. Combined with several thresholding strategies, the accelerated convergence of the proposed methods is also highlighted.

  11. Determination of bromate in water samples using post column derivatization method with triiodide. (United States)

    Michalski, Rajmund; Lyko, Aleksandra


    This paper describes the application of the method of post-column derivatization with triiodide and UV detection at 352 nm for the determination of bromate in drinking water, mineral water and swimming pool water samples. Optimized analytical conditions were further validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The method detection limit was at the level of 0.4 μg/L, and the spiked recovery for bromate was in the range of 92% - 104%. The method did not need a special sample treatment and was successfully applied to the analysis of bromate at the required value that is below 2.5 μg/L.

  12. An inversion method based on random sampling for real-time MEG neuroimaging

    CERN Document Server

    Pascarella, Annalisa


    The MagnetoEncephaloGraphy (MEG) has gained great interest in neurorehabilitation training due to its high temporal resolution. The challenge is to localize the active regions of the brain in a fast and accurate way. In this paper we use an inversion method based on random spatial sampling to solve the real-time MEG inverse problem. Several numerical tests on synthetic but realistic data show that the method takes just a few hundredths of a second on a laptop to produce an accurate map of the electric activity inside the brain. Moreover, it requires very little memory storage. For this reasons the random sampling method is particularly attractive in real-time MEG applications.

  13. Method of extruding and packaging a thin sample of reactive material including forming the extrusion die (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward F.; Peterson, Leroy L.


    This invention teaches a method of cutting a narrow slot in an extrusion die with an electrical discharge machine by first drilling spaced holes at the ends of where the slot will be, whereby the oil can flow through the holes and slot to flush the material eroded away as the slot is being cut. The invention further teaches a method of extruding a very thin ribbon of solid highly reactive material such as lithium or sodium through the die in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, argon or the like as in a glovebox. The invention further teaches a method of stamping out sample discs from the ribbon and of packaging each disc by sandwiching it between two aluminum sheets and cold welding the sheets together along an annular seam beyond the outer periphery of the disc. This provides a sample of high purity reactive material that can have a long shelf life.

  14. Axial-scanning low-coherence interferometer method for noncontact thickness measurement of biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do-Hyun; Song, Chul-Gyu; Ilev, Ilko K.; Kang, Jin U.


    We investigated a high-precision optical method for measuring the thickness of biological samples regardless of their transparency. The method is based on the precise measurement of optical path length difference of the end surfaces of objects, using a dual-arm axial-scanning low-coherence interferometer. This removes any consideration of the shape, thickness, or transparency of testing objects when performing the measurement. Scanning the reference simplifies the measurement setup, resulting in unambiguous measurement. Using a 1310 nm wavelength superluminescent diode, with a 65 nm bandwidth, the measurement accuracy was as high as 11.6 {mu}m. We tested the method by measuring the thickness of both transparent samples and nontransparent soft biological tissues.

  15. Simple Modification of Karl-Fischer Titration Method for Determination of Water Content in Colored Samples (United States)

    Tavčar, Eva; Turk, Erika; Kreft, Samo


    The most commonly used technique for water content determination is Karl-Fischer titration with electrometric detection, requiring specialized equipment. When appropriate equipment is not available, the method can be performed through visual detection of a titration endpoint, which does not enable an analysis of colored samples. Here, we developed a method with spectrophotometric detection of a titration endpoint, appropriate for moisture determination of colored samples. The reaction takes place in a sealed 4 ml cuvette. Detection is performed at 520 nm. Titration endpoint is determined from the graph of absorbance plotted against titration volume. The method has appropriate reproducibility (RSD = 4.3%), accuracy, and linearity (R 2 = 0.997). PMID:22567558

  16. Inverse RNA folding solution based on multi-objective genetic algorithm and Gibbs sampling method. (United States)

    Ganjtabesh, M; Zare-Mirakabad, F; Nowzari-Dalini, A


    In living systems, RNAs play important biological functions. The functional form of an RNA frequently requires a specific tertiary structure. The scaffold for this structure is provided by secondary structural elements that are hydrogen bonds within the molecule. Here, we concentrate on the inverse RNA folding problem. In this problem, an RNA secondary structure is given as a target structure and the goal is to design an RNA sequence that its structure is the same (or very similar) to the given target structure. Different heuristic search methods have been proposed for this problem. One common feature among these methods is to use a folding algorithm to evaluate the accuracy of the designed RNA sequence during the generation process. The well known folding algorithms take O(n(3)) times where n is the length of the RNA sequence. In this paper, we introduce a new algorithm called GGI-Fold based on multi-objective genetic algorithm and Gibbs sampling method for the inverse RNA folding problem. Our algorithm generates a sequence where its structure is the same or very similar to the given target structure. The key feature of our method is that it never uses any folding algorithm to improve the quality of the generated sequences. We compare our algorithm with RNA-SSD for some biological test samples. In all test samples, our algorithm outperforms the RNA-SSD method for generating a sequence where its structure is more stable.

  17. A sample preparation method for recovering suppressed analyte ions in MALDI TOF MS. (United States)

    Lou, Xianwen; de Waal, Bas F M; Milroy, Lech-Gustav; van Dongen, Joost L J


    In matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS), analyte signals can be substantially suppressed by other compounds in the sample. In this technical note, we describe a modified thin-layer sample preparation method that significantly reduces the analyte suppression effect (ASE). In our method, analytes are deposited on top of the surface of matrix preloaded on the MALDI plate. To prevent embedding of analyte into the matrix crystals, the sample solution were prepared without matrix and efforts were taken not to re-dissolve the preloaded matrix. The results with model mixtures of peptides, synthetic polymers and lipids show that detection of analyte ions, which were completely suppressed using the conventional dried-droplet method, could be effectively recovered by using our method. Our findings suggest that the incorporation of analytes in the matrix crystals has an important contributory effect on ASE. By reducing ASE, our method should be useful for the direct MALDI MS analysis of multicomponent mixtures. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A modified FOX-1 method for Micro-determination of hydrogen peroxide in honey samples. (United States)

    Li, Dan; Wang, Meng; Cheng, Ni; Xue, Xiaofeng; Wu, Liming; Cao, Wei


    Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is a major antibacterial activity-associated biomarker in honey. Measurement of endogenous H 2 O 2 in honey is of great value in prediction of the H 2 O 2 -depended antibacterial activity and characterization or selection of honey samples for their use as an antibacterial agent or natural food preservative. Considering current methods for H 2 O 2 determination are either time-consuming or complicated with their high-cost, a study was conducted to modify and validate the spectrophotometry-based ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX-1) method for micro-determination of H 2 O 2 in honey samples. The result suggested that the proposed FOX-1 method is fast, sensitive, precise and repeatable. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of a total of 35 honey samples from 5 floral origins and 33 geographical origins. The proposed method is low-cost and easy-to-run, and it can be considered by researchers and industry for routine analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid Column Extraction Method for Actinides and Sr-89/90 in Water Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The SRS Environmental Laboratory analyzes water samples for environmental monitoring, including river water and ground water samples. A new, faster actinide and strontium 89/90 separation method has been developed and implemented to improve productivity, reduce labor costs and add capacity to this laboratory. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and Sr-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), curium (Cm) and thorium (Th) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized. The method can be used for routine analysis or as a rapid method for emergency preparedness. Thorium and curium are often analyzed separately due to the interference of the daughter of Th-229 tracer, actinium (Ac)-225, on curium isotopes when measured by alpha spectrometry. This new method also adds a separation step using DGA Resin{reg_sign}, (Diglycolamide Resin, Eichrom Technologies) to remove Ac-225 and allow the separation and analysis of thorium isotopes and curium isotopes at the same time.

  20. Fast and simple method for semiquantitative determination of calcium propionate in bread samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chutima Matayatsuk Phechkrajang


    Full Text Available Calcium propionate has been widely used as a preservative in bakery and in bread. It is sometimes not carefully used, or a high concentration is added to preserve products. High consumption of calcium propionate can lead to several health problems. This study aims to develop a fast and simple semiquantitative method based on color complex formation for the determination of calcium propionate in a bread sample. A red–brown complex was obtained from the reaction of ferric ammonium sulfate and propionate anion. The product was rapidly formed and easily observed with the concentration of propionate anion >0.4 mg/mL. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was also developed and validated for comparison. Twenty-two bread samples from three markets near Bangkok were randomly selected and assayed for calcium propionate using the above two developed methods. The results showed that 19/22 samples contained calcium propionate >2000 mg/kg. The results of the complex formation method agreed with the HPLC method.

  1. A new method of geobiological sample storage by snap freezing under alternating magnetic field (United States)

    Morono, Y.; Terada, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Hirose, T.; Xiao, N.; Sugeno, M.; Ohwada, N.; Inagaki, F.


    Scientific ocean drilling provides unprecedented opportunities to study the deep subseafloor biosphere. Especially, subseafloor living life and its genomes are significant components, since the activity may play some roles in global biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, metals, and other elements over geologic times. Given the significance of deep biological components as well as the potential application of future analytical technologies to the core, the material (or portions thereof) should be preserved in the best appropriate manner for long-term storage. Here we report a novel technology to freeze the cored sample with the least damage on scientifically important multiple characteristics including microbial cells. In the conventional freezer, expanding volume of pore space by the formation of ice crystals may change the (micro-) structure in the core sample (e.g., cell, micro-fossils). The cell alive system (CAS) is the new super-quick freezing system that applies alternating magnetic field for vibrating water molecules in the samples: i.e., the vibration leads to the stable super-cooled condition of the liquid-phase water at around -7 to -10 degree-C, keeping the liquid at the low temperature uniformly. Following further decrease of temperature enables the snap and hence uniform freezing of the samples with minimal size of the ice crystal formation, resulting in the minimum damage on structurally fragile components such as microbial cells and its DNA. We tested the CAS freezing technique for sediment core samples obtained by the Chikyu training cruise 905 and others. The core samples from various depths were sub-sampled, and immediately frozen in the CAS system along with the standard freezing method under the temperature of -20, -80, and -196 (liquid nitrogen) degree-C. Microbial cell abundance showed that the normal freezing decreased the number of microbial cells, whereas the CAS freezing resulted in almost no loss of the cells. We also tested

  2. [Investigation of the presence of Blastocystis spp. in stool samples with microscopic, culture and molecular methods]. (United States)

    Adıyaman Korkmaz, Gülcan; Doğruman Al, Funda; Mumcuoğlu, İpek


    Blastocystis species are enteric protozoa frequently detected in human and animals. Seventeen subtypes (STs) have now been identified, nine of them isolating from humans. The pleomorphic structure and genetic diversity of Blastocystis spp. and the absence of standardized diagnostic methods complicate the evaluation of current data. Microscopic methods such as native-lugol and trichrome staining are most frequently used methods in routine diagnosis, while culture and molecular methods are preferred for research purposes. The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of Blastocystis spp. in the stool samples of patients with gastrointestinal complaints by microscopic and culture methods, and to detect the subtypes of isolates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 350 stool samples collected from patients with diarrhea (n= 157) and without diarrhea (n= 193) were included in the study. Presence of Blastocystis spp. in the samples were investigated by native-lugol examination, trichrome staining and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) methods. Ringer's solution containing 10% horse serum and 0.05% asparagine was used for cultivation. The cultures were evaluated after 3-4 days of incubation at 37°C by microscopic examination. The subtypes of Blastocystis spp. strains isolated from the cultures have been identified by PCR using sequence-tagged site primers. A total of 66 (19%) stool samples, of them 26 (16.6%) were from diarrheal and 40 (21%) from non-diarrheal cases, yielded Blastocystis sp. growth in culture. Among the evaluated samples, 12% (42/350) were found positive with native-lugol examination, 17% (58/350) with trichrome staining, and 19% (66/350) with DFA method. The agreement of culture and native-lugol method was estimated as strong (κ= 0.752), while it was very strong between culture with trichrome staining and DFA methods (κ= 0.922 and κ= 1.00, respectively). When the culture was accepted as reference method, the sensitivity and

  3. Methods for isolating, identifying, and quantifying anthocyanin metabolites in clinical samples. (United States)

    de Ferrars, Rachel M; Czank, Charles; Saha, Shikha; Needs, Paul W; Zhang, Qingzhi; Raheem, K Saki; Botting, Nigel P; Kroon, Paul A; Kay, Colin D


    The metabolic fate of anthocyanins until recently was relatively unknown, primarily as a result of their instability at physiological pH and a lack of published methods for isolating and identifying their metabolites from biological samples. The aim of the present work was to establish methods for the extraction and quantification of anthocyanin metabolites present in urine, serum, and fecal samples. 35 commercial and 10 synthetic analytes, including both known and predicted human and microbial metabolites of anthocyanins, were obtained as reference standards. HPLC and MS/MS conditions were optimized for organic modifier, ionic modifier, mobile phase gradient, flow rate, column type, MS source, and compound dependent parameters. The impact of sorbent, solvent, acid, preservative, elution, and evaporation on solid phase extraction (SPE) efficiency was also explored. The HPLC-MS/MS method validation demonstrated acceptable linearity (R(2), 0.997 ± 0.002) and sensitivity (limits of detection (LODs): urine, 100 ± 375 nM; serum, 104 ± 358 nM; feces 138 ± 344 nM), and the final SPE methods provided recoveries of 88.3 ± 17.8% for urine, 86.5 ± 11.1% for serum, and 80.6 ± 20.9% for feces. The final methods were applied to clinical samples derived from an anthocyanin intervention study, where 36 of the 45 modeled metabolites were detected within urine, plasma, or fecal samples. The described methods provide suitable versatility for the identification and quantification of an extensive series of anthocyanin metabolites for use in future clinical studies exploring absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination.

  4. Evaluation of sample preparation methods and optimization of nickel determination in vegetable tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fernando dos Santos Salazar


    Full Text Available Nickel, although essential to plants, may be toxic to plants and animals. It is mainly assimilated by food ingestion. However, information about the average levels of elements (including Ni in edible vegetables from different regions is still scarce in Brazil. The objectives of this study were to: (a evaluate and optimize a method for preparation of vegetable tissue samples for Ni determination; (b optimize the analytical procedures for determination by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS and by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption (ETAAS in vegetable samples and (c determine the Ni concentration in vegetables consumed in the cities of Lorena and Taubaté in the Vale do Paraíba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. By means of the analytical technique for determination by ETAAS or FAAS, the results were validated by the test of analyte addition and recovery. The most viable method tested for quantification of this element was HClO4-HNO3 wet digestion. All samples but carrot tissue collected in Lorena contained Ni levels above the permitted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The most disturbing results, requiring more detailed studies, were the Ni concentrations measured in carrot samples from Taubaté, where levels were five times higher than permitted by Brazilian regulations.

  5. Method for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Small Samples Having Very Low Thermal Conductivity (United States)

    Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria a.


    This paper describes the development of a hot plate method capable of using air as a standard reference material for the steady-state measurement of the thermal conductivity of very small test samples having thermal conductivity on the order of air. As with other approaches, care is taken to ensure that the heat flow through the test sample is essentially one-dimensional. However, unlike other approaches, no attempt is made to use heated guards to block the flow of heat from the hot plate to the surroundings. It is argued that since large correction factors must be applied to account for guard imperfections when sample dimensions are small, it may be preferable to simply measure and correct for the heat that flows from the heater disc to directions other than into the sample. Experimental measurements taken in a prototype apparatus, combined with extensive computational modeling of the heat transfer in the apparatus, show that sufficiently accurate measurements can be obtained to allow determination of the thermal conductivity of low thermal conductivity materials. Suggestions are made for further improvements in the method based on results from regression analyses of the generated data.

  6. A New Method for Noninvasive Genetic Sampling of Saliva in Ecological Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lobo

    Full Text Available Noninvasive samples for genetic analyses have become essential to address ecological questions. Popular noninvasive samples such as faeces contain degraded DNA which may compromise genotyping success. Saliva is an excellent alternative DNA source but scarcity of suitable collection methods makes its use anecdotal in field ecological studies. We develop a noninvasive method of collection that combines baits and porous materials able to capture saliva. We report its potential in optimal conditions, using confined dogs and collecting saliva early after deposition. DNA concentration in saliva extracts was generally high (mean 14 ng μl(-1. We correctly identified individuals in 78% of samples conservatively using ten microsatellite loci, and 90% of samples using only eight loci. Consensus genotypes closely matched reference genotypes obtained from hair DNA (99% of identification successes and 91% of failures. Mean genotyping effort needed for identification using ten loci was 2.2 replicates. Genotyping errors occurred at a very low frequency (allelic dropout: 2.3%; false alleles: 1.5%. Individual identification success increased with duration of substrate handling inside dog's mouth and the volume of saliva collected. Low identification success was associated with baits rich in DNA-oxidant polyphenols and DNA concentrations <1 ng μl(-1. The procedure performed at least as well as other noninvasive methods, and could advantageously allow detection of socially low-ranked individuals underrepresented in sources of DNA that are involved in marking behaviour (faeces or urine. Once adapted and refined, there is promise for this technique to allow potentially high rates of individual identification in ecological field studies requiring noninvasive sampling of wild vertebrates.

  7. A New Method for Noninvasive Genetic Sampling of Saliva in Ecological Research (United States)

    Lobo, Diana; Godinho, Raquel; Álvares, Francisco; López-Bao, José V.; Rodríguez, Alejandro


    Noninvasive samples for genetic analyses have become essential to address ecological questions. Popular noninvasive samples such as faeces contain degraded DNA which may compromise genotyping success. Saliva is an excellent alternative DNA source but scarcity of suitable collection methods makes its use anecdotal in field ecological studies. We develop a noninvasive method of collection that combines baits and porous materials able to capture saliva. We report its potential in optimal conditions, using confined dogs and collecting saliva early after deposition. DNA concentration in saliva extracts was generally high (mean 14 ng μl-1). We correctly identified individuals in 78% of samples conservatively using ten microsatellite loci, and 90% of samples using only eight loci. Consensus genotypes closely matched reference genotypes obtained from hair DNA (99% of identification successes and 91% of failures). Mean genotyping effort needed for identification using ten loci was 2.2 replicates. Genotyping errors occurred at a very low frequency (allelic dropout: 2.3%; false alleles: 1.5%). Individual identification success increased with duration of substrate handling inside dog’s mouth and the volume of saliva collected. Low identification success was associated with baits rich in DNA-oxidant polyphenols and DNA concentrations <1 ng μl-1. The procedure performed at least as well as other noninvasive methods, and could advantageously allow detection of socially low-ranked individuals underrepresented in sources of DNA that are involved in marking behaviour (faeces or urine). Once adapted and refined, there is promise for this technique to allow potentially high rates of individual identification in ecological field studies requiring noninvasive sampling of wild vertebrates. PMID:26496352

  8. Method validation for control determination of mercury in fresh fish and shrimp samples by solid sampling thermal decomposition/amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry. (United States)

    Torres, Daiane Placido; Martins-Teixeira, Maristela Braga; Cadore, Solange; Queiroz, Helena Müller


    A method for the determination of total mercury in fresh fish and shrimp samples by solid sampling thermal decomposition/amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry (TDA AAS) has been validated following international foodstuff protocols in order to fulfill the Brazilian National Residue Control Plan. The experimental parameters have been previously studied and optimized according to specific legislation on validation and inorganic contaminants in foodstuff. Linearity, sensitivity, specificity, detection and quantification limits, precision (repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility), robustness as well as accuracy of the method have been evaluated. Linearity of response was satisfactory for the two range concentrations available on the TDA AAS equipment, between approximately 25.0 and 200.0 μg kg(-1) (square regression) and 250.0 and 2000.0 μg kg(-1) (linear regression) of mercury. The residues for both ranges were homoscedastic and independent, with normal distribution. Correlation coefficients obtained for these ranges were higher than 0.995. Limits of quantification (LOQ) and of detection of the method (LDM), based on signal standard deviation (SD) for a low-in-mercury sample, were 3.0 and 1.0 μg kg(-1), respectively. Repeatability of the method was better than 4%. Within-laboratory reproducibility achieved a relative SD better than 6%. Robustness of the current method was evaluated and pointed sample mass as a significant factor. Accuracy (assessed as the analyte recovery) was calculated on basis of the repeatability, and ranged from 89% to 99%. The obtained results showed the suitability of the present method for direct mercury measurement in fresh fish and shrimp samples and the importance of monitoring the analysis conditions for food control purposes. Additionally, the competence of this method was recognized by accreditation under the standard ISO/IEC 17025.

  9. Standard sampling method of Longkong leaf for evaluation of plant nutrient status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae-lim, M.


    Full Text Available Leaf analysis is a tool for effective fertilizer recommendations in fruit trees. To achieve this goal, suitable leaf sampling method is a very important step. This study aimed to investigate leaf age, leaflet from different compound leaf positions and number of trees to be sampled as a representative sample for plant nutrient status of Longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff. tree. The middle pair of leaflets from the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th compound leaves from growing twigs at the lower canopy of Longkong trees were separately sampled and the following nutrients were determined: nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg. The effect of soil fertility management and leaf age collected from twigs flushed at flowering and post harvest stages on nutrient concentration was investigated. Results showed that concentrations of plant nutrients in leaflets collected from different compound leaf positions were not significantly different. The leaf nutrient concentration depended on soil fertility management, higher fertilizer input resulting in higher leaf nutrient concentration. As leaf age increased, concentrations of N, P and K tended to decrease. In contrast, concentrations of Ca and Mg increased with leaf age. However, concentrations of most nutrients showed minimum variation with leaf aged 3-6 months. It is, thus, suggested that the middle pair leaflet of the 2nd compound leaf position aged 3-6 months of the lower twig should be sampled at post harvest stage from 25-35 trees to be used as a composite sample for plant nutrient analysis.

  10. Molecular method for detection of total coliforms in drinking water samples. (United States)

    Maheux, Andrée F; Boudreau, Dominique K; Bisson, Marc-Antoine; Dion-Dupont, Vanessa; Bouchard, Sébastien; Nkuranga, Martine; Bergeron, Michel G; Rodriguez, Manuel J


    This work demonstrates the ability of a bacterial concentration and recovery procedure combined with three different PCR assays targeting the lacZ, wecG, and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, to detect the presence of total coliforms in 100-ml samples of potable water (presence/absence test). PCR assays were first compared to the culture-based Colilert and MI agar methods to determine their ability to detect 147 coliform strains representing 76 species of Enterobacteriaceae encountered in fecal and environmental settings. Results showed that 86 (58.5%) and 109 (74.1%) strains yielded a positive signal with Colilert and MI agar methods, respectively, whereas the lacZ, wecG, and 16S rRNA PCR assays detected 133 (90.5%), 111 (75.5%), and 146 (99.3%) of the 147 total coliform strains tested. These assays were then assessed by testing 122 well water samples collected in the Québec City region of Canada. Results showed that 97 (79.5%) of the samples tested by culture-based methods and 95 (77.9%), 82 (67.2%), and 98 (80.3%) of samples tested using PCR-based methods contained total coliforms, respectively. Consequently, despite the high genetic variability of the total coliform group, this study demonstrated that it is possible to use molecular assays to detect total coliforms in potable water: the 16S rRNA molecular assay was shown to be as efficient as recommended culture-based methods. This assay might be used in combination with an Escherichia coli molecular assay to assess drinking water quality. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Geroni Mendes Nascimento


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the borderline tree in the population parameters estimated by Bitterlich (1948, Prodan (1968 and Strand (1958 sampling methods. The database came from a census carried out in a fragment of Mixed Ombrophylous Montana Forest located in the Campus III, of Federal University of Parana, Curitiba-PR, Brazil. All trees with DBH ≥ 10 cm were measured, identified, georeferenced, and considered as possible plot center of the sampling units in each method. The sampling simulation was conducted with 185 randomly selected points for the estimation of N.ha-1, G.ha-1 and V.ha-1 to three different treatments: without the influence of borderline tree, count half borderline tree and count of partial borderline tree corrected by the P factor introduced by Péllico Netto (1994. Regardless of the method and the treatment used there was always an overestimation of N.ha-1. To estimate the basal area and volume per hectare, the Bitterlich method achieved the best results, followed by Strand and Prodan, respectively. Application of P factor in borderline trees did not cause a significant improvement in the population estimators compared with the estimates generated by borderline trees counted as half a tree or without its influence.

  12. Sample Size and Probability Threshold Considerations with the Tailored Data Method. (United States)

    Wyse, Adam E

    This article discusses sample size and probability threshold considerations in the use of the tailored data method with the Rasch model. In the tailored data method, one performs an initial Rasch analysis and then reanalyzes data after setting item responses to missing that are below a chosen probability threshold. A simple analytical formula is provided that can be used to check whether or not the application of the tailored data method with a chosen probability threshold will create situations in which the number of remaining item responses for the Rasch calibration will or will not meet minimum sample size requirements. The formula is illustrated using a real data example from a medical imaging licensure exam with several different probability thresholds. It is shown that as the probability threshold was increased more item responses were set to missing and the parameter standard errors and item difficulty estimates also tended to increase. It is suggested that some consideration should be given to the chosen probability threshold and how this interacts with potential examinee sample sizes and the accuracy of parameter estimates when calibrating data with the tailored data method.

  13. Extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of carbaryl in environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Sharma


    Full Text Available In the view of the potential hazards associated with the widespread use of carbaryl insecticide, a new simple extractive spectrophotometric method has been developed for its determination in environmental samples viz. soil, water and foodstuffs for its safer and more effective use. The proposed method is based on the microwave assisted alkaline hydrolysis of the insecticide to methylamine. The later is measured as methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK extractable yellow nickel(II-methyldithiocarbamate complex at 380 nm through the reaction with carbon disulfide and nickel(II acetate. The insecticide can be determined in the linearity range from 2.01 to 60.3 µg mL-1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.996. The method has been applied to the analysis of carbaryl in its commercial formulation and its recovery from vegetable and water samples for monitoring health hazards. Recoveries of the insecticide from vegetables and spiked water samples were good, ranging from 87.6-92.8%, with RSDs ranging from 0.54-1.02%. The method has also been validated for investigating the sorption of carbaryl on five soils with different characteristics to evaluate its leaching behaviour which is a measure of ground and surface water contamination. The leaching potential of the insecticide in terms of groundwater ubiquity score (GUS has values in the range 1.8-2.2 classifying it as transition leacher hence it has potential to contaminate groundwater.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S


    The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes with very low detection limits. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that allows the measurement of plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in very large soil samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multistage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines an acid leach step and innovative matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. This method is unique in that it provides high tracer recoveries and effective removal of interferences with small extraction chromatography columns instead of large ion exchange resin columns that generate large amounts of acid waste. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  15. Sample preparation methods for the determination of plutonium and strontium in environmental samples by low level liquid scintillation counting and {alpha}-spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solatie, D.; Carbol, P.; Hrnecek, E.; Betti, M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Inst. for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany); Jaakkola, T. [Lab. of Radiochemistry, Univ. of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)


    Two different methods - leaching and microwave assisted total dissolution - have been exploited for the treatment of environmental samples for the determination of plutonium and strontium. Leaching applied to reference materials demonstrated the procedure to be applicable for the recovery of technogenic Pu and Sr from environmental samples. For the measurement of the alpha emitters of plutonium, co-precipitation with calcium oxalate and ferric hydroxide and separation with anion exchange has been used. For preparation of {alpha}-spectrometry sources, co-precipitation with NdF{sub 3} on a membrane filter or electro-deposition using the (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}/HCl method have been tested. The beta emitter {sup 241}Pu was measured by liquid scintillation counting. Pu isotope concentrations determined in the reference materials agreed well with the certified concentrations. {sup 90}Sr was measured in the leachate solutions from environmental samples collected close to a nuclear facility and from reference materials, after separation from the other leached elements, by liquid scintillation counting and Cherenkov counting. The {sup 90}Sr-concentrations determined in the reference materials agreed well with the certified concentrations. In the samples collected close a nuclear facility (soil, grass and sheep faeces), {sup 90}Sr was found at higher levels, which could also be correlated with the location of the sampling. (orig.)

  16. Electrical network method for the thermal or structural characterization of a conducting material sample or structure (United States)

    Ortiz, Marco G.


    A method for modeling a conducting material sample or structure system, as an electrical network of resistances in which each resistance of the network is representative of a specific physical region of the system. The method encompasses measuring a resistance between two external leads and using this measurement in a series of equations describing the network to solve for the network resistances for a specified region and temperature. A calibration system is then developed using the calculated resistances at specified temperatures. This allows for the translation of the calculated resistances to a region temperature. The method can also be used to detect and quantify structural defects in the system.

  17. Sample Size Considerations of Prediction-Validation Methods in High-Dimensional Data for Survival Outcomes (United States)

    Pang, Herbert; Jung, Sin-Ho


    A variety of prediction methods are used to relate high-dimensional genome data with a clinical outcome using a prediction model. Once a prediction model is developed from a data set, it should be validated using a resampling method or an independent data set. Although the existing prediction methods have been intensively evaluated by many investigators, there has not been a comprehensive study investigating the performance of the validation methods, especially with a survival clinical outcome. Understanding the properties of the various validation methods can allow researchers to perform more powerful validations while controlling for type I error. In addition, sample size calculation strategy based on these validation methods is lacking. We conduct extensive simulations to examine the statistical properties of these validation strategies. In both simulations and a real data example, we have found that 10-fold cross-validation with permutation gave the best power while controlling type I error close to the nominal level. Based on this, we have also developed a sample size calculation method that will be used to design a validation study with a user-chosen combination of prediction. Microarray and genome-wide association studies data are used as illustrations. The power calculation method in this presentation can be used for the design of any biomedical studies involving high-dimensional data and survival outcomes. PMID:23471879

  18. Comparing methods for fetal fraction determination and quality control of NIPT samples. (United States)

    van Beek, Daphne M; Straver, Roy; Weiss, Marian M; Boon, Elles M J; Huijsdens-van Amsterdam, Karin; Oudejans, Cees B M; Reinders, Marcel J T; Sistermans, Erik A


    To compare available analysis methods for determining fetal fraction on single read next generation sequencing data. This is important as the performance of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) procedures depends on the fraction of fetal DNA. We tested six different methods for the detection of fetal fraction in NIPT samples. The same clinically obtained data were used for all methods, allowing us to assess the effect of fetal fraction on the test result, and to investigate the use of fetal fraction for quality control. We show that non-NIPT methods based on body mass index (BMI) and gestational age are unreliable predictors of fetal fraction, male pregnancy specific methods based on read counts on the Y chromosome perform consistently and the fetal sex-independent new methods SeqFF and SANEFALCON are less reliable but can be used to obtain a basic indication of fetal fraction in case of a female fetus. We recommend the use of a combination of methods to prevent the issue of reports on samples with insufficient fetal DNA; SANEFALCON to check for presence of fetal DNA, SeqFF for estimating the fetal fraction for a female pregnancy and any Y-based method for estimating the fetal fraction for a male pregnancy. © 2017 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Development of a new sorptive extraction method based on simultaneous direct and headspace sampling modes for the screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples. (United States)

    Triñanes, Sara; Pena, Ma Teresa; Casais, Ma Carmen; Mejuto, Ma Carmen


    A new straightforward and inexpensive sample screening method for both EPA and EU priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water has been developed. The method is based on combined direct immersion and headspace (DIHS) sorptive extraction, using low-cost disposable material, coupled to ultraperformance liquid chromatography with fluorescence and UV detection (UPLC-FD-UV). Extraction parameters, such as the sampling mode, extraction time and ionic strength were investigated in detail and optimized. Under optimized conditions, water samples (16 mL) were concentrated in silicone disks by headspace (HS) and direct immersion (DI) modes simultaneously, at room temperature for 9h for the majority of the 24 studied compounds. Ultrasound-assisted desorption of extracted analytes in acetonitrile was carried out also at room temperature. The optimized chromatographic method provided a good linearity (R≥0.9991) and a broad linear range for all studied PAHs. The proposed analytical procedure exhibited a good precision level with relative standard deviations below 15% for all analytes. Quantification limits between 0.7 and 2.3 µg L(-1) and 0.16 and 3.90 ng L(-1) were obtained for compounds analyzed by UV (acenaphtylene, cyclopenta[c,d]pyrene and benzo[j]fluoranthene) and fluorescence, respectively. Finally, the proposed method was applied to the determination of PAHs in different real tap, river and wastewater samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Microbiological Sampling Methods and Sanitation of Edible Plants Grown on ISS (United States)

    Parrish, Charles H. II; Khodadad, Christina L.; Garland, Nathaniel T.; Larson, Brian D.; Hummreick, Mary E.


    Pathogenic microbes on the surfaces of salad crops and growth chambers pose a threat to the health of crew on International Space Station. For astronauts to safely consume spacegrown vegetables produced in NASA's new vegetable production unit, VEGGIE, three technical challenges must be overcome: real-time sampling, microbiological analysis, and sanitation. Raphanus sativus cultivar Cherry Bomb II and Latuca sativa cultivar Outredgeous, two saled crops to be grown in VEGGIE, were inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), a bacterium known to cause food-borne illness Tape- and swab-based sampling techniques were optimized for use in microgravity and assessed for effectiveness in recovery of bacteria from crop surfaces: Rapid pathogen detection and molecular analyses were performed via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactiop using LightCycler® 480 and RAZOR® EX, a scaled-down instrument that is undergoing evaluation and testing for future flight hardware. These methods were compared with conventional, culture-based methods for the recovery of S. Typhimurium colonies. A sterile wipe saturated with a citric acid-based, food-grade sanitizer was applied to two different surface materials used in VEGGIE flight hardware that had been contaminated with the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa,. another known human pathogen. To sanitize surfaces, wipes were saturated with either the sanitizer or sterile deionized water and applied to each surface. Colony forming units of P. aeruginosa grown on tryptic soy agar plates were enumerated from surface samples after sanitization treatments. Depending on the VEGGIE hardware material, 2- to 4.5-log10 reductions in colony-forming units were observed after sanitization. The difference in recovery of S. Typhimurium between tape- and swab- based sampling techniques was insignificant. RAZOR® EX rapidly detected S. Typhimurium present in both raw culture and extracted DNA samples.

  1. False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, Paula; Piepel, Gregory F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matthew S.; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne


    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10x10^-3 to 1.86 CFU/cm^2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (>1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm^2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

  2. Filter-Aided Sample Preparation: The Versatile and Efficient Method for Proteomic Analysis. (United States)

    Wiśniewski, J R


    Filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) is a versatile and efficient way of processing protein extracts for bottom-up proteomic analysis. The method repurposes centrifugal ultrafiltration concentrators for removal of detergents, protein cleavage, and isolation of pure peptide fractions. FASP can be used for protein cleavage with different proteinases either with single enzymes or in a mode of successive multienzyme digestion (MED)-FASP. The FASP methods are useful for processing of samples ranging in their sizes from submicrogram to several milligram amounts of total protein. They also allow peptide fractionation, and isolation and quantitation of total RNA and DNA acid contents. This chapter describes principles, limitations, and applications of FASP. Additionally detailed FASP and MED-FASP protocols are provided. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. System and method for laser assisted sample transfer to solution for chemical analysis (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos


    A system and method for laser desorption of an analyte from a specimen and capturing of the analyte in a suspended solvent to form a testing solution are described. The method can include providing a specimen supported by a desorption region of a specimen stage and desorbing an analyte from a target site of the specimen with a laser beam centered at a radiation wavelength (.lamda.). The desorption region is transparent to the radiation wavelength (.lamda.) and the sampling probe and a laser source emitting the laser beam are on opposite sides of a primary surface of the specimen stage. The system can also be arranged where the laser source and the sampling probe are on the same side of a primary surface of the specimen stage. The testing solution can then be analyzed using an analytical instrument or undergo further processing.

  4. The determination of nitrite by a graphene quantum dot fluorescence quenching method without sample pretreatment. (United States)

    Jin, Li; Wang, Ying; Liu, Fangtong; Yu, Shihua; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Jianpo


    A method for quantitative analysis of nitrite was achieved based on fluorescence quenching of graphene quantum dots. To obtain reliable results, the effects of pH, temperature and reaction time on this fluorescence quenching system were studied. Under optimized conditions, decrease in fluorescence intensity of graphene quantum dots (F0 /F) showed a good linear relationship with nitrite concentration between 0.007692-0.38406 mmol/L and 0.03623-0.13043 μmol/L; the limits of detection were 9.8 μmol/L and 5.4 nmol/L, respectively. Variable temperature experiments, UV absorption spectra and thermodynamic calculations were used to determine the quenching mechanism, and indicated that it was an exothermic, spontaneous dynamic quenching process. This method was used to analyse urine samples, and showed that it could be applied to analyse biological samples. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A new formulation of the linear sampling method: spatial resolution and post-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piana, M [Dipartimento di Informatica, Universita di Verona, Ca' Vignal 2, 37134 Verona (Italy); Aramini, R; Brignone, M [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Genova, via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova (Italy); Coyle, J [Department of Mathematics, Monmouth University, 400 Cedar Avenue, West Long Branch, 07764 New Jersey (United States)], E-mail:


    A new formulation of the linear sampling method is described, which requires the regularized solution of a single functional equation set in a direct sum of L{sup 2} spaces. This new approach presents the following notable advantages: it is computationally more effective than the traditional implementation, since time consuming samplings of the Tikhonov minimum problem and of the generalized discrepancy equation are avoided; it allows a quantitative estimate of the spatial resolution achievable by the method; it facilitates a post-processing procedure for the optimal selection of the scatterer profile by means of edge detection techniques. The formulation is described in a two-dimensional framework and in the case of obstacle scattering, although generalizations to three dimensions and penetrable inhomogeneities are straightforward.

  6. Potential, velocity, and density fields from sparse and noisy redshift-distance samples - Method (United States)

    Dekel, Avishai; Bertschinger, Edmund; Faber, Sandra M.


    A method for recovering the three-dimensional potential, velocity, and density fields from large-scale redshift-distance samples is described. Galaxies are taken as tracers of the velocity field, not of the mass. The density field and the initial conditions are calculated using an iterative procedure that applies the no-vorticity assumption at an initial time and uses the Zel'dovich approximation to relate initial and final positions of particles on a grid. The method is tested using a cosmological N-body simulation 'observed' at the positions of real galaxies in a redshift-distance sample, taking into account their distance measurement errors. Malmquist bias and other systematic and statistical errors are extensively explored using both analytical techniques and Monte Carlo simulations.

  7. Multivariate Methods for Prediction of Geologic Sample Composition with Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (United States)

    Morris, Richard; Anderson, R.; Clegg, S. M.; Bell, J. F., III


    the CC ANN often gave results comparable to PLS. Averaging the spectra for each training sample and/or using feature selection to choose a small subset of wavelengths to use for predictions gave mixed results, with degraded performance in some cases and similar or slightly improved performance in other cases. However, training time was significantly reduced for both PLS and ANN methods by implementing feature selection, making this a potentially appealing method for initial, rapid-turn-around analyses necessary for Chemcam's tactical role on MSL. Choice of training samples has a strong influence on the accuracy of predictions. We are currently investigating the use of clustering algorithms (e.g. k-means, neural gas, etc.) to identify training sets that are spectrally similar to the unknown samples that are being predicted, and therefore result in improved predictions

  8. Application of the BMWP-Costa Rica biotic index in aquatic biomonitoring: sensitivity to collection method and sampling intensity. (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E; Lorion, Christopher M


    The use of aquatic macroinvertebrates as bio-indicators in water quality studies has increased considerably over the last decade in Costa Rica, and standard biomonitoring methods have now been formulated at the national level. Nevertheless, questions remain about the effectiveness of different methods of sampling freshwater benthic assemblages, and how sampling intensity may influence biomonitoring results. In this study, we compared the results of qualitative sampling using commonly applied methods with a more intensive quantitative approach at 12 sites in small, lowland streams on the southern Caribbean slope of Costa Rica. Qualitative samples were collected following the official protocol using a strainer during a set time period and macroinvertebrates were field-picked. Quantitative sampling involved collecting ten replicate Surber samples and picking out macroinvertebrates in the laboratory with a stereomicroscope. The strainer sampling method consistently yielded fewer individuals and families than quantitative samples. As a result, site scores calculated using the Biological Monitoring Working Party-Costa Rica (BMWP-CR) biotic index often differed greatly depending on the sampling method. Site water quality classifications using the BMWP-CR index differed between the two sampling methods for 11 of the 12 sites in 2005, and for 9 of the 12 sites in 2006. Sampling intensity clearly had a strong influence on BMWP-CR index scores, as well as perceived differences between reference and impacted sites. Achieving reliable and consistent biomonitoring results for lowland Costa Rican streams may demand intensive sampling and requires careful consideration of sampling methods.

  9. Coordination of Conditional Poisson Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grafström Anton


    Full Text Available Sample coordination seeks to maximize or to minimize the overlap of two or more samples. The former is known as positive coordination, and the latter as negative coordination. Positive coordination is mainly used for estimation purposes and to reduce data collection costs. Negative coordination is mainly performed to diminish the response burden of the sampled units. Poisson sampling design with permanent random numbers provides an optimum coordination degree of two or more samples. The size of a Poisson sample is, however, random. Conditional Poisson (CP sampling is a modification of the classical Poisson sampling that produces a fixed-size πps sample. We introduce two methods to coordinate Conditional Poisson samples over time or simultaneously. The first one uses permanent random numbers and the list-sequential implementation of CP sampling. The second method uses a CP sample in the first selection and provides an approximate one in the second selection because the prescribed inclusion probabilities are not respected exactly. The methods are evaluated using the size of the expected sample overlap, and are compared with their competitors using Monte Carlo simulation. The new methods provide a good coordination degree of two samples, close to the performance of Poisson sampling with permanent random numbers.

  10. Validation study of a multi-method integrity test in a Peruvian sample


    Blumen, Sheyla; Bayona, Hugo; Givoli, Simon; Pecker, Gabriela; Fine, Saul


    The present study summarizes the validity of a multi-method integrity test developed to measure integrity and counterproductive work behaviors (CWB) in personnel selection of a Peruvian sample. This instrument has been thoroughly studied in other cultural contexts, establishing its validity in predicting counter-productive behaviors. In order to study external validity, two criteria were used: (a) The Counterproductive Work Behavior Checklist (CWB-C) and (b) a supervisor evaluation questionna...

  11. Comparison of Sample and Detection Quantification Methods for Salmonella Enterica from Produce (United States)

    Hummerick, M. P.; Khodadad, C.; Richards, J. T.; Dixit, A.; Spencer, L. M.; Larson, B.; Parrish, C., II; Birmele, M.; Wheeler, Raymond


    The purpose of this study was to identify and optimize fast and reliable sampling and detection methods for the identification of pathogens that may be present on produce grown in small vegetable production units on the International Space Station (ISS), thus a field setting. Microbiological testing is necessary before astronauts are allowed to consume produce grown on ISS where currently there are two vegetable production units deployed, Lada and Veggie.

  12. Analysis of small sample size studies using nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method. (United States)

    Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Mallawaarachchi, Indika; Alvarado, Luis A


    Experimental studies in biomedical research frequently pose analytical problems related to small sample size. In such studies, there are conflicting findings regarding the choice of parametric and nonparametric analysis, especially with non-normal data. In such instances, some methodologists questioned the validity of parametric tests and suggested nonparametric tests. In contrast, other methodologists found nonparametric tests to be too conservative and less powerful and thus preferred using parametric tests. Some researchers have recommended using a bootstrap test; however, this method also has small sample size limitation. We used a pooled method in nonparametric bootstrap test that may overcome the problem related with small samples in hypothesis testing. The present study compared nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method corresponding to parametric, nonparametric, and permutation tests through extensive simulations under various conditions and using real data examples. The nonparametric pooled bootstrap t-test provided equal or greater power for comparing two means as compared with unpaired t-test, Welch t-test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and permutation test while maintaining type I error probability for any conditions except for Cauchy and extreme variable lognormal distributions. In such cases, we suggest using an exact Wilcoxon rank sum test. Nonparametric bootstrap paired t-test also provided better performance than other alternatives. Nonparametric bootstrap test provided benefit over exact Kruskal-Wallis test. We suggest using nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method for comparing paired or unpaired means and for validating the one way analysis of variance test results for non-normal data in small sample size studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: Practical guidance for selection, calibration, and implementation


    Ghosh, Upal; Driscoll, Susan Kane; Burgess, Robert M.; Jonker, Michiel To; Reible, Danny; Gobas, Frank; Choi, Yongju; Apitz, Sabine E; Maruya, Keith A; Gala, William R; Mortimer, Munro; Beegan, Chris


    This article provides practical guidance on the use of passive sampling methods (PSMs) that target the freely dissolved concentration (C free) for improved exposure assessment of hydrophobic organic chemicals in sediments. Primary considerations for selecting a PSM for a specific application include clear delineation of measurement goals for C free, whether laboratory-based “ex situ” and/or field-based “in situ” application is desired, and ultimately which PSM is best-suited to fulfill the me...

  14. Evaluation of sampling and analytical methods for the determination of chlorodifluoromethane in air. (United States)

    Seymour, M J; Lucas, M F


    In January 1989, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) published revised permissible exposure limits (PELs) for 212 compounds and established PELs for 164 additional compounds. In cases where regulated compounds did not have specific sampling and analytical methods, methods were suggested by OSHA. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM) Method 1020, which was developed for 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, was suggested by OSHA for the determination of chlorodifluoromethane in workplace air. Because this method was developed for a liquid and chlorodifluoromethane is a gas, the ability of NMAM Method 1020 to adequately sample and quantitate chlorodifluoromethane was questioned and tested by researchers at NIOSH. The evaluation of NMAM Method 1020 for chlorodifluoromethane showed that the capacity of the 100/50-mg charcoal sorbent bed was limited, the standard preparation procedure was incorrect for a gas analyte, and the analyte had low solubility in carbon disulfide. NMAM Method 1018 for dichlorodifluoromethane uses two coconut-shell charcoal tubes in series, a 400/200-mg tube followed by a 100/50-mg tube, which are desorbed with methylene chloride. This method was evaluated for chlorodifluoromethane. Test atmospheres, with chlorodifluoromethane concentrations from 0.5-2 times the PEL were generated. Modifications of NMAM Method 1018 included changes in the standard preparation procedure, and the gas chromatograph was equipped with a capillary column. These revisions to NMAM 1018 resulted in a 96.5% recovery and a total precision for the method of 7.1% for chlorodifluoromethane. No significant bias in the method was found. Results indicate that the revised NMAM Method 1018 is suitable for the determination of chlorodifluoromethane in workplace air.

  15. The impact of different blood sampling methods on laboratory rats under different types of anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Martin Fitzner; Petersen, Mikke Haxø; Dragsted, Nils


    and that it might take an extra hour to recover from it. CO2 anaesthesia seemed unable to prevent the increase in blood pressure and the fluctuations in body temperature induced by blood sampling, and up to 10 h after sampling, the rats were still affected by CO2 anaesthesia. Rats anaesthetized with isoflurane......Rats with implanted telemetry transponders were blood sampled by jugular puncture, periorbital puncture or tail vein puncture, or sampled by jugular puncture in carbon dioxide (CO?), isoflurane or without anaesthesia in a crossover design. Heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature were...... registered for three days after sampling. Initially blood pressure increased, but shortly after sampling it decreased, which led to increased heart rate. Sampling induced rapid fluctuations in body temperature, and an increase in body temperature. Generally, rats recovered from sampling within 2-3 h, except...

  16. Radioimmunoassay for the detection of polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins in environmental samples: method description

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sherry, J.P; ApSimon, J; Colier, L; Afghan, B.K; Albro, P.W


    ...) is a screening test that can, by the elimination of PCDD free samples from further conventional analysis, improve analytical efficiency and lower the cost of determining dioxins in environmental samples...

  17. EPA Region 6 Laboratory Method Specific Analytical Capabilities with Sample Concentration Range (United States)

    EPA Region 6 Environmental Services Branch (ESB) Laboratory is capable of analyzing a wide range of samples with concentrations ranging for low part-per trillion (ppt) to low percent () levels, depending on the sample matrix.

  18. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy as an In-Space Sample Return Canister Sterilization Method and Instrument (United States)

    Dreyer, C. B.; Spear, J. R.; Lynch, K. L.; Johnson, L.; Bauer, A. J.


    LIBS applied to sterilize a surface via vaporization can be applied in space or on a planetary surface while providing direct characterization of ablated material. Applications include sample return or mitigation of sample cross contamination.

  19. Detecting Renibacterium salmoninarum in wild brown trout by use of multiple organ samples and diagnostic methods (United States)

    Guomundsdottir, S.; Applegate, Lynn M.; Arnason, I.O.; Kristmundsson, A.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Elliott, Diane G.


    Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease (BKD), is endemic in many wild trout species in northerly regions. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal R. salmoninarum sampling/testing strategy for wild brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations in Iceland. Fish were netted in a lake and multiple organs—kidney, spleen, gills, oesophagus and mid-gut—were sampled and subjected to five detection tests i.e. culture, polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (pELISA) and 3 three different PCR tests. The results showed that each fish had encountered R. salmoninarum but there were marked differences between results obtained depending on organ and test. The bacterium was not cultured from any kidney sample while all kidney samples were positive by pELISA. At least one organ from 92.9% of the fish tested positive by PCR. The results demonstrated that the choice of tissue and diagnostic method can dramatically influence the outcome of R. salmoninarum surveys.

  20. A rapid method for the sampling of atmospheric water vapour for isotopic analysis. (United States)

    Peters, Leon I; Yakir, Dan


    Analysis of the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture is widely applied in the environmental sciences. Traditional methods for obtaining isotopic compositional data from ambient moisture have required complicated sampling procedures, expensive and sophisticated distillation lines, hazardous consumables, and lengthy treatments prior to analysis. Newer laser-based techniques are expensive and usually not suitable for large-scale field campaigns, especially in cases where access to mains power is not feasible or high spatial coverage is required. Here we outline the construction and usage of a novel vapour-sampling system based on a battery-operated Stirling cycle cooler, which is simple to operate, does not require any consumables, or post-collection distillation, and is light-weight and highly portable. We demonstrate the ability of this system to reproduce delta(18)O isotopic compositions of ambient water vapour, with samples taken simultaneously by a traditional cryogenic collection technique. Samples were collected over 1 h directly into autosampler vials and were analysed by mass spectrometry after pyrolysis of 1 microL aliquots to CO. This yielded an average error of distillation lines, slurry maintenance or mains power is not feasible. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Detecting Renibacterium salmoninarum in wild brown trout by use of multiple organ samples and diagnostic methods (United States)

    Guomundsdottir, S.; Applegate, Lynn M.; Arnason, I.O.; Kristmundsson, A.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Elliott, Diane G.


    Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease (BKD), is endemic in many wild trout species in northerly regions. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal R. salmoninarum sampling/testing strategy for wild brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations in Iceland. Fish were netted in a lake and multiple organs—kidney, spleen, gills, oesophagus and mid-gut—were sampled and subjected to five detection tests i.e. culture, polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (pELISA) and three different PCR tests. The results showed that each fish had encountered R. salmoninarum but there were marked differences between results obtained depending on organ and test. The bacterium was not cultured from any kidney sample while all kidney samples were positive by pELISA. At least one organ from 92.9% of the fish tested positive by PCR. The results demonstrated that the choice of tissue and diagnostic method can dramatically influence the outcome of R. salmoninarum surveys.

  2. Quantitative extraction of nucleotides from frozen muscle samples of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) and rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) : Effects of time taken to sample and extraction method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, P.M.; Bremner, Allan; Pankhurst, N.W.


    Muscle excised from the dorsal flank of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout at death and up to 120 min postmortem (P.M.) was frozen in liquid N-2 and stored at -80C. Following acid extraction, on ice (method I), or dry ice (method 2) samples were analyzed for cyclic nucleotides to determine...... the effect of time to sample, and extraction method. There was no pattern of change in nucleotide profile in either species up to 10 min P.M. At 120 min P.M., Atlantic salmon muscle extracted by method 2 had a higher IMP concentration than at any other time but there was no difference in adenylates. Ignoring.......8 to -5C) prior to enzyme inactivation....

  3. Evaluation of limited sampling methods for estimation of tacrolimus exposure in adult kidney transplant recipients (United States)

    Barraclough, Katherine A; Isbel, Nicole M; Kirkpatrick, Carl M; Lee, Katie J; Taylor, Paul J; Johnson, David W; Campbell, Scott B; Leary, Diana R; Staatz, Christine E


    AIMS To examine the predictive performance of limited sampling methods for estimation of tacrolimus exposure in adult kidney transplant recipients. METHODS Twenty full tacrolimus area under the concentration–time curve from 0 to 12 h post-dose (AUC0–12) profiles (AUCf) were collected from 20 subjects. Predicted tacrolimus AUC0–12 (AUCp) was calculated using the following: (i) 42 multiple regression-derived limited sampling strategies (LSSs); (ii) five population pharmacokinetic (PK) models in the Bayesian forecasting program TCIWorks; and (iii) a Web-based consultancy service. Correlations (r2) between C0 and AUCf and between AUCp and AUCf were examined. Median percentage prediction error (MPPE) and median absolute percentage prediction error (MAPE) were calculated. RESULTS Correlation between C0 and AUCf was 0.53. Using the 42 LSS equations, correlation between AUCp and AUCf ranged from 0.54 to 0.99. The MPPE and MAPE were tacrolimus exposure compared with C0 measurement. Several LSSs based on sampling taken 2 h or less post-dose predicted exposure with acceptable bias and imprecision. Generally, Bayesian forecasting methods required inclusion of a concentration measurement from <2 h post-dose to adequately predict exposure. PMID:21219401

  4. Method for analysis of polar volatile trace components in aqueous samples by gas chromatography. (United States)

    Pettersson, Johan; Roeraade, Johan


    A new method has been developed for direct analysis of volatile polar trace compounds in aqueous samples by gas chromatography. Water samples are injected onto a short packed precolumn containing anhydrous lithium chloride. A capillary column is coupled in series with the prefractionation column for final separation of the analytes. The enrichment principle of the salt precolumn is reverse to the principles employed in conventional methods such as SPE or SPME in which a sorbent or adsorbent is utilized to trap or concentrate the analytes. Such methods are not efficient for highly polar compounds. In the LiCl precolumn concept, the water matrix is strongly retained on the hygroscopic salt, whereas polar as well as nonpolar volatile organic compounds show very low retention and are eluted ahead of the water. After transfer of the analytes to the capillary column, the retained bulk water is removed by backflushing the precolumn at elevated temperature. For direct injections of 120 microL of aqueous samples, the combined time for injection and preseparation is only 3.5 min. With this procedure, direct repetitive automated analyses of highly volatile polar compounds such as methanol or tetrahydrofuran can be performed, and a limit of quantification in the low parts-per-billion region utilizing a flame ionization detector is demonstrated.

  5. Determination of methylmercury in marine biota samples with advanced mercury analyzer: method validation. (United States)

    Azemard, Sabine; Vassileva, Emilia


    In this paper, we present a simple, fast and cost-effective method for determination of methyl mercury (MeHg) in marine samples. All important parameters influencing the sample preparation process were investigated and optimized. Full validation of the method was performed in accordance to the ISO-17025 (ISO/IEC, 2005) and Eurachem guidelines. Blanks, selectivity, working range (0.09-3.0ng), recovery (92-108%), intermediate precision (1.7-4.5%), traceability, limit of detection (0.009ng), limit of quantification (0.045ng) and expanded uncertainty (15%, k=2) were assessed. Estimation of the uncertainty contribution of each parameter and the demonstration of traceability of measurement results was provided as well. Furthermore, the selectivity of the method was studied by analyzing the same sample extracts by advanced mercury analyzer (AMA) and gas chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (GC-AFS). Additional validation of the proposed procedure was effectuated by participation in the IAEA-461 worldwide inter-laboratory comparison exercises. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a new method for hydrogen isotope analysis of trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibin Wang


    Full Text Available A new method had been developed for the analysis of hydrogen isotopic composition of trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples by using solid phase microextraction (SPME combined with gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS. In this study, the SPME technique had been initially introduced to achieve the enrichment of trace content of hydrocarbons with low abundance and coupled to GC/IRMS for hydrogen isotopic analysis. The main parameters, including the equilibration time, extraction temperature, and the fiber type, were systematically optimized. The results not only demonstrated that high extraction yield was true but also shows that the hydrogen isotopic fractionation was not observed during the extraction process, when the SPME device fitted with polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene/carbon molecular sieve (PDMS/DVB/CAR fiber. The applications of SPME-GC/IRMS method were evaluated by using natural gas samples collected from different sedimentary basins; the standard deviation (SD was better than 4‰ for reproducible measurements; and also, the hydrogen isotope values from C1 to C9 can be obtained with satisfying repeatability. The SPME-GC/IRMS method fitted with PDMS/DVB/CAR fiber is well suited for the preconcentration of trace hydrocarbons, and provides a reliable hydrogen isotopic analysis for trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples.

  7. Quantitative evaluation method of arc sound spectrum based on sample entropy (United States)

    Yao, Ping; Zhou, Kang; Zhu, Qiang


    Arc sound analysis is an effective way to evaluate the stability of the arc welding process. Current methods cannot effectively quantify the disorder of the process. By studying the characteristics of the arc sound signal, we found that low frequency random mutation of arc sound power resulted from unstable factors, such as splashes or short circuits, increased the complexity and randomness of the arc sound signals. Then the arc sound signals were visualized on time-frequency interface by means of spectrogram, and it was found that the max power spectral density (PSD) distribution of spectrogram was closely related to the stability of arc welding process. Moreover, a method based on sample entropy was proposed to further quantify the relation. Finally, considering the factors such as averages of max PSD and the standard deviations of sample entropy, a compound quantitative evaluation indicator, arc sound sample entropy (ASSE), which can avoid the influence of different parameters on the quantitative results, was proposed, so that the stability of arc welding process can be quantitatively presented. Testing results showed that the accuracy rate of the method was more than 90 percent.

  8. Surge block method for controlling well clogging and sampling sediment during bioremediation. (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Min; Watson, David B; Luo, Jian; Carley, Jack; Mehlhorn, Tonia; Kitanidis, Peter K; Jardine, Phlip M; Criddle, Craig S


    A surge block treatment method (i.e. inserting a solid rod plunger with a flat seal that closely fits the casing interior into a well and stocking it up and down) was performed for the rehabilitation of wells clogged with biomass and for the collection of time series sediment samples during in situ bioremediation tests for U(VI) immobilization at a the U.S. Department of Energy site in Oak Ridge, TN. The clogging caused by biomass growth had been controlled by using routine surge block treatment for 18 times over a nearly four year test period. The treatment frequency was dependent of the dosage of electron donor injection and microbial community developed in the subsurface. Hydraulic tests showed that the apparent aquifer transmissivity at a clogged well with an inner diameter (ID) of 10.16 cm was increased by 8-13 times after the rehabilitation, indicating the effectiveness of the rehabilitation. Simultaneously with the rehabilitation, the surge block method was successfully used for collecting time series sediment samples composed of fine particles (clay and silt) from wells with ID 1.9-10.16 cm for the analysis of mineralogical and geochemical composition and microbial community during the same period. Our results demonstrated that the surge block method provided a cost-effective approach for both well rehabilitation and frequent solid sampling at the same location. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Surge Block Method for Controlling Well Clogging and Sampling Sediment during Bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Watson, David B [ORNL; Luo, Jian [Stanford University; Carley, Jack M [ORNL; Mehlhorn, Tonia L [ORNL; Kitanidis, Peter K. [Stanford University; Jardine, Philip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Criddle, Craig [Stanford University


    A surge block treatment method (i.e. inserting a solid rod plunger with a flat seal that closely fits the casing interior into a well and stocking it up and down) was performed for the rehabilitation of wells clogged with biomass and for the collection of time series sediment samples during in situ bioremediation tests for U(VI) immobilization at a the U.S. Department of Energy site in Oak Ridge, TN. The clogging caused by biomass growth had been controlled by using routine surge block treatment for18 times over a nearly four year test period. The treatment frequency was dependent of the dosage of electron donor injection and microbial community developed in the subsurface. Hydraulic tests showed that the apparent aquifer transmissivity at a clogged well with an inner diameter (ID) of 10.16 cm was increased by 8 13 times after the rehabilitation, indicating the effectiveness of the rehabilitation. Simultaneously with the rehabilitation, the surge block method was successfully used for collecting time series sediment samples composed of fine particles (clay and silt) from wells with ID 1.9 10.16 cm for the analysis of mineralogical and geochemical composition and microbial community during the same period. Our results demonstrated that the surge block method provided a cost-effective approach for both well rehabilitation and frequent solid sampling at the same location.

  10. Automated measurement and quantification of heterotrophic bacteria in water samples based on the MPN method. (United States)

    Fuchsluger, C; Preims, M; Fritz, I


    Quantification of heterotrophic bacteria is a widely used measure for water analysis. Especially in terms of drinking water analysis, testing for microorganisms is strictly regulated by the European Drinking Water Directive, including quality criteria and detection limits. The quantification procedure presented in this study is based on the most probable number (MPN) method, which was adapted to comply with the need for a quick and easy screening tool for different kinds of water samples as well as varying microbial loads. Replacing tubes with 24-well titer plates for cultivation of bacteria drastically reduces the amount of culture media and also simplifies incubation. Automated photometric measurement of turbidity instead of visual evaluation of bacterial growth avoids misinterpretation by operators. Definition of a threshold ensures definite and user-independent determination of microbial growth. Calculation of the MPN itself is done using a program provided by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). For evaluation of the method, real water samples of different origins as well as pure cultures of bacteria were analyzed in parallel with the conventional plating methods. Thus, the procedure described requires less preparation time, reduces costs and ensures both stable and reliable results for water samples.

  11. Sampling and P-sampling expansions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we consider instead a non-standard approach to sampling theory. The hyperfinite representation of functions and generalized functions has been studied in an earlier paper [2], and the same notation and conventions will be used here. In particular,. PcNI denotes a given even infinite hypernatural number, 4 И ...

  12. A method for under-sampled ecological network data analysis: plant-pollination as case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter B. Sorensen


    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a method, termed the Interaction Distribution (ID method, for analysis of quantitative ecological network data. In many cases, quantitative network data sets are under-sampled, i.e. many interactions are poorly sampled or remain unobserved. Hence, the output of statistical analyses may fail to differentiate between patterns that are statistical artefacts and those which are real characteristics of ecological networks. The ID method can support assessment and inference of under-sampled ecological network data. In the current paper, we illustrate and discuss the ID method based on the properties of plant-animal pollination data sets of flower visitation frequencies. However, the ID method may be applied to other types of ecological networks. The method can supplement existing network analyses based on two definitions of the underlying probabilities for each combination of pollinator and plant species: (1, pi,j: the probability for a visit made by the i’th pollinator species to take place on the j’th plant species; (2, qi,j: the probability for a visit received by the j’th plant species to be made by the i’th pollinator. The method applies the Dirichlet distribution to estimate these two probabilities, based on a given empirical data set. The estimated mean values for pi,j and qi,j reflect the relative differences between recorded numbers of visits for different pollinator and plant species, and the estimated uncertainty of pi,j and qi,j decreases with higher numbers of recorded visits.

  13. Spiders and harvestmen on tree trunks obtained by three sampling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machač, Ondřej


    Full Text Available We studied spiders and harvestmen on tree trunks using three sampling methods. In 2013, spider and harvestman research was conducted on the trunks of selected species of deciduous trees (linden, oak, maple in the town of Přerov and a surrounding floodplain forest near the Bečva River in the Czech Republic. Three methods were used to collect arachnids (pitfall traps with a conservation fluid, sticky traps and cardboard pocket traps. Overall, 1862 spiders and 864 harvestmen were trapped, represented by 56 spider species belonging to 15 families and seven harvestman species belonging to one family. The most effective method for collecting spider specimens was a modified pitfall trap method, and in autumn (September to October a cardboard band method. The results suggest a high number of spiders overwintering on the tree bark. The highest species diversity of spiders was found in pitfall traps, evaluated as the most effective method for collecting harvestmen too.

  14. Automated Sample Preparation (ASP): Development of a Rapid Method to Sequentially Isolate Nucleic Acids and Protein from Any Sample Type by a Cartridge-Based System (United States)


    by the buffer solution. For instance, the DNAPro appears to perform better when the diluent was Joint Portal Shield Buffer. This relationship did...spores and comparison of DNA yields from spores and spiked environmental samples. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 2009. 76(1): p. 30-37. 3...time PCR. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, 2008. 27(2): p. 109-114. 4. Boom, R., et al., Rapid and simple method

  15. Genetic Sample Inventory (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database archives genetic tissue samples from marine mammals collected primarily from the U.S. east coast. The collection includes samples from field programs,...

  16. Genetic Sample Inventory - NRDA (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database archives genetic tissue samples from marine mammals collected in the North-Central Gulf of Mexico from 2010-2015. The collection includes samples from...

  17. Mold Testing or Sampling (United States)

    In most cases, if visible mold growth is present, sampling is unnecessary. Since no EPA or other federal limits have been set for mold or mold spores, sampling cannot be used to check a building's compliance with federal mold standards.

  18. Chorionic villus sampling (United States)

    ... Chorionic villus sampling To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a test some pregnant women have ...

  19. Sampling on Quasicrystals


    Grepstad, Sigrid


    We prove that quasicrystals are universal sets of stable sampling in any dimension. Necessary and sufficient density conditions for stable sampling and interpolation sets in one dimension are studied in detail.

  20. Lunar Sample Compendium (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium is to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon....

  1. Electrofracturing test system and method of determining material characteristics of electrofractured material samples (United States)

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Glover, Steven F.; Pfeifle, Tom; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Broome, Scott Thomas; Gardner, William Payton


    A device for electrofracturing a material sample and analyzing the material sample is disclosed. The device simulates an in situ electrofracturing environment so as to obtain electrofractured material characteristics representative of field applications while allowing permeability testing of the fractured sample under in situ conditions.

  2. Evaluation of standard methods for collecting and processing fuel moisture samples (United States)

    Sally M. Haase; José Sánchez; David R. Weise


    A variety of techniques for collecting and processing samples to determine moisture content of wildland fuels in support of fire management activities were evaluated. The effects of using a chainsaw or handsaw to collect samples of largediameter wood, containers for storing and transporting collected samples, and quick-response ovens for estimating moisture content...

  3. Sampling methods for titica vine (Heteropsis spp.) inventory in a tropical forest (United States)

    Carine Klauberg; Edson Vidal; Carlos Alberto Silva; Michelliny de M. Bentes; Andrew Thomas. Hudak


    Titica vine provides useful raw fiber material. Using sampling schemes that reduce sampling error can provide direction for sustainable forest management of this vine. Sampling systematically with rectangular plots (10× 25 m) promoted lower error and greater accuracy in the inventory of titica vines in tropical rainforest.

  4. Sample Size Determination for Regression Models Using Monte Carlo Methods in R (United States)

    Beaujean, A. Alexander


    A common question asked by researchers using regression models is, What sample size is needed for my study? While there are formulae to estimate sample sizes, their assumptions are often not met in the collected data. A more realistic approach to sample size determination requires more information such as the model of interest, strength of the…

  5. Empirically simulated study to compare and validate sampling methods used in aerial surveys of wildlife populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaemba, W.M.; Stein, A.; Rasch, D.; Leeuw, de J.; Georgiadis, N.


    This paper compares the distribution, sampling and estimation of abundance for two animal species in an African ecosystem by means of an intensive simulation of the sampling process under a geographical information system (GIS) environment. It focuses on systematic and random sampling designs,

  6. Prediction accuracy of a sample-size estimation method for ROC studies. (United States)

    Chakraborty, Dev P


    Sample-size estimation is an important consideration when planning a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study. The aim of this work was to assess the prediction accuracy of a sample-size estimation method using the Monte Carlo simulation method. Two ROC ratings simulators characterized by low reader and high case variabilities (LH) and high reader and low case variabilities (HL) were used to generate pilot data sets in two modalities. Dorfman-Berbaum-Metz multiple-reader multiple-case (DBM-MRMC) analysis of the ratings yielded estimates of the modality-reader, modality-case, and error variances. These were input to the Hillis-Berbaum (HB) sample-size estimation method, which predicted the number of cases needed to achieve 80% power for 10 readers and an effect size of 0.06 in the pivotal study. Predictions that generalized to readers and cases (random-all), to cases only (random-cases), and to readers only (random-readers) were generated. A prediction-accuracy index defined as the probability that any single prediction yields true power in the 75%-90% range was used to assess the HB method. For random-case generalization, the HB-method prediction-accuracy was reasonable, approximately 50% for five readers and 100 cases in the pilot study. Prediction-accuracy was generally higher under LH conditions than under HL conditions. Under ideal conditions (many readers in the pilot study) the DBM-MRMC-based HB method overestimated the number of cases. The overestimates could be explained by the larger modality-reader variance estimates when reader variability was large (HL). The largest benefit of increasing the number of readers in the pilot study was realized for LH, where 15 readers were enough to yield prediction accuracy >50% under all generalization conditions, but the benefit was lesser for HL where prediction accuracy was approximately 36% for 15 readers under random-all and random-reader conditions. The HB method tends to overestimate the number of cases

  7. Conditions Affecting the Accuracy of Classical Equating Methods for Small Samples under the NEAT Design: A Simulation Study (United States)

    Sunnassee, Devdass


    Small sample equating remains a largely unexplored area of research. This study attempts to fill in some of the research gaps via a large-scale, IRT-based simulation study that evaluates the performance of seven small-sample equating methods under various test characteristic and sampling conditions. The equating methods considered are typically…

  8. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects... (United States)


    ...; sample plans and test method for leakage defects; adulteration. 800.20 Section 800.20 Food and Drugs FOOD... from the test method and sample plans in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. (2) For a description... Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.20 Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample...

  9. A novel sample preparation method using rapid nonheated saponification method for the determination of cholesterol in emulsified foods. (United States)

    Jeong, In-Seek; Kwak, Byung-Man; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Leem, Donggil; Yoon, Taehyung; Yoon, Changyong; Jeong, Jayoung; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Jin-Man


    In this study, nonheated saponification was employed as a novel, rapid, and easy sample preparation method for the determination of cholesterol in emulsified foods. Cholesterol content was analyzed using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The cholesterol extraction method was optimized for maximum recovery from baby food and infant formula. Under these conditions, the optimum extraction solvent was 10 mL ethyl ether per 1 to 2 g sample, and the saponification solution was 0.2 mL KOH in methanol. The cholesterol content in the products was determined to be within the certified range of certified reference materials (CRMs), NIST SRM 1544 and SRM 1849. The results of the recovery test performed using spiked materials were in the range of 98.24% to 99.45% with an relative standard devitation (RSD) between 0.83% and 1.61%. This method could be used to reduce sample pretreatment time and is expected to provide an accurate determination of cholesterol in emulsified food matrices such as infant formula and baby food. A novel, rapid, and easy sample preparation method using nonheated saponification was developed for cholesterol detection in emulsified foods. Recovery tests of CRMs were satisfactory, and the recoveries of spiked materials were accurate and precise. This method was effective and decreased the time required for analysis by 5-fold compared to the official method. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Experimental Assessment of Linear Sampling and Factorization Methods for Microwave Imaging of Concealed Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Akıncı


    Full Text Available Shape reconstruction methods are particularly well suited for imaging of concealed targets. Yet, these methods are rarely employed in real nondestructive testing applications, since they generally require the electrical parameters of outer object as a priori knowledge. In this regard, we propose an approach to relieve two well known shape reconstruction algorithms, which are the linear sampling and the factorization methods, from the requirement of the a priori knowledge on electrical parameters of the surrounding medium. The idea behind this paper is that if a measurement of the reference medium (a medium which can approximate the material, except the inclusion can be supplied to these methods, reconstructions with very high qualities can be obtained even when there is no information about the electrical parameters of the surrounding medium. Taking the advantage of this idea, we consider that it is possible to use shape reconstruction methods in buried object detection. To this end, we perform several experiments inside an anechoic chamber to verify the approach against real measurements. Accuracy and stability of the obtained results show that both the linear sampling and the factorization methods can be quite useful for various buried obstacle imaging problems.

  11. Adapting chain referral methods to sample new migrants: Possibilities and limitations

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    Lucinda Platt


    Full Text Available Background: Demographic research on migration requires representative samples of migrant populations. Yet recent immigrants, who are particularly informative about current migrant flows, are difficult to capture even in specialist surveys. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS, a chain referral sampling and analysis technique, potentially offers the opportunity to achieve population-level inference of recently arrived migrant populations. Objective: We evaluate the attempt to use RDS to sample two groups of migrants, from Pakistan and Poland, who had arrived in the UK within the previous 18 months, and we present an alternative approach adapted to recent migrants. Methods: We discuss how connectedness, privacy, clustering, and motivation are expected to differ among recently arrived migrants, compared to typical applications of RDS. We develop a researcher-led chain referral approach, and compare success in recruitment and indicators of representativeness to standard RDS recruitment. Results: Our researcher-led approach led to higher rates of chain-referral, and enabled us to reach population members with smaller network sizes. The researcher-led approach resulted in similar recruiter-recruit transition probabilities to traditional RDS across many demographic and social characteristics. However, we did not succeed in building up long referral chains, largely due to the lack of connectedness of our target populations and some reluctance to refer. There were some differences between the two migrant groups, with less mobile and less hidden Pakistani men producing longer referral chains. Conclusions: Chain referral is difficult to implement for sampling newly arrived migrants. However, our researcher-led adaptation shows promise for less hidden and more stable recent immigrant populations. Contribution: The paper offers an evaluation of RDS for surveying recent immigrants and an adaptation that may be effective under certain conditions.

  12. Developing Water Sampling Standards (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974


    Participants in the D-19 symposium on aquatic sampling and measurement for water pollution assessment were informed that determining the extent of waste water stream pollution is not a cut and dry procedure. Topics discussed include field sampling, representative sampling from storm sewers, suggested sampler features and application of improved…

  13. Comparison of Spot and Time Weighted Averaging (TWA Sampling with SPME-GC/MS Methods for Trihalomethane (THM Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don-Roger Parkinson


    Full Text Available Water samples were collected and analyzed for conductivity, pH, temperature and trihalomethanes (THMs during the fall of 2014 at two monitored municipal drinking water source ponds. Both spot (or grab and time weighted average (TWA sampling methods were assessed over the same two day sampling time period. For spot sampling, replicate samples were taken at each site and analyzed within 12 h of sampling by both Headspace (HS- and direct (DI- solid phase microextraction (SPME sampling/extraction methods followed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS. For TWA, a two day passive on-site TWA sampling was carried out at the same sampling points in the ponds. All SPME sampling methods undertaken used a 65-µm PDMS/DVB SPME fiber, which was found optimal for THM sampling. Sampling conditions were optimized in the laboratory using calibration standards of chloroform, bromoform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, 1,2-dibromoethane and 1,2-dichloroethane, prepared in aqueous solutions from analytical grade samples. Calibration curves for all methods with R2 values ranging from 0.985–0.998 (N = 5 over the quantitation linear range of 3–800 ppb were achieved. The different sampling methods were compared for quantification of the water samples, and results showed that DI- and TWA- sampling methods gave better data and analytical metrics. Addition of 10% wt./vol. of (NH42SO4 salt to the sampling vial was found to aid extraction of THMs by increasing GC peaks areas by about 10%, which resulted in lower detection limits for all techniques studied. However, for on-site TWA analysis of THMs in natural waters, the calibration standard(s ionic strength conditions, must be carefully matched to natural water conditions to properly quantitate THM concentrations. The data obtained from the TWA method may better reflect actual natural water conditions.

  14. An intercomparison study of analytical methods used for quantification of levoglucosan in ambient aerosol filter samples (United States)

    Yttri, K. E.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Maenhaut, W.; Abbaszade, G.; Alves, C.; Bjerke, A.; Bonnier, N.; Bossi, R.; Claeys, M.; Dye, C.; Evtyugina, M.; García-Gacio, D.; Hillamo, R.; Hoffer, A.; Hyder, M.; Iinuma, Y.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Kiss, G.; López-Mahia, P. L.; Pio, C.; Piot, C.; Ramirez-Santa-Cruz, C.; Sciare, J.; Teinilä, K.; Vermeylen, R.; Vicente, A.; Zimmermann, R.


    The monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs) levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan are products of incomplete combustion and pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloses, and are found to be major constituents of biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles. Hence, ambient aerosol particle concentrations of levoglucosan are commonly used to study the influence of residential wood burning, agricultural waste burning and wildfire emissions on ambient air quality. A European-wide intercomparison on the analysis of the three monosaccharide anhydrides was conducted based on ambient aerosol quartz fiber filter samples collected at a Norwegian urban background site during winter. Thus, the samples' content of MAs is representative for BB particles originating from residential wood burning. The purpose of the intercomparison was to examine the comparability of the great diversity of analytical methods used for analysis of levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan in ambient aerosol filter samples. Thirteen laboratories participated, of which three applied high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC), four used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and six resorted to gas chromatography (GC). The analytical methods used were of such diversity that they should be considered as thirteen different analytical methods. All of the thirteen laboratories reported levels of levoglucosan, whereas nine reported data for mannosan and/or galactosan. Eight of the thirteen laboratories reported levels for all three isomers. The accuracy for levoglucosan, presented as the mean percentage error (PE) for each participating laboratory, varied from -63 to 20%; however, for 62% of the laboratories the mean PE was within ±10%, and for 85% the mean PE was within ±20%. For mannosan, the corresponding range was -60 to 69%, but as for levoglucosan, the range was substantially smaller for a subselection of the laboratories; i.e. for 33% of the

  15. Flow through in situ reactors with suction lysimeter sampling capability and methods of using (United States)

    Radtke, Corey W [Idaho Falls, ID; Blackwelder, D Brad [Blackfoot, ID; Hubbell, Joel M [Idaho Falls, ID


    An in situ reactor for use in a geological strata includes a liner defining a centrally disposed passageway and a sampling conduit received within the passageway. The sampling conduit may be used to receive a geological speciment derived from geological strata therein and a lysimeter is disposed within the sampling conduit in communication with the geological specimen. Fluid may be added to the geological specimen through the passageway defined by the liner, between an inside surface of the liner and an outside surface of the sampling conduit. A distal portion of the sampling conduit may be in fluid communication with the passageway.

  16. Rapid methods to detect organic mercury and total selenium in biological samples

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    Basu Niladri


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organic mercury (Hg is a global pollutant of concern and selenium is believed to afford protection against mercury risk though few approaches exist to rapidly assess both chemicals in biological samples. Here, micro-scale and rapid methods to detect organic mercury ( Results For organic Hg, samples are digested using Tris-HCl buffer (with sequential additions of protease, NaOH, cysteine, CuSO4, acidic NaBr followed by extraction with toluene and Na2S2O3. The final product is analyzed via commercially available direct/total mercury analyzers. For Se, a fluorometric assay has been developed for microplate readers that involves digestion (HNO3-HClO4 and HCl, conjugation (2,3-diaminonaphthalene, and cyclohexane extraction. Recovery of organic Hg (86-107% and Se (85-121% were determined through use of Standard Reference Materials and lemon shark kidney tissues. Conclusions The approaches outlined provide an easy, rapid, reproducible, and cost-effective platform for monitoring organic Hg and total Se in biological samples. Owing to the importance of organic Hg and Se in the pathophysiology of Hg, integration of such methods into established research monitoring efforts (that largely focus on screening total Hg only will help increase understanding of Hg's true risks.

  17. Determination of Organothiophosphate Insecticides in Environmental Water Samples by a Very Simple and Sensitive Spectrofluorimetric Method. (United States)

    Bavili Tabrizi, Ahad; Abdollahi, Ali


    A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of di-syston, ethion and phorate in environmental water samples. The procedure is based on the oxidation of these pesticides with cerium (IV) to produce cerium (III), and its fluorescence was monitored at 368 ± 3 nm after excitation at 257 ± 3 nm. The variables effecting oxidation of each pesticide were studied and optimized. Under the experimental conditions used, the calibration graphs were linear over the range 0.2-15, 0.1-13, 0.1-13 ng mL(-1) for di-syston, ethion and phorate, respectively. The limit of detection and quantification were in the range 0.034-0.096 and 0.112-0.316 ng mL(-1), respectively. Intra- and inter-day assay precisions, expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD), were lower than 5.2 % and 6.7 %, respectively. Good recoveries in the range 86 %-108 % were obtained for spiked water samples. The proposed method was applied to the determination of studied pesticides in environmental water samples.

  18. Sample preparation method considerations for integrated transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of tumors. (United States)

    Bhat, Anupama Rajan; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Krithivasan, Priya; Dhas, Kunal; Nair, Jayalakshmi; Reddy, Ram Bhupal; Sudheendra, Holalugunda Vittalamurthy; Chavan, Sandip; Vardhan, Harsha; Darsi, Sujatha; Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Katragadda, Shanmukh; Kekatpure, Vikram; Suresh, Amritha; Tata, Pramila; Panda, Binay; Kuriakose, Moni A; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi


    Sample processing protocols that enable compatible recovery of differentially expressed transcripts and proteins are necessary for integration of the multiomics data applied in the analysis of tumors. In this pilot study, we compared two different isolation methods for extracting RNA and protein from laryngopharyngeal tumor tissues and the corresponding adjacent normal sections. In Method 1, RNA and protein were isolated from a single tissue section sequentially and in Method 2, the extraction was carried out using two different sections and two independent and parallel protocols for RNA and protein. RNA and protein from both methods were subjected to RNA-seq and iTRAQ-based LC-MS/MS analysis, respectively. Analysis of data revealed that a higher number of differentially expressed transcripts and proteins were concordant in their regulation trends in Method 1 as compared to Method 2. Cross-method comparison of concordant entities revealed that RNA and protein extraction from the same tissue section (Method 1) recovered more concordant entities that are missed in the other extraction method (Method 2) indicating heterogeneity in distribution of these entities in different tissue sections. Method 1 could thus be the method of choice for integrated analysis of transcriptome and proteome data. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The carbon isotope composition of CO2 respired by trunks: comparison of four sampling methods. (United States)

    Damesin, C; Barbaroux, C; Berveiller, D; Lelarge, C; Chaves, M; Maguas, C; Maia, R; Pontailler, J-Y


    The (13)C natural abundance of CO(2) respired by plants has been used in the laboratory to examine the discrimination processes that occur during respiration. Currently, field measurements are being expanded to interpret the respiration delta(13)C signature measured at ecosystem and global levels. In this context, forests are particularly important to consider as they represent 80% of the continental biomass. The objective of this investigation was to compare four methods of sampling the CO(2) respired by trunks for the determination of its carbon isotope composition: three in situ methods using chambers placed on the trunk, and one destructive method using cores of woody tissues. The in situ methods were based either on a Keeling plot approach applied at the tissue level or on an initial flush of the chamber with nitrogen or with CO(2)-free air. In parallel, we investigated the possibility of an apparent discrimination during tissue respiration by comparing the delta(13)C signature of the respired CO(2) and that of the organic matter. The study was performed on six tree species widely distributed in temperate and mediterranean areas. The four methods were not significantly different when overall means were considered. However, considering the individual data, the Keeling plot approach and the nitrogen flush methods gave fairly homogeneous results, whereas the CO(2)-free air method produced more variable results. The core method was not correlated with any of the chamber methods. Regardless of the methodology, the respired CO(2) generally was enriched in (13)C relative to the total organic matter. This apparent enrichment during respiration was variable, reaching as much as 3-5 per thousand. This study showed that, on the whole, the different sampling techniques gave similar results, but one should be aware of the variability associated with each method. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Accuracy, precision and robustness of different methods to obtain samples from silages in fermentation studies

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    Rodrigo da Costa Gomes


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate accuracy, precision and robustness of two methods to obtain silage samples, in comparison with extraction of liquor by manual screw-press. Wet brewery residue alone or combined with soybean hulls and citrus pulp were ensiled in laboratory silos. Liquor was extracted by a manual screw-press and a 2-mL aliquot was fixed with 0.4 mL formic acid. Two 10-g silage samples from each silo were diluted in 20 mL deionized water or 17% formic acid solution (alternative methods. Aliquots obtained by the three methods were used to determine the silage contents of fermentation end-products. The accuracy of the alternative methods was evaluated by comparing mean bias of estimates obtained by manual screw-press and by alternative methods, whereas precision was assessed by the root mean square prediction error and the residual error. Robustness was determined by studying the interaction between bias and chemical components, pH, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD and buffer capacity. The 17% formic acid method was more accurate for estimating acetic, butyric and lactic acids, although it resulted in low overestimates of propionic acid and underestimates of ethanol. The deionized water method overestimated acetic and propionic acids and slightly underestimated ethanol. The 17% formic acid method was more precise than deionized water for estimating all organic acids and ethanol. The robustness of each method with respect to variation in the silage chemical composition, IVDMD and pH is dependent on the fermentation end-product at evaluation. The robustness of the alternative methods seems to be critical at the determination of lactic acid and ethanol contents.