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Sample records for sampling malaria vectors

  1. Sampling techniques for adult Afrotropical malaria vectors and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was the aim of this paper to critically evaluate the most common mosquito sampling techniques in relation to their reliability in the estimation of EIR. The techniques include man-landing, light trap, light trap/bednet combination and odour-baited traps. Although man-landing technique is the most reliable, it however, expose ...

  2. Standardizing operational vector sampling techniques for measuring malaria transmission intensity: evaluation of six mosquito collection methods in western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Jacklyn; Bayoh, Nabie; Olang, George; Killeen, Gerry; Hamel, Mary J; Vulule, John M.; Gimnig, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Background\\ud Operational vector sampling methods lack standardization, making quantitative comparisons of malaria transmission across different settings difficult. Human landing catch (HLC) is considered the research gold standard for measuring human-mosquito contact, but is unsuitable for large-scale sampling. This study assessed mosquito catch rates of CDC light trap (CDC-LT), Ifakara tent trap (ITT), window exit trap (WET), pot resting trap (PRT), and box resting trap (BRT) relative to HL...

  3. Standardizing operational vector sampling techniques for measuring malaria transmission intensity: evaluation of six mosquito collection methods in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jacklyn; Bayoh, Nabie; Olang, George; Killeen, Gerry F; Hamel, Mary J; Vulule, John M; Gimnig, John E

    2013-04-30

    Operational vector sampling methods lack standardization, making quantitative comparisons of malaria transmission across different settings difficult. Human landing catch (HLC) is considered the research gold standard for measuring human-mosquito contact, but is unsuitable for large-scale sampling. This study assessed mosquito catch rates of CDC light trap (CDC-LT), Ifakara tent trap (ITT), window exit trap (WET), pot resting trap (PRT), and box resting trap (BRT) relative to HLC in western Kenya to 1) identify appropriate methods for operational sampling in this region, and 2) contribute to a larger, overarching project comparing standardized evaluations of vector trapping methods across multiple countries. Mosquitoes were collected from June to July 2009 in four districts: Rarieda, Kisumu West, Nyando, and Rachuonyo. In each district, all trapping methods were rotated 10 times through three houses in a 3 × 3 Latin Square design. Anophelines were identified by morphology and females classified as fed or non-fed. Anopheles gambiae s.l. were further identified as Anopheles gambiae s.s. or Anopheles arabiensis by PCR. Relative catch rates were estimated by negative binomial regression. When data were pooled across all four districts, catch rates (relative to HLC indoor) for An. gambiae s.l (95.6% An. arabiensis, 4.4% An. gambiae s.s) were high for HLC outdoor (RR = 1.01), CDC-LT (RR = 1.18), and ITT (RR = 1.39); moderate for WET (RR = 0.52) and PRT outdoor (RR = 0.32); and low for all remaining types of resting traps (PRT indoor, BRT indoor, and BRT outdoor; RR type varied from district to district. ITT, CDC-LT, and WET appear to be effective methods for large-scale vector sampling in western Kenya. Ultimately, choice of collection method for operational surveillance should be driven by trap efficacy and scalability, rather than fine-scale precision with respect to HLC. When compared with recent, similar trap evaluations in Tanzania and Zambia, these data suggest

  4. Malaria vector control and personal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Malaria transmission rates and risks can be greatly reduced by vector control, mitigating high malaria incidence and prevalence rates. Methods and strategies for malaria vector control (MVC) have been well documented by WHO, although its implementation varies widely. Technical guidelines for MVC strategies and materials are readily available, but the status and role of MVC have not been reviewed and redefined in terms of programme management and resource allocation. There are huge changes since November 1993 when the last WHO Study Group reviewed vector control for malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases, following the 1992 adoption of the Global Malaria Control Strategy. Operationally, with reform of the health sector in many countries, the centrally managed and vertically structured malaria control programme (MCP) has been superseded by a community-based and decentralized one. This poses challenges for effective implementation of MVC strategies. Therefore it became evident that the role of vector control in malaria control needs to be reconsidered to develop a strategic framework for MVC implementation by national malaria control programmes and other partners. This report of a WHO Study Group on Malaria Vector Control and Personal Protection reviewed the current vector control strategies and their effectiveness in various operational and eco-epidemiological settings, and identified challenges for implementation in different health systems. An outline strategic framework for strengthening malaria vector control implementation was developed. The process of deciding about which mosquito control method is appropriate in a given situation should be guided by an analysis of the level of malaria endemicity and vector bionomics, the eco-epidemiological setting, the health management system and an estimate of the programme sustainability. This report also provides a basis for the development of a strategic framework for strengthening malaria vector control

  5. Using nylon strips to dispense mosquito attractants for sampling the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumu, F; Biswaro, L; Mbeleyela, E; Killeen, G F; Mukabana, R; Moore, S J

    2010-03-01

    Synthetic versions of human derived kairomones can be used as baits when trapping host seeking mosquitoes. The effectiveness of these lures depends not only on their attractiveness to the mosquitoes but also on the medium from which they are dispensed. We report on the development and evaluation of nylon strips as a method of dispensing odorants attractive to the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Giles). When a synthetic blend of attractants was dispensed using this method, significantly more mosquitoes were trapped than when two previous methods, open glass vials or low density polyethylene sachets were used. We conclude that the nylon strips are suitable for dispensing odorants in mosquito trapping operations and can be adopted for use in rural and remote areas. The nylon material required is cheap and widely available and the strips can be prepared without specialized equipment or electricity.

  6. Malaria vector control: current and future strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    The recently announced call for malaria eradication represents a new page in the history of this disease. This has been triggered by remarkable reductions in malaria resulting from combined application of effective drugs and vector control. However, this strategy is threatened by development of

  7. morphological identification of malaria vectors within anopheles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    Anopheles gambiae s.l. ranked the highest among other species. Further molecular identification of sub-species complex of An. gambiae s.l and An. funestus is strongly recommended in the area. Keywords: Identification, malaria, vectors, anopheles, species. INTRODUCTION. Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity ...

  8. Integrated vector management for malaria control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Impoinvil Daniel E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Integrated vector management (IVM is defined as "a rational decision-making process for the optimal use of resources for vector control" and includes five key elements: 1 evidence-based decision-making, 2 integrated approaches 3, collaboration within the health sector and with other sectors, 4 advocacy, social mobilization, and legislation, and 5 capacity-building. In 2004, the WHO adopted IVM globally for the control of all vector-borne diseases. Important recent progress has been made in developing and promoting IVM for national malaria control programmes in Africa at a time when successful malaria control programmes are scaling-up with insecticide-treated nets (ITN and/or indoor residual spraying (IRS coverage. While interventions using only ITNs and/or IRS successfully reduce transmission intensity and the burden of malaria in many situations, it is not clear if these interventions alone will achieve those critical low levels that result in malaria elimination. Despite the successful employment of comprehensive integrated malaria control programmes, further strengthening of vector control components through IVM is relevant, especially during the "end-game" where control is successful and further efforts are required to go from low transmission situations to sustained local and country-wide malaria elimination. To meet this need and to ensure sustainability of control efforts, malaria control programmes should strengthen their capacity to use data for decision-making with respect to evaluation of current vector control programmes, employment of additional vector control tools in conjunction with ITN/IRS tactics, case-detection and treatment strategies, and determine how much and what types of vector control and interdisciplinary input are required to achieve malaria elimination. Similarly, on a global scale, there is a need for continued research to identify and evaluate new tools for vector control that can be integrated with

  9. The malaria vectors of the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transmit the malaria parasite (Coetzee, et al., 2000). An. gambi- ae s.s. is more common in more humid areas of Africa, whereas. An. arabiensis prefers more arid zones ... agent of lymphatic filariasis or elephantiasis. Because the aquatic breeding sites expand and prolifer- ate following rainfall, malaria transmission typically ...

  10. Malaria vector control: from past to future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Barik, Tapan K; Reddy, B P Niranjan; Sharma, Poonam; Dash, Aditya P

    2011-04-01

    Malaria is one of the most common vector-borne diseases widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions. Despite considerable success of malaria control programs in the past, malaria still continues as a major public health problem in several countries. Vector control is an essential part for reducing malaria transmission and became less effective in recent years, due to many technical and administrative reasons, including poor or no adoption of alternative tools. Of the different strategies available for vector control, the most successful are indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), including long-lasting ITNs and materials. Earlier DDT spray has shown spectacular success in decimating disease vectors but resulted in development of insecticide resistance, and to control the resistant mosquitoes, organophosphates, carbamates, and synthetic pyrethroids were introduced in indoor residual spraying with needed success but subsequently resulted in the development of widespread multiple insecticide resistance in vectors. Vector control in many countries still use insecticides in the absence of viable alternatives. Few developments for vector control, using ovitraps, space spray, biological control agents, etc., were encouraging when used in limited scale. Likewise, recent introduction of safer vector control agents, such as insect growth regulators, biocontrol agents, and natural plant products have yet to gain the needed scale of utility for vector control. Bacterial pesticides are promising and are effective in many countries. Environmental management has shown sufficient promise for vector control and disease management but still needs advocacy for inter-sectoral coordination and sometimes are very work-intensive. The more recent genetic manipulation and sterile insect techniques are under development and consideration for use in routine vector control and for these, standardized procedures and methods are available but need thorough

  11. Characterization of malaria vectors in Huye District, Southern Rwanda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    with other vectors playing a secondary role in malaria transmission. Malaria interventions need to be strengthened to reduce even further the malaria transmission in the area. Keywords: malaria, mosquito, composition, larval habitats, Rwanda. Introduction. Malaria remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity ...

  12. Malaria Prevalence and Indoor-Biting Mosquito Vector Abundance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper studies malaria prevalence and the abundance of indoor-biting mosquito vectors in Ogbunike community, Oyi Local Government Area of. Anambra State, Nigeria between May and September 2010. Blood samples were collected from 208 healthy participants (94 males and 114 females) selected from the six ...

  13. The Biological Control of the Malaria Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Kamareddine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The call for malaria control, over the last century, marked a new epoch in the history of this disease. Many control strategies targeting either the Plasmodium parasite or the Anopheles vector were shown to be effective. Yet, the emergence of drug resistant parasites and insecticide resistant mosquito strains, along with numerous health, environmental, and ecological side effects of many chemical agents, highlighted the need to develop alternative tools that either complement or substitute conventional malaria control approaches. The use of biological means is considered a fundamental part of the recently launched malaria eradication program and has so far shown promising results, although this approach is still in its infancy. This review presents an overview of the most promising biological control tools for malaria eradication, namely fungi, bacteria, larvivorous fish, parasites, viruses and nematodes.

  14. mothers' knowledge on malaria and vector management strategies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-09-01

    Sep 1, 2006 ... ABSTRACT. Background: Maternal knowledge on malaria and vector control measures are important because they enable mothers make an informed choice on the method of malaria control to use for their children under five years. Objective: To determine the mothers' knowledge on malaria and vector ...

  15. VECTORS OF MALARIA AND FILARIASIS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoedojo Hoedojo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaria at present is still one of the important mosquito-borne diseases in Indonesia. The disease is widespread all over the country and involves nearly all islands. Sixteen Anopheles species have been reconfirmed as malaria vectors. They were distributed geographi­cally as follows: Coastal areas and lagoons ------------------------------------- An sundaicus and An.subpictus Cultivated ricefields and swampy areas -------------------- An.aconitus, An.barbirostris, An.nigerrimus and An.sinensis Forest inland areas in shaded temporary pools, muddy animal wallows and hoof-prints -------------------------------------------------------- An.balabacensis, An.bancrofti, An.farauti, An.koliensis and An.punctulatus Swamp forest edge in ditches with vegeta- ---------------- An.letifer and An.ludlowae don Hilly areas in seepages, streams and clear moving water ---------------------------------------------- Anflavirostris, An.maculatus and Anminimus.   The species (of most general importance is An.sundaicus, which is restricted by its preference for brackish water and is prevalent in coastal areas of Java. Their types in behaviour of An.sundaicus appear as follows : 1. An.sundaicus in South Coast of Java in general. This species is essentially anthropophilic, exophagic and rests outdoor. It shows susceptible to DDT. 2. An.sundaicus in Cilacap, Central Java. This mosquito is a pure anthropophilic form. It bites man in houses and outdoors, rests indoors and is known resistant to DDT. 3. An.sundaicus in Yogyakarta and Purworejo, Central Java. This mosquito is a strong zoophilic species. It rests and prefers to bite outdoors and shows tolerance to DDT. Human filariasis in Indonesia is the result of infection by three endemic species, namely, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori.W.bancrofti infection is found in both urban and rural areas. Twenty species of mosquitoes are confirmed as filariasis vectors. The urban type bancroftian filariasis

  16. Ethical dilemmas in malaria vector research in Africa: Making the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria vector research presents several dilemmas relating to the various ways in which humans are used in the malaria vector research enterprise. A review of the past and present practices reveals much about the prevailing attitudes and assumptions with regard to the ethical conduct of research involving humans.

  17. Characterization of malaria vectors in Huye District, Southern Rwanda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Effective control of malaria requires knowledge of vector species, their feeding and resting behaviour as well as breeding habitats. The objective of this study was to determine malaria vector species abundance and identify their larval habitats in Huye district, southern Rwanda. Methods: Adult mosquitoes were ...

  18. Malaria vectors of Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert D; Edstein, Michael D; Frances, Stephen P; Beebe, Nigel W

    2010-02-02

    The island of Timor lies at the south-eastern edge of Indonesia on the boundary of the Oriental and Australian faunal regions. The country of Timor-Leste, which occupies the eastern part of the island, is malarious, but anopheline faunal surveys and malaria vector incrimination date back to the 1960 s. Over the last decade the malaria vectors of south-east Asia and the south-west Pacific have been intensely studied using molecular techniques that can confirm identification within complexes of isomorphic species. The aim of this study is to accurately identify the Anopheles fauna of Timor-Leste using these techniques. The survey was carried out over the period February to June 2001. Standard entomological techniques--human landing collections, larval collections and CO2 baited light traps--were used to collect anophelines from the main geographical regions: coastal plains, inland plains, and highlands. Specimens were processed for identification by morphology and genotyped for the ribosomal DNA ITS2 by restriction analysis and/or DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic relationship of Anopheles sundaicus and Anopheles subpictus individuals was also assessed using DNA sequences from the ITS2 and mitochondrial cytochrome-b. All specimens, other than those from larval surveys, were processed to detect the presence of the Plasmodium parasite circumsporozoite protein by ELISA for vector incrimination. Of 2,030 specimens collected, seven species were identified by morphology: Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles peditaeniatus, An. sundaicus and Anopheles vagus. These were confirmed by molecular analysis with the addition of Anopheles flavirostris and an unidentified species designated here as An. vagus genotype B. This latter species was morphologically similar to An. vagus and An. subpictus and is likely to be the An. subpictus described by other workers for Timor. However, genetically this species showed strong affinities

  19. Malaria vectors of Timor-Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Stephen P

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The island of Timor lies at the south-eastern edge of Indonesia on the boundary of the Oriental and Australian faunal regions. The country of Timor-Leste, which occupies the eastern part of the island, is malarious but anopheline faunal surveys and malaria vector incrimination date back to the 1960 s. Over the last decade the malaria vectors of south-east Asia and the south-west Pacific have been intensely studied using molecular techniques that can confirm identification within complexes of isomorphic species. The aim of this study is to accurately identify the Anopheles fauna of Timor-Leste using these techniques. Methods The survey was carried out over the period February to June 2001. Standard entomological techniques - human landing collections, larval collections and CO2 baited light traps - were used to collect anophelines from the main geographical regions: coastal plains, inland plains, and highlands. Specimens were processed for identification by morphology and genotyped for the ribosomal DNA ITS2 by restriction analysis and/or DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic relationship of Anopheles sundaicus and Anopheles subpictus individuals was also assessed using DNA sequences from the ITS2 and mitochondrial cytochrome-b. All specimens, other than those from larval surveys, were processed to detect the presence of the Plasmodium parasite circumsporozoite protein by ELISA for vector incrimination. Results Of 2,030 specimens collected, seven species were identified by morphology: Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles peditaeniatus, An. sundaicus and Anopheles vagus. These were confirmed by molecular analysis with the addition of Anopheles flavirostris and an unidentified species designated here as An. vagus genotype B. This latter species was morphologically similar to An. vagus and An. subpictus and is likely to be the An. subpictus described by other workers for Timor

  20. Anopheles Vectors in Mainland China While Approaching Malaria Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaosen; Guo, Shaohua; Feng, Xinyu; Afelt, Aneta; Frutos, Roger; Zhou, Shuisen; Manguin, Sylvie

    2017-11-01

    China is approaching malaria elimination; however, well-documented information on malaria vectors is still missing, which could hinder the development of appropriate surveillance strategies and WHO certification. This review summarizes the nationwide distribution of malaria vectors, their bionomic characteristics, control measures, and related studies. After several years of effort, the area of distribution of the principal malaria vectors was reduced, in particular for Anopheles lesteri (synonym: An. anthropophagus) and Anopheles dirus s.l., which nearly disappeared from their former endemic regions. Anopheles sinensis is becoming the predominant species in southwestern China. The bionomic characteristics of these species have changed, and resistance to insecticides was reported. There is a need to update surveillance tools and investigate the role of secondary vectors in malaria transmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Malaria Prevalence and Mosquito Vector Abundance in Uli Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria prevalence and mosquito vector abundance in Uli town in Ihiala Local Area of Anambra state, Nigeria, was studied between April and July 2010. Oral interviews were used to get personal data of participants. Blood film preparations and microscopy were used to detect malaria parasites in the blood. 178 participants ...

  2. Current vector control challenges in the fight against malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Beier, John C

    2017-10-01

    The effective and eco-friendly control of Anopheles vectors plays a key role in any malaria management program. Integrated Vector Management (IVM) suggests making use of the full range of vector control tools available. The strategies for IVM require novel technologies to control outdoor transmission of malaria. Despite the wide number of promising control tools tested against mosquitoes, current strategies for malaria vector control used in most African countries are not sufficient to achieve successful malaria control. The majority of National Malaria Control Programs in Africa still rely on indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). These methods reduce malaria incidence but generally have little impact on malaria prevalence. In addition to outdoor transmission, growing levels of insecticide resistance in targeted vectors threaten the efficacy of LLINs and IRS. Larvicidal treatments can be useful, but are not recommended for rural areas. The research needed to improve the quality and delivery of mosquito vector control should focus on (i) optimization of processes and methods for vector control delivery; (ii) monitoring of vector populations and biting activity with reliable techniques; (iii) the development of effective and eco-friendly tools to reduce the burden or locally eliminate malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases; (iv) the careful evaluation of field suitability and efficacy of new mosquito control tools to prove their epidemiological impact; (v) the continuous monitoring of environmental changes which potentially affect malaria vector populations; (vi) the cooperation among different disciplines, with main emphasis on parasitology, tropical medicine, ecology, entomology, and ecotoxicology. A better understanding of behavioral ecology of malaria vectors is required. Key ecological obstacles that limit the effectiveness of vector control include the variation in mosquito behavior, development of insecticide resistance

  3. Objective sampling design in a highly heterogeneous landscape - characterizing environmental determinants of malaria vector distribution in French Guiana, in the Amazonian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Emmanuel; Gaborit, Pascal; Romaña, Christine A; Girod, Romain; Dessay, Nadine; Dusfour, Isabelle

    2013-12-01

    Sampling design is a key issue when establishing species inventories and characterizing habitats within highly heterogeneous landscapes. Sampling efforts in such environments may be constrained and many field studies only rely on subjective and/or qualitative approaches to design collection strategy. The region of Cacao, in French Guiana, provides an excellent study site to understand the presence and abundance of Anopheles mosquitoes, their species dynamics and the transmission risk of malaria across various environments. We propose an objective methodology to define a stratified sampling design. Following thorough environmental characterization, a factorial analysis of mixed groups allows the data to be reduced and non-collinear principal components to be identified while balancing the influences of the different environmental factors. Such components defined new variables which could then be used in a robust k-means clustering procedure. Then, we identified five clusters that corresponded to our sampling strata and selected sampling sites in each stratum. We validated our method by comparing the species overlap of entomological collections from selected sites and the environmental similarities of the same sites. The Morisita index was significantly correlated (Pearson linear correlation) with environmental similarity based on i) the balanced environmental variable groups considered jointly (p = 0.001) and ii) land cover/use (p-value sampling approach. Land cover/use maps (based on high spatial resolution satellite images) were shown to be particularly useful when studying the presence, density and diversity of Anopheles mosquitoes at local scales and in very heterogeneous landscapes.

  4. Malaria vectors resistance to commonly used insecticides in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out in 2015 to assess the level of resistance of sibling species of Anopheles gambiae complex the principal malaria vector from Bichi in Kano state to three classes of insecticides; (DDT, Permethrin and Bendiocarb) approved by World Health Organization (WHO) for vector control with the aim of ...

  5. Ecology of urban malaria vectors in Niamey, Republic of Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbo, Rabiou; Fandeur, Thierry; Jeanne, Isabelle; Czeher, Cyril; Williams, Earle; Arzika, Ibrahim; Soumana, Amadou; Lazoumar, Ramatoulaye; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard

    2016-06-08

    Urbanization in African cities has major impact on malaria risk. Niamey, the capital of the Republic of Niger, is situated in the West African Sahel zone. The short rainy season and human activities linked with the Niger River influence mosquito abundance. This study aimed at deciphering the factors of distribution of urban malaria vectors in Niamey. The distribution of mosquito aquatic stages was investigated monthly from December 2002 to November 2003, at up to 84 breeding sites, throughout Niamey. An exploratory analysis of association between mosquito abundance and environmental factors was performed by a Principal Component Analysis and confirmed by Kruskall-Wallis non-parametric test. To assess the relative importance of significant factors, models were built for Anopheles and Culicinae. In a second capture session, adult mosquitoes were collected weekly with pyrethrum sprays and CDC light-traps from June 2008 to June 2009 in two differentiated urban areas chosen after the study's first step. Members of the Anopheles gambiae complex were genotyped and Anopheles females were tested for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite antigens using ELISA. In 2003, 29 % of 8420 mosquitoes collected as aquatic stages were Anopheles. They were significantly more likely to be found upstream, relatively close to the river and highly productive in ponds. These factors remained significant in regression and generalized linear models. The Culicinae were found significantly more likely close to the river, and in the main temporary affluent stream. In 2009, Anopheles specimens, including Anopheles gambiae s.l. (95 %), but also Anopheles funestus (0.6 %) accounted for 18 % of the adult mosquito fauna, with a large difference between the two sampled zones. Three members of the An. gambiae complex were found: Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles coluzzii, and An. gambiae. Nineteen (1.3 %) out of 1467 females tested for P. falciparum antigen were found positive. The

  6. Characteristics of malaria vector breeding habitats in Sri Lanka: relevance for environmental management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoek, Wim van der; Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F

    1998-01-01

    In and around a village in the Anuradhapura District of Sri Lanka anopheline larvae were sampled from July 1994 to April 1996 in all surface water bodies. Samples positive for Anopheles culicifacies, the established vector of malaria in Sri Lanka, and for An. barbirostris, An. vagus, and An. varuna...

  7. Shifting suitability for malaria vectors across Africa with warming climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson A Townsend

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climates are changing rapidly, producing warm climate conditions globally not previously observed in modern history. Malaria is of great concern as a cause of human mortality and morbidity, particularly across Africa, thanks in large part to the presence there of a particularly competent suite of mosquito vector species. Methods I derive spatially explicit estimates of human populations living in regions newly suitable climatically for populations of two key Anopheles gambiae vector complex species in Africa over the coming 50 years, based on ecological niche model projections over two global climate models, two scenarios of climate change, and detailed spatial summaries of human population distributions. Results For both species, under all scenarios, given the changing spatial distribution of appropriate conditions and the current population distribution, the models predict a reduction of 11.3–30.2% in the percentage of the overall population living in areas climatically suitable for these vector species in coming decades, but reductions and increases are focused in different regions: malaria vector suitability is likely to decrease in West Africa, but increase in eastern and southern Africa. Conclusion Climate change effects on African malaria vectors shift their distributional potential from west to east and south, which has implications for overall numbers of people exposed to these vector species. Although the total is reduced, malaria is likely to pose novel public health problems in areas where it has not previously been common.

  8. Insecticide resistance status of malaria vectors in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcombe, Sébastien; Bobichon, Julie; Somphong, Boutsady; Phommavan, Nothasin; Maithaviphet, Santi; Nambanya, Simone; Corbel, Vincent; Brey, Paul T

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on insecticide resistance in Anopheles species is a basic requirement to guide malaria vector control programs. In Lao PDR, vector control relies on insecticide residual spraying (IRS) and impregnated bed-nets (ITNs) with the use of pyrethroids. Here, the susceptibility of Anopheles species, including several malaria vectors (An. maculatus and An. minimus), to various insecticides was investigated in ten provinces of Lao PDR through a north-south transect. Bioassays were performed on field caught female mosquitoes using the standard WHO susceptibility tests with DDT (4%), deltamethrin (0.05%) and permethrin (0.75%). In addition, the DIIS6 region of the para-type sodium channel gene was amplified and sequenced to identify knockdown resistance mutations (kdr). Resistance to DDT and permethrin was detected in suspected malaria vectors, such as An. nivipes and An. philippinensis in Lao PDR. Resistance to the formerly used DDT was found in a population of An. maculatus s.l. from Luang Prabang province. No resistance to pyrethroids was found in primary vectors, indicating that these insecticides are still adequate for malaria vector control. However, high resistance levels to pyrethroids was found in-vector species and reduced susceptibility to permethrin in An. minimus and An. maculatus was reported in specific localities which raises concerns for pyrethroid-based control in the future. No kdr mutation was found in any of the resistant populations tested hence suggesting a probable role detoxification enzymes in resistance. This study highlights the necessity to continue the monitoring of insecticide susceptibility to early detect potential occurrence and/or migration of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Lao PDR.

  9. Insecticide resistance status of malaria vectors in Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Marcombe

    Full Text Available Knowledge on insecticide resistance in Anopheles species is a basic requirement to guide malaria vector control programs. In Lao PDR, vector control relies on insecticide residual spraying (IRS and impregnated bed-nets (ITNs with the use of pyrethroids. Here, the susceptibility of Anopheles species, including several malaria vectors (An. maculatus and An. minimus, to various insecticides was investigated in ten provinces of Lao PDR through a north-south transect. Bioassays were performed on field caught female mosquitoes using the standard WHO susceptibility tests with DDT (4%, deltamethrin (0.05% and permethrin (0.75%. In addition, the DIIS6 region of the para-type sodium channel gene was amplified and sequenced to identify knockdown resistance mutations (kdr. Resistance to DDT and permethrin was detected in suspected malaria vectors, such as An. nivipes and An. philippinensis in Lao PDR. Resistance to the formerly used DDT was found in a population of An. maculatus s.l. from Luang Prabang province. No resistance to pyrethroids was found in primary vectors, indicating that these insecticides are still adequate for malaria vector control. However, high resistance levels to pyrethroids was found in-vector species and reduced susceptibility to permethrin in An. minimus and An. maculatus was reported in specific localities which raises concerns for pyrethroid-based control in the future. No kdr mutation was found in any of the resistant populations tested hence suggesting a probable role detoxification enzymes in resistance. This study highlights the necessity to continue the monitoring of insecticide susceptibility to early detect potential occurrence and/or migration of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Lao PDR.

  10. The Plasmodium bottleneck: malaria parasite losses in the mosquito vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Vega-Rodríguez, Joel; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Nearly one million people are killed every year by the malaria parasite Plasmodium. Although the disease-causing forms of the parasite exist only in the human blood, mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are the obligate vector for transmission. Here, we review the parasite life cycle in the vector and highlight the human and mosquito contributions that limit malaria parasite development in the mosquito host. We address parasite killing in its mosquito host and bottlenecks in parasite numbers that might guide intervention strategies to prevent transmission. PMID:25185005

  11. The Genome of Anopheles darlingi, the main neotropical malaria vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinotti, Osvaldo; Cerqueira, Gustavo C.; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboschi; Loreto, Elgion Lucio da Silva; Zaha, Arnaldo; Teixeira, Santuza M. R.; Wespiser, Adam R.; Almeida e Silva, Alexandre; Schlindwein, Aline Daiane; Pacheco, Ana Carolina Landim; da Silva, Artur Luiz da Costa; Graveley, Brenton R.; Walenz, Brian P.; Lima, Bruna de Araujo; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Gomes; Nunes-Silva, Carlos Gustavo; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; de Menezes, Claudia Beatriz Afonso; Matiolli, Cleverson; Caffrey, Daniel; Araújo, Demetrius Antonio M.; de Oliveira, Diana Magalhães; Golenbock, Douglas; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; de Carvalho, Fabíola Marques; Barcellos, Fernando Gomes; Prosdocimi, Francisco; May, Gemma; de Azevedo Junior, Gilson Martins; Guimarães, Giselle Moura; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Padilha, Itácio Q. M.; Batista, Jacqueline da Silva; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Dabbas, Karina Maia; Cerdeira, Louise; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Brocchi, Marcelo; de Carvalho, Marcos Oliveira; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Diniz Maia, Maria de Mascena; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Cruz Schneider, Maria Paula; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Hungria, Mariangela; Nicolás, Marisa Fabiana; Pereira, Maristela; Montes, Martín Alejandro; Cantão, Maurício E.; Vincentz, Michel; Rafael, Miriam Silva; Silverman, Neal; Stoco, Patrícia Hermes; Souza, Rangel Celso; Vicentini, Renato; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Neves, Rogério de Oliveira; Silva, Rosane; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira; Ürményi, Turán P.; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Camargo, Erney Plessmann; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ∼100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector–human and vector–parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi. PMID:23761445

  12. Insecticide susceptibility status of malaria vectors in India: A review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a disease caused by the biting of the Anopheline mosquito vectors. Vector control is the major component of the strategy for malaria control which aims to prevent parasite transmission through interventions targeting adult malaria vectors. For this, chemical, biological and mechanical methods are applied. In chemical approach of controlling malarial mosquitoes, insecticides have been used extensively for larviciding, indoor residual spraying and impregnation of bed nets in the last few decades. As a result of this, vector resistance to these insecticides have been recorded in various parts of the country and mosquitoes have developed wide spread resistance to some of these insecticides. There is need for countrywide and regular surveys for monitoring the insecticide susceptibility status of major vectors and assessing their implications on vector control activities. In India, most of the studies revealed that resistance against DDT is prevalent in most of the malaria vector species. Bye and large, An. culicifacies and An. stephensi are resistant to malathion also and resistance against synthetic pyrethroid is developing. Moreover, An. fluviatilis, An. minimus and An. annularis are susceptible to malathion and deltamethrin. As the chemical molecules available for the role of insecticide are very few and invention of new molecules takes time, this is the need of time that increasing trend of resistance status of mosquitoes against the insecticides used in the vector control programme have to be minimized. There are only a few reports on the susceptibility status of the mosquitoes against various insecticides and thus more emphasis on these studies should be given. Again the appropriate use of the insecticides like rationale use with rotation of insecticides and insecticide combinations can be an effective strategy to combat this insecticide resistance.

  13. Current status of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondeto, Benyl M; Nyundo, Christopher; Kamau, Luna; Muriu, Simon M; Mwangangi, Joseph M; Njagi, Kiambo; Mathenge, Evan M; Ochanda, Horace; Mbogo, Charles M

    2017-09-19

    Insecticide resistance has emerged as one of the major challenges facing National Malaria Control Programmes in Africa. A well-coordinated national database on insecticide resistance (IRBase) can facilitate the development of effective strategies for managing insecticide resistance and sustaining the effectiveness of chemical-based vector control measures. The aim of this study was to assemble a database on the current status of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors in Kenya. Data was obtained from published literature through PubMed, HINARI and Google Scholar searches and unpublished literature from government reports, research institutions reports and malaria control programme reports. Each data source was assigned a unique identification code and entered into Microsoft Excel 2010 datasheets. Base maps on the distribution of insecticide resistance and resistance mechanisms among malaria vectors in Kenya were generated using ArcGIS Desktop 10.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA). Insecticide resistance status among the major malaria vectors in Kenya was reported in all the four classes of insecticides including pyrethroids, carbamates, organochlorines and organophosphates. Resistance to pyrethroids has been detected in Anopheles gambiae (s.s.), An. arabiensis and An. funestus (s.s.) while resistance to carbamates was limited to An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. arabiensis. Resistance to the organochlorine was reported in An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. funestus (s.s.) while resistance to organophosphates was reported in An. gambiae (s.l.) only. The mechanisms of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors reported include the kdr mutations (L 1014S and L 1014F) and elevated activity in carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferases (GST) and monooxygenases. The kdr mutations L 1014S and L 1014F were detected in An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. arabiensis populations. Elevated activity of monooxygenases has been detected in both An. arabiensis and An. gambiae (s.s.) populations while

  14. Malaria Prevention by New Technology: Vectored Delivery of Antibody Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Organizations..…………… 8. Special Reporting Requirements…………………………………… 9. Appendices…………………………………………………………… 4 4 4 7 7 8 8 9 9 1. Introduction . Malaria is...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0401 TITLE: Malaria Prevention by New Technology: Vectored Delivery of Antibody Genes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gary...CONTRACT NUMBER Malaria Prevention by New Technology: Vectored Delivery of Antibody Genes 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0401 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  15. Highly evolvable malaria vectors : The genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neafsey, D. E.; Waterhouse, R. M.; Abai, M. R.; Aganezov, S. S.; Alekseyev, M. A.; Allen, J. E.; Amon, J.; Arca, B.; Arensburger, P.; Artemov, G.; Assour, L. A.; Basseri, H.; Berlin, A.; Birren, B. W.; Blandin, S. A.; Brockman, A. I.; Burkot, T. R.; Burt, A.; Chan, C. S.; Chauve, C.; Chiu, J. C.; Christensen, M.; Costantini, C.; Davidson, V. L. M.; Deligianni, E.; Dottorini, T.; Dritsou, V.; Gabriel, S. B.; Guelbeogo, W. M.; Hall, A. B.; Han, M. V.; Hlaing, T.; Hughes, D. S. T.; Jenkins, A. M.; Jiang, X.; Jungreis, I.; Kakani, E. G.; Kamali, M.; Kemppainen, P.; Kennedy, R. C.; Kirmitzoglou, I. K.; Koekemoer, L. L.; Laban, N.; Langridge, N.; Lawniczak, M. K. N.; Lirakis, M.; Lobo, N. F.; Lowy, E.; Maccallum, R. M.; Mao, C.; Maslen, G.; Mbogo, C.; Mccarthy, J.; Michel, K.; Mitchell, S. N.; Moore, W.; Murphy, K. A.; Naumenko, A. N.; Nolan, T.; Novoa, E. M.; O'loughlin, S.; Oringanje, C.; Oshaghi, M. A.; Pakpour, N.; Papathanos, P. A.; Peery, A. N.; Povelones, M.; Prakash, A.; Price, D. P.; Rajaraman, A.; Reimer, L. J.; Rinker, D. C.; Rokas, A.; Russell, T. L.; Sagnon, N.; Sharakhova, M. V.; Shea, T.; Simao, F. A.; Simard, F.; Slotman, M. A.; Somboon, P.; Stegniy, V.; Struchiner, C. J.; Thomas, G. W. C.; Tojo, M.; Topalis, P.; Tubio, J. M. C.; Unger, M. F.; Vontas, J.; Walton, C.; Wilding, C. S.; Willis, J. H.; Wu, Y.-c.; Yan, G.; Zdobnov, E. M.; Zhou, X.; Catteruccia, F.; Christophides, G. K.; Collins, F. H.; Cornman, R. S.; Crisanti, A.; Donnelly, M. J.; Emrich, S. J.; Fontaine, M. C.; Gelbart, W.; Hahn, M. W.; Hansen, I. A.; Howell, P. I.; Kafatos, F. C.; Kellis, M.; Lawson, D.; Louis, C.; Luckhart, S.; Muskavitch, M. A. T.; Ribeiro, J. M.; Riehle, M. A.; Sharakhov, I. V.; Tu, Z.; Zwiebel, L. J.; Besansky, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Variation in vectorial capacity for human malaria among Anopheles mosquito species is determined by many factors, including behavior, immunity, and life history. To investigate the genomic basis of vectorial capacity and explore new avenues for vector control, we sequenced the genomes of 16

  16. Entomological and transmission risk indices of malaria vectors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baseline survey is an integral component of a malaria vector control programme, providing valuable information on mosquito behaviour that guide the suitability of chosen interventions. A need assessment of baseline entomological indices towards the future implementation of indoor residual spray (IRS) was conducted in ...

  17. Anopheles barbirostris Confirmation as Malaria Vector in Waikabubak through the Detection of Circumsporozoit Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuneu Yuliasih

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anopheline species confirmed as malaria vector if the salivary gland contained sporozoites. One of the method to confirmed it was through an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of circum sporozoite protein (CSP in the mosquito of Anopheles barbirostris with ELISA method. The study was conducted in malaria endemic area named Modu Waimaringu Village, Waikabubak District, Sumba Barat Regency in March 2011. The study design was cross-sectional study, mosquito for the ELISA test were collected only from animal bait. ELISA method examination used on An. barbirostris body parts (i.e. the head-thorax where sporozoites of P. falciparum or P. Vivax possibly be found. The results showed that 40 samples of An. barbirostris mosquitoes which acquired from the mosquite bait in Modu Waimaringu Village was negative (100%. It means that there was no CSP found and An. barbirostris was not a malaria vector in the area

  18. Is there an efficient trap or collection method for sampling Anopheles darlingi and other malaria vectors that can describe the essential parameters affecting transmission dynamics as effectively as human landing catches? - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bento Pereira Lima

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution, abundance, feeding behaviour, host preference, parity status and human-biting and infection rates are among the medical entomological parameters evaluated when determining the vector capacity of mosquito species. To evaluate these parameters, mosquitoes must be collected using an appropriate method. Malaria is primarily transmitted by anthropophilic and synanthropic anophelines. Thus, collection methods must result in the identification of the anthropophilic species and efficiently evaluate the parameters involved in malaria transmission dynamics. Consequently, human landing catches would be the most appropriate method if not for their inherent risk. The choice of alternative anopheline collection methods, such as traps, must consider their effectiveness in reproducing the efficiency of human attraction. Collection methods lure mosquitoes by using a mixture of olfactory, visual and thermal cues. Here, we reviewed, classified and compared the efficiency of anopheline collection methods, with an emphasis on Neotropical anthropophilic species, especially Anopheles darlingi, in distinct malaria epidemiological conditions in Brazil.

  19. Analysis of a vector-bias model on malaria transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamchod, Farida; Britton, Nicholas F

    2011-03-01

    We incorporate a vector-bias term into a malaria-transmission model to account for the greater attractiveness of infectious humans to mosquitoes in terms of differing probabilities that a mosquito arriving at a human at random picks that human depending on whether he is infectious or susceptible. We prove that transcritical bifurcation occurs at the basic reproductive ratio equalling 1 by projecting the flow onto the extended centre manifold. We next study the dynamics of the system when incubation time of malaria parasites in mosquitoes is included, and find that the longer incubation time reduces the prevalence of malaria. Also, we incorporate a random movement of mosquitoes as a diffusion term and a chemically directed movement of mosquitoes to humans expressed in terms of sweat and body odour as a chemotaxis term to study the propagation of infected population to uninfected population. We find that a travelling wave occurs; its speed is calculated numerically and estimated for the lower bound analytically.

  20. Use of a mixture statistical model in studying malaria vectors density.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayidé Boussari

    Full Text Available Vector control is a major step in the process of malaria control and elimination. This requires vector counts and appropriate statistical analyses of these counts. However, vector counts are often overdispersed. A non-parametric mixture of Poisson model (NPMP is proposed to allow for overdispersion and better describe vector distribution. Mosquito collections using the Human Landing Catches as well as collection of environmental and climatic data were carried out from January to December 2009 in 28 villages in Southern Benin. A NPMP regression model with "village" as random effect is used to test statistical correlations between malaria vectors density and environmental and climatic factors. Furthermore, the villages were ranked using the latent classes derived from the NPMP model. Based on this classification of the villages, the impacts of four vector control strategies implemented in the villages were compared. Vector counts were highly variable and overdispersed with important proportion of zeros (75%. The NPMP model had a good aptitude to predict the observed values and showed that: i proximity to freshwater body, market gardening, and high levels of rain were associated with high vector density; ii water conveyance, cattle breeding, vegetation index were associated with low vector density. The 28 villages could then be ranked according to the mean vector number as estimated by the random part of the model after adjustment on all covariates. The NPMP model made it possible to describe the distribution of the vector across the study area. The villages were ranked according to the mean vector density after taking into account the most important covariates. This study demonstrates the necessity and possibility of adapting methods of vector counting and sampling to each setting.

  1. Using low-cost drones to map malaria vector habitats.

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, Andy; Makame, Makame; Cross, Dónall; Majambere, Silas; Msellem, Mwinyi

    2017-01-01

    Background There is a growing awareness that if we are to achieve the ambitious goal of malaria elimination, we must compliment indoor-based vector control interventions (such as bednets and indoor spraying) with outdoor-based interventions such as larval source management (LSM). The effectiveness of LSM is limited by our capacity to identify and map mosquito aquatic habitats. This study provides a proof of concept for the use of a low-cost (< $1000) drone (DJI Phantom) for mapping water bodi...

  2. [Malaria vector control in Cameroon: past, present, future. Reflections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, P; Mouchet, J

    2001-07-01

    During the fifties, large scale malaria vector control projects based upon house spraying were implemented in Southern and Northern parts of Cameroon in line of malaria eradication concept. In the South, the pilot zone of Yaounde gathered about 150,000 inhabitants, in the forest area. First operations started in 1953 but the programme became actually operational in 1956. It was divided in two parts: the western part was treated with DDT, while the eastern one was treated with dieldrin. At the same time, the whole forested area was also treated with dieldrin until 1960. Yaounde itself was not treated because it was free of anopheles and malaria. House spraying in the pilot area of Yaounde was a complete success and plasmodic index dropped below 1%. The same success was observed in most of the southern treated areas. Unfortunatly dieldrin resistance of An. gambiae hampered this programme which stopped in 1960. The northem pilot project dealt with some 250,000 inhabitants around Maroua, in a savanna area. To avoid dieldrin resistance observed in 1956, DDT was selected and house spraying started in 1959. From a strictly operational point of view, the campaign was considered as a success. But after two years, it was noticed that plasmodic index remained still around the same value of 35% and the programme stopped. It was thus stated that according to available techniques it was not possible to reach the ultimate goal of eradication even when chemoprophylaxis (chloroquin + pyrimethamin) was added. The comparison between south (= success) and north (= failure) was very interesting as it underlined the big differences between epidemiological faces, an unaccepted concept at that time. Now ecological and epidemiological diversity is the well acknowledged. It also underlined the need of diversity of strategies according to the epidemiology of the disease and the ecology of its vector Vector control was then stopped for a while. In the eighties, Primary Health Care was

  3. Malaria Prevalence and Vector Presence in Teluk Limau Village, Jebus District, West Bangka, Bangka Belitung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Nusa Rahagus Edo Santya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria elimination in Indonesia need necessary data as a foundation for planning and implementation activities. The purpose of this study was to estimate the malaria prevalence and the presence of potential mosquito vectors. To find out malaria endemicity, blood of sampling group was examined in the study area on 24-30 November 2010. Suspected vector mosquitoes collection was carried out by human landing method on the inside and outside of the house for 12 hours from 18:00 until 06:00. Positive SD percentage from inspection reached 4.21% (18 of 428 SD. Gametocytes SD percentage reached 18.75%, where 3 of 18 positives SD has a gametocytes. Two mosquitoes Anopheles spp. found were an An. sundaicus and An. letifer. The number of An. sundaicus trapped outdoors were five, An. letifer trapped in the house were three and An. letifer trapped outdoors were eight. This result showed malaria transmission potential in the study site and malaria surveillance should be done. It is recommended to distribute insecticide-treated nets and suggest the residents not to stayed outside the house at night to often.

  4. Predicting and mapping malaria under climate change scenarios: the potential redistribution of malaria vectors in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnang, Henri E Z; Kangalawe, Richard Y M; Yanda, Pius Z

    2010-04-23

    Malaria is rampant in Africa and causes untold mortality and morbidity. Vector-borne diseases are climate sensitive and this has raised considerable concern over the implications of climate change on future disease risk. The problem of malaria vectors (Anopheles mosquitoes) shifting from their traditional locations to invade new zones is an important concern. The vision of this study was to exploit the sets of information previously generated by entomologists, e.g. on geographical range of vectors and malaria distribution, to build models that will enable prediction and mapping the potential redistribution of Anopheles mosquitoes in Africa. The development of the modelling tool was carried out through calibration of CLIMEX parameters. The model helped estimate the potential geographical distribution and seasonal abundance of the species in relation to climatic factors. These included temperature, rainfall and relative humidity, which characterized the living environment for Anopheles mosquitoes. The same parameters were used in determining the ecoclimatic index (EI). The EI values were exported to a GIS package for special analysis and proper mapping of the potential future distribution of Anopheles gambiae and Anophles arabiensis within the African continent under three climate change scenarios. These results have shown that shifts in these species boundaries southward and eastward of Africa may occur rather than jumps into quite different climatic environments. In the absence of adequate control, these predictions are crucial in understanding the possible future geographical range of the vectors and the disease, which could facilitate planning for various adaptation options. Thus, the outputs from this study will be helpful at various levels of decision making, for example, in setting up of an early warning and sustainable strategies for climate change and climate change adaptation for malaria vectors control programmes in Africa.

  5. Ecology of malaria vectors in the Americas and future direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Zimmerman

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The resurgence of malaria in the Americas has renewed interest in Anopheles biology. Anopheles darlingi, An. albimanus, An. nuneztovai and An aquasalis are reconfirmed as major malaria vectors and other species are playing important roles in regional malaria transmission. Adultbiting activity and larval ecology are discussed in detail. Seasonal abundance and daily biting activity of Anopheles vary considerably among species and geographically for the same species. Anopheles albimanus has the least amount of variation in biting activity over its range and An. darlingi has the greatest. All species studied are more exophilic and exophagic than endophilic and endophagic. Anopheles darling is more antropophilic, endophilic and endophagic than other Anophelines. Larval studies remain more descriptive than comprehensive. Research on Anophelines is becoming more integrated and biologists are using new biochemical techniques and ecological principles to answer critical questions. This "pluralization" will help us understand species complexes, population dynamics and malaria transmission. integrated control programs will require more regional, in-depth ecological studies.

  6. Viral paratransgenesis in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Ren

    Full Text Available Paratransgenesis, the genetic manipulation of insect symbiotic microorganisms, is being considered as a potential method to control vector-borne diseases such as malaria. The feasibility of paratransgenic malaria control has been hampered by the lack of candidate symbiotic microorganisms for the major vector Anopheles gambiae. In other systems, densonucleosis viruses (DNVs are attractive agents for viral paratransgenesis because they infect important vector insects, can be genetically manipulated and are transmitted to subsequent generations. However, An. gambiae has been shown to be refractory to DNV dissemination. We discovered, cloned and characterized the first known DNV (AgDNV capable of infection and dissemination in An. gambiae. We developed a flexible AgDNV-based expression vector to express any gene of interest in An. gambiae using a two-plasmid helper-transducer system. To demonstrate proof-of-concept of the viral paratransgenesis strategy, we used this system to transduce expression of an exogenous gene (enhanced green fluorescent protein; EGFP in An. gambiae mosquitoes. Wild-type and EGFP-transducing AgDNV virions were highly infectious to An. gambiae larvae, disseminated to and expressed EGFP in epidemiologically relevant adult tissues such as midgut, fat body and ovaries and were transmitted to subsequent mosquito generations. These proof-of-principle data suggest that AgDNV could be used as part of a paratransgenic malaria control strategy by transduction of anti-Plasmodium peptides or insect-specific toxins in Anopheles mosquitoes. AgDNV will also be extremely valuable as an effective and easy-to-use laboratory tool for transient gene expression or RNAi in An. gambiae.

  7. Malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies sibling species differentiation using egg morphometry and morphology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tyagi, Varun; Sharma, A K; Dhiman, Sunil; Srivastava, A R; Yadav, Ruchi; Sukumaran, D; Agrawal, O P; Veer, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    .... Currently, for the first time egg morphometry and morphology has been used to differentiate the three known vector sibling species of Anopheles culicifacies collected from malaria endemic Madhya...

  8. Evaluation of Methods for Sampling the Malaria Vector Anopheles darlingi (Diptera, Culicidae) in Suriname and the Relation With Its Biting Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat-van Laar, H.; Rijk, de M.; Andriessen, R.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of CO2-baited and human-baited mosquito traps for the sampling of Anopheles darlingi Root was evaluated and compared with human landing collections in Suriname. Biting preferences of this mosquito on a human host were studied and related to trapping data. Traps used were the

  9. Bionomics of the malaria vector Anopheles farauti in Temotu Province, Solomon Islands: issues for malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie Donna O

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Solomon Islands, the Malaria Eradication Programmes of the 1970s virtually eliminated the malaria vectors: Anopheles punctulatus and Anopheles koliensis, both late night biting, endophagic species. However, the vector, Anopheles farauti, changed its behaviour to bite early in the evening outdoors. Thus, An. farauti mosquitoes were able to avoid insecticide exposure and still maintain transmission. Thirty years on and the Solomon Islands are planning for intensified malaria control and localized elimination; but little is currently known about the behaviour of the vectors and how they will respond to intensified control. Methods In the elimination area, Temotu Province, standard entomological collection methods were conducted in typical coastal villages to determine the vector, its ecology, biting density, behaviour, longevity, and vector efficacy. These vector surveys were conducted pre-intervention and post-intervention following indoor residual spraying and distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets. Results Anopheles farauti was the only anopheline in Temotu Province. In 2008 (pre-intervention, this species occurred in moderate to high densities (19.5-78.5 bites/person/night and expressed a tendency to bite outdoors, early in the night (peak biting time 6-8 pm. Surveys post intervention showed that there was little, if any, reduction in biting densities and no reduction in the longevity of the vector population. After adjusting for human behaviour, indoor biting was reduced from 57% pre-intervention to 40% post-intervention. Conclusion In an effort to learn from historical mistakes and develop successful elimination programmes, there is a need for implementing complimentary vector control tools that can target exophagic and early biting vectors. Intensified indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticide net use has further promoted the early, outdoor feeding behaviour of An. farauti in the Solomon Islands

  10. Semi-field assessment of the BG-Malaria trap for monitoring the African malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis P A Batista

    Full Text Available Odour-baited technologies are increasingly considered for effective monitoring of mosquito populations and for the evaluation of vector control interventions. The BG-Malaria trap (BGM, which is an upside-down variant of the widely used BG-Sentinel trap (BGS, has been demonstrated to be effective to sample the Brazilian malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi. We evaluated the BGM as an improved method for sampling the African malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis. Experiments were conducted inside a large semi-field cage to compare trapping efficiencies of BGM and BGS traps, both baited with the synthetic attractant, Ifakara blend, supplemented with CO2. We then compared BGMs baited with either of four synthetic mosquito lures, Ifakara blend, Mbita blend, BG-lure or CO2, and an unbaited BGM. Lastly, we compared BGMs baited with the Ifakara blend dispensed via either nylon strips, BG cartridges (attractant-infused microcapsules encased in cylindrical plastic cartridge or BG sachets (attractant-infused microcapsules encased in plastic sachets. All tests were conducted between 6P.M. and 7A.M., with 200-600 laboratory-reared An. arabiensis released nightly in the test chamber. The median number of An. arabiensis caught by the BGM per night was 83, IQR:(73.5-97.75, demonstrating clear superiority over BGS (median catch = 32.5 (25.25-37.5. Compared to unbaited controls, BGMs baited with Mbita blend caught most mosquitoes (45 (29.5-70.25, followed by BGMs baited with CO2 (42.5 (27.5-64, Ifakara blend (31 (9.25-41.25 and BG lure (16 (4-22. BGM caught 51 (29.5-72.25 mosquitoes/night, when the attractants were dispensed using BG-Cartridges, compared to BG-Sachet (29.5 (24.75-40.5, and nylon strips (27 (19.25-38.25, in all cases being significantly superior to unbaited controls (p < 000.1. The findings demonstrate potential of the BGM as a sampling tool for African malaria vectors over the standard BGS trap. Its efficacy can be optimized by selecting

  11. Development of malaria vaccines that block transmission of parasites by mosquito vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Hisaeda, Hajime; Yasutomo, Koji

    2002-01-01

    Malaria is still one of the infectious diseases urgently requiring control and causes socioeconomic burdens on people residing in developing countries. Malaria vaccines are expected to control the disease. However, there is no effective vaccine available despite the intense efforts of malaria scientists. One strategy for a malaria vaccine is to prevent parasite spread by means of interfering with parasite development in mosquito vectors, which is the so-called transmission-blocking vaccine (T...

  12. Insecticide resistance in malaria vector mosquitoes at four localities in Ghana, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiser Maria L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria vector control programmes that rely on insecticide-based interventions such as indoor house spraying with residual insecticides or insecticide treated bed nets, need to base their decision-making process on sound baseline data. More and more commercial entities in Africa, such as mining companies, are realising the value to staff productivity of controlling malaria transmission in their areas of operation. This paper presents baseline entomological data obtained during surveys conducted for four mining operations in Ghana, West Africa. Results The vast majority of the samples were identified as Anopheles gambiae S form with only a few M form specimens being identified from Tarkwa. Plasmodium falciparum infection rates ranged from 4.5 to 8.6% in An. gambiae and 1.81 to 8.06% in An. funestus. High survival rates on standard WHO bioassay tests were recorded for all insecticide classes except the organophosphates that showed reasonable mortality at all locations (i.e. > 90%. The West African kdr mutation was detected and showed high frequencies in all populations. Conclusions The data highlight the complexity of the situation prevailing in southern Ghana and the challenges facing the malaria vector control programmes in this region. Vector control programmes in Ghana need to carefully consider the resistance profiles of the local mosquito populations in order to base their resistance management strategies on sound scientific data.

  13. High entomological inoculation rate of malaria vectors in area of high coverage of interventions in southwest Ethiopia: Implication for residual malaria transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misrak Abraham

    2017-05-01

    Finally, there was an indoor residual malaria transmission in a village of high coverage of bed nets and where the principal malaria vector is susceptibility to propoxur and bendiocarb; insecticides currently in use for indoor residual spraying. The continuing indoor transmission of malaria in such village implies the need for new tools to supplement the existing interventions and to reduce indoor malaria transmission.

  14. Chlorfenapyr: a new insecticide with novel mode of action can control pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava Harish C; Bhatt Rajendra M; Sharma Poonam; Barik Tapan K; Raghavendra Kamaraju; Sreehari Uragayala; Dash Aditya P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria vectors have acquired widespread resistance to many of the currently used insecticides, including synthetic pyrethroids. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop alternative insecticides for effective management of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. In the present study, chlorfenapyr was evaluated against Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles stephensi for its possible use in vector control. Methods Efficacy of chlorfenapyr against An. culicifacies and An. ...

  15. How effective is integrated vector management against malaria and lymphatic filariasis where the diseases are transmitted by the same vector?

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    Christopher M Stone

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity to integrate vector management across multiple vector-borne diseases is particularly plausible for malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF control where both diseases are transmitted by the same vector. To date most examples of integrated control targeting these diseases have been unanticipated consequences of malaria vector control, rather than planned strategies that aim to maximize the efficacy and take the complex ecological and biological interactions between the two diseases into account.We developed a general model of malaria and LF transmission and derived expressions for the basic reproductive number (R0 for each disease. Transmission of both diseases was most sensitive to vector mortality and biting rate. Simulating different levels of coverage of long lasting-insecticidal nets (LLINs and larval control confirms the effectiveness of these interventions for the control of both diseases. When LF was maintained near the critical density of mosquitoes, minor levels of vector control (8% coverage of LLINs or treatment of 20% of larval sites were sufficient to eliminate the disease. Malaria had a far greater R0 and required a 90% population coverage of LLINs in order to eliminate it. When the mosquito density was doubled, 36% and 58% coverage of LLINs and larval control, respectively, were required for LF elimination; and malaria elimination was possible with a combined coverage of 78% of LLINs and larval control.Despite the low level of vector control required to eliminate LF, simulations suggest that prevalence of LF will decrease at a slower rate than malaria, even at high levels of coverage. If representative of field situations, integrated management should take into account not only how malaria control can facilitate filariasis elimination, but strike a balance between the high levels of coverage of (multiple interventions required for malaria with the long duration predicted to be required for filariasis elimination.

  16. Multiple insecticide resistance: an impediment to insecticide-based malaria vector control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Wassie, Fantahun; Steurbaut, Walter; Spanoghe, Pieter; Van Bortel, Wim; Denis, Leen; Tessema, Dejene A; Getachew, Yehenew; Coosemans, Marc; Duchateau, Luc; Speybroeck, Niko

    2011-01-12

    Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS), insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are key components in malaria prevention and control strategy. However, the development of resistance by mosquitoes to insecticides recommended for IRS and/or ITNs/LLINs would affect insecticide-based malaria vector control. We assessed the susceptibility levels of Anopheles arabiensis to insecticides used in malaria control, characterized basic mechanisms underlying resistance, and evaluated the role of public health use of insecticides in resistance selection. Susceptibility status of An. arabiensis was assessed using WHO bioassay tests to DDT, permethrin, deltamethrin, malathion and propoxur in Ethiopia from August to September 2009. Mosquito specimens were screened for knockdown resistance (kdr) and insensitive acetylcholinesterase (ace-1(R)) mutations using AS-PCR and PCR-RFLP, respectively. DDT residues level in soil from human dwellings and the surrounding environment were determined by Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detector. An. arabiensis was resistant to DDT, permethrin, deltamethrin and malathion, but susceptible to propoxur. The West African kdr allele was found in 280 specimens out of 284 with a frequency ranged from 95% to 100%. Ace-1(R) mutation was not detected in all specimens scored for the allele. Moreover, DDT residues were found in soil samples from human dwellings but not in the surrounding environment. The observed multiple-resistance coupled with the occurrence of high kdr frequency in populations of An. arabiensis could profoundly affect the malaria vector control programme in Ethiopia. This needs an urgent call for implementing rational resistance management strategies and integrated vector control intervention.

  17. Multiple insecticide resistance: an impediment to insecticide-based malaria vector control program.

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    Delenasaw Yewhalaw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS, insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs are key components in malaria prevention and control strategy. However, the development of resistance by mosquitoes to insecticides recommended for IRS and/or ITNs/LLINs would affect insecticide-based malaria vector control. We assessed the susceptibility levels of Anopheles arabiensis to insecticides used in malaria control, characterized basic mechanisms underlying resistance, and evaluated the role of public health use of insecticides in resistance selection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Susceptibility status of An. arabiensis was assessed using WHO bioassay tests to DDT, permethrin, deltamethrin, malathion and propoxur in Ethiopia from August to September 2009. Mosquito specimens were screened for knockdown resistance (kdr and insensitive acetylcholinesterase (ace-1(R mutations using AS-PCR and PCR-RFLP, respectively. DDT residues level in soil from human dwellings and the surrounding environment were determined by Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detector. An. arabiensis was resistant to DDT, permethrin, deltamethrin and malathion, but susceptible to propoxur. The West African kdr allele was found in 280 specimens out of 284 with a frequency ranged from 95% to 100%. Ace-1(R mutation was not detected in all specimens scored for the allele. Moreover, DDT residues were found in soil samples from human dwellings but not in the surrounding environment. CONCLUSION: The observed multiple-resistance coupled with the occurrence of high kdr frequency in populations of An. arabiensis could profoundly affect the malaria vector control programme in Ethiopia. This needs an urgent call for implementing rational resistance management strategies and integrated vector control intervention.

  18. Optimized Pan-species and speciation duplex real-time PCR assays for Plasmodium parasites detection in malaria vectors.

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    Maurice Marcel Sandeu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An accurate method for detecting malaria parasites in the mosquito's vector remains an essential component in the vector control. The Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay specific for circumsporozoite protein (ELISA-CSP is the gold standard method for the detection of malaria parasites in the vector even if it presents some limitations. Here, we optimized multiplex real-time PCR assays to accurately detect minor populations in mixed infection with multiple Plasmodium species in the African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus. METHODS: Complementary TaqMan-based real-time PCR assays that detect Plasmodium species using specific primers and probes were first evaluated on artificial mixtures of different targets inserted in plasmid constructs. The assays were further validated in comparison with the ELISA-CSP on 200 field caught Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus mosquitoes collected in two localities in southern Benin. RESULTS: The validation of the duplex real-time PCR assays on the plasmid mixtures demonstrated robust specificity and sensitivity for detecting distinct targets. Using a panel of mosquito specimen, the real-time PCR showed a relatively high sensitivity (88.6% and specificity (98%, compared to ELISA-CSP as the referent standard. The agreement between both methods was "excellent" (κ=0.8, P<0.05. The relative quantification of Plasmodium DNA between the two Anopheles species analyzed showed no significant difference (P=0, 2. All infected mosquito samples contained Plasmodium falciparum DNA and mixed infections with P. malariae and/or P. ovale were observed in 18.6% and 13.6% of An. gambiae and An. funestus respectively. Plasmodium vivax was found in none of the mosquito samples analyzed. CONCLUSION: This study presents an optimized method for detecting the four Plasmodium species in the African malaria vectors. The study highlights substantial discordance with traditional ELISA-CSP pointing out the

  19. Optimized Pan-species and Speciation Duplex Real-time PCR Assays for Plasmodium Parasites Detection in Malaria Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeu, Maurice Marcel; Moussiliou, Azizath; Moiroux, Nicolas; Padonou, Gilles G.; Massougbodji, Achille; Corbel, Vincent; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise

    2012-01-01

    Background An accurate method for detecting malaria parasites in the mosquito’s vector remains an essential component in the vector control. The Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay specific for circumsporozoite protein (ELISA-CSP) is the gold standard method for the detection of malaria parasites in the vector even if it presents some limitations. Here, we optimized multiplex real-time PCR assays to accurately detect minor populations in mixed infection with multiple Plasmodium species in the African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus. Methods Complementary TaqMan-based real-time PCR assays that detect Plasmodium species using specific primers and probes were first evaluated on artificial mixtures of different targets inserted in plasmid constructs. The assays were further validated in comparison with the ELISA-CSP on 200 field caught Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus mosquitoes collected in two localities in southern Benin. Results The validation of the duplex real-time PCR assays on the plasmid mixtures demonstrated robust specificity and sensitivity for detecting distinct targets. Using a panel of mosquito specimen, the real-time PCR showed a relatively high sensitivity (88.6%) and specificity (98%), compared to ELISA-CSP as the referent standard. The agreement between both methods was “excellent” (κ = 0.8, PPlasmodium DNA between the two Anopheles species analyzed showed no significant difference (P = 0, 2). All infected mosquito samples contained Plasmodium falciparum DNA and mixed infections with P. malariae and/or P. ovale were observed in 18.6% and 13.6% of An. gambiae and An. funestus respectively. Plasmodium vivax was found in none of the mosquito samples analyzed. Conclusion This study presents an optimized method for detecting the four Plasmodium species in the African malaria vectors. The study highlights substantial discordance with traditional ELISA-CSP pointing out the utility of employing an accurate

  20. Comprehensive sterilization of malaria vectors using pyriproxyfen: a step closer to malaria elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwetoijera, Dickson W; Harris, Caroline; Kiware, Samson S; Killeen, Gerry F; Dongus, Stefan; Devine, Gregor J; Majambere, Silas

    2014-05-01

    One of the main challenges to malaria elimination is the resilience of vectors, such as Anopheles arabiensis, that evade lethal exposure to insecticidal control measures or express resistance to their active ingredients. This study investigated a novel technology for population control that sterilizes mosquitoes using pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analogue. Females of An. arabiensis were released in a semifield system divided into four equal sections, and each section had a mud hut sheltering a tethered cow providing a blood source for mosquitoes. In all sections, the inner mud hut walls and roofs were lined with black cotton cloth. In one-half of the sections, the cloth was dusted with pyriproxyfen. An overwhelming 96% reduction in adult production was achieved in pyriproxyfen-treated sections compared with control sections. This unprecedented level of control can be exploited to design new vector control strategies that particularly target existing behaviorally resilient and insecticide-resistant populations.

  1. MALARIA VECTORS IN SAN JOSÉDEL GUAVIARE, ORINOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    JIMÉNEZ, IRENE P.; CONN, JAN E.; BROCHERO, HELENA

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine Anopheles species composition and their natural infectivity by human Plasmodium in 2 localities with the highest malaria transmission in San Jose del Guaviare, Guaviare, Colombia. A total of 1,009 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches during 8 months in 2010. Anopheles darlingi was the most abundant (83.2%) followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (8.6%), Anopheles braziliensis (3.8%), An. oswaldoi s.l. (1%), and An. rangeli (0.3%). Anopheles darlingi showed the highest human biting rate, and it was found naturally infected with Plasmodium vivax VK210 (0.119%) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. All species were collected biting both indoors and outdoors. Anopheles darlingi showed biting activity overnight with an indoor peak between 1200–0100 h. Therefore, we recommend that malaria prevention strategies focus on 1) insecticide-treated nets to reduce human–vector contact when people are most exposed and unprotected; 2) accurate diagnoses; 3) adequate treatment for patients; 4) more timely epidemiological notification; and 5) improved entomological surveillance. PMID:25102591

  2. [INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE IN MAJOR MALARIA VECTORS IN UZBEKISTAN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhakhongirov, Sh M; Saifiev, Sh T; Abidov, Z I

    2016-01-01

    The resistance of Anopheles artemievi to DDT (26.7%) and propoxur (80.0%) was established in the kishlak of Chubat, Bulungursky District, Samarkand Viloyati and that in the kishlak of Rastguzar, Uichinsky District, Namangan Viloyati, was 45.0 and 22.5%, respectively. In the kishlak of Navruz, Kanlikulsky District, Republic of Karakalpakstan, there was reduced propoxur susceptibil- ity (90.0% An. superpictus death); in other human settle- ments, An. artemievi was susceptible--100% death in the use of the test insecticides. An. superpictus proved to be susceptive to 7 test insecticides (other than propoxur). In Uzbekistan, the resistance of An. artemievi was noted only in a small area. Among the major malaria vectors, An. superpictus remained susceptible to pyrethroid insec- ticides.

  3. Detection of 1014F kdr mutation in four major Anopheline malaria vectors in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria is a serious public health problem in Indonesia, particularly in areas outside Java and Bali. The spread of resistance to the currently available anti-malarial drugs or insecticides used for mosquito control would cause an increase in malaria transmission. To better understand patterns of transmission and resistance in Indonesia, an integrated mosquito survey was conducted in three areas with different malaria endemicities, Purworejo in Central Java, South Lampung District in Sumatera and South Halmahera District in North Mollucca. Methods Mosquitoes were collected from the three areas through indoor and outdoor human landing catches (HLC) and indoor restinging catches. Specimens were identified morphologically by species and kept individually in 1.5 ml Eppendorf microtube. A fragment of the VGSC gene from 95 mosquito samples was sequenced and kdr allelic variation determined. Results The molecular analysis of these anopheline mosquitoes revealed the existence of the 1014F allele in 4 major malaria vectors from South Lampung. These species include, Anopheles sundaicus, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles subpictus and Anopheles vagus. The 1014F allele was not found in the other areas. Conclusion The finding documents the presence of this mutant allele in Indonesia, and implies that selection pressure on the Anopheles population in this area has occurred. Further studies to determine the impact of the resistance allele on the efficacy of pyrethroids in control programmes are needed. PMID:21054903

  4. Monitoring of Plasmodium infection in humans and potential vectors of malaria in a newly emerged focus in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Mohsen; Soltani, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mostafa; Yousefi, Masoud; Amin, Masoumeh; Shafiei, Ayda; Azizi, Kourosh

    2017-02-01

    Despite control programs, which aim to eliminate malaria from Iran by 2025, transmission of malaria has not been removed from the country. This study aimed to monitor malaria from asymptomatic parasitaemia and clinical cases from about one year of active case surveillance and potential vectors of malaria in the newly emerged focus of Mamasani and Rostam, southern Iran during 2014-2015. Samples were collected and their DNAs were extracted for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay using specific primers for detection of Plasmodium species. The Annual Parasite Incidence rate (API) was three cases per 1,000 population from 2,000 individuals in three villages. Parasites species were detected in 9 out of the 4,000 blood smear samples among which, 6 cases were indigenous and had no history of travels to endemic areas of malaria. Also, the prevalence rate of asymptomatic parasites was about 0.3%. Overall, 1073 Anopheles spp. were caught from 9 villages. Totally, 512 female samples were checked by PCR, which indicated that none of them was infected with Plasmodium. Despite new malaria local transmission in humans in Mamasani and Rostam districts, no infection with Plasmodium was observed in Anopheles species. Because of neighboring of the studied area to the re-emerged focus in Fars province (Kazerun) and important endemic foci of malaria in other southern provinces, such as Hormozgan and Kerman, monitoring of the vectors and reservoir hosts of Plasmodium species would be unavoidable. Application of molecular methods, such as PCR, can simplify access to the highest level of accuracy in malaria researches.

  5. New gorilla adenovirus vaccine vectors induce potent immune responses and protection in a mouse malaria model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbach, Keith; Stefaniak, Maureen; Chen, Ping; Patterson, Noelle B; Liao, Grant; Weng, Shaojie; Krepkiy, Svetlana; Ekberg, Greg; Torano, Holly; Ettyreddy, Damodar; Gowda, Kalpana; Sonawane, Sharvari; Belmonte, Arnel; Abot, Esteban; Sedegah, Martha; Hollingdale, Michael R; Moormann, Ann; Vulule, John; Villasante, Eileen; Richie, Thomas L; Brough, Douglas E; Bruder, Joseph T

    2017-07-03

    A DNA-human Ad5 (HuAd5) prime-boost malaria vaccine has been shown to protect volunteers against a controlled human malaria infection. The potency of this vaccine, however, appeared to be affected by the presence of pre-existing immunity against the HuAd5 vector. Since HuAd5 seroprevalence is very high in malaria-endemic areas of the world, HuAd5 may not be the most appropriate malaria vaccine vector. This report describes the evaluation of the seroprevalence, immunogenicity and efficacy of three newly identified gorilla adenoviruses, GC44, GC45 and GC46, as potential malaria vaccine vectors. The seroprevalence of GC44, GC45 and GC46 is very low, and the three vectors are not efficiently neutralized by human sera from Kenya and Ghana, two countries where malaria is endemic. In mice, a single administration of GC44, GC45 and GC46 vectors expressing a murine malaria gene, Plasmodium yoelii circumsporozoite protein (PyCSP), induced robust PyCSP-specific T cell and antibody responses that were at least as high as a comparable HuAd5-PyCSP vector. Efficacy studies in a murine malaria model indicated that a prime-boost regimen with DNA-PyCSP and GC-PyCSP vectors can protect mice against a malaria challenge. Moreover, these studies indicated that a DNA-GC46-PyCSP vaccine regimen was significantly more efficacious than a DNA-HuAd5-PyCSP regimen. These data suggest that these gorilla-based adenovectors have key performance characteristics for an effective malaria vaccine. The superior performance of GC46 over HuAd5 highlights its potential for clinical development.

  6. Anopheles plumbeus (Diptera: Culicidae in Europe: a mere nuisance mosquito or potential malaria vector?

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    Schaffner Francis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles plumbeus has been recognized as a minor vector for human malaria in Europe since the beginning of the 20th century. In recent years this tree hole breeding mosquito species appears to have exploited novel breeding sites, including large and organically rich man-made containers, with consequently larger mosquito populations in close vicinity to humans. This lead to investigate whether current populations of An. plumbeus would be able to efficiently transmit Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for the most deadly form of malaria. Methods Anopheles plumbeus immatures were collected from a liquid manure pit in Switzerland and transferred as adults to the CEPIA (Institut Pasteur, France where they were fed on P. falciparum gametocytes produced in vitro. Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes served as controls. Development of P. falciparum in both mosquito species was followed by microscopical detection of oocysts on mosquito midguts and by sporozoite detection in the head/thorax by PCR and microscopy. Results A total of 293 wild An. plumbeus females from four independent collections successfully fed through a membrane on blood containing P. falciparum gametocytes. Oocysts were observed in mosquito midguts and P. falciparum DNA was detected in head-thorax samples in all four experiments, demonstrating, on a large mosquito sample, that An. plumbeus is indeed receptive to P. falciparum NF54 and able to produce sporozoites. Importantly, the proportion of sporozoites-infected An. plumbeus was almost similar to that of An. gambiae (31 to 88% An. plumbeus versus 67 to 97% An. gambiae. However, the number of sporozoites produced was significantly lower in infected An. plumbeus. Conclusion The results show that a sample of field-caught An. plumbeus has a moderate to high receptivity towards P. falciparum. Considering the increased mobility of humans between Europe and malaria endemic countries and changes in environment and

  7. Malaria in Kakuma refugee camp, Turkana, Kenya: facilitation of Anopheles arabiensis vector populations by installed water distribution and catchment systems

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    Cetron Martin S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major health concern for displaced persons occupying refugee camps in sub-Saharan Africa, yet there is little information on the incidence of infection and nature of transmission in these settings. Kakuma Refugee Camp, located in a dry area of north-western Kenya, has hosted ca. 60,000 to 90,000 refugees since 1992, primarily from Sudan and Somalia. The purpose of this study was to investigate malaria prevalence and attack rate and sources of Anopheles vectors in Kakuma refugee camp, in 2005-2006, after a malaria epidemic was observed by staff at camp clinics. Methods Malaria prevalence and attack rate was estimated from cases of fever presenting to camp clinics and the hospital in August 2005, using rapid diagnostic tests and microscopy of blood smears. Larval habitats of vectors were sampled and mapped. Houses were sampled for adult vectors using the pyrethrum knockdown spray method, and mapped. Vectors were identified to species level and their infection with Plasmodium falciparum determined. Results Prevalence of febrile illness with P. falciparum was highest among the 5 to 17 year olds (62.4% while malaria attack rate was highest among the two to 4 year olds (5.2/1,000/day. Infected individuals were spatially concentrated in three of the 11 residential zones of the camp. The indoor densities of Anopheles arabiensis, the sole malaria vector, were similar during the wet and dry seasons, but were distributed in an aggregated fashion and predominantly in the same zones where malaria attack rates were high. Larval habitats and larval populations were also concentrated in these zones. Larval habitats were man-made pits of water associated with tap-stands installed as the water delivery system to residents with year round availability in the camp. Three percent of A. arabiensis adult females were infected with P. falciparum sporozoites in the rainy season. Conclusions Malaria in Kakuma refugee camp was due mainly

  8. Using low-cost drones to map malaria vector habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Andy; Makame, Makame; Cross, Dónall; Majambere, Silas; Msellem, Mwinyi

    2017-01-14

    There is a growing awareness that if we are to achieve the ambitious goal of malaria elimination, we must compliment indoor-based vector control interventions (such as bednets and indoor spraying) with outdoor-based interventions such as larval source management (LSM). The effectiveness of LSM is limited by our capacity to identify and map mosquito aquatic habitats. This study provides a proof of concept for the use of a low-cost (drone (DJI Phantom) for mapping water bodies in seven sites across Zanzibar including natural water bodies, irrigated and non-irrigated rice paddies, peri-urban and urban locations. With flying times of less than 30 min for each site, high-resolution (7 cm) georeferenced images were successfully generated for each of the seven sites, covering areas up to 30 ha. Water bodies were readily identifiable in the imagery, as well as ancillary information for planning LSM activities (access routes to water bodies by road and foot) and public health management (e.g. identification of drinking water sources, mapping individual households and the nature of their construction). The drone-based surveys carried out in this study provide a low-cost and flexible solution to mapping water bodies for operational dissemination of LSM initiatives in mosquito vector-borne disease elimination campaigns. Generated orthomosaics can also be used to provide vital information for other public health planning activities.

  9. Mapping of Malaria Vectors at District Level in India: Changing Scenario and Identified Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Poonam; Lingala, Mercy Aparna L; Sarkar, Soma; Dhiman, Ramesh C

    2017-02-01

    Malaria is one of the six major vector-borne diseases in India, the endemicity of which changes with changes in ecological, climatic, and sociodevelopmental conditions. The anopheline vectors are greatly affected by ecological conditions such as deforestation, urbanization, climate and lifestyle. Despite the advent of tools such as Geographic Information System (GIS), the updated information on the distribution of anopheline vectors of malaria is not available. In India, the plan for vector control is organized at subcentral level but information about vectors is unavailable even at the district level. Therefore, a systematic presentation of vector distribution has been made to provide maps in respect of major vector species. A search of the literature for major vector species, that is, Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles fluviatilis, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles minimus, and Anopheles dirus sensu lato, since 1927 till 2015 was carried out. Data have been presented as present, absent, and no information about vector species during pre-eradication (1927-1958), posteradication (1959-1999), and current scenario (2000-2015). Vectors' distribution and malaria endemicity were mapped using Arc GIS. Of 630 districts of India, major vectors An. culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, and An. stephensi were present in 420, 241, and 243 districts, respectively. In 183 districts, there is no information on any major malaria vector species although 27 of them from the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Manipur, and Mizoram are highly endemic for malaria, having incidences of 2-40 cases/1000/year. The identified gaps in vector distribution, particularly in malaria endemic areas, necessitate further surveys so as to generate the missing information.

  10. Using a Geographical-Information-System-Based Decision Support to Enhance Malaria Vector Control in Zambia

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    Emmanuel Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographic information systems (GISs with emerging technologies are being harnessed for studying spatial patterns in vector-borne diseases to reduce transmission. To implement effective vector control, increased knowledge on interactions of epidemiological and entomological malaria transmission determinants in the assessment of impact of interventions is critical. This requires availability of relevant spatial and attribute data to support malaria surveillance, monitoring, and evaluation. Monitoring the impact of vector control through a GIS-based decision support (DSS has revealed spatial relative change in prevalence of infection and vector susceptibility to insecticides and has enabled measurement of spatial heterogeneity of trend or impact. The revealed trends and interrelationships have allowed the identification of areas with reduced parasitaemia and increased insecticide resistance thus demonstrating the impact of resistance on vector control. The GIS-based DSS provides opportunity for rational policy formulation and cost-effective utilization of limited resources for enhanced malaria vector control.

  11. House design modifications reduce indoor resting malaria vector densities in rice irrigation scheme area in western Kenya

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    Githeko Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple modifications of typical rural house design can be an effective and relatively inexpensive method of reducing indoor mosquito vector densities and consequently decreasing malaria transmission. Public health scientists have shown the potential for house design to protect people against malaria, yet this type of intervention remains virtually ignored. A randomized-controlled study was, therefore, undertaken to determine the effects of this method of vector control on the density of indoor resting malaria vectors in a rice irrigation scheme area in lowlands of western Kenya. Methods Ten treatment houses were modified with ceilings of papyrus mats and insecticide-treated netting (ITN and tested against ten control houses without papyrus ceilings. To determine densities of mosquitoes resting in homes, the pyrethrum spray method was used to simultaneously collect indoor resting malaria vectors in intervention and control houses. Each house was sampled a total of eight times over a period of four months, resulting in a total of 80 sampling efforts for each treatment. Community response to such intervention was investigated by discussions with residents. Results Papyrus mats ceiling modification reduced house entry by Anopheles gambiae s.l and Anopheles funestus densities by between 78–80% and 86% respectively compared to unmodified houses. Geometric mean density of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus in modified houses were significantly lower (t18 = 7.174, P 18 = 2.52, P = 0.02, respectively compared to controls. Unmodified houses were associated with relatively higher densities of malaria vectors. There was a 84% (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.07–0.39, P Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus presence in modified houses, respectively, compared with unmodified houses. Residents responded favourably to this mode of vector control. Conclusion House modifications involving insect screen ceilings made from locally

  12. The role of research in molecular entomology in the fight against malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    della Torre, A; Arca, B; Favia, G; Petrarca, V; Coluzzi, M

    2008-06-01

    The text summarizes the principal current fields of investigation and the recent achievements of the research groups presently contributing to the Molecular Entomology Cluster of the Italian Malaria Network. Particular emphasis is given to the researches with a more direct impact on the fight against malaria vectors.

  13. Modeling larval malaria vector habitat locations using landscape features and cumulative precipitation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Cann, R.S.; Messina, J.P.; MacFarlane, D.W.; Bayoh, M.N.; Vulule, J.M.; Gimnig, J.E.; Walker, E.D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Predictive models of malaria vector larval habitat locations may provide a basis for understanding the spatial determinants of malaria transmission. METHODS: We used four landscape variables (topographic wetness index [TWI], soil type, land use-land cover, and distance to stream) and

  14. Variations of isozyme and morphological characters of malaria vector and non-vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi

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    SATIMIN HADIWIDJAJA

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to show genetic variations of malaria vector Anopheles subpictus in East Flores, East Nusa Tenggara Province and non-vector in Banjarnegara, Central Java Province by isozyme electrophoresis and refined morphological examinations as isozymes and morphological characters are known as gene influenced factors. An. subpictus females were collected by using animal and human bait collection and reared individually in the laboratory. Progenies were used as materials for electrophoretic examination after eggs and larvae were morphologically confirmed as the species investigated. Each progeny was run on horizontal starch electrophoresis in a separate well according to Green et al. (1990, Sukowati et al. (1999 and Dharmawan et al. (2002 with modification. The visualized isozymes were malate dehydrogenase (Mdh, lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh, alkaline phosphatase (Alp, alpha esterase (Est, beta esterase (Est, malic enzyme (Me, leucine aminopeptidase (Lap, and acid phosphatase (Acp. Zymograms showed that Mdh, Ldh, Alp, Est and Me had been varied between vector and non-vector species. Refined morphological examination on larvae showed different number of branches of their inner clypeal hairs and observation on eggs revealed different size and ridge numbers. We concluded that An. subpictus in East Flores was genetically and morphologically different from Banjarnegara and suggested that the two variants might be members of An. subpictus species complex.

  15. Development of Fungal Applications on Netting Substrates for Malaria Vector Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farenhorst, M.; Hilhorst, A.; Thomas, M.B.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Mosquito resistance to chemical insecticides is considered a serious threat for the sustainable use of contemporary malaria vector control methods. Fungal entomopathogens show potential as alternative biological control agents against (insecticide-resistant) anophelines. This study was designed to

  16. Avoidance behavior to essential oils by Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excito-repellency tests were used to characterize behavioral responses of laboratory colonized Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand, using four essential oils, citronella (Cymbopogom nadus), hairy basil (Ocimum americanum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides), ...

  17. Evaluation of Commercial Agrochemicals as New Tools for Malaria Vector Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppé, Mark; Hueter, Ottmar F; Bywater, Andy; Wege, Philip; Maienfisch, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Malaria is a vector-borne and life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. The vector control insecticide market represents a small fraction of the crop protection market and is estimated to be valued at up to $500 million at the active ingredient level. Insecticide resistance towards the current WHOPES-approved products urgently requires the development of new tools to protect communities against the transmission of malaria. The evaluation of commercial products for malaria vector control is a viable and cost effective strategy to identify new malaria vector control products. Several examples of such spin-offs from crop protection insecticides are already evidencing the success of this strategy, namely pirimiphos-methyl for indoor residual sprays and spinosad, diflubenzuron, novaluron, and pyriproxifen for mosquito larvae control, a supplementary technology for control of malaria vectors. In our study the adulticidal activities of 81 insecticides representing 23 insecticidal modes of action classes, 34 fungicides from 6 fungicidal mode of action classes and 15 herbicides from 2 herbicidal modes of action classes were tested in a newly developed screening system. WHOPES approved insecticides for malaria vector control consistently caused 80-100% mortality of adult Anopheles stephensi at application rates between 0.2 and 20 mg active ingradient (AI) litre-1. Chlorfenapyr, fipronil, carbosulfan and endosulfan showed the expected good activity. Four new insecticides and three fungicides with promising activity against adult mosquitoes were identified, namely the insecticides acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, thiocyclam and metaflumizone and the fungicides diflumetorin, picoxystrobin, and fluazinam. Some of these compounds certainly deserve to be further evaluated for malaria vector control. This is the first report describing good activity of commercial fungicides against malaria

  18. Natural diversity of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, Alistair; Harding, Nicholas J; Botta, Giordano; Clarkson, Chris; Antão, Tiago; Kozak, Krzysztof; Schrider, Daniel; Kern, Andrew; Redmond, Seth; Sharakhov, Igor; Pearson, Richard; Bergey, Christina; Fontaine, Michael C; Troco, Arlete; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Costantini, Carlo; Rohatgi, Kyanne; Elissa, Nohal; Coulibaly, Boubacar; Dinis, Joao; Midega, Janet; Mbogo, Charles; Mawejje, Henry; Stalker, Jim; Rockett, Kirk; Drury, Eleanor; Mead, Dan; Jeffreys, Anna; Hubbart, Christina; Rowlands, Kate; Isaacs, Alison; Jyothi, Dushyanth; Malangone, Cinzia; Vauterin, Paul; Jeffrey, Ben; Wright, Ian; Hart, Lee; Kluczynski, Krzysztof; Cornelius, Victoria; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Henrichs, Christa; Giacomantonio, Rachel; Ayala, Diego; Bejon, Philip; Besansky, Nora; Burt, Austin; Caputo, Beniamino; della Torre, Alessandra; Godfray, Charles; Hahn, Matthew; Neafsey, Daniel E; O'Loughlin, Samantha; Pinto, João; Riehle, Michelle; Vernick, Kenneth; Weetman, David; Wilding, Craig; White, Bradley; Lawniczak, Mara; Donnelly, Martin; Kwiatkowski, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    The sustainability of malaria control in Africa is threatened by rising levels of insecticide resistance, and new tools to prevent malaria transmission are urgently needed. To gain a better understanding of the mosquito populations that transmit malaria, we sequenced the genomes of 765 wild

  19. Knowledge, Perception and Control Practices of Malaria Vector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria remains one of the most devastating public health scourges especially in the tropics. Several studies have documented the prevalence of malaria among different vulnerable groups; however, an understanding of the communities' knowledge, perceptions and practices relating to malaria is crucial to the success of ...

  20. Spatio-temporal distribution of malaria vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) across different climatic zones of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Vatandoost, Hassan; Charrahy, Zabihollah

    2011-06-01

    Malaria is a main vector-borne public health problem in Iran. The last studies on Iranian mosquitoes show 31 Anopheles species including different sibling species and genotypes, eight of them are reported to play role in malaria transmission. The objective of this study is to provide a reference for malaria vectors of Iran and to map their spatial and temporal distribution in different climatic zones. Shape files of administrative boundaries and climates of Iran were provided by National Cartographic Center. Data on distribution and seasonal activity of malaria vectors were obtained from different sources and a databank in district level was created in Excel 2003, inserted to the shape files and analyzed by ArcGIS 9.2 to provide the maps. Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles dthali Patton, Anopheles fluviatilis James s.l., Anopheles maculipennis Meigen s.l., Anopheles sacharovi Favre, Anopheles stephensi Liston, and Anopheles superpictus Grassi have been introduced as primary and secondary malaria vectors and Anopheles pulcherrimus Theobald as a suspected vector in Iran. Temporal distribution of anopheline mosquitoes is restricted to April-December in northern Iran, however mosquitoes can be found during the year in southern region. Spatial distribution of malaria vectors is different based on species, thus six of them (except for Anopheles maculipennis s.l. and Anopheles sacharovi) are reported from endemic malarious area in southern and southeastern areas of Iran. The climate of this part is usually warm and humid, which makes it favorable for mosquito rearing and malaria transmission. Correlation between climate conditions and vector distribution can help to predict the potential range of activity for each species and preparedness for malaria epidemics. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Adult vector control, mosquito ecology and malaria transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Oliver J; Godfray, H Charles J; Tatem, Andrew J; Gething, Peter W; Cohen, Justin M; McKenzie, F Ellis; Alex Perkins, T; Reiner, Robert C; Tusting, Lucy S; Scott, Thomas W; Lindsay, Steven W; Hay, Simon I; Smith, David L

    2015-03-01

    Standard advice regarding vector control is to prefer interventions that reduce the lifespan of adult mosquitoes. The basis for this advice is a decades-old sensitivity analysis of 'vectorial capacity', a concept relevant for most malaria transmission models and based solely on adult mosquito population dynamics. Recent advances in micro-simulation models offer an opportunity to expand the theory of vectorial capacity to include both adult and juvenile mosquito stages in the model. In this study we revisit arguments about transmission and its sensitivity to mosquito bionomic parameters using an elasticity analysis of developed formulations of vectorial capacity. We show that reducing adult survival has effects on both adult and juvenile population size, which are significant for transmission and not accounted for in traditional formulations of vectorial capacity. The elasticity of these effects is dependent on various mosquito population parameters, which we explore. Overall, control is most sensitive to methods that affect adult mosquito mortality rates, followed by blood feeding frequency, human blood feeding habit, and lastly, to adult mosquito population density. These results emphasise more strongly than ever the sensitivity of transmission to adult mosquito mortality, but also suggest the high potential of combinations of interventions including larval source management. This must be done with caution, however, as policy requires a more careful consideration of costs, operational difficulties and policy goals in relation to baseline transmission. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Changes in vector species composition and current vector biology and behaviour will favour malaria elimination in Santa Isabel Province, Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beebe Nigel W

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2009, Santa Isabel Province in the Solomon Islands embarked on a malaria elimination programme. However, very little is known in the Province about the anopheline fauna, which species are vectors, their bionomics and how they may respond to intensified intervention measures. The purpose of this study was to provide baseline data on the malaria vectors and to ascertain the possibility of successfully eliminating malaria using the existing conventional vector control measures, such as indoor residual spraying (IRS and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN. Methods Entomological surveys were undertaken during October 2009. To determine species composition and distribution larval surveys were conducted across on the whole island. For malaria transmission studies, adult anophelines were sampled using human landing catches from two villages - one coastal and one inland. Results Five Anopheles species were found on Santa Isabel: Anopheles farauti, Anopheles hinesorum, Anopheles lungae, Anopheles solomonis, and Anopheles nataliae. Anopheles hinesorum was the most widespread species. Anopheles farauti was abundant, but found only on the coast. Anopheles punctulatus and Anopheles koliensis were not found. Anopheles farauti was the only species found biting in the coastal village, it was incriminated as a vector in this study; it fed early in the night but equally so indoors and outdoors, and had a low survival rate. Anopheles solomonis was the main species biting humans in the inland village, it was extremely exophagic, with low survival rates, and readily fed on pigs. Conclusion The disappearance of the two major vectors, An. punctulatus and An. koliensis, from Santa Isabel and the predominance of An. hinesorum, a non-vector species may facilitate malaria elimination measures. Anopheles farauti was identified as the main coastal vector with An. solomonis as a possible inland vector. The behaviour of An. solomonis is novel as it has

  3. Direct and indirect immunosuppression by a malaria parasite in its mosquito vector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boëte, C.H.J.J.; Paul, R.E.L.; Koëlla, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Malaria parasites develop as oocysts within the haemocoel of their mosquito vector during a period that is longer than the average lifespan of many of their vectors. How can they escape from the mosquito's immune responses during their long development? Whereas older oocysts might camouflage

  4. Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okumu, F.O.; Knols, B.G.J.; Fillinger, U.

    2007-01-01

    Background - Larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. Costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. The potential of natural products as larvicides against the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated.

  5. Modeling larval malaria vector habitat locations using landscape features and cumulative precipitation measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Robert S; Messina, Joseph P; MacFarlane, David W; Bayoh, M Nabie; Vulule, John M; Gimnig, John E; Walker, Edward D

    2014-06-06

    Predictive models of malaria vector larval habitat locations may provide a basis for understanding the spatial determinants of malaria transmission. We used four landscape variables (topographic wetness index [TWI], soil type, land use-land cover, and distance to stream) and accumulated precipitation to model larval habitat locations in a region of western Kenya through two methods: logistic regression and random forest. Additionally, we used two separate data sets to account for variation in habitat locations across space and over time. Larval habitats were more likely to be present in locations with a lower slope to contributing area ratio (i.e. TWI), closer to streams, with agricultural land use relative to nonagricultural land use, and in friable clay/sandy clay loam soil and firm, silty clay/clay soil relative to friable clay soil. The probability of larval habitat presence increased with increasing accumulated precipitation. The random forest models were more accurate than the logistic regression models, especially when accumulated precipitation was included to account for seasonal differences in precipitation. The most accurate models for the two data sets had area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.864 and 0.871, respectively. TWI, distance to the nearest stream, and precipitation had the greatest mean decrease in Gini impurity criteria in these models. This study demonstrates the usefulness of random forest models for larval malaria vector habitat modeling. TWI and distance to the nearest stream were the two most important landscape variables in these models. Including accumulated precipitation in our models improved the accuracy of larval habitat location predictions by accounting for seasonal variation in the precipitation. Finally, the sampling strategy employed here for model parameterization could serve as a framework for creating predictive larval habitat models to assist in larval control efforts.

  6. Entomological Investigations on Malaria Vectors in Some War-Torn Areas in the Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka after Settlement of 30-Year Civil Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana Gunathilaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malaria was an endemic problem in Trincomalee District, Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. Very few recent data concerning Anopheles are available which transmit malaria. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify various Anopheles species and the dynamics of anophelines including malaria vectors in Trincomalee District for effective vector control under the current malaria elimination program embarked in the country. Method. Entomological surveys were conducted on a monthly basis, using five entomological techniques, namely, indoor hand collection (HC, window trap collection (WTC, cattle-baited net collection (CBNC, and cattle-baited hut collection (CBHC from June 2010 to June 2012 in 32 study areas under five entomological sentinel sites. Results. Seventeen anopheline species were encountered, of which Anopheles subpictus was the predominant species in all sampling methods. It is noted that A. culicifacies and A. subpictus have adapted to breed in polluted water in urban settings which may cause serious implications on the epidemiology of malaria in the country. Conclusions. It is important to determine the abundance, biology, distribution, and relationship with climatic factors of main and secondary malaria vectors in Sri Lanka in order to initiate evidence based controlling programs under the current malaria elimination program in Sri Lanka.

  7. The distribution and bionomics of anopheles malaria vector mosquitoes in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Sinka, Marianne E; Gething, Peter W; Tarmidzi, Siti N; Surya, Asik; Kusriastuti, Rita; Winarno; Baird, J Kevin; Hay, Simon I; Bangs, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Malaria remains one of the greatest human health burdens in Indonesia. Although Indonesia has a long and renowned history in the early research and discoveries of malaria and subsequently in the successful use of environmental control methods to combat the vector, much remains unknown about many of these mosquito species. There are also significant gaps in the existing knowledge on the transmission epidemiology of malaria, most notably in the highly malarious eastern half of the archipelago. These compound the difficulty of developing targeted and effective control measures. The sheer complexity and number of malaria vectors in the country are daunting. The difficult task of summarizing the available information for each species and/or species complex is compounded by the patchiness of the data: while relatively plentiful in one area or region, it can also be completely lacking in others. Compared to many other countries in the Oriental and Australasian biogeographical regions, only scant information on vector bionomics and response to chemical measures is available in Indonesia. That information is often either decades old, geographically patchy or completely lacking. Additionally, a large number of information sources are published in Dutch or Indonesian language and therefore less accessible. This review aims to present an updated overview of the known distribution and bionomics of the 20 confirmed malaria vector species or species complexes regarded as either primary or secondary (incidental) malaria vectors within Indonesia. This chapter is not an exhaustive review of each of these species. No attempt is made to specifically discuss or resolve the taxonomic record of listed species in this document, while recognizing the ever evolving revisions in the systematics of species groups and complexes. A review of past and current status of insecticide susceptibility of eight vector species of malaria is also provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Molecular biological approaches to the study of vectors in relation to malaria control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Crampton

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available To a large extent, control of malaria vectors relies on the elimination of breeding sites and the application of chemical agents. There are increasing problems associated with the use of synthetic insecticides for vector control, including the evolution of resistance, the high cost of developing and registering new insecticides and an awareness of pollution from insecticide residues. These factors have stimulated interest in the application of molecular biology to the study of mosquito vectors of malaria; focussing primarily on two aspects. First, the improvement of existing control measures through the development of simplified DNA probe systems suitable for identification of vectors of malaria. The development of synthetic, non-radioactive DNA probes suitable for identification of species in the Anopheles gambiae complex is described with the aim of defining a simplified methodology wich is suitable for entomologist in the field. The second aspect to be considered is the development of completely novel strategies through the development of completely novel strategies through the genetic manipulation of insect vectors of malaria in order to alter their ability to transmit the disease. The major requirements for producing transgenic mosquitoes are outlined together with the progress wich has been made to date and discussed in relation to the prospects which this type of approach has for the future control of malaria.

  9. [Results of epidemiological supervision of malaria vectors in the open water reservoirs of Moscow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, T N; Tanygina, E Iu; Baranova, A M; Ganushkina, L A

    2009-01-01

    In the past 2 years, the malaria epidemiological situation has drastically improved in Moscow: only sporadic cases of local transmission of tertian (Plasmodium vivax) malaria have been notified, which sets a task to eradicate malaria in the megalopolis in 2010. In this connection, the surveillance of the malaria vectors Anopheles mosquitoes is assuming prime importance. The results of entomological monitoring have shown its efficiency on the territory of the megalopolis. Main efforts have been directed to the application of safe controlling methods against the mosquitoes and to hydraulic engineering actions to reduce "area susceptibility". Entomological observations have demonstrated benefits from the correctly chosen and constantly performed hydraulic engineering measures that guarantee a long-term and positive impact on the malaria situation.

  10. Can antibodies against flies alter malaria transmission in birds by changing vector behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Suma; Waite, Jessica L; Clayton, Dale H; Adler, Frederick R

    2014-10-07

    Transmission of insect-borne diseases is shaped by the interactions among parasites, vectors, and hosts. Any factor that alters movement of infected vectors from infected to uninfeced hosts will in turn alter pathogen spread. In this paper, we study one such pathogen-vector-host system, avian malaria in pigeons transmitted by fly ectoparasites, where both two-way and three-way interactions play a key role in shaping disease spread. Bird immune defenses against flies can decrease malaria prevalence by reducing fly residence time on infected birds or increase disease prevalence by enhancing fly movement and thus infection transmission. We develop a mathematical model that illustrates how these changes in vector behavior influence pathogen transmission and show that malaria prevalence is maximized at an intermediate level of defense avoidance by the flies. Understanding how host immune defenses indirectly alter disease transmission by influencing vector behavior has implications for reducing the transmission of human malaria and other vectored pathogens. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Malaria vectors in a traditional dry zone village in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F

    1999-01-01

    Malaria transmission by anopheline mosquitoes was studied in a traditional tank-irrigation-based rice-producing village in the malaria-endemic low country dry zone of northcentral Sri Lanka during the period August 1994-February 1997. Adult mosquitoes were collected from human and bovid bait...... in An. culicifacies and An. peditaeniatus. Malaria parasite infections were seen in seven mosquito species, with 75% of the positive mosquitoes containing P. falciparum and 25% P. vivax. Polymorph PV247 was recorded from a vector (i.e., An. varuna) for the first time in Sri Lanka. Computations of mean...

  12. IgG responses to Anopheles gambiae salivary antigen gSG6 detect variation in exposure to malaria vectors and disease risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Stone

    Full Text Available Assessment of exposure to malaria vectors is important to our understanding of spatial and temporal variations in disease transmission and facilitates the targeting and evaluation of control efforts. Recently, an immunogenic Anopheles gambiae salivary protein (gSG6 was identified and proposed as the basis of an immuno-assay determining exposure to Afrotropical malaria vectors. In the present study, IgG responses to gSG6 and 6 malaria antigens (CSP, AMA-1, MSP-1, MSP-3, GLURP R1, and GLURP R2 were compared to Anopheles exposure and malaria incidence in a cohort of children from Korogwe district, Tanzania, an area of moderate and heterogeneous malaria transmission. Anti-gSG6 responses above the threshold for seropositivity were detected in 15% (96/636 of the children, and were positively associated with geographical variations in Anopheles exposure (OR 1.25, CI 1.01-1.54, p = 0.04. Additionally, IgG responses to gSG6 in individual children showed a strong positive association with household level mosquito exposure. IgG levels for all antigens except AMA-1 were associated with the frequency of malaria episodes following sampling. gSG6 seropositivity was strongly positively associated with subsequent malaria incidence (test for trend p = 0.004, comparable to malaria antigens MSP-1 and GLURP R2. Our results show that the gSG6 assay is sensitive to micro-epidemiological variations in exposure to Anopheles mosquitoes, and provides a correlate of malaria risk that is unrelated to immune protection. While the technique requires further evaluation in a range of malaria endemic settings, our findings suggest that the gSG6 assay may have a role in the evaluation and planning of targeted and preventative anti-malaria interventions.

  13. Malaria vectors and transmission dynamics in Goulmoun, a rural city in south-western Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awono-Ambene Parfait

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of some baseline entomological data such as Entomological Inoculation Rates (EIR is crucially needed to assess the epidemiological impact of malaria control activities directed either against parasites or vectors. In Chad, most published surveys date back to the 1960's. In this study, anopheline species composition and their relation to malaria transmission were investigated in a dry Sudanian savannas area of Chad. Methods A 12-month longitudinal survey was conducted in the irrigated rice-fields area of Goulmoun in south western Chad. Human landing catches were performed each month from July 2006 to June 2007 in three compounds (indoors and outdoors and pyrethrum spray collections were conducted in July, August and October 2006 in 10 randomly selected rooms. Mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex and to the An. funestus group were identified by molecular diagnostic tools. Plasmodium falciparum infection and blood meal sources were detected by ELISA. Results Nine anopheline species were collected by the two sampling methods. The most aggressive species were An. arabiensis (51 bites/human/night, An. pharoensis (12.5 b/h/n, An. funestus (1.5 b/h/n and An. ziemanni (1.3 b/h/n. The circumsporozoite protein rate was 1.4% for An. arabiensis, 1.4% for An. funestus, 0.8% for An. pharoensis and 0.5% for An. ziemanni. Malaria transmission is seasonal, lasting from April to December. However, more than 80% of the total EIR was concentrated in the period from August to October. The overall annual EIR was estimated at 311 bites of infected anophelines/human/year, contributed mostly by An. arabiensis (84.5% and An. pharoensis (12.2%. Anopheles funestus and An. ziemanni played a minor role. Parasite inoculation occurred mostly after 22:00 hours but around 20% of bites of infected anophelines were distributed earlier in the evening. Conclusion The present study revealed the implication of An. pharoensis in malaria

  14. Outdoor host seeking behaviour of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes following initiation of malaria vector control on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

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    Reddy Vamsi P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor-based anti-vector interventions remain the preferred means of reducing risk of malaria transmission in malaria endemic areas around the world. Despite demonstrated success in reducing human-mosquito interactions, these methods are effective solely against endophilic vectors. It may be that outdoor locations serve as an important venue of host seeking by Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l. mosquitoes where indoor vector suppression measures are employed. This paper describes the host seeking activity of anopheline mosquito vectors in the Punta Europa region of Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. In this area, An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s. is the primary malaria vector. The goal of the paper is to evaluate the importance of An gambiae s.l. outdoor host seeking behaviour and discuss its implications for anti-vector interventions. Methods The venue and temporal characteristics of host seeking by anopheline vectors in a hyperendemic setting was evaluated using human landing collections conducted inside and outside homes in three villages during both the wet and dry seasons in 2007 and 2008. Additionally, five bi-monthly human landing collections were conducted throughout 2009. Collections were segregated hourly to provide a time distribution of host-seeking behaviour. Results Surprisingly high levels of outdoor biting by An. gambiae senso stricto and An. melas vectors were observed throughout the night, including during the early evening and morning hours when human hosts are often outdoors. As reported previously, An. gambiae s.s. is the primary malaria vector in the Punta Europa region, where it seeks hosts outdoors at least as much as it does indoors. Further, approximately 40% of An. gambiae s.l. are feeding at times when people are often outdoors, where they are not protected by IRS or LLINs. Repeated sampling over two consecutive dry-wet season cycles indicates that this result is independent of seasonality. Conclusions

  15. Modeling spatial variation in risk of presence and insecticide resistance for malaria vectors in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souris, Marc; Marcombe, Sébastien; Laforet, Julie; Brey, Paul T; Corbel, Vincent; Overgaard, Hans J

    2017-01-01

    Climatic, sociological and environmental conditions are known to affect the spatial distribution of malaria vectors and disease transmission. Intensive use of insecticides in the agricultural and public health sectors exerts a strong selective pressure on resistance genes in malaria vectors. Spatio-temporal models of favorable conditions for Anopheles species' presence were developed to estimate the probability of presence of malaria vectors and insecticide resistance in Lao PDR. These models were based on environmental and meteorological conditions, and demographic factors. GIS software was used to build and manage a spatial database with data collected from various geographic information providers. GIS was also used to build and run the models. Results showed that potential insecticide use and therefore the probability of resistance to insecticide is greater in the southwestern part of the country, specifically in Champasack province and where malaria incidence is already known to be high. These findings can help national authorities to implement targeted and effective vector control strategies for malaria prevention and elimination among populations most at risk. Results can also be used to focus the insecticide resistance surveillance in Anopheles mosquito populations in more restricted area, reducing the area of surveys, and making the implementation of surveillance system for Anopheles mosquito insecticide resistance possible.

  16. Modeling spatial variation in risk of presence and insecticide resistance for malaria vectors in Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Souris

    Full Text Available Climatic, sociological and environmental conditions are known to affect the spatial distribution of malaria vectors and disease transmission. Intensive use of insecticides in the agricultural and public health sectors exerts a strong selective pressure on resistance genes in malaria vectors. Spatio-temporal models of favorable conditions for Anopheles species' presence were developed to estimate the probability of presence of malaria vectors and insecticide resistance in Lao PDR. These models were based on environmental and meteorological conditions, and demographic factors. GIS software was used to build and manage a spatial database with data collected from various geographic information providers. GIS was also used to build and run the models. Results showed that potential insecticide use and therefore the probability of resistance to insecticide is greater in the southwestern part of the country, specifically in Champasack province and where malaria incidence is already known to be high. These findings can help national authorities to implement targeted and effective vector control strategies for malaria prevention and elimination among populations most at risk. Results can also be used to focus the insecticide resistance surveillance in Anopheles mosquito populations in more restricted area, reducing the area of surveys, and making the implementation of surveillance system for Anopheles mosquito insecticide resistance possible.

  17. Vector incrimination and effects of antimalarial drugs on malaria transmission and control in the Amazon Basin of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Klein

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available World ecosystems differ significantly and a multidisciplinary malaria control approach must be adjusted to meet these requirements. These include a comprehensive understanding of the malaria vectors, their behavior, seasonal distribution and abundance, susceptibility to insecticides (physiological and behavioral, methods to reduce the numbers of human gametocyte carriers through effective health care systems and antimalarial drug treatment, urban malaria transmission versus rural or forest malaria transmission, and the impact of vaccine development. Many malaria vectors are members of species complexes and individual relationship to malaria transmission, seasonal distribution, bitting behavior, etc. is poorly understood. Additionaly, malaria patients are not examined for circulating gametocytes and both falciparum and vivax malaria patients may be highly infective to mosquitoes after treatment with currently used antimalarial drugs. Studies on the physiological and behavioral effects of DDT and other insecticides are inconclusive and need to be evalusted.

  18. Agriculture and the promotion of insect pests: rice cultivation in river floodplains and malaria vectors in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louca Vasilis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthropogenic modification of natural habitats can create conditions in which pest species associated with humans can thrive. In order to mitigate for these changes, it is necessary to determine which aspects of human management are associated with the promotion of those pests. Anopheles gambiae, the main Africa malaria vector, often breeds in rice fields. Here the impact of the ancient practice of 'swamp rice' cultivation, on the floodplains of the Gambia River, on the production of anopheline mosquitoes was investigated. Methods Routine surveys were carried out along 500 m transects crossing rice fields from the landward edge of the floodplains to the river during the 2006 rainy season. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled using area samplers and emergence traps and fish sampled using nets. Semi-field experiments were used to investigate whether nutrients used for swamp rice cultivation affected mosquito larval abundance. Results At the beginning of the rainy season rice is grown on the landward edge of the floodplain; the first area to flood with fresh water and one rich in cattle dung. Later, rice plants are transplanted close to the river, the last area to dry out on the floodplain. Nearly all larval and adult stages of malaria vectors were collected 0–100 m from the landward edge of the floodplains, where immature rice plants were grown. These paddies contained stagnant freshwater with high quantities of cattle faeces. Semi-field studies demonstrated that cattle faeces nearly doubled the number of anopheline larvae compared with untreated water. Conclusion Swamp rice cultivation creates ideal breeding sites for malaria vectors. However, only those close to the landward edge harboured vectors. These sites were productive since they were large areas of standing freshwater, rich in nutrients, protected from fish, and situated close to human habitation, where egg-laying mosquitoes from the villages had short distances to

  19. Agriculture and the promotion of insect pests: rice cultivation in river floodplains and malaria vectors in The Gambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarju, Lamin BS; Fillinger, Ulrike; Green, Clare; Louca, Vasilis; Majambere, Silas; Lindsay, Steven W

    2009-01-01

    Background Anthropogenic modification of natural habitats can create conditions in which pest species associated with humans can thrive. In order to mitigate for these changes, it is necessary to determine which aspects of human management are associated with the promotion of those pests. Anopheles gambiae, the main Africa malaria vector, often breeds in rice fields. Here the impact of the ancient practice of 'swamp rice' cultivation, on the floodplains of the Gambia River, on the production of anopheline mosquitoes was investigated. Methods Routine surveys were carried out along 500 m transects crossing rice fields from the landward edge of the floodplains to the river during the 2006 rainy season. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled using area samplers and emergence traps and fish sampled using nets. Semi-field experiments were used to investigate whether nutrients used for swamp rice cultivation affected mosquito larval abundance. Results At the beginning of the rainy season rice is grown on the landward edge of the floodplain; the first area to flood with fresh water and one rich in cattle dung. Later, rice plants are transplanted close to the river, the last area to dry out on the floodplain. Nearly all larval and adult stages of malaria vectors were collected 0–100 m from the landward edge of the floodplains, where immature rice plants were grown. These paddies contained stagnant freshwater with high quantities of cattle faeces. Semi-field studies demonstrated that cattle faeces nearly doubled the number of anopheline larvae compared with untreated water. Conclusion Swamp rice cultivation creates ideal breeding sites for malaria vectors. However, only those close to the landward edge harboured vectors. These sites were productive since they were large areas of standing freshwater, rich in nutrients, protected from fish, and situated close to human habitation, where egg-laying mosquitoes from the villages had short distances to fly. The traditional practice

  20. Malaria case in Madagascar, probable implication of a new vector, Anopheles coustani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomichene, Thiery N J J; Tata, Etienne; Boyer, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    Indoor spraying of insecticides and the use of insecticide-treated bed nets are key strategies for national malaria vector control in the central highlands of Madagascar. During the year 2013, malaria outbreaks were reported by the National Malaria Control Programme in the highlands, including the district of Ankazobe. Entomological trapping was carried out in April and May 2013 and in March 2014, using human landing catches, collection of mosquitoes resting in stables and in houses by oral aspirators, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps. Detection of Plasmodium in mosquitoes was carried out on head and thorax of anopheline females by ELISA, CSP and PCR (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium vivax, or Plasmodium ovale). Human biting rate (HBR), sporozoite index and entomological infection rate (EIR) were calculated for Anopheles funestus, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles mascarensis, and Anopheles coustani. In Ankazobe district, the presence of malaria vectors such as An. funestus, An. arabiensis and An. mascarensis was confirmed, and a new and abundant potential vector, An. coustani was detected. Indeed, one individual of An. funestus and two An. coustani were detected positive with P. falciparum while one An. mascarensis and four An. coustani were positive with P. vivax. For An. coustani, in March 2014, the EIR varied from 0.01 infectious bites/person/month (ipm) outdoors to 0.11 ipm indoors. For An. funestus, in April 2013, the EIR was 0.13 ipm. The highest HBR value was observed for An. coustani, 86.13 ipm outdoors. The highest sporozoite rate was also for An. coustani, 9.5 % of An. coustani caught in stable was sporozoite positive. The implication of An. coustani in malaria transmission was not previously mentioned in Madagascar. Its very high abundance and the detection of Plasmodium coupled with an opportunistic feeding behaviour in villages with malaria cases supports its role in malaria transmission in Madagascar.

  1. Converging Human and Malaria Vector Diagnostics with Data Management towards an Integrated Holistic One Health Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsakakis, Konstantinos; Hin, Sebastian; Müller, Pie; Wipf, Nadja; Thomsen, Edward; Coleman, Michael; Zengerle, Roland; Vontas, John; Mavridis, Konstantinos

    2018-02-03

    Monitoring malaria prevalence in humans, as well as vector populations, for the presence of Plasmodium , is an integral component of effective malaria control, and eventually, elimination. In the field of human diagnostics, a major challenge is the ability to define, precisely, the causative agent of fever, thereby differentiating among several candidate (also non-malaria) febrile diseases. This requires genetic-based pathogen identification and multiplexed analysis, which, in combination, are hardly provided by the current gold standard diagnostic tools. In the field of vectors, an essential component of control programs is the detection of Plasmodium species within its mosquito vectors, particularly in the salivary glands, where the infective sporozoites reside. In addition, the identification of species composition and insecticide resistance alleles within vector populations is a primary task in routine monitoring activities, aiming to support control efforts. In this context, the use of converging diagnostics is highly desirable for providing comprehensive information, including differential fever diagnosis in humans, and mosquito species composition, infection status, and resistance to insecticides of vectors. Nevertheless, the two fields of human diagnostics and vector control are rarely combined, both at the diagnostic and at the data management end, resulting in fragmented data and mis- or non-communication between various stakeholders. To this direction, molecular technologies, their integration in automated platforms, and the co-assessment of data from multiple diagnostic sources through information and communication technologies are possible pathways towards a unified human vector approach.

  2. Malaria Prevalence and Indoor-Biting Mosquito Vector Abundance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-20

    May 20, 2011 ... presence of asbestos ceiling in houses and the tendency of the mosquitoes to escape through the eaves of houses without ceilings when the insecticide is applied. Anopheles gambiae was not always directly proportional to the malaria prevalence in the villages but statistical analysis revealed a positive.

  3. Malaria, preventive practices and vector infectivity studies in Makurdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no statistical significance between tribes in relation to phobia from using ITNs (x2= 1.921, d= 4, p = 0.750). Since malaria does not appear to be decreasing in spite of preventive measure being used, the disease still remains a serious health challenge in Makurdi. Stakeholders must be persuaded to embrace and ...

  4. Insecticide resistance testing in malaria vectors in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Control Programme, has been conducting annual insecticide resistance surveillance since 1999, aimed at early detection of ... Key words: Malaria, Anopheles gambiae complex, larvae, fabric, resistance, susceptibility, Tanzania. Introduction ..... Both authors worked on literature review and hereafter,. BE set the first draft of ...

  5. 68 Transmission intensity and malaria vector population structure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic activities include crop agriculture and livestock keeping. Adult mosquito collection and ... Based on the sequence of nucleotide amplified, An. arabiensis with 315bp, An. gambiae s.s with 390bp DNA fragments were .... for the design and implementation of malaria control strategies. Like in our study, studies.

  6. The decline of malaria in Finland – the impact of the vector and social variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulden Larry

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria was prevalent in Finland in the 18th century. It declined slowly without deliberate counter-measures and the last indigenous case was reported in 1954. In the present analysis of indigenous malaria in Finland, an effort was made to construct a data set on annual malaria cases of maximum temporal length to be able to evaluate the significance of different factors assumed to affect malaria trends. Methods To analyse the long-term trend malaria statistics were collected from 1750–2008. During that time, malaria frequency decreased from about 20,000 – 50,000 per 1,000,000 people to less than 1 per 1,000,000 people. To assess the cause of the decline, a correlation analysis was performed between malaria frequency per million people and temperature data, animal husbandry, consolidation of land by redistribution and household size. Results Anopheles messeae and Anopheles beklemishevi exist only as larvae in June and most of July. The females seek an overwintering place in August. Those that overwinter together with humans may act as vectors. They have to stay in their overwintering place from September to May because of the cold climate. The temperatures between June and July determine the number of malaria cases during the following transmission season. This did not, however, have an impact on the long-term trend of malaria. The change in animal husbandry and reclamation of wetlands may also be excluded as a possible cause for the decline of malaria. The long-term social changes, such as land consolidation and decreasing household size, showed a strong correlation with the decline of Plasmodium. Conclusion The indigenous malaria in Finland faded out evenly in the whole country during 200 years with limited or no counter-measures or medication. It appears that malaria in Finland was basically a social disease and that malaria trends were strongly linked to changes in human behaviour. Decreasing household size caused

  7. Risk factors for house-entry by malaria vectors in a rural town and satellite villages in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasseh Momadou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the pre-intervention year of a randomized controlled trial investigating the protective effects of house screening against malaria-transmitting vectors, a multi-factorial risk factor analysis study was used to identify factors that influence mosquito house entry. Methods Mosquitoes were sampled using CDC light traps in 976 houses, each on one night, in Farafenni town and surrounding villages during the malaria-transmission season in The Gambia. Catches from individual houses were both (a left unadjusted and (b adjusted relative to the number of mosquitoes caught in four sentinel houses that were operated nightly throughout the period, to allow for night-to-night variation. Houses were characterized by location, architecture, human occupancy and their mosquito control activities, and the number and type of domestic animals within the compound. Results 106,536 mosquitoes were caught, of which 55% were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, the major malaria vectors in the region. There were seven fold higher numbers of An. gambiae s.l. in the villages (geometric mean per trap night = 43.7, 95% confidence intervals, CIs = 39.5–48.4 than in Farafenni town (6.3, 5.7–7.2 and significant variation between residential blocks (p Conclusion This study demonstrates that the risk of malaria transmission is greatest in rural areas, where large numbers of people sleep in houses made of mud blocks, where the eaves are open, horses are not tethered nearby and where churai is not burnt at night. These factors need to be considered in the design and analysis of intervention studies designed to reduce malaria transmission in The Gambia and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Climate change and altitudinal structuring of malaria vectors in south-western Cameroon: their relation to malaria transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanga, M C; Ngundu, W I; Judith, N; Mbuh, J; Tendongfor, N; Simard, Frédéric; Wanji, S

    2010-07-01

    An entomological survey was conducted in Cameroon between October 2004 and September 2005, in nine localities targeted for malaria vector control based on adult productivity and variability. Mosquitoes were collected by human-landing catches (HLCs) and pyrethrum spray catches. A total of 12 500 anophelines were collected and dissected: Anopheles gambiae s.l. (56.86%), An. funestus s.l. (32.57%), An. hancocki (9.38%), and An. nili (1.18%). Applying PCR revealed that specimens of the An. funestus group were An. funestus s.s. and An. gambiae complex were mostly An. melas and An. gambiae s.s. of the M and S molecular forms with the M forms being the most predominant. The natural distribution patterns of Anopheles species were largely determined by altitude with some species having unique environmental tolerance limits. A human blood index (HBI) of 99.05% was recorded. Mean probability of daily survival of the malaria vectors was 0.92, with annual mean life expectancy of 21.9 days and the expectation of infective life was long with a mean of 7.4 days. The high survival rates suggest a high vector potential for the species. This information enhances the development of a more focused and informed vector control intervention. Copyright 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Challenges in Malaria vector control; is the use of DDT the best ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is an infection caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium; four species of which infect human beings, the most common being Plasmodium vivax and most deadly being Plasmodium falciparum. The Anopheles mosquito serves as Plasmodium's delivery system, or vector. Only female mosquitoes can ...

  10. Malaria vector control at a crossroads: public health entomology and the drive to elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnzava, Abraham P; Macdonald, Michael B; Knox, Tessa B; Temu, Emmanuel A; Shiff, Clive J

    2014-09-01

    Vector control has been at the core of successful malaria control. However, a dearth of field-oriented vector biologists threatens to undermine global reductions in malaria burden. Skilled cadres are needed to manage insecticide resistance, to maintain coverage with current interventions, to develop new paradigms for tackling 'residual' transmission and to target interventions as transmission becomes increasingly heterogeneous. Recognising this human resource crisis, in September 2013, WHO Global Malaria Programme issued guidance for capacity building in entomology and vector control, including recommendations for countries and implementing partners. Ministries were urged to develop long-range strategic plans for building human resources for public health entomology and vector control (including skills in epidemiology, geographic information systems, operational research and programme management) and to set in place the requisite professional posts and career opportunities. Capacity building and national ownership in all partner projects and a clear exit strategy to sustain human and technical resources after project completion were emphasised. Implementing partners were urged to support global and regional efforts to enhance public health entomology capacity. While the challenges inherent in such capacity building are great, so too are the opportunities to establish the next generation of public health entomologists that will enable programmes to continue on the path to malaria elimination. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Contained semi-field environments for ecological studies on transgenic African malaria vectors: benefits and constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knols, B.G.J.; Njiru, B.N.; Mukabana, W.R.; Mathenge, E.M.; Killeen, G.F.

    2002-01-01

    New interventions are needed to reduce the burden of vector-borne diseases like malaria and dengué, which are among the most serious and prevalent infectious diseases worldwide. The release of genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes may offer an alternative strategy to do so while circumventing the

  12. Role of Anopheles (Kerteszia bellator as malaria vector in Southeastern Brazil (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available New research concerning Anopheles bellator in the southeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, are reported. Adult females of this mosquito showed remarkable endophily and endophagy which was even greater than An. cruzii. The epidemiological role of this anopheline as a malaria vector is discussed.

  13. Biological tools for control of larval stages of malaria vectors – a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.; Takken, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The two main interventions presently being deployed for control of malaria vectors, that is, long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) involve the use of chemical insecticides and target adult mosquitoes. Meanwhile, the potential of larval control is

  14. Mosquitoes in the Danube Delta: searching for vectors of filarioid helminths and avian malaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ionică, A.M.; Zittra, C.; Wimmer, V.; Leitner, N.; Votýpka, Jan; Modrý, David; Mihalca, A. D.; Fuehrer, H.-P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, JUL 5 (2017), č. článku 324. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Danube Delta * filarioids * avian malaria * mosquito vectors Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  15. Feeding and survival of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae on plants growing in Kenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Impoinvil, D.E.; Kongere, J.O.; Foster, W.A.; Njiru, B.N.; Killeen, G.F.; Githure, J.I.; Beier, J.C.; Hassanali, A.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    The propensity of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) to ingest sugars from various plants, and subsequent survival rates, were assessed with laboratory-reared males and females offered eight species of plants commonly cultivated and/or growing wild in western

  16. Egg hatching, larval movement and larval survival of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in desiccating habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Paaijmans, K.P.; Githeko, A.K.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2003-01-01

    Background - Although the effects of rainfall on the population dynamics of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae have been studied in great detail, the effects of dry periods on its survival remain less clear. Methods - The effects of drying conditions were simulated by creating desiccated habitats,

  17. challenges in malaria vector control; is the use of ddt the best option?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Malaria is an infection caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium; four species of which infect human beings, the most common being Plasmodium vivax and most deadly being Plasmodium falciparum. The Anopheles mosquito serves as Plasmodium's delivery system, or vector. Only female.

  18. Introduction of the Anopheles bancroftii Mosquito, a Malaria Vector, into New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Morgane; Kilama, Sosiasi; Duperier, Sandy; Soupé-Gilbert, Marie-Estelle; Calvez, Elodie; Pocquet, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    In June 2017, an Anopheles mosquito species was detected in New Caledonia. Morphologic identification and genomic sequencing revealed that the specimens tested belong to An. bancroftii genotype A1. This introduction underscores the risk for local malaria transmission and the vulnerability of New Caledonia to vector introduction.

  19. Simplified models of vector control impact upon malaria transmission by zoophagic mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson S Kiware

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High coverage of personal protection measures that kill mosquitoes dramatically reduce malaria transmission where vector populations depend upon human blood. However, most primary malaria vectors outside of sub-Saharan Africa can be classified as "very zoophagic," meaning they feed occasionally (<10% of blood meals upon humans, so personal protection interventions have negligible impact upon their survival. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We extended a published malaria transmission model to examine the relationship between transmission, control, and the baseline proportion of bloodmeals obtained from humans (human blood index. The lower limit of the human blood index enables derivation of simplified models for zoophagic vectors that (1 Rely on only three field-measurable parameters. (2 Predict immediate and delayed (with and without assuming reduced human infectivity, respectively impacts of personal protection measures upon transmission. (3 Illustrate how appreciable indirect communal-level protection for non-users can be accrued through direct personal protection of users. (4 Suggest the coverage and efficacy thresholds required to attain epidemiological impact. The findings suggest that immediate, indirect, community-wide protection of users and non-users alike may linearly relate to the efficacy of a user's direct personal protection, regardless of whether that is achieved by killing or repelling mosquitoes. High protective coverage and efficacy (≥80% are important to achieve epidemiologically meaningful impact. Non-users are indirectly protected because the two most common species of human malaria are strict anthroponoses. Therefore, the small proportion of mosquitoes that are killed or diverted while attacking humans can represent a large proportion of those actually transmitting malaria. CONCLUSIONS: Simplified models of malaria transmission by very zoophagic vectors may be used by control practitioners to predict intervention impact

  20. An overview of malaria transmission from the perspective of Amazon Anopheles vectors

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    Paulo FP Pimenta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Americas, areas with a high risk of malaria transmission are mainly located in the Amazon Forest, which extends across nine countries. One keystone step to understanding the Plasmodium life cycle in Anopheles species from the Amazon Region is to obtain experimentally infected mosquito vectors. Several attempts to colonise Ano- pheles species have been conducted, but with only short-lived success or no success at all. In this review, we review the literature on malaria transmission from the perspective of its Amazon vectors. Currently, it is possible to develop experimental Plasmodium vivax infection of the colonised and field-captured vectors in laboratories located close to Amazonian endemic areas. We are also reviewing studies related to the immune response to P. vivax infection of Anopheles aquasalis, a coastal mosquito species. Finally, we discuss the importance of the modulation of Plasmodium infection by the vector microbiota and also consider the anopheline genomes. The establishment of experimental mosquito infections with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei parasites that could provide interesting models for studying malaria in the Amazonian scenario is important. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of the parasites in New World vectors is crucial in order to better determine the interaction process and vectorial competence.

  1. Surveillance of Vector-Borne Infections (Chikungunya, Dengue, and Malaria) in Bo, Sierra Leone, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariano, Donald F; Taitt, Chris R; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Bangura, Umaru; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bockarie, Moses J; Lahai, Joseph; Lamin, Joseph M; Leski, Tomasz A; Yasuda, Chadwick; Stenger, David A; Ansumana, Rashid

    2017-10-01

    Malaria remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in West Africa, but the contribution of other vector-borne infections (VBIs) to the burden of disease has been understudied. We used rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for three VBIs to test blood samples from 1,795 febrile residents of Bo City, Sierra Leone, over a 1-year period in 2012-2013. In total, 24% of the tests were positive for malaria, fewer than 5% were positive for markers of dengue virus infection, and 39% were positive for IgM directed against chikungunya virus (CHIKV) or a related alphavirus. In total, more than half (55%) of these febrile individuals tested positive for at least one of the three VBIs, which highlights the very high burden of vector-borne diseases in this population. The prevalence of positives on the Chikungunya IgM and dengue tests did not vary significantly with age (P > 0.36), but higher rates of malaria were observed in children environs, there is a need to examine whether an ecological shift toward a greater burden from CHIKV or related alphaviruses is occurring in other parts of Sierra Leone or the West African region.

  2. Integrated vector management for malaria control in Uganda: knowledge, perceptions and policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutero, Clifford M; Schlodder, Dieter; Kabatereine, Narcis; Kramer, Randall

    2012-01-14

    Integrated vector management (IVM) is increasingly being recommended as an option for sustainable malaria control. However, many malaria-endemic countries lack a policy framework to guide and promote the approach. The objective of the study was to assess knowledge and perceptions in relation to current malaria vector control policy and IVM in Uganda, and to make recommendations for consideration during future development of a specific IVM policy. The study used a structured questionnaire to interview 34 individuals working at technical or policy-making levels in health, environment, agriculture and fisheries sectors. Specific questions on IVM focused on the following key elements of the approach: integration of chemical and non-chemical interventions of vector control; evidence-based decision making; inter-sectoral collaboration; capacity building; legislation; advocacy and community mobilization. All participants were familiar with the term IVM and knew various conventional malaria vector control (MVC) methods. Only 75% thought that Uganda had a MVC policy. Eighty percent (80%) felt there was inter-sectoral collaboration towards IVM, but that it was poor due to financial constraints, difficulties in involving all possible sectors and political differences. The health, environment and agricultural sectors were cited as key areas requiring cooperation in order for IVM to succeed. Sixty-seven percent (67%) of participants responded that communities were actively being involved in MVC, while 48% felt that the use of research results for evidence-based decision making was inadequate or poor. A majority of the participants felt that malaria research in Uganda was rarely used to facilitate policy changes. Suggestions by participants for formulation of specific and effective IVM policy included: revising the MVC policy and IVM-related policies in other sectors into a single, unified IVM policy and, using legislation to enforce IVM in development projects. Integrated

  3. Integrated vector management for malaria control in Uganda: knowledge, perceptions and policy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutero Clifford M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrated vector management (IVM is increasingly being recommended as an option for sustainable malaria control. However, many malaria-endemic countries lack a policy framework to guide and promote the approach. The objective of the study was to assess knowledge and perceptions in relation to current malaria vector control policy and IVM in Uganda, and to make recommendations for consideration during future development of a specific IVM policy. Methods The study used a structured questionnaire to interview 34 individuals working at technical or policy-making levels in health, environment, agriculture and fisheries sectors. Specific questions on IVM focused on the following key elements of the approach: integration of chemical and non-chemical interventions of vector control; evidence-based decision making; inter-sectoral collaboration; capacity building; legislation; advocacy and community mobilization. Results All participants were familiar with the term IVM and knew various conventional malaria vector control (MVC methods. Only 75% thought that Uganda had a MVC policy. Eighty percent (80% felt there was inter-sectoral collaboration towards IVM, but that it was poor due to financial constraints, difficulties in involving all possible sectors and political differences. The health, environment and agricultural sectors were cited as key areas requiring cooperation in order for IVM to succeed. Sixty-seven percent (67% of participants responded that communities were actively being involved in MVC, while 48% felt that the use of research results for evidence-based decision making was inadequate or poor. A majority of the participants felt that malaria research in Uganda was rarely used to facilitate policy changes. Suggestions by participants for formulation of specific and effective IVM policy included: revising the MVC policy and IVM-related policies in other sectors into a single, unified IVM policy and, using legislation to

  4. Structural divergence of chromosomes between malaria vectors Anopheles lesteri and Anopheles sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangtao Liang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles lesteri and Anopheles sinensis are two major malaria vectors in China and Southeast Asia. They are dramatically different in terms of geographical distribution, host preference, resting habitats, and other traits associated with ecological adaptation and malaria transmission. Both species belong to the Anopheles hyrcanus group, but the extent of genetic differences between them is not well understood. To provide an effective way to differentiate between species and to find useful markers for population genetics studies, we performed a comparative cytogenetic analysis of these two malaria vectors. Results Presented here is a standard cytogenetic map for An. lesteri, and a comparative analysis of chromosome structure and gene order between An. lesteri and An. sinensis. Our results demonstrate that much of the gene order on chromosomes X and 2 was reshuffled between the two species. However, the banding pattern and the gene order on chromosome 3 appeared to be conserved. We also found two new polymorphic inversions, 2Lc and 3Rb, in An. lesteri, and we mapped the breakpoints of these two inversions on polytene chromosomes. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the extent of structural divergence of chromosomes between An. lesteri and An. sinensis, and provide a new taxonomic cytogenetic tool to distinguish between these two species. Polymorphic inversions of An. lesteri could serve as markers for studies of the population structure and ecological adaptations of this major malaria vector.

  5. Insecticide-Treated Nets and Protection against Insecticide-Resistant Malaria Vectors in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochomo, Eric; Chahilu, Mercy; Cook, Jackie; Kinyari, Teresa; Bayoh, Nabie M; West, Philippa; Kamau, Luna; Osangale, Aggrey; Ombok, Maurice; Njagi, Kiambo; Mathenge, Evan; Muthami, Lawrence; Subramaniam, Krishanthi; Knox, Tessa; Mnavaza, Abraham; Donnelly, Martin James; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Mbogo, Charles

    2017-05-01

    Insecticide resistance might reduce the efficacy of malaria vector control. In 2013 and 2014, malaria vectors from 50 villages, of varying pyrethroid resistance, in western Kenya were assayed for resistance to deltamethrin. Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) were distributed to households at universal coverage. Children were recruited into 2 cohorts, cleared of malaria-causing parasites, and tested every 2 weeks for reinfection. Infection incidence rates for the 2 cohorts were 2.2 (95% CI 1.9-2.5) infections/person-year and 2.8 (95% CI 2.5-3.0) infections/person-year. LLIN users had lower infection rates than non-LLIN users in both low-resistance (rate ratio 0.61, 95% CI 0.42-0.88) and high-resistance (rate ratio 0.55, 95% CI 0.35-0.87) villages (p = 0.63). The association between insecticide resistance and infection incidence was not significant (p = 0.99). Although the incidence of infection was high among net users, LLINs provided significant protection (p = 0.01) against infection with malaria parasite regardless of vector insecticide resistance.

  6. Towards a risk map of malaria for Sri Lanka: the importance of house location relative to vector breeding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Sri Lanka, the major malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies breeds in pools formed in streams and river beds and it is likely that people living close to such breeding sites are at higher risk of malaria than people living further away. This study was done to quantify the importance...... Sri Lanka, malaria cases were compared with community controls for distance from house to breeding sites and a number of other variables, including type of housing construction and use of anti-mosquito measures. The presence of An. culicifacies in bedrooms was determined by indoor insecticide spray...... adult An. culicifacies in the bedrooms. Poor housing construction was an independent risk factor for malaria. CONCLUSIONS: Risk maps of malaria in Sri Lanka can be based on the location of houses relative to streams and rivers that are potential breeding sites for the malaria vector An. culicifacies...

  7. Topography and malaria transmission heterogeneity in western Kenya highlands: prospects for focal vector control

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    Ndenga Bryson A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent resurgence of malaria in the highlands of Western Kenya has called for a more comprehensive understanding of the previously neglected complex highland vector ecology. Besides other drivers of malaria epidemiology, topography is likely to have a major effect on spatial vector and parasite distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of topography on malaria spatial vector distribution and parasite prevalence. Methodology Indoor resting adult malaria vectors and blood parasites were collected in three villages along a 4 km transect originating from the valley bottom and ending at the hilltop for 13 months. Members of the Anopheles gambiae complex were identified by PCR. Blood parasites were collected from children 6–13 years old and densities categorized by site of home location and age of the children. Results Ninety eight percent (98% of An. gambiae s.s. and (99% Anopheles funestus were collected in houses located at the edge of the valley bottom, whereas 1% of An. gambiae s.s. were collected at mid hill and at the hilltop respectively. No An. funestus were collected at the hilltop. Malaria prevalence was 68% at the valley bottom, 40.2% at mid hill and 26.7% at the hilltop. Children aged six years and living at the edge of the valley bottom had an annual geometric mean number of 66.1 trophozoites for every 200 white blood cells, while those living at mid-hill had a mean of 84.8, and those living at hilltop had 199.5 trophozoites. Conclusion Malaria transmission in this area is mainly confined to the valley bottom. Effective vector control could be targeted at the foci. However, the few vectors observed at mid-hill maintained a relatively high prevalence rate. The higher variability in blood parasite densities and their low correlation with age in children living at the hilltop suggests a lower stability of transmission than at the mid-hill and valley bottom.

  8. Automated innovative diagnostic, data management and communication tool, for improving malaria vector control in endemic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontas, John; Mitsakakis, Konstantinos; Zengerle, Roland; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Sikaala, Chadwick Haadezu; Etang, Josiane; Fallani, Matteo; Carman, Bill; Müller, Pie; Chouaïbou, Mouhamadou; Coleman, Marlize; Coleman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease that caused more than 400,000 deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015. Mass prevention of the disease is best achieved by vector control which heavily relies on the use of insecticides. Monitoring mosquito vector populations is an integral component of control programs and a prerequisite for effective interventions. Several individual methods are used for this task; however, there are obstacles to their uptake, as well as challenges in organizing, interpreting and communicating vector population data. The Horizon 2020 project "DMC-MALVEC" consortium will develop a fully integrated and automated multiplex vector-diagnostic platform (LabDisk) for characterizing mosquito populations in terms of species composition, Plasmodium infections and biochemical insecticide resistance markers. The LabDisk will be interfaced with a Disease Data Management System (DDMS), a custom made data management software which will collate and manage data from routine entomological monitoring activities providing information in a timely fashion based on user needs and in a standardized way. The ResistanceSim, a serious game, a modern ICT platform that uses interactive ways of communicating guidelines and exemplifying good practices of optimal use of interventions in the health sector will also be a key element. The use of the tool will teach operational end users the value of quality data (relevant, timely and accurate) to make informed decisions. The integrated system (LabDisk, DDMS & ResistanceSim) will be evaluated in four malaria endemic countries, representative of the vector control challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, (Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia and Zambia), highly representative of malaria settings with different levels of endemicity and vector control challenges, to support informed decision-making in vector control and disease management.

  9. Malaria Prevention by New Technology: Vectored Delivery of Antibody Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    10/21/2016) Timeline and Cost Accomplishment: AAV neutralizing antibody screen. Aotus monkey sera were screened for AAV1 neutralizing antibodies...M304 and M336, above, were transduced with an AAV1 -based vector. Monkey 304 exhibited high-level, stable MAb expression, while monkey 336 expresses

  10. Biting behaviour of African malaria vectors: 1. where do the main vector species bite on the human body?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braack, Leo; Hunt, Richard; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Gericke, Anton; Munhenga, Givemore; Haddow, Andrew D; Becker, Piet; Okia, Michael; Kimera, Isaac; Coetzee, Maureen

    2015-02-04

    Malaria control in Africa relies heavily on indoor vector management, primarily indoor residual spraying and insecticide treated bed nets. Little is known about outdoor biting behaviour or even the dynamics of indoor biting and infection risk of sleeping household occupants. In this paper we explore the preferred biting sites on the human body and some of the ramifications regarding infection risk and exposure management. We undertook whole-night human landing catches of Anopheles arabiensis in South Africa and Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus in Uganda, for seated persons wearing short sleeve shirts, short pants, and bare legs, ankles and feet. Catches were kept separate for different body regions and capture sessions. All An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus group individuals were identified to species level by PCR. Three of the main vectors of malaria in Africa (An. arabiensis, An. gambiae s.s. and An. funestus) all have a preference for feeding close to ground level, which is manifested as a strong propensity (77.3% - 100%) for biting on lower leg, ankles and feet of people seated either indoors or outdoors, but somewhat randomly along the lower edge of the body in contact with the surface when lying down. If the lower extremities of the legs (below mid-calf level) of seated people are protected and therefore exclude access to this body region, vector mosquitoes do not move higher up the body to feed at alternate body sites, instead resulting in a high (58.5% - 68.8%) reduction in biting intensity by these three species. Protecting the lower limbs of people outdoors at night can achieve a major reduction in biting intensity by malaria vector mosquitoes. Persons sleeping at floor level bear a disproportionate risk of being bitten at night because this is the preferred height for feeding by the primary vector species. Therefore it is critical to protect children sleeping at floor level (bednets; repellent-impregnated blankets or sheets, etc

  11. Exploring mechanisms of multiple insecticide resistance in a population of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djouaka, Rousseau; Irving, Helen; Tukur, Zainab; Wondji, Charles S

    2011-01-01

    The insecticide resistance status of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus and the underlying resistance mechanisms remain uncharacterised in many parts of Africa, notably in Benin, West Africa. To fill this gap in our knowledge, we assessed the susceptibility status of a population of this species in Pahou, Southern Benin and investigated the potential resistance mechanisms. WHO bioassays revealed a multiple resistance profile for An. funestus in Pahou. This population is highly resistant to DDT with no mortality in females after 1h exposure to 4%DDT. Resistance was observed against the Type I pyrethroid permethrin and the carbamate bendiocarb. A moderate resistance was detected against deltamethrin (type II pyrethroids). A total susceptibility was observed against malathion, an organophosphate. Pre-exposure to PBO did not change the mortality rates for DDT indicating that cytochrome P450s play no role in DDT resistance in Pahou. No L1014F kdr mutation was detected but a correlation between haplotypes of two fragments of the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel gene and resistance was observed suggesting that mutations in other exons may confer the knockdown resistance in this species. Biochemical assays revealed elevated levels of GSTs and cytochrome mono-oxygenases in Pahou. No G119S mutation and no altered acetylcholinesterase gene were detected in the Pahou population. qPCR analysis of five detoxification genes revealed that the GSTe2 is associated to the DDT resistance in this population with a significantly higher expression in DDT resistant samples. A significant over-expression of CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b previously associated with pyrethroid resistance was also seen but at a lower fold change than in southern Africa. The multiple insecticide resistance profile of this An. funestus population in Benin shows that more attention should be paid to this important malaria vector for the implementation and management of current and future malaria vector control programs in

  12. Exploring mechanisms of multiple insecticide resistance in a population of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus in Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousseau Djouaka

    Full Text Available The insecticide resistance status of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus and the underlying resistance mechanisms remain uncharacterised in many parts of Africa, notably in Benin, West Africa. To fill this gap in our knowledge, we assessed the susceptibility status of a population of this species in Pahou, Southern Benin and investigated the potential resistance mechanisms.WHO bioassays revealed a multiple resistance profile for An. funestus in Pahou. This population is highly resistant to DDT with no mortality in females after 1h exposure to 4%DDT. Resistance was observed against the Type I pyrethroid permethrin and the carbamate bendiocarb. A moderate resistance was detected against deltamethrin (type II pyrethroids. A total susceptibility was observed against malathion, an organophosphate. Pre-exposure to PBO did not change the mortality rates for DDT indicating that cytochrome P450s play no role in DDT resistance in Pahou. No L1014F kdr mutation was detected but a correlation between haplotypes of two fragments of the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel gene and resistance was observed suggesting that mutations in other exons may confer the knockdown resistance in this species. Biochemical assays revealed elevated levels of GSTs and cytochrome mono-oxygenases in Pahou. No G119S mutation and no altered acetylcholinesterase gene were detected in the Pahou population. qPCR analysis of five detoxification genes revealed that the GSTe2 is associated to the DDT resistance in this population with a significantly higher expression in DDT resistant samples. A significant over-expression of CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b previously associated with pyrethroid resistance was also seen but at a lower fold change than in southern Africa.The multiple insecticide resistance profile of this An. funestus population in Benin shows that more attention should be paid to this important malaria vector for the implementation and management of current and future malaria vector

  13. Malaria vectors and transmission dynamics in coastal south-western Cameroon

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    Titanji Vincent PK

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major public health problem in Cameroon. Unlike in the southern forested areas where the epidemiology of malaria has been better studied prior to the implementation of control activities, little is known about the distribution and role of anophelines in malaria transmission in the coastal areas. Methods A 12-month longitudinal entomological survey was conducted in Tiko, Limbe and Idenau from August 2001 to July 2002. Mosquitoes captured indoors on human volunteers were identified morphologically. Species of the Anopheles gambiae complex were identified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Mosquito infectivity was detected by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR. Malariometric indices (plasmodic index, gametocytic index, parasite species prevalence were determined in three age groups (15 yrs and followed-up once every three months. Results In all, 2,773 malaria vectors comprising Anopheles gambiae (78.2%, Anopheles funestus (17.4% and Anopheles nili (7.4% were captured. Anopheles melas was not anthropophagic. Anopheles gambiae had the highest infection rates. There were 287, 160 and 149 infective bites/person/year in Tiko, Limbe and Idenau, respectively. Anopheles gambiae accounted for 72.7%, An. funestus for 23% and An. nili for 4.3% of the transmission. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was 41.5% in children 15 years, and Plasmodium falciparum was the predominant parasite species. Conclusion Malaria transmission is perennial, rainfall dependent and An. melas does not contribute to transmission. These findings are important in the planning and implementation of malaria control activities in coastal Cameroon and West Africa.

  14. Malaria, Leishmaniasis and Shistosomiasis Vector Ecology, Transmission, Immunology and Prophylaxis in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-27

    these fly species could be involved in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. infantum and/or L. tropica. Conclusions: The isolation...of L. infantum from 1 of 6 giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus) captured at a case site of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kenya, provide insight on the...AD-A285 556 AD GRANT NOS: DAMD17-87-G-7016 and DAMD17-89-Z-9032 TITLE: MALARIA, LEISHMANIASIS & SHISTOSOMIASIS VECTOR ECOLOGY, TRANSMISSION

  15. Malaria Vectors in Ecologically Heterogeneous Localities of the Colombian Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Naranjo-Díaz; Mariano Altamiranda; Shirley Luckhart; Conn, Jan E.; Correa, Margarita M

    2014-01-01

    The Colombian Pacific region is second nationally in number of malaria cases reported. This zone presents great ecological heterogeneity and Anopheles species diversity. However, little is known about the current spatial and temporal distribution of vector species. This study, conducted in three ecologically different localities of the Pacific region, aimed to evaluate the composition and distribution of Anopheles species and characterize transmission intensity. A total of 4,016 Anopheles mos...

  16. IgG responses to Anopheles gambiae salivary antigen gSG6 detect variation in exposure to malaria vectors and disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stone, Will; Bousema, Teun; Jones, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of exposure to malaria vectors is important to our understanding of spatial and temporal variations in disease transmission and facilitates the targeting and evaluation of control efforts. Recently, an immunogenic Anopheles gambiae salivary protein (gSG6) was identified and proposed......, IgG responses to gSG6 in individual children showed a strong positive association with household level mosquito exposure. IgG levels for all antigens except AMA-1 were associated with the frequency of malaria episodes following sampling. gSG6 seropositivity was strongly positively associated...

  17. Impact of urban agriculture on malaria vectors in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkenberg, Eveline; McCall, Pj; Wilson, Michael D; Amerasinghe, Felix P; Donnelly, Martin J

    2008-08-04

    To investigate the impact of urban agriculture on malaria transmission risk in urban Accra larval and adult stage mosquito surveys, were performed. Local transmission was implicated as Anopheles spp. were found breeding and infected Anopheles mosquitoes were found resting in houses in the study sites. The predominant Anopheles species was Anopheles gambiae s.s.. The relative proportion of molecular forms within a subset of specimens was 86% S-form and 14% M-form. Anopheles spp. and Culex quinquefasciatus outdoor biting rates were respectively three and four times higher in areas around agricultural sites (UA) than in areas far from agriculture (U). The annual Entomological Inoculation Rate (EIR), the number of infectious bites received per individual per year, was 19.2 and 6.6 in UA and U sites, respectively. Breeding sites were highly transitory in nature, which poses a challenge for larval control in this setting. The data also suggest that the epidemiological importance of urban agricultural areas may be the provision of resting sites for adults rather than an increased number of larval habitats. Host-seeking activity peaked between 2-3 am, indicating that insecticide-treated bednets should be an effective control method.

  18. Agro-ecosystems impact malaria prevalence: large-scale irrigation drives vector population in western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaleta, Kassahun T; Hill, Sharon R; Seyoum, Emiru; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Ignell, Rickard; Tekie, Habte

    2013-10-02

    Development strategies in Ethiopia have largely focused on the expansion of irrigated agriculture in the last decade to reduce poverty and promote economic growth. However, such irrigation schemes can worsen the socio-economic state by aggravating the problem of mosquito-borne diseases. In this study, the effect of agro-ecosystem practices on malaria prevalence and the risk of malaria transmission by the primary vector mosquito, Anopheles arabiensis, in Ethiopia were investigated. In three villages in western Ethiopia practising large-scale sugarcane irrigation, traditional smallholder irrigation and non-irrigated farming, cross-sectional parasitological surveys were conducted during the short rains, after the long rains and during the dry season. Entomological surveys were undertaken monthly (February 2010-January 2011) in each village using light traps, pyrethrum spray collections and artificial pit shelters. Malaria prevalence and the risk of transmission by An. arabiensis assessed by the average human biting rate, mean sporozoite rate and estimated annual entomological inoculation rate were significantly higher in the irrigated sugarcane agro-ecosystem compared to the traditionally irrigated and non-irrigated agro-ecosystems. The average human biting rate was significantly elevated by two-fold, while the mean sporozoite rate was 2.5-fold higher, and the annual entomological inoculation rate was 4.6 to 5.7-fold higher in the irrigated sugarcane compared to the traditional and non-irrigated agro-ecosystems. Active irrigation clearly affected malaria prevalence by increasing the abundance of host seeking Anopheles mosquitoes year-round and thus increasing the risk of infective bites. The year-round presence of sporozoite-infected vectors due to irrigation practices was found to strengthen the coupling between rainfall and risk of malaria transmission, both on- and off-season. This study demonstrates the negative impact of large-scale irrigation expansion on

  19. Predicting potential ranges of primary malaria vectors and malaria in northern South America based on projected changes in climate, land cover and human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Temitope O; Fuller, Douglas O; Qualls, Whitney A; Herrera, Socrates V; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Quinones, Martha L; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Beier, John C

    2015-08-20

    Changes in land use and land cover (LULC) as well as climate are likely to affect the geographic distribution of malaria vectors and parasites in the coming decades. At present, malaria transmission is concentrated mainly in the Amazon basin where extensive agriculture, mining, and logging activities have resulted in changes to local and regional hydrology, massive loss of forest cover, and increased contact between malaria vectors and hosts. Employing presence-only records, bioclimatic, topographic, hydrologic, LULC and human population data, we modeled the distribution of malaria and two of its dominant vectors, Anopheles darlingi, and Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. in northern South America using the species distribution modeling platform Maxent. Results from our land change modeling indicate that about 70,000 km(2) of forest land would be lost by 2050 and 78,000 km(2) by 2070 compared to 2010. The Maxent model predicted zones of relatively high habitat suitability for malaria and the vectors mainly within the Amazon and along coastlines. While areas with malaria are expected to decrease in line with current downward trends, both vectors are predicted to experience range expansions in the future. Elevation, annual precipitation and temperature were influential in all models both current and future. Human population mostly affected An. darlingi distribution while LULC changes influenced An. nuneztovari s.l. distribution. As the region tackles the challenge of malaria elimination, investigations such as this could be useful for planning and management purposes and aid in predicting and addressing potential impediments to elimination.

  20. Vector capacity of Anopheles sinensis in malaria outbreak areas of central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Jia-Yun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both falciparum and vivax malaria were historically prevalent in China with high incidence. With the control efforts, the annual incidence in the whole country has reduced to 0.0001% except in some areas in the southern borders after 2000. Despite this, the re-emergence or outbreak of malaria was unavoidable in central China during 2005–2007. In order to understand the role of the vector in the transmission of malaria during the outbreak period, the vector capacity of An. sinensis in Huanghuai valley of central China was investigated. Findings The study was undertaken in two sites, namely Huaiyuan county of Anhui province and Yongcheng county of Henan province. In each county, malaria cases were recorded for recent years, and transmission risk factors for each study village including anti-mosquito facilities and total number of livestock were recorded by visiting each household in the study sites. The specimens of mosquitoes were collected in two villages, and population density and species in each study site were recorded after the identification of different species, and the blood-fed mosquitoes were tested by ring precipitation test. Finally, various indicators were calculated to estimate vector capacity or dynamics, including mosquito biting rate (MBR, human blood index (HBI, and the parous rates (M. Finally, the vector capacity, as an important indicator of malaria transmission to predict the potential recurrence of malaria, was estimated and compared in each study site. About 93.0% of 80 households in Huaiyuan and 89.3% of 192 households in Yongcheng had anti-mosquito facilities. No cattle or pigs were found, only less than 10 sheep were found in each study village. A total of 94 and 107 Anopheles spp. mosquitos were captured in two study sites, respectively, and all of An. sinensis were morphologically identified. It was found that mosquito blood-feeding peak was between 9:00 pm and 12:00 pm. Man biting rate of

  1. Effect of artemether-lumefantrine policy and improved vector control on malaria burden in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

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    Karen I Barnes

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Between 1995 and 2000, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, experienced a marked increase in Plasmodium falciparum malaria, fuelled by pyrethroid and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance. In response, vector control was strengthened and artemether-lumefantrine (AL was deployed in the first Ministry of Health artemisinin-based combination treatment policy in Africa. In South Africa, effective vector and parasite control had historically ensured low-intensity malaria transmission. Malaria is diagnosed definitively and treatment is provided free of charge in reasonably accessible public-sector health-care facilities.We reviewed four years of malaria morbidity and mortality data at four sentinel health-care facilities within KwaZulu-Natal's malaria-endemic area. In the year following improved vector control and implementation of AL treatment, malaria-related admissions and deaths both declined by 89%, and outpatient visits decreased by 85% at the sentinel facilities. By 2003, malaria-related outpatient cases and admissions had fallen by 99%, and malaria-related deaths had decreased by 97%. There was a concomitant marked and sustained decline in notified malaria throughout the province. No serious adverse events were associated causally with AL treatment in an active sentinel pharmacovigilance survey. In a prospective study with 42 d follow up, AL cured 97/98 (99% and prevented gametocyte developing in all patients. Consistent with the findings of focus group discussions, a household survey found self-reported adherence to the six-dose AL regimen was 96%.Together with concurrent strengthening of vector control measures, the antimalarial treatment policy change to AL in KwaZulu-Natal contributed to a marked and sustained decrease in malaria cases, admissions, and deaths, by greatly improving clinical and parasitological cure rates and reducing gametocyte carriage.

  2. Existing Infection Facilitates Establishment and Density of Malaria Parasites in Their Mosquito Vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C Pollitt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about how vector-borne pathogens interact within their vector and how this impacts transmission. Here we show that mosquitoes can accumulate mixed strain malaria infections after feeding on multiple hosts. We found that parasites have a greater chance of establishing and reach higher densities if another strain is already present in a mosquito. Mixed infections contained more parasites but these larger populations did not have a detectable impact on vector survival. Together these results suggest that mosquitoes taking multiple infective bites may disproportionally contribute to malaria transmission. This will increase rates of mixed infections in vertebrate hosts, with implications for the evolution of parasite virulence and the spread of drug-resistant strains. Moreover, control measures that reduce parasite prevalence in vertebrate hosts will reduce the likelihood of mosquitoes taking multiple infective feeds, and thus disproportionally reduce transmission. More generally, our study shows that the types of strain interactions detected in vertebrate hosts cannot necessarily be extrapolated to vectors.

  3. Population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in a malaria-endemic region of eastern Amazonian Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Jan E; Vineis, Joseph H; Bollback, Jonathan P; Onyabe, David Y; Wilkerson, Richard C; Póvoa, Marinete M

    2006-05-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the primary malaria vector in Latin America, and is especially important in Amazonian Brazil. Historically, control efforts have been focused on indoor house spraying using a variety of insecticides, but since the mid-1990s there has been a shift to patient treatment and focal insecticide fogging. Anopheles darlingi was believed to have been significantly reduced in a gold-mining community, Peixoto de Azevedo (in Mato Grosso State), in the early 1990s by insecticide use during a severe malaria epidemic. In contrast, although An. darlingi was eradicated from some districts of the city of Belem (the capital of Para State) in 1968 to reduce malaria, populations around the water protection area in the eastern district were treated only briefly. To investigate the population structure of An. darlingi including evidence for a population bottleneck in Peixoto, we analyzed eight microsatellite loci of 256 individuals from seven locations in Brazil: three in Amapa State, three in Para State, and one in Mato Grosso State. Allelic diversity and mean expected heterozygosity were high for all populations (mean number alleles/locus and H(E) were 13.5 and 0.834, respectively) and did not differ significantly between locations. Significant heterozygote deficits were associated with linkage disequilibrium, most likely due to either the Wahlund effect or selection. We found no evidence for a population bottleneck in Peixoto, possibly because the reduction was not extreme enough to be detected. Overall estimates of long-term N(e) varied from 92.4 individuals under the linkage disequilibrium model to infinity under the heterozygote excess model. Fixation indices and analysis of molecular variance demonstrated significant differentiation between locations north and south of the Amazon River, suggesting a degree of genetic isolation between them, attributed to isolation by distance.

  4. Population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in China: two gene pools inferred by microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yajun; Yang, Manni; Fan, Yong; Wu, Jing; Ma, Ying; Xu, Jiannong

    2011-01-01

    Anopheles sinensis is a competent malaria vector in China. An understanding of vector population structure is important to the vector-based malaria control programs. However, there is no adequate data of A. sinensis population genetics available yet. This study used 5 microsatellite loci to estimate population genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and demographic history of A. sinensis from 14 representative localities in China. All 5 microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic across populations, with high allelic richness and heterozygosity. Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium was found in 12 populations associated with heterozygote deficits, which was likely caused by the presence of null allele and the Wahlund effect. Bayesian clustering analysis revealed two gene pools, grouping samples into two population clusters; one includes six and the other includes eight populations. Out of 14 samples, six samples were mixed with individuals from both gene pools, indicating the coexistence of two genetic units in the areas sampled. The overall differentiation between two genetic pools was moderate (F(ST) = 0.156). Pairwise differentiation between populations were lower within clusters (F(ST) = 0.008-0.028 in cluster I and F(ST) = 0.004-0.048 in cluster II) than between clusters (F(ST) = 0.120-0.201). A reduced gene flow (Nm = 1-1.7) was detected between clusters. No evidence of isolation by distance was detected among populations neither within nor between the two clusters. There are differences in effective population size (Ne = 14.3-infinite) across sampled populations. Two genetic pools with moderate genetic differentiation were identified in the A. sinensis populations in China. The population divergence was not correlated with geographic distance or barrier in the range. Variable effective population size and other demographic effects of historical population perturbations could be the factors affecting the population differentiation. The

  5. Population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae in China: two gene pools inferred by microsatellites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anopheles sinensis is a competent malaria vector in China. An understanding of vector population structure is important to the vector-based malaria control programs. However, there is no adequate data of A. sinensis population genetics available yet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used 5 microsatellite loci to estimate population genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and demographic history of A. sinensis from 14 representative localities in China. All 5 microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic across populations, with high allelic richness and heterozygosity. Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium was found in 12 populations associated with heterozygote deficits, which was likely caused by the presence of null allele and the Wahlund effect. Bayesian clustering analysis revealed two gene pools, grouping samples into two population clusters; one includes six and the other includes eight populations. Out of 14 samples, six samples were mixed with individuals from both gene pools, indicating the coexistence of two genetic units in the areas sampled. The overall differentiation between two genetic pools was moderate (F(ST = 0.156. Pairwise differentiation between populations were lower within clusters (F(ST = 0.008-0.028 in cluster I and F(ST = 0.004-0.048 in cluster II than between clusters (F(ST = 0.120-0.201. A reduced gene flow (Nm = 1-1.7 was detected between clusters. No evidence of isolation by distance was detected among populations neither within nor between the two clusters. There are differences in effective population size (Ne = 14.3-infinite across sampled populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Two genetic pools with moderate genetic differentiation were identified in the A. sinensis populations in China. The population divergence was not correlated with geographic distance or barrier in the range. Variable effective population size and other demographic effects of historical population

  6. Remote sensing and environment in the study of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rian, Sigrid Katrine Eivindsdatter

    The malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae is the most important vector for the most devastating form of human malaria, the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. In-depth knowledge of the vector's history and environmental preferences is essential in the pursuit of new malaria mitigation strategies. Research was conducted in Mali across a range of habitats occupied by the vector, focusing on three identified chromosomal forms in the mosquito complex. The development of a 500-m landcover classification map was carried out using MODIS satellite imagery and extensive ground survey. The resulting product has the highest resolution and is the most up-to-date and most extensively ground-surveyed among land-cover maps for the study region. The new landcover classification product is a useful tool in the mapping of the varying ecological preferences of the different An. gambiae chromosomal forms. Climate and vegetation characteristics and their relationship to chromosomal forms were investigated further along a Southwest-Northeast moisture gradient in Mali. This research demonstrates particular ecological preferences of each chromosomal form, and gives a detailed examination of particular vegetation structural and climatological patterns across the study region. A key issue in current research into the population structure of An. gambiae is speciation and evolution in the complex, as an understanding of the mechanisms of change can help in the development of new mitigation strategies. A historical review of the paleoecology, archaeology, and other historical sources intended to shed light on the evolutionary history of the vector is presented. The generally held assumption that the current breed of An. gambiae emerged in the rainforest is called into question and discussed within the framework of paleoenvironment and human expansions in sub-Saharan West Africa.

  7. The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Americas: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinka, Marianne E; Rubio-Palis, Yasmin; Manguin, Sylvie; Patil, Anand P; Temperley, Will H; Gething, Peter W; Van Boeckel, Thomas; Kabaria, Caroline W; Harbach, Ralph E; Hay, Simon I

    2010-08-16

    An increasing knowledge of the global risk of malaria shows that the nations of the Americas have the lowest levels of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax endemicity worldwide, sustained, in part, by substantive integrated vector control. To help maintain and better target these efforts, knowledge of the contemporary distribution of each of the dominant vector species (DVS) of human malaria is needed, alongside a comprehensive understanding of the ecology and behaviour of each species. A database of contemporary occurrence data for 41 of the DVS of human malaria was compiled from intensive searches of the formal and informal literature. The results for the nine DVS of the Americas are described in detail here. Nearly 6000 occurrence records were gathered from 25 countries in the region and were complemented by a synthesis of published expert opinion range maps, refined further by a technical advisory group of medical entomologists. A suite of environmental and climate variables of suspected relevance to anopheline ecology were also compiled from open access sources. These three sets of data were then combined to produce predictive species range maps using the Boosted Regression Tree method. The predicted geographic extent for each of the following species (or species complex*) are provided: Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus Wiedemann, 1820, An. (Nys.) albitarsis*, An. (Nys.) aquasalis Curry, 1932, An. (Nys.) darlingi Root, 1926, An. (Anopheles) freeborni Aitken, 1939, An. (Nys.) marajoara Galvão & Damasceno, 1942, An. (Nys.) nuneztovari*, An. (Ano.) pseudopunctipennis* and An. (Ano.) quadrimaculatus Say, 1824. A bionomics review summarising ecology and behaviour relevant to the control of each of these species was also compiled. The distribution maps and bionomics review should both be considered as a starting point in an ongoing process of (i) describing the distributions of these DVS (since the opportunistic sample of occurrence data assembled can be

  8. The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Americas: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinka Marianne E

    2010-08-01

    sample of occurrence data assembled can be substantially improved and (ii documenting their contemporary bionomics (since intervention and control pressures can act to modify behavioural traits. This is the first in a series of three articles describing the distribution of the 41 global DVS worldwide. The remaining two publications will describe those vectors found in (i Africa, Europe and the Middle East and (ii in Asia. All geographic distribution maps are being made available in the public domain according to the open access principles of the Malaria Atlas Project.

  9. Spatial changes in the distribution of malaria vectors during the past 5 decades in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahi-Moghaddam, A; Khoshdel, A; Dalaei, H; Pakdad, K; Nutifafa, G G; Sedaghat, M M

    2017-02-01

    Global warming and climate change affect various aspects of mankind, including public health. Anopheles mosquitoes are of Public Health importance and can be affected by global warming and other environmental variables. Here, we studied the distribution of Anopheles vectors of malaria in relation to environmental variables in Iran. Long-term meteorological and entomological data of about 50 years in retrospect were collected and arranged in a geo-database and analyzed using ArcGIS ver. 9.3 and exported to SPSS ver. 20 for statistical analysis. Distribution maps have been updated for seven species of Anopheles vectors of malaria which involved Anopheles culicifacies s.l., An. fluviatilis s.l., An. stephensi, An. dthali, An. sacharovi, An. maculipennis.l. and An. superpictus in Iran. Distribution maps of vectors were made based on district areas using Kriging model. Historical and recent records were demonstrated for each Anopheles based on climatic factors in the distribution areas of each Anopheles vectors. Iran, like other parts of the world is faced with warming and this probably affected the distribution of Anopheles vectors. Despite the warming phenomenon, the country's climate had changed during the cold season as temperatures became colder or cooler. This study shows that some vectors had migrated from the central part of Iran with dry and sunny landscape, moved towards the mountainous areas of the north or the warm and humid areas of the south. Historical records show that these anophelines have previously been distributed in lowland areas. If this process continues in the future, Anopheles mosquitoes may be seen in low lands with cold areas in central and northern parts of the country or will occupy humid and warm climates in the southern parts of the country where water is more available. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lethal and pre-lethal effects of a fungal biopesticide contribute to substantial and rapid control of malaria vectors.

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    Simon Blanford

    Full Text Available Rapidly emerging insecticide resistance is creating an urgent need for new active ingredients to control the adult mosquitoes that vector malaria. Biopesticides based on the spores of entomopathogenic fungi have shown considerable promise by causing very substantial mortality within 7-14 days of exposure. This mortality will generate excellent malaria control if there is a high likelihood that mosquitoes contact fungi early in their adult lives. However, where contact rates are lower, as might result from poor pesticide coverage, some mosquitoes will contact fungi one or more feeding cycles after they acquire malaria, and so risk transmitting malaria before the fungus kills them. Critics have argued that 'slow acting' fungal biopesticides are, therefore, incapable of delivering malaria control in real-world contexts. Here, utilizing standard WHO laboratory protocols, we demonstrate effective action of a biopesticide much faster than previously reported. Specifically, we show that transient exposure to clay tiles sprayed with a candidate biopesticide comprising spores of a natural isolate of Beauveria bassiana, could reduce malaria transmission potential to zero within a feeding cycle. The effect resulted from a combination of high mortality and rapid fungal-induced reduction in feeding and flight capacity. Additionally, multiple insecticide-resistant lines from three key African malaria vector species were completely susceptible to fungus. Thus, fungal biopesticides can block transmission on a par with chemical insecticides, and can achieve this where chemical insecticides have little impact. These results support broadening the current vector control paradigm beyond fast-acting chemical toxins.

  11. Malaria vectors in ecologically heterogeneous localities of the Colombian Pacific region.

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    Nelson Naranjo-Díaz

    Full Text Available The Colombian Pacific region is second nationally in number of malaria cases reported. This zone presents great ecological heterogeneity and Anopheles species diversity. However, little is known about the current spatial and temporal distribution of vector species. This study, conducted in three ecologically different localities of the Pacific region, aimed to evaluate the composition and distribution of Anopheles species and characterize transmission intensity. A total of 4,016 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected representing seven species. The composition and dominant species differed in each locality. Three species were infected with malaria parasites: Anopheles darlingi and An. calderoni were infected with Plasmodium falciparum and An. nuneztovari with Plasmodium vivax VK210 and VK247. Annual EIRs varied from 3.5-7.2 infective bites per year. These results confirm the importance of the primary vector An. nuneztovari in areas disturbed by human interventions, of An. darlingi in deforested margins of humid tropical rainforest and An. albimanus and the suspected vector An. calderoni in areas impacted by urbanization and large-scale palm oil agriculture close to the coast. This constitutes the first report in the Colombia Pacific region of naturally infected An. darlingi, and in Colombia of naturally infected An. calderoni. Further studies should evaluate the epidemiological importance of An. calderoni in the Pacific region.

  12. Mass Spectrometry Based Proteomic Analysis of Salivary Glands of Urban Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi

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    Sonam Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary gland proteins of Anopheles mosquitoes offer attractive targets to understand interactions with sporozoites, blood feeding behavior, homeostasis, and immunological evaluation of malaria vectors and parasite interactions. To date limited studies have been carried out to elucidate salivary proteins of An. stephensi salivary glands. The aim of the present study was to provide detailed analytical attributives of functional salivary gland proteins of urban malaria vector An. stephensi. A proteomic approach combining one-dimensional electrophoresis (1DE, ion trap liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS, and computational bioinformatic analysis was adopted to provide the first direct insight into identification and functional characterization of known salivary proteins and novel salivary proteins of An. stephensi. Computational studies by online servers, namely, MASCOT and OMSSA algorithms, identified a total of 36 known salivary proteins and 123 novel proteins analysed by LC/MS/MS. This first report describes a baseline proteomic catalogue of 159 salivary proteins belonging to various categories of signal transduction, regulation of blood coagulation cascade, and various immune and energy pathways of An. stephensi sialotranscriptome by mass spectrometry. Our results may serve as basis to provide a putative functional role of proteins in concept of blood feeding, biting behavior, and other aspects of vector-parasite host interactions for parasite development in anopheline mosquitoes.

  13. Bottlenecks and multiple introductions: Population genetics of the vector of avian malaria in Hawaii

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    Fonseca, Dina M.; LaPointe, Dennis A.; Fleischer, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    Avian malaria has had a profound impact on the demographics and behaviour of Hawaiian forest birds since its vector, Culex quinquefasciatusthe southern house mosquito, was first introduced to Hawaii around 1830. In order to understand the dynamics of the disease in Hawaii and gain insights into the evolution of vector-mediated parasite–host interactions in general we studied the population genetics of Cx. quinquefasciatus in the Hawaiian Islands. We used both microsatellite and mitochondrial loci. Not surprisingly we found that mosquitoes in Midway, a small island in the Western group, are quite distinct from the populations in the main Hawaiian Islands. However, we also found that in general mosquito populations are relatively isolated even among the main islands, in particular between Hawaii (the Big Island) and the remaining Hawaiian Islands. We found evidence of bottlenecks among populations within the Big Island and an excess of alleles in Maui, the site of the original introduction. The mitochondrial diversity was typically low but higher than expected. The current distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes combined with the microsatellite information lead us to conclude that there have been several introductions and to speculate on some processes that may be responsible for the current population genetics of vectors of avian malaria in Hawaii.

  14. Field evaluation of two commercial mosquito traps baited with different attractants and colored lights for malaria vector surveillance in Thailand.

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    Ponlawat, Alongkot; Khongtak, Patcharee; Jaichapor, Boonsong; Pongsiri, Arissara; Evans, Brian P

    2017-08-07

    Sampling for adult mosquito populations is a means of evaluating the efficacy of vector control operations. The goal of this study was to evaluate and identify the most efficacious mosquito traps and combinations of attractants for malaria vector surveillance along the Thai-Myanmar border. In the first part of the study, the BG-Sentinel™ Trap (BGS Trap) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light trap (CDC LT) baited with different attractants (BG-lure® and CO2) were evaluated using a Latin square experimental design. The six configurations were BGS Trap with BG-lure, BGS Trap with BG-lure plus CO2, BGS Trap with CO2, CDC LT with BG-lure, CDC LT with BG lure plus CO2, and CDC LT with CO2. The second half of the study evaluated the impact of light color on malaria vector collections. Colors included the incandescent bulb, ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED), green light stick, red light stick, green LED, and red LED. A total of 8638 mosquitoes consisting of 42 species were captured over 708 trap-nights. The trap types, attractants, and colored lights affected numbers of female anopheline and Anopheles minimus collected (GLM, P lights evaluated exceeded the performance of the incandescent light bulb in terms of the numbers of anopheline and An. minimus collected. We conclude that the CDC LT augmented with an incandescent light shows high potential for malaria vector surveillance when baited with CO2 and the BG-lure in combination and can be effectively used as the new gold standard technique for collecting malaria vectors in Thailand.

  15. ¿Debe regresar el uso del DDT para el control de vectores de la malaria?

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    Chris F. Curtis

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La aspersión de DDT en las viviendas fue el principal método de erradicación de la transmisión de la malaria, o de una importante reducción, en muchos países durante las décadas del 40 al 70. Desde entonces, el uso cada vez menor del DDT se ha asociado con la reemergencia de la malaria en India, Sri Lanka, la región de Asia central de la antigua Unión Soviética, Zanzibar, Venezuela y varios países latinoamericanos. En India y Zanzíbar, la resistencia de los vectores al DDT, así como un descenso en las aspersiones, son las causas probables de la efectividad reducida del DDT en las últimas décadas. En el sur de Europa, la erradicación de la transmisión de la malaria se logró con el uso del DDT durante la década del 40 y el 50 y se ha mantenido con el manejo adecuado de los casos importados de malaria. En las tierras altas de Madagascar y Suráfrica, la reciente reutilización del DDT ha tenido éxito en detener el resurgimiento de la malaria. El uso continuo del DDT en el control de vectores, no en la agricultura, está aprobado por la Convención de Estocolmo sobre Contaminantes Orgánicos Persistentes. Los residuos de DDE en la leche materna se han asociado con la aspersión de DDT para el control de la malaria en Suráfrica, pero no se conoce si es dañino. No se ha probado la asociación de residuos de DDE con cáncer de seno. Existe un informe reciente de asociación de residuos del DDE con la probabilidad de nacimientos prematuros; se debe investigar la posible relevancia de esta asociación con el uso del DDT como antimalárico. En Colombia se ha recomendado la verificación del grado de suspensión del DDT almacenado, así como la resistencia de Anopheles darlingi al DDT y el estudio de la actual viabilidad del uso generalizado del DDT en comparación con otras sustancias alternativas.

  16. A bibliometric analysis of literature on malaria vector resistance: (1996 - 2015).

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    Sweileh, Waleed M; Sawalha, Ansam F; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Shraim, Naser Y; Abu-Taha, Adham S

    2016-11-25

    Emergence of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is a real threat to future goals of elimination and control of malaria. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess research trend on insecticide resistance of Anopheles mosquito. In specific, number of publications, countries, institutions, and authors' research profile, citation analysis, international collaborations, and impact of journals publishing documents on insecticide resistance will be presented. It was conducted via Scopus search engine which was used to retrieve relevant data. Keywords used were based on literature available on this topic. The duration of study was set from 1996-2015. A total of 616 documents, mainly as original research articles (n = 569; 92.37%) were retrieved. The average number of citations per article was 26.36. Poisson log-linear regression analysis indicated that there was a 6.00% increase in the number of publications for each extra article on pyrethroid resistance. A total of 82 different countries and 1922 authors participated in publishing retrieved articles. The United Kingdom (UK) ranked first in number of publications followed by the United States of America (USA) and France. The top ten productive countries included seven African countries. The UK had collaborations mostly with Benin (relative link strength = 46). A total of 1817 institution/ organizations participated in the publication of retrieved articles. The most active institution/ organization was Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Retrieved articles were published in 134 different scientific peer reviewed journals. The journal that published most on this topic was Malaria Journal (n = 101; 16.4%). Four of the top active authors were from South Africa and two were from the UK. Three of the top ten cited articles were published in Insect Molecular Biology journal. Six articles were about pyrethroid resistance and at least two were about DDT resistance. Publications on insecticide

  17. Evaluation of repellents efficacy against Anopheles gambiae s.s.; an anthropophilic malaria vector

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    Gerald Katunzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of human-vector contact is of epidemiological importance in malaria control. Repellents can be used to complement the existing intervention tools against malaria vectors. Thus, evaluation of efficacy of additional mosquito repellents and /or attractants is of great significance for personal protection tools against malaria vectors. This study evaluated the repellence efficacy of menthol-propylene-glycol-carbonate (MR08 and Lemon grass (LG against Anopheles gambiae. Experiments were performed in a room which was 7.8 meters by 3.9 meters in dimension. Three experimental set ups were performed, i comparison of 10 hours worn sock and unworn sock;  ii comparison of  10 hours worn sock treated with MR08 against worn sock alone, and iii comparison of  10 hours worn sock treated with LG against worn sock alone. CDC miniature light traps were used to evaluate the recovery of released mosquitoes using both repellents and attractants. After initial trials, a concentration of 500 ppm was selected for all repellents. Among 1800 mosquitoes released into the experimental room, 1230 were recovered by CDC light traps while the remaining 570 were found within the experimental room. Among those collected by light traps, 1185 were collected by traps with worn sock alone. A worn sock treated with either MR08 or Lemon grass significantly repelled An.gambiae compared to worn sock alone. The findings of this study demonstrate that MR08 and lemon grass have inhibition efficiency against mosquito stings but further field evaluations are required for observed findings against wild populations of An.gambiae at lower Moshi using slow release method.

  18. The fitness of African malaria vectors in the presence and limitation of host behaviour

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    Lyimo Issa N

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host responses are important sources of selection upon the host species range of ectoparasites and phytophagous insects. However little is known about the role of host responses in defining the host species range of malaria vectors. This study aimed to estimate the relative importance of host behaviour to the feeding success and fitness of African malaria vectors, and assess its ability to predict their known host species preferences in nature. Methods Paired evaluations of the feeding success and fitness of African vectors Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto in the presence and limitation of host behaviour were conducted in a semi-field system (SFS at Ifakara Health Institute, Tanzania. In one set of trials, mosquitoes were released within the SFS and allowed to forage overnight on a host that was free to exhibit a natural behaviour in response to insect biting. In the other, mosquitoes were allowed to feed directly on from the skin surface of immobile hosts. The feeding success and subsequent fitness of vectors under these conditions were investigated on six host types (humans, calves, chickens, cows, dogs and goats to assess whether physical movements of preferred host species (cattle for An. arabiensis, humans for An. gambiae s.s. were less effective at preventing mosquito bites than those of common alternatives. Results Anopheles arabiensis generally had greater feeding success when applied directly to host skin than when foraging on unrestricted hosts (in five of six host species. However, An. gambiae s.s. obtained blood meals from free and restrained hosts with similar success from most host types (four out of six. Overall, the blood meal size, oviposition rate, fecundity and post-feeding survival of mosquito vectors were significantly higher after feeding on hosts free to exhibit behaviour, than those who were immobilized during feeding trials. Conclusions Allowing hosts to move freely during

  19. A novel method for mapping village-scale outdoor resting microhabitats of the primary African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae.

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    Dewald, Julius R; Fuller, Douglas O; Müller, Günter C; Beier, John C

    2016-09-22

    Knowledge of Anopheles resting habitats is needed to advance outdoor malaria vector control. This study presents a technique to map locations of resting habitats using high-resolution satellite imagery (world view 2) and probabilistic Dempster-Shafer (D-S) modelling, focused on a rural village in southern Mali, West Africa where field sampling was conducted to determine outdoor habitat preferences of Anopheles gambiae, the main vector in the study area. A combination of supervised and manual image classification was used to derive an accurate land-cover map from the satellite image that provided classes (i.e., photosynthetically active vegetation, water bodies, wetlands, and buildings) suitable for habitat assessment. Linear fuzzy functions were applied to the different image classes to scale resting habitat covariates into a common data range (0-1) with fuzzy breakpoints parameterized experimentally through comparison with mosquito outdoor resting data. Fuzzy layers were entered into a Dempster-Shafer (D-S) weight-of-evidence model that produced pixel-based probability of resting habitat locations. The D-S model provided a highly detailed suitability map of resting locations. The results indicated a significant difference (p  0.05) subsequent analysis suggested that the D-S modelling approach may provide a reasonable estimate locations of low-to-medium An. gambiae density. These results suggest that that D-S modelling performed well in identifying presence points and specifically resting habitats. The use of a D-S modelling framework for predicting the outdoor resting habitat locations provided novel information on this little-known aspect of anopheline ecology. The technique used here may be applied more broadly at different geographic scales using Google Earth, Landsat or other remotely-sensed imagery to assess the malaria vector resting habitats where outdoor control measures can reduce the burden of the disease in Africa and elsewhere.

  20. Malaria transmission model for different levels of acquired immunity and temperature-dependent parameters (vector

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    Hyun M Yang

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Describe the overall transmission of malaria through a compartmental model, considering the human host and mosquito vector. METHODS: A mathematical model was developed based on the following parameters: human host immunity, assuming the existence of acquired immunity and immunological memory, which boosts the protective response upon reinfection; mosquito vector, taking into account that the average period of development from egg to adult mosquito and the extrinsic incubation period of parasites (transformation of infected but non-infectious mosquitoes into infectious mosquitoes are dependent on the ambient temperature. RESULTS: The steady state equilibrium values obtained with the model allowed the calculation of the basic reproduction ratio in terms of the model's parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The model allowed the calculation of the basic reproduction ratio, one of the most important epidemiological variables.

  1. Malaria transmission model for different levels of acquired immunity and temperature-dependent parameters (vector

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    Yang Hyun M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Describe the overall transmission of malaria through a compartmental model, considering the human host and mosquito vector. METHODS: A mathematical model was developed based on the following parameters: human host immunity, assuming the existence of acquired immunity and immunological memory, which boosts the protective response upon reinfection; mosquito vector, taking into account that the average period of development from egg to adult mosquito and the extrinsic incubation period of parasites (transformation of infected but non-infectious mosquitoes into infectious mosquitoes are dependent on the ambient temperature. RESULTS: The steady state equilibrium values obtained with the model allowed the calculation of the basic reproduction ratio in terms of the model's parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The model allowed the calculation of the basic reproduction ratio, one of the most important epidemiological variables.

  2. Spatio-temporal analysis of abundances of three malaria vector species in southern Benin using zero-truncated models.

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    Moiroux, Nicolas; Djènontin, Armel; Bio-Bangana, Abdul S; Chandre, Fabrice; Corbel, Vincent; Guis, Hélène

    2014-03-12

    A better understanding of the ecology and spatial-temporal distribution of malaria vectors is essential to design more effective and sustainable strategies for malaria control and elimination. In a previous study, we analyzed presence-absence data of An. funestus, An. coluzzii, and An. gambiae s.s. in an area of southern Benin with high coverage of vector control measures. Here, we further extend the work by analysing the positive values of the dataset to assess the determinants of the abundance of these three vectors and to produce predictive maps of vector abundance. Positive counts of the three vectors were assessed using negative-binomial zero-truncated (NBZT) mixed-effect models according to vector control measures and environmental covariates derived from field and remote sensing data. After 8-fold cross-validation of the models, predictive maps of abundance of the sympatric An. funestus, An. coluzzii, and An. gambiae s.s. were produced. Cross-validation of the NBZT models showed a satisfactory predictive accuracy. Almost all changes in abundance between two surveys in the same village were well predicted by the models but abundances for An. gambiae s.s. were slightly underestimated. During the dry season, predictive maps showed that abundance greater than 1 bite per person per night were observed only for An. funestus and An. coluzzii. During the rainy season, we observed both increase and decrease in abundance of An. funestus, which are dependent on the ecological setting. Abundances of both An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s. increased during the rainy season but not in the same areas. Our models helped characterize the ecological preferences of three major African malaria vectors. This works highlighted the importance to study independently the binomial and the zero-truncated count processes when evaluating vector control strategies. The study of the bio-ecology of malaria vector species in time and space is critical for the implementation of timely and

  3. Vectors and malaria transmission in deforested, rural communities in north-central Vietnam

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    Do Manh Cuong

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is still prevalent in rural communities of central Vietnam even though, due to deforestation, the primary vector Anopheles dirus is uncommon. In these situations little is known about the secondary vectors which are responsible for maintaining transmission. Basic information on the identification of the species in these rural communities is required so that transmission parameters, such as ecology, behaviour and vectorial status can be assigned to the appropriate species. Methods In two rural villages - Khe Ngang and Hang Chuon - in Truong Xuan Commune, Quang Binh Province, north central Vietnam, a series of longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted during the wet and dry seasons from 2003 - 2007. In these surveys anopheline mosquitoes were collected in human landing catches, paired human and animal bait collections, and from larval surveys. Specimens belonging to species complexes were identified by PCR and sequence analysis, incrimination of vectors was by detection of circumsporozoite protein using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Over 80% of the anopheline fauna was made up of Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles harrisoni, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles sawadwongporni, and Anopheles philippinensis. PCR and sequence analysis resolved identification issues in the Funestus Group, Maculatus Group, Hyrcanus Group and Dirus Complex. Most species were zoophilic and while all species could be collected biting humans significantly higher densities were attracted to cattle and buffalo. Anopheles dirus was the most anthropophilic species but was uncommon making up only 1.24% of all anophelines collected. Anopheles sinensis, An. aconitus, An. harrisoni, An. maculatus, An. sawadwongporni, Anopheles peditaeniatus and An. philippinensis were all found positive for circumsporozoite protein. Heterogeneity in oviposition site preference between species enabled vector densities to be high in both

  4. Habitat hydrology and geomorphology control the distribution of malaria vector larvae in rural Africa.

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    Hardy, Andrew J; Gamarra, Javier G P; Cross, Dónall E; Macklin, Mark G; Smith, Mark W; Kihonda, Japhet; Killeen, Gerry F; Ling'ala, George N; Thomas, Chris J

    2013-01-01

    Larval source management is a promising component of integrated malaria control and elimination. This requires development of a framework to target productive locations through process-based understanding of habitat hydrology and geomorphology. We conducted the first catchment scale study of fine resolution spatial and temporal variation in Anopheles habitat and productivity in relation to rainfall, hydrology and geomorphology for a high malaria transmission area of Tanzania. Monthly aggregates of rainfall, river stage and water table were not significantly related to the abundance of vector larvae. However, these metrics showed strong explanatory power to predict mosquito larval abundances after stratification by water body type, with a clear seasonal trend for each, defined on the basis of its geomorphological setting and origin. Hydrological and geomorphological processes governing the availability and productivity of Anopheles breeding habitat need to be understood at the local scale for which larval source management is implemented in order to effectively target larval source interventions. Mapping and monitoring these processes is a well-established practice providing a tractable way forward for developing important malaria management tools.

  5. Rapid reduction of malaria following introduction of vector control interventions in Tororo District, Uganda: a descriptive study.

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    Oguttu, David W; Matovu, Joseph K B; Okumu, David C; Ario, Alex R; Okullo, Allen E; Opigo, Jimmy; Nankabirwa, Victoria

    2017-05-30

    In 2012, Tororo District had the highest malaria burden in Uganda with community Plasmodium prevalence of 48%. To control malaria in the district, the Ministry of Health introduced universal distribution of long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) in 2013 and added indoor residual spraying (IRS) in 2014. This study assessed malaria incidence, test positivity rates and outpatient (OPD) attendance due to malaria before and after vector control interventions. This study was based on analysis of Health Management Information System (HMIS) secondary malaria surveillance data of 2,727,850 patient records in OPD registers of 61 health facilities from 2012 to 2015. The analysis estimated monthly malaria incidence for the entire population and also separately for introduction of vector control interventions; determined laboratory test positivity rates and annual percentage of malaria cases in OPD. Chi square for trends was used to analyse annual change in malaria incidence and logistic regression for monthly reduction. Following universal LLINs coverage, the annual mean monthly malaria incidence fell from 95 cases in 2013 to 76 cases per 1000 in 2014 with no significant monthly reduction (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.96-1.01, P = 0.37). Among children malaria incidence reduced from 130 to 100 cases per 1000 (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-1.00, P = 0.08) when LLINs were used alone in 2014, but declined to 45 per 1000 in 2015 when IRS was combined with LLINs (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.91-0.996, P malaria incidence reduced from 59 to 52 cases per 1000 (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.97-1.02, P = 0.8) when LLINs were used alone in 2014, but reduced significantly to 25 per 1000 in 2015 (OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.88-0.94, P Malaria test positivity rate reduced from 57% in 2013 to 30% (Chi = 15, P malaria incidence was observed in Tororo District following the introduction of IRS in addition to LLINs. There was no significant reduction in malaria incidence following universal distribution

  6. Efficacy of local neem extracts for sustainable malaria vector control in an African village

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    Duchemin Jean-Bernard

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Larval control of malaria vectors has been historically successful in reducing malaria transmission, but largely fell out of favour with the introduction of synthetic insecticides and bed nets. However, an integrated approach to malaria control, including larval control methods, continues to be the best chance for success, in view of insecticide resistance, the behavioural adaptation of the vectors to changing environments and the difficulties of reaching the poorest populations most at risk,. Laboratory studies investigating the effects of neem seed (Azadirachta indica extracts on Anopheles larvae have shown high rates of larval mortality and reductions in adult longevity, as well as low potential for resistance development. Methods This paper describes a method whereby seeds of the neem tree can be used to reduce adult Anopheles gambiae s.l. abundance in a way that is low cost and can be implemented by residents of rural villages in western Niger. The study was conducted in Banizoumbou village, western Niger. Neem seeds were collected from around the village. Dried seeds were ground into a coarse powder, which was then sprinkled onto known Anopheles larvae breeding habitats twice weekly during the rainy season 2007. Adult mosquitoes were captured on a weekly basis in the village and captures compared to those from 2005 and 2006 over the same period. Adult mosquitoes were also captured in a nearby village, Zindarou, as a control data set and compared to those from Banizoumbou. Results It was found that twice-weekly applications of the powder to known breeding habitats of Anopheles larvae in 2007 resulted in 49% fewer adult female Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes in Banizoumbou, compared with previous captures under similar environmental conditions and with similar habitat characteristics in 2005 and 2006. The productivity of the system in 2007 was found to be suppressed compared to the mean behaviour of 2005 and 2006 in

  7. Efficacy of local neem extracts for sustainable malaria vector control in an African village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Rebecca L; Bomblies, Arne; Dafalla, Mustafa; Issa-Arzika, Ibrahim; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard; Eltahir, Elfatih Ab

    2008-07-23

    Larval control of malaria vectors has been historically successful in reducing malaria transmission, but largely fell out of favour with the introduction of synthetic insecticides and bed nets. However, an integrated approach to malaria control, including larval control methods, continues to be the best chance for success, in view of insecticide resistance, the behavioural adaptation of the vectors to changing environments and the difficulties of reaching the poorest populations most at risk. Laboratory studies investigating the effects of neem seed (Azadirachta indica) extracts on Anopheles larvae have shown high rates of larval mortality and reductions in adult longevity, as well as low potential for resistance development. This paper describes a method whereby seeds of the neem tree can be used to reduce adult Anopheles gambiae s.l. abundance in a way that is low cost and can be implemented by residents of rural villages in western Niger. The study was conducted in Banizoumbou village, western Niger. Neem seeds were collected from around the village. Dried seeds were ground into a coarse powder, which was then sprinkled onto known Anopheles larvae breeding habitats twice weekly during the rainy season 2007. Adult mosquitoes were captured on a weekly basis in the village and captures compared to those from 2005 and 2006 over the same period. Adult mosquitoes were also captured in a nearby village, Zindarou, as a control data set and compared to those from Banizoumbou. It was found that twice-weekly applications of the powder to known breeding habitats of Anopheles larvae in 2007 resulted in 49% fewer adult female Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes in Banizoumbou, compared with previous captures under similar environmental conditions and with similar habitat characteristics in 2005 and 2006. The productivity of the system in 2007 was found to be suppressed compared to the mean behaviour of 2005 and 2006 in Banizoumbou, whereas no change was found in Zindarou. With

  8. BIONOMY OF Anopheles punctulatus GROUP (Anopheles farauti, Anopheles koliensis, Anopheles punctulatus MALARIA VECTOR IN PAPUA PROVINCE

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    Semuel Sandy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKMalaria merupakan masalah kesehatan utama di Provinsi Papua dengan angka Annual Parasite Incidence (API padatahun 2011 sebesar 58 per 1000 penduduk dan Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI sebesar 169 per 1000 penduduk. Vektormalaria Papua dilaporkan Anopheles farauti, An. punctulatus dan An. koliensis. Tiga spesies tersebut aktif menggigit padamalam hari (nokturnal, antropofilik dengan karakteristik tempat perkembangbiakan, aktifitas menggigit, dan tempatistirahat dilaporkan spesifik setiap spesies. Kajian ini untuk melihat beberapa aspek bionomi (tempat perkembangbiakan,aktifitas menggigit, dan tempat istirahat. Larva An. farauti memiliki habitat di daerah pantai, perairan payau (memilikitoleransi terhadap salinitas 4,6%, irigasi buatan atau alami. Nyamuk dewasa An. farauti betina bersifat nokturnal,eksofagik, eksofilik, dan antropofilik. Larva An. koliensis tidak ditemukan di perairan payau, banyak ditemukan di hutanrawa, hutan sagu, kolam semi permanen atau permanen yang dangkal dan terpapar sinar matahari langsung. Nyamukdewasa An. koliensis bersifat nokturnal, antropofilik (78% menggigit manusia, eksofagik, eksofilik sedangkan larva An.punctulatus tidak ditemukan di air payau, tetapi ditemukan pada kolam dengan air jernih atau keruh dengan vegetasi atautanpa vegetasi air. Larva An. punctulatus juga ditemukan di hutan sagu dan hutan rawa dengan paparan sinar mataharilangsung. Nyamuk dewasa An. punctulatus bersifat nokturnal, antropofilik (98% menggigit manusia, eksofagik, endofilik.Data dasar mengenai perilaku nyamuk Anopheles (bionomi sangat diperlukan dalam mengembangkan pola intervensi dankontrol vektor yang lebih efektif dan efisien.Kata kunci: vektor malaria, An. punctulatus group, bionomi, PapuaABSTRACTMalaria is a major health problem in Papua province with Annual Parasite Incidence (API was reported 58/1000population in 2011, and the Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI was 169/1000 population. The malaria vector in Papua were

  9. Evaluation of new tools for malaria vector control in Cameroon: focus on long lasting insecticidal nets.

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    Josiane Etang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From 2006 to 2011, biological activity of insecticides for Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS, conventional treatment of nets (CTNs or long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs was evaluated before their approval in Cameroon. The objective of the study was to select the best tools for universal malaria vector control coverage. METHODOLOGY: Bioassays were performed using WHO cones and the Kisumu susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s.. Among tested products, residual activity and wash resistance of Alpha-cypermethrin LLINs (Interceptor and CTNs (Fendona were assessed during 5 months in the Ntougou neighborhood. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All the 14 tested products were found effective (95-100% knockdown and mortality rates, although a significant decrease of efficacy was seen with lambda-cyhalothrinWP IRS, alpha-cypermethrin CTNs and LLINs (p< 0.05. However, the efficacy of Interceptor nets did not decrease during the 5 months evaluation, even after 25 washes (0.07malaria vector control in Cameroon.

  10. Evaluation of New Tools for Malaria Vector Control in Cameroon: Focus on Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etang, Josiane; Nwane, Philippe; Piameu, Michael; Manga, Blaise; Souop, Daniel; Awono-Ambene, Parfait

    2013-01-01

    Background From 2006 to 2011, biological activity of insecticides for Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS), conventional treatment of nets (CTNs) or long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) was evaluated before their approval in Cameroon. The objective of the study was to select the best tools for universal malaria vector control coverage. Methodology Bioassays were performed using WHO cones and the Kisumu susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s.. Among tested products, residual activity and wash resistance of Alpha-cypermethrin LLINs (Interceptor) and CTNs (Fendona) were assessed during 5 months in the Ntougou neighborhood. Principal Findings All the 14 tested products were found effective (95–100% knockdown and mortality rates), although a significant decrease of efficacy was seen with lambda-cyhalothrinWP IRS, alpha-cypermethrin CTNs and LLINs (p< 0.05). However, the efficacy of Interceptor nets did not decrease during the 5 months evaluation, even after 25 washes (0.07malaria vector control in Cameroon. PMID:24086399

  11. Three sympatric clusters of the malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies E (Diptera: Culicidae) detected in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harischandra, Iresha Nilmini; Dassanayake, Ranil Samantha; De Silva, Bambaranda Gammacharige Don Nissanka Kolitha

    2016-01-04

    The disease re-emergence threat from the major malaria vector in Sri Lanka, Anopheles culicifacies, is currently increasing. To predict malaria vector dynamics, knowledge of population genetics and gene flow is required, but this information is unavailable for Sri Lanka. This study was carried out to determine the population structure of An. culicifacies E in Sri Lanka. Eight microsatellite markers were used to examine An. culicifacies E collected from six sites in Sri Lanka during 2010-2012. Standard population genetic tests and analyses, genetic differentiation, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, linkage disequilibrium, Bayesian cluster analysis, AMOVA, SAMOVA and isolation-by-distance were conducted using five polymorphic loci. Five microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic with high allelic richness. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) was significantly rejected for four loci with positive F(IS) values in the pooled population (p Sri Lanka as the dividing line. Three sympatric clusters were detected among An. culicifacies E specimens isolated in Sri Lanka. There was no effect of geographic distance on genetic differentiation and the central mountain ranges in Sri Lanka appeared to be a barrier to gene flow.

  12. Design of a Two-level Adaptive Multi-Agent System for Malaria Vectors driven by an ontology

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    Etang Josiane

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The understanding of heterogeneities in disease transmission dynamics as far as malaria vectors are concerned is a big challenge. Many studies while tackling this problem don't find exact models to explain the malaria vectors propagation. Methods To solve the problem we define an Adaptive Multi-Agent System (AMAS which has the property to be elastic and is a two-level system as well. This AMAS is a dynamic system where the two levels are linked by an Ontology which allows it to function as a reduced system and as an extended system. In a primary level, the AMAS comprises organization agents and in a secondary level, it is constituted of analysis agents. Its entry point, a User Interface Agent, can reproduce itself because it is given a minimum of background knowledge and it learns appropriate "behavior" from the user in the presence of ambiguous queries and from other agents of the AMAS in other situations. Results Some of the outputs of our system present a series of tables, diagrams showing some factors like Entomological parameters of malaria transmission, Percentages of malaria transmission per malaria vectors, Entomological inoculation rate. Many others parameters can be produced by the system depending on the inputted data. Conclusion Our approach is an intelligent one which differs from statistical approaches that are sometimes used in the field. This intelligent approach aligns itself with the distributed artificial intelligence. In terms of fight against malaria disease our system offers opportunities of reducing efforts of human resources who are not obliged to cover the entire territory while conducting surveys. Secondly the AMAS can determine the presence or the absence of malaria vectors even when specific data have not been collected in the geographical area. In the difference of a statistical technique, in our case the projection of the results in the field can sometimes appeared to be more general.

  13. Chlorfenapyr: a new insecticide with novel mode of action can control pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors

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    Srivastava Harish C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria vectors have acquired widespread resistance to many of the currently used insecticides, including synthetic pyrethroids. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop alternative insecticides for effective management of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. In the present study, chlorfenapyr was evaluated against Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles stephensi for its possible use in vector control. Methods Efficacy of chlorfenapyr against An. culicifacies and An. stephensi was assessed using adult bioassay tests. In the laboratory, determination of diagnostic dose, assessment of residual activity on different substrates, cross-resistance pattern with different insecticides and potentiation studies using piperonyl butoxide were undertaken by following standard procedures. Potential cross-resistance patterns were assessed on field populations of An. culicifacies. Results A dose of 5.0% chlorfenapyr was determined as the diagnostic concentration for assessing susceptibility applying the WHO tube test method in anopheline mosquitoes with 2 h exposure and 48 h holding period. The DDT-resistant/malathion-deltamethrin-susceptible strain of An. culicifacies species C showed higher LD50 and LD99 (0.67 and 2.39% respectively values than the DDT-malathion-deltamethrin susceptible An. culicifacies species A (0.41 and 2.0% respectively and An. stephensi strains (0.43 and 2.13% respectively and there was no statistically significant difference in mortalities among the three mosquito species tested (p > 0.05. Residual activity of chlorfenapyr a.i. of 400 mg/m2 on five fabricated substrates, namely wood, mud, mud+lime, cement and cement + distemper was found to be effective up to 24 weeks against An. culicifacies and up to 34 weeks against An. stephensi. No cross-resistance to DDT, malathion, bendiocarb and deltamethrin was observed with chlorfenapyr in laboratory-reared strains of An. stephensi and field-caught An. culicifacies

  14. Chlorfenapyr: a new insecticide with novel mode of action can control pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Barik, Tapan K; Sharma, Poonam; Bhatt, Rajendra M; Srivastava, Harish C; Sreehari, Uragayala; Dash, Aditya P

    2011-01-25

    Malaria vectors have acquired widespread resistance to many of the currently used insecticides, including synthetic pyrethroids. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop alternative insecticides for effective management of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. In the present study, chlorfenapyr was evaluated against Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles stephensi for its possible use in vector control. Efficacy of chlorfenapyr against An. culicifacies and An. stephensi was assessed using adult bioassay tests. In the laboratory, determination of diagnostic dose, assessment of residual activity on different substrates, cross-resistance pattern with different insecticides and potentiation studies using piperonyl butoxide were undertaken by following standard procedures. Potential cross-resistance patterns were assessed on field populations of An. culicifacies. A dose of 5.0% chlorfenapyr was determined as the diagnostic concentration for assessing susceptibility applying the WHO tube test method in anopheline mosquitoes with 2 h exposure and 48 h holding period. The DDT-resistant/malathion-deltamethrin-susceptible strain of An. culicifacies species C showed higher LD50 and LD99 (0.67 and 2.39% respectively) values than the DDT-malathion-deltamethrin susceptible An. culicifacies species A (0.41 and 2.0% respectively) and An. stephensi strains (0.43 and 2.13% respectively) and there was no statistically significant difference in mortalities among the three mosquito species tested (p > 0.05). Residual activity of chlorfenapyr a.i. of 400 mg/m2 on five fabricated substrates, namely wood, mud, mud+lime, cement and cement + distemper was found to be effective up to 24 weeks against An. culicifacies and up to 34 weeks against An. stephensi. No cross-resistance to DDT, malathion, bendiocarb and deltamethrin was observed with chlorfenapyr in laboratory-reared strains of An. stephensi and field-caught An. culicifacies. Potentiation studies demonstrated the antagonistic

  15. Malaria vector control by indoor residual insecticide spraying on the tropical island of Bioko, Equatorial Guinea

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    Kuklinski Jaime

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A comprehensive malaria control intervention was initiated in February 2004 on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. This manuscript reports on the continuous entomological monitoring of the indoor residual spray (IRS programme during the first two years of its implementation. Methods Mosquitoes were captured daily using window traps at 16 sentinel sites and analysed for species identification, sporozoite rates and knockdown resistance (kdr using polymerase chain reaction (PCR to assess the efficacy of the vector control initiative from December 2003 to December 2005. Results A total of 2,807 and 10,293 Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae s.l. respectively were captured throughout the study period. Both M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae s.s. and Anopheles melas were identified. Prior to the first round of IRS, sporozoite rates were 6.0, 8.3 and 4.0 for An. gambiae s.s., An. melas and An. funestus respectively showing An. melas to be an important vector in areas in which it occurred. After the third spray round, no infective mosquitoes were identified. After the first spray round using a pyrethroid spray the number of An. gambiae s.s. were not reduced due to the presence of the kdr gene but An funestus and An. melas populations declined from 23.5 to 3.1 and 5.3 to 0.8 per trap per 100 nights respectively. After the introduction of a carbamate insecticide in the second round, An. gambiae s.s. reduced from 25.5 to 1.9 per trap per 100 nights and An. funestus and An. melas remained at very low levels. Kdr was found only in the M-form of An. gambiae s.s. with the highest frequency at Punta Europa (85%. Conclusion All three vectors that were responsible for malaria transmission before the start of the intervention were successfully controlled once an effective insecticide was used. Continuous entomological surveillance including resistance monitoring is of critical importance in any IRS based malaria vector control programme

  16. Using the entomological inoculation rate to assess the impact of vector control on malaria parasite transmission and elimination

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    McKenzie F Ellis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior studies have shown that annual entomological inoculation rates (EIRs must be reduced to less than one to substantially reduce the prevalence of malaria infection. In this study, EIR values were used to quantify the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs, indoor residual spraying (IRS, and source reduction (SR on malaria transmission. The analysis of EIR was extended through determining whether available vector control tools can ultimately eradicate malaria. Method The analysis is based primarily on a review of all controlled studies that used ITN, IRS, and/or SR and reported their effects on the EIR. To compare EIRs between studies, the percent difference in EIR between the intervention and control groups was calculated. Results Eight vector control intervention studies that measured EIR were found: four ITN studies, one IRS study, one SR study, and two studies with separate ITN and IRS intervention groups. In both the Tanzania study and the Solomon Islands study, one community received ITNs and one received IRS. In the second year of the Tanzania study, EIR was 90% lower in the ITN community and 93% lower in the IRS community, relative to the community without intervention; the ITN and IRS effects were not significantly different. In contrast, in the Solomon Islands study, EIR was 94% lower in the ITN community and 56% lower in the IRS community. The one SR study, in Dar es Salaam, reported a lower EIR reduction (47% than the ITN and IRS studies. All of these vector control interventions reduced EIR, but none reduced it to zero. Conclusion These studies indicate that current vector control methods alone cannot ultimately eradicate malaria because no intervention sustained an annual EIR less than one. While researchers develop new tools, integrated vector management may make the greatest impact on malaria transmission. There are many gaps in the entomological malaria literature and recommendations for future

  17. Design of a study to determine the impact of insecticide resistance on malaria vector control: a multi-country investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Immo; Mnzava, Abraham Peter; Kafy, Hmooda Toto; Mbogo, Charles; Bashir, Adam Ismail; Bigoga, Jude; Adechoubou, Alioun; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Knox, Tessa Bellamy; Malik, Elfatih M; Nkuni, Zinga José; Bayoh, Nabie; Ochomo, Eric; Fondjo, Etienne; Kouambeng, Celestin; Awono-Ambene, Herman Parfait; Etang, Josiane; Akogbeto, Martin; Bhatt, Rajendra; Swain, Dipak K; Kinyari, Teresa; Njagi, Kiambo; Muthami, Lawrence; Subramaniam, Krishanthi; Bradley, John; West, Philippa; Massougbodji, Achile; Okê-Sopoh, Mariam; Hounto, Aurore; Elmardi, Khalid; Valecha, Neena; Kamau, Luna; Mathenge, Evan; Donnelly, Martin James

    2015-07-22

    Progress in reducing the malaria disease burden through the substantial scale up of insecticide-based vector control in recent years could be reversed by the widespread emergence of insecticide resistance. The impact of insecticide resistance on the protective effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) is not known. A multi-country study was undertaken in Sudan, Kenya, India, Cameroon and Benin to quantify the potential loss of epidemiological effectiveness of ITNs and IRS due to decreased susceptibility of malaria vectors to insecticides. The design of the study is described in this paper. Malaria disease incidence rates by active case detection in cohorts of children, and indicators of insecticide resistance in local vectors were monitored in each of approximately 300 separate locations (clusters) with high coverage of malaria vector control over multiple malaria seasons. Phenotypic and genotypic resistance was assessed annually. In two countries, Sudan and India, clusters were randomly assigned to receive universal coverage of ITNs only, or universal coverage of ITNs combined with high coverage of IRS. Association between malaria incidence and insecticide resistance, and protective effectiveness of vector control methods and insecticide resistance were estimated, respectively. Cohorts have been set up in all five countries, and phenotypic resistance data have been collected in all clusters. In Sudan, Kenya, Cameroon and Benin data collection is due to be completed in 2015. In India data collection will be completed in 2016. The paper discusses challenges faced in the design and execution of the study, the analysis plan, the strengths and weaknesses, and the possible alternatives to the chosen study design.

  18. Genome-wide patterns of gene expression during aging in the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

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    Mei-Hui Wang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary means of reducing malaria transmission is through reduction in longevity in days of the adult female stage of the Anopheles vector. However, assessing chronological age is limited to crude physiologic methods which categorize the females binomially as either very young (nulliparous or not very young (parous. Yet the epidemiologically relevant reduction in life span falls within the latter category. Age-grading methods that delineate chronological age, using accurate molecular surrogates based upon gene expression profiles, will allow quantification of the longevity-reducing effects of vector control tools aimed at the adult, female mosquito. In this study, microarray analyses of gene expression profiles in the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae were conducted during natural senescence of females in laboratory conditions. Results showed that detoxification-related and stress-responsive genes were up-regulated as mosquitoes aged. A total of 276 transcripts had age-dependent expression, independently of blood feeding and egg laying events. Expression of 112 (40.6% of these transcripts increased or decreased monotonically with increasing chronologic age. Seven candidate genes for practical age assessment were tested by quantitative gene amplification in the An. gambiae G3 strain in a laboratory experiment and the Mbita strain in field enclosures set up in western Kenya under conditions closely resembling natural ones. Results were similar between experiments, indicating that senescence is marked by changes in gene expression and that chronological age can be gauged accurately and repeatedly with this method. These results indicate that the method may be suitable for accurate gauging of the age in days of field-caught, female An. gambiae.

  19. Is outdoor vector control needed for malaria elimination? An individual-based modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Müller, Günter C; Marshall, John M; Arheart, Kristopher L; Qualls, Whitney A; Hlaing, WayWay M; Schlein, Yosef; Traore, Sekou F; Doumbia, Seydou; Beier, John C

    2017-07-03

    Residual malaria transmission has been reported in many areas even with adequate indoor vector control coverage, such as long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). The increased insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes has resulted in reduced efficacy of the widely used indoor tools and has been linked with an increase in outdoor malaria transmission. There are considerations of incorporating outdoor interventions into integrated vector management (IVM) to achieve malaria elimination; however, more information on the combination of tools for effective control is needed to determine their utilization. A spatial individual-based model was modified to simulate the environment and malaria transmission activities in a hypothetical, isolated African village setting. LLINs and outdoor attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) stations were used as examples of indoor and outdoor interventions, respectively. Different interventions and lengths of efficacy periods were tested. Simulations continued for 420 days, and each simulation scenario was repeated 50 times. Mosquito populations, entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs), probabilities of local mosquito extinction, and proportion of time when the annual EIR was reduced below one were compared between different intervention types and efficacy periods. In the village setting with clustered houses, the combinational intervention of 50% LLINs plus outdoor ATSBs significantly reduced mosquito population and EIR in short term, increased the probability of local mosquito extinction, and increased the time when annual EIR is less than one per person compared to 50% LLINs alone; outdoor ATSBs alone significantly reduced mosquito population in short term, increased the probability of mosquito extinction, and increased the time when annual EIR is less than one compared to 50% LLINs alone, but there was no significant difference in EIR in short term between 50% LLINs and outdoor ATSBs. In the village setting with dispersed houses, the

  20. Behavioural determinants of gene flow in malaria vector populations: Anopheles gambiae males select large females as mates

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    Yan G

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium-refractory mosquitoes are being rapidly developed for malaria control but will only succeed if they can successfully compete for mates when released into the wild. Pre-copulatory behavioural traits maintain genetic population structure in wild mosquito populations and mating barriers have foiled previous attempts to control malaria vectors through sterile male release. Methods Varying numbers of virgin male and female Anopheles gambiae Giles, from two strains of different innate sizes, were allowed to mate under standardized conditions in laboratory cages, following which, the insemination status, oviposition success and egg batch size of each female was assessed. The influence of male and female numbers, strain combination and female size were determined using logistic regression, correlation analysis and a simple mechanistic model of male competition for females. Results Male An. gambiae select females on the basis of size because of much greater fecundity among large females. Even under conditions where large numbers of males must compete for a smaller number of females, the largest females are more likely to become inseminated, to successfully oviposit and to produce large egg batches. Conclusions Sexual selection, on the basis of size, could either promote or limit the spread of malaria-refractory genes into wild populations and needs to be considered in the continued development and eventual release of transgenic vectors. Fundamental studies of behavioural ecology in malaria vectors such as An. gambiae can have important implications for malaria control and should be prioritised for more extensive investigation in the future.

  1. Field evaluation of picaridin repellents reveals differences in repellent sensitivity between Southeast Asian vectors of malaria and arboviruses.

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    Karel Van Roey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. However, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. Therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. Among topical repellents, DEET is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. The protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, including arbovirus and malaria vectors, was evaluated in a field study in Cambodia. Over a period of two years, human landing collections were performed on repellent treated persons, with rotation to account for the effect of collection place, time and individual collector. Based on a total of 4996 mosquitoes collected on negative control persons, the overall five hour protection rate was 97.4% [95%CI: 97.1-97.8%], not decreasing over time. Picaridin 20% performed equally well as DEET 20% and better than picaridin 10%. Repellents performed better against Mansonia and Culex spp. as compared to aedines and anophelines. A lower performance was observed against Aedes albopictus as compared to Aedes aegypti, and against Anopheles barbirostris as compared to several vector species. Parity rates were higher in vectors collected on repellent treated person as compared to control persons. As such, field evaluation shows that repellents can provide additional personal protection against early and outdoor biting malaria and arbovirus vectors, with excellent protection up to five hours after application. The heterogeneity in repellent sensitivity between mosquito genera and vector species could however impact the efficacy of repellents in public health programs. Considering its excellent performance and potential to protect against early and outdoor biting vectors, as well as its higher acceptability as compared to DEET, picaridin is an appropriate product to evaluate the

  2. Vector Shedding and Immunogenicity Sampling for Retinal Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Alun R; Rudenko, Anna N; MacLaren, Robert E

    2018-01-01

    There has been recent growth in the number and magnitude of clinical trials for various forms of retinal gene therapy. Because of regulatory requirements, and to better understand vector safety profiles, there is a need for standardised and effective methods to collect, process, and store biological samples taken from trial patients that can be used to assess the dissemination of the vector within bodily fluids and any systemic cellular and humoral immune responses.

  3. Global trends in the production and use of DDT for control of malaria and other vector-borne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Henk; Manuweera, Gamini; Konradsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Background: DDT was among the initial persistent organic pollutants listed under the Stockholm Convention and continues to be used for control of malaria and other vector-borne diseases in accordance with its provisions on acceptable purposes. Trends in the production and use of DDT were

  4. Biology, Bionomics and Molecular Biology of Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann 1828 (Diptera: Culicidae), Main Malaria Vector in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinyu; Zhang, Shaosen; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Li; Feng, Jun; Xia, Zhigui; Zhou, Hejun; Hu, Wei; Zhou, Shuisen

    2017-01-01

    China has set a goal to eliminate all malaria in the country by 2020, but it is unclear if current understanding of malaria vectors and transmission is sufficient to achieve this objective. Anopheles sinensis is the most widespread malaria vector specie in China, which is also responsible for vivax malaria outbreak in central China. We reviewed literature from 1954 to 2016 on An. sinensis with emphasis on biology, bionomics, and molecular biology. A total of 538 references were relevant and included. An. sienesis occurs in 29 Chinese provinces. Temperature can affect most life-history parameters. Most An. sinensis are zoophilic, but sometimes they are facultatively anthropophilic. Sporozoite analysis demonstrated An. sinensis efficacy on Plasmodium vivax transmission. An. sinensis was not stringently refractory to P. falciparum under experimental conditions, however, sporozoite was not found in salivary glands of field collected An. sinensis. The literature on An. sienesis biology and bionomics was abundant, but molecular studies, such as gene functions and mechanisms, were limited. Only 12 molecules (genes, proteins or enzymes) have been studied. In addition, there were considerable untapped omics resources for potential vector control tools. Existing information on An. sienesis could serve as a baseline for advanced research on biology, bionomics and genetics relevant to vector control strategies.

  5. Differential attractiveness of humans to the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles : effects of host characteristics and parasite infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukabana, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    The results of a series of studies designed to understand the principal factors that determine the differential attractiveness of humans to the malaria vector Anopheles

  6. Development and assessment of plant-based synthetic odor baits for surveillance and control of Malaria vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent malaria vector control measures have considerably reduced indoor biting mosquito populations. However, reducing the outdoor biting populations remains a challenge because of the unavailability of appropriate lures to achieve this. This study sought to test the efficacy of plant-based syntheti...

  7. Ultrastructure of a microsporidium brachiola gambiae n.sp.parasitising a mosquito anopheles gamblae, a malaria vector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiser, Jaroslav; Žižka, Zdeněk

    - (2003), s. 35-36 ISSN 1214-021X. [Conference on Cell Biology /5./. České Budějovice, 08.09.2003-10.09.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : anopheles gambiae * malaria * vector Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  8. Effect of permethrin-treated bed nets on the spatial distribution of malaria vectors in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimnig, John E.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Hightower, Allen W.; Vulule, John M.; Schoute, Erik; Kamau, Luna; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Hawley, William A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) on the spatial distribution of malaria vectors in neighboring villages lacking ITNs was studied during a randomized controlled trial of ITNs in western Kenya. There was a trend of decreased abundance of Anopheles gambiae with decreasing

  9. Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupasquier, Isabelle

    1989-01-01

    Malaria, the greatest pandemia in the world, claims an estimated one million lives each year in Africa alone. While it may still be said that for the most part malaria is found in what is known as the world's poverty belt, cases are now frequently diagnosed in western countries. Due to resistant strains of malaria which have developed because of…

  10. Effect of phyto-synthesized silver nanoparticles on developmental stages of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi and dengue vector, Aedes aegypti

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    Madanagopal Nalini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly synthesized phyto-mediated silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs using Artemisia nilagirica aqueous leaf filtrate has been confirmed through UV–visible spectrophotometer. The synthesized Ag NPs were further characterized using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD to determine the present of functional groups and average particle size (6.723 nm with cubic nature, respectively. Spherical shape (≤30 nm of Ag NPs was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Bio-efficacy of these nanoparticles showed larvicidal and pupicidal properties than the aqueous leaf extract treatment alone against developmental stages (I–IV instars and pupa of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and dengue vector Aedes aegypti at 0.25% concentration level. The LC50 (LCL:UCL at 95% confidence limit values of I–IV instar and pupa of An. stephensi were recorded at 0.343 (0.261:0.405, 0.169 (0.025:0.263, 0.198 (0.105:0.265, 0.141 (0.045:0.205 and 0.050 (0.606:0.224 % respectively and for Ae. aegypti (I–IV instar and pupa 0.460 (0.364:0.537, 0.352 (0.239:0.432, 0.331 (0.833:0.549, 0.217 (0.228:0.378 and 0.161 (0.630:0.356 % were observed, after 24 h exposure. The first report of present investigation revealed that the rapid biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using A. nilagirica leaf filtrate would be an effective potential alternative green larvicide for the control of mosquitoes at the developmental stages with eco-friendly approach.

  11. Assessment of Anopheles salivary antigens as individual exposure biomarkers to species-specific malaria vector bites

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    Ali Zakia M I

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria transmission occurs during the blood feeding of infected anopheline mosquitoes concomitant with a saliva injection into the vertebrate host. In sub-Saharan Africa, most malaria transmission is due to Anopheles funestus s.s and to Anopheles gambiae s.l. (mainly Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis. Several studies have demonstrated that the immune response against salivary antigens could be used to evaluate individual exposure to mosquito bites. The aim of this study was to assess the use of secreted salivary proteins as specific biomarkers of exposure to An. gambiae and/or An. funestus bites. Methods For this purpose, salivary gland proteins 6 (SG6 and 5′nucleotidases (5′nuc from An. gambiae (gSG6 and g-5′nuc and An. funestus (fSG6 and f-5′nuc were selected and produced in recombinant form. The specificity of the IgG response against these salivary proteins was tested using an ELISA with sera from individuals living in three Senegalese villages (NDiop, n = 50; Dielmo, n = 38; and Diama, n = 46 that had been exposed to distinct densities and proportions of the Anopheles species. Individuals who had not been exposed to these tropical mosquitoes were used as controls (Marseille, n = 45. Results The IgG responses against SG6 recombinant proteins from these two Anopheles species and against g-5′nucleotidase from An. gambiae, were significantly higher in Senegalese individuals compared with controls who were not exposed to specific Anopheles species. Conversely, an association was observed between the level of An. funestus exposure and the serological immune response levels against the f-5′nucleotidase protein. Conclusion This study revealed an Anopheles salivary antigenic protein that could be considered to be a promising antigenic marker to distinguish malaria vector exposure at the species level. The epidemiological interest of such species-specific antigenic markers is discussed.

  12. “Highly evolvable malaria vectors: the genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes”

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    Neafsey, Daniel E.; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Abai, Mohammad R.; Aganezov, Sergey S.; Alekseyev, Max A.; Allen, James E.; Amon, James; Arcà, Bruno; Arensburger, Peter; Artemov, Gleb; Assour, Lauren A.; Basseri, Hamidreza; Berlin, Aaron; Birren, Bruce W.; Blandin, Stephanie A.; Brockman, Andrew I.; Burkot, Thomas R.; Burt, Austin; Chan, Clara S.; Chauve, Cedric; Chiu, Joanna C.; Christensen, Mikkel; Costantini, Carlo; Davidson, Victoria L.M.; Deligianni, Elena; Dottorini, Tania; Dritsou, Vicky; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M.; Hall, Andrew B.; Han, Mira V.; Hlaing, Thaung; Hughes, Daniel S.T.; Jenkins, Adam M.; Jiang, Xiaofang; Jungreis, Irwin; Kakani, Evdoxia G.; Kamali, Maryam; Kemppainen, Petri; Kennedy, Ryan C.; Kirmitzoglou, Ioannis K.; Koekemoer, Lizette L.; Laban, Njoroge; Langridge, Nicholas; Lawniczak, Mara K.N.; Lirakis, Manolis; Lobo, Neil F.; Lowy, Ernesto; MacCallum, Robert M.; Mao, Chunhong; Maslen, Gareth; Mbogo, Charles; McCarthy, Jenny; Michel, Kristin; Mitchell, Sara N.; Moore, Wendy; Murphy, Katherine A.; Naumenko, Anastasia N.; Nolan, Tony; Novoa, Eva M.; O'Loughlin, Samantha; Oringanje, Chioma; Oshaghi, Mohammad A.; Pakpour, Nazzy; Papathanos, Philippos A.; Peery, Ashley N.; Povelones, Michael; Prakash, Anil; Price, David P.; Rajaraman, Ashok; Reimer, Lisa J.; Rinker, David C.; Rokas, Antonis; Russell, Tanya L.; Sagnon, N'Fale; Sharakhova, Maria V.; Shea, Terrance; Simão, Felipe A.; Simard, Frederic; Slotman, Michel A.; Somboon, Pradya; Stegniy, Vladimir; Struchiner, Claudio J.; Thomas, Gregg W.C.; Tojo, Marta; Topalis, Pantelis; Tubio, José M.C.; Unger, Maria F.; Vontas, John; Walton, Catherine; Wilding, Craig S.; Willis, Judith H.; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Yan, Guiyun; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Zhou, Xiaofan; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Christophides, George K.; Collins, Frank H.; Cornman, Robert S.; Crisanti, Andrea; Donnelly, Martin J.; Emrich, Scott J.; Fontaine, Michael C.; Gelbart, William; Hahn, Matthew W.; Hansen, Immo A.; Howell, Paul I.; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Kellis, Manolis; Lawson, Daniel; Louis, Christos; Luckhart, Shirley; Muskavitch, Marc A.T.; Ribeiro, José M.; Riehle, Michael A.; Sharakhov, Igor V.; Tu, Zhijian; Zwiebel, Laurence J.; Besansky, Nora J.

    2015-01-01

    Variation in vectorial capacity for human malaria among Anopheles mosquito species is determined by many factors, including behavior, immunity, and life history. To investigate the genomic basis of vectorial capacity and explore new avenues for vector control, we sequenced the genomes of 16 anopheline mosquito species from diverse locations spanning ~100 million years of evolution. Comparative analyses show faster rates of gene gain and loss, elevated gene shuffling on the X chromosome, and more intron losses, relative to Drosophila. Some determinants of vectorial capacity, such as chemosensory genes, do not show elevated turnover, but instead diversify through protein-sequence changes. This dynamism of anopheline genes and genomes may contribute to their flexible capacity to take advantage of new ecological niches, including adapting to humans as primary hosts. PMID:25554792

  13. Molecular typing of bacteria of the genus Asaia in malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton, 1905

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    S. Epis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The acetic acid bacterium Asaia spp. was successfully detected in Anopheles arabiensis Patton, 1905, one of the major vector of human malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa. A collection of 45 Asaia isolates in cellfree media was established from 20 individuals collected from the field in Burkina Faso. 16S rRNA universal polymerase chain reaction (PCR and specific qPCR, for the detection of Asaia spp. were performed in order to reveal the presence of different bacterial taxa associated with this insect. The isolates were typed by internal transcribed spacer-PCR, BOX-PCR, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR, proved the presence of different Asaia in A. arabiensis.

  14. Distribution of the species of the Anopheles gambiae complex and first evidence of Anopheles merus as a malaria vector in Madagascar

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    Le Goff Gilbert

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the Anopheles gambiae complex are amongst the best malaria vectors in the world, but their vectorial capacities vary between species and populations. A large-scale sampling of An. gambiae sensu lato was carried out in various bioclimatic domains of Madagascar. Local abundance of an unexpected member of this complex raised questions regarding its role in malaria transmission. Methods Sampling took place at 38 sites and 2,067 females were collected. Species assessment was performed using a PCR targeting a sequence in the IGS of the rDNA. Analysis focused on the relative prevalence of the species per site, bioclimatic domain and altitude. Infectivity of Anopheles merus was assessed using an ELISA to detect the presence of malarial circumsporozoite protein in the head-thorax. Results Three species were identified: An. gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and An. merus. The distribution of each species is mainly a function of bioclimatic domains and, to a lesser extent, altitude. An. arabiensis is present in all bioclimatic domains with highest prevalence in sub-humid, dry and sub-arid domains. An. gambiae has its highest prevalence in the humid domain, is in the minority in dry areas, rare in sub-humid and absent in sub-arid domains. An. merus is restricted to the coastal fringe in the south and west; it was in the majority in one southern village. The majority of sites were sympatric for at least two of the species (21/38 and two sites harboured all three species. The role of An. merus as malaria vector was confirmed in the case of two human-biting females, which were ELISA-positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Conclusion Despite the huge environmental (mainly man-made changes in Madagascar, the distribution of An. gambiae and An. arabiensis appears unchanged for the past 35 years. The distribution of An. merus is wider than was previously known, and its effectiveness as a malaria vector has been shown for the first time; this

  15. Target product profile choices for intra-domiciliary malaria vector control pesticide products: repel or kill?

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    Moore Sarah J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common pesticide products for controlling malaria-transmitting mosquitoes combine two distinct modes of action: 1 conventional insecticidal activity which kills mosquitoes exposed to the pesticide and 2 deterrence of mosquitoes away from protected humans. While deterrence enhances personal or household protection of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual sprays, it may also attenuate or even reverse communal protection if it diverts mosquitoes to non-users rather than killing them outright. Methods A process-explicit model of malaria transmission is described which captures the sequential interaction between deterrent and toxic actions of vector control pesticides and accounts for the distinctive impacts of toxic activities which kill mosquitoes before or after they have fed upon the occupant of a covered house or sleeping space. Results Increasing deterrency increases personal protection but consistently reduces communal protection because deterrent sub-lethal exposure inevitably reduces the proportion subsequently exposed to higher lethal doses. If the high coverage targets of the World Health Organization are achieved, purely toxic products with no deterrence are predicted to generally provide superior protection to non-users and even users, especially where vectors feed exclusively on humans and a substantial amount of transmission occurs outdoors. Remarkably, this is even the case if that product confers no personal protection and only kills mosquitoes after they have fed. Conclusions Products with purely mosquito-toxic profiles may, therefore, be preferable for programmes with universal coverage targets, rather than those with equivalent toxicity but which also have higher deterrence. However, if purely mosquito-toxic products confer little personal protection because they do not deter mosquitoes and only kill them after they have fed, then they will require aggressive "catch up" campaigns, with

  16. Vector control in a malaria epidemic occurring within a complex emergency situation in Burundi: a case study

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    D'Alessandro Umberto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African highlands often suffer of devastating malaria epidemics, sometimes in conjunction with complex emergencies, making their control even more difficult. In 2000, Burundian highlands experienced a large malaria outbreak at a time of civil unrest, constant insecurity and nutritional emergency. Because of suspected high resistance to the first and second line treatments, the provincial health authority and Médecins Sans Frontières (Belgium decided to implement vector control activities in an attempt to curtail the epidemic. There are few reported interventions of this type to control malaria epidemics in complex emergency contexts. Here, decisions and actions taken to control this epidemic, their impact and the lessons learned from this experience are reported. Case description Twenty nine hills (administrative areas were selected in collaboration with the provincial health authorities for the vector control interventions combining indoor residual spraying with deltamethrin and insecticide-treated nets. Impact was evaluated by entomological and parasitological surveys. Almost all houses (99% were sprayed and nets use varied between 48% and 63%. Anopheles indoor resting density was significantly lower in treated as compared to untreated hills, the latter taken as controls. Despite this impact on the vector, malaria prevalence was not significantly lower in treated hills except for people sleeping under a net. Discussion Indoor spraying was feasible and resulted in high coverage despite being a logistically complex intervention in the Burundian context (scattered houses and emergency situation. However, it had little impact on the prevalence of malaria infection, possibly because it was implemented after the epidemic's peak. Nevertheless, after this outbreak the Ministry of Health improved the surveillance system, changed its policy with introduction of effective drugs and implementation of vector control to prevent new

  17. Identification and analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in the mosquito Anopheles funestus, malaria vector

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    Hemingway Janet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are the most common source of genetic variation in eukaryotic species and have become an important marker for genetic studies. The mosquito Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vectors in Africa and yet, prior to this study, no SNPs have been described for this species. Here we report a genome-wide set of SNP markers for use in genetic studies on this important human disease vector. Results DNA fragments from 50 genes were amplified and sequenced from 21 specimens of An. funestus. A third of specimens were field collected in Malawi, a third from a colony of Mozambican origin and a third form a colony of Angolan origin. A total of 494 SNPs including 303 within the coding regions of genes and 5 indels were identified. The physical positions of these SNPs in the genome are known. There were on average 7 SNPs per kilobase similar to that observed in An. gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster. Transitions outnumbered transversions, at a ratio of 2:1. The increased frequency of transition substitutions in coding regions is likely due to the structure of the genetic code and selective constraints. Synonymous sites within coding regions showed a higher polymorphism rate than non-coding introns or 3' and 5'flanking DNA with most of the substitutions in coding regions being observed at the 3rd codon position. A positive correlation in the level of polymorphism was observed between coding and non-coding regions within a gene. By genotyping a subset of 30 SNPs, we confirmed the validity of the SNPs identified during this study. Conclusion This set of SNP markers represents a useful tool for genetic studies in An. funestus, and will be useful in identifying candidate genes that affect diverse ranges of phenotypes that impact on vector control, such as resistance insecticide, mosquito behavior and vector competence.

  18. Habitat stability and occurrences of malaria vector larvae in western Kenya highlands

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    Atieli Harrysone

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the occurrence of malaria vector larvae in the valleys of western Kenya highlands is well documented, knowledge of larval habitats in the uphill sites is lacking. Given that most inhabitants of the highlands actually dwell in the uphill regions, it is important to develop understanding of mosquito breeding habitat stability in these sites in order to determine their potential for larval control. Methods A total of 128 potential larval habitats were identified in hilltops and along the seasonal streams in the Sigalagala area of Kakamega district, western Kenya. Water availability in the habitats was followed up daily from August 3, 2006 to February 23, 2007. A habitat is defined as stable when it remains aquatic continuously for at least 12 d. Mosquito larvae were observed weekly. Frequencies of aquatic, stable and larvae positive habitats were compared between the hilltop and seasonal stream area using χ2-test. Factors affecting the presence/absence of Anopheles gambiae larvae in the highlands were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Topography significantly affected habitat availability and stability. The occurrence of aquatic habitats in the hilltop was more sporadic than in the stream area. The percentage of habitat occurrences that were classified as stable during the rainy season is 48.76% and 80.79% respectively for the hilltop and stream area. Corresponding frequencies of larvae positive habitats were 0% in the hilltop and 5.91% in the stream area. After the rainy season, only 23.42% of habitat occurrences were stable and 0.01% larvae positive habitats were found in the hilltops, whereas 89.75% of occurrences remained stable in the stream area resulting in a frequency of 12.21% larvae positive habitats. The logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between habitat stability and larval occurrence and indicated that habitat surface area was negatively affecting the

  19. Species composition, seasonal occurrence, habitat preference and altitudinal distribution of malaria and other disease vectors in eastern Nepal.

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    Dhimal, Meghnath; Ahrens, Bodo; Kuch, Ulrich

    2014-11-28

    It is increasingly recognized that climate change can alter the geographical distribution of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) with shifts of disease vectors to higher altitudes and latitudes. In particular, an increasing risk of malaria and dengue fever epidemics in tropical highlands and temperate regions has been predicted in different climate change scenarios. The aim of this paper is to expand the current knowledge on the seasonal occurrence and altitudinal distribution of malaria and other disease vectors in eastern Nepal. Adult mosquitoes resting indoors and outdoors were collected using CDC light trap and aspirators with the support of flash light. Mosquito larvae were collected using locally constructed dippers. We assessed the local residents' perceptions of the distribution and occurrence of mosquitoes using key informant interview techniques. Generalized linear models were fitted to assess the effect of season, resting site and topography on the abundance of malaria vectors. The known malaria vectors in Nepal, Anopheles fluviatilis, Anopheles annularis and Anopheles maculatus complex members were recorded from 70 to 1,820 m above sea level (asl). The vectors of chikungunya and dengue virus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the vector of lymphatic filariasis, Culex quinquefasciatus, and that of Japanese encephalitis, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, were found from 70 to 2,000 m asl in eastern Nepal. Larvae of Anopheles, Culex and Aedes species were recorded up to 2,310 m asl. Only season had a significant effect on the abundance of An. fluviatilis, season and resting site on the abundance of An. maculatus complex members, and season, resting site and topography on the abundance of An. annularis. The perceptions of people on mosquito occurrence are consistent with entomological findings. This study provides the first vertical distribution records of vector mosquitoes in eastern Nepal and suggests that the vectors of malaria and other diseases have already

  20. Synergism/complementarity of recombinant adenoviral vectors and other vaccination platforms during induction of protective immunity against malaria

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    Ana Paula Morais Martins Almeida

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of immunogenicity of most malaria antigens and the complex immune responses required for achieving protective immunity against this infectious disease have traditionally hampered the development of an efficient human malaria vaccine. The current boom in development of recombinant viral vectors and their use in prime-boost protocols that result in enhanced immune outcomes have increased the number of malaria vaccine candidates that access pre-clinical and clinical trials. In the frontline, adenoviruses and poxviruses seem to be giving the best immunization results in experimental animals and their mutual combination, or their combination with recombinant proteins (formulated in adjuvants and given in sequence or being given as protein/virus admixtures, has been shown to reach unprecedented levels of anti-malaria immunity that predictably will be somehow reproduced in the human setting. However, all this optimism was previously seen in the malaria vaccine development field without many real applicable results to date. We describe here the current state-of-the-art in the field of recombinant adenovirus research for malaria vaccine development, in particular referring to their use in combination with other immunogens in heterologous prime-boost protocols, while trying to simultaneously show our contributions and point of view on this subject.

  1. Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumu, Fredros O; Knols, Bart GJ; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2007-01-01

    Background Larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. Costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. The potential of natural products as larvicides against the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated. Methods To assess the larvicidal efficacy of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation (azadirachtin content of 0.03% w/v) on An. gambiae s.s., larvae were exposed as third and fourth instars to a normal diet supplemented with the neem oil formulations in different concentrations. A control group of larvae was exposed to a corn oil formulation in similar concentrations. Results Neem oil had an LC50 value of 11 ppm after 8 days, which was nearly five times more toxic than the corn oil formulation. Adult emergence was inhibited by 50% at a concentration of 6 ppm. Significant reductions on growth indices and pupation, besides prolonged larval periods, were observed at neem oil concentrations above 8 ppm. The corn oil formulation, in contrast, produced no growth disruption within the tested range of concentrations. Conclusion Neem oil has good larvicidal properties for An. gambiae s.s. and suppresses successful adult emergence at very low concentrations. Considering the wide distribution and availability of this tree and its products along the East African coast, this may prove a readily available and cheap alternative to conventional larvicides. PMID:17519000

  2. Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

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    Knols Bart GJ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. Costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. The potential of natural products as larvicides against the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated. Methods To assess the larvicidal efficacy of a neem (Azadirachta indica oil formulation (azadirachtin content of 0.03% w/v on An. gambiae s.s., larvae were exposed as third and fourth instars to a normal diet supplemented with the neem oil formulations in different concentrations. A control group of larvae was exposed to a corn oil formulation in similar concentrations. Results Neem oil had an LC50 value of 11 ppm after 8 days, which was nearly five times more toxic than the corn oil formulation. Adult emergence was inhibited by 50% at a concentration of 6 ppm. Significant reductions on growth indices and pupation, besides prolonged larval periods, were observed at neem oil concentrations above 8 ppm. The corn oil formulation, in contrast, produced no growth disruption within the tested range of concentrations. Conclusion Neem oil has good larvicidal properties for An. gambiae s.s. and suppresses successful adult emergence at very low concentrations. Considering the wide distribution and availability of this tree and its products along the East African coast, this may prove a readily available and cheap alternative to conventional larvicides.

  3. Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumu, Fredros O; Knols, Bart G J; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2007-05-22

    Larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. Costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. The potential of natural products as larvicides against the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated. To assess the larvicidal efficacy of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation (azadirachtin content of 0.03% w/v) on An. gambiae s.s., larvae were exposed as third and fourth instars to a normal diet supplemented with the neem oil formulations in different concentrations. A control group of larvae was exposed to a corn oil formulation in similar concentrations. Neem oil had an LC50 value of 11 ppm after 8 days, which was nearly five times more toxic than the corn oil formulation. Adult emergence was inhibited by 50% at a concentration of 6 ppm. Significant reductions on growth indices and pupation, besides prolonged larval periods, were observed at neem oil concentrations above 8 ppm. The corn oil formulation, in contrast, produced no growth disruption within the tested range of concentrations. Neem oil has good larvicidal properties for An. gambiae s.s. and suppresses successful adult emergence at very low concentrations. Considering the wide distribution and availability of this tree and its products along the East African coast, this may prove a readily available and cheap alternative to conventional larvicides.

  4. Studying fitness cost of Plasmodium falciparum infection in malaria vectors: validation of an appropriate negative control

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    Sangare Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question whether Plasmodium falciparum infection affects the fitness of mosquito vectors remains open. A hurdle for resolving this question is the lack of appropriate control, non-infected mosquitoes that can be compared to the infected ones. It was shown recently that heating P. falciparum gametocyte-infected blood before feeding by malaria vectors inhibits the infection. Therefore, the same source of gametocyte-infected blood could be divided in two parts, one heated, serving as the control, the other unheated, allowing the comparison of infected and uninfected mosquitoes which fed on exactly the same blood otherwise. However, before using this method for characterizing the cost of infection to mosquitoes, it is necessary to establish whether feeding on previously heated blood affects the survival and fecundity of mosquito females. Methods Anopheles gambiae M molecular form females were exposed to heated versus non-heated, parasite-free human blood to mimic blood meal on non-infectious versus infectious gametocyte-containing blood. Life history traits of mosquito females fed on blood that was heat-treated or not were then compared. Results The results reveal that heat treatment of the blood did not affect the survival and fecundity of mosquito females. Consistently, blood heat treatment did not affect the quantity of blood ingested. Conclusions The study indicates that heat inactivation of gametocyte-infected blood will only inhibit mosquito infection and that this method is suitable for quantifying the fitness cost incurred by mosquitoes upon infection by P. falciparum.

  5. National malaria vector control policy: an analysis of the decision to scale-up larviciding in Nigeria.

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    Tesfazghi, Kemi; Hill, Jenny; Jones, Caroline; Ranson, Hilary; Worrall, Eve

    2016-02-01

    New vector control tools are needed to combat insecticide resistance and reduce malaria transmission. The World Health Organization (WHO) endorses larviciding as a supplementary vector control intervention using larvicides recommended by the WHO Pesticides Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES). The decision to scale-up larviciding in Nigeria provided an opportunity to investigate the factors influencing policy adoption and assess the role that actors and evidence play in the policymaking process, in order to draw lessons that help accelerate the uptake of new methods for vector control. A retrospective policy analysis was carried out using in-depth interviews with national level policy stakeholders to establish normative national vector control policy or strategy decision-making processes and compare these with the process that led to the decision to scale-up larviciding. The interviews were transcribed, then coded and analyzed using NVivo10. Data were coded according to pre-defined themes from an analytical policy framework developed a priori. Stakeholders reported that the larviciding decision-making process deviated from the normative vector control decision-making process. National malaria policy is normally strongly influenced by WHO recommendations, but the potential of larviciding to contribute to national economic development objectives through larvicide production in Nigeria was cited as a key factor shaping the decision. The larviciding decision involved a restricted range of policy actors, and notably excluded actors that usually play advisory, consultative and evidence generation roles. Powerful actors limited the access of some actors to the policy processes and content. This may have limited the influence of scientific evidence in this policy decision. This study demonstrates that national vector control policy change can be facilitated by linking malaria control objectives to wider socioeconomic considerations and through engaging powerful policy champions to

  6. Existence of the rdl mutant alleles among the anopheles malaria vector in Indonesia

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    Asih Puji BS

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptor-chloride channel complex is known to be the target site of dieldrin, a cyclodiene insecticide. GABA-receptors, with a naturally occurring amino acid substitution, A302S/G in the putative ion-channel lining region, confer resistance to cyclodiene insecticides that includes aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor, endrin and endosulphan. Methods A total of 154 mosquito samples from 10 provinces of malaria-endemic areas across Indonesia (Aceh, North Sumatra, Bangka Belitung, Lampung, Central Java, East Nusa Tenggara, West Nusa Tenggara, West Sulawesi, Molucca and North Molucca were obtained and identified by species, using morphological characteristic. The DNA was individually extracted using chelex-ion exchanger and the DNA obtained was used for analyses using sequencing method. Results Molecular analysis indicated 11% of the total 154 Anopheles samples examined, carried Rdl mutant alleles. All of the alleles were found in homozygous form. Rdl 302S allele was observed in Anopheles vagus (from Central Java, Lampung, and West Nusa Tenggara, Anopheles aconitus (from Central Java, Anopheles barbirostris (from Central Java and Lampung, Anopheles sundaicus (from North Sumatra and Lampung, Anopheles nigerrimus (from North Sumatra, whereas the 302 G allele was only found in Anopheles farauti from Molucca. Conclusion The existence of the Rdl mutant allele indicates that, either insecticide pressure on the Anopheles population in these areas might still be ongoing (though not directly associated with the malaria control programme or that the mutant form of the Rdl allele is relatively stable in the absence of insecticide. Nonetheless, the finding suggests that integrated pest management is warranted in malaria-endemic areas where insecticides are widely used for other purposes.

  7. Existence of the rdl mutant alleles among the anopheles malaria vector in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-chloride channel complex is known to be the target site of dieldrin, a cyclodiene insecticide. GABA-receptors, with a naturally occurring amino acid substitution, A302S/G in the putative ion-channel lining region, confer resistance to cyclodiene insecticides that includes aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor, endrin and endosulphan. Methods A total of 154 mosquito samples from 10 provinces of malaria-endemic areas across Indonesia (Aceh, North Sumatra, Bangka Belitung, Lampung, Central Java, East Nusa Tenggara, West Nusa Tenggara, West Sulawesi, Molucca and North Molucca) were obtained and identified by species, using morphological characteristic. The DNA was individually extracted using chelex-ion exchanger and the DNA obtained was used for analyses using sequencing method. Results Molecular analysis indicated 11% of the total 154 Anopheles samples examined, carried Rdl mutant alleles. All of the alleles were found in homozygous form. Rdl 302S allele was observed in Anopheles vagus (from Central Java, Lampung, and West Nusa Tenggara), Anopheles aconitus (from Central Java), Anopheles barbirostris (from Central Java and Lampung), Anopheles sundaicus (from North Sumatra and Lampung), Anopheles nigerrimus (from North Sumatra), whereas the 302 G allele was only found in Anopheles farauti from Molucca. Conclusion The existence of the Rdl mutant allele indicates that, either insecticide pressure on the Anopheles population in these areas might still be ongoing (though not directly associated with the malaria control programme) or that the mutant form of the Rdl allele is relatively stable in the absence of insecticide. Nonetheless, the finding suggests that integrated pest management is warranted in malaria-endemic areas where insecticides are widely used for other purposes. PMID:22364613

  8. Malaria

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    ... deadly type occurs in Africa south of the Sahara Desert. Malaria symptoms include chills, flu-like symptoms, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and jaundice. A blood test can diagnose it. It can be life-threatening. However, you can treat malaria with drugs. ...

  9. Neem by-products in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: Biotoxicity of neem cake fractions towards the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Balamurugan Chandramohan

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Overall, this study suggests that the methanolic fractions of neem cake may be considered as a new and cheap source of highly effective compounds against the rural malaria vector An. culicifacies.

  10. Population genetic structure of the major malaria vector Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae from the Brazilian Amazon, using microsatellite markers

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    Vera Margarete Scarpassa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The population genetic structure of Anopheles darlingi, the major human malaria vector in the Neotropics, was examined using seven microsatellite loci from nine localities in central and western Amazonian Brazil. High levels of genetic variability were detected (5-25 alleles per locus; H E = 0.519-0.949. There was deviation from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium for 59.79% of the tests due to heterozygote deficits, while the analysis of linkage disequilibrium was significant for only two of 189 (1.05% tests, most likely caused by null alleles. Genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.001-0.095; Nm = 4.7-363.8 indicates that gene flow is extensive among locations < 152 km apart (with two exceptions and reduced, but not absent, at a larger geographic scale. Genetic and geographic distances were significantly correlated (R² = 0.893, P < 0.0002, supporting the isolation by distance (IBD model. The overall estimate of Ne was 202.4 individuals under the linkage disequilibrium model, and 8 under the heterozygote excess model. Analysis of molecular variance showed that nearly all variation (~ 94% was within sample locations. The UPGMA phenogram clustered the samples geographically, with one branch including 5/6 of the state of Amazonas localities and the other branch the Acre, Rondônia, and remaining Amazonas localities. Taken together, these data suggest little genetic structure for An. darlingi from central and western Amazonian Brazil. These findings also imply that the IBD model explains nearly all of the differentiation detected. In practical terms, populations of An. darlingi at distances < 152 km should respond similarly to vector control measures, because of high gene flow.

  11. Genomic Footprints of Selective Sweeps from Metabolic Resistance to Pyrethroids in African Malaria Vectors Are Driven by Scale up of Insecticide-Based Vector Control.

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    Barnes, Kayla G; Weedall, Gareth D; Ndula, Miranda; Irving, Helen; Mzihalowa, Themba; Hemingway, Janet; Wondji, Charles S

    2017-02-01

    Insecticide resistance in mosquito populations threatens recent successes in malaria prevention. Elucidating patterns of genetic structure in malaria vectors to predict the speed and direction of the spread of resistance is essential to get ahead of the 'resistance curve' and to avert a public health catastrophe. Here, applying a combination of microsatellite analysis, whole genome sequencing and targeted sequencing of a resistance locus, we elucidated the continent-wide population structure of a major African malaria vector, Anopheles funestus. We identified a major selective sweep in a genomic region controlling cytochrome P450-based metabolic resistance conferring high resistance to pyrethroids. This selective sweep occurred since 2002, likely as a direct consequence of scaled up vector control as revealed by whole genome and fine-scale sequencing of pre- and post-intervention populations. Fine-scaled analysis of the pyrethroid resistance locus revealed that a resistance-associated allele of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP6P9a has swept through southern Africa to near fixation, in contrast to high polymorphism levels before interventions, conferring high levels of pyrethroid resistance linked to control failure. Population structure analysis revealed a barrier to gene flow between southern Africa and other areas, which may prevent or slow the spread of the southern mechanism of pyrethroid resistance to other regions. By identifying a genetic signature of pyrethroid-based interventions, we have demonstrated the intense selective pressure that control interventions exert on mosquito populations. If this level of selection and spread of resistance continues unabated, our ability to control malaria with current interventions will be compromised.

  12. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases

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    Tan Soo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to WHO member states and completed either by the director of the vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vector control. In all, 113 countries responded to the questionnaire (80% response rate, representing 94% of the total population of the countries targeted. Results Major gaps were evident in countries in pesticide procurement practices, training on vector control decision making, certification and quality control of pesticide application, monitoring of worker safety, public awareness programmes, and safe disposal of pesticide-related waste. Nevertheless, basic conditions of policy and coordination have been established in many countries through which the management of vector control pesticides could potentially be improved. Most countries responded that they have adopted relevant recommendations by the WHO. Conclusions Given the deficiencies identified in this first global survey on public health pesticide management and the recent rise in pesticide use for malaria control, the effectiveness and safety of pesticide use are being compromised. This highlights the urgent need for countries to strengthen their capacity on pesticide management and evidence-based decision making within the context of an integrated vector management approach.

  13. Ecological Niche Modeling For Spatial-Temporal Quantification Of The Changing Dynamics Of Malaria Vector Distribution In Kenya Under Climate Change Forcing

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    Jacinta S. Kimuyu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new study in Kenya has spatially quantified the paradigm shift in the current and future malaria vectors ecology by use of BIOCLIM True or False model with IPCC HADCM3 projected future climate under A2a scenario. The study was designed to correlate the effect of climate change as an explanatory variable among other factors on malaria vectors distribution in Kenya. There has been reported malaria cases in new Counties that were never malaria endemic zones thus the study seeks to research on ecological changes that can be as a result of changing environmental factors to support malaria vectors to thrive in new areas. Predictive modeling was done to investigate the spatial-temporal vector distribution under different IPCC future climate projections. The period from 1950 2000 was treated as the current climate scenario to explain where malaria vectors are existing as per vector spatial presence data and the prediction of the ecological niches where the vectors would also be found to thrive. Ecological Niche Modeling demonstrated significant alteration in suitability of malaria vector habitats in Kenya from the current ecological zones by the years 2020 2050 and 2080. Most of the current malaria ecological niches were found to remain suitable while others turned out to be unsuitable after projection although new malaria hotspots were found to emerge. Prediction by the year 2050 demonstrated an alarming expansion of suitable malaria ecologies. By 2080 the predictions showed that the suitable ecologies will start to revert similar to the earlier suitability as in the current climate. Therefore climate change in Kenya will adversely affect the environment at an alarming rate by 2050 but beyond that there will be a level of stabilization where further change will trigger reversal to the past climate. This change in unsuitable to suitable malaria habitats can negatively affect the national effort to fight malaria under the ongoing towards zero campaign

  14. malERA: An updated research agenda for diagnostics, drugs, vaccines, and vector control in malaria elimination and eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Since the turn of the century, a remarkable expansion has been achieved in the range and effectiveness of products and strategies available to prevent, treat, and control malaria, including advances in diagnostics, drugs, vaccines, and vector control. These advances have once again put malaria elimination on the agenda. However, it is clear that even with the means available today, malaria control and elimination pose a formidable challenge in many settings. Thus, currently available resources must be used more effectively, and new products and approaches likely to achieve these goals must be developed. This paper considers tools (both those available and others that may be required) to achieve and maintain malaria elimination. New diagnostics are needed to direct treatment and detect transmission potential; new drugs and vaccines to overcome existing resistance and protect against clinical and severe disease, as well as block transmission and prevent relapses; and new vector control measures to overcome insecticide resistance and more powerfully interrupt transmission. It is also essential that strategies for combining new and existing approaches are developed for different settings to maximise their longevity and effectiveness in areas with continuing transmission and receptivity. For areas where local elimination has been recently achieved, understanding which measures are needed to maintain elimination is necessary to prevent rebound and the reestablishment of transmission. This becomes increasingly important as more countries move towards elimination.

  15. Behavioural response of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to host plant volatiles and synthetic blends

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    Nyasembe Vincent O

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar feeding is critical for survival of malaria vectors and, although discriminative plant feeding previously has been shown to occur in Anopheles gambiae s.s., little is known about the cues mediating attraction to these plants. In this study, we investigated the role of olfaction in An. gambiae discriminative feeding behaviour. Methods Dual choice olfactometer assays were used to study odour discrimination by An. gambiae to three suspected host plants: Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae, Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae and Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae. Sugar content of the three plant species was determined by analysis of their trimethylsilyl derivatives by coupled gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS and confirmed with authentic standards. Volatiles from intact plants of the three species were collected on Super Q and analyzed by coupled GC-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD and GC-MS to identify electrophysiologically-active components whose identities were also confirmed with authentic standards. Active compounds and blends were formulated using dose–response olfactory bioassays. Responses of females were converted into preference indices and analyzed by chi-square tests. The amounts of common behaviourally-active components released by the three host plants were compared with one-way ANOVA. Results Overall, the sugar contents were similar in the two Asteraceae plants, P. hysterophorus and B. pilosa, but richer in R. communis. Odours released by P. hysterophorus were the most attractive, with those from B. pilosa being the least attractive to females in the olfactometer assays. Six EAD-active components identified were consistently detected by the antennae of adult females. The amounts of common antennally-active components released varied with the host plant, with the highest amounts released by P. hysterophorus. In dose–response assays, single compounds and blends of these components were attractive

  16. Thermal limits of wild and laboratory strains of two African malaria vector species, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus

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    Lyons Candice L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria affects large parts of the developing world and is responsible for almost 800,000 deaths annually. As climates change, concerns have arisen as to how this vector-borne disease will be impacted by changing rainfall patterns and warming temperatures. Despite the importance and controversy surrounding the impact of climate change on the potential spread of this disease, little information exists on the tolerances of several of the vector species themselves. Methods Using a ramping protocol (to assess critical thermal limits - CT and plunge protocol (to assess lethal temperature limits - LT information on the thermal tolerance of two of Africa’s important malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus was collected. The effects of age, thermal acclimation treatment, sex and strain (laboratory versus wild adults were investigated for CT determinations for each species. The effects of age and sex for adults and life stage (larvae, pupae, adults were investigated for LT determinations. Results In both species, females are more tolerant to low and high temperatures than males; larvae and pupae have higher upper lethal limits than do adults. Thermal acclimation of adults has large effects in some instances but small effects in others. Younger adults tend to be more tolerant of low or high temperatures than older age groups. Long-standing laboratory colonies are sufficiently similar in thermal tolerance to field-collected animals to provide reasonable surrogates when making inferences about wild population responses. Differences between these two vectors in their thermal tolerances, especially in larvae and pupae, are plausibly a consequence of different habitat utilization. Conclusions Limited plasticity is characteristic of the adults of these vector species relative to others examined to date, suggesting limited scope for within-generation change in thermal tolerance. These findings and the greater tolerance

  17. Morphometrical diagnosis of the malaria vectors Anopheles cruzii, An. homunculus and An. bellator

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    Lorenz Camila

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii is a primary vector of Plasmodium parasites in Brazil’s Atlantic Forest. Adult females of An. cruzii and An. homunculus, which is a secondary malaria vector, are morphologically similar and difficult to distinguish when using external morphological characteristics only. These two species may occur syntopically with An. bellator, which is also a potential vector of Plasmodium species and is morphologically similar to An. cruzii and An. homunculus. Identification of these species based on female specimens is often jeopardised by polymorphisms, overlapping morphological characteristics and damage caused to specimens during collection. Wing geometric morphometrics has been used to distinguish several insect species; however, this economical and powerful tool has not been applied to Kerteszia species. Our objective was to assess wing geometry to distinguish An. cruzii, An. homunculus and An. bellator. Methods Specimens were collected in an area in the Serra do Mar hotspot biodiversity corridor of the Atlantic Forest biome (Cananeia municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The right wings of females of An. cruzii (n= 40, An. homunculus (n= 50 and An. bellator (n= 27 were photographed. For each individual, 18 wing landmarks were subjected to standard geometric morphometrics. Discriminant analysis of Procrustean coordinates was performed to quantify wing shape variation. Results Individuals clustered into three distinct groups according to species with a slight overlap between representatives of An. cruzii and An. homunculus. The Mahalanobis distance between An. cruzii and An. homunculus was consistently lower (3.50 than that between An. cruzii and An. bellator (4.58 or An. homunculus and An. bellator (4.32. Pairwise cross-validated reclassification showed that geometric morphometrics is an effective analytical method to distinguish between An. bellator, An. cruzii and An. homunculus with a reliability

  18. A pre-intervention study of malaria vector abundance in Rio Muni, Equatorial Guinea: Their role in malaria transmission and the incidence of insecticide resistance alleles

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    Mohloai Peter

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the success of the malaria control intervention on the island of Bioko, malaria control by the use of indoor residual spraying (IRS and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLITN was extended to Rio Muni, on the mainland part of Equatorial Guinea. This manuscript reports on the malaria vectors present and the incidence of insecticide resistant alleles prior to the onset of the programme. Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were captured daily using window traps at 30 sentinel sites in Rio Muni, from December 2006 to July 2007. The mosquitoes were identified to species and their sporozoite rates, knockdown resistance (kdr and acetylcholinesterase (AChE sensitivity measured, to define the role of vector species in malaria transmission and their potential susceptibility to insecticides. Results A total of 6,162 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected of which 4,808 were morphologically identified as Anopheles gambiae s.l., 120 Anopheles funestus, 1,069 Anopheles moucheti, and 165 Anopheles nili s.l.. Both M and S molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles melas were identified. Anopheles ovengensis and Anopheles carnevalei were the only two members of the An. nili group to be identified. Using the species-specific sporozoite rates and the average number of mosquitoes per night, the number of infective mosquitoes per trap per 100 nights for each species complex was calculated as a measure of transmission risk. Both kdr-w and kdr-e alleles were present in the S-form of An. gambiae s.s. (59% and 19% respectively and at much lower frequencies in the M-form (9.7% and 1.8% respectively. The kdr-w and kdr-e alleles co-occurred in 103 S-form and 1 M-form specimens. No insensitive AChE was detected. Conclusion Anopheles gambiae s.s, a member of the Anopheles gambiae complex was shown to be the major vector in Rio Muni with the other three groups playing a relatively minor role in transmission. The demonstration of a high

  19. Reduced susceptibility to selected synthetic pyrethroids in urban malaria vector Anopheles stephensi: a case study in Mangalore city, South India

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    Dash Aditya P

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic pyrethroids are potent insecticides most commonly used in the vector control programme. These are applied for indoor residual sprays, space sprays and in impregnated bed nets. Resistance reduces the efficacy of insecticides. Thus, the susceptibility status of the target vector(s is monitored routinely to select the effective ones. A study was undertaken in a malaria endemic coastal city Mangalore, Karnataka, South India, against the known malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Methods The susceptibility status was assessed at diagnostic doses of DDT (4%, malathion (5%, deltamethrin (0.05%, cyfluthrin (0.15%, alphacypermethrin (0.10%, lambdacyhalothrin (0.05% and permethrin (0.75% using the standard WHO tube test method during October/November 2006. Results Anopheles stephensi was resistant to malathion by 54.9%, but tolerant to deltamethrin by 86.1%, cyfluthrin 95.5% and alphacypermethrin 90.6%, whereas it was susceptible to DDT by 98.1%, lambdacyhalothrin 98.6% and permethrin 100.0%, respectively. The KDT50 and KDT95 values for these insecticides also showed the similar responses. Conclusion Susceptibility of An. stephensi to DDT is an important finding as this has never been used in Mangalore city, whereas its rural counterpart Anopheles culicifacies is widely resistant to this insecticide. The study explores the selection and rotation of the appropriate insecticide molecule even within the same group for effective vector management.

  20. Landscape movements of Anopheles gambiae malaria vector mosquitoes in rural Gambia.

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    Christopher J Thomas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For malaria control in Africa it is crucial to characterise the dispersal of its most efficient vector, Anopheles gambiae, in order to target interventions and assess their impact spatially. Our study is, we believe, the first to present a statistical model of dispersal probability against distance from breeding habitat to human settlements for this important disease vector. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook post-hoc analyses of mosquito catches made in The Gambia to derive statistical dispersal functions for An. gambiae sensu lato collected in 48 villages at varying distances to alluvial larval habitat along the River Gambia. The proportion dispersing declined exponentially with distance, and we estimated that 90% of movements were within 1.7 km. Although a 'heavy-tailed' distribution is considered biologically more plausible due to active dispersal by mosquitoes seeking blood meals, there was no statistical basis for choosing it over a negative exponential distribution. Using a simple random walk model with daily survival and movements previously recorded in Burkina Faso, we were able to reproduce the dispersal probabilities observed in The Gambia. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide an important quantification of the probability of An. gambiae s.l. dispersal in a rural African setting typical of many parts of the continent. However, dispersal will be landscape specific and in order to generalise to other spatial configurations of habitat and hosts it will be necessary to produce tractable models of mosquito movements for operational use. We show that simple random walk models have potential. Consequently, there is a pressing need for new empirical studies of An. gambiae survival and movements in different settings to drive this development.

  1. The relationship between reproductive outcome measures in DDT exposed malaria vector control workers: a cross-sectional study

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    Myers Jonathan E

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The utility of blood reproductive endocrine biomarkers for assessing or estimating semen quality was explored. Methods A cross-sectional study of 47 DDT exposed malaria vector control workers was performed. Tests included blood basal and post gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH, lutenizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, estradiol (E2 and inhibin; a questionnaire (demographics and general medical history; a physical examination and semen analysis. Semen parameters were determined using either/or or both WHO or the strict Tygerberg criteria. Relationships between semen parameters and endocrine measures were adjusted for age, duration of abstinence before sampling, presence of physical abnormalities and fever in the last two months. All relationships between specific endocrine hormones were adjusted for age and basal SHBG. Results Multiple logistic regression showed a consistent positive relationship (prevalence odds ratio (POR = 8.2, CI:1.4–49.2 between low basal inhibin ( POR 50 pg/ml and abnormal morphology (proportion Conclusion The study has demonstrated that low basal inhibin, elevated basal FSH and high basal E2 can serve as markers of impaired semen quality.

  2. SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF MALARIA VECTORS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE IN RURAL LOCALITIES OF PORTO VELHO, RONDÔNIA, BRAZILIAN AMAZON

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    Luiz Herman Soares GIL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a survey of the malaria vectors in an area where a power line had been constructed, between the municipalities of Porto Velho and Rio Branco, in the states of Rondônia and Acre, respectively. The present paper relates to the results of the survey of Anopheles fauna conducted in the state of Rondônia. Mosquito field collections were performed in six villages along the federal highway BR 364 in the municipality of Porto Velho, namely Porto Velho, Jaci Paraná, Mutum Paraná, Vila Abunã, Vista Alegre do Abunã, and Extrema. Mosquito captures were performed at three distinct sites in each locality during the months of February, July, and October 2011 using a protected human-landing catch method; outdoor and indoor captures were conducted simultaneously at each site for six hours. In the six sampled areas, we captured 2,185 mosquitoes belonging to seven Anopheles species. Of these specimens, 95.1% consisted of Anopheles darlingi, 1.8% An. triannulatus l.s., 1.7% An. deaneorum, 0.8% An. konderi l.s., 0.4 An. braziliensis, 0.1% An. albitarsis l.s., and 0.1% An. benarrochi. An. darlingi was the only species found in all localities; the remaining species occurred in sites with specific characteristics.

  3. Suboptimal Larval Habitats Modulate Oviposition of the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii.

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    Eunho Suh

    Full Text Available Selection of oviposition sites by gravid females is a critical behavioral step in the reproductive cycle of Anopheles coluzzii, which is one of the principal Afrotropical malaria vector mosquitoes. Several studies suggest this decision is mediated by semiochemicals associated with potential oviposition sites. To better understand the chemosensory basis of this behavior and identify compounds that can modulate oviposition, we examined the generally held hypothesis that suboptimal larval habitats give rise to semiochemicals that negatively influence the oviposition preference of gravid females. Dual-choice bioassays indicated that oviposition sites conditioned in this manner do indeed foster significant and concentration dependent aversive effects on the oviposition site selection of gravid females. Headspace analyses derived from aversive habitats consistently noted the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS, dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (sulcatone each of which unitarily affected An. coluzzii oviposition preference. Electrophysiological assays across the antennae, maxillary palp, and labellum of gravid An. coluzzii revealed differential responses to these semiochemicals. Taken together, these findings validate the hypothesis in question and suggest that suboptimal environments for An. coluzzii larval development results in the release of DMDS, DMTS and sulcatone that impact the response valence of gravid females.

  4. Genome-Wide Divergence in the West-African Malaria Vector Anopheles melas

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    Kevin C. Deitz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles melas is a member of the recently diverged An. gambiae species complex, a model for speciation studies, and is a locally important malaria vector along the West-African coast where it breeds in brackish water. A recent population genetic study of An. melas revealed species-level genetic differentiation between three population clusters. An. melas West extends from The Gambia to the village of Tiko, Cameroon. The other mainland cluster, An. melas South, extends from the southern Cameroonian village of Ipono to Angola. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea An. melas populations are genetically isolated from mainland populations. To examine how genetic differentiation between these An. melas forms is distributed across their genomes, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of genetic differentiation and selection using whole genome sequencing data of pooled individuals (Pool-seq from a representative population of each cluster. The An. melas forms exhibit high levels of genetic differentiation throughout their genomes, including the presence of numerous fixed differences between clusters. Although the level of divergence between the clusters is on a par with that of other species within the An. gambiae complex, patterns of genome-wide divergence and diversity do not provide evidence for the presence of pre- and/or postmating isolating mechanisms in the form of speciation islands. These results are consistent with an allopatric divergence process with little or no introgression.

  5. Mosquito repellent potential of Pithecellobium dulce leaf and seed against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Mohan Rajeswary

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the repellent properties of hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol extract of Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce leaf and seed against Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi. Methods: Repellent activity assay was carried out in a net cage (45 cm × 30 cm × 25 cm containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes of An. stephensi. This assay was carried out in the laboratory conditions according to the WHO 2009 protocol. Plant crude extracts of P. dulce were applied at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm2 separately in the exposed fore arm of study subjects. Ethanol was used as the sole control. Results: In this study, the applied plant crude extracts were observed to protect against mosquito bites. There were no allergic reactions experienced by the study subjects. The repellent activity of the extract was dependent on the concentration of the extract. Among the tested solvents, the leaf and seed methanol extract showed the maximum efficacy. The highest concentration of 5.0 mg/cm2 leaf and seed methanol extract of P. dulce provided over 180 min and 150 min protection, respectively. Conclusions: Crude extracts of P. dulce exhibit the potential for controlling malaria vector mosquito An. stephensi.

  6. The role of proboscis of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi in host-seeking behavior

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    Yoshimura Aya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proboscis is an essential head appendage in insects that processes gustatory code during food intake, particularly useful considering that blood-sucking arthropods routinely reach vessels under the host skin using this proboscis as a probe. Results Here, using an automated device able to quantify CO2-activated thermo (35°C-sensing behavior of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, we uncovered that the protruding proboscis of mosquitoes contributes unexpectedly to host identification from a distance. Ablation experiments indicated that not only antennae and maxillary palps, but also proboscis were required for the identification of pseudo-thermo targets. Furthermore, the function of the proboscis during this behavior can be segregated from CO2 detection required to evoke mosquito activation, suggesting that the proboscis of mosquitoes divide the proboscis into a "thermo-antenna" in addition to a "thermo-probe". Conclusions Our findings support an emerging view with a possible role of proboscis as important equipment during host-seeking, and give us an insight into how these appendages likely evolved from a common origin in order to function as antenna organs.

  7. Patterns of selection in anti-malarial immune genes in malaria vectors: evidence for adaptive evolution in LRIM1 in Anopheles arabiensis.

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    Michel A Slotman

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Co-evolution between Plasmodium species and its vectors may result in adaptive changes in genes that are crucial components of the vector's defense against the pathogen. By analyzing which genes show evidence of positive selection in malaria vectors, but not in closely related non-vectors, we can identify genes that are crucial for the mosquito's resistance against Plasmodium.We investigated genetic variation of three anti-malarial genes; CEC1, GNBP-B1 and LRIM1, in both vector and non-vector species of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Whereas little protein differentiation was observed between species in CEC1 and GNBP-B1, McDonald-Kreitman and maximum likelihood tests of positive selection show that LRIM1 underwent adaptive evolution in a primary malaria vector; An. arabiensis. In particular, two adjacent codons show clear signs of adaptation by having accumulated three out of four replacement substitutions. Furthermore, our data indicate that this LRIM1 allele has introgressed from An. arabiensis into the other main malaria vector An. gambiae.Although no evidence exists to link the adaptation of LRIM1 to P. falciparum infection, an adaptive response of a known anti-malarial gene in a primary malaria vector is intriguing, and may suggest that this gene could play a role in Plasmodium resistance in An. arabiensis. If so, our data also predicts that LRIM1 alleles in An. gambiae vary in their level of resistance against P. falciparum.

  8. Parasite Killing in Malaria Non-Vector Mosquito Anopheles culicifacies Species B: Implication of Nitric Oxide Synthase Upregulation

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    Vijay, Sonam; Rawat, Manmeet; Adak, Tridibes; Dixit, Rajnikant; Nanda, Nutan; Srivastava, Harish; Sharma, Joginder K.; Prasad, Godavarthi B. K. S.; Sharma, Arun

    2011-01-01

    Background Anopheles culicifacies, the main vector of human malaria in rural India, is a complex of five sibling species. Despite being phylogenetically related, a naturally selected subgroup species B of this sibling species complex is found to be a poor vector of malaria. We have attempted to understand the differences between vector and non-vector Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes in terms of transcriptionally activated nitric oxide synthase (AcNOS) physiologies to elucidate the mechanism of refractoriness. Identification of the differences between genes and gene products that may impart refractory phenotype can facilitate development of novel malaria transmission blocking strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a study on phylogenetically related susceptible (species A) and refractory (species B) sibling species of An. culicifacies mosquitoes to characterize biochemical and molecular differences in AcNOS gene and gene elements and their ability to inhibit oocyst growth. We demonstrate that in species B, AcNOS specific activity and nitrite/nitrates in mid-guts and haemolymph were higher as compared to species A after invasion of the mid-gut by P. vivax at the beginning and during the course of blood feeding. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and real time PCR data of AcNOS concluded that this gene is more abundantly expressed in midgut of species B than in species A and is transcriptionally upregulated post blood meals. Dietary feeding of L-NAME along with blood meals significantly inhibited midgut AcNOS activity leading to an increase in oocyst production in An. culicifacies species B. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that upregulation of mosquito innate cytotoxicity due to NOS in refractory strain to Plasmodium vivax infection may contribute to natural refractoriness in An. culicifacies mosquito population. This innate capacity of refractory mosquitoes could represent the ancestral function of the mosquito immune system against the parasite and

  9. Cuticle thickening associated with pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus

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    Coetzee M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria in South Africa is primarily transmitted by Anopheles funestus Giles. Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in An. funestus in northern Kwazulu/Natal, South Africa, and in neighbouring areas of southern Mozambique enabled populations of this species to increase their ranges into areas where pyrethroids were being exclusively used for malaria control. Pyrethroid resistance in southern African An. funestus is primarily conferred by monooxygenase enzyme metabolism. However, selection for this resistance mechanism is likely to have occurred in conjunction with other factors that improve production of the resistance phenotype. A strong candidate is cuticle thickening. This is because thicker cuticles lead to slower rates of insecticide absorption, which is likely to increase the efficiency of metabolic detoxification. Results Measures of mean cuticle thickness in laboratory samples of female An. funestus were obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. These females were drawn from a laboratory colony carrying the pyrethroid resistance phenotype at a stable rate, but not fixed. Prior to cuticle thickness measurements, these samples were characterised as either more or less tolerant to permethrin exposure in one experiment, and either permethrin resistant or susceptible in another experiment. There was a significant and positive correlation between mean cuticle thickness and time to knock down during exposure to permethrin. Mean cuticle thickness was significantly greater in those samples characterised either as more tolerant or resistant to permethrin exposure compared to those characterised as either less tolerant or permethrin susceptible. Further, insecticide susceptible female An. funestus have thicker cuticles than their male counterparts. Conclusion Pyrethroid tolerant or resistant An. funestus females are likely to have thicker cuticles than less tolerant or susceptible females, and females generally have

  10. Evaluation of Insecticides Susceptibility and Malaria Vector Potential of Anopheles annularis s.l. and Anopheles vagus in Assam, India.

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    Dhiman, Sunil; Yadav, Kavita; Rabha, Bipul; Goswami, Diganta; Hazarika, S; Tyagi, Varun

    2016-01-01

    During the recent past, development of DDT resistance and reduction to pyrethroid susceptibility among the malaria vectors has posed a serious challenge in many Southeast Asian countries including India. Current study presents the insecticide susceptibility and knock-down data of field collected Anopheles annularis sensu lato and An. vagus mosquito species from endemic areas of Assam in northeast India. Anopheles annularis s.l. and An. vagus adult females were collected from four randomly selected sentinel sites in Orang primary health centre (OPHC) and Balipara primary health centre (BPHC) areas, and used for testing susceptibility to DDT, malathion, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. After insecticide susceptibility tests, mosquitoes were subjected to VectorTest™ assay kits to detect the presence of malaria sporozoite in the mosquitoes. An. annularis s.l. was completely susceptible to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and malathion in both the study areas. An. vagus was highly susceptible to deltamethrin in both the areas, but exhibited reduced susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin in BPHC. Both the species were resistant to DDT and showed very high KDT50 and KDT99 values for DDT. Probit model used to calculate the KDT50 and KDT99 values did not display normal distribution of percent knock-down with time for malathion in both the mosquito species in OPHC (p<0.05) and An. vagus in BPHC (χ2 = 25.3; p = 0.0), and also for deltamethrin to An. vagus in BPHC area (χ2 = 15.4; p = 0.004). Minimum infection rate (MIR) of Plasmodium sporozoite for An. vagus was 0.56 in OPHC and 0.13 in BPHC, while for An. annularis MIR was found to be 0.22 in OPHC. Resistance management strategies should be identified to delay the expansion of resistance. Testing of field caught Anopheles vectors from different endemic areas for the presence of malaria sporozoite may be useful to ensure their role in malaria transmission.

  11. Evaluation of Insecticides Susceptibility and Malaria Vector Potential of Anopheles annularis s.l. and Anopheles vagus in Assam, India.

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    Sunil Dhiman

    Full Text Available During the recent past, development of DDT resistance and reduction to pyrethroid susceptibility among the malaria vectors has posed a serious challenge in many Southeast Asian countries including India. Current study presents the insecticide susceptibility and knock-down data of field collected Anopheles annularis sensu lato and An. vagus mosquito species from endemic areas of Assam in northeast India. Anopheles annularis s.l. and An. vagus adult females were collected from four randomly selected sentinel sites in Orang primary health centre (OPHC and Balipara primary health centre (BPHC areas, and used for testing susceptibility to DDT, malathion, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. After insecticide susceptibility tests, mosquitoes were subjected to VectorTest™ assay kits to detect the presence of malaria sporozoite in the mosquitoes. An. annularis s.l. was completely susceptible to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and malathion in both the study areas. An. vagus was highly susceptible to deltamethrin in both the areas, but exhibited reduced susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin in BPHC. Both the species were resistant to DDT and showed very high KDT50 and KDT99 values for DDT. Probit model used to calculate the KDT50 and KDT99 values did not display normal distribution of percent knock-down with time for malathion in both the mosquito species in OPHC (p<0.05 and An. vagus in BPHC (χ2 = 25.3; p = 0.0, and also for deltamethrin to An. vagus in BPHC area (χ2 = 15.4; p = 0.004. Minimum infection rate (MIR of Plasmodium sporozoite for An. vagus was 0.56 in OPHC and 0.13 in BPHC, while for An. annularis MIR was found to be 0.22 in OPHC. Resistance management strategies should be identified to delay the expansion of resistance. Testing of field caught Anopheles vectors from different endemic areas for the presence of malaria sporozoite may be useful to ensure their role in malaria transmission.

  12. Distribution of the Habitat Suitability of the Main Malaria Vector in French Guiana Using Maximum Entropy Modeling.

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    Moua, Yi; Roux, Emmanuel; Girod, Romain; Dusfour, Isabelle; de Thoisy, Benoit; Seyler, Frédérique; Briolant, Sébastien

    2017-05-01

    Malaria is an important health issue in French Guiana. Its principal mosquito vector in this region is Anopheles darlingi Root. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of this species is still very incomplete due to the extent of French Guiana and the difficulty to access most of the territory. Species distribution modeling based on the maximal entropy procedure was used to predict the spatial distribution of An. darlingi using 39 presence sites. The resulting model provided significantly high prediction performances (mean 10-fold cross-validated partial area under the curve and continuous Boyce index equal to, respectively, 1.11-with a level of omission error of 20%-and 0.42). The model also provided a habitat suitability map and environmental response curves in accordance with the known entomological situation. Several environmental characteristics that had a positive correlation with the presence of An. darlingi were highlighted: nonpermanent anthropogenic changes of the natural environment, the presence of roads and tracks, and opening of the forest. Some geomorphological landforms and high altitude landscapes appear to be unsuitable for An. darlingi. The species distribution modeling was able to reliably predict the distribution of suitable habitats for An. darlingi in French Guiana. Results allowed completion of the knowledge of the spatial distribution of the principal malaria vector in this Amazonian region, and identification of the main factors that favor its presence. They should contribute to the definition of a necessary targeted vector control strategy in a malaria pre-elimination stage, and allow extrapolation of the acquired knowledge to other Amazonian or malaria-endemic contexts. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Analysis of a vector-bias effect in the spread of malaria between two different incidence areas.

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    Kim, Sungchan; Masud, M A; Cho, Giphil; Jung, Il Hyo

    2017-04-21

    In 2005, Lacroix et al. demonstrated that infected humans are more attractive to mosquitoes, a phenomenon known as the vector-bias effect. The aim of this study was to determine how a vector-bias effect affects the changes in the dynamics of malaria transmission, and the changes in control strategies and cost-effectiveness for optimal control considering the regional characteristics or force of infections for different transmission rates. We used a vector-bias mathematical model and considered two different incidence areas: a high transmission area and a low transmission area. Our results showed that the dynamics in the two areas differed; as bias exists and the strategy for optimal control could be changed in the different areas. Thus, this work may give that considering the vector-bias effect in different areas facilitates prediction of the future dynamics and make decisions for establishing controls. We also mention the evolution of malaria parasites in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Climate change and vector-borne diseases: an economic impact analysis of malaria in Africa.

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    Egbendewe-Mondzozo, Aklesso; Musumba, Mark; McCarl, Bruce A; Wu, Ximing

    2011-03-01

    A semi-parametric econometric model is used to study the relationship between malaria cases and climatic factors in 25 African countries. Results show that a marginal change in temperature and precipitation levels would lead to a significant change in the number of malaria cases for most countries by the end of the century. Consistent with the existing biophysical malaria model results, the projected effects of climate change are mixed. Our model projects that some countries will see an increase in malaria cases but others will see a decrease. We estimate projected malaria inpatient and outpatient treatment costs as a proportion of annual 2000 health expenditures per 1,000 people. We found that even under minimal climate change scenario, some countries may see their inpatient treatment cost of malaria increase more than 20%.

  15. Climate Change and Vector-borne Diseases: An Economic Impact Analysis of Malaria in Africa

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    Ximing Wu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A semi-parametric econometric model is used to study the relationship between malaria cases and climatic factors in 25 African countries. Results show that a marginal change in temperature and precipitation levels would lead to a significant change in the number of malaria cases for most countries by the end of the century. Consistent with the existing biophysical malaria model results, the projected effects of climate change are mixed. Our model projects that some countries will see an increase in malaria cases but others will see a decrease. We estimate projected malaria inpatient and outpatient treatment costs as a proportion of annual 2000 health expenditures per 1,000 people. We found that even under minimal climate change scenario, some countries may see their inpatient treatment cost of malaria increase more than 20%.

  16. Differential antibody response to the Anopheles gambiae gSG6 and cE5 salivary proteins in individuals naturally exposed to bites of malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Cinzia; Lombardo, Fabrizio; Ronca, Raffaele; Mangano, Valentina; Sirima, Sodiomon Bienvenu; Nèbiè, Issa; Fiorentino, Gabriella; Modiano, David; Arcà, Bruno

    2014-11-28

    Mosquito saliva plays crucial roles in blood feeding but also evokes in hosts an anti-saliva antibody response. The IgG response to the Anopheles gambiae salivary protein gSG6 was previously shown to be a reliable indicator of human exposure to Afrotropical malaria vectors. We analyzed here the humoral response to the salivary anti-thrombin cE5 in a group of individuals from a malaria hyperendemic area of Burkina Faso. ELISA was used to measure the anti-cE5 IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 antibody levels in plasma samples collected in the village of Barkoumbilen (Burkina Faso) among individuals of the Rimaibé ethnic group. Anti-gSG6 IgG levels were also determined for comparison. Anopheles vector density in the study area was evaluated by indoor pyrethrum spray catches. The cE5 protein was highly immunogenic and triggered in exposed individuals a relatively long-lasting antibody response, as shown by its unchanged persistence after a few months of absent or very low exposure (dry season). In addition cE5 did not induce immune tolerance, as previously suggested for the gSG6 antigen. Finally, IgG subclass analysis suggested that exposed individuals may mount a Th1-type immune response against the cE5 protein. The anti-cE5 IgG response is shown here to be a sensitive indicator of human exposure to anopheline vectors and to represent an additional tool for malaria epidemiological studies. It may be especially useful in conditions of low vector density, to monitor transiently exposed individuals (i.e. travellers/workers/soldiers spending a few months in tropical Africa) and to evaluate the impact of insecticide treated nets on vector control. Moreover, the gSG6 and cE5 salivary proteins were shown to trigger in exposed individuals a strikingly different immune response with (i) gSG6 evoking a short-lived IgG response, characterized by high IgG4 levels and most likely induction of immune tolerance, and (ii) cE5 eliciting a longer-living IgG response, dominated by anti-cE5 IgG1

  17. Alternative treatments for indoor residual spraying for malaria control in a village with pyrethroid- and DDT-resistant vectors in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangena, J.A.A.; Adiamoh, M.; Alessandro, D' U.; Jarju, L.; Jawara, M.; Jeffries, D.; Malik, N.; Nwakanma, D.; Kaur, H.; Takken, W.; Lindsay, S.W.; Pinder, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Malaria vector control is threatened by resistance to pyrethroids, the only class of insecticides used for treating bed nets. The second major vector control method is indoor residual spraying with pyrethroids or the organochloride DDT. However, resistance to pyrethroids frequently

  18. Melanotic pathology and vertical transmission of the gut commensal Elizabethkingia meningoseptica in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

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    Idir G Akhouayri

    Full Text Available The resident gut flora is known to have significant impacts on the life history of the host organism. Endosymbiotic bacterial species in the Anopheles mosquito gut are potent modulators of sexual development of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, and thus proposed as potential control agents of malaria transmission.Here we report a melanotic pathology in the major African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, caused by the dominant mosquito endosymbiont Elizabethkingiameningoseptica. Transfer of melanised tissues into the haemolymph of healthy adult mosquitoes or direct haemolymph inoculation with isolated E. meningoseptica bacteria were the only means for transmission and de novo formation of melanotic lesions, specifically in the fat body tissues of recipient individuals. We show that E. meningoseptica can be vertically transmitted from eggs to larvae and that E. meningoseptica-mono-associated mosquitoes display significant mortality, which is further enhanced upon Plasmodium infection, suggesting a synergistic impact of E. meningoseptica and Plasmodium on mosquito survival.The high pathogenicity and permanent association of E. meningoseptica with An. Gambiae through vertical transmission constitute attractive characteristics towards the potential design of novel mosquito/malaria biocontrol strategies.

  19. Development and assessment of plant-based synthetic odor baits for surveillance and control of malaria vectors.

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    Vincent O Nyasembe

    Full Text Available Recent malaria vector control measures have considerably reduced indoor biting mosquito populations. However, reducing the outdoor biting populations remains a challenge because of the unavailability of appropriate lures to achieve this. This study sought to test the efficacy of plant-based synthetic odor baits in trapping outdoor populations of malaria vectors.Three plant-based lures ((E-linalool oxide [LO], (E-linalool oxide and (E-β-ocimene [LO + OC], and a six-component blend comprising (E-linalool oxide, (E-β-ocimene, hexanal, β-pinene, limonene, and (E-β-farnesene [Blend C], were tested alongside an animal/human-based synthetic lure (comprising heptanal, octanal, nonanal, and decanal [Blend F] and worn socks in a malaria endemic zone in the western part of Kenya. Mosquito Magnet-X (MM-X and lightless Centre for Disease Control (CDC light traps were used. Odor-baited traps were compared with traps baited with either solvent alone or solvent + carbon dioxide (controls for 18 days in a series of randomized incomplete-block designs of days × sites × treatments. The interactive effect of plant and animal/human odor was also tested by combining LO with either Blend F or worn socks. Our results show that irrespective of trap type, traps baited with synthetic plant odors compared favorably to the same traps baited with synthetic animal odors and worn socks in trapping malaria vectors, relative to the controls. Combining LO and worn socks enhanced trap captures of Anopheles species while LO + Blend F recorded reduced trap capture. Carbon dioxide enhanced total trap capture of both plant- and animal/human-derived odors. However, significantly higher proportions of male and engorged female Anopheles gambiae s.l. were caught when the odor treatments did not include carbon dioxide.The results highlight the potential of plant-based odors and specifically linalool oxide, with or without carbon dioxide, for surveillance and mass trapping of malaria

  20. A Regional Model for Malaria Vector Developmental Habitats Evaluated Using Explicit, Pond-Resolving Surface Hydrology Simulations.

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    Asare, Ernest Ohene; Tompkins, Adrian Mark; Bomblies, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Dynamical malaria models can relate precipitation to the availability of vector breeding sites using simple models of surface hydrology. Here, a revised scheme is developed for the VECTRI malaria model, which is evaluated alongside the default scheme using a two year simulation by HYDREMATS, a 10 metre resolution, village-scale model that explicitly simulates individual ponds. Despite the simplicity of the two VECTRI surface hydrology parametrization schemes, they can reproduce the sub-seasonal evolution of fractional water coverage. Calibration of the model parameters is required to simulate the mean pond fraction correctly. The default VECTRI model tended to overestimate water fraction in periods subject to light rainfall events and underestimate it during periods of intense rainfall. This systematic error was improved in the revised scheme by including the a parametrization for surface run-off, such that light rainfall below the initial abstraction threshold does not contribute to ponds. After calibration of the pond model, the VECTRI model was able to simulate vector densities that compared well to the detailed agent based model contained in HYDREMATS without further parameter adjustment. Substituting local rain-gauge data with satellite-retrieved precipitation gave a reasonable approximation, raising the prospects for regional malaria simulations even in data sparse regions. However, further improvements could be made if a method can be derived to calibrate the key hydrology parameters of the pond model in each grid cell location, possibly also incorporating slope and soil texture.

  1. Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Tom E; Beeching, N J

    2013-09-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease, with its largest impact being due to Plasmodium falciparum infection in Africa. Military populations continue to be at a high risk of malaria and reported case series have frequently revealed poor compliance with preventative measures. The symptoms of malaria are non-specific and its management depends on awareness of the diagnosis and early recognition and treatment. This is aided by new and simple rapid diagnostic tests, but these should not replace the examination of blood films if these are available. Artemisinin combination therapy provides a more rapid and dependable cure of uncomplicated P falciparum infection, with artesunate now being the drug of choice in severe infection.

  2. Malaria Transmission Risk Factor In West Java (Epidemiology Study About Vector, Plasmodium parasite and Environmental Risk Factors For Malaria Cases

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    Lukman Hakim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the territory is divided with the province of Banten, in West Java there are five regencies that defined as malaria endemic area, there are Ciamis, Tasikmalaya, Garut, Cianjur and Sukabumi. Sufferer, concentrated in southern coastal areas (Indonesian Ocean starting from the beach of Kalipucang at Ciamis up to coast of Cikakak at Sukabumi which borders the province of Banten and also mountain and plantations areas. Malaria morbidity incidence risk factors is differ in each of these endemic areas. In general is the presence of malaria patients without symptoms who can be a source of infection that so difficult to know its existence. Still the number of standing water that can become mosqui-to breeding places of Anopheles spp, such as fish pond, small puddle on the riverside, shrimp pond, mangrove forests that potentially at the beginning of the rainy season, the fields during rice that potential when the rice growing and the river that potential in the dry season. The existence of high population mobility and also the number of vegetation in the surrounding residential population and the existence of cattle are placed close to settle-ments.

  3. Impact assessment of malaria vector control using routine surveillance data in Zambia: implications for monitoring and evaluation

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    Chanda Emmanuel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS, with pyrethroids and DDT, to reduce malaria transmission has been expansively implemented in Zambia. The impact of these interventions on malaria morbidity and mortality has not previously been formally assessed at the population level in Zambia. Methods The impact of IRS (15 urban districts and LLINs (15 rural districts implementation on severe malaria cases, deaths and case fatality rates in children below the age of five years were compared. Zambian national Health Management Information System data from 2007 to 2008 were retrospectively analysed to assess the epidemiological impact of the two interventions using odds ratios to compare the pre-scaling up year 2007 with the scaling-up year 2008. Results Overall there were marked reductions in morbidity and mortality, with cases, deaths and case fatality rates (CFR of severe malaria decreasing by 31%, 63% and 62%, respectively between 2007 and 2008. In urban districts with IRS introduction there was a significant reduction in mortality (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.31-0.43, P = 0.015, while the reduction in mortality in rural districts with LLINs implementation was not significant (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.67-1.04, P = 0.666. A similar pattern was observed for case fatality rates with a significant reduction in urban districts implementing IRS (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.33-0.36, P = 0.005, but not in rural districts implementing LLINs (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.00, P = 0.913. No substantial difference was detected in overall reduction of malaria cases between districts implementing IRS and LLINs (P = 0.933. Conclusion Routine surveillance data proved valuable for determining the temporal effects of malaria control with two strategies, IRS and LLINs on severe malaria disease in different types of Zambian districts. However, this analysis did not take into account the effect

  4. Laboratory evaluation of Indian medicinal plants as repellents against malaria, dengue, and filariasis vector mosquitoes.

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    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2015-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, in the present study, the repellent activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaf of Erythrina indica and root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their repellency against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The crude extract was applied on a membrane used for membrane feeding of unfed mosquitoes in a 1-ft cage. About 50 unfed 3-4-day-old laboratory-reared pathogen-free strains of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus were introduced in a 1-ft cage fitted with a membrane with blood for feeding with temperature maintained at 37 °C through circulating water bath maintained at 40-45 °C. Three concentrations (1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg/cm(2)) of the crude extracts were evaluated. Repellents in E. indica afforded longer protection time against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus than those in A. racemosus at 5.0 mg/cm(2) concentration, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 210 min with the different extracts tested. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites; also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf extract of E. indica and root extract of A. racemosus have the potential to

  5. Mosquitoes as potential bridge vectors of malaria parasites from non-human primates to humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Smallegange, R.C.; Takken, W.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites which are transmitted by mosquitoes. Until recently, human malaria was considered to be caused by human-specific Plasmodium species. Studies on Plasmodium parasites in non-human primates (NHPs), however, have identified parasite species in gorillas and

  6. Stress dependent infection cost of the human malaria agent Plasmodium falciparum on its natural vector Anopheles coluzzii.

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    Sangare, I; Dabire, R; Yameogo, B; Da, D F; Michalakis, Y; Cohuet, A

    2014-07-01

    Unraveling selective forces that shape vector-parasite interactions has critical implications for malaria control. However, it remains unclear whether Plasmodium infection induces a fitness cost to their natural mosquito vectors. Moreover, environmental conditions are known to affect infection outcome and may impact the effect of infection on mosquito fitness. We investigated in the laboratory the effects of exposition to and infection by field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum on fecundity and survival of a major vector in the field, Anopheles coluzzii under different conditions of access to sugar resources after blood feeding. The results evidenced fitness costs induced by exposition and infection. When sugar was available after blood meal, infected and exposed mosquitoes had either reduced or equal to survival to unexposed mosquitoes while fecundity was either increased or decreased depending on the blood donor. Under strong nutritional stress, survival was reduced for exposed and infected mosquitoes in all assays. We therefore provide here evidence of an environmental-dependant reduced survival in mosquitoes exposed to infection in a natural and one of the most important parasite-mosquito species associations for human malaria transmission. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. New evidence of mating swarms of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindoa, Emmanuel W; Ngowo, Halfan S; Limwagu, Alex; Mkandawile, Gustav; Kihonda, Japhet; Masalu, John Paliga; Bwanary, Hamis; Diabate, Abdoulaye; Okumu, Fredros O

    2017-01-01

    Background: Malaria mosquitoes form mating swarms around sunset, often at the same locations for months or years. Unfortunately, studies of Anopheles swarms are rare in East Africa, the last recorded field observations in Tanzania having been in 1983. Methods: Mosquito swarms were surveyed by trained volunteers between August-2016 and June-2017 in Ulanga district, Tanzania. Identified Anopheles swarms were sampled using sweep nets, and collected mosquitoes killed by refrigeration then identified by sex and taxa. Sub-samples were further identified by PCR, and spermatheca of females examined for mating status. Mosquito ages were estimated by observing female ovarian tracheoles and rotation of male genitalia. GPS locations, types of swarm markers, start/end times of swarming, heights above ground, mosquito counts/swarm, and copulation events were recorded. Results: A total of 216 Anopheles swarms were identified, characterized and mapped, from which 7,142 Anopheles gambiae s.l and 13 Anopheles funestus were sampled. The An. gambiae s.l were 99.6% males and 0.4% females, while the An. funestus were all males. Of all An. gambiae s.l analyzed by PCR, 86.7% were An. arabiensis, while 13.3% returned non-amplified DNA. Mean height (±SD) of swarms was 2.74±0.64m, and median duration was 20 (IQR; 15-25) minutes. Confirmed swarm markers included rice fields (25.5%), burned grounds (17.2%), banana trees (13%), brick piles (8.8%), garbage heaps (7.9%) and ant-hills (7.4%). Visual estimates of swarm sizes by the volunteers was strongly correlated to actual sizes by sweep nets (R=0.94; P=maturity. Conclusions: This is the first report of Anopheles swarms in Tanzania in more than three decades. The study demonstrates that the swarms can be identified and characterized by trained community-based volunteers, and highlights potential new interventions, for example targeted aerosol spraying of the swarms to improve malaria control.

  8. Host population persistence in the face of introduced vector-borne diseases: Hawaii amakihi and avian malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, B.L.; Atkinson, C.T.; Lapointe, D.A.; Hart, P.J.; Spiegel, C.S.; Tweed, E.J.; Henneman, C.; LeBrun, J.; Denette, T.; DeMots, R.; Kozar, K.L.; Triglia, D.; Lease, D.; Gregor, A.; Smith, T.; Duffy, D.

    2005-01-01

    The past quarter century has seen an unprecedented increase in the number of new and emerging infectious diseases throughout the world, with serious implications for human and wildlife populations. We examined host persistence in the face of introduced vector-borne diseases in Hawaii, where introduced avian malaria and introduced vectors have had a negative impact on most populations of Hawaiian forest birds for nearly a century. We studied birds, parasites, and vectors in nine study areas from 0 to 1,800 m on Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii from January to October, 2002. Contrary to predictions of prior work, we found that Hawaii amakihi (Hemignathus virens), a native species susceptible to malaria, comprised from 24.5% to 51.9% of the avian community at three low-elevation forests (55-270 m). Amakihi were more abundant at low elevations than at disease-free high elevations, and were resident and breeding there. Infection rates were 24-40% by microscopy and 55-83% by serology, with most infected individuals experiencing low-intensity, chronic infections. Mosquito trapping and diagnostics provided strong evidence for year-round local transmission. Moreover, we present evidence that Hawaii amakihi have increased in low elevation habitats on south-eastern Hawaii Island over the past decade. The recent emergent phenomenon of recovering amakihi populations at low elevations, despite extremely high prevalence of avian malaria, suggests that ecological or evolutionary processes acting on hosts or parasites have allowed this species to recolonize low-elevation habitats. A better understanding of the mechanisms allowing coexistence of hosts and parasites may ultimately lead to tools for mitigating disease impacts on wildlife and human populations.

  9. An affordable, quality-assured community-based system for high-resolution entomological surveillance of vector mosquitoes that reflects human malaria infection risk patterns

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    Chaki Prosper P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More sensitive and scalable entomological surveillance tools are required to monitor low levels of transmission that are increasingly common across the tropics, particularly where vector control has been successful. A large-scale larviciding programme in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania is supported by a community-based (CB system for trapping adult mosquito densities to monitor programme performance. Methodology An intensive and extensive CB system for routine, longitudinal, programmatic surveillance of malaria vectors and other mosquitoes using the Ifakara Tent Trap (ITT-C was developed in Urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and validated by comparison with quality assurance (QA surveys using either ITT-C or human landing catches (HLC, as well as a cross-sectional survey of malaria parasite prevalence in the same housing compounds. Results Community-based ITT-C had much lower sensitivity per person-night of sampling than HLC (Relative Rate (RR [95% Confidence Interval (CI] = 0.079 [0.051, 0.121], P Anopheles gambiae s.l. and 0.153 [0.137, 0.171], P An. gambiae or Culex respectively. Despite the poor sensitivity of the ITT per night of sampling, when CB-ITT was compared with QA-HLC, it proved at least comparably sensitive in absolute terms (171 versus 169 primary vectors caught and cost-effective (153US$ versus 187US$ per An. gambiae caught because it allowed more spatially extensive and temporally intensive sampling (4284 versus 335 trap nights distributed over 615 versus 240 locations with a mean number of samples per year of 143 versus 141. Despite the very low vectors densities (Annual estimate of about 170 An gambiae s.l bites per person per year, CB-ITT was the only entomological predictor of parasite infection risk (Odds Ratio [95% CI] = 4.43[3.027,7. 454] per An. gambiae or Anopheles funestus caught per night, P =0.0373. Discussion and conclusion CB trapping approaches could be improved with more sensitive traps

  10. Impact of metric and sample size on determining malaria hotspot boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stresman, Gillian H; Giorgi, Emanuele; Baidjoe, Amrish; Knight, Phil; Odongo, Wycliffe; Owaga, Chrispin; Shagari, Shehu; Makori, Euniah; Stevenson, Jennifer; Drakeley, Chris; Cox, Jonathan; Bousema, Teun; Diggle, Peter J

    2017-04-12

    The spatial heterogeneity of malaria suggests that interventions may be targeted for maximum impact. It is unclear to what extent different metrics lead to consistent delineation of hotspot boundaries. Using data from a large community-based malaria survey in the western Kenyan highlands, we assessed the agreement between a model-based geostatistical (MBG) approach to detect hotspots using Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence and serological evidence for exposure. Malaria transmission was widespread and highly heterogeneous with one third of the total population living in hotspots regardless of metric tested. Moderate agreement (Kappa = 0.424) was observed between hotspots defined based on parasite prevalence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)- and the prevalence of antibodies to two P. falciparum antigens (MSP-1, AMA-1). While numerous biologically plausible hotspots were identified, their detection strongly relied on the proportion of the population sampled. When only 3% of the population was sampled, no PCR derived hotspots were reliably detected and at least 21% of the population was needed for reliable results. Similar results were observed for hotspots of seroprevalence. Hotspot boundaries are driven by the malaria diagnostic and sample size used to inform the model. These findings warn against the simplistic use of spatial analysis on available data to target malaria interventions in areas where hotspot boundaries are uncertain.

  11. Parasites and vectors carry no passport: how to fund cross-border and regional efforts to achieve malaria elimination

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    Gueye Cara

    2012-10-01

    multi-country proposals showed that applicants described their projects in one of two ways: a regional ‘network approach’ by which benefits are derived from economies of scale or from enhanced opportunities for mutual support and learning or the development of common policies and approaches; or a ‘cross-border’ approach for enabling activities to be more effectively delivered towards border-crossing populations or vectors. In Round 10, only those with a ‘network approach’ were recommended for funding. The Global Fund has only ever approved six malaria multi-country applications. Four approved applications stated strong arguments for a multi-country initiative, combining both ‘cross-border’ and ‘network’ approaches. Conclusion With the cancellation of Round 11 and the proposal that the Global Fund adopt a more targeted and strategic approach to funding, the time is opportune for the Global Fund to develop a clear consensus about the key factors and criteria for funding malaria specific multi-country initiatives. This study found that currently there was a lack of guidance on the key features that a successful multi-country proposal needs to be approved and that applications directed towards the ‘network’ approach were most successful in Round 10. This type of multi-country proposal may favour other diseases such as HIV, whereas the need for malaria control and elimination is different, focusing on cross-border coordination and delivery of interventions to specific groups. The Global Fund should seek to address these issues and give better guidance to countries and regions and investigate disease-specific calls for multi-country and regional applications.

  12. Adaptive geostatistical sampling enables efficient identification of malaria hotspots in repeated cross-sectional surveys in rural Malawi.

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    Alinune N Kabaghe

    Full Text Available In the context of malaria elimination, interventions will need to target high burden areas to further reduce transmission. Current tools to monitor and report disease burden lack the capacity to continuously detect fine-scale spatial and temporal variations of disease distribution exhibited by malaria. These tools use random sampling techniques that are inefficient for capturing underlying heterogeneity while health facility data in resource-limited settings are inaccurate. Continuous community surveys of malaria burden provide real-time results of local spatio-temporal variation. Adaptive geostatistical design (AGD improves prediction of outcome of interest compared to current random sampling techniques. We present findings of continuous malaria prevalence surveys using an adaptive sampling design.We conducted repeated cross sectional surveys guided by an adaptive sampling design to monitor the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia in children below five years old in the communities living around Majete Wildlife Reserve in Chikwawa district, Southern Malawi. AGD sampling uses previously collected data to sample new locations of high prediction variance or, where prediction exceeds a set threshold. We fitted a geostatistical model to predict malaria prevalence in the area.We conducted five rounds of sampling, and tested 876 children aged 6-59 months from 1377 households over a 12-month period. Malaria prevalence prediction maps showed spatial heterogeneity and presence of hotspots-where predicted malaria prevalence was above 30%; predictors of malaria included age, socio-economic status and ownership of insecticide-treated mosquito nets.Continuous malaria prevalence surveys using adaptive sampling increased malaria prevalence prediction accuracy. Results from the surveys were readily available after data collection. The tool can assist local managers to target malaria control interventions in areas with the greatest health impact and is

  13. Operational efficiency and sustainability of vector control of malaria and dengue: descriptive case studies from the Philippines

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    van den Berg Henk

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis is lacking on the management of vector control systems in disease-endemic countries with respect to the efficiency and sustainability of operations. Methods Three locations were selected, at the scale of province, municipality and barangay (i.e. village. Data on disease incidence, programme activities, and programme management were collected on-site through meetings and focus group discussions. Results Adaptation of disease control strategies to the epidemiological situation per barangay, through micro-stratification, brings gains in efficiency, but should be accompanied by further capacity building on local situational analysis for better selection and targeting of vector control interventions within the barangay. An integrated approach to vector control, aiming to improve the rational use of resources, was evident with a multi-disease strategy for detection and response, and by the use of combinations of vector control methods. Collaboration within the health sector was apparent from the involvement of barangay health workers, re-orientation of job descriptions and the creation of a disease surveillance unit. The engagement of barangay leaders and use of existing community structures helped mobilize local resources and voluntary services for vector control. In one location, local authorities and the community were involved in the planning, implementation and evaluation of malaria control, which triggered local programme ownership. Conclusions Strategies that contributed to an improved efficiency and sustainability of vector control operations were: micro-stratification, integration of vector control within the health sector, a multi-disease approach, involvement of local authorities, and empowerment of communities. Capacity building on situational analysis and vector surveillance should be addressed through national policy and guidelines.

  14. Remote sensing of anophelines in rice-cropping villages in Mali: Patterns of vector abundance and malaria transmission

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    Diuk Wasser, Maria Ana

    The explosive population growth and widespread urbanization in Africa requires a significant increase in food production. Crop irrigation is therefore expected to increase in the future, although it is often blamed for aggravating the health risk of local communities---by providing habitats suitable for mosquitoes vectors of malaria (Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus in our study area) and other diseases. An epidemiological paradox sometimes occurs, however, when an increase in vector numbers is accompanied by a reduction of the risk of infection, due to a reduction in mosquito longevity and of their tendency to bite human (vs. animals). The objective of this dissertation was to determine how agricultural patterns mapped using satellite data affected vector densities and malaria transmission parameters in 18 rice-cropping villages in Mali. I used a combination of optical (Landsat ETM+) and synthetic aperture radar (ERS-2 SAR). Using Landsat data, rice was distinguished from other land uses with 98% accuracy and rice cohorts were discriminated with 84% accuracy (three classes) or 94% (two classes). ERS-2 SAR backscatter was correlated with the height and biomass of rice plants and was therefore useful to distinguish among rice growth stages. As in previous studies, the early vegetative stage was associated with higher larval production. SAR was further able to distinguish between agronomic practices linked to high and low-production within those early stages. The landcover maps were integrated with archived data on adult and larval anopheline densities and malaria transmission parameters. The area of several landcovers explained up to 89% of the variability in mosquito numbers. The maximum correlation was obtained when landcover was measured in a 1-km buffer area. Vector density was negatively associated to parity and anthropophilic rates. An. gambiae showed higher vectorial capacity (VC) than An. funestus , with seasonal variations. Peak VC for both species

  15. Capture-recapture studies with Anopheles maculatus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) the vector of malaria in peninsular Malaysia.

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    Chiang, G L; Loong, K P; Chan, S T; Eng, K L; Yap, H H

    1991-12-01

    Mark-release-recapture experiments were undertaken in January 1989, in Pos Betau, Pahang, Malaysia, with the malaria vector Anopheles maculatus. On two consecutive nights, 121 and 175 blood-fed mosquitos were released. A mean recapture rate of 11.5% and survival rates of 0.699-0.705 with an estimated oviposition cycle period of 2.35 days were obtained from the releases. About 68% of all recaptures were taken within a distance of 0.5 km from their release points and the longest detected flight was 1.6 km. No heterogeneity was found between indoor and outdoor biters of An. maculatus.

  16. Identification of the Plasmodium species in clinical samples from children residing in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwenti, Tebit Emmanuel; Kwenti, Tayong Dizzle Bita; Njunda, Longdoh Anna; Latz, Andreas; Tufon, Kukwah Anthony; Nkuo-Akenji, Theresa

    2017-01-01

    Malaria in Cameroon was previously known to be caused solely by Plasmodium falciparum but today, evidence points to other Plasmodium species including P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae. The purpose of this study was to identify the Plasmodium species in clinical samples from children residing in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon, so as to advise control policies. One thousand six hundred nine febrile children (≤15 years) were recruited from five epidemiological strata of malaria including the Sudano-sahelian (SS) strata, the High inland plateau (HIP) strata, the South Cameroonian Equatorial forest (SCEF) strata, the High western plateau (HWP) strata and the Coastal (C) strata. Malaria parasites were detected by Giemsa microscopy (GM) while a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify the Plasmodium species. Statistical analysis performed included the Pearson chi-square test, and statistical significance was set at p strata) (p < 0.001). Contrariwise, the prevalence of malaria was not associated with gender (p = 0.239). P. falciparum was identified in all (100%) the cases of malaria; P. ovale, P. vivax, P. malariae and P. knowlesi were all absent. No case of mixed infection was identified. P. falciparum was the only species causing clinical malaria in the target population, which is contrary to studies that have reported P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale as causing clinical malaria in Cameroon.

  17. Efficacy of indigenous plant extracts on the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Bagavan, A.; Kamaraj, C.; Rajakumar, G.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Marimuthu, S.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of plant origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Eclipta prostrata and Tagetes erecta leaves tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal and repellent activities against malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: The dried leaves of the three plants were powdered mechanically and extracted with ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. One gram of crude extract was first dissolved in 100 ml of acetone (stock solution). From the stock solution, test solution concentrations of 31.21- 499.42 mg/l for oviposition- deterrence assay and repellency and 15.60 - 998.85 mg/l were used in ovicidal assay. The percentage oviposition- deterrence, hatching rate of eggs and protection time were calculated. One-way analysis of variance was used for the multiple concentration tests and for per cent mortality to determine significant treatment differences. Results: The percentage of effective oviposition repellency was highest at 499.42 mg/l and the lowest at 31.21 mg/l in ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 499.42 mg/l were -0.91, -0.93, -0.84, -0.84, -0.87, -0.82, -0.87, -0.89 and -0.87, respectively. Mortality (no egg hatchability) was 100 per cent with ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 998.85 mg/l. The maximum adult repellent activity was observed at 499.42 mg/l in ethyl acetate extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and methanol extracts of T. erecta, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 150 min with

  18. ABC transporters are involved in defense against permethrin insecticide in the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epis, Sara; Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Comandatore, Francesco; Sassera, Davide; Rossi, Paolo; Cafarchia, Claudia; Otranto, Domenico; Favia, Guido; Genchi, Claudio; Bandi, Claudio; Urbanelli, Sandra

    2014-07-29

    Proteins from the ABC family (ATP-binding cassette) represent the largest known group of efflux pumps, responsible for transporting specific molecules across lipid membranes in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. In arthropods they have been shown to play a role in insecticide defense/resistance. The presence of ABC transporters and their possible association with insecticide transport have not yet been investigated in the mosquito Anopheles stephensi, the major vector of human malaria in the Middle East and South Asian regions. Here we investigated the presence and role of ABCs in transport of permethrin insecticide in a susceptible strain of this mosquito species. To identify ABC transporter genes we obtained a transcriptome from untreated larvae of An. stephensi and then compared it with the annotated transcriptome of Anopheles gambiae. To analyse the association between ABC transporters and permethrin we conducted bioassays with permethrin alone and in combination with an ABC inhibitor, and then we investigated expression profiles of the identified genes in larvae exposed to permethrin. Bioassays showed an increased mortality of mosquitoes when permethrin was used in combination with the ABC-transporter inhibitor. Genes for ABC transporters were detected in the transcriptome, and five were selected (AnstABCB2, AnstABCB3, AnstABCB4, AnstABCmember6 and AnstABCG4). An increased expression in one of them (AnstABCG4) was observed in larvae exposed to the LD50 dose of permethrin. Contrary to what was found in other insect species, no up-regulation was observed in the AnstABCB genes. Our results show for the first time the involvement of ABC transporters in larval defense against permethrin in An. stephensi and, more in general, confirm the role of ABC transporters in insecticide defense. The differences observed with previous studies highlight the need of further research as, despite the growing number of studies on ABC transporters in insects, the

  19. A randomized longitudinal factorial design to assess malaria vector control and disease management interventions in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Randall A; Mboera, Leonard E G; Senkoro, Kesheni; Lesser, Adriane; Shayo, Elizabeth H; Paul, Christopher J; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2014-05-16

    The optimization of malaria control strategies is complicated by constraints posed by local health systems, infrastructure, limited resources, and the complex interactions between infection, disease, and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol of a randomized factorial study designed to address this research gap. This project will evaluate two malaria control interventions in Mvomero District, Tanzania: (1) a disease management strategy involving early detection and treatment by community health workers using rapid diagnostic technology; and (2) vector control through community-supported larviciding. Six study villages were assigned to each of four groups (control, early detection and treatment, larviciding, and early detection and treatment plus larviciding). The primary endpoint of interest was change in malaria infection prevalence across the intervention groups measured during annual longitudinal cross-sectional surveys. Recurring entomological surveying, household surveying, and focus group discussions will provide additional valuable insights. At baseline, 962 households across all 24 villages participated in a household survey; 2,884 members from 720 of these households participated in subsequent malariometric surveying. The study design will allow us to estimate the effect sizes of different intervention mixtures. Careful documentation of our study protocol may also serve other researchers designing field-based intervention trials.

  20. Advantages of larval control for African malaria vectors: Low mobility and behavioural responsiveness of immature mosquito stages allow high effective coverage

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    Knols Bart GJ

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on sensitivity analysis of the MacDonald-Ross model, it has long been argued that the best way to reduce malaria transmission is to target adult female mosquitoes with insecticides that can reduce the longevity and human-feeding frequency of vectors. However, these analyses have ignored a fundamental biological difference between mosquito adults and the immature stages that precede them: adults are highly mobile flying insects that can readily detect and avoid many intervention measures whereas mosquito eggs, larvae and pupae are confined within relatively small aquatic habitats and cannot readily escape control measures. Presentation of the hypothesis We hypothesize that the control of adult but not immature mosquitoes is compromised by their ability to avoid interventions such as excito-repellant insecticides. Testing the hypothesis We apply a simple model of intervention avoidance by mosquitoes and demonstrate that this can substantially reduce effective coverage, in terms of the proportion of the vector population that is covered, and overall impact on malaria transmission. We review historical evidence that larval control of African malaria vectors can be effective and conclude that the only limitations to the effective coverage of larval control are practical rather than fundamental. Implications of the hypothesis Larval control strategies against the vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa could be highly effective, complementary to adult control interventions, and should be prioritized for further development, evaluation and implementation as an integral part of Rolling Back Malaria.

  1. Human antibody responses to the Anopheles salivary gSG6-P1 peptide: a novel tool for evaluating the efficacy of ITNs in malaria vector control.

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    Papa Makhtar Drame

    Full Text Available To optimize malaria control, WHO has prioritised the need for new indicators to evaluate the efficacy of malaria vector control strategies. The gSG6-P1 peptide from gSG6 protein of Anopheles gambiae salivary glands was previously designed as a specific salivary sequence of malaria vector species. It was shown that the quantification of human antibody (Ab responses to Anopheles salivary proteins in general and especially to the gSG6-P1 peptide was a pertinent biomarker of human exposure to Anopheles. The present objective was to validate this indicator in the evaluation of the efficacy of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs. A longitudinal evaluation, including parasitological, entomological and immunological assessments, was conducted on children and adults from a malaria-endemic area before and after the introduction of ITNs. Significant decrease of anti-gSG6-P1 IgG response was observed just after the efficient ITNs use. Interestingly, specific IgG Ab level was especially pertinent to evaluate a short-time period of ITNs efficacy and at individual level. However, specific IgG rose back up within four months as correct ITN use waned. IgG responses to one salivary peptide could constitute a reliable biomarker for the evaluation of ITN efficacy, at short- and long-term use, and provide a valuable tool in malaria vector control based on a real measurement of human-vector contact.

  2. Human antibody responses to the Anopheles salivary gSG6-P1 peptide: a novel tool for evaluating the efficacy of ITNs in malaria vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drame, Papa Makhtar; Poinsignon, Anne; Besnard, Patrick; Cornelie, Sylvie; Le Mire, Jacques; Toto, Jean-Claude; Foumane, Vincent; Dos-Santos, Maria Adelaide; Sembène, Mbacké; Fortes, Filomeno; Simondon, Francois; Carnevale, Pierre; Remoue, Franck

    2010-12-14

    To optimize malaria control, WHO has prioritised the need for new indicators to evaluate the efficacy of malaria vector control strategies. The gSG6-P1 peptide from gSG6 protein of Anopheles gambiae salivary glands was previously designed as a specific salivary sequence of malaria vector species. It was shown that the quantification of human antibody (Ab) responses to Anopheles salivary proteins in general and especially to the gSG6-P1 peptide was a pertinent biomarker of human exposure to Anopheles. The present objective was to validate this indicator in the evaluation of the efficacy of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs). A longitudinal evaluation, including parasitological, entomological and immunological assessments, was conducted on children and adults from a malaria-endemic area before and after the introduction of ITNs. Significant decrease of anti-gSG6-P1 IgG response was observed just after the efficient ITNs use. Interestingly, specific IgG Ab level was especially pertinent to evaluate a short-time period of ITNs efficacy and at individual level. However, specific IgG rose back up within four months as correct ITN use waned. IgG responses to one salivary peptide could constitute a reliable biomarker for the evaluation of ITN efficacy, at short- and long-term use, and provide a valuable tool in malaria vector control based on a real measurement of human-vector contact.

  3. Human Antibody Responses to the Anopheles Salivary gSG6-P1 Peptide: A Novel Tool for Evaluating the Efficacy of ITNs in Malaria Vector Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drame, Papa Makhtar; Poinsignon, Anne; Besnard, Patrick; Cornelie, Sylvie; Le Mire, Jacques; Toto, Jean-Claude; Foumane, Vincent; Dos-Santos, Maria Adelaide; Sembène, Mbacké; Fortes, Filomeno; Simondon, Francois; Carnevale, Pierre; Remoue, Franck

    2010-01-01

    To optimize malaria control, WHO has prioritised the need for new indicators to evaluate the efficacy of malaria vector control strategies. The gSG6-P1 peptide from gSG6 protein of Anopheles gambiae salivary glands was previously designed as a specific salivary sequence of malaria vector species. It was shown that the quantification of human antibody (Ab) responses to Anopheles salivary proteins in general and especially to the gSG6-P1 peptide was a pertinent biomarker of human exposure to Anopheles. The present objective was to validate this indicator in the evaluation of the efficacy of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs). A longitudinal evaluation, including parasitological, entomological and immunological assessments, was conducted on children and adults from a malaria-endemic area before and after the introduction of ITNs. Significant decrease of anti-gSG6-P1 IgG response was observed just after the efficient ITNs use. Interestingly, specific IgG Ab level was especially pertinent to evaluate a short-time period of ITNs efficacy and at individual level. However, specific IgG rose back up within four months as correct ITN use waned. IgG responses to one salivary peptide could constitute a reliable biomarker for the evaluation of ITN efficacy, at short- and long-term use, and provide a valuable tool in malaria vector control based on a real measurement of human-vector contact. PMID:21179476

  4. Identifying malaria vector breeding habitats with remote sensing data and terrain-based landscape indices in Zambia

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    Shiff Clive

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. Methods A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of water pooling and the occurrence anopheline larval habitats; this was repeated in October 2007 at the end of the dry season and in March-April 2008 during the next rainy season. Logistic regression and generalized linear mixed modeling were applied to assess the predictive value of terrain-based landscape indices along with LandSat imagery to identify aquatic habitats and, especially, those with anopheline mosquito larvae. Results Approximately two hundred aquatic habitat sites were identified with 69 percent positive for anopheline mosquitoes. Nine species of anopheline mosquitoes were identified, of which, 19% were An. arabiensis. Terrain-based landscape indices combined with LandSat predicted sites with water, sites with anopheline mosquitoes and sites specifically with An. arabiensis. These models were especially successful at ruling out potential locations, but had limited ability in predicting which anopheline species inhabited aquatic sites. Terrain indices derived from 90 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation data (DEM were better at predicting water drainage patterns and characterizing the landscape than those derived from 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER DEM. Conclusions The low number of aquatic habitats available and the ability to locate the limited number of aquatic habitat locations for surveillance, especially those containing anopheline larvae, suggest that larval control maybe a cost-effective control measure in the fight

  5. Additional selection for insecticide resistance in urban malaria vectors: DDT resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher M; Toé, Hyacinthe K; Sanou, Antoine; Namountougou, Moussa; Hughes, Angela; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Dabiré, Roch; Simard, Frederic; Ranson, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    In the city of Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina Faso, Anopheles arabiensis has superseded Anopheles gambiae s.s. as the major malaria vector and the larvae are found in highly polluted habitats normally considered unsuitable for Anopheles mosquitoes. Here we show that An. gambiae s.l. adults emerging from a highly polluted site in the city centre (Dioulassoba) have a high prevalence of DDT resistance (percentage mortality after exposure to diagnostic dose=65.8% in the dry season and 70.4% in the rainy season, respectively). An investigation into the mechanisms responsible found an unexpectedly high frequency of the 1014S kdr mutation (allele frequency=0.4), which is found at very low frequencies in An. arabiensis in the surrounding rural areas, and an increase in transcript levels of several detoxification genes, notably from the glutathione transferase and cytochrome P450 gene families. A number of ABC transporter genes were also expressed at elevated levels in the DDT resistant An. arabiensis. Unplanned urbanisation provides numerous breeding grounds for mosquitoes. The finding that Anopheles mosquitoes adapted to these urban breeding sites have a high prevalence of insecticide resistance has important implications for our understanding of the selective forces responsible for the rapid spread of insecticide resistant populations of malaria vectors in Africa.

  6. Microgeographic Genetic Variation of the Malaria Vector Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) from Córdoba and Antioquia, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Lina A.; Gómez, Giovan F.; González, John J.; Castro, Martha I.; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E.; Correa, Margarita M.

    2010-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi is an important vector of Plasmodium spp. in several malaria-endemic regions of Colombia. This study was conducted to test genetic variation of An. darlingi at a microgeographic scale (approximately 100 km) from localities in Córdoba and Antioquia states, in western Colombia, to better understand the potential contribution of population genetics to local malaria control programs. Microsatellite loci: nuclear white and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences were analyzed. The northern white gene lineage was exclusively distributed in Córdoba and Antioquia and shared COI haplotypes were highly represented in mosquitoes from both states. COI analyses showed these An. darlingi are genetically closer to Central American populations than southern South American populations. Overall microsatellites and COI analysis showed low to moderate genetic differentiation among populations in northwestern Colombia. Given the existence of high gene flow between An. darlingi populations of Córdoba and Antioquia, integrated vector control strategies could be developed in this region of Colombia. PMID:20595475

  7. Additional selection for insecticide resistance in urban malaria vectors: DDT resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Jones

    Full Text Available In the city of Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina Faso, Anopheles arabiensis has superseded Anopheles gambiae s.s. as the major malaria vector and the larvae are found in highly polluted habitats normally considered unsuitable for Anopheles mosquitoes. Here we show that An. gambiae s.l. adults emerging from a highly polluted site in the city centre (Dioulassoba have a high prevalence of DDT resistance (percentage mortality after exposure to diagnostic dose=65.8% in the dry season and 70.4% in the rainy season, respectively. An investigation into the mechanisms responsible found an unexpectedly high frequency of the 1014S kdr mutation (allele frequency=0.4, which is found at very low frequencies in An. arabiensis in the surrounding rural areas, and an increase in transcript levels of several detoxification genes, notably from the glutathione transferase and cytochrome P450 gene families. A number of ABC transporter genes were also expressed at elevated levels in the DDT resistant An. arabiensis. Unplanned urbanisation provides numerous breeding grounds for mosquitoes. The finding that Anopheles mosquitoes adapted to these urban breeding sites have a high prevalence of insecticide resistance has important implications for our understanding of the selective forces responsible for the rapid spread of insecticide resistant populations of malaria vectors in Africa.

  8. Effective autodissemination of pyriproxyfen to breeding sites by the exophilic malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in semi-field settings in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwetoijera, Dickson; Harris, Caroline; Kiware, Samson; Dongus, Stefan; Devine, Gregor J; McCall, Philip J; Majambere, Silas

    2014-04-29

    Malaria vector control strategies that target adult female mosquitoes are challenged by the emergence of insecticide resistance and behavioural resilience. Conventional larviciding is restricted by high operational costs and inadequate knowledge of mosquito-breeding habitats in rural settings that might be overcome by the juvenile hormone analogue, Pyriproxyfen (PPF). This study assessed the potential for Anopheles arabiensis to pick up and transfer lethal doses of PPF from contamination sites to their breeding habitats (i.e. autodissemination of PPF). A semi-field system (SFS) with four identical separate chambers was used to evaluate PPF-treated clay pots for delivering PPF to resting adult female mosquitoes for subsequent autodissemination to artificial breeding habitats within the chambers. In each chamber, a tethered cow provided blood meals to laboratory-reared, unfed female An. arabiensis released in the SFS. In PPF-treated chambers, clay pot linings were dusted with 0.2 - 0.3 g AI PPF per pot. Pupae were removed from the artificial habitats daily, and emergence rates calculated. Impact of PPF on emergence was determined by comparing treatment with an appropriate control group. Mean (95% CI) adult emergence rates were (0.21 ± 0.299) and (0.95 ± 0.39) from PPF-treated and controls respectively (p < 0.0001). Laboratory bioassay of water samples from artificial habitats in these experiments resulted in significantly lower emergence rates in treated chambers (0.16 ± 0.23) compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05) (p < 0.0001). In experiments where no mosquitoes introduced, there were no significant differences between control and treatment, indicating that transfer of PPF to breeding sites only occurred when mosquitoes were present; i.e. that autodissemination had occurred. Treatment of a single clay pot reduced adult emergence in six habitats to (0.34 ± 0.13) compared to (0.98 ± 0.02) in the controls (p < 0.0001), showing a

  9. Spatial and Temporal Trends in Insecticide Resistance among Malaria Vectors in Chad Highlight the Importance of Continual Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Geraldine Marie; Coleman, Michael; Thomsen, Edward; Ranson, Hilary; Yangalbé-Kalnone, Elise; Moundai, Tchomfienet; Demba Kodindo, Israel; Nakebang, Amen; Mahamat, Adoum; Peka, Mallaye; Kerah-Hinzoumbé, Clement

    2016-01-01

    A longitudinal Anopheles gambiae s.l. insecticide resistance monitoring programme was established in four sentinel sites in Chad 2008-2010. When this programme ended, only sporadic bioassays were performed in a small number of sites. WHO diagnostic dose assays were used to measure the prevalence of insecticide resistance to 0.1% bendiocarb, 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, 1% fenitrothion, and 0.75% permethrin in the main malaria vectors at the beginning and end of the malaria transmission season for three years 2008-2010, with subsequent collections in 2011 and 2014. Species and molecular identification of An. gambiae M and S forms and kdr genotyping was performed using PCR-RLFP; circumsporozoite status was assessed using ELISA. Between 2008 and 2010, significant changes in insecticide resistance profiles to deltamethrin and permethrin were seen in 2 of the sites. No significant changes were seen in resistance to DDT in any site during the study period. Testing performed after the period of routine monitoring had ended showed dramatic increases to DDT and pyrethroid resistance in 3 sites. No resistance to organophosphate or carbamate insecticides was detected. An. arabiensis was the predominate member of the An. gambiae complex in all 4 sites; adult collections showed temporal variation in species composition in only 1 site. Kdr analysis identified both 1014F and 1014S alleles in An. gambiae S only. Circumsporozoite analysis showed the highest vector infection rates were present in Donia, a site with extensive use of agricultural insecticides. During the monitoring gap of four years, significant changes occurred in resistance prevalence in 3 of the 4 sites (p = <0.001), endangering the efficacy of currently implemented malaria control interventions. Significant changes in insecticide resistance profiles and a lack of kdr resistance alleles in adult populations highlight the urgent need for comprehensive entomological monitoring to be implemented and sustained in

  10. Spatial and Temporal Trends in Insecticide Resistance among Malaria Vectors in Chad Highlight the Importance of Continual Monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Marie Foster

    Full Text Available A longitudinal Anopheles gambiae s.l. insecticide resistance monitoring programme was established in four sentinel sites in Chad 2008-2010. When this programme ended, only sporadic bioassays were performed in a small number of sites.WHO diagnostic dose assays were used to measure the prevalence of insecticide resistance to 0.1% bendiocarb, 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, 1% fenitrothion, and 0.75% permethrin in the main malaria vectors at the beginning and end of the malaria transmission season for three years 2008-2010, with subsequent collections in 2011 and 2014. Species and molecular identification of An. gambiae M and S forms and kdr genotyping was performed using PCR-RLFP; circumsporozoite status was assessed using ELISA.Between 2008 and 2010, significant changes in insecticide resistance profiles to deltamethrin and permethrin were seen in 2 of the sites. No significant changes were seen in resistance to DDT in any site during the study period. Testing performed after the period of routine monitoring had ended showed dramatic increases to DDT and pyrethroid resistance in 3 sites. No resistance to organophosphate or carbamate insecticides was detected. An. arabiensis was the predominate member of the An. gambiae complex in all 4 sites; adult collections showed temporal variation in species composition in only 1 site. Kdr analysis identified both 1014F and 1014S alleles in An. gambiae S only. Circumsporozoite analysis showed the highest vector infection rates were present in Donia, a site with extensive use of agricultural insecticides.During the monitoring gap of four years, significant changes occurred in resistance prevalence in 3 of the 4 sites (p = <0.001, endangering the efficacy of currently implemented malaria control interventions. Significant changes in insecticide resistance profiles and a lack of kdr resistance alleles in adult populations highlight the urgent need for comprehensive entomological monitoring to be implemented and

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan: influence of environmental factors and implications for vector control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Colin A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is an important public health problem in northern Sudan, but little is known about the dynamics of its transmission. Given the characteristic low densities of Anopheles arabiensis and the difficult terrain in this area, future vector control strategies are likely to be based on area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM that may include the sterile insect technique (SIT. To support the planning and implementation of future AW-IPM activities, larval surveys were carried out to provide key data on spatial and seasonal dynamics of local vector populations. Methods Monthly cross-sectional larval surveys were carried out between March 2005 and May 2007 in two localities (Dongola and Merowe adjacent to the river Nile. A stratified random sampling strategy based on the use of Remote Sensing (RS, Geographical Information Systems (GIS and the Global Positioning System (GPS was used to select survey locations. Breeding sites were mapped using GPS and data on larval density and breeding site characteristics were recorded using handheld computers. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify breeding site characteristics associated with increased risk of presence of larvae. Seasonal patterns in the proportion of breeding sites positive for larvae were compared visually to contemporaneous data on climate and river height. Results Of a total of 3,349 aquatic habitats sampled, 321 (9.6% contained An. arabiensis larvae. The frequency with which larvae were found varied markedly by habitat type. Although most positive sites were associated with temporary standing water around the margins of the main Nile channel, larvae were also found at brickworks and in areas of leaking pipes and canals – often far from the river. Close to the Nile channel, a distinct seasonal pattern in larval populations was evident and appeared to be linked to the rise and fall of the river level. These patterns were not

  12. Spatial and temporal distribution of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan: influence of environmental factors and implications for vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageep, Tellal B; Cox, Jonathan; Hassan, M'oawia M; Knols, Bart G J; Benedict, Mark Q; Malcolm, Colin A; Babiker, Ahmed; El Sayed, Badria B

    2009-06-07

    Malaria is an important public health problem in northern Sudan, but little is known about the dynamics of its transmission. Given the characteristic low densities of Anopheles arabiensis and the difficult terrain in this area, future vector control strategies are likely to be based on area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) that may include the sterile insect technique (SIT). To support the planning and implementation of future AW-IPM activities, larval surveys were carried out to provide key data on spatial and seasonal dynamics of local vector populations. Monthly cross-sectional larval surveys were carried out between March 2005 and May 2007 in two localities (Dongola and Merowe) adjacent to the river Nile. A stratified random sampling strategy based on the use of Remote Sensing (RS), Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to select survey locations. Breeding sites were mapped using GPS and data on larval density and breeding site characteristics were recorded using handheld computers. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify breeding site characteristics associated with increased risk of presence of larvae. Seasonal patterns in the proportion of breeding sites positive for larvae were compared visually to contemporaneous data on climate and river height. Of a total of 3,349 aquatic habitats sampled, 321 (9.6%) contained An. arabiensis larvae. The frequency with which larvae were found varied markedly by habitat type. Although most positive sites were associated with temporary standing water around the margins of the main Nile channel, larvae were also found at brickworks and in areas of leaking pipes and canals - often far from the river. Close to the Nile channel, a distinct seasonal pattern in larval populations was evident and appeared to be linked to the rise and fall of the river level. These patterns were not evident in vector populations breeding in artificial

  13. Toxicity of essential oil from Indian borage on the larvae of the African malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kweka Eliningaya J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Essential oils are currently studied for the control of different disease vectors, because of their efficacy on targeted organisms. In the present investigation, the larvicidal potential of essential oil extracted from Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus was studied against the African anthropophagic malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. The larvae of An. gambiae s.s laboratory colony and An. gambiae s.l of wild populations were assayed and the larval mortality was observed at 12, 24 and 48 h after exposure period with the concentrations of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 ppm. Findings Larval mortality rates of the essential oil was entirely time and dose dependent. The LC50 values of the laboratory colony were 98.56 (after 12h 55.20 (after 24 h and 32.41 ppm (after 48 h and the LC90 values were 147.40 (after 12h, 99.09 (after 24 h and 98.84 ppm (after 48 h. The LC50 and LC90 values of the wild population were 119.52, 179.85 (after 12h 67.53, 107.60 (after 24 h and 25.51, 111.17 ppm (after 48 h respectively. The oil showed good larvicidal potential after 48 h of exposure period against An. gambiae. The essential oil of Indian borage is a renowned natural source of larvicides for the control of the African malaria vector mosquito, An. gambiae. Conclusion The larvicidal efficacy shown by plant extracts against An. gambiae should be tested in semi field and small scale trials for effective compounds to supplement the existing larval control tools.

  14. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Elaeagnus indica Servett. (Elaeagnaceae plant leaf extracts against dengue and malaria vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Srinivasan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available MMosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, methanol and petroleum benzene leaf extracts of E. indica were tested against fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi and dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. Highest larval mortality was found in acetone leaf extracts against A. aegypti (LC50 and LC90 values of 2.97027and 5.9820 mg/ml and A. stephensi (LC50 and LC90 values of 3.92501 and 68.3250 mg/ml respectively. GC-MS analysis of plant extracts of acetone solvent revealed 19 compounds, of which the major compounds were -Thujone 1-Isopropyl-4-Methylbicyclo(3.1.0Hexan-3-One 1- (6.71%, 1,6- Cyclodecadiene, 1-Methyl-5-Methylene-8-(1-Methylethyl-, [S-(E,E]-Germacra-1(10,4(15,5-Trie N (3.11%, L-(+-Ascorbic Acid 2,6-Dihexadecanoate (4.06%, 2-Cyclohexylcyclohexanol [1,1'-Bicyclohexyl]-2-Ol (3.16%, Dotriacontane N- Bicetyl (58.7% and Tetrapentacontane (3.85%. E. indica offers promise as potential biocontrol agent against major dengue and malaria mosquitoes particularly in larvicidal effect. Our results shows acetone leaf extracts of E. indica have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for control of mosquito vectors.

  15. Response to Blood Meal in the Fat Body of Anopheles stephensi Using Quantitative Proteomics: Toward New Vector Control Strategies Against Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Mohanty, Ajeet Kumar; Sreenivasamurthy, Sreelakshmi K; Dey, Gourav; Advani, Jayshree; Pinto, Sneha M; Kumar, Ashwani; Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava

    2017-09-01

    Malaria remains a grand challenge for disruptive innovation in global health therapeutics and diagnostics. Anopheles stephensi is one of the major vectors of malaria in Asia. Vector and transmission control are key focus areas in the fight against malaria, a field of postgenomics research where proteomics can play a substantive role. Moreover, to identify novel strategies to control the vector population, it is necessary to understand the vector life processes at a global and molecular scale. In this context, fat body is a vital organ required for vitellogenesis, vector immunity, vector physiology, and vector-parasite interaction. Given its central role in energy metabolism, vitellogenesis, and immune function, the proteome profile of the fat body and the impact of blood meal (BM) ingestion on the protein abundances of this vital organ have not been investigated so far. Therefore, using a proteomics approach, we identified the proteins expressed in the fat body of An. stephensi and their differential expression in response to BM ingestion. In all, we identified 3,218 proteins in the fat body using high-resolution mass spectrometry, of which 483 were found to be differentially expressed in response to the BM ingestion. Bioinformatics analysis of these proteins underscored their role in amino acid metabolism, vitellogenesis, lipid transport, signal peptide processing, mosquito immunity, and oxidation-reduction processes. Interestingly, we identified five novel genes, which were found to be differentially expressed upon BM ingestion. Proteins that exhibited altered expression in the present study are potential targets for vector control strategies and development of transmission blocking vaccines in the fight against malaria.

  16. Storage and persistence of a candidate fungal biopesticide for use against adult malaria vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background New products aimed at augmenting or replacing chemical insecticides must have operational profiles that include both high efficacy in reducing vector numbers and/or blocking parasite transmission and be long lasting following application. Research aimed at developing fungal spores as a biopesticide for vector control have shown considerable potential yet have not been directly assessed for their viability after long-term storage or following application in the field. Methods Spores from a single production run of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana were dried and then stored under refrigeration at 7°C. After 585 days these spores were sub-sampled and placed at either 22°C, 26°C or 32°C still sealed in packaging (closed storage) or in open beakers and exposed to the 80% relative humidity of the incubator they were kept in. Samples were subsequently taken from these treatments over a further 165 days to assess viability. Spores from the same production run were also used to test their persistence following application to three different substrates, clay, cement and wood, using a hand held sprayer. The experiments were conducted at two different institutes with one using adult female Anopheles stephensi and the other adult female Anopheles gambiae. Mosquitoes were exposed to the treated substrates for one hour before being removed and their survival monitored for the next 14 days. Assays were performed at monthly intervals over a maximum seven months. Results Spore storage under refrigeration resulted in no loss of spore viability over more than two years. Spore viability of those samples kept under open and closed storage was highly dependent on the incubation temperature with higher temperatures decreasing viability more rapidly than cooler temperatures. Mosquito survival following exposure was dependent on substrate type. Spore persistence on the clay substrate was greatest achieving 80% population reduction for four months against An

  17. Efficacy of an insecticide paint against malaria vectors and nuisance in West Africa - Part 2: Field evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Widespread resistance of the main malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to pyrethroids reported in many African countries and operational drawbacks to current IRS methods suggest the convenience of exploring new products and approaches for vector control. Insecticide paint Inesfly 5A IGR™, containing two organophosphates (OPs), chlorpyrifos and diazinon, and one insect growth regulator (IGR), pyriproxyfen, was tested in Benin, West Africa, for 12 months. Methods Field trials were conducted in six experimental huts that were randomly allocated to one or two layers of insecticide at 1 Kg/6 m2 or control. Evaluations included: (i) early mosquito collection, (ii) mosquito release experiments, (iii) residual efficacy tests and (iv) distance tests. Early mosquito collections were performed on local populations of pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. As per WHOPES phase II procedures, four entomological criteria were evaluated: deterrence, excito-repellence, blood-feeding inhibition and mortality. Mosquito release experiments were done using local malaria-free An. gambiae females reared at the CREC insectarium. Residual efficacy tests and distance tests were performed using reference susceptible strains of An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results Six months after treatment, mortality rates were still 90-100% against pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations in experimental huts. At nine months, mortality rates in huts treated with two layers was still about 90-93% against An. gambiae and 55% against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Malaria-free local mosquito release experiments yielded a 90% blood-feeding inhibition in the absence of a physical barrier. A long-term residual efficacy of 12 months was observed by WHO-bioassays in huts treated with two layers (60-80%). Mortality after an overnight exposition at distances of 1 meter was 96-100% for up to 12 months. Conclusion The encouraging results obtained on the insecticide paint Inesfly 5A IGR

  18. Efficacy of an insecticide paint against malaria vectors and nuisance in West Africa - Part 2: Field evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hougard Jean-Marc

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Widespread resistance of the main malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to pyrethroids reported in many African countries and operational drawbacks to current IRS methods suggest the convenience of exploring new products and approaches for vector control. Insecticide paint Inesfly 5A IGR™, containing two organophosphates (OPs, chlorpyrifos and diazinon, and one insect growth regulator (IGR, pyriproxyfen, was tested in Benin, West Africa, for 12 months. Methods Field trials were conducted in six experimental huts that were randomly allocated to one or two layers of insecticide at 1 Kg/6 m2 or control. Evaluations included: (i early mosquito collection, (ii mosquito release experiments, (iii residual efficacy tests and (iv distance tests. Early mosquito collections were performed on local populations of pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. As per WHOPES phase II procedures, four entomological criteria were evaluated: deterrence, excito-repellence, blood-feeding inhibition and mortality. Mosquito release experiments were done using local malaria-free An. gambiae females reared at the CREC insectarium. Residual efficacy tests and distance tests were performed using reference susceptible strains of An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results Six months after treatment, mortality rates were still 90-100% against pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations in experimental huts. At nine months, mortality rates in huts treated with two layers was still about 90-93% against An. gambiae and 55% against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Malaria-free local mosquito release experiments yielded a 90% blood-feeding inhibition in the absence of a physical barrier. A long-term residual efficacy of 12 months was observed by WHO-bioassays in huts treated with two layers (60-80%. Mortality after an overnight exposition at distances of 1 meter was 96-100% for up to 12 months. Conclusion The encouraging results obtained on the insecticide

  19. Low larval vector survival explains unstable malaria in the Western Kenya higlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Paaijmans, K.P.; Schneider, P.; Githeko, A.K.; Takken, W.

    2006-01-01

    Several highland areas in eastern Africa have recently suffered from serious malaria epidemics. Some models predict that, in the short term, these areas will experience more epidemics as a result of global warming. However, the various processes underlying these changes are poorly understood. We

  20. Exploiting the behaviour of wild malaria vectors to achieve high infection with fungal biocontrol agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mnyone, L.L.; Lyimo, I.N.; Lwetoijera, D.W.; Mpingwa, M.W.; Nchimbi, N.; Hancock, P.A.; Russell, T.L.; Kirby, M.J.; Takken, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Control of mosquitoes that transmit malaria has been the mainstay in the fight against the disease, but alternative methods are required in view of emerging insecticide resistance. Entomopathogenic fungi are candidate alternatives, but to date, few trials have translated the use of these

  1. Efficacy of Aquatain, a Monomolecular Film, for the Control of Malaria Vectors in Rice Paddies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.; Takken, W.; Githeko, A.K.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Rice paddies harbour a large variety of organisms including larvae of malaria mosquitoes. These paddies are challenging for mosquito control because their large size, slurry and vegetation make it difficult to effectively apply a control agent. Aquatain, a monomolecular surface film, can

  2. Do insecticide-treated bednets have an effect on malaria vectors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.

    2002-01-01

    The use of insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) has been widely adopted as an important method for malaria control. Few data exist on effects of ITNs on mosquito biology and ecology, other than the development of insecticide resistance against the insecticides used. There is no hard evidence that the

  3. Odour - mediated host - seeking behaviour of the Afro-tropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knols, B.G.J.

    1996-01-01


    Malaria remains the single most important parasitic disease of man in tropical regions of the world. It is estimated that 40% of the world's population, in 102 countries, is at risk from the disease. Some 100-200 million cases occur annually worldwide, of which 90

  4. Strengthening public health pesticide management in countries endemic with malaria or other major vector-borne diseases: an evaluation of three strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.; Yadav, R.S.; Zaim, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Public health pesticides has been the mainstay control of vectors of malaria and other diseases, and public health pests, but there is increasing concern over how these pesticides are being managed. Poor pesticide management could lead to risks to human health and the environment, or

  5. Spatial and temporal distribution of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan: influence of environmental factors and implications for vector control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageep, T.B.; Cox, J.; Hassan, M.M.; Knols, B.G.J.; Benedict, M.Q.; Malcolm, C.A.; Babiker, A.; Sayed, El B.B.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Malaria is an important public health problem in northern Sudan, but little is known about the dynamics of its transmission. Given the characteristic low densities of Anopheles arabiensis and the difficult terrain in this area, future vector control strategies are likely to be based on

  6. Linking individual phenotype to density-dependent population growth: the influence of body size on the population dynamics of malaria vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, Tanya L.; Lwetoijera, Dickson W.; Knols, Bart G. J.; Takken, Willem; Killeen, Gerry F.; Ferguson, Heather M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the endogenous factors that drive the population dynamics of malaria mosquitoes will facilitate more accurate predictions about vector control effectiveness and our ability to destabilize the growth of either low- or high-density insect populations. We assessed whether variation in

  7. Linking individual phenotype to density-dependent population growth: the influence of body size on the population dynamics of malaria vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, T.L.; Lwetoijera, D.W.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.; Killeen, G.F.; Ferguson, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the endogenous factors that drive the population dynamics of malaria mosquitoes will facilitate more accurate predictions about vector control effectiveness and our ability to destabilize the growth of either low-or high-density insect populations. We assessed whether variation in

  8. The fine-scale genetic structure of the malaria vectors Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) in the north-eastern part of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gélin, P.; Magalon, H.; Drakeley, C.; Maxwell, C.; Magesa, S.; Takken, W.; Boëte, C.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the impact of altitude and ecological heterogeneity at a fine scale on the populations of malaria vectors is essential to better understand and anticipate eventual epidemiological changes. It could help to evaluate the spread of alleles conferring resistance to insecticides and also

  9. Benefit of insecticide-treated nets, curtains and screening on vector borne diseases, excluding malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, A.L.; Dhiman, R.C.; Kitron, U.; Scott, T.W.; Berg, van den H.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are one of the main interventions used for malaria control. However, these nets may also be effective against other vector borne diseases (VBDs). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy of ITNs, insecticide-treated

  10. IgG responses to Anopheles gambiae salivary antigen gSG6 detect variation in exposure to malaria vectors and disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stone, W.; Bousema, J.T.; Jones, S.; Gesase, S.; Hashim, R.; Gosling, R.; Carneiro, I.; Chandramohan, D.; Theander, T.; Ronca, R.; Modiano, D.; Arca, B.; Drakeley, C.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of exposure to malaria vectors is important to our understanding of spatial and temporal variations in disease transmission and facilitates the targeting and evaluation of control efforts. Recently, an immunogenic Anopheles gambiae salivary protein (gSG6) was identified and proposed as

  11. Water source most suitable for rearing a sensitive malaria vector, Anopheles funestus in the laboratory [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Tchigossou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:  The insecticide susceptibility status of Anopheles funestus, one of the main malaria vectors in the Afrotropical regions, remains under-studied due to the difficulty of working with this mosquito species. Collecting their larvae in natural breeding sites, rearing and maintaining them in normal laboratory conditions have been a difficult task. Forced-egg laying technique has been a very good tool to generate eggs from adult mosquitoes collected from the wild but rearing these eggs to obtain satisfying portion as adults has always been the problem. In this study, we optimized the development of mosquito species larvae under standard laboratory conditions for desired production of adult mosquitoes that can be useful for insecticide susceptibility tests. Methods:  A forced-egg laying technique was used to obtain eggs from gravid female Anopheles funestus collected from Kpome locality in Benin. Eggs were reared in three different water samples (water from the borehole, and two mineral water namely FIFA and Possotômè and larvae were fed with TetraMin baby fish food. The physico-chemical parameters of the waters were investigated prior to use for egg incubation (introduction of eggs’ batches into water. Results: In contrast to mineral water that had no contamination, the borehole water source was contaminated with lead (2.5mg/L and nitrate (118.8mg/L. Egg hatching rates ranged as 91.9 ± 4.4%, 89.1 ± 2.5% and 87.9 ± 2.6% in FIFA, Possotômè and borehole water respectively. High emergence of larvae to adult mosquitoes was recorded as in FIFA (74.3% and Possotômè (79.5% water. No adult mosquito was obtained from larvae reared in borehole water. Conclusions: This study gave insight on the water sources that could be good for rearing to mass produce An. funestus in the laboratory. More analysis with other local mineral water sources in our environments could be considered in the future, hopefully giving better outputs.

  12. Water source most suitable for rearing a sensitive malaria vector, Anopheles funestus in the laboratory [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Tchigossou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:  The insecticide susceptibility status of Anopheles funestus, one of the main malaria vectors in the Afrotropical regions, remains under-studied due to the difficulty of working with this mosquito species. Collecting their larvae in natural breeding sites, rearing and maintaining them in normal laboratory conditions have been a difficult task. Forced-egg laying technique has been a very good tool to generate eggs from adult mosquitoes collected from the wild but rearing these eggs to obtain satisfying portion as adults has always been the problem. In this study, we optimized the development of mosquito species larvae under standard laboratory conditions for desired production of adult mosquitoes that can be useful for insecticide susceptibility tests. Methods:  A forced-egg laying technique was used to obtain eggs from gravid female Anopheles funestus collected from Kpome locality in Benin. Eggs were reared in three different water samples (water from the borehole,and two mineral water namely FIFA and Possotômè and larvae were fed with TetraMin baby fish food. The physico-chemical parameters of the waters were investigated prior to use for egg incubation. Results:In contrast to mineral water that had no contamination, the borehole water source was contaminated with lead (2.5mg/L and nitrate (118.8mg/L. Egg hatching rates ranged as 91.9 ± 4.4%, 89.1 ± 2.5% and 87.9 ± 2.6% in FIFA, Possotômè and borehole water respectively. High emergence of larvae to adult mosquitoes was recorded as in FIFA (74.3% and Possotômè(79.5% water. No adult mosquito was obtained from larvae reared in borehole water. Conclusions: This study gave insight on the water sources that could be good for rearing to mass produce An. funestus in the laboratory. More analysis with other local mineral water sources in our environments could be considered in the future, hopefully giving better outputs.

  13. A CRISPR-Cas9 gene drive system targeting female reproduction in the malaria mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Andrew; Galizi, Roberto; Kyrou, Kyros; Simoni, Alekos; Siniscalchi, Carla; Katsanos, Dimitris; Gribble, Matthew; Baker, Dean; Marois, Eric; Russell, Steven; Burt, Austin; Windbichler, Nikolai; Crisanti, Andrea; Nolan, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Gene drive systems that enable super-Mendelian inheritance of a transgene have the potential to modify insect populations over a timeframe of a few years. We describe CRISPR-Cas9 endonuclease constructs that function as gene drive systems in Anopheles gambiae, the main vector for malaria. We identified three genes (AGAP005958, AGAP011377 and AGAP007280) that confer a recessive female-sterility phenotype upon disruption, and inserted into each locus CRISPR-Cas9 gene drive constructs designed to target and edit each gene. For each targeted locus we observed a strong gene drive at the molecular level, with transmission rates to progeny of 91.4 to 99.6%. Population modeling and cage experiments indicate that a CRISPR-Cas9 construct targeting one of these loci, AGAP007280, meets the minimum requirement for a gene drive targeting female reproduction in an insect population. These findings could expedite the development of gene drives to suppress mosquito populations to levels that do not support malaria transmission.

  14. Malaria Matters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast gives an overview of malaria, including prevention and treatment, and what CDC is doing to help control and prevent malaria globally.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 4/18/2008.

  15. Outdoor malaria transmission in forested villages of Cambodia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durnez, Lies; Mao, Sokny; Denis, Leen; Roelants, Patricia; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc

    2013-01-01

    ...), targeting indoor- and late-biting malaria vectors only. The present study evaluated the vector density, early biting activity and malaria transmission of outdoor-biting malaria vectors in two forested regions in Cambodia...

  16. Alstonia boonei De Wild oil extract in the management of mosquito (Anopheles gambiae, a vector of malaria disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode David Ileke

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the insecticidal potential of Alstonia boonei (A. boonei oils and derivatives against different life stages of a malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. Methods: The leaf, stem bark and root bark of A. boonei were collected from an open field and air dried before being blended to fine powder. Oils from this plant were extracted by cold extraction and were prepared at different concentrations. Contact toxicity of A. boonei was tested against the larvae and pupae of the insect while smoke toxicity of the plant materials in form of mosquito coil was tested against the adult insect. Results: Alstodine recorded the highest insect mortality rate and the order of susceptibility of the life stages of the insect to the plant was pupae alstonine > stem bark extract > leaf extract > root bark extract.

  17. Temporal dynamics of the ABC transporter response to insecticide treatment: insights from the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epis, Sara; Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Urbanelli, Sandra; Sassera, Davide; De Marco, Leone; Mereghetti, Valeria; Montagna, Matteo; Ricci, Irene; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    In insects, ABC transporters have been shown to contribute to defence/resistance to insecticides by reducing toxic concentrations in cells/tissues. Despite the extensive studies about this detoxifying mechanism, the temporal patterns of ABC transporter activation have been poorly investigated. Using the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi as a study system, we investigated the expression profile of ABC genes belonging to different subfamilies in permethrin-treated larvae at different time points (30 min to 48 h). Our results showed that the expression of ABCB and ABCG subfamily genes was upregulated at 1 h after treatment, with the highest expression observed at 6 h. Therefore, future investigations on the temporal dynamics of ABC gene expression will allow a better implementation of insecticide treatment regimens, including the use of specific inhibitors of ABC efflux pumps.

  18. A spatial agent-based model of Anopheles vagus for malaria epidemiology: examining the impact of vector control interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Zahangir; Niaz Arifin, S M; Al-Amin, Hasan Mohammad; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Rahman, M Sohel

    2017-10-27

    Malaria, being a mosquito-borne infectious disease, is still one of the most devastating global health issues. The malaria vector Anopheles vagus is widely distributed in Asia and a dominant vector in Bandarban, Bangladesh. However, despite its wide distribution, no agent based model (ABM) of An. vagus has yet been developed. Additionally, its response to combined vector control interventions has not been examined. A spatial ABM, denoted as ABM[Formula: see text], was designed and implemented based on the biological attributes of An. vagus by modifying an established, existing ABM of Anopheles gambiae. Environmental factors such as temperature and rainfall were incorporated into ABM[Formula: see text] using daily weather profiles. Real-life field data of Bandarban were used to generate landscapes which were used in the simulations. ABM[Formula: see text] was verified and validated using several standard techniques and against real-life field data. Using artificial landscapes, the individual and combined efficacies of existing vector control interventions are modeled, applied, and examined. Simulated female abundance curves generated by ABM[Formula: see text] closely follow the patterns observed in the field. Due to the use of daily temperature and rainfall data, ABM[Formula: see text] was able to generate seasonal patterns for a particular area. When two interventions were applied with parameters set to mid-ranges, ITNs/LLINs with IRS produced better results compared to the other cases. Moreover, any intervention combined with ITNs/LLINs yielded better results. Not surprisingly, three interventions applied in combination generate best results compared to any two interventions applied in combination. Output of ABM[Formula: see text] showed high sensitivity to real-life field data of the environmental factors and the landscape of a particular area. Hence, it is recommended to use the model for a given area in connection to its local field data. For applying combined

  19. Human antibody response to Anopheles gambiae saliva: an immuno-epidemiological biomarker to evaluate the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets in malaria vector control.

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    Drame, Papa M; Poinsignon, Anne; Besnard, Patrick; Le Mire, Jacques; Dos-Santos, Maria A; Sow, Cheikh S; Cornelie, Sylvie; Foumane, Vincent; Toto, Jean-Claude; Sembene, Mbacké; Boulanger, Denis; Simondon, François; Fortes, Filomeno; Carnevale, Pierre; Remoue, Franck

    2010-07-01

    For the fight against malaria, the World Health Organization (WHO) has emphasized the need for indicators to evaluate the efficacy of vector-control strategies. This study investigates a potential immunological marker, based on human antibody responses to Anopheles saliva, as a new indicator to evaluate the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Parasitological, entomological, and immunological assessments were carried out in children and adults from a malaria-endemic region of Angola before and after the introduction of ITNs. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels to An. gambiae saliva were positively associated with the intensity of An. gambiae exposure and malaria infection. A significant decrease in the anti-saliva IgG response was observed after the introduction of ITNs, and this was associated with a drop in parasite load. This study represents the first stage in the development of a new indicator to evaluate the efficacy of malaria vector-control strategies, which could apply in other arthropod vector-borne diseases.

  20. The effect of a single blood meal on the phenotypic expression of insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus

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    Coetzee Maureen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles funestus is a major malaria vector in southern Africa. Vector control relies on the use of insecticide chemicals to significantly reduce the number of malaria vectors by targeting that portion of the female population that takes blood meals and subsequently rests indoors. It has been suggested that the intake of a blood meal may assist female mosquitoes to tolerate higher doses of insecticide through vigour tolerance. It is hypothesized that during the process of blood digestion, detoxification mechanisms required for the neutralizing of harmful components in the blood meal may also confer an increased ability to tolerate insecticide intoxication through increased enzyme regulation. Methods Bottle bioassays using a range of concentrations of the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin were performed on pyrethroid susceptible and resistant laboratory strains of An. funestus in order to detect differences in insecticide susceptibility following a single blood meal. Based on these results, a discriminating dosage was identified (double the lowest dosage that resulted in 100% mortality of the susceptible strain. Blood-fed and unfed females drawn from the resistant strain of An. funestus were then assayed against this discriminating dose, and the percentage mortality for each sample was scored and compared. Results In the insecticide dose response assays neither the fully susceptible nor the resistant strain of An. funestus showed any significant difference in insecticide susceptibility following a blood meal, regardless of the stage of blood meal digestion. A significant increase in the level of resistance was however detected in the resistant An. funestus strain following a single blood meal, based on exposure to a discriminating dose of permethrin. Conclusion The fully susceptible An. funestus strain did not show any significant alteration in susceptibility to insecticide following a blood meal suggesting that vigour

  1. Resisting infection by Plasmodium berghei increases the sensitivity of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to DDT.

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    Saddler, Adam; Burda, Paul-Christian; Koella, Jacob C

    2015-03-28

    The evolution of insecticide resistance threatens current malaria control methods, which rely heavily on chemical insecticides. The magnitude of the threat will be determined by the phenotypic expression of resistance in those mosquitoes that can transmit malaria. These differ from the majority of the mosquito population in two main ways; they carry sporozoites (the infectious stage of the Plasmodium parasite) and they are relatively old, as they need to survive the development period of the malaria parasite. This study examines the effects of infection by Plasmodium berghei and of mosquito age on the sensitivity to DDT in a DDT-resistant strain of Anopheles gambiae. DDT-resistant Anopheles gambiae (ZANU) mosquitoes received a blood meal from either a mouse infected with Plasmodium berghei or an uninfected mouse. 10 and 19 days post blood meal the mosquitoes were exposed to 2%, 1% or 0% DDT using WHO test kits. 24 hrs after exposure, mortality and Plasmodium infection status of the mosquitoes were recorded. Sensitivity to DDT increased with the mosquitoes' age and was higher in mosquitoes that had fed on Plasmodium-infected mice than in those that had not been exposed to the parasite. The latter effect was mainly due to the high sensitivity of mosquitoes that had fed on an infected mouse but were not themselves infected, while the sensitivity to DDT was only slightly higher in mosquitoes infected by Plasmodium than in those that had fed on an uninfected mouse. The observed pattern indicates a cost of parasite-resistance. It suggests that, in addition to the detrimental effect of insecticide-resistance on control, the continued use of insecticides in a population of insecticide-resistant mosquitoes could select mosquitoes to be more susceptible to Plasmodium infection, thus further decreasing the efficacy of the control.

  2. Repellent, irritant and toxic effects of 20 plant extracts on adults of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae mosquito.

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    Emilie Deletre

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid insecticides induce an excito-repellent effect that reduces contact between humans and mosquitoes. Insecticide use is expected to lower the risk of pathogen transmission, particularly when impregnated on long-lasting treated bednets. When applied at low doses, pyrethroids have a toxic effect, however the development of pyrethroid resistance in several mosquito species may jeopardize these beneficial effects. The need to find additional compounds, either to kill disease-carrying mosquitoes or to prevent mosquito contact with humans, therefore arises. In laboratory conditions, the effects (i.e., repellent, irritant and toxic of 20 plant extracts, mainly essential oils, were assessed on adults of Anopheles gambiae, a primary vector of malaria. Their effects were compared to those of DEET and permethrin, used as positive controls. Most plant extracts had irritant, repellent and/or toxic effects on An. gambiae adults. The most promising extracts, i.e. those combining the three types of effects, were from Cymbopogon winterianus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Thymus vulgaris. The irritant, repellent and toxic effects occurred apparently independently of each other, and the behavioural response of adult An. gambiae was significantly influenced by the concentration of the plant extracts. Mechanisms underlying repellency might, therefore, differ from those underlying irritancy and toxicity. The utility of the efficient plant extracts for vector control as an alternative to pyrethroids may thus be envisaged.

  3. Assessing the relationship between environmental factors and malaria vector breeding sites in Swaziland using multi-scale remotely sensed data

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    Sabelo Nick Dlamini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many entomological studies have analyzed remotely sensed data to assess the relationship between malaria vector distribution and the associated environmental factors. However, the high cost of remotely sensed products with high spatial resolution has often resulted in analyses being conducted at coarse scales using open-source, archived remotely sensed data. In the present study, spatial prediction of potential breeding sites based on multi-scale remotely sensed information in conjunction with entomological data with special reference to presence or absence of larvae was realized. Selected water bodies were tested for mosquito larvae using the larva scooping method, and the results were compared with data on land cover, rainfall, land surface temperature (LST and altitude presented with high spatial resolution. To assess which environmental factors best predict larval presence or absence, Decision Tree methodology and logistic regression techniques were applied. Both approaches showed that some environmental predictors can reliably distinguish between the two alternatives (existence and non-existence of larvae. For example, the results suggest that larvae are mainly present in very small water pools related to human activities, such as subsistence farming that were also found to be the major determinant for vector breeding. Rainfall, LST and altitude, on the other hand, were less useful as a basis for mapping the distribution of breeding sites. In conclusion, we found that models linking presence of larvae with high-resolution land use have good predictive ability of identifying potential breeding sites.

  4. DNA barcoding reveals both known and novel taxa in the Albitarsis Group (Anopheles: Nyssorhynchus of Neotropical malaria vectors

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    Ruiz-Lopez Freddy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes belonging to the Albitarsis Group (Anopheles: Nyssorhynchus are of importance as malaria vectors across the Neotropics. The Group currently comprises six known species, and recent studies have indicated further hidden biodiversity within the Group. DNA barcoding has been proposed as a highly useful tool for species recognition, although its discriminatory utility has not been verified in closely related taxa across a wide geographic distribution. Methods DNA barcodes (658 bp of the mtDNA Cytochrome c Oxidase - COI were generated for 565 An. albitarsis s.l. collected in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Paraguay, Trinidad and Venezuela over the past twenty years, including specimens from type series and type localities. Here we test the utility of currently advocated barcoding methodologies, including the Kimura-two-parameter distance model (K2P and Neighbor-joining analysis (NJ, for determining species delineation within mosquitoes of the Neotropical Albitarsis Group of malaria vectors (Anopheles: Nyssorhynchus, and compare results with Bayesian analysis. Results Species delineation through barcoding analysis and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, fully concur. Analysis of 565 sequences (302 unique haplotypes resolved nine NJ tree clusters, with less than 2% intra-node variation. Mean intra-specific variation (K2P was 0.009 (range 0.002 - 0.014, whereas mean inter-specific divergence were several-fold higher at 0.041 (0.020 - 0.056, supporting the reported "barcoding gap". These results show full support for separate species status of the six known species in the Albitarsis Group (An. albitarsis s.s., An. albitarsis F, An. deaneorum, An. janconnae, An. marajoara and An. oryzalimnetes, and also support species level status for two previously detected lineages - An. albitarsis G &An. albitarsis I (designated herein. In addition, we highlight the presence of a unique mitochondrial lineage close to An. deaneorum and An

  5. When a discriminating dose assay is not enough: measuring the intensity of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagi, Judit; Grisales, Nelson; Corkill, Rebecca; Morgan, John C; N'Falé, Sagnon; Brogdon, William G; Ranson, Hilary

    2015-05-20

    Guidelines from the World Health Organization for monitoring insecticide resistance in disease vectors recommend exposing insects to a predetermined discriminating dose of insecticide and recording the percentage mortality in the population. This standardized methodology has been widely adopted for malaria vectors and has provided valuable data on the spread and prevalence of resistance. However, understanding the potential impact of this resistance on malaria control requires a more quantitative measure of the strength or intensity of this resistance. Bioassays were adapted to quantify the level of resistance to permethrin in laboratory colonies and field populations of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato. WHO susceptibility tube assays were used to produce data on mortality versus exposure time and CDC bottle bioassays were used to generate dose response data sets. A modified version of the CDC bottle bioassay, known as the Resistance Intensity Rapid Diagnostic Test (I-RDT), was also used to measure the knockdown and mortality after exposure to different multipliers of the diagnostic dose. Finally cone bioassays were used to assess mortality after exposure to insecticide treated nets. The time response assays were simple to perform but not suitable for highly resistant populations. After initial problems with stability of insecticide and bottle washing were resolved, the CDC bottle bioassay provided a reproducible, quantitative measure of resistance but there were challenges performing this under field conditions. The I-RDT was simple to perform and interpret although the end point selected (immediate knockdown versus 24 h mortality) could dramatically affect the interpretation of the data. The utility of the cone bioassays was dependent on net type and thus appropriate controls are needed to interpret the operational significance of these data sets. Incorporating quantitative measures of resistance strength, and utilizing bioassays with field doses of insecticides

  6. Indoor use of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) to effectively control malaria vectors in Mali, West Africa.

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    Qualls, Whitney A; Müller, Günter C; Traore, Sekou F; Traore, Mohamed M; Arheart, Kristopher L; Doumbia, Seydou; Schlein, Yosef; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Xue, Rui-De; Beier, John C

    2015-08-05

    Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) solutions containing any gut toxins can be either sprayed on plants or used in simple bait stations to attract and kill sugar-feeding female and male mosquitoes. This field study in Mali demonstrates the effect of ATSB bait stations inside houses as a vector control method that targets and kills endophilic African malaria vectors. The studies were conducted in five villages located near the River Niger, Mali. Baseline village-wide assessments of densities for female and male Anopheles gambiae sensu lato were performed by pyrethrum spray collections (PSC) in ten houses in each of five villages. To determine the rate of mosquito feeding on bait stations, one bait station per house containing attractive sugar bait (ASB) (without toxin) plus a food dye marker, was set up in ten houses in each of the five villages. PSC collections were conducted on the following day and the percentage of female and male mosquitoes that had fed was determined by visual inspection for the dye marker. Then, a 50-day field trial was done. In an experimental village, one bait station containing ATSB (1% boric acid active ingredient) was placed per bedroom (58 bedrooms), and indoor densities of female and male An. gambiae s.l. were subsequently determined by PSC, and female mosquitoes were age graded. In the five villages, the percentages of An. gambiae s.l. feeding inside houses on the non-toxic bait stations ranged from 28.3 to 53.1% for females and 36.9 to 78.3% for males. Following ATSB indoor bait station presentation, there was a significant reduction, 90% in female and 93% in male populations, of An. gambiae s.l. at the experimental village. A 3.8-fold decrease in the proportion of females that had undergone four or more gonotrophic cycles was recorded at the experimental village, compared to a 1.2-fold increase at the control village. The field trial demonstrates that An. gambiae s.l. feed readily from ATSB bait stations situated indoors, leading to

  7. Insecticide resistance in Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) could compromise the sustainability of malaria vector control strategies in West Africa.

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    Gnankiné, Olivier; Bassolé, Imael H N; Chandre, Fabrice; Glitho, Isabelle; Akogbeto, Martin; Dabiré, Roch K; Martin, Thibaud

    2013-10-01

    Insecticides from the organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid (PY) chemical families, have respectively, been in use for 50 and 30 years in West Africa, mainly against agricultural pests, but also against vectors of human disease. The selection pressure, with practically the same molecules year after year (mainly on cotton), has caused insecticide resistance in pest populations such as Bemisia tabaci, vector of harmful phytoviruses on vegetables. The evolution toward insecticide resistance in malaria vectors such as Anopheles gambiae sensus lato (s.l.) is probably related to the current use of these insecticides in agriculture. Thus, successful pest and vector control in West Africa requires an investigation of insect susceptibility, in relation to the identification of species and sub species, such as molecular forms or biotypes. Identification of knock down resistance (kdr) and acetylcholinesterase gene (Ace1) mutations modifying insecticide targets in individual insects and measure of enzymes activity typically involved in insecticide metabolism (oxidase, esterase and glutathion-S-transferase) are indispensable in understanding the mechanisms of resistance. Insecticide resistance is a good example in which genotype-phenotype links have been made successfully. Insecticides used in agriculture continue to select new resistant populations of B. tabaci that could be from different biotype vectors of plant viruses. As well, the evolution of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae threatens the management of malaria vectors in West Africa. It raises the question of priority in the use of insecticides in health and/or agriculture, and more generally, the question of sustainability of crop protection and vector control strategies in the region. Here, we review the susceptibility tests, biochemical and molecular assays data for B. tabaci, a major pest in cotton and vegetable crops, and An. gambiae, main vector of malaria. The data reviewed was collected in Benin and Burkina

  8. Efficacy of Olyset® Plus, a New Long-Lasting Insecticidal Net Incorporating Permethrin and Piperonil-Butoxide against Multi-Resistant Malaria Vectors

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    Pennetier, Cédric; Bouraima, Aziz; Chandre, Fabrice; Piameu, Michael; Etang, Josiane; Rossignol, Marie; Sidick, Ibrahim; Zogo, Barnabas; Lacroix, Marie-Noëlle; Yadav, Rajpal; Pigeon, Olivier; Corbel1, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Due to the rapid extension of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors worldwide, manufacturers are developing new vector control tools including insecticide mixtures containing at least two active ingredients with different mode of action as part of insecticide resistance management. Olyset® Plus is a new long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) incorporating permethrin and a synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO), into its fibres in order to counteract metabolic-based pyrethroid resistance of mosquitoes. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of Olyset® Plus both in laboratory and field against susceptible and multi-resistant malaria vectors and compared with Olyset Net, which is a permethrin incorporated into polyethylene net. In laboratory, Olyset® Plus performed better than Olyset® Net against susceptible Anopheles gambiae strain with a 2-day regeneration time owing to an improved permethrin bleeding rate with the new incorporation technology. It also performed better than Olyset® Net against multiple resistant populations of An. gambiae in experimental hut trials in West Africa. Moreover, the present study showed evidence for a benefit of incorporating a synergist, PBO, with a pyrethroid insecticide into mosquito netting. These results need to be further validated in a large-scale field trial to assess the durability and acceptability of this new tool for malaria vector control. PMID:24116029

  9. Efficacy of Olyset® Plus, a new long-lasting insecticidal net incorporating permethrin and piperonyl-butoxide against multi-resistant malaria vectors [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Pennetier

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid extension of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors worldwide, manufacturers are developing new vector control tools including insecticide mixtures containing at least two active ingredients with different mode of action as part of insecticide resistance management. Olyset® Plus is a new long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN incorporating permethrin and a synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO, into its fibres in order to counteract metabolic-based pyrethroid resistance of mosquitoes. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of Olyset® Plus both in laboratory and field against susceptible and multi-resistant malaria vectors and compared with Olyset Net, which is a permethrin incorporated into polyethylene net. In laboratory, Olyset® Plus performed better than Olyset® Net against susceptible Anopheles gambiae strain with a 2-day regeneration time owing to an improved permethrin bleeding rate with the new incorporation technology. It also performed better than Olyset® Net against multiple resistant populations of An. gambiae in experimental hut trials in West Africa. Moreover, the present study showed evidence for a benefit of incorporating a synergist, PBO, with a pyrethroid insecticide into mosquito netting. These results need to be further validated in a large-scale field trial to assess the durability and acceptability of this new tool for malaria vector control.

  10. Impacts of agricultural practices on insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Khartoum State, Sudan.

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    Abuelmaali, Sara A; Elaagip, Arwa H; Basheer, Mohammed A; Frah, Ehab A; Ahmed, Fayez T A; Elhaj, Hasabelrasol F A; Elhaj, Hassabelrasoul F A; Seidahmed, Osama M E; Weetman, David; Mahdi Abdel Hamid, Muzamil

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural pesticides may play a profound role in selection of resistance in field populations of mosquito vectors. The objective of this study is to investigate possible links between agricultural pesticide use and development of resistance to insecticides by the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan. Entomological surveys were conducted during two agricultural seasons in six urban and peri-urban sites in Khartoum state. Agro-sociological data were collected from 240 farmers subjected to semi-structured questionnaires based on knowledge attitude and practice (KAP) surveys. Susceptibility status of An. arabiensis (n=6000) was assessed in all sites and during each season using WHO bioassay tests to DDT, deltamethrin, permethrin, Malathion and bendiocarb. KAP analysis revealed that pesticide application was common practice among both urban and peri-urban farmers, with organophosphates and carbamates most commonly used. Selection for resistance is likely to be greater in peri-urban sites where farmers apply pesticide more frequently and are less likely to dispose of surpluses correctly. Though variable among insecticides and seasons, broad-spectrum mortality was slightly, but significantly higher in urban than peri-urban sites and most marked for bendiocarb, to which susceptibility was lowest. Anopheles arabiensis from all sites showed evidence of resistance or suspected resistance, especially pyrethroids. However, low-moderate frequencies of the L1014F kdr allele in all sites, which was very strongly associated with DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin survivorship (OR=6.14-14.67) suggests that resistance could increase rapidly. Ubiquitous multiple-resistance coupled with presence of a clear mechanism for DDT and pyrethroids (kdr L1014F) in populations of An. arabiensis from Khartoum-Sudan suggests careful insecticide management is essential to prolong efficacy. Our findings are consistent with agricultural insecticide use as a source of selection

  11. Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeriis, Morten; van Leeuwen, Theo

    2017-01-01

    This article revisits the concept of vectors, which, in Kress and van Leeuwen’s Reading Images (2006), plays a crucial role in distinguishing between ‘narrative’, action-oriented processes and ‘conceptual’, state-oriented processes. The use of this concept in image analysis has usually focused...... on the most salient vectors, and this works well, but many images contain a plethora of vectors, which makes their structure quite different from the linguistic transitivity structures with which Kress and van Leeuwen have compared ‘narrative’ images. It can also be asked whether facial expression vectors...... should be taken into account in discussing ‘reactions’, which Kress and van Leeuwen link only to eyeline vectors. Finally, the question can be raised as to whether actions are always realized by vectors. Drawing on a re-reading of Rudolf Arnheim’s account of vectors, these issues are outlined...

  12. Knowledge and beliefs about malaria transmission and practices for vector control in Southern Mexico Conocimientos y creencias acerca del paludismo y prácticas para el control de vectores en el sur de México

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    Américo David Rodríguez

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge and beliefs about malaria transmission and practices for vector control in eight villages on the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted during May and June 1995 in Chiapas, Mexico. A questionnaire to investigate family structure, knowledge on malaria transmission, preventive measures and attitudes towards seeking treatment was applied to both family heads of a sample of households. Associations were analyzed by estimating odds ratios with confidence intervals and p values, using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression methods. RESULTS: Malaria knowledge was poor and only 48% associated malaria with mosquito bites. The perceived benefit of indoor residual spraying was associated to a reduction of mosquitoes, a reduction in the numbers of cockroaches and rats, but only 3% associated it directly with the prevention of malaria transmission. Most villagers (97.6% agreed with the indoor residual spraying of insecticides. Ninety nine percent of villagers had mosquito bednets, 75.7% used them all year round. Other measures used by villagers to prevent mosquito bites were smoke and mosquito coils. Above 40% of villagers self-medicated when any member of the family had a fever episode, but 51% attended proper health services (community dispensary, private physician, health worker. About 61% used pesticides for agricultural or livestock purposes and 55% applied them themselves. Women had a greater participation as family health promoters, with 70% of the housewives being in charge of the application of self-protection preventive measures. CONCLUSIONS: Educational programs aimed at increasing awareness on the participation of mosquitoes on malaria transmission could promote community participation in malaria control in the region.OBJETIVO: Investigar el conocimiento, las creencias sobre paludismo y las prácticas para el control de vectores en ocho

  13. Early phase clinical trials with human immunodeficiency virus-1 and malaria vectored vaccines in The Gambia: frontline challenges in study design and implementation.

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    Afolabi, Muhammed O; Adetifa, Jane U; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Viebig, Nicola K; Kampmann, Beate; Bojang, Kalifa

    2014-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and malaria are among the most important infectious diseases in developing countries. Existing control strategies are unlikely to curtail these diseases in the absence of efficacious vaccines. Testing of HIV and malaria vaccines candidates start with early phase trials that are increasingly being conducted in developing countries where the burden of the diseases is high. Unique challenges, which affect planning and implementation of vaccine trials according to internationally accepted standards have thus been identified. In this review, we highlight specific challenges encountered during two early phase trials of novel HIV-1 and malaria vectored vaccine candidates conducted in The Gambia and how some of these issues were pragmatically addressed. We hope our experience will be useful for key study personnel involved in day-to-day running of similar clinical trials. It may also guide future design and implementation of vaccine trials in resource-constrained settings.

  14. How much does malaria vector control quality matter: the epidemiological impact of holed nets and inadequate indoor residual spraying.

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    Andrea M Rehman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Insecticide treated nets (ITN and indoor residual spraying (IRS are the two pillars of malaria vector control in Africa, but both interventions are beset by quality and coverage concerns. Data from three control programs were used to investigate the impact of: 1 the physical deterioration of ITNs, and 2 inadequate IRS spray coverage, on their respective protective effectiveness.Malaria indicator surveys were carried out in 2009 and 2010 in Bioko Island, mainland Equatorial Guinea and Malawi to monitor infection with P. falciparum in children, mosquito net use, net condition and spray status of houses. Nets were classified by their condition. The association between infection and quality and coverage of interventions was investigated.There was reduced odds of infection with P. falciparum in children sleeping under ITNs that were intact (Odds ratio (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.55-0.77 and OR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.56-1.18 in Equatorial Guinea and in Malawi respectively, but the protective effect became less with increasingly worse condition of the net. There was evidence for a linear trend in infection per category increase in deterioration of nets. In Equatorial Guinea IRS offered protection to those in sprayed and unsprayed houses alike when neighbourhood spray coverage was high (≥80% compared to those living in areas of low IRS coverage (<20%, regardless of whether the house they lived in was sprayed or not (adjusted OR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.89. ITNs provided only personal protection, offering no protection to non users. Although similar effects were seen in Malawi, the evidence was much weaker than in Equatorial Guinea.Universal coverage strategies should consider policies for repair and replacement of holed nets and promote the care of nets by their owners. IRS programs should ensure high spray coverage since inadequate coverage gives little or no protection at all.

  15. Improving the population genetics toolbox for the study of the African malaria vector Anopheles nili: microsatellite mapping to chromosomes

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    Peery Ashley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles nili is a major vector of malaria in the humid savannas and forested areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the population genetic structure and evolutionary dynamics of this species is important for the development of an adequate and targeted malaria control strategy in Africa. Chromosomal inversions and microsatellite markers are commonly used for studying the population structure of malaria mosquitoes. Physical mapping of these markers onto the chromosomes further improves the toolbox, and allows inference on the demographic and evolutionary history of the target species. Results Availability of polytene chromosomes allowed us to develop a map of microsatellite markers and to study polymorphism of chromosomal inversions. Nine microsatellite markers were mapped to unique locations on all five chromosomal arms of An. nili using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH. Probes were obtained from 300-483 bp-long inserts of plasmid clones and from 506-559 bp-long fragments amplified with primers designed using the An. nili genome assembly generated on an Illumina platform. Two additional loci were assigned to specific chromosome arms of An. nili based on in silico sequence similarity and chromosome synteny with Anopheles gambiae. Three microsatellites were mapped inside or in the vicinity of the polymorphic chromosomal inversions 2Rb and 2Rc. A statistically significant departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, due to a deficit in heterozygotes at the 2Rb inversion, and highly significant linkage disequilibrium between the two inversions, were detected in natural An. nili populations collected from Burkina Faso. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that next-generation sequencing can be used to improve FISH for microsatellite mapping in species with no reference genome sequence. Physical mapping of microsatellite markers in An. nili showed that their cytological locations spanned the entire five-arm complement

  16. A prime-boost immunization regimen based on a simian adenovirus 36 vectored multi-stage malaria vaccine induces protective immunity in mice.

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    Fonseca, Jairo A; McCaffery, Jessica N; Kashentseva, Elena; Singh, Balwan; Dmitriev, Igor P; Curiel, David T; Moreno, Alberto

    2017-05-31

    Malaria remains a considerable burden on public health. In 2015, the WHO estimates there were 212 million malaria cases causing nearly 429,000 deaths globally. A highly effective malaria vaccine is needed to reduce the burden of this disease. We have developed an experimental vaccine candidate (PyCMP) based on pre-erythrocytic (CSP) and erythrocytic (MSP1) stage antigens derived from the rodent malaria parasite P. yoelii. Our protein-based vaccine construct induces protective antibodies and CD4 + T cell responses. Based on evidence that viral vectors increase CD8 + T cell-mediated immunity, we also have tested heterologous prime-boost immunization regimens that included human adenovirus serotype 5 vector (Ad5), obtaining protective CD8 + T cell responses. While Ad5 is commonly used for vaccine studies, the high prevalence of pre-existing immunity to Ad5 severely compromises its utility. Here, we report the use of the novel simian adenovirus 36 (SAd36) as a candidate for a vectored malaria vaccine since this virus is not known to infect humans, and it is not neutralized by anti-Ad5 antibodies. Our study shows that the recombinant SAd36PyCMP can enhance specific CD8 + T cell response and elicit similar antibody titers when compared to an immunization regimen including the recombinant Ad5PyCMP. The robust immune responses induced by SAd36PyCMP are translated into a lower parasite load following P. yoelii infectious challenge when compared to mice immunized with Ad5PyCMP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of the Olyset Duo net against insecticide-resistant mosquito vectors of malaria.

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    Ngufor, Corine; N'Guessan, Raphael; Fagbohoun, Josias; Todjinou, Damien; Odjo, Abibath; Malone, David; Ismail, Hanafy; Akogbeto, Martin; Rowland, Mark

    2016-09-14

    Olyset Duo is a new long-lasting insecticidal net treated with permethrin (a pyrethroid) and pyriproxyfen, an insect growth regulator that disrupts the maturation of oocytes in mosquitoes exposed to the net. We tested the Olyset Duo net against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, which transmit malaria parasites, in laboratory bioassays and in a trial in Benin using experimental huts that closely resemble local habitations. Host-seeking mosquitoes that entered to feed were free to contact the occupied nets and were collected the next morning from exit traps. Surviving blood-fed mosquitoes were observed for effects on reproduction. Control nets were treated with pyrethroid only or pyriproxyfen only, and nets were tested unwashed and after 20 standardized washes. The Olyset Duo net showed improved efficacy and wash resistance relative to the pyrethroid-treated net in terms of mosquito mortality and prevention of blood feeding. The production of offspring among surviving blood-fed A. gambiae in the hut trial was reduced by the pyriproxyfen-treated net and the Olyset Duo net both before washing (90 and 71% reduction, respectively) and after washing (38 and 43% reduction, respectively). The degree of reproductive suppression in the hut trial was predicted by laboratory tunnel tests but not by cone bioassays. The overall reduction in reproductive rate of A. gambiae with the Olyset Duo net in the trial was 94% with no washing and 78% after 20 washes. The Olyset Duo net has the potential to provide community control of mosquito populations and reduce malaria transmission in areas of high insecticide resistance. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Predicting the potential distribution of main malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi, An. culicifacies s.l. and An. fluviatilis s.l. in Iran based on maximum entropy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdad, Kamran; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Vatandoost, Hassan; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Raeisi, Ahmad; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi

    2017-05-01

    Malaria is considered as a major public health problem in southern areas of Iran. The goal of this study was to predict best ecological niches of three main malaria vectors of Iran: Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles culicifacies s.l. and Anopheles fluviatilis s.l. A databank was created which included all published data about Anopheles species of Iran from 1961 to 2015. The suitable environmental niches for the three above mentioned Anopheles species were predicted using maximum entropy model (MaxEnt). AUC (area under Roc curve) values were 0.943, 0.974 and 0.956 for An. stephensi, An. culicifacies s.l. and An. fluviatilis s.l respectively, which are considered as high potential power of model in the prediction of species niches. The biggest bioclimatic contributor for An. stephensi and An. fluviatilis s.l. was bio 15 (precipitation seasonality), 25.5% and 36.1% respectively, followed by bio 1 (annual mean temperature), 20.8% for An. stephensi and bio 4 (temperature seasonality) with 49.4% contribution for An. culicifacies s.l. This is the first step in the mapping of the country's malaria vectors. Hence, future weather situation can change the dispersal maps of Anopheles. Iran is under elimination phase of malaria, so that such spatio-temporal studies are essential and could provide guideline for decision makers for IVM strategies in problematic areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Allomonal effect of breath contributes to differential attractiveness of humans to the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

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    Takken Willem

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Removal of exhaled air from total body emanations or artificially standardising carbon dioxide (CO2 outputs has previously been shown to eliminate differential attractiveness of humans to certain blackfly (Simuliidae and mosquito (Culicidae species. Whether or not breath contributes to between-person differences in relative attractiveness to the highly anthropophilic malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto remains unknown and was the focus of the present study. Methods The contribution to and possible interaction of breath (BR and body odours (BO in the attraction of An. gambiae s.s. to humans was investigated by conducting dual choice tests using a recently developed olfactometer. Either one or two human subjects were used as bait. The single person experiments compared the attractiveness of a person's BR versus that person's BO or a control (empty tent with no odour. His BO and total emanations (TE = BR+BO were also compared with a control. The two-person experiments compared the relative attractiveness of their TE, BO or BR, and the TE of each person against the BO of the other. Results Experiments with one human subject (P1 as bait found that his BO and TE collected more mosquitoes than the control (P = 0.005 and P 1 attracted more mosquitoes than that of another person designated P8 (P 8 attracted more mosquitoes than the BR of P1 (P = 0.001. The attractiveness of the BO of P1 versus the BO of P8 did not differ (P = 0.346. The BO from either individual was consistently more attractive than the TE from the other (P Conclusions We demonstrated for the first time that human breath, although known to contain semiochemicals that elicit behavioural and/or electrophysiological responses (CO2, ammonia, fatty acids in An. gambiae also contains one or more constituents with allomonal (~repellent properties, which inhibit attraction and may serve as an important contributor to between-person differences in the relative

  20. Transcriptome profiling of chemosensory appendages in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae reveals tissue- and sex-specific signatures of odor coding

    OpenAIRE

    Rokas Antonis; Jones Patrick L; Rinker David C; Pitts R; Zwiebel Laurence J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Chemosensory signal transduction guides the behavior of many insects, including Anopheles gambiae, the major vector for human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. To better understand the molecular basis of mosquito chemosensation we have used whole transcriptome RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to compare transcript expression profiles between the two major chemosensory tissues, the antennae and maxillary palps, of adult female and male An. gambiae. Results We compared chemosensory tis...

  1. Pyrethroid induced behavioral responses of Anopheles dirus, a vector of malaria in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tananchai, Chatchai; Tisgratog, Rungarun; Grieco, John Paul; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2012-06-01

    Contact and noncontact behavioral actions of wild-caught Anopheles dirus in response to the operational field dose of three synthetic pyrethroids (bifenthrin, α-cypermethrin and λ-cyhalothrin) were evaluated using an exito-repellency test chamber. DEET was used as the repellency standard for comparison with the other three synthetic pyrethroids. Results showed that test specimens rapidly escaped from the test chamber when exposed to direct contact with a surface treated with each of the three synthetic pyrethroids and DEET. Alpha-cypermethrin demonstrated the strongest irritant action (84.9% escape), followed by DEET (77.0%), λ-cyhalothrin (68.6%) and bifenthrin (68.3%). In the noncontact configuration, fewer mosquitoes escaped from the test chambers as compared to contact trials, although a significant escape response was still observed as compared to the controls (P<0.05). We conclude that An. dirus exhibits both irritant and repellent actions in response the three pyrethroids testing in this study. The information obtained will allow us to better understand the behavioral responses of vectors to various chemicals and provide guidance when designing control strategies for targeting specific disease vectors. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  2. Linking individual phenotype to density-dependent population growth: the influence of body size on the population dynamics of malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Tanya L; Lwetoijera, Dickson W; Knols, Bart G J; Takken, Willem; Killeen, Gerry F; Ferguson, Heather M

    2011-10-22

    Understanding the endogenous factors that drive the population dynamics of malaria mosquitoes will facilitate more accurate predictions about vector control effectiveness and our ability to destabilize the growth of either low- or high-density insect populations. We assessed whether variation in phenotypic traits predict the dynamics of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes, the most important vectors of human malaria. Anopheles gambiae dynamics were monitored over a six-month period of seasonal growth and decline. The population exhibited density-dependent feedback, with the carrying capacity being modified by rainfall (97% wAIC(c) support). The individual phenotypic expression of the maternal (p = 0.0001) and current (p = 0.040) body size positively influenced population growth. Our field-based evidence uniquely demonstrates that individual fitness can have population-level impacts and, furthermore, can mitigate the impact of exogenous drivers (e.g. rainfall) in species whose reproduction depends upon it. Once frontline interventions have suppressed mosquito densities, attempts to eliminate malaria with supplementary vector control tools may be attenuated by increased population growth and individual fitness.

  3. Gene expression modulation of ABC transporter genes in response to permethrin in adults of the mosquito malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrantonio, Valentina; Ferrari, Marco; Epis, Sara; Negri, Agata; Scuccimarra, Giulia; Montagna, Matteo; Favia, Guido; Porretta, Daniele; Urbanelli, Sandra; Bandi, Claudio

    2017-07-01

    Living organisms have evolved an array of genes coding for detoxifying enzymes and efflux protein pumps, to cope with endogenous and xenobiotic toxic compounds. The study of the genes activated during toxic exposure is relevant to the area of arthropod vector control, since these genes are one of the targets upon which natural selection acts for the evolution of insecticide resistance. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters participate to insecticide detoxification acting as efflux pumps, that reduce the intracellular concentration of toxic compounds, or of their metabolic derivatives. Here we analyzed the modulation of the expression of six genes coding for ABC transporters, after the exposure of adult females and males of the mosquito Anopheles stephensi, a major malaria vector in Asia, to permethrin. Male and female mosquitoes were exposed to insecticide for one hour, then the expression profiles of the ABC transporter genes AnstABCB2, AnstABCB3, AnstABCB4, AnstABCBmember6, AnstABCC11, and AnstABCG4 were analysed after one and 24h. Our results showed that three genes (AnstABCB2, AnstABCBmember6, AnstABCG4) were up-regulated in both sexes; two of these (AnstABCBmember6 and AnstABCG4) have previously been shown to be up-regulated also in larval stages of An. stephensi, supporting a role for these genes in permethrin defence in larvae as well as in adults. Finally, the same ABC transporter genes were activated both in females and males; however, the timing of gene induction was different, with a prompter induction in females than in males. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms involving metabolic changes and insensitive target sites selected in anopheline vectors of malaria in Sri Lanka

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    Karunaratne SHP Parakrama

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current status of insecticide resistance and the underlying resistance mechanisms were studied in the major vector of malaria, Anopheles culicifacies, and the secondary vector, Anopheles subpictus in five districts (Anuradhapura, Kurunegala, Moneragala, Puttalam and Trincomalee of Sri Lanka. Eight other anophelines, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles jamesii, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles tessellatus, Anopheles vagus and Anopheles varuna from Anuradhapura district were also tested. Methods Adult females were exposed to the WHO discriminating dosages of DDT, malathion, fenitrothion, propoxur, λ-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin and etofenprox. The presence of metabolic resistance by esterase, glutathione S-transferase (GST and monooxygenase-based mechanisms, and the sensitivity of the acetylcholinesterase target site were assessed using synergists, and biochemical, and metabolic techniques. Results All the anopheline species had high DDT resistance. All An. culicifacies and An. subpictus populations were resistant to malathion, except An. culicifacies from Kurunegala, where there was no malathion carboxylesterase activity. Kurunegala and Puttalam populations of An. culicifacies were susceptible to fenitrothion. All the An. culicifacies populations were susceptible to carbamates. Both species were susceptible to the discriminating dosages of cypermethrin and cyfluthrin, but had different levels of resistance to other pyrethroids. Of the 8 other anophelines, only An. nigerrimus and An. peditaeniatus were resistant to all the insecticides tested, probably due to their high exposure to the insecticides used in agriculture. An. vagus showed some resistance to permethrin. Esterases, GSTs and monooxygenases were elevated in both An. culicifacies and An. subpictus. AChE was most sensitive to insecticides in Kurunegala and Trincomalee An. culicifacies

  5. Reproductive and post-embryonic daily rhythm patterns of the malaria vector Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii: aspects of the life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahad-Ehlers, Samira; Lozovei, Ana Leuch; Marques, Mirian David

    2007-01-01

    Females of Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii, a sporadic malaria vector in some areas of the Atlantic Forest in south and southeastern Brazil, were captured and studied under controlled conditions. In the laboratory, daily observations were conducted in natural light-dark cycles at 25.1+/-0.6 degrees C and relative humidity 57-81%. Post-embryonic development, which comprises four larval instars and the pupa, was continuously observed, and its cycles, as well as temporal components of reproduction, were registered. A preliminary study on female longevity was also performed. Oviposition, ecdysis from the third and fourth instars larvae, and pupation were visually monitored over three consecutive days and the emergence of adults over four consecutive days. Results were analyzed by circular statistics, and the null hypothesis of the absence of rhythm was assessed by Rayleigh's test at the 5% significance level. From a total of 141 females captured, 113 (80.14%) survived and 79 (69.91%) were successfully fed on blood, offered at one of two time intervals, 09:00-10:30 h (morning) or 18:30-20:00 h (evening). A total of 36 females laid 1063 eggs in 65 oviposition episodes, and 18 females presented fragmented oviposition. The average duration from egg-laying until adult emergence was 30.71+/-3.57 days, the larval stage being the longest in the post-embryonic development. Egg-laying showed a daily rhythm, with a peak at 23:24+/-3:47 h, 2 to 5 h after sunset. The time of the blood meal did not shift the phase of the egg-laying rhythm. The last larval ecdysis, pupation, and adult emergence did not follow a 24 h rhythmic pattern. A description of temporal patterns of post-embryonic development, particularly in the case of vectors, can be an important tool in research to determine methods of control.

  6. Study protocol for a three-armed randomized controlled trial to assess whether house screening can reduce exposure to malaria vectors and reduce malaria transmission in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milligan Paul J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquito-proofing homes was one of the principal methods of environmental management in the early 1900s. House screening provides protection against malaria by reducing exposure to malaria parasites and has the added benefit of protecting everyone sleeping in the house, avoiding issues of inequity within the household. The aim of this study is to determine whether house screening protects people against malaria in Africa. It is hoped that this study will mark the beginning of a series of trials assessing a range of environmental interventions for malaria control in Africa. Design A 3-armed randomised-controlled trial will be conducted in and around Farafenni town in The Gambia, West Africa, to assess whether screening windows, doors and closing eaves or installing netting ceilings in local houses can substantially reduce malaria transmission and anaemia compared to homes with no screening. Eligible houses will be sorted and stratified by location and the number of children in each house, then randomly allocated to the interventions in blocks of 5 houses (2 with full screening, 2 with screened ceilings and 1 control house without screening. Risk of malaria transmission will be assessed in each house by routine collections of mosquitoes using light traps and an anaemia prevalence study in children at the end of the main transmission period. Discussion Practical issues concerning intervention implementation, as well as the potential benefits and risks of the study, are discussed. Trial Registration ISRCTN51184253 – Screening-homes to prevent malaria

  7. Mapping a Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL conferring pyrethroid resistance in the African malaria vector Anopheles funestus

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    Hunt Richard H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles funestus populations has led to an increase in malaria transmission in southern Africa. Resistance has been attributed to elevated activities of cytochrome P450s but the molecular basis underlying this metabolic resistance is unknown. Microsatellite and SNP markers were used to construct a linkage map and to detect a quantitative trait locus (QTL associated with pyrethroid resistance in the FUMOZ-R strain of An. funestus from Mozambique. Results By genotyping 349 F2 individuals from 11 independent families, a single major QTL, rp1, at the telomeric end of chromosome 2R was identified. The rp1 QTL appears to present a major effect since it accounts for more than 60% of the variance in susceptibility to permethrin. This QTL has a strong additive genetic effect with respect to susceptibility. Candidate genes associated with pyrethroid resistance in other species were physically mapped to An. funestus polytene chromosomes. This showed that rp1 is genetically linked to a cluster of CYP6 cytochrome P450 genes located on division 9 of chromosome 2R and confirmed earlier reports that pyrethroid resistance in this strain is not associated with target site mutations (knockdown resistance. Conclusion We hypothesize that one or more of these CYP6 P450s clustered on chromosome 2R confers pyrethroid resistance in the FUMOZ-R strain of An. funestus.

  8. Larvicidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. and Croton macrostachyus Del. against Anopheles arabiensis Patton, a potent malaria vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunamoorthi, K; Ilango, K

    2010-01-01

    Methanol leaf extracts of two Ethiopian traditional medicinal plants viz., Lomisar [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. (Poaceae)] and Bisana [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Croton macrostachyus Del. (Euphorbiaceae)] were screened for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of Anopheles arabiensis Patton, a potent malaria vector in Ethiopia. The larval mortality was observed 24 h of post treatment. Both plant extracts demonstrated varying degrees of larvicidal activity against Anopheles arabiensis. Cymbopogon citratus extract has exhibited potent larvicidal activity than Croton macrostachyus at lower concentrations. The LC50 and LC90 values of Cymbopogon citratus were 74.02 and 158.20 ppm, respectively. From this data, a chi-square value 2.760 is significant at the P < 0.05 level. While, the LC50 and LC90 values of Croton macrostachyus were 89.25 and 224.98 ppm, respectively and the chi-square value 1.035 is significant at the P < 0.05 level. The present investigation establishes that these plant extracts could serve as potent mosquito larvicidal agents against Anopheles arabiensis. However, their mode of actions and larvicidal efficiency under the field conditions should be scrutinized and determined in the near future.

  9. Insecticidal Activities of Bark, Leaf and Seed Extracts of Zanthoxylum heitzii against the African Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae

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    Hans J. Overgaard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The olon tree, Zanthoxylum heitzii (syn. Fagara heitzii is commonly found in the central-west African forests. In the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville its bark is anecdotally reported to provide human protection against fleas. Here we assess the insecticidal activities of Z. heitzii stem bark, seed and leaf extracts against Anopheles gambiae s.s, the main malaria vector in Africa. Extracts were obtained by Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE using solvents of different polarity and by classical Soxhlet extraction using hexane as solvent. The insecticidal effects of the crude extracts were evaluated using topical applications of insecticides on mosquitoes of a susceptible reference strain (Kisumu [Kis], a strain homozygous for the L1014F kdr mutation (kdrKis, and a strain homozygous for the G119S Ace1R allele (AcerKis. The insecticidal activities were measured using LD50 and LD95 and active extracts were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and HPLC chromatography. Results show that the ASE hexane stem bark extract was the most effective compound against An. gambiae (LD50 = 102 ng/mg female, but was not as effective as common synthetic insecticides. Overall, there was no significant difference between the responses of the three mosquito strains to Z. heitzii extracts, indicating no cross resistance with conventional pesticides.

  10. 1.45 Å resolution structure of SRPN18 from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meekins, David A.; Zhang, Xin; Battaile, Kevin P.; Lovell, Scott; Michel, Kristin (Kansas); (KSU); (HWMRI)

    2016-11-19

    Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) in insects function within development, wound healing and immunity. The genome of the African malaria vector,Anopheles gambiae, encodes 23 distinct serpin proteins, several of which are implicated in disease-relevant physiological responses.A. gambiaeserpin 18 (SRPN18) was previously categorized as non-inhibitory based on the sequence of its reactive-center loop (RCL), a region responsible for targeting and initiating protease inhibition. The crystal structure ofA. gambiaeSRPN18 was determined to a resolution of 1.45 Å, including nearly the entire RCL in one of the two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure reveals that the SRPN18 RCL is extremely short and constricted, a feature associated with noncanonical inhibitors or non-inhibitory serpin superfamily members. Furthermore, the SRPN18 RCL does not contain a suitable protease target site and contains a large number of prolines. The SRPN18 structure therefore reveals a unique RCL architecture among the highly conserved serpin fold.

  11. Malaria vectors in the changing environment of the southern Punjab, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkenberg, Eveline; Konradsen, Flemming; Herrel, Nathaly

    2004-01-01

    irrigation system in the southern Punjab, was analysed. Our findings suggest that Anopheles stephensi has increased in prevalence and became more common than A. culicifacies during the 1980s. This shift in species dominance may be due to the large-scale ecological changes that have taken place in the Punjab......, where irrigation-induced waterlogging of soil with related salinization has created an environment favourable for the more salt-tolerant A. stephensi. Some biotypes of A. stephensi are suspected of being less efficient vectors and, therefore, the shift in species dominance might have played a role...

  12. Applications and limitations of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light traps for measuring biting densities of African malaria vector populations: a pooled-analysis of 13 comparisons with human landing catches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briët, Olivier J T; Huho, Bernadette J; Gimnig, John E; Bayoh, Nabie; Seyoum, Aklilu; Sikaala, Chadwick H; Govella, Nicodem; Diallo, Diadier A; Abdullah, Salim; Smith, Thomas A; Killeen, Gerry F

    2015-06-18

    Measurement of densities of host-seeking malaria vectors is important for estimating levels of disease transmission, for appropriately allocating interventions, and for quantifying their impact. The gold standard for estimating mosquito-human contact rates is the human landing catch (HLC), where human volunteers catch mosquitoes that land on their exposed body parts. This approach necessitates exposure to potentially infectious mosquitoes, and is very labour intensive. There are several safer and less labour-intensive methods, with Centers for Disease Control light traps (LT) placed indoors near occupied bed nets being the most widely used. This paper presents analyses of 13 studies with paired mosquito collections of LT and HLC to evaluate these methods for their consistency in sampling indoor-feeding mosquitoes belonging to the two major taxa of malaria vectors across Africa, the Anopheles gambiae sensu lato complex and the Anopheles funestus s.l. group. Both overall and study-specific sampling efficiencies of LT compared with HLC were computed, and regression methods that allow for the substantial variations in mosquito counts made by either method were used to test whether the sampling efficacy varies with mosquito density. Generally, LT were able to collect similar numbers of mosquitoes to the HLC indoors, although the relative sampling efficacy, measured by the ratio of LT:HLC varied considerably between studies. The overall best estimate for An. gambiae s.l. was 1.06 (95% credible interval: 0.68-1.64) and for An. funestus s.l. was 1.37 (0.70-2.68). Local calibration exercises are not reproducible, since only in a few studies did LT sample proportionally to HLC, and there was no geographical pattern or consistent trend with average density in the tendency for LT to either under- or over-sample. LT are a crude tool at best, but are relatively easy to deploy on a large scale. Spatial and temporal variation in mosquito densities and human malaria transmission

  13. Using remote sensing to map larval and adult populations of Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae a potential malaria vector in Southern France

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    Roger François

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although malaria disappeared from southern France more than 60 years ago, suspicions of recent autochthonous transmission in the French Mediterranean coast support the idea that the area could still be subject to malaria transmission. The main potential vector of malaria in the Camargue area, the largest river delta in southern France, is the mosquito Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae. In the context of recent climatic and landscape changes, the evaluation of the risk of emergence or re-emergence of such a major disease is of great importance in Europe. When assessing the risk of emergence of vector-borne diseases, it is crucial to be able to characterize the arthropod vector's spatial distribution. Given that remote sensing techniques can describe some of the environmental parameters which drive this distribution, satellite imagery or aerial photographs could be used for vector mapping. Results In this study, we propose a method to map larval and adult populations of An. hyrcanus based on environmental indices derived from high spatial resolution imagery. The analysis of the link between entomological field data on An. hyrcanus larvae and environmental indices (biotopes, distance to the nearest main productive breeding sites of this species i.e., rice fields led to the definition of a larval index, defined as the probability of observing An. hyrcanus larvae in a given site at least once over a year. Independent accuracy assessments showed a good agreement between observed and predicted values (sensitivity and specificity of the logistic regression model being 0.76 and 0.78, respectively. An adult index was derived from the larval index by averaging the larval index within a buffer around the trap location. This index was highly correlated with observed adult abundance values (Pearson r = 0.97, p An. hyrcanus larval and adult populations from the landscape indices. Conclusion This work shows that it is possible to use

  14. Using remote sensing to map larval and adult populations of Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae) a potential malaria vector in Southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Annelise; Ponçon, Nicolas; Toty, Céline; Linard, Catherine; Guis, Hélène; Ferré, Jean-Baptiste; Lo Seen, Danny; Roger, François; de la Rocque, Stéphane; Fontenille, Didier; Baldet, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Background Although malaria disappeared from southern France more than 60 years ago, suspicions of recent autochthonous transmission in the French Mediterranean coast support the idea that the area could still be subject to malaria transmission. The main potential vector of malaria in the Camargue area, the largest river delta in southern France, is the mosquito Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae). In the context of recent climatic and landscape changes, the evaluation of the risk of emergence or re-emergence of such a major disease is of great importance in Europe. When assessing the risk of emergence of vector-borne diseases, it is crucial to be able to characterize the arthropod vector's spatial distribution. Given that remote sensing techniques can describe some of the environmental parameters which drive this distribution, satellite imagery or aerial photographs could be used for vector mapping. Results In this study, we propose a method to map larval and adult populations of An. hyrcanus based on environmental indices derived from high spatial resolution imagery. The analysis of the link between entomological field data on An. hyrcanus larvae and environmental indices (biotopes, distance to the nearest main productive breeding sites of this species i.e., rice fields) led to the definition of a larval index, defined as the probability of observing An. hyrcanus larvae in a given site at least once over a year. Independent accuracy assessments showed a good agreement between observed and predicted values (sensitivity and specificity of the logistic regression model being 0.76 and 0.78, respectively). An adult index was derived from the larval index by averaging the larval index within a buffer around the trap location. This index was highly correlated with observed adult abundance values (Pearson r = 0.97, p landscape indices. Conclusion This work shows that it is possible to use high resolution satellite imagery to map malaria vector spatial distribution

  15. Humoral response to the Anopheles gambiae salivary protein gSG6: a serological indicator of exposure to Afrotropical malaria vectors.

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    Cinzia Rizzo

    Full Text Available Salivary proteins injected by blood feeding arthropods into their hosts evoke a saliva-specific humoral response which can be useful to evaluate exposure to bites of disease vectors. However, saliva of hematophagous arthropods is a complex cocktail of bioactive factors and its use in immunoassays can be misleading because of potential cross-reactivity to other antigens. Toward the development of a serological marker of exposure to Afrotropical malaria vectors we expressed the Anopheles gambiae gSG6, a small anopheline-specific salivary protein, and we measured the anti-gSG6 IgG response in individuals from a malaria hyperendemic area of Burkina Faso, West Africa. The gSG6 protein was immunogenic and anti-gSG6 IgG levels and/or prevalence increased in exposed individuals during the malaria transmission/rainy season. Moreover, this response dropped during the intervening low transmission/dry season, suggesting it is sensitive enough to detect variation in vector density. Members of the Fulani ethnic group showed higher anti-gSG6 IgG response as compared to Mossi, a result consistent with the stronger immune reactivity reported in this group. Remarkably, anti-gSG6 IgG levels among responders were high in children and gradually declined with age. This unusual pattern, opposite to the one observed with Plasmodium antigens, is compatible with a progressive desensitization to mosquito saliva and may be linked to the continued exposure to bites of anopheline mosquitoes. Overall, the humoral anti-gSG6 IgG response appears a reliable serological indicator of exposure to bites of the main African malaria vectors (An. gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and, possibly, Anopheles funestus and it may be exploited for malaria epidemiological studies, development of risk maps and evaluation of anti-vector measures. In addition, the gSG6 protein may represent a powerful model system to get a deeper understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the

  16. ECOLOGICAL STUDIES ON VECTORS OF MALARIA, JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS AND FILARIASIS IN RURAL AREAS OF WEST JAVA

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    L. S. Self

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penangkapan rutin nyamuk dewasa dilakukan dua kali sebulan selama 1 jam pada waktu senja pada badan kerbau, babi dan manusia dan juga dikerjakan penangkapan dengan light trap. Daerah penangkapan meliputi satu daerah dataran rendah Jakarta (semi urban dan empat daerah pedalaman di Jawa Barat yang ekologinya berbeda-beda dan dimana sawahnya 2 kali panen dalam satu tahun. Penangkapan nyamuk satu malam penuh dari jam 18.00 - 16.00 dikerjakan disalah satu daerah pedalaman tersebut. Kira-kira 90.000 specimen dari 27 species nyamuk telah ditangkap antara bulan Juni 1973 sampai bulan Juli 1974. Penangkapan pada badan binatang dan manusia menghasilkan keterangan-keterangan yang berguna, mengetahui kepadatan musiman dari vektor malaria, Japanese encephalitis dan filaria.A. aconitus adalah satu Anopheline yang terdapat dalam jumlah banyak menggigit manusia dan kepadatan yang tinggi terdapat didaerah pegunungan dimana sawahnya bertingkat-tingkat (terrace. Di Jakarta dan didaerah yang sawahnya datar nyamuk ini praktis tidak diketemukan Puncak kepadatan dari species ini berhubungan dengan musin padi yaitu pada bulan Mei dan Juni, dan pada penangkapan satu malam penuh dengan umpan manusia nyamuk ini terdapat dalam jumlah banyak pada waktu-waktu sebelum tengah malam.Cu. tritaemorrhynchus, Cu. gelidus, Cu. fuscocephalus dan Cu. vishnui menunjukkan kecen­derungan senang terhadap manusia dan babi. Untuk Cu. tritaeniorrhynchus kepadatan dalam jumlah banyak diseluruh kelima daerah penelitian. Puncak kepadatan nyamuk-nyamuk tersebut sangat pendek yaitu beberapa hari sesudah panen. Cu. vishnui lebih senang menggigit manusia bila dibandingkan species lainnya. Di Jakarta terdapat vektor Japanese encephalitis dalam jumlah yang cukup banyak sehingga kemungkinan terjadi penularan didaerah tersebut lebih besar terutama didaerah dimana diketemukan banyak peternakan babu Dua species lainnya yang banyak menggigit manusia adalah Cu. bitaeniorrhynchus dan M. uniformis.  

  17. Impacts of agricultural practices on insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Khartoum State, Sudan.

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    Sara A Abuelmaali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Agricultural pesticides may play a profound role in selection of resistance in field populations of mosquito vectors. The objective of this study is to investigate possible links between agricultural pesticide use and development of resistance to insecticides by the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Entomological surveys were conducted during two agricultural seasons in six urban and peri-urban sites in Khartoum state. Agro-sociological data were collected from 240 farmers subjected to semi-structured questionnaires based on knowledge attitude and practice (KAP surveys. Susceptibility status of An. arabiensis (n=6000 was assessed in all sites and during each season using WHO bioassay tests to DDT, deltamethrin, permethrin, Malathion and bendiocarb. KAP analysis revealed that pesticide application was common practice among both urban and peri-urban farmers, with organophosphates and carbamates most commonly used. Selection for resistance is likely to be greater in peri-urban sites where farmers apply pesticide more frequently and are less likely to dispose of surpluses correctly. Though variable among insecticides and seasons, broad-spectrum mortality was slightly, but significantly higher in urban than peri-urban sites and most marked for bendiocarb, to which susceptibility was lowest. Anopheles arabiensis from all sites showed evidence of resistance or suspected resistance, especially pyrethroids. However, low-moderate frequencies of the L1014F kdr allele in all sites, which was very strongly associated with DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin survivorship (OR=6.14-14.67 suggests that resistance could increase rapidly. CONCLUSIONS: Ubiquitous multiple-resistance coupled with presence of a clear mechanism for DDT and pyrethroids (kdr L1014F in populations of An. arabiensis from Khartoum-Sudan suggests careful insecticide management is essential to prolong efficacy. Our findings

  18. Electric nets and sticky materials for analysing oviposition behaviour of gravid malaria vectors

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    Dugassa Sisay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how malaria mosquitoes locate oviposition sites in nature. Such knowledge is important to help devise monitoring and control measures that could be used to target gravid females. This study set out to develop a suite of tools that can be used to study the attraction of gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s. towards visual or olfactory cues associated with aquatic habitats. Methods Firstly, the study developed and assessed methods for using electrocuting nets to analyse the orientation of gravid females towards an aquatic habitat. Electric nets (1m high × 0.5m wide were powered by a 12V battery via a spark box. High and low energy settings were compared for mosquito electrocution and a collection device developed to retain electrocuted mosquitoes when falling to the ground. Secondly, a range of sticky materials and a detergent were tested to quantify if and where gravid females land to lay their eggs, by treating the edge of the ponds and the water surface. A randomized complete block design was used for all experiments with 200 mosquitoes released each day. Experiments were conducted in screened semi-field systems using insectary-reared An. gambiae s.s. Data were analysed by generalized estimating equations. Results An electric net operated at the highest spark box energy of a 400 volt direct current made the net spark, creating a crackling sound, a burst of light and a burning smell. This setting caught 64% less mosquitoes than a net powered by reduced voltage output that could neither be heard nor seen (odds ratio (OR 0.46; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.40-0.53, p Conclusion A square of four e-nets with yellow sticky boards as a collection device can be used for quantifying the numbers of mosquitoes approaching a small oviposition site. Shiny sticky surfaces attract gravid females possibly because they are visually mistaken as aquatic habitats. These materials might be developed further as gravid traps

  19. An extra-domiciliary method of delivering entomopathogenic fungus, Metharizium anisopliae IP 46 for controlling adult populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis

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    Mnyone Ladslaus L

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fungal biopesticides have the potential to significantly reduce densities of malaria vectors as well as associated malaria transmission. In previous field trials, entomopathogenic fungus was delivered from within human dwellings, where its efficacy was limited by low infection rates of target mosquitoes, high costs of spraying fungus inside houses, and potential public health concerns associated with introducing fungal conidia inside houses. Here we have demonstrated that Metarhizium anisopliae IP 46, delivered within an extra-domiciliary odor-baited station (OBS, can infect and slowly-kill a high proportion of the wild adult malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis which entered and exited the OBS. This study, carried out in rural Tanzania, showed that by using a concentration of 3.9 × 1010 conidia/m2, more than 95% of mosquitoes that flew in and out of the OBS died within 14 days post-exposure. At least 86% infection of mosquito cadavers was recorded with a significant reduction in the probability of daily survival of exposed An. arabiensis in both treatments tested: low quantity of conidia (eave baffles plus one cotton panel; HR = 2.65, P P

  20. Vaccine efficacy against malaria by the combination of porcine parvovirus-like particles and vaccinia virus vectors expressing CS of Plasmodium.

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    Dolores Rodríguez

    Full Text Available With the aim to develop an efficient and cost-effective approach to control malaria, we have generated porcine parvovirus-like particles (PPV-VLPs carrying the CD8(+ T cell epitope (SYVPSAEQI of the circumsporozoite (CS protein from Plasmodium yoelii fused to the PPV VP2 capsid protein (PPV-PYCS, and tested in prime/boost protocols with poxvirus vectors for efficacy in a rodent malaria model. As a proof-of concept, we have characterized the anti-CS CD8(+ T cell response elicited by these hybrid PPV-VLPs in BALB/c mice after immunizations with the protein PPV-PYCS administered alone or in combination with recombinant vaccinia virus (VACV vectors from the Western Reserve (WR and modified virus Ankara (MVA strains expressing the entire P. yoelii CS protein. The results of different immunization protocols showed that the combination of PPV-PYCS prime/poxvirus boost was highly immunogenic, inducing specific CD8+ T cell responses to CS resulting in 95% reduction in liver stage parasites two days following sporozoite challenge. In contrast, neither the administration of PPV-PYCS alone nor the immunization with the vectors given in the order poxvirus/VLPs was as effective. The immune profile induced by VLPs/MVA boost was associated with polyfunctional and effector memory CD8+ T cell responses. These findings highlight the use of recombinant parvovirus PPV-PYCS particles as priming agents and poxvirus vectors, like MVA, as booster to enhance specific CD8+ T cell responses to Plasmodium antigens and to control infection. These observations are relevant in the design of T cell-inducing vaccines against malaria.

  1. Using green fluorescent malaria parasites to screen for permissive vector mosquitoes

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    Martin Beatrice

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Plasmodium species that infect rodents, particularly Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium yoelii, are useful to investigate host-parasite interactions. The mosquito species that act as vectors of human plasmodia in South East Asia, Africa and South America show different susceptibilities to infection by rodent Plasmodium species. P. berghei and P. yoelii infect both Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi, which are found mainly in Africa and Asia, respectively. However, it was reported that P. yoelii can infect the South American mosquito, Anopheles albimanus, while P. berghei cannot. Methods P. berghei lines that express the green fluorescent protein were used to screen for mosquitoes that are susceptible to infection by P. berghei. Live mosquitoes were examined and screened for the presence of a fluorescent signal in the abdomen. Infected mosquitoes were then examined by time-lapse microscopy to reveal the dynamic behaviour of sporozoites in haemolymph and extracted salivary glands. Results A single fluorescent oocyst can be detected in live mosquitoes and P. berghei can infect A. albimanus. As in other mosquitoes, P. berghei sporozoites can float through the haemolymph and invade A. albimanus salivary glands and they are infectious in mice after subcutaneous injection. Conclusion Fluorescent Plasmodium parasites can be used to rapidly screen susceptible mosquitoes. These results open the way to develop a laboratory model in countries where importation of A. gambiae and A. stephensi is not allowed.

  2. Electric nets and sticky materials for analysing oviposition behaviour of gravid malaria vectors.

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    Dugassa, Sisay; Lindh, Jenny M; Torr, Steve J; Oyieke, Florence; Lindsay, Steven W; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2012-11-14

    Little is known about how malaria mosquitoes locate oviposition sites in nature. Such knowledge is important to help devise monitoring and control measures that could be used to target gravid females. This study set out to develop a suite of tools that can be used to study the attraction of gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s. towards visual or olfactory cues associated with aquatic habitats. Firstly, the study developed and assessed methods for using electrocuting nets to analyse the orientation of gravid females towards an aquatic habitat. Electric nets (1m high × 0.5m wide) were powered by a 12V battery via a spark box. High and low energy settings were compared for mosquito electrocution and a collection device developed to retain electrocuted mosquitoes when falling to the ground. Secondly, a range of sticky materials and a detergent were tested to quantify if and where gravid females land to lay their eggs, by treating the edge of the ponds and the water surface. A randomized complete block design was used for all experiments with 200 mosquitoes released each day. Experiments were conducted in screened semi-field systems using insectary-reared An. gambiae s.s. Data were analysed by generalized estimating equations. An electric net operated at the highest spark box energy of a 400 volt direct current made the net spark, creating a crackling sound, a burst of light and a burning smell. This setting caught 64% less mosquitoes than a net powered by reduced voltage output that could neither be heard nor seen (odds ratio (OR) 0.46; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40-0.53, p electric nets and the transparent and shiny black surfaces were found highly attractive (OR 41.6, 95% CI 19.8 - 87.3, p < 0.001 and OR 28.8, 95% CI 14.5 - 56.8, p < 0.001, respectively) for gravid mosquitoes to land on compared to a yellow sticky film board and therefore unsuitable as collection device under the e-nets. With a square of four e-nets around a pond combined with yellow sticky boards on

  3. Single-step biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Zornia diphylla leaves: A potent eco-friendly tool against malaria and arbovirus vectors.

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    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Hoti, S L; Khater, Hanem F; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are vectors of important pathogens and parasites, including malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis and Zika virus. The application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain, and adverse effects on the environment and human health. In this scenario, eco-friendly control tools of mosquito vectors are a priority. Here single-step fabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap aqueous leaf extract of Zornia diphylla as reducing and capping agent pf Ag(+) ions has been carried out. Biosynthesized AgNP were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The acute toxicity of Z. diphylla leaf extract and biosynthesized AgNP was evaluated against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Both the Z. diphylla leaf extract and Ag NP showed dose dependent larvicidal effect against all tested mosquito species. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized Ag NP showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 values of 12.53, 13.42 and 14.61μg/ml, respectively. Biosynthesized Ag NP were found safer to non-target organisms Chironomus circumdatus, Anisops bouvieri and Gambusia affinis, with the respective LC50 values ranging from 613.11 to 6903.93μg/ml, if compared to target mosquitoes. Overall, our results highlight that Z. diphylla-fabricated Ag NP are a promising and eco-friendly tool against larval populations of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance, with negligible toxicity against other non-target organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  4. A census-weighted, spatially-stratified household sampling strategy for urban malaria epidemiology

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    Slutsker Laurence

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban malaria is likely to become increasingly important as a consequence of the growing proportion of Africans living in cities. A novel sampling strategy was developed for urban areas to generate a sample simultaneously representative of population and inhabited environments. Such a strategy should facilitate analysis of important epidemiological relationships in this ecological context. Methods Census maps and summary data for Kisumu, Kenya, were used to create a pseudo-sampling frame using the geographic coordinates of census-sampled structures. For every enumeration area (EA designated as urban by the census (n = 535, a sample of structures equal to one-tenth the number of households was selected. In EAs designated as rural (n = 32, a geographically random sample totalling one-tenth the number of households was selected from a grid of points at 100 m intervals. The selected samples were cross-referenced to a geographic information system, and coordinates transferred to handheld global positioning units. Interviewers found the closest eligible household to the sampling point and interviewed the caregiver of a child aged Results 4,336 interviews were completed in 473 of the 567 study area EAs from June 2002 through February 2003. EAs without completed interviews were randomly distributed, and non-response was approximately 2%. Mean distance from the assigned sampling point to the completed interview was 74.6 m, and was significantly less in urban than rural EAs, even when controlling for number of households. The selected sample had significantly more children and females of childbearing age than the general population, and fewer older individuals. Conclusion This method selected a sample that was simultaneously population-representative and inclusive of important environmental variation. The use of a pseudo-sampling frame and pre-programmed handheld GPS units is more efficient and may yield a more complete sample than

  5. Using Respondent Driven Sampling to Identify Malaria Risks and Occupational Networks among Migrant Workers in Ranong, Thailand.

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    Piyaporn Wangroongsarb

    Full Text Available Ranong Province in southern Thailand is one of the primary entry points for migrants entering Thailand from Myanmar, and borders Kawthaung Township in Myanmar where artemisinin resistance in malaria parasites has been detected. Areas of high population movement could increase the risk of spread of artemisinin resistance in this region and beyond.A respondent-driven sampling (RDS methodology was used to compare migrant populations coming from Myanmar in urban (Site 1 vs. rural (Site 2 settings in Ranong, Thailand. The RDS methodology collected information on knowledge, attitudes, and practices for malaria, travel and occupational histories, as well as social network size and structure. Individuals enrolled were screened for malaria by microscopy, Real Time-PCR, and serology.A total of 619 participants were recruited in Ranong City and 623 participants in Kraburi, a rural sub-district. By PCR, a total of 14 (1.1% samples were positive (2 P. falciparum in Site 1; 10 P. vivax, 1 Pf, and 1 P. malariae in Site 2. PCR analysis demonstrated an overall weighted prevalence of 0.5% (95% CI, 0-1.3% in the urban site and 1.0% (95% CI, 0.5-1.7% in the rural site for all parasite species. PCR positivity did not correlate with serological positivity; however, as expected there was a strong association between antibody prevalence and both age and exposure. Access to long-lasting insecticidal treated nets remains low despite relatively high reported traditional net use among these populations.The low malaria prevalence, relatively smaller networks among migrants in rural settings, and limited frequency of travel to and from other areas of malaria transmission in Myanmar, suggest that the risk for the spread of artemisinin resistance from this area may be limited in these networks currently but may have implications for regional malaria elimination efforts.

  6. A highly conserved candidate chemoreceptor expressed in both olfactory and gustatory tissues in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

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    Pitts, R Jason; Fox, A Nicole; Zwiebel, Laurence J

    2004-04-06

    Anopheles gambiae is a highly anthropophilic mosquito responsible for the majority of malaria transmission in Africa. The biting and host preference behavior of this disease vector is largely influenced by its sense of smell, which is presumably facilitated by G protein-coupled receptor signaling [Takken, W. & Knols, B. (1999) Annu. Rev. Entomol. 44, 131-157]. Because of the importance of host preference to the mosquitoes' ability to transmit disease, we have initiated studies intended to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying olfaction in An. gambiae. In the course of these studies, we have identified a number of genes potentially involved in signal transduction, including a family of candidate odorant receptors. One of these receptors, encoded by GPRor7 (hereafter referred to as AgOr7), is remarkably similar to an odorant receptor that is expressed broadly in olfactory tissues and has been identified in Drosophila melanogaster and other insects [Krieger, J., Klink, O., Mohl, C., Raming, K. & Breer, H. (2003) J. Comp. Physiol. A 189, 519-526; Vosshall, L. B., Amrein, H., Morozov, P. S., Rzhetsky, A. & Axel, R. (1999) Cell 96, 725-736]. We have observed AgOr7 expression in olfactory and gustatory tissues in adult An. gambiae and during several stages of the mosquitoes' development. Within the female adult peripheral chemosensory system, antiserum against the AgOR7 polypeptide labels most sensilla of the antenna and maxillary palp as well as a subset of proboscis sensilla. Furthermore, AgOR7 antiserum labeling is observed within the larval antenna and maxillary palpus. These results are consistent with a role for AgOr7 in both olfaction and gustation in An. gambiae and raise the possibility that AgOr7 orthologs may also be of general importance to both modalities of chemosensation in other insects.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Gmelina asiatica leaf extract against filariasis, dengue, and malaria vector mosquitoes.

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    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L

    2015-05-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal potential of leaf extracts of Gmelina asiatica and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against late third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the larvae of An. stephensi (lethal dose (LC₅₀) = 22.44 μg/mL; LC₉₀ 40.65 μg/mL), Ae. aegypti (LC₅₀ = 25.77 μg/mL; LC₉₀ 45.98 μg/mL), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC₅₀ = 27.83 μg/mL; LC₉₀ 48.92 μg/mL), respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of G. asiatica to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, eco-friendly, and a single-step approach and the AgNps formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents.

  8. [PCR-RFLP and sequencing studies of malaria vectors (Diptera, Culicidae, Anopheles) in Kyrgyzstan].

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    Goriacheva, I I; Zvantsov, A B; Gordeev, M I; Bezzhonova, O V; Usenbaev, N T; Ezhov, M N

    2011-01-01

    The results of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, obtained after treatment of PCR-products with restriction endonuclease CfoI, could identify two members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex: An. maculipennis and An. artemievi. Treatment of amplification products with restriction endonuclease BsuI gave rise to fragment lengths of 192 and 218 bp, characteristic of An. artemievi, in the populations of the Talas (settlement of Kizil-Adyr, Kara-Bura District), Dzhelalabad (towns of Tashkumyr and Kara-Kul), and Osh (town of Gulcha, Alai District; village of Langar, Kara-Suisky District) Regions. After treatment of PCR-products with restriction endonuclease BstACI, fragment lengths of 292 and 150 bp, characteristic of An. messeae, were obtained for the mosquitoes of Issyk-Kul (town of Balykchi) and Naryn (settlement of Kochkorka, Kochkor District) Regions. To identify the molecular forms of An. superpictus, the investigators sequenced the amplification products obtained by PCR with 5.8S and 28S rRNA gene-specific primers. Analysis of the primary structure of the second internal transcribed spacer, by using the international databases, has indicated that molecular form X is prevalent in the study districts of Kyrgyzstan. The COI-COII region of the mitochondrial genome of the vector also underwent PCR-RFLP analysis. Three new haplotypes with restriction patterns of about 540, 420, 200, 150, 140 bp, about 540, 360, 280, 150, 140 bp, and about 580, 540, and 150, 140 bp have been identified along with the previously described haplotype X characterized by restriction products of 540, 420, 260, 150, and 140 bp in length.

  9. Costs and consequences of large-scale vector control for malaria

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    Mueller Dirk H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Five large insecticide-treated net (ITN programmes and two indoor residual spraying (IRS programmes were compared using a standardized costing methodology. Methods Costs were measured locally or derived from existing studies and focused on the provider perspective, but included the direct costs of net purchases by users, and are reported in 2005 USD. Effectiveness was estimated by combining programme outputs with standard impact indicators. Findings Conventional ITNs: The cost per treated net-year of protection ranged from USD 1.21 in Eritrea to USD 6.05 in Senegal. The cost per child death averted ranged from USD 438 to USD 2,199 when targeting to children was successful. Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN of five years duration: The cost per treated-net year of protection ranged from USD 1.38 in Eritrea to USD 1.90 in Togo. The cost per child death averted ranged from USD 502 to USD 692. IRS: The costs per person-year of protection for all ages were USD 3.27 in KwaZulu Natal and USD 3.90 in Mozambique. If only children under five years of age were included in the denominator the cost per person-year of protection was higher: USD 23.96 and USD 21.63. As a result, the cost per child death averted was higher than for ITNs: USD 3,933–4,357. Conclusion Both ITNs and IRS are highly cost-effective vector control strategies. Integrated ITN free distribution campaigns appeared to be the most efficient way to rapidly increase ITN coverage. Other approaches were as or more cost-effective, and appeared better suited to "keep-up" coverage levels. ITNs are more cost-effective than IRS for highly endemic settings, especially if high ITN coverage can be achieved with some demographic targeting.

  10. Fecundity, parity, and adult feeding relationships among Nyssorhynchus malaria vectors from Venezuela

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    L. P. Lounibos

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Relative to their pre-engorgement weights, nulliparous Anopheles nuneztovari consumed significantly smaller blood meals than A. marajoara, A. triannulatus or A. aquasalis. When females were deprived of sugar before blood feeding, only one-quarter of A. nuneztovari, but more than two-thirds of A. marajoara, A. triannulatus and A. aquasalis matured eggs. Sugar feeding before blood, or two sucessive blood meals by sugar-deprived females, increased the proportion of nulliparous a. nuneztovari which developed eggs, but not significantly so. Nearly all individuals of nulliparous, sugar-fed A. marajoara, A. triannulatus and A. aquasalis matured eggs after one blood feeding. Among A. nuneztovari, A. marajoara and A. aquasalis that matured some eggs in the laboratory, there were no positive correlations between the number of eggs developed and relative vlood mealsize. However, blood meals larger than the mean size significantly increased the chance that A. nuneztovari would develop some eggs. Mean fecundities of gravid A. nuneztovari and A. marajoara reared in the laboratory were significantly lower than those of the same species captured at human bait in nature. Post-engorgement access to sugar by A. nuneztovari (captured at human bait did not influence fecundity, but significantly enhanced survivorship and the proporticon of individuals which retained eggs. Release-recapture experiments revealed that relatively small blood meals are typical of A. nuneztovari only during the first gonotrophic cycle. We suggest that multiple blood feeding, seemingly necessary for most A. nuneztovari to develop a first clutch of eggs, may increase the probability of infection with Plasmodium vivax where this mosquito species is a primary vector.

  11. Genetic population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles baimaii in north-east India using mitochondrial DNA

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    Sarma Devojit K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles baimaii is a primary vector of human malaria in the forest settings of Southeast Asia including the north-eastern region of India. Here, the genetic population structure and the basic population genetic parameters of An. baimaii in north-east India were estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sub unit II (COII gene. Methods Anopheles baimaii were collected from 26 geo-referenced locations across the seven north-east Indian states and the COII gene was sequenced from 176 individuals across these sites. Fifty-seven COII sequences of An. baimaii from six locations in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand from a previous study were added to this dataset. Altogether, 233 sequences were grouped into eight population groups, to facilitate analyses of genetic diversity, population structure and population history. Results A star-shaped median joining haplotype network, unimodal mismatch distribution and significantly negative neutrality tests indicated population expansion in An. baimaii with the start of expansion estimated to be ~0.243 million years before present (MYBP in north-east India. The populations of An. baimaii from north-east India had the highest haplotype and nucleotide diversity with all other populations having a subset of this diversity, likely as the result of range expansion from north-east India. The north-east Indian populations were genetically distinct from those in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand, indicating that mountains, such as the Arakan mountain range between north-east India and Myanmar, are a significant barrier to gene flow. Within north-east India, there was no genetic differentiation among populations with the exception of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area that was significantly differentiated from other populations. Conclusions The high genetic distinctiveness of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area of the north-east India should be

  12. Artemisinin-based combination therapy does not measurably reduce human infectiousness to vectors in a setting of intense malaria transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huho, Bernadette J.; Killeen, Gerard F.; Ferguson, Heather M.; Tami, Adriana; Lengeler, Christian; Charlwood, J. Derek; Kihonda, Aniset; Kihonda, Japhet; Kachur, S. Patrick; Smith, Thomas A.; Abdulla, Salim M. K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for treating malaria has activity against immature gametocytes. In theory, this property may complement the effect of terminating otherwise lengthy malaria infections and reducing the parasite reservoir in the human population that can infect

  13. Phenotypic dissection of a Plasmodium-refractory strain of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi: the reduced susceptibility to P. berghei and P. yoelii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoaki Shinzawa

    Full Text Available Anopheline mosquitoes are the major vectors of human malaria. Parasite-mosquito interactions are a critical aspect of disease transmission and a potential target for malaria control. Current investigations into parasite-mosquito interactions frequently assume that genetically resistant and susceptible mosquitoes exist in nature. Therefore, comparisons between the Plasmodium susceptibility profiles of different mosquito species may contribute to a better understanding of vectorial capacity. Anopheles stephensi is an important malaria vector in central and southern Asia and is widely used as a laboratory model of parasite transmission due to its high susceptibility to Plasmodium infection. In the present study, we identified a rodent malaria-refractory strain of A. stephensi mysorensis (Ehime by comparative study of infection susceptibility. A very low number of oocysts develop in Ehime mosquitoes infected with P. berghei and P. yoelii, as determined by evaluation of developed oocysts on the basal lamina. A stage-specific study revealed that this reduced susceptibility was due to the impaired formation of ookinetes of both Plasmodium species in the midgut lumen and incomplete crossing of the midgut epithelium. There were no apparent abnormalities in the exflagellation of male parasites in the ingested blood or the maturation of oocysts after the rounding up of the ookinetes. Overall, these results suggest that invasive-stage parasites are eliminated in both the midgut lumen and epithelium in Ehime mosquitoes by strain-specific factors that remain unknown. The refractory strain newly identified in this report would be an excellent study system for investigations into novel parasite-mosquito interactions in the mosquito midgut.

  14. Perspective Piece: Needs for Monitoring Mosquito Transmission of Malaria in a Pre-Elimination World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, S.; Takken, W.; Collins, F.H.; Gottlieb, M.

    2014-01-01

    As global efforts to eliminate malaria intensify, accurate information on vector populations and transmission dynamics is critical for directing control efforts, developing new control tools, and predicting the effects of these interventions under various conditions. Currently, available sampling

  15. the use of larvaoils for the eradication of the malaria vector

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHOSENPC

    ABSTRACT. Oil samples which include diesel, kerosene, fresh engine oil and used engine oil were collected from fuel stations in Kano metropolis. Oil blends were prepared and analyzed for density, viscosity, surface tension, spreading diameter on water surface and extermination time. Five blends A:B (Kerosene: Diesel).

  16. The use of larvaoils for the eradication of the malaria vector | Adamu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil samples which include diesel, kerosene, fresh engine oil and used engine oil were collected from fuel stations in Kano metropolis. Oil blends were prepared and analyzed for density, viscosity, surface tension, spreading diameter on water surface and extermination time. Five blends A:B (Kerosene: Diesel) ...

  17. Widespread pyrethroid and DDT resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus in East Africa is driven by metabolic resistance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulamba, Charles; Riveron, Jacob M; Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Irving, Helen; Barnes, Kayla G; Mukwaya, Louis G; Birungi, Josephine; Wondji, Charles S

    2014-01-01

    Establishing the extent, geographical distribution and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is a prerequisite for resistance management. Here, we report a widespread distribution of insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector An. funestus across Uganda and western Kenya under the control of metabolic resistance mechanisms. Female An. funestus collected throughout Uganda and western Kenya exhibited a Plasmodium infection rate between 4.2 to 10.4%. Widespread resistance against both type I (permethrin) and II (deltamethrin) pyrethroids and DDT was observed across Uganda and western Kenya. All populations remain highly susceptible to carbamate, organophosphate and dieldrin insecticides. Knockdown resistance plays no role in the pyrethroid and DDT resistance as no kdr mutation associated with resistance was detected despite the presence of a F1021C replacement. Additionally, no signature of selection was observed on the sodium channel gene. Synergist assays and qRT-PCR indicated that metabolic resistance plays a major role notably through elevated expression of cytochrome P450s. DDT resistance mechanisms differ from West Africa as the L119F-GSTe2 mutation only explains a small proportion of the genetic variance to DDT resistance. The extensive distribution of pyrethroid and DDT resistance in East African An. funestus populations represents a challenge to the control of this vector. However, the observed carbamate and organophosphate susceptibility offers alternative solutions for resistance management.

  18. Widespread pyrethroid and DDT resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus in East Africa is driven by metabolic resistance mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Mulamba

    Full Text Available Establishing the extent, geographical distribution and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is a prerequisite for resistance management. Here, we report a widespread distribution of insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector An. funestus across Uganda and western Kenya under the control of metabolic resistance mechanisms.Female An. funestus collected throughout Uganda and western Kenya exhibited a Plasmodium infection rate between 4.2 to 10.4%. Widespread resistance against both type I (permethrin and II (deltamethrin pyrethroids and DDT was observed across Uganda and western Kenya. All populations remain highly susceptible to carbamate, organophosphate and dieldrin insecticides. Knockdown resistance plays no role in the pyrethroid and DDT resistance as no kdr mutation associated with resistance was detected despite the presence of a F1021C replacement. Additionally, no signature of selection was observed on the sodium channel gene. Synergist assays and qRT-PCR indicated that metabolic resistance plays a major role notably through elevated expression of cytochrome P450s. DDT resistance mechanisms differ from West Africa as the L119F-GSTe2 mutation only explains a small proportion of the genetic variance to DDT resistance.The extensive distribution of pyrethroid and DDT resistance in East African An. funestus populations represents a challenge to the control of this vector. However, the observed carbamate and organophosphate susceptibility offers alternative solutions for resistance management.

  19. Widespread Pyrethroid and DDT Resistance in the Major Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus in East Africa Is Driven by Metabolic Resistance Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulamba, Charles; Riveron, Jacob M.; Ibrahim, Sulaiman S.; Irving, Helen; Barnes, Kayla G.; Mukwaya, Louis G.; Birungi, Josephine; Wondji, Charles S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Establishing the extent, geographical distribution and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is a prerequisite for resistance management. Here, we report a widespread distribution of insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector An. funestus across Uganda and western Kenya under the control of metabolic resistance mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings Female An. funestus collected throughout Uganda and western Kenya exhibited a Plasmodium infection rate between 4.2 to 10.4%. Widespread resistance against both type I (permethrin) and II (deltamethrin) pyrethroids and DDT was observed across Uganda and western Kenya. All populations remain highly susceptible to carbamate, organophosphate and dieldrin insecticides. Knockdown resistance plays no role in the pyrethroid and DDT resistance as no kdr mutation associated with resistance was detected despite the presence of a F1021C replacement. Additionally, no signature of selection was observed on the sodium channel gene. Synergist assays and qRT-PCR indicated that metabolic resistance plays a major role notably through elevated expression of cytochrome P450s. DDT resistance mechanisms differ from West Africa as the L119F-GSTe2 mutation only explains a small proportion of the genetic variance to DDT resistance. Conclusion The extensive distribution of pyrethroid and DDT resistance in East African An. funestus populations represents a challenge to the control of this vector. However, the observed carbamate and organophosphate susceptibility offers alternative solutions for resistance management. PMID:25333491

  20. The effect of larval nutritional deprivation on the life history and DDT resistance phenotype in laboratory strains of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Anopheles arabiensis is a major malaria vector in Africa. It thrives in agricultural areas and has been associated with increased malaria incidence in areas under rice and maize cultivation. This effect may be due to increased adult size and abundance as a consequence of optimal larval nutrition. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of larval nutrition on the life history and expression of insecticide resistance in adults of laboratory reared An. arabiensis. Methods Larvae drawn from an insecticide susceptible An. arabiensis strain (SENN) as well as a DDT-resistant strain (SENN-DDT) were subjected to three fasting regimes: 1 mg of food per larva offered once per day, once every second day and once every third day. Control cohorts included larvae offered 1 mg food thrice per day. The rate of larval development was compared between matched cohorts from each strain as well as between fasted larvae and their respective controls. The expression of DDT resistance/tolerance in adults was compared between the starved cohorts and their controls by strain. Factors potentially affecting variation in DDT resistance/tolerance were examined including: adult body size (wing length), knock-down resistance (kdr) status and levels of detoxification enzyme activity. Results and conclusion Anopheles arabiensis larval development is prolonged by nutrient deprivation and adults that eclose from starved larvae are smaller and less tolerant to DDT intoxication. This effect on DDT tolerance in adults is also associated with reduced detoxification enzyme activity. Conversely, well fed larvae develop comparatively quickly into large, more DDT tolerant (SENN) or resistant (SENN-DDT) adults. This is important in those instances where cereal farming is associated with increased An. arabiensis transmitted malaria incidence, because large adult females with high teneral reserves and decreased susceptibility to insecticide intoxication may also prove to be more

  1. The effect of larval nutritional deprivation on the life history and DDT resistance phenotype in laboratory strains of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Shüné V; Brooke, Basil D

    2013-02-01

    Anopheles arabiensis is a major malaria vector in Africa. It thrives in agricultural areas and has been associated with increased malaria incidence in areas under rice and maize cultivation. This effect may be due to increased adult size and abundance as a consequence of optimal larval nutrition. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of larval nutrition on the life history and expression of insecticide resistance in adults of laboratory reared An. arabiensis. Larvae drawn from an insecticide susceptible An. arabiensis strain (SENN) as well as a DDT-resistant strain (SENN-DDT) were subjected to three fasting regimes: 1 mg of food per larva offered once per day, once every second day and once every third day. Control cohorts included larvae offered 1 mg food thrice per day. The rate of larval development was compared between matched cohorts from each strain as well as between fasted larvae and their respective controls. The expression of DDT resistance/tolerance in adults was compared between the starved cohorts and their controls by strain. Factors potentially affecting variation in DDT resistance/tolerance were examined including: adult body size (wing length), knock-down resistance (kdr) status and levels of detoxification enzyme activity. Anopheles arabiensis larval development is prolonged by nutrient deprivation and adults that eclose from starved larvae are smaller and less tolerant to DDT intoxication. This effect on DDT tolerance in adults is also associated with reduced detoxification enzyme activity. Conversely, well fed larvae develop comparatively quickly into large, more DDT tolerant (SENN) or resistant (SENN-DDT) adults. This is important in those instances where cereal farming is associated with increased An. arabiensis transmitted malaria incidence, because large adult females with high teneral reserves and decreased susceptibility to insecticide intoxication may also prove to be more efficient malaria vectors. In general, larval

  2. The effect of larval nutritional deprivation on the life history and DDT resistance phenotype in laboratory strains of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Shüné V

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles arabiensis is a major malaria vector in Africa. It thrives in agricultural areas and has been associated with increased malaria incidence in areas under rice and maize cultivation. This effect may be due to increased adult size and abundance as a consequence of optimal larval nutrition. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of larval nutrition on the life history and expression of insecticide resistance in adults of laboratory reared An. arabiensis. Methods Larvae drawn from an insecticide susceptible An. arabiensis strain (SENN as well as a DDT-resistant strain (SENN-DDT were subjected to three fasting regimes: 1 mg of food per larva offered once per day, once every second day and once every third day. Control cohorts included larvae offered 1 mg food thrice per day. The rate of larval development was compared between matched cohorts from each strain as well as between fasted larvae and their respective controls. The expression of DDT resistance/tolerance in adults was compared between the starved cohorts and their controls by strain. Factors potentially affecting variation in DDT resistance/tolerance were examined including: adult body size (wing length, knock-down resistance (kdr status and levels of detoxification enzyme activity. Results and conclusion Anopheles arabiensis larval development is prolonged by nutrient deprivation and adults that eclose from starved larvae are smaller and less tolerant to DDT intoxication. This effect on DDT tolerance in adults is also associated with reduced detoxification enzyme activity. Conversely, well fed larvae develop comparatively quickly into large, more DDT tolerant (SENN or resistant (SENN-DDT adults. This is important in those instances where cereal farming is associated with increased An. arabiensis transmitted malaria incidence, because large adult females with high teneral reserves and decreased susceptibility to insecticide intoxication may also

  3. Multimodal pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus s.s. in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Dida, Gabriel O; Ohashi, Kazunori; Komagata, Osamu; Kasai, Shinji; Tomita, Takashi; Sonye, George; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Mwatele, Cassian; Njenga, Sammy M; Mwandawiro, Charles; Minakawa, Noboru; Takagi, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus s.s. are the most important species for malaria transmission. Pyrethroid resistance of these vector mosquitoes is one of the main obstacles against effective vector control. The objective of the present study was to monitor the pyrethroid susceptibility in the 3 major malaria vectors in a highly malaria endemic area in western Kenya and to elucidate the mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance in these species. Gembe East and West, Mbita Division, and 4 main western islands in the Suba district of the Nyanza province in western Kenya were used as the study area. Larval and adult collection and bioassay were conducted, as well as the detection of point mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel (1014L) by using direct DNA sequencing. A high level of pyrethroid resistance caused by the high frequency of point mutations (L1014S) was detected in An. gambiae s.s. In contrast, P450-related pyrethroid resistance seemed to be widespread in both An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. Not a single L1014S mutation was detected in these 2 species. A lack of cross-resistance between DDT and permethrin was also found in An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s., while An. gambiae s.s. was resistant to both insecticides. It is noteworthy that the above species in the same area are found to be resistant to pyrethroids by their unique resistance mechanisms. Furthermore, it is interesting that 2 different resistance mechanisms have developed in the 2 sibling species in the same area individually. The cross resistance between permethrin and DDT in An. gambiae s.s. may be attributed to the high frequency of kdr mutation, which might be selected by the frequent exposure to ITNs. Similarly, the metabolic pyrethroid resistance in An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. is thought to develop without strong selection by DDT.

  4. Multimodal pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus s.s. in western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Kawada

    Full Text Available Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus s.s. are the most important species for malaria transmission. Pyrethroid resistance of these vector mosquitoes is one of the main obstacles against effective vector control. The objective of the present study was to monitor the pyrethroid susceptibility in the 3 major malaria vectors in a highly malaria endemic area in western Kenya and to elucidate the mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance in these species. Gembe East and West, Mbita Division, and 4 main western islands in the Suba district of the Nyanza province in western Kenya were used as the study area. Larval and adult collection and bioassay were conducted, as well as the detection of point mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel (1014L by using direct DNA sequencing. A high level of pyrethroid resistance caused by the high frequency of point mutations (L1014S was detected in An. gambiae s.s. In contrast, P450-related pyrethroid resistance seemed to be widespread in both An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. Not a single L1014S mutation was detected in these 2 species. A lack of cross-resistance between DDT and permethrin was also found in An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s., while An. gambiae s.s. was resistant to both insecticides. It is noteworthy that the above species in the same area are found to be resistant to pyrethroids by their unique resistance mechanisms. Furthermore, it is interesting that 2 different resistance mechanisms have developed in the 2 sibling species in the same area individually. The cross resistance between permethrin and DDT in An. gambiae s.s. may be attributed to the high frequency of kdr mutation, which might be selected by the frequent exposure to ITNs. Similarly, the metabolic pyrethroid resistance in An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. is thought to develop without strong selection by DDT.

  5. An investigation of the relationship between depth to groundwater and malaria prevalence, Punjab, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donelly, MJ; Birley, M.H.; Konradsen, Flemming

    1997-01-01

    ground water, Malaria, disease vectors, land use, public health, Pakistan, Punjab, Bahawal Nagar......ground water, Malaria, disease vectors, land use, public health, Pakistan, Punjab, Bahawal Nagar...

  6. Isolation and characterization of dipropyl-, S-propyl ester from Exiguobacterium mexicanum (MSSRFS9 against larvae of malaria and dengue vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugam Perumal Shanthakumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the insecticidal property of the compound dipropyl-, S-propyl ester extracted from the Gram-positive rhizosphere bacterium against the fourth instars larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles culicifacies (An. culicifacies and dengue vector, Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus. Methods: Bacteria were taxonomically identified as Exiguobacterium mexicanum (E. mexicanum and different crude solvent extracts were examined for its larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors. The crude extract was eluted in silica gel column chromatography and the pure compound was identified. Results: The highest larvicidal activity against An. culicifacies was exhibited by ethyl acetate extract. The bacterium of E. mexicanum extract at 150, 300, 450, 600, 750 mg/L caused against both vector mosquito species. Hexane, chloroform, acetone, methanol and ethyl acetate caused moderate considerable mortality. The highest larval mortality was observed in ethyl acetate extract. Conclusions: The results of the bacterial extract of E. mexicanum are promising as potential larvicidal compound against the mosquito vectors (An. culicifacies and Ae. albopictus. Therefore, this study provides first report on the larvicidal activity with dipropyl-, S-propyl ester compound from India.

  7. Dried Plasmodium falciparum-infected samples as positive controls for malaria rapid diagnostic tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidoo Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs are central to fulfilling the WHO’s recommendation for parasitologic confirmation of all suspected cases of malaria. RDT performance may be compromised when exposed to the high temperature conditions typical of most malaria endemic regions. However, a systematic method to monitor RDT quality and performance in endemic countries is lacking at the present time. Current methods to monitor RDT performance in the field include comparing results from RDTs to diagnoses made by light microscopy and observing health workers perform tests. These methods are not substitutes for direct quality control. In this study, the suitability of dried Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood as quality control samples for malaria RDTs was evaluated. Methods Three cultured strains of P. falciparum at 200 and 2,000 parasites/μl were tested on 10 brands of RDT. After baseline testing to determine initial reactivity, aliquots of parasite-infected blood were air dried, stored at 35°C, room temperature (~25°C or 4°C for one, four and 12 weeks and were then tested on the 10 RDTs after rehydration. Extended stability testing of dried blood stored at 4°C was done using P. falciparum strain 3D7 at 1,000 and 2,000 parasites/μl. Results All dried blood samples at 2,000 parasites/μl retained reactivity (100% sensitivity at all three temperatures and time points for all nine RDT brands that detect histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP2. The dried blood samples with 200 parasites/μl were detected by six of the nine HRP2-based RDTs at all storage temperatures and time points. The sensitivity for two of the three remaining HRP2-based RDTs was 100% up to four weeks of storage at all temperatures but dropped to 87.5% at week 12. Of the four RDTs that detect plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH in a pan-specific manner, alone or in combination with HRP2, the detection of pLDH in samples with 2,000 parasites/μL was 100% for two RDTs and

  8. MalHaploFreq: A computer programme for estimating malaria haplotype frequencies from blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Thomas A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular markers, particularly those associated with drug resistance, are important surveillance tools that can inform policy choice. People infected with falciparum malaria often contain several genetically-distinct clones of the parasite; genotyping the patients' blood reveals whether or not the marker is present (i.e. its prevalence, but does not reveal its frequency. For example a person with four malaria clones may contain both mutant and wildtype forms of a marker but it is not possible to distinguish the relative frequencies of the mutant and wildtypes i.e. 1:3, 2:2 or 3:1. Methods An appropriate method for obtaining frequencies from prevalence data is by Maximum Likelihood analysis. A computer programme has been developed that allows the frequency of markers, and haplotypes defined by up to three codons, to be estimated from blood phenotype data. Results The programme has been fully documented [see Additional File 1] and provided with a user-friendly interface suitable for large scale analyses. It returns accurate frequencies and 95% confidence intervals from simulated dataset sets and has been extensively tested on field data sets. Additional File 1 User manual for MalHaploFreq. Click here for file Conclusion The programme is included [see Additional File 2] and/or may be freely downloaded from 1. It can then be used to extract molecular marker and haplotype frequencies from their prevalence in human blood samples. This should enhance the use of frequency data to inform antimalarial drug policy choice. Additional File 2 executable programme compiled for use on DOS or windows Click here for file

  9. A census-weighted, spatially-stratified household sampling strategy for urban malaria epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri, Jose G; Lindblade, Kim A; Rosen, Daniel H; Onyango, Bernard; Vulule, John M; Slutsker, Laurence; Wilson, Mark L

    2008-02-29

    Urban malaria is likely to become increasingly important as a consequence of the growing proportion of Africans living in cities. A novel sampling strategy was developed for urban areas to generate a sample simultaneously representative of population and inhabited environments. Such a strategy should facilitate analysis of important epidemiological relationships in this ecological context. Census maps and summary data for Kisumu, Kenya, were used to create a pseudo-sampling frame using the geographic coordinates of census-sampled structures. For every enumeration area (EA) designated as urban by the census (n = 535), a sample of structures equal to one-tenth the number of households was selected. In EAs designated as rural (n = 32), a geographically random sample totalling one-tenth the number of households was selected from a grid of points at 100 m intervals. The selected samples were cross-referenced to a geographic information system, and coordinates transferred to handheld global positioning units. Interviewers found the closest eligible household to the sampling point and interviewed the caregiver of a child aged < 10 years. The demographics of the selected sample were compared with results from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey to assess sample validity. Results were also compared among urban and rural EAs. 4,336 interviews were completed in 473 of the 567 study area EAs from June 2002 through February 2003. EAs without completed interviews were randomly distributed, and non-response was approximately 2%. Mean distance from the assigned sampling point to the completed interview was 74.6 m, and was significantly less in urban than rural EAs, even when controlling for number of households. The selected sample had significantly more children and females of childbearing age than the general population, and fewer older individuals. This method selected a sample that was simultaneously population-representative and inclusive of important environmental

  10. Impact of metric and sample size on determining malaria hotspot boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stresman, G.H.; Giorgi, E.; Baidjoe, A.Y.; Knight, P.; Odongo, W.; Owaga, C.; Shagari, S.; Makori, E.; Stevenson, J.; Drakeley, C.; Cox, J.; Bousema, T.; Diggle, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of malaria suggests that interventions may be targeted for maximum impact. It is unclear to what extent different metrics lead to consistent delineation of hotspot boundaries. Using data from a large community-based malaria survey in the western Kenyan highlands, we

  11. Are herders protected by their herds? An experimental analysis of zooprophylaxis against the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Stephen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae and Anopheles pharoensis caught by human and cattle baits was investigated experimentally in the Arba Minch district of southern Ethiopia to determine if attraction to humans, indoors or outdoors, was affected by the presence or absence of cattle. Methods Field studies were made of the effect of a surrounding ring (10 m radius of 20 cattle on the numbers of mosquitoes collected by human-baited sampling methods (i inside or (ii outside a hut. Results The numbers of An. arabiensis caught outdoors by a human landing catch (HLC with or without a ring of cattle were not significantly different (2 × 2 Latin square comparisons: means = 24.8 and 37.2 mosquitoes/night, respectively; n = 12, P > 0.22, Tukey HSD, whereas, the numbers of An. pharoensis caught were significantly reduced (44% by a ring of cattle (4.9 vs. 8.7; n = 12, P An. arabiensis in human-baited traps (HBT was 25 times greater than in cattle-baited traps (CBT (34.0 vs. 1.3, n = 24; P An. pharoensis there was no significant difference. Furthermore, HBT and CBT catches were unaffected by a ring of cattle (4 × 4 Latin square comparison for either An. arabiensis (n = 48; P > 0.999 or An. pharoensis (n = 48, P > 0.870. The HLC catches indoors vs. outdoors were not significantly different for either An. arabiensis or An. pharoensis (n = 12, P > 0.969, but for An. arabiensis only, the indoor catch was reduced significantly by 49% when the hut was surrounded by cattle (Tukey HSD, n = 12, P > 0.01. Conclusions Outdoors, a preponderance of cattle (20:1, cattle:humans does not provide any material zooprophylactic effect against biting by An. arabiensis. For a human indoors, the presence of cattle outdoors nearly halved the catch. Unfortunately, this level of reduction would not have an appreciable impact on malaria incidence in an area with typically > 1 infective bite/person/night. For An. pharoensis, cattle significantly

  12. Insecticidal activity of the essential oil from fruits and seeds of Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi against African malaria vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosha Franklin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative insecticides for the control of malaria and filarial vectors are of paramount need as resistance is increasing among classes of insecticides currently in use in the public health sector. In this study, mosquitocidal activity of Schinus terebinthifolia essential oil against Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus was assessed in laboratory, semi- field and full- field conditions Method Twenty third instar larvae of both Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to different dosages of plant extract in both laboratory and semi- field environments. Observation of the mortality response was assessed at intervals of 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Adult semi- gravid female mosquitoes were exposed to papers treated with S. terebinthifolia and compared with WHO standard paper treated with alphacypermethrin (0.05%. Results Gas chromatography, coupled to mass spectrometry, identified 15 compounds from S. terebinthifolia extracts, the most abundant identified compound was δ-3-carene (55.36% and the least was γ-elemene (0.41%. The density of the oil was found to be 0.8086 g/ml. The effective dosages in the insectary ranged from 202.15 to 2625.20 ppm and were further evaluated in the semi- field situation. In the laboratory, the mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus ranged from 0.5 to 96.75% while for An. gambiae s.s it was from 13.75 to 97.91%. In the semi- field experiments, the mortality rates observed varied for both species with time and concentrations. The LC50 and LC95 value in the laboratory was similar for both species while in the semi- field they were different for each. In wild, adult mosquitoes, the KT50 for S. terebinthifolia was 11.29 minutes while for alphacypermethrin was 19.34 minutes. The 24 hour mortality was found to be 100.0% for S. terebinthifolia and 75.0% for alphacypermethrin which was statistically significant (P Conclusion The efficacy shown by essential oils of

  13. Insecticidal activity of the essential oil from fruits and seeds of Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi against African malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Nyindo, Mramba; Mosha, Franklin; Silva, Ary G

    2011-07-05

    Alternative insecticides for the control of malaria and filarial vectors are of paramount need as resistance is increasing among classes of insecticides currently in use in the public health sector. In this study, mosquitocidal activity of Schinus terebinthifolia essential oil against Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus was assessed in laboratory, semi- field and full- field conditions Twenty third instar larvae of both Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to different dosages of plant extract in both laboratory and semi- field environments. Observation of the mortality response was assessed at intervals of 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Adult semi- gravid female mosquitoes were exposed to papers treated with S. terebinthifolia and compared with WHO standard paper treated with alphacypermethrin (0.05%). Gas chromatography, coupled to mass spectrometry, identified 15 compounds from S. terebinthifolia extracts, the most abundant identified compound was δ-3-carene (55.36%) and the least was γ-elemene (0.41%). The density of the oil was found to be 0.8086 g/ml. The effective dosages in the insectary ranged from 202.15 to 2625.20 ppm and were further evaluated in the semi- field situation. In the laboratory, the mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus ranged from 0.5 to 96.75% while for An. gambiae s.s it was from 13.75 to 97.91%. In the semi- field experiments, the mortality rates observed varied for both species with time and concentrations. The LC50 and LC95 value in the laboratory was similar for both species while in the semi- field they were different for each. In wild, adult mosquitoes, the KT50 for S. terebinthifolia was 11.29 minutes while for alphacypermethrin was 19.34 minutes. The 24 hour mortality was found to be 100.0% for S. terebinthifolia and 75.0% for alphacypermethrin which was statistically significant (P oils of fruits and seeds of S. terebinthifolia has given an opportunity for further investigation of

  14. A viral vectored prime-boost immunization regime targeting the malaria Pfs25 antigen induces transmission-blocking activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Goodman

    Full Text Available The ookinete surface protein Pfs25 is a macrogamete-to-ookinete/ookinete stage antigen of Plasmodium falciparum, capable of exerting high-level anti-malarial transmission-blocking activity following immunization with recombinant protein-in-adjuvant formulations. Here, this antigen was expressed in recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63, human adenovirus serotype 5 (AdHu5 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA viral vectored vaccines. Two immunizations were administered to mice in a heterologous prime-boost regime. Immunization of mice with AdHu5 Pfs25 at week 0 and MVA Pfs25 at week 10 (Ad-MVA Pfs25 resulted in high anti-Pfs25 IgG titers, consisting of predominantly isotypes IgG1 and IgG2a. A single priming immunization with ChAd63 Pfs25 was as effective as AdHu5 Pfs25 with respect to ELISA titers at 8 weeks post-immunization. Sera from Ad-MVA Pfs25 immunized mice inhibited the transmission of P. falciparum to the mosquito both ex vivo and in vivo. In a standard membrane-feeding assay using NF54 strain P. falciparum, oocyst intensity in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes was significantly reduced in an IgG concentration-dependent manner when compared to control feeds (96% reduction of intensity, 78% reduction in prevalence at a 1 in 5 dilution of sera. In addition, an in vivo transmission-blocking effect was also demonstrated by direct feeding of immunized mice infected with Pfs25DR3, a chimeric P. berghei line expressing Pfs25 in place of endogenous Pbs25. In this assay the density of Pfs25DR3 oocysts was significantly reduced when mosquitoes were fed on vaccinated as compared to control mice (67% reduction of intensity, 28% reduction in prevalence and specific IgG titer correlated with efficacy. These data confirm the utility of the adenovirus-MVA vaccine platform for the induction of antibodies with transmission-blocking activity, and support the continued development of this alternative approach to transmission-blocking malaria subunit

  15. Participatory mapping of target areas to enable operational larval source management to suppress malaria vector mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Fillinger, Ulrike; Drescher, Axel W; Tanner, Marcel; Castro, Marcia C; Killeen, Gerry F

    2007-09-04

    Half of the population of Africa will soon live in towns and cities where it can be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes. Rigorous but affordable and scaleable methods for mapping and managing mosquito habitats are required to enable effective larval control in urban Africa. A simple community-based mapping procedure that requires no electronic devices in the field was developed to facilitate routine larval surveillance in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The mapping procedure included (1) community-based development of sketch maps and (2) verification of sketch maps through technical teams using laminated aerial photographs in the field which were later digitized and analysed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Three urban wards of Dar es Salaam were comprehensively mapped, covering an area of 16.8 km2. Over thirty percent of this area were not included in preliminary community-based sketch mapping, mostly because they were areas that do not appear on local government residential lists. The use of aerial photographs and basic GIS allowed rapid identification and inclusion of these key areas, as well as more equal distribution of the workload of malaria control field staff. The procedure developed enables complete coverage of targeted areas with larval control through comprehensive spatial coverage with community-derived sketch maps. The procedure is practical, affordable, and requires minimal technical skills. This approach can be readily integrated into malaria vector control programmes, scaled up to towns and cities all over Tanzania and adapted to urban settings elsewhere in Africa.

  16. Scale-up of a programme for malaria vector control using long-lasting insecticide-treated nets: lessons from South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Remijo, Constantino D; Pasquale, Harriet; Baba, Samson P; Lako, Richard L

    2014-04-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are important tools in malaria control. South Sudan, like many other endemic countries, has struggled to improve LLIN coverage and utilization. In 2006, Southern Sudan - known as South Sudan after independence in 2011 - initiated a strategic plan to increase LLIN coverage so that at least 60% of households had at least one LLIN each. By 2008, the target coverage was 80% of households and the Global Fund had financed a phased scale-up of LLIN distribution in the region. South Sudan's entire population is considered to be at risk of malaria. Poor control of the vectors and the large-scale movements of returnees, internally displaced people and refugees have exacerbated the problem. By 2012, approximately 8.0 million LLINs had been distributed in South Sudan. Between 2006 and 2009, the percentage of households possessing at least one LLIN increased from about 12% to 53% and LLIN utilization rates increased from 5 to 25% among children younger than 5 years and from 5 to 36% among pregnant women. The number of recorded malaria cases increased from 71 948 in 2008 to 1 198 357 in 2012. In post-conflict settings, a phased programme for the national scale-up of LLIN coverage may not have a substantial impact. A nationwide campaign that is centrally coordinated and based on sound guidelines may offer greater benefits. A strong partnership base and effective channels for the timely and supplementary deployment of LLINs may be essential for universal coverage.

  17. Comportamiento de anopheles (Kerteszia ledidotus zavortink, 1973 y su discriminación como posible vector de malaria en el departamento del Tolima Colombia (1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Quiñones

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available En un foco de transmisión de malaria en el Departamento del Tolima, que comprende 16 localidades de los municipios de Cunday, Villarrica, Dolores, Prado y Purificación; y donde se encuentran únicamente casos autóctonos de Plamodium se realizaron estudios entomológicos desde abril de 1981 hasta mayo de 1983. Se colectaron con cebo humano 2.209 mosquitos Anopheles, todos del subgénero Kerteszia, de los cuales el 99.5% (2.209 fue Anopheles epidotusZavortink, 1973 y los restantes 10 (0.5% An. boliviensis Theobald, 1905. Se concluye, con evidencia epidemiológica, que An. lepidotuses el posible vector en este foco. Es el primer registro conocido en que esta especie se incrimina como posible vector de malaria en Colombia. Antiguas observaciones en este foco hablan incriminado como responsable de la transmisión de malaria a An. boliviensis, debido a confusiones taxonómicas, aclaradas en los últimos 10 años. Las más altas densidades de An. lepidotus ocurrieron de enero a junio y el pico de densidad precedió por cerca de 2 meses al pico de casos de malaria. Se encontró que An. lepidotus es altamente exófagica (3.7 veces mayor actividad de picadura fuera de las casas que dentro y exófilica (92% de las hembras que picaron, salieron sin reposar en las superficies dentro de las casas. Su hábito de picadura es diurno, con un pico de actividad entre las 15:00 y 18:00 horas. No se encontró evidencia de irritabilidad o resistencia fisiológica al DDT. Se discute la implicación de dichos resultados en relación a medidas de control de malaria y se presenta la distribución conocida hasta ahora de An. lepidotus en Colombia.

  18. The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Asia-Pacific region: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabaria Caroline W

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The final article in a series of three publications examining the global distribution of 41 dominant vector species (DVS of malaria is presented here. The first publication examined the DVS from the Americas, with the second covering those species present in Africa, Europe and the Middle East. Here we discuss the 19 DVS of the Asian-Pacific region. This region experiences a high diversity of vector species, many occurring sympatrically, which, combined with the occurrence of a high number of species complexes and suspected species complexes, and behavioural plasticity of many of these major vectors, adds a level of entomological complexity not comparable elsewhere globally. To try and untangle the intricacy of the vectors of this region and to increase the effectiveness of vector control interventions, an understanding of the contemporary distribution of each species, combined with a synthesis of the current knowledge of their behaviour and ecology is needed. Results Expert opinion (EO range maps, created with the most up-to-date expert knowledge of each DVS distribution, were combined with a contemporary database of occurrence data and a suite of open access, environmental and climatic variables. Using the Boosted Regression Tree (BRT modelling method, distribution maps of each DVS were produced. The occurrence data were abstracted from the formal, published literature, plus other relevant sources, resulting in the collation of DVS occurrence at 10116 locations across 31 countries, of which 8853 were successfully geo-referenced and 7430 were resolved to spatial areas that could be included in the BRT model. A detailed summary of the information on the bionomics of each species and species complex is also presented. Conclusions This article concludes a project aimed to establish the contemporary global distribution of the DVS of malaria. The three articles produced are intended as a detailed reference for scientists

  19. The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Asia-Pacific region: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinka, Marianne E; Bangs, Michael J; Manguin, Sylvie; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Patil, Anand P; Temperley, William H; Gething, Peter W; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Kabaria, Caroline W; Harbach, Ralph E; Hay, Simon I

    2011-05-25

    The final article in a series of three publications examining the global distribution of 41 dominant vector species (DVS) of malaria is presented here. The first publication examined the DVS from the Americas, with the second covering those species present in Africa, Europe and the Middle East. Here we discuss the 19 DVS of the Asian-Pacific region. This region experiences a high diversity of vector species, many occurring sympatrically, which, combined with the occurrence of a high number of species complexes and suspected species complexes, and behavioural plasticity of many of these major vectors, adds a level of entomological complexity not comparable elsewhere globally. To try and untangle the intricacy of the vectors of this region and to increase the effectiveness of vector control interventions, an understanding of the contemporary distribution of each species, combined with a synthesis of the current knowledge of their behaviour and ecology is needed. Expert opinion (EO) range maps, created with the most up-to-date expert knowledge of each DVS distribution, were combined with a contemporary database of occurrence data and a suite of open access, environmental and climatic variables. Using the Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) modelling method, distribution maps of each DVS were produced. The occurrence data were abstracted from the formal, published literature, plus other relevant sources, resulting in the collation of DVS occurrence at 10116 locations across 31 countries, of which 8853 were successfully geo-referenced and 7430 were resolved to spatial areas that could be included in the BRT model. A detailed summary of the information on the bionomics of each species and species complex is also presented. This article concludes a project aimed to establish the contemporary global distribution of the DVS of malaria. The three articles produced are intended as a detailed reference for scientists continuing research into the aspects of taxonomy, biology and

  20. The larvicidal effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and piperine against insecticide resistant and susceptible strains of Anopheles malaria vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael; Oliver, Shüné V; Coetzee, Maureen; Brooke, Basil D

    2016-04-26

    Insecticide resistance carries the potential to undermine the efficacy of insecticide based malaria vector control strategies. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new insecticidal compounds. Black pepper (dried fruit from the vine, Piper nigrum), used as a food additive and spice, and its principal alkaloid piperine, have previously been shown to have larvicidal properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal effects of ground black pepper and piperine against third and fourth instar Anopheles larvae drawn from several laboratory-reared insecticide resistant and susceptible strains of Anopheles arabiensis, An. coluzzii, An. gambiae, An. quadriannulatus and An. funestus. Larvae were fed with mixtures of standard larval food and either ground black pepper or piperine in different proportions. Mortality was recorded 24 h after black pepper and 48 h after piperine were applied to the larval bowls. Black pepper and piperine mixtures caused high mortality in the An. gambiae complex strains, with black pepper proving significantly more toxic than piperine. The An. funestus strains were substantially less sensitive to black pepper and piperine which may reflect a marked difference in the feeding habits of this species compared to that of the Gambiae complex or a difference in food metabolism as a consequence of differences in breeding habitat between species. Insecticide resistant and susceptible strains by species proved equally susceptible to black pepper and piperine. It is concluded that black pepper shows potential as a larvicide for the control of certain malaria vector species.

  1. Enzyme polymorphism of the malaria vector, An. balabacensis (Diptera: Culicidae) revisited--why sample natural populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hii, J L; Chew, M; Vun, Y S; Nasir, M; Chang, M S

    1988-12-01

    Two separate observations from recent electrophoretic studies of the systematics and population genetics of laboratory-reared populations which had a long history of colonization in various laboratories, were found to be inconsistent with the present study which used wild-caught populations from East Malaysia. Reanalysis of the two data sets generally indicated a low amount of genetic variation in laboratory colonies. The latter is characterized by higher frequency of monomorphic loci, low average heterozygosity values and, in one extreme case, no variability at two loci. However, natural populations of An. balabacensis and An. leucosphyrus showed more protein variability by the use of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Since laboratory-maintained mosquitoes are genetically and phenotypically different from those in the field, results of laboratory studies on the systematics and population genetics of Anopheles species complexes may be biased.

  2. Alternative treatments for indoor residual spraying for malaria control in a village with pyrethroid- and DDT-resistant vectors in the Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangena, Julie-Anne A; Adiamoh, Majidah; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Jarju, Lamin; Jawara, Musa; Jeffries, David; Malik, Naiela; Nwakanma, Davis; Kaur, Harparkash; Takken, Willem; Lindsay, Steve W; Pinder, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Malaria vector control is threatened by resistance to pyrethroids, the only class of insecticides used for treating bed nets. The second major vector control method is indoor residual spraying with pyrethroids or the organochloride DDT. However, resistance to pyrethroids frequently confers resistance to DDT. Therefore, alternative insecticides are urgently needed. Insecticide resistance and the efficacy of indoor residual spraying with different insecticides was determined in a Gambian village. Resistance of local vectors to pyrethroids and DDT was high (31% and 46% mortality, respectively) while resistance to bendiocarb and pirimiphos methyl was low (88% and 100% mortality, respectively). The vectors were predominantly Anopheles gambiae s.s. with 94% of them having the putative resistant genotype kdr 1014F. Four groups of eight residential compounds were each sprayed with either (1) bendiocarb, a carbamate, (2) DDT, an organochlorine, (3) microencapsulated pirimiphos methyl, an organophosphate, or (4) left unsprayed. All insecticides tested showed high residual activity up to five months after application. Mosquito house entry, estimated by light traps, was similar in all houses with metal roofs, but was significantly less in IRS houses with thatched roofs (p=0.02). Residents participating in focus group discussions indicated that IRS was considered a necessary nuisance and also may decrease the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets. Bendiocarb and microencapsulated pirimiphos methyl are viable alternatives for indoor residual spraying where resistance to pyrethroids and DDT is high and may assist in the management of pyrethroid resistance.

  3. Alternative treatments for indoor residual spraying for malaria control in a village with pyrethroid- and DDT-resistant vectors in the Gambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie-Anne A Tangena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria vector control is threatened by resistance to pyrethroids, the only class of insecticides used for treating bed nets. The second major vector control method is indoor residual spraying with pyrethroids or the organochloride DDT. However, resistance to pyrethroids frequently confers resistance to DDT. Therefore, alternative insecticides are urgently needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Insecticide resistance and the efficacy of indoor residual spraying with different insecticides was determined in a Gambian village. Resistance of local vectors to pyrethroids and DDT was high (31% and 46% mortality, respectively while resistance to bendiocarb and pirimiphos methyl was low (88% and 100% mortality, respectively. The vectors were predominantly Anopheles gambiae s.s. with 94% of them having the putative resistant genotype kdr 1014F. Four groups of eight residential compounds were each sprayed with either (1 bendiocarb, a carbamate, (2 DDT, an organochlorine, (3 microencapsulated pirimiphos methyl, an organophosphate, or (4 left unsprayed. All insecticides tested showed high residual activity up to five months after application. Mosquito house entry, estimated by light traps, was similar in all houses with metal roofs, but was significantly less in IRS houses with thatched roofs (p=0.02. Residents participating in focus group discussions indicated that IRS was considered a necessary nuisance and also may decrease the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Bendiocarb and microencapsulated pirimiphos methyl are viable alternatives for indoor residual spraying where resistance to pyrethroids and DDT is high and may assist in the management of pyrethroid resistance.

  4. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.; Hii, J.; Soares, A.; Mnzava, A.; Ameneshewa, B.; Dash, A.P.; Ejov, M.; Tan, S.H.; Matthews, G.; Yadav, R.S.; Zaim, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods: A

  5. Is the current decline in malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa due to a decrease in vector population?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Pedersen, Erling Møller; Alifrangis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum has historically been a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. Recent reports indicate a pronounced decline in infection and disease rates which are commonly ascribed to large-scale bed net programmes...... and improved case management. However, the decline has also occurred in areas with limited or no intervention. The present study assessed temporal changes in Anopheline populations in two highly malaria-endemic communities of NE Tanzania during the period 1998-2009. METHODS: Between 1998 and 2001 (1st period......) and between 2003 and 2009 (2nd period), mosquitoes were collected weekly in 50 households using CDC light traps. Data on rainfall were obtained from the nearby climate station and was used to analyze the association between monthly rainfall and malaria mosquito populations. RESULTS: The average number...

  6. Dried Plasmodium falciparum-infected samples as positive controls for malaria rapid diagnostic tests

    OpenAIRE

    Aidoo Michael; Patel Jaymin C; Barnwell John W

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are central to fulfilling the WHO’s recommendation for parasitologic confirmation of all suspected cases of malaria. RDT performance may be compromised when exposed to the high temperature conditions typical of most malaria endemic regions. However, a systematic method to monitor RDT quality and performance in endemic countries is lacking at the present time. Current methods to monitor RDT performance in the field include comparing results fro...

  7. STATUS HEMATOLOGI PENDERITA MALARIA SEREBRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakMalaria masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat dunia. Berdasarkan klasifikasi klinis, malaria dibedakan atas malaria berat dan malaria tanpa komplikasi. Malaria serebral merupakan komplikasi terberat dari malaria falsiparum.Telah dilakukan penelitian seksi silang terhadap penderita malaria falciparum yang dirawat inap di Bangsal Penyakit Dalam RS. Perjan. Dr. M. Djamil Padang dari bulan Juni 2002 sampai Juni 2006. Pada penelitian ini didapatkan jumlah sampel sebanyak 60 orang, terdiri dari 16 orang penderita malaria serebral dan 44 orang penderita malaria tanpa komplikasi.Data penelitian menunjukan terdapat perbedaan bermakna nilai hematokrit (p<0,05 dan jumlah leukosit (p<0,05 antara penderita malaria serebral dengan penderita malaria tanpa komplikasi. Dan terdapat korelasi positif antara nilai hemoglobin dengan hematokrit (r=0,864; p<0,05 pada penderita malaria falsiparum.Kata kunci: malaria serebral, malaria tanpa komplikasi, malaria falsiparumAbstract Malaria is still a problem of health of world society. Based on the clinical classification, are distinguished on severe malaria and uncomplicated malaria. Cerebral malaria is the worst complication of falciparum malaria. Cross section of the research done at the Hospital Dr. M. Djamil Padang againts medical record of malaria patients who are hospitalized in the Internal Medicine from June 2002 until June 2004. In this study, a total sample of 60 people, consisting of 16 cerebral malaria and 44 uncomplicated malaria. Data showed there were significant differences for hematocrit values (p <0.05 and total leukocytes values (p <0.05 between cerebral malaria and uncomplicated malaria patients. There is a positive correlation between hemoglobin with hematocrit values (r = 0.864; p <0.05 of falciparum malaria patients. Keywords: cerebral malaria, uncomplicated malaria, falciparum malaria

  8. Spatio-temporal optimization of sampling for bluetongue vectors (Culicoides) near grazing livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Stockmarr, Anders; Bødker, Rene

    2013-01-01

    the distance between traps. We found that 18 traps were generally required to reach 90% probability of a true positive catch when sampling just one night. But when sampling over two nights the same probability level was obtained with just three traps per night. The results are useful for the design of vector...... traps to sample specimens from the Culicoides obsoletus species complex on a 14 hectare field during 16 nights in 2009. FINDINGS: The large number of traps and catch nights enabled us to simulate a series of samples consisting of different numbers of traps (1-15) on each night. We also varied the number...... of catch nights when simulating the sampling, and sampled with increasing minimum distances between traps. We used resampling to generate a distribution of different mean and median abundance in each sample. Finally, we used the hypergeometric distribution to estimate the probability of falsely detecting...

  9. Outcome vector dependent sampling with longitudinal continuous response data: stratified sampling based on summary statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildcrout, Jonathan S; Garbett, Shawn P; Heagerty, Patrick J

    2013-06-01

    The analysis of longitudinal trajectories usually focuses on evaluation of explanatory factors that are either associated with rates of change, or with overall mean levels of a continuous outcome variable. In this article, we introduce valid design and analysis methods that permit outcome dependent sampling of longitudinal data for scenarios where all outcome data currently exist, but a targeted substudy is being planned in order to collect additional key exposure information on a limited number of subjects. We propose a stratified sampling based on specific summaries of individual longitudinal trajectories, and we detail an ascertainment corrected maximum likelihood approach for estimation using the resulting biased sample of subjects. In addition, we demonstrate that the efficiency of an outcome-based sampling design relative to use of a simple random sample depends highly on the choice of outcome summary statistic used to direct sampling, and we show a natural link between the goals of the longitudinal regression model and corresponding desirable designs. Using data from the Childhood Asthma Management Program, where genetic information required retrospective ascertainment, we study a range of designs that examine lung function profiles over 4 years of follow-up for children classified according to their genotype for the IL 13 cytokine. © 2013, The International Biometric Society.

  10. Outcome vector dependent sampling with longitudinal continuous response data: stratified sampling based on summary statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildcrout, Jonathan S.; Garbett, Shawn P.; Heagerty, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The analysis of longitudinal trajectories usually focuses on evaluation of explanatory factors that are either associated with rates of change, or with overall mean levels of a continuous outcome variable. In this manuscript we introduce valid design and analysis methods that permit outcome dependent sampling of longitudinal data for scenarios where all outcome data currently exist, but a targeted sub-study is being planned in order to collect additional key exposure information on a limited number of subjects. We propose a stratified sampling based on specific summaries of individual longitudinal trajectories, and we detail an ascertainment corrected maximum likelihood approach for estimation using the resulting biased sample of subjects. In addition, we demonstrate that the efficiency of an outcome-based sampling design relative to use of a simple random sample depends highly on the choice of outcome summary statistic used to direct sampling, and we show a natural link between the goals of the longitudinal regression model and corresponding desirable designs. Using data from the Childhood Asthma Management Program, where genetic information required retrospective ascertainment, we study a range of designs that examine lung function profiles over four years of follow-up for children classified according to their genotype for the IL 13 cytokine. PMID:23409789

  11. Evaluation of a prime-boost vaccine schedule with distinct adenovirus vectors against malaria in rhesus monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, Ariane; Mintardjo, Ratna; Tax, Dennis; Gillissen, Gert; Custers, Jerome; Pau, Maria Grazia; Klap, Jaco; Santra, Sampa; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Letvin, Norman L.; Goudsmit, Jaap; Radosević, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    A vaccine that elicits both specific antibodies and IFN-gamma-producing T cells is required to protect against pre-erythrocytic malaria. Among the most promising approaches to induce such complex immunity are heterologous prime-boost vaccination regiments, in particular ones containing liver viral

  12. Global trends in the production and use of DDT for control of malaria and other vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Berg, Henk; Manuweera, Gamini; Konradsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    over the period 2001-2014. Results: Available data on global production of DDT showed a 32% decline over the reporting period, from 5144 to 3491 metric tons of active ingredient p.a. Similarly, global use of DDT, for control of malaria and leishmaniasis, showed a 30% decline over the period 2001...

  13. Durable Residual Wall Lining (DL) Installation Concepts and Acceptability as an IRS Replacement Tool for Malaria Vector Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marie Louise; Lenau, Torben Anker

    various stresses and appearance after installation. The experiments took place in Anwona village near Obuasi, Ghana with the support and cooperation of AngloGold Ashanti’s Malaria Control Center. 55 mechanical and adhesive products were tested for their ability to hold a static load (simulating long...

  14. An online tool for mapping insecticide resistance in major Anopheles vectors of human malaria parasites and review of resistance status for the Afrotropical region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria control programmes across Africa and beyond are facing increasing insecticide resistance in the major anopheline vectors. In order to preserve or prolong the effectiveness of the main malaria vector interventions, up-to-date and easily accessible insecticide resistance data that are interpretable at operationally-relevant scales are critical. Herein we introduce and demonstrate the usefulness of an online mapping tool, IR Mapper. Methods A systematic search of published, peer-reviewed literature was performed and Anopheles insecticide susceptibility and resistance mechanisms data were extracted and added to a database after a two-level verification process. IR Mapper ( http://www.irmapper.com) was developed using the ArcGIS for JavaScript Application Programming Interface and ArcGIS Online platform for exploration and projection of these data. Results Literature searches yielded a total of 4,084 susceptibility data points for 1,505 populations, and 2,097 resistance mechanisms data points for 1,000 populations of Anopheles spp. tested via recommended WHO methods from 54 countries between 1954 and 2012. For the Afrotropical region, data were most abundant for populations of An. gambiae, and pyrethroids and DDT were more often used in susceptibility assays (51.1 and 26.8% of all reports, respectively) than carbamates and organophosphates. Between 2001 and 2012, there was a clear increase in prevalence and distribution of confirmed resistance of An. gambiae s.l. to pyrethroids (from 41 to 87% of the mosquito populations tested) and DDT (from 64 to 91%) throughout the Afrotropical region. Metabolic resistance mechanisms were detected in western and eastern African populations and the two kdr mutations (L1014S and L1014F) were widespread. For An. funestus s.l., relatively few populations were tested, although in 2010–2012 resistance was reported in 50% of 10 populations tested. Maps are provided to illustrate the use of IR Mapper and the distribution

  15. Wide cross-reactivity between Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus SG6 salivary proteins supports exploitation of gSG6 as a marker of human exposure to major malaria vectors in tropical Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrarca Vincenzo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Anopheles gambiae gSG6 is an anopheline-specific salivary protein which helps female mosquitoes to efficiently feed on blood. Besides its role in haematophagy, gSG6 is immunogenic and elicits in exposed individuals an IgG response, which may be used as indicator of exposure to the main African malaria vector A. gambiae. However, malaria transmission in tropical Africa is sustained by three main vectors (A. gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus and a general marker, reflecting exposure to at least these three species, would be especially valuable. The SG6 protein is highly conserved within the A. gambiae species complex whereas the A. funestus homologue, fSG6, is more divergent (80% identity with gSG6. The aim of this study was to evaluate cross-reactivity of human sera to gSG6 and fSG6. Methods The A. funestus SG6 protein was expressed/purified and the humoral response to gSG6, fSG6 and a combination of the two antigens was compared in a population from a malaria hyperendemic area of Burkina Faso where both vectors were present, although with a large A. gambiae prevalence (>75%. Sera collected at the beginning and at the end of the high transmission/rainy season, as well as during the following low transmission/dry season, were analysed. Results According to previous observations, both anti-SG6 IgG level and prevalence decreased during the low transmission/dry season and showed a typical age-dependent pattern. No significant difference in the response to the two antigens was found, although their combined use yielded in most cases higher IgG level. Conclusions Comparative analysis of gSG6 and fSG6 immunogenicity to humans suggests the occurrence of a wide cross-reactivity, even though the two proteins carry species-specific epitopes. This study supports the use of gSG6 as reliable indicator of exposure to the three main African malaria vectors, a marker which may be useful to monitor malaria transmission

  16. Participatory mapping of target areas to enable operational larval source management to suppress malaria vector mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongus Stefan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Half of the population of Africa will soon live in towns and cities where it can be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes. Rigorous but affordable and scaleable methods for mapping and managing mosquito habitats are required to enable effective larval control in urban Africa. Methods A simple community-based mapping procedure that requires no electronic devices in the field was developed to facilitate routine larval surveillance in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The mapping procedure included (1 community-based development of sketch maps and (2 verification of sketch maps through technical teams using laminated aerial photographs in the field which were later digitized and analysed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS. Results Three urban wards of Dar es Salaam were comprehensively mapped, covering an area of 16.8 km2. Over thirty percent of this area were not included in preliminary community-based sketch mapping, mostly because they were areas that do not appear on local government residential lists. The use of aerial photographs and basic GIS allowed rapid identification and inclusion of these key areas, as well as more equal distribution of the workload of malaria control field staff. Conclusion The procedure developed enables complete coverage of targeted areas with larval control through comprehensive spatial coverage with community-derived sketch maps. The procedure is practical, affordable, and requires minimal technical skills. This approach can be readily integrated into malaria vector control programmes, scaled up to towns and cities all over Tanzania and adapted to urban settings elsewhere in Africa.

  17. History of malaria control in Tajikistan and rapid malaria appraisal in an agro-ecological setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Barbara; Sherkanov, Tohir; Karimov, Saifudin S; Khabirov, Zamonidin; Mostowlansky, Till; Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar

    2008-10-26

    Reported malaria cases in rice growing areas in western Tajikistan were at the root of a rapid appraisal of the local malaria situation in a selected agro-ecological setting where only scarce information was available. The rapid appraisal was complemented by a review of the epidemiology and control of malaria in Tajikistan and Central Asia from 1920 until today. Following a resurgence in the 1990s, malaria transmission has been reduced considerably in Tajikistan as a result of concerted efforts by the government and international agencies. The goal for 2015 is transmission interruption, with control interventions and surveillance currently concentrated in the South, where foci of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum persist. The rapid malaria appraisal was carried out in six communities of irrigated rice cultivation during the peak of malaria transmission (August/September 2007) in western Tajikistan. In a cross-sectional survey, blood samples were taken from 363 schoolchildren and examined for Plasmodium under a light microscope. A total of 56 farmers were interviewed about agricultural activities and malaria. Potential Anopheles breeding sites were characterized using standardized procedures. A literature review on the epidemiology and control of malaria in Tajikistan was conducted. One case of P. vivax was detected among the 363 schoolchildren examined (0.28%). The interviewees reported to protect themselves against mosquito bites and used their own concepts on fever conditions, which do not distinguish between malaria and other diseases. Three potential malaria vectors were identified, i.e. Anopheles superpictus, Anopheles pulcherrimus and Anopheles hyrcanus in 58 of the 73 breeding sites examined (79.5%). Rice paddies, natural creeks and man-made ponds were the most important Anopheles habitats. The presence of malaria vectors and parasite reservoirs, low awareness of, and protection against malaria in the face of population movements and inadequate

  18. History of malaria control in Tajikistan and rapid malaria appraisal in an agro-ecological setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utzinger Jürg

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reported malaria cases in rice growing areas in western Tajikistan were at the root of a rapid appraisal of the local malaria situation in a selected agro-ecological setting where only scarce information was available. The rapid appraisal was complemented by a review of the epidemiology and control of malaria in Tajikistan and Central Asia from 1920 until today. Following a resurgence in the 1990s, malaria transmission has been reduced considerably in Tajikistan as a result of concerted efforts by the government and international agencies. The goal for 2015 is transmission interruption, with control interventions and surveillance currently concentrated in the South, where foci of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum persist. Methods The rapid malaria appraisal was carried out in six communities of irrigated rice cultivation during the peak of malaria transmission (August/September 2007 in western Tajikistan. In a cross-sectional survey, blood samples were taken from 363 schoolchildren and examined for Plasmodium under a light microscope. A total of 56 farmers were interviewed about agricultural activities and malaria. Potential Anopheles breeding sites were characterized using standardized procedures. A literature review on the epidemiology and control of malaria in Tajikistan was conducted. Results One case of P. vivax was detected among the 363 schoolchildren examined (0.28%. The interviewees reported to protect themselves against mosquito bites and used their own concepts on fever conditions, which do not distinguish between malaria and other diseases. Three potential malaria vectors were identified, i.e. Anopheles superpictus, Anopheles pulcherrimus and Anopheles hyrcanus in 58 of the 73 breeding sites examined (79.5%. Rice paddies, natural creeks and man-made ponds were the most important Anopheles habitats. Conclusion The presence of malaria vectors and parasite reservoirs, low awareness of, and protection against

  19. History of malaria control in Tajikistan and rapid malaria appraisal in an agro-ecological setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Barbara; Sherkanov, Tohir; Karimov, Saifudin S; Khabirov, Zamonidin; Mostowlansky, Till; Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar

    2008-01-01

    Background Reported malaria cases in rice growing areas in western Tajikistan were at the root of a rapid appraisal of the local malaria situation in a selected agro-ecological setting where only scarce information was available. The rapid appraisal was complemented by a review of the epidemiology and control of malaria in Tajikistan and Central Asia from 1920 until today. Following a resurgence in the 1990s, malaria transmission has been reduced considerably in Tajikistan as a result of concerted efforts by the government and international agencies. The goal for 2015 is transmission interruption, with control interventions and surveillance currently concentrated in the South, where foci of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum persist. Methods The rapid malaria appraisal was carried out in six communities of irrigated rice cultivation during the peak of malaria transmission (August/September 2007) in western Tajikistan. In a cross-sectional survey, blood samples were taken from 363 schoolchildren and examined for Plasmodium under a light microscope. A total of 56 farmers were interviewed about agricultural activities and malaria. Potential Anopheles breeding sites were characterized using standardized procedures. A literature review on the epidemiology and control of malaria in Tajikistan was conducted. Results One case of P. vivax was detected among the 363 schoolchildren examined (0.28%). The interviewees reported to protect themselves against mosquito bites and used their own concepts on fever conditions, which do not distinguish between malaria and other diseases. Three potential malaria vectors were identified, i.e. Anopheles superpictus, Anopheles pulcherrimus and Anopheles hyrcanus in 58 of the 73 breeding sites examined (79.5%). Rice paddies, natural creeks and man-made ponds were the most important Anopheles habitats. Conclusion The presence of malaria vectors and parasite reservoirs, low awareness of, and protection against malaria in the face of

  20. Establishment of a self-propagating population of the African malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis under semi-field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng'habi, K.R.N.; Mwasheshi, D.; Knols, B.G.J.; Ferguson, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The successful control of insect disease vectors relies on a thorough understanding of their ecology and behaviour. However, knowledge of the ecology of many human disease vectors lags behind that of agricultural pests. This is partially due to the paucity of experimental tools for

  1. The Field Practices of Lambdacyhalothrin and Deltamethrin Insecticides Against Adult Mosquitoes of Anopheles stephensi as the Main Vector of Malaria: Residual Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Khosravani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Various chemical control methods have adopted in anti-malaria interventions. Indoor residual spraying (IRS has been proven as a candidate in elimination program. On the other hand, resistance to multiple insecticides was implicated as a concern issue in these polices. Pesticides should be evaluated to identify probable resistant and make decision to choose a technique against vectors. Methods In this cross-sectional study, Bioassay test applied on lambdacyhalothrin WP 10% (0.05 mg a.i. /m2 and deltamethrin WP 5% (0.05 mg a.i./m2 on two surfaces (cement and plaster against adult mosquitoes of Anopheles stephensi according to WHO criteria to measure the residual activity in Saravan county, southern Iran. Overall, 3960 mosquitoes was used in our research. The mortality rates of An.stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae measured between selected surfaces and insecticides in several times. Data analyzed by Mann-Whitney (nonparametric test using SPSS v22 statistic software. Results This paper illustrated that maximal course of residual efficacy was about 3 months. No statistically significant different was exhibited between type of surface within mortality rates of An. Stephensi (P = 0.724 but lambdacyhalothrin has more durability than deltamethrin Conclusions We established that lambdacyhalothrin can be used into control and elimination setting of malaria with two rounds of spray at an interval of 3-4 months in south of Iran.

  2. Larval habitat for the avian malaria vector culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in altered mid-elevation mesic-dry forests in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Effective management of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in Hawai'i's endemic honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) requires the identification and subsequent reduction or treatment of larval habitat for the mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). We conducted ground surveys, treehole surveys, and helicopter aerial surveys from 20012003 to identify all potential larval mosquito habitat within two 100+ ha mesic-dry forest study sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai'i; 'Ainahou Ranch and Mauna Loa Strip Road. At 'Ainahou Ranch, anthropogenic sites (43%) were more likely to contain mosquitoes than naturally occurring (8%) sites. Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were predominately found in anthropogenic sites while Aedes albopictus larvae occurred less frequently in both anthropogenic sites and naturally-occurring sites. Additionally, moderate-size (???20-22,000 liters) anthropogenic potential larval habitat had >50% probability of mosquito presence compared to larger- and smaller-volume habitat (malaria, may be controlled by larval habitat reduction in the mesic-dry landscapes of Hawai'i where anthropogenic sources predominate.

  3. Malaria and Tropical Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-15

    Malaria is a serious mosquito-borne disease that can lead to death. This podcast discusses malaria risk when traveling to tropical areas, as well as how to protect yourself and your family from malaria infection.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  4. The Role of Oxidative Stress in the Longevity and Insecticide Resistance Phenotype of the Major Malaria Vectors Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Shüné V; Brooke, Basil D

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays numerous biological roles, both functional and pathological. The role of oxidative stress in various epidemiologically relevant biological traits in Anopheles mosquitoes is not well established. In this study, the effects of oxidative stress on the longevity and insecticide resistance phenotype in the major malaria vector species An. arabiensis and An. funestus were examined. Responses to dietary copper sulphate and hydrogen peroxide were used as proxies for the oxidative stress phenotype by determining the effect of copper on longevity and hydrogen peroxide lethal dose. Glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were determined colorimetrically. Oxidative burden was quantified as protein carbonyl content. Changes in insecticide resistance phenotype were monitored by WHO bioassay. Insecticide resistant individuals showed an increased capacity for coping with oxidative stress, mediated by increased glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity. This effect was observed in both species, as well as in laboratory strains and F1 individuals derived from wild-caught An. funestus mothers. Phenotypic capacity for coping with oxidative stress was greatest in strains with elevated Cytochrome P450 activity. Synergism of oxidative stress defence enzymes by dietary supplementation with haematin, 3-Amino-1, 2, 4-triazole and Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate significantly increased pyrethroid-induced mortality in An. arabiensis and An. funestus. It is therefore concluded that defence against oxidative stress underlies the augmentation of the insecticide resistance phenotype associated with multiple blood-feeding. This is because multiple blood-feeding ultimately leads to a reduction of oxidative stress in insecticide resistant females, and also reduces the oxidative burden induced by DDT and pyrethroids, by inducing increased glutathione peroxidase activity. This study highlights the importance of oxidative stress in the longevity and insecticide resistance

  5. The Role of Oxidative Stress in the Longevity and Insecticide Resistance Phenotype of the Major Malaria Vectors Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shüné V Oliver

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays numerous biological roles, both functional and pathological. The role of oxidative stress in various epidemiologically relevant biological traits in Anopheles mosquitoes is not well established. In this study, the effects of oxidative stress on the longevity and insecticide resistance phenotype in the major malaria vector species An. arabiensis and An. funestus were examined. Responses to dietary copper sulphate and hydrogen peroxide were used as proxies for the oxidative stress phenotype by determining the effect of copper on longevity and hydrogen peroxide lethal dose. Glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were determined colorimetrically. Oxidative burden was quantified as protein carbonyl content. Changes in insecticide resistance phenotype were monitored by WHO bioassay. Insecticide resistant individuals showed an increased capacity for coping with oxidative stress, mediated by increased glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity. This effect was observed in both species, as well as in laboratory strains and F1 individuals derived from wild-caught An. funestus mothers. Phenotypic capacity for coping with oxidative stress was greatest in strains with elevated Cytochrome P450 activity. Synergism of oxidative stress defence enzymes by dietary supplementation with haematin, 3-Amino-1, 2, 4-triazole and Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate significantly increased pyrethroid-induced mortality in An. arabiensis and An. funestus. It is therefore concluded that defence against oxidative stress underlies the augmentation of the insecticide resistance phenotype associated with multiple blood-feeding. This is because multiple blood-feeding ultimately leads to a reduction of oxidative stress in insecticide resistant females, and also reduces the oxidative burden induced by DDT and pyrethroids, by inducing increased glutathione peroxidase activity. This study highlights the importance of oxidative stress in the longevity and

  6. Human IGF1 extends lifespan and enhances resistance to Plasmodium falciparum infection in the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Anna; Nuss, Andrew; Hauck, Eric; Glennon, Elizabeth; Cheung, Kong; Brown, Mark; Luckhart, Shirley

    2013-01-15

    The highly conserved insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling (IIS) pathway regulates metabolism, development, lifespan and immunity across a wide range of organisms. Previous studies have shown that human insulin ingested in the blood meal can activate mosquito IIS, resulting in attenuated lifespan and increased malaria parasite infection. Because human IGF1 is present at higher concentrations in blood than insulin and is functionally linked with lifespan and immune processes, we predicted that human IGF1 ingested in a blood meal would affect lifespan and malaria parasite infection in the mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Here we demonstrate that physiological levels of ingested IGF1, like insulin, can persist intact in the blood-filled midgut for up to 30 h and disseminate into the mosquito body, and that both peptides activate IIS in mosquito cells and midgut. At these same levels, ingested IGF1 alone extended average mosquito lifespan by 23% compared with controls and, more significantly, when ingested in infected blood meals, reduced the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes by >20% and parasite load by 35-50% compared with controls. Thus, the effects of ingested IGF1 on mosquito lifespan and immunity are opposite to those of ingested insulin. These results offer the first evidence that insect cells can functionally discriminate between mammalian insulin and IGF1. Further, in light of previous success in genetically targeting IIS to alter mosquito lifespan and malaria parasite transmission, this study indicates that a more complete understanding of the IIS-activating ligands in blood can be used to optimize transgenic strategies for malaria control.

  7. Baculovirus-vectored multistage Plasmodium vivax vaccine induces both protective and transmission-blocking immunities against transgenic rodent malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Masanori; Iyori, Mitsuhiro; Blagborough, Andrew M; Fukumoto, Shinya; Funatsu, Tomohiro; Sinden, Robert E; Yoshida, Shigeto

    2014-10-01

    A multistage malaria vaccine targeting the pre-erythrocytic and sexual stages of Plasmodium could effectively protect individuals against infection from mosquito bites and provide transmission-blocking (TB) activity against the sexual stages of the parasite, respectively. This strategy could help prevent malaria infections in individuals and, on a larger scale, prevent malaria transmission in communities of endemicity. Here, we describe the development of a multistage Plasmodium vivax vaccine which simultaneously expresses P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (PvCSP) and P25 (Pvs25) protein of this species as a fusion protein, thereby acting as a pre-erythrocytic vaccine and a TB vaccine, respectively. A new-concept vaccine platform based on the baculovirus dual-expression system (BDES) was evaluated. The BDES-Pvs25-PvCSP vaccine displayed correct folding of the Pvs25-PvCSP fusion protein on the viral envelope and was highly expressed upon transduction of mammalian cells in vitro. This vaccine induced high levels of antibodies to Pvs25 and PvCSP and elicited protective (43%) and TB (82%) efficacies against transgenic P. berghei parasites expressing the corresponding P. vivax antigens in mice. Our data indicate that our BDES, which functions as both a subunit and DNA vaccine, can offer a promising multistage vaccine capable of delivering a potent antimalarial pre-erythrocytic and TB response via a single immunization regimen. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Malaria: Epidemiology and Diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Hakim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodium spp, are naturally trans­mitted by the mosquito Anopheles spp. Malaria transmission occurs because of interaction between the agent, the definitive host and intermediate hosts (humans. Therefore, the trans­mission of malaria is injluenced by the presence and fluctuations in vector populations (i.e transmitting mosquito Anopheles spp.Malaria diagnosis consists of clinical diagnosis and diagnosis based on laboratory examina­tion. Clinical diagnosis or clinical malaria diagnosis was presumptive diagnosis of malaria based on clinical examination of patients with symptoms include fever (periodical, heat, level of consciousness, dizziness, etc. as well as specific local typical symptoms. Experiences of medical personnel who perform precise diagnosis will determine whether or not the diag­nosis, so that clinical diagnosis cannot be the main reference in the treatment of malaria be­cause of high error rates.

  9. Determining the spatial autocorrelation of dengue vector populations: influences of mosquito sampling method, covariables, and vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azil, Aishah H; Bruce, David; Williams, Craig R

    2014-06-01

    We investigated spatial autocorrelation of female Aedes aegypti L. mosquito abundance from BG-Sentinel trap and sticky ovitrap collections in Cairns, north Queensland, Australia. BG-Sentinel trap collections in 2010 show a significant spatial autocorrelation across the study site and over a smaller spatial extent, while sticky ovitrap collections only indicate a non-significant, weak spatial autocorrelation. The BG-Sentinel trap collections were suitable for spatial interpolation using ordinary kriging and cokriging techniques. The uses of Premise Condition Index and potential breeding container data have helped improve our prediction of vector abundance. Semiovariograms and prediction maps indicate that the spatial autocorrelation of mosquito abundance determined by BG-Sentinel traps extends farther compared to sticky ovitrap collections. Based on our data, fewer BG-Sentinel traps are required to represent vector abundance at a series of houses compared to sticky ovitraps. A lack of spatial structure was observed following vector control treatment in the area. This finding has implications for the design and costs of dengue vector surveillance programs. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  10. Can malaria vector control accelerate the interruption of lymphatic filariasis transmission in Africa; capturing a window of opportunity?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelly-Hope, Louise A; Molyneux, David H; Bockarie, Moses J

    2013-01-01

    ...) campaign to interrupt transmission of the parasite. However, nearly 50% of the LF endemic countries in Africa are yet to implement the GPELF MDA strategy, which does not include vector control...

  11. Establishment of a large semi-field system for experimental study of African malaria vector ecology and control in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferguson, H.M.; Ng'habi, K.R.; Walder, T.; Kadungula, D.; Moore, S.J.; Lyimo, I.; Russell, T.L.; Urassa, H.; Mshinda, H.; Killeen, G.F.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background - Medical entomologists increasingly recognize that the ability to make inferences between laboratory experiments of vector biology and epidemiological trends observed in the field is hindered by a conceptual and methodological gap occurring between these approaches which prevents

  12. A global model of malaria climate sensitivity: comparing malaria response to historic climate data based on simulation and officially reported malaria incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, Stefan; Davis, Matthew; Douglas, Judith V; Kershenbaum, Arik; Waraporn, Narongrit; Lessler, Justin; Kaufman, James H

    2012-09-18

    The role of the Anopheles vector in malaria transmission and the effect of climate on Anopheles populations are well established. Models of the impact of climate change on the global malaria burden now have access to high-resolution climate data, but malaria surveillance data tends to be less precise, making model calibration problematic. Measurement of malaria response to fluctuations in climate variables offers a way to address these difficulties. Given the demonstrated sensitivity of malaria transmission to vector capacity, this work tests response functions to fluctuations in land surface temperature and precipitation. This study of regional sensitivity of malaria incidence to year-to-year climate variations used an extended Macdonald Ross compartmental disease model (to compute malaria incidence) built on top of a global Anopheles vector capacity model (based on 10 years of satellite climate data). The predicted incidence was compared with estimates from the World Health Organization and the Malaria Atlas. The models and denominator data used are freely available through the Eclipse Foundation's Spatiotemporal Epidemiological Modeller (STEM). Although the absolute scale factor relating reported malaria to absolute incidence is uncertain, there is a positive correlation between predicted and reported year-to-year variation in malaria burden with an averaged root mean square (RMS) error of 25% comparing normalized incidence across 86 countries. Based on this, the proposed measure of sensitivity of malaria to variations in climate variables indicates locations where malaria is most likely to increase or decrease in response to specific climate factors. Bootstrapping measures the increased uncertainty in predicting malaria sensitivity when reporting is restricted to national level and an annual basis. Results indicate a potential 20x improvement in accuracy if data were available at the level ISO 3166-2 national subdivisions and with monthly time sampling. The

  13. A global model of malaria climate sensitivity: comparing malaria response to historic climate data based on simulation and officially reported malaria incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlund Stefan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of the Anopheles vector in malaria transmission and the effect of climate on Anopheles populations are well established. Models of the impact of climate change on the global malaria burden now have access to high-resolution climate data, but malaria surveillance data tends to be less precise, making model calibration problematic. Measurement of malaria response to fluctuations in climate variables offers a way to address these difficulties. Given the demonstrated sensitivity of malaria transmission to vector capacity, this work tests response functions to fluctuations in land surface temperature and precipitation. Methods This study of regional sensitivity of malaria incidence to year-to-year climate variations used an extended Macdonald Ross compartmental disease model (to compute malaria incidence built on top of a global Anopheles vector capacity model (based on 10 years of satellite climate data. The predicted incidence was compared with estimates from the World Health Organization and the Malaria Atlas. The models and denominator data used are freely available through the Eclipse Foundation’s Spatiotemporal Epidemiological Modeller (STEM. Results Although the absolute scale factor relating reported malaria to absolute incidence is uncertain, there is a positive correlation between predicted and reported year-to-year variation in malaria burden with an averaged root mean square (RMS error of 25% comparing normalized incidence across 86 countries. Based on this, the proposed measure of sensitivity of malaria to variations in climate variables indicates locations where malaria is most likely to increase or decrease in response to specific climate factors. Bootstrapping measures the increased uncertainty in predicting malaria sensitivity when reporting is restricted to national level and an annual basis. Results indicate a potential 20x improvement in accuracy if data were available at the level ISO 3166–2

  14. Insecticide resistance status of three malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae (s.l.), An. funestus and An. mascarensis, from the south, central and east coasts of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoson, Jean-Desire; Fornadel, Christen M; Belemvire, Allison; Norris, Laura C; George, Kristen; Caranci, Angela; Lucas, Bradford; Dengela, Dereje

    2017-08-23

    Insecticide-based vector control, which comprises use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), is the key method to malaria control in Madagascar. However, its effectiveness is threatened as vectors become resistant to insecticides. This study investigated the resistance status of malaria vectors in Madagascar to various insecticides recommended for use in ITNs and/or IRS. WHO tube and CDC bottle bioassays were performed on populations of Anopheles gambiae (s.l.), An. funestus and An. mascarensis. Adult female An. gambiae (s.l.) mosquitoes reared from field-collected larvae and pupae were tested for their resistance to DDT, permethrin, deltamethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, bendiocarb and pirimiphos-methyl. Resting An. funestus and An. mascarensis female mosquitoes collected from unsprayed surfaces were tested against permethrin, deltamethrin and pirimiphos-methyl. The effect on insecticide resistance of pre-exposure to the synergists piperonyl-butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) also was assessed. Molecular analyses were done to identify species and determine the presence of knock-down resistance (kdr) and acetylcholinesterase resistance (ace-1 (R) ) gene mutations. Anopheles funestus and An. mascarensis were fully susceptible to permethrin, deltamethrin and pirimiphos-methyl. Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) was fully susceptible to bendiocarb and pirimiphos-methyl. Among the 17 An. gambiae (s.l.) populations tested for deltamethrin, no confirmed resistance was recorded, but suspected resistance was observed in two sites. Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) was resistant to permethrin in four out of 18 sites (mortality 68-89%) and to alpha-cypermethrin (89% mortality) and lambda-cyhalothrin (80% and 85%) in one of 17 sites, using one or both assay methods. Pre-exposure to PBO restored full susceptibility to all pyrethroids tested except in one site where only partial restoration to permethrin was observed. DEF

  15. One-pot biogenic fabrication of silver nanocrystals using Quisqualis indica: Effectiveness on malaria and Zika virus mosquito vectors, and impact on non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Vijayan, Periasamy; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    Currently, mosquito vector control is facing a number of key challenges, including the rapid development of resistance to synthetic pesticides and the recent spread of aggressive arbovirus outbreaks. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is currently considered an environmental friendly alternative to the employ of pyrethroids, carbamates and microbial agents (e.g. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis), since AgNPs are easy to produce, effective and stable in the aquatic environment. However, their biophysical features showed wide variations according to the botanical agent using for the green synthesis, outlining the importance of screening local floral resources used as reducing and stabilizing agents. In this study, we focused on the biophysical properties and the mosquitocidal action of Quisqualis indica-fabricated AgNPs. AgNPs were characterized using spectroscopic (UV, FTIR, XRD) and microscopic (AFM, SEM, TEM and EDX) techniques. AFM, SEM and TEM confirmed the synthesis of poly-dispersed AgNPs with spherical shape and size ranging from 1 to 30nm. XRD shed light on the crystalline structure of these AgNPs. The acute toxicity of Quisqualis indica extract and AgNPs was evaluated against malaria, arbovirus, and filariasis vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, as well as on three important non-target aquatic organisms. The Q. indica leaf extract showed moderate larvicidal effectiveness on Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=220.42), Ae. aegypti (LC50=203.63) and An. stephensi (LC50=185.98). Q. indica-fabricated AgNPs showed high toxicity against Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=14.63), Ae. aegypti (LC50=13.55) and An. stephensi (LC50=12.52), respectively. Notably, Q. indica-synthesized AgNPs were moderately toxic to non-target aquatic mosquito predators Anisops bouvieri (LC50=653.05μg/mL), Diplonychus indicus (LC50=860.94μg/mL) and Gambusia affinis (LC50=2183.16μg/mL), if compared to the targeted mosquitoes. Overall, the

  16. Assessment of the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network Standardized Procedure for In Vitro Malaria Drug Sensitivity Testing Using SYBR Green Assay for Field Samples with Various Initial Parasitemia Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruiyot, Agnes C; Auschwitz, Jennifer M; Lee, Patricia J; Yeda, Redemptah A; Okello, Charles O; Leed, Susan E; Talwar, Mayank; Murthy, Tushar; Gaona, Heather W; Hickman, Mark R; Akala, Hoseah M; Kamau, Edwin; Johnson, Jacob D

    2016-04-01

    The malaria SYBR green assay, which is used to profilein vitrodrug susceptibility ofPlasmodium falciparum, is a reliable drug screening and surveillance tool. Malaria field surveillance efforts provide isolates with various low levels of parasitemia. To be advantageous, malaria drug sensitivity assays should perform reproducibly among various starting parasitemia levels rather than at one fixed initial value. We examined the SYBR green assay standardized procedure developed by the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) for its sensitivity and ability to accurately determine the drug concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50% (IC50) in samples with a range of initial parasitemia levels. The initial sensitivity determination of the WWARN procedure yielded a detection limit of 0.019% parasitemia.P. falciparumlaboratory strains and field isolates with various levels of initial parasitemia were then subjected to a range of doses of common antimalarials. The IC50s were comparable for laboratory strains with between 0.0375% and 0.6% parasitemia and for field isolates with between 0.075% and 0.6% parasitemia for all drugs tested. Furthermore, assay quality (Z') analysis indicated that the WWARN procedure displays high robustness, allowing for drug testing of malaria field samples within the derived range of initial parasitemia. The use of the WWARN procedure should allow for the inclusion of more malaria field samples in malaria drug sensitivity screens that would have otherwise been excluded due to low initial parasitemia levels. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Respondent-driven sampling on the Thailand-Cambodia border. I. Can malaria cases be contained in mobile migrant workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delacollette Charles

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable information on mobility patterns of migrants is a crucial part of the strategy to contain the spread of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites in South-East Asia, and may also be helpful to efforts to address other public health problems for migrants and members of host communities. In order to limit the spread of malarial drug resistance, the malaria prevention and control programme will need to devise strategies to reach cross-border and mobile migrant populations. Methodology The Respondent-driven sampling (RDS method was used to survey migrant workers from Cambodia and Myanmar, both registered and undocumented, in three Thai provinces on the Thailand-Cambodia border in close proximity to areas with documented artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites. 1,719 participants (828 Cambodian and 891 Myanmar migrants were recruited. Subpopulations of migrant workers were analysed using the Thailand Ministry of Health classification based on length of residence in Thailand of greater than six months (long-term, or M1 or less than six months (short-term, or M2. Key information collected on the structured questionnaire included patterns of mobility and migration, demographic characteristics, treatment-seeking behaviours, and knowledge, perceptions, and practices about malaria. Results Workers from Cambodia came from provinces across Cambodia, and 22% of Cambodian M1 and 72% of Cambodian M2 migrants had been in Cambodia in the last three months. Less than 6% returned with a frequency of greater than once per month. Of migrants from Cambodia, 32% of M1 and 68% of M2 were planning to return, and named provinces across Cambodia as their likely next destinations. Most workers from Myanmar came from Mon state (86%, had never returned to Myanmar (85%, and only 4% stated plans to return. Conclusion Information on migratory patterns of migrants from Myanmar and Cambodia along the malaria endemic Thailand-Cambodian border within the

  18. Genome content analysis yields new insights into the relationship between the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and its anopheline vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Sara J; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey A; DeSalle, Rob

    2017-02-27

    The persistent and growing gap between the availability of sequenced genomes and the ability to assign functions to sequenced genes led us to explore ways to maximize the information content of automated annotation for studies of anopheline mosquitos. Specifically, we use genome content analysis of a large number of previously sequenced anopheline mosquitos to follow the loss and gain of protein families over the evolutionary history of this group. The importance of this endeavor lies in the potential for comparative genomic studies between Anopheles and closely related non-vector species to reveal ancestral genome content dynamics involved in vector competence. In addition, comparisons within Anopheles could identify genome content changes responsible for variation in the vectorial capacity of this family of important parasite vectors. The competence and capacity of P. falciparum vectors do not appear to be phylogenetically constrained within the Anophelinae. Instead, using ancestral reconstruction methods, we suggest that a previously unexamined component of vector biology, anopheline nucleotide metabolism, may contribute to the unique status of anophelines as P. falciparum vectors. While the fitness effects of nucleotide co-option by P. falciparum parasites on their anopheline hosts are not yet known, our results suggest that anopheline genome content may be responding to selection pressure from P. falciparum. Whether this response is defensive, in an attempt to redress improper nucleotide balance resulting from P. falciparum infection, or perhaps symbiotic, resulting from an as-yet-unknown mutualism between anophelines and P. falciparum, is an open question that deserves further study. Clearly, there is a wealth of functional information to be gained from detailed manual genome annotation, yet the rapid increase in the number of available sequences means that most researchers will not have the time or resources to manually annotate all the sequence data they

  19. Simultaneous hierarchical segmentation and vectorization of satellite images through combined data sampling and anisotropic triangulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazzini, Jacopo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dillard, Scott [PNNL

    2010-10-21

    The automatic detection, recognition , and segmentation of object classes in remote sensed images is of crucial importance for scene interpretation and understanding. However, it is a difficult task because of the high variability of satellite data. Indeed, the observed scenes usually exhibit a high degree of complexity, where complexity refers to the large variety of pictorial representations of objects with the same semantic meaning and also to the extensive amount of available det.ails. Therefore, there is still a strong demand for robust techniques for automatic information extraction and interpretation of satellite images. In parallel, there is a growing interest in techniques that can extract vector features directly from such imagery. In this paper, we investigate the problem of automatic hierarchical segmentation and vectorization of multispectral satellite images. We propose a new algorithm composed of the following steps: (i) a non-uniform sampling scheme extracting most salient pixels in the image, (ii) an anisotropic triangulation constrained by the sampled pixels taking into account both strength and directionality of local structures present in the image, (iii) a polygonal grouping scheme merging, through techniques based on perceptual information , the obtained segments to a smaller quantity of superior vectorial objects. Besides its computational efficiency, this approach provides a meaningful polygonal representation for subsequent image analysis and/or interpretation.

  20. Operational efficiency and sustainability of vector control of malaria and dengue: descriptive case studies from the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.; Velayudhan, R.; Ebol, A.; Catbagan, B.H.G.; Turingan, R.; Tuso, M.; Hii, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Analysis is lacking on the management of vector control systems in disease-endemic countries with respect to the efficiency and sustainability of operations. Methods: Three locations were selected, at the scale of province, municipality and barangay (i.e. village). Data on disease

  1. Safety profile of the viral vectors of attenuated fowlpox strain FP9 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara recombinant for either of 2 preerythrocytic malaria antigens, ME-TRAP or the circumsporozoite protein, in children and adults in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejon, Philip; Peshu, Norbert; Gilbert, Sarah C; Lowe, Brett S; Molyneux, Catherine S; Forsdyke, John; Lang, Trudie; Hill, Adrian V S; Marsh, Kevin

    2006-04-15

    We are developing a heterologous prime-boost vaccine strategy against malaria. This approach uses sequential immunization with different vectors to deliver a common preerythrocytic malaria antigen. Preliminary evidence of efficacy and safety has been previously documented in studies from an area where malaria is nonendemic. Additional safety data from an area where malaria is endemic are now required before larger-scale studies are undertaken to determine the efficacy of this vaccine strategy in the field. Other modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) recombinants and prime-boost immunizations are being developed as vaccines against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, tuberculosis, and cancer, and MVA is a candidate attenuated smallpox vaccine. Candidate vaccines against malaria were intradermally administered to 73 adults (7 of whom were HIV positive) and 22 children in Kenya. These vaccines used the attenuated fowlpox strain FP9 and the MVA recombinant for either of 2 preerythrocytic malaria antigens, multiple preerythrocytic-stage epitopes joined with the preerythrocytic-stage antigen TRAP (ME-TRAP) and the circumsporozoite protein (CS). Adverse events were recorded. Reactogenicity was mild. MVA caused less frequent and less severe cutaneous reaction if given after FP9 priming. Half doses reduced the frequency and the severity of systemic reactogenicity, and particular vaccine lots were associated with different reactogenicities. Unexpectedly, prior immunity to the ME-TRAP antigen appeared to be protective against local reactions after immunization. Where the final intention is to use MVA after FP9 priming, previous testing of MVA alone overestimates reactogenicity. These recombinant vectors appear to be safe and suitable for use in larger-scale studies of children in Africa and of HIV-positive individuals.

  2. Progress towards implementation of ACT malaria case-management in public health facilities in the Republic of Sudan: a cluster-sample survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgader, Tarig M; Ibrahim, Abdalla M; Elmardi, Khalid A; Githinji, Sophie; Zurovac, Dejan; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2012-01-06

    Effective malaria case-management based on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and parasitological diagnosis is a major pillar within the 2007-2012 National Malaria Strategic Plan in the Sudan. Three years after the launch of the strategy a health facility survey was undertaken to evaluate case-management practices and readiness of the health facilities and health workers to implement a new malaria case-management strategy. A cross-sectional, cluster sample survey was undertaken at public health facilities in 15 states of Sudan. Data were collected using quality-of-care assessment methods. The main outcomes were the proportions of facilities with ACTs and malaria diagnostics; proportions of health workers exposed to malaria related health systems support activities; and composite and individual indicators of case-management practices for febrile outpatients stratified by age, availability of ACTs and diagnostics, use of malaria diagnostics, and test result. We evaluated 244 facilities, 294 health workers and 1,643 consultations for febrile outpatients (425 ACTs, 24% were trained in the use of malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests, and 19% had received a supervisory visit including malaria case-management. At all health facilities 46% of febrile patients were parasitologically tested and 35% of patients were both, tested and treated according to test result. At facilities where AS+SP and malaria diagnostics were available 66% of febrile patients were tested and 51% were both, tested and treated according to test result. Among test positive patients 64% were treated with AS+SP but 24% were treated with artemether monotherapy. Among test negative patients only 17% of patients were treated for malaria. The majority of ACT dispensing and counseling practices were suboptimal. Five years following change of the policy from chloroquine to ACTs and 3 years before the end of the new malaria strategic plan chloroquine was successfully phased out from public facilities in

  3. Endogenous siRNAs and piRNAs derived from transposable elements and genes in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryukova, Inna; Ye, Tao

    2015-04-10

    impact on TE and gene activity in An. gambiae. The TE-specific small RNAs produced by both the siRNA and piRNA pathways represent an important aspect of genome stability and genetic variation, which might have a strong impact on the evolution of the genome and vector competence in the malaria mosquitoes.

  4. Endemic coastal malaria in the Thousand Islands District, near Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Jason D; Tuti, Sekar; Sismadi, Priyanto; Wiady, Iwa; Basri, Hasan; Krisin; Masbar, Sofyan; Projodipuro, Purnomo; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Corwin, Andrew L; Bangs, Michael J

    2005-05-01

    To conduct malaria surveillance near Jakarta where only imported malaria has been described over the past two decades and to characterize endemicity and risk to heavily populated peri-urban locations. Standard cross-sectional malariometric surveys and mosquito collections at the Thousand Islands District and developing peri-urban areas of Jakarta. During October 2000 outbreak investigations in the Tidung Island group, the slide positive rate was 47% (38%Plasmodium falciparum, 7%P. vivax, and 2% mixed infections) among 733 persons screened. Very few parasitemic inhabitants were symptomatic (Island, where sampling was adequate for comparison, remained high, 32%vs. 43% previously. Among 1377 individuals screened at nearby Tangerang District, a heavily populated mainland suburb dominated by fishponds through which many islanders travel to Jakarta, only 19 malaria infections were identified, all imported from Pari Island. Entomological surveillance in Tangerang identified An. subpictus, An. vagus, and An. barbirostris, all considered minor malaria vectors on Java. Malaria is endemic in the Tidung Island group. Imported malaria occurs in the heavily populated Tangerang District where coastal development is increasing and vector breeding sites and demographic patterns lend increasingly to malaria importation and risk of emergent malaria. Careful attention to the impact of coastal development activities on vector populations and efforts to prevent introduction of An. sundaicus are warranted.

  5. Mosquitocidal and antibacterial activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera extracts: towards an effective tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Devakumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Jiang, Wei; Benelli, Giovanni; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan

    2015-04-01

    Mosquitoes represent an important threat for lives of millions of people worldwide, acting as vectors for devastating pathogens, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile. In addition, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. Here, we investigated the mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Aloe vera leaf extract and silver nanoparticles synthesized using A. vera extract. Mosquitocidal properties were assessed in laboratory against larvae (I-IV instar) and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against An. stephensi also in field conditions. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles were evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In laboratory conditions, the A. vera extract was toxic against An. stephensi larvae and pupae, even at low dosages. LC50 were 48.79 ppm (I instar), 59.09 ppm (II instar), 70.88 ppm (III instar), 83.58 ppm (IV instar), and 152.55 ppm (pupae). Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were highly toxic against An. stephensi. LC50 were 3.825 ppm (I instar), 4.119 ppm (II instar), 4.982 ppm (III instar), 5.711 ppm (IV instar), and 6.113 ppm (pupae). In field conditions, the application of A. vera-synthesized silver nanoparticles (10 × LC50) leads to An. stephensi larval reduction of 74.5, 86.6, and 97.7%, after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Nanoparticles also showed antibacterial properties, and the maximum concentration tested (150 mg/L) evoked an inhibition zone wider than 80 mm in all tested bacterium species. This study adds knowledge about the use of green synthesis of nanoparticles in

  6. Transmission blocking activity of a standardized neem (Azadirachta indica seed extract on the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in its vector Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito Fulvio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The wide use of gametocytocidal artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT lead to a reduction of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in several African endemic settings. An increased impact on malaria burden may be achieved through the development of improved transmission-blocking formulations, including molecules complementing the gametocytocidal effects of artemisinin derivatives and/or acting on Plasmodium stages developing in the vector. Azadirachtin, a limonoid (tetranortriterpenoid abundant in neem (Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae seeds, is a promising candidate, inhibiting Plasmodium exflagellation in vitro at low concentrations. This work aimed at assessing the transmission-blocking potential of NeemAzal®, an azadirachtin-enriched extract of neem seeds, using the rodent malaria in vivo model Plasmodium berghei/Anopheles stephensi. Methods Anopheles stephensi females were offered a blood-meal on P. berghei infected, gametocytaemic BALB/c mice, treated intraperitoneally with NeemAzal, one hour before feeding. The transmission-blocking activity of the product was evaluated by assessing oocyst prevalence, oocyst density and capacity to infect healthy mice. To characterize the anti-plasmodial effects of NeemAzal® on early midgut stages, i.e. zygotes and ookinetes, Giemsa-stained mosquito midgut smears were examined. Results NeemAzal® completely blocked P. berghei development in the vector, at an azadirachtin dose of 50 mg/kg mouse body weight. The totally 138 examined, treated mosquitoes (three experimental replications did not reveal any oocyst and none of the healthy mice exposed to their bites developed parasitaemia. The examination of midgut content smears revealed a reduced number of zygotes and post-zygotic forms and the absence of mature ookinetes in treated mosquitoes. Post-zygotic forms showed several morphological alterations, compatible with the hypothesis of an azadirachtin interference with the functionality

  7. Mathematical evaluation of community level impact of combining bed nets and indoor residual spraying upon malaria transmission in areas where the main vectors are Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumu Fredros O

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual insecticide spraying (IRS and long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs are commonly used together even though evidence that such combinations confer greater protection against malaria than either method alone is inconsistent. Methods A deterministic model of mosquito life cycle processes was adapted to allow parameterization with results from experimental hut trials of various combinations of untreated nets or LLINs (Olyset®, PermaNet 2.0®, Icon Life® nets with IRS (pirimiphos methyl, lambda cyhalothrin, DDT, in a setting where vector populations are dominated by Anopheles arabiensis, so that community level impact upon malaria transmission at high coverage could be predicted. Results Intact untreated nets alone provide equivalent personal protection to all three LLINs. Relative to IRS plus untreated nets, community level protection is slightly higher when Olyset® or PermaNet 2.0® nets are added onto IRS with pirimiphos methyl or lambda cyhalothrin but not DDT, and when Icon Life® nets supplement any of the IRS insecticides. Adding IRS onto any net modestly enhances communal protection when pirimiphos methyl is sprayed, while spraying lambda cyhalothrin enhances protection for untreated nets but not LLINs. Addition of DDT reduces communal protection when added to LLINs. Conclusions Where transmission is mediated primarily by An. arabiensis, adding IRS to high LLIN coverage provides only modest incremental benefit (e.g. when an organophosphate like pirimiphos methyl is used, but can be redundant (e.g. when a pyrethroid like lambda cyhalothin is used or even regressive (e.g. when DDT is used for the IRS. Relative to IRS plus untreated nets, supplementing IRS with LLINs will only modestly improve community protection. Beyond the physical protection that intact nets provide, additional protection against transmission by An. arabiensis conferred by insecticides will be remarkably small, regardless of

  8. Predicting Scenarios for Successful Autodissemination of Pyriproxyfen by Malaria Vectors from Their Resting Sites to Aquatic Habitats; Description and Simulation Analysis of a Field-Parameterizable Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson S Kiware

    Full Text Available Large-cage experiments indicate pyriproxifen (PPF can be transferred from resting sites to aquatic habitats by Anopheles arabiensis--malaria vector mosquitoes to inhibit emergence of their own offspring. PPF coverage is amplified twice: (1 partial coverage of resting sites with PPF contamination results in far higher contamination coverage of adult mosquitoes because they are mobile and use numerous resting sites per gonotrophic cycle, and (2 even greater contamination coverage of aquatic habitats results from accumulation of PPF from multiple oviposition events.Deterministic mathematical models are described that use only field-measurable input parameters and capture the biological processes that mediate PPF autodissemination. Recent successes in large cages can be rationalized, and the plausibility of success under full field conditions can be evaluated a priori. The model also defines measurable properties of PPF delivery prototypes that may be optimized under controlled experimental conditions to maximize chances of success in full field trials. The most obvious flaw in this model is the endogenous relationship that inevitably occurs between the larval habitat coverage and the measured rate of oviposition into those habitats if the target mosquito species is used to mediate PPF transfer. However, this inconsistency also illustrates the potential advantages of using a different, non-target mosquito species for contamination at selected resting sites that shares the same aquatic habitats as the primary target. For autodissemination interventions to eliminate malaria transmission or vector populations during the dry season window of opportunity will require comprehensive contamination of the most challenging subset of aquatic habitats [Formula: see text] that persist or retain PPF activity (Ux for only one week [Formula: see text], where Ux = 7 days. To achieve >99% contamination coverage of these habitats will necessitate values for the

  9. Predicting Scenarios for Successful Autodissemination of Pyriproxyfen by Malaria Vectors from Their Resting Sites to Aquatic Habitats; Description and Simulation Analysis of a Field-Parameterizable Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiware, Samson S.; Corliss, George; Merrill, Stephen; Lwetoijera, Dickson W.; Devine, Gregor; Majambere, Silas; Killeen, Gerry F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Large-cage experiments indicate pyriproxifen (PPF) can be transferred from resting sites to aquatic habitats by Anopheles arabiensis - malaria vector mosquitoes to inhibit emergence of their own offspring. PPF coverage is amplified twice: (1) partial coverage of resting sites with PPF contamination results in far higher contamination coverage of adult mosquitoes because they are mobile and use numerous resting sites per gonotrophic cycle, and (2) even greater contamination coverage of aquatic habitats results from accumulation of PPF from multiple oviposition events. Methods and Findings Deterministic mathematical models are described that use only field-measurable input parameters and capture the biological processes that mediate PPF autodissemination. Recent successes in large cages can be rationalized, and the plausibility of success under full field conditions can be evaluated a priori. The model also defines measurable properties of PPF delivery prototypes that may be optimized under controlled experimental conditions to maximize chances of success in full field trials. The most obvious flaw in this model is the endogenous relationship that inevitably occurs between the larval habitat coverage and the measured rate of oviposition into those habitats if the target mosquito species is used to mediate PPF transfer. However, this inconsistency also illustrates the potential advantages of using a different, non-target mosquito species for contamination at selected resting sites that shares the same aquatic habitats as the primary target. For autodissemination interventions to eliminate malaria transmission or vector populations during the dry season window of opportunity will require comprehensive contamination of the most challenging subset of aquatic habitats (Clx) that persist or retain PPF activity (Ux) for only one week (Clx→1, where Ux = 7 days). To achieve >99% contamination coverage of these habitats will necessitate values for the product of

  10. Bacterial communities of disease vectors sampled across time, space, and species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ryan T; Knight, Rob; Martin, Andrew P

    2010-02-01

    A common strategy of pathogenic bacteria is to form close associations with parasitic insects that feed on animals and to use these insects as vectors for their own transmission. Pathogens interact closely with other coexisting bacteria within the insect, and interactions between co-occurring bacteria may influence the vector competency of the parasite. Interactions between particular lineages can be explored through measures of alpha-diversity. Furthermore, general patterns of bacterial community assembly can be explored through measures of beta-diversity. Here, we use pyrosequencing (n=115,924 16S rRNA gene sequences) to describe the bacterial communities of 230 prairie dog fleas sampled across space and time. We use these communinty characterizations to assess interactions between dominant community members and to explore general patterns of bacterial community assembly in fleas. An analysis of co-occurrence patterns suggests non-neutral negative interactions between dominant community members (Pspace (phylotype-based: R=0.418, Pspecies (phylotype-based: R=0.160, P=0.011; phylogenetic-based: not significant). Collectively, our results show that flea-associated bacterial communities are not random assemblages; rather, an individual flea's bacterial community is governed by interactions between bacterial lineages and by the flea's place in space and time.

  11. PENGETAHUAN, SIKAP DAN PERILAKU MASYARAKAT TERHADAP MALARIA DI DAERAH NON ENDEMIS, DI KABUPATEN PURWOREJO, JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta Shinta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria control program will not successful without a community participation, and involvement of the inter-sector through partnership. Information and understanding the Study of Knowledge, Attitudeand Practice (KAP of the community are very important to develop and improve the community participation as well as to develop the partnership in malaria control. The study was carried out in three communes in Purworejo district, on sub-district non-malaria endemic area. The data were collected by structures questionnaire, the sample size of each commune was 100 respondents, and the respondents are household. The study showed that: knowledge of household to malaria is quite good (97%; most of them knew malaria symptom (87,9%, causal (94,3%, relapses (94%, treatment (99%, malaria transmissionand mosquito as malaria vector (94%. However, some of them are confused with dengue haemorrhagic fever vector (33%. The community attitude in the malaria control program showed a positive, they say malaria is a danger disease and should be prevented and control (91%, they encourage others to participation malaria control. Their practise in the malaria control also quite positive, when their family member hadhigh fever due to malaria they brought the family member to a doctor and or other health facilities (68,8%, wearing the protected clothes when going out and stay out-door during night time (93,3%. Additionally to reduce the risk from the mosquito biting, they sleep under mosquito net, (70%, burning mosquito coil (26%. However, some respondents still do not showed a good practices (31,1%, some are going to the traditional healer (4%, low compliance in taking a medicine, and low practices in the source reduction or mosquito habitat clearance. Many are relay on the government support or subsidize through health sector. Keywords: Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP, Malaria

  12. Utilization of combined remote sensing techniques to detect environmental variables influencing malaria vector densities in rural West Africa

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    Dambach Peter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The use of remote sensing has found its way into the field of epidemiology within the last decades. With the increased sensor resolution of recent and future satellites new possibilities emerge for high resolution risk modeling and risk mapping. Methods A SPOT 5 satellite image, taken during the rainy season 2009 was used for calculating indices by combining the image's spectral bands. Besides the widely used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI other indices were tested for significant correlation against field observations. Multiple steps, including the detection of surface water, its breeding appropriateness for Anopheles and modeling of vector imagines abundance, were performed. Data collection on larvae, adult vectors and geographic parameters in the field, was amended by using remote sensing techniques to gather data on altitude (Digital Elevation Model = DEM, precipitation (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission = TRMM, land surface temperatures (LST. Results The DEM derived altitude as well as indices calculations combining the satellite's spectral bands (NDTI = Normalized Difference Turbidity Index, NDWI Mac Feeters = Normalized Difference Water Index turned out to be reliable indicators for surface water in the local geographic setting. While Anopheles larvae abundance in habitats is driven by multiple, interconnected factors - amongst which the NDVI - and precipitation events, the presence of vector imagines was found to be correlated negatively to remotely sensed LST and positively to the cumulated amount of rainfall in the preceding 15 days and to the Normalized Difference Pond Index (NDPI within the 500 m buffer zone around capture points. Conclusions Remotely sensed geographical and meteorological factors, including precipitations, temperature, as well as vegetation, humidity and land cover indicators could be used as explanatory variables for surface water presence, larval development and imagines

  13. Dose-response tests and semi-field evaluation of lethal and sub-lethal effects of slow release pyriproxyfen granules (Sumilarv®0.5G) for the control of the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbare, Oscar; Lindsay, Steven W; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2013-03-14

    Recently research has shown that larviciding can be an effective tool for integrated malaria vector control. Nevertheless, the uptake of this intervention has been hampered by the need to re-apply larvicides frequently. There is a need to explore persistent, environmentally friendly larvicides for malaria vector control to reduce intervention efforts and costs by reducing the frequency of application. In this study, the efficacy of a 0.5% pyriproxyfen granule (Surmilarv®0.5G, Sumitomo Chemicals) was assessed for the control of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis, the major malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. Dose-response and standardized field tests were implemented following standard procedures of the World Health Organization's Pesticide Evaluation Scheme to determine: (i) the susceptibility of vectors to this formulation; (ii) the residual activity and appropriate retreatment schedule for field application; and, (iii) sub-lethal impacts on the number and viability of eggs laid by adults after exposure to Sumilarv®0.5G during larval development. Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis were highly susceptible to Sumilarv®0.5G. Estimated emergence inhibition (EI) values were very low and similar for both species. The minimum dosage that completely inhibited adult emergence was between 0.01-0.03 parts per million (ppm) active ingredient (ai). Compared to the untreated control, an application of 0.018 ppm ai prevented 85% (95% confidence interval (CI) 82%-88%) of adult emergence over six weeks under standardized field conditions. A fivefold increase in dosage of 0.09 ppm ai prevented 97% (95% CI 94%-98%) emergence. Significant sub-lethal effects were observed in the standardized field tests. Female An. gambiae s.s. that were exposed to 0.018 ppm ai as larvae laid 47% less eggs, and females exposed to 0.09 ppm ai laid 74% less eggs than females that were unexposed to the treatment. Furthermore, 77% of eggs laid by females exposed to 0

  14. Multiple Insecticide Resistance in the Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus from Northern Cameroon Is Mediated by Metabolic Resistance Alongside Potential Target Site Insensitivity Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menze, Benjamin D; Riveron, Jacob M; Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Irving, Helen; Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Awono-Ambene, Parfait H; Wondji, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent progress in establishing the patterns of insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus, Central African populations of this species remain largely uncharacterised. To bridge this important gap and facilitate the implementation of suitable control strategies against this vector, we characterised the resistance patterns of An. funestus population from northern Cameroon. Collection of indoor-resting female mosquitoes in Gounougou (northern Cameroon) in 2012 and 2015 revealed a predominance of An. funestus during dry season. WHO bioassays performed using F1 An. funestus revealed that the population was multiple resistant to several insecticide classes including pyrethroids (permethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and etofenprox), carbamates (bendiocarb) and organochlorines (DDT and dieldrin). However, a full susceptibility was observed against the organophosphate malathion. Bioassays performed with 2015 collection revealed that resistance against pyrethroids and DDT is increasing. PBO synergist assays revealed a significant recovery of susceptibility for all pyrethroids but less for DDT. Analysis of the polymorphism of a portion of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene (VGSC) revealed the absence of the L1014F/S kdr mutation but identified 3 novel amino acid changes I877L, V881L and A1007S. However, no association was established between VGSC polymorphism and pyrethroid/DDT resistance. The DDT resistant 119F-GSTe2 allele (52%) and the dieldrin resistant 296S-RDL allele (45%) were detected in Gounougou. Temporal analysis between 2006, 2012 and 2015 collections revealed that the 119F-GSTe2 allele was relatively stable whereas a significant decrease is observed for 296S-RDL allele. This multiple resistance coupled with the temporal increased in resistance intensity highlights the need to take urgent measures to prolong the efficacy of current insecticide-based interventions against An. funestus in this African region.

  15. Multiple Insecticide Resistance in the Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus from Northern Cameroon Is Mediated by Metabolic Resistance Alongside Potential Target Site Insensitivity Mutations.

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    Benjamin D Menze

    Full Text Available Despite the recent progress in establishing the patterns of insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus, Central African populations of this species remain largely uncharacterised. To bridge this important gap and facilitate the implementation of suitable control strategies against this vector, we chara