WorldWideScience

Sample records for sampling interval effects

  1. Effects of Spatial Sampling Interval on Roughness Parameters and Microwave Backscatter over Agricultural Soil Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Ernesto Barber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial sampling interval, as related to the ability to digitize a soil profile with a certain number of features per unit length, depends on the profiling technique itself. From a variety of profiling techniques, roughness parameters are estimated at different sampling intervals. Since soil profiles have continuous spectral components, it is clear that roughness parameters are influenced by the sampling interval of the measurement device employed. In this work, we contributed to answer which sampling interval the profiles needed to be measured at to accurately account for the microwave response of agricultural surfaces. For this purpose, a 2-D laser profiler was built and used to measure surface soil roughness at field scale over agricultural sites in Argentina. Sampling intervals ranged from large (50 mm to small ones (1 mm, with several intermediate values. Large- and intermediate-sampling-interval profiles were synthetically derived from nominal, 1 mm ones. With these data, the effect of sampling-interval-dependent roughness parameters on backscatter response was assessed using the theoretical backscatter model IEM2M. Simulations demonstrated that variations of roughness parameters depended on the working wavelength and was less important at L-band than at C- or X-band. In any case, an underestimation of the backscattering coefficient of about 1-4 dB was observed at larger sampling intervals. As a general rule a sampling interval of 15 mm can be recommended for L-band and 5 mm for C-band.

  2. The Gas Sampling Interval Effect on V˙O2peak Is Independent of Exercise Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheadler, Cory M; Garver, Matthew J; Hanson, Nicholas J

    2017-09-01

    There is a plethora of gas sampling intervals available during cardiopulmonary exercise testing to measure peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak). Different intervals can lead to altered V˙O2peak. Whether differences are affected by the exercise protocol or subject sample is not clear. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether V˙O2peak differed because of the manipulation of sampling intervals and whether differences were independent of the protocol and subject sample. The first subject sample (24 ± 3 yr; V˙O2peak via 15-breath moving averages: 56.2 ± 6.8 mL·kg·min) completed the Bruce and the self-paced V˙O2max protocols. The second subject sample (21.9 ± 2.7 yr; V˙O2peak via 15-breath moving averages: 54.2 ± 8.0 mL·kg·min) completed the Bruce and the modified Astrand protocols. V˙O2peak was identified using five sampling intervals: 15-s block averages, 30-s block averages, 15-breath block averages, 15-breath moving averages, and 30-s block averages aligned to the end of exercise. Differences in V˙O2peak between intervals were determined using repeated-measures ANOVAs. The influence of subject sample on the sampling effect was determined using independent t-tests. There was a significant main effect of sampling interval on V˙O2peak (first sample Bruce and self-paced V˙O2max P V˙O2peak between sampling intervals followed a similar pattern for each protocol and subject sample, with 15-breath moving average presenting the highest V˙O2peak. The effect of manipulating gas sampling intervals on V˙O2peak appears to be protocol and sample independent. These findings highlight our recommendation that the clinical and scientific community request and report the sampling interval whenever metabolic data are presented. The standardization of reporting would assist in the comparison of V˙O2peak.

  3. The effects of varying sampling intervals on the growth and survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sampling intervals were-weekly, biweekly, triweekly and no sampling until at harvest. The highest percentage survival (72.0%) was recorded where the fish were sampled biweekly while the lowest survival (17.1 %) was recorded in the treatment where fish was not sampled until at harvest. Similarly, the total biomass of ...

  4. Online Doppler Effect Elimination Based on Unequal Time Interval Sampling for Wayside Acoustic Bearing Fault Detecting System

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    Kesai Ouyang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The railway occupies a fairly important position in transportation due to its high speed and strong transportation capability. As a consequence, it is a key issue to guarantee continuous running and transportation safety of trains. Meanwhile, time consumption of the diagnosis procedure is of extreme importance for the detecting system. However, most of the current adopted techniques in the wayside acoustic defective bearing detector system (ADBD are offline strategies, which means that the signal is analyzed after the sampling process. This would result in unavoidable time latency. Besides, the acquired acoustic signal would be corrupted by the Doppler effect because of high relative speed between the train and the data acquisition system (DAS. Thus, it is difficult to effectively diagnose the bearing defects immediately. In this paper, a new strategy called online Doppler effect elimination (ODEE is proposed to remove the Doppler distortion online by the introduced unequal interval sampling scheme. The steps of proposed strategy are as follows: The essential parameters are acquired in advance. Then, the introduced unequal time interval sampling strategy is used to restore the Doppler distortion signal, and the amplitude of the signal is demodulated as well. Thus, the restored Doppler-free signal is obtained online. The proposed ODEE method has been employed in simulation analysis. Ultimately, the ODEE method is implemented in the embedded system for fault diagnosis of the train bearing. The results are in good accordance with the bearing defects, which verifies the good performance of the proposed strategy.

  5. Online Doppler Effect Elimination Based on Unequal Time Interval Sampling for Wayside Acoustic Bearing Fault Detecting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Kesai; Lu, Siliang; Zhang, Shangbin; Zhang, Haibin; He, Qingbo; Kong, Fanrang

    2015-08-27

    The railway occupies a fairly important position in transportation due to its high speed and strong transportation capability. As a consequence, it is a key issue to guarantee continuous running and transportation safety of trains. Meanwhile, time consumption of the diagnosis procedure is of extreme importance for the detecting system. However, most of the current adopted techniques in the wayside acoustic defective bearing detector system (ADBD) are offline strategies, which means that the signal is analyzed after the sampling process. This would result in unavoidable time latency. Besides, the acquired acoustic signal would be corrupted by the Doppler effect because of high relative speed between the train and the data acquisition system (DAS). Thus, it is difficult to effectively diagnose the bearing defects immediately. In this paper, a new strategy called online Doppler effect elimination (ODEE) is proposed to remove the Doppler distortion online by the introduced unequal interval sampling scheme. The steps of proposed strategy are as follows: The essential parameters are acquired in advance. Then, the introduced unequal time interval sampling strategy is used to restore the Doppler distortion signal, and the amplitude of the signal is demodulated as well. Thus, the restored Doppler-free signal is obtained online. The proposed ODEE method has been employed in simulation analysis. Ultimately, the ODEE method is implemented in the embedded system for fault diagnosis of the train bearing. The results are in good accordance with the bearing defects, which verifies the good performance of the proposed strategy.

  6. A Comparison of Momentary Time Sampling and Partial-Interval Recording for Assessment of Effects of Social Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley, Keith C.; O'Handley, Roderick D.; Labrot, Zachary C.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment in social skills training often utilizes procedures such as partial-interval recording (PIR) and momentary time sampling (MTS) to estimate changes in duration in social engagements due to intervention. Although previous research suggests PIR to be more inaccurate than MTS in estimating levels of behavior, treatment analysis decisions…

  7. An Improvement to Interval Estimation for Small Samples

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    SUN Hui-Ling

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Because it is difficult and complex to determine the probability distribution of small samples,it is improper to use traditional probability theory to process parameter estimation for small samples. Bayes Bootstrap method is always used in the project. Although,the Bayes Bootstrap method has its own limitation,In this article an improvement is given to the Bayes Bootstrap method,This method extended the amount of samples by numerical simulation without changing the circumstances in a small sample of the original sample. And the new method can give the accurate interval estimation for the small samples. Finally,by using the Monte Carlo simulation to model simulation to the specific small sample problems. The effectiveness and practicability of the Improved-Bootstrap method was proved.

  8. Sampling Theorem in Terms of the Bandwidth and Sampling Interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H.

    2011-01-01

    An approach has been developed for interpolating non-uniformly sampled data, with applications in signal and image reconstruction. This innovation generalizes the Whittaker-Shannon sampling theorem by emphasizing two assumptions explicitly (definition of a band-limited function and construction by periodic extension). The Whittaker- Shannon sampling theorem is thus expressed in terms of two fundamental length scales that are derived from these assumptions. The result is more general than what is usually reported, and contains the Whittaker- Shannon form as a special case corresponding to Nyquist-sampled data. The approach also shows that the preferred basis set for interpolation is found by varying the frequency component of the basis functions in an optimal way.

  9. Comparing interval estimates for small sample ordinal CFA models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Prathiba

    2015-01-01

    Robust maximum likelihood (RML) and asymptotically generalized least squares (AGLS) methods have been recommended for fitting ordinal structural equation models. Studies show that some of these methods underestimate standard errors. However, these studies have not investigated the coverage and bias of interval estimates. An estimate with a reasonable standard error could still be severely biased. This can only be known by systematically investigating the interval estimates. The present study compares Bayesian, RML, and AGLS interval estimates of factor correlations in ordinal confirmatory factor analysis models (CFA) for small sample data. Six sample sizes, 3 factor correlations, and 2 factor score distributions (multivariate normal and multivariate mildly skewed) were studied. Two Bayesian prior specifications, informative and relatively less informative were studied. Undercoverage of confidence intervals and underestimation of standard errors was common in non-Bayesian methods. Underestimated standard errors may lead to inflated Type-I error rates. Non-Bayesian intervals were more positive biased than negatively biased, that is, most intervals that did not contain the true value were greater than the true value. Some non-Bayesian methods had non-converging and inadmissible solutions for small samples and non-normal data. Bayesian empirical standard error estimates for informative and relatively less informative priors were closer to the average standard errors of the estimates. The coverage of Bayesian credibility intervals was closer to what was expected with overcoverage in a few cases. Although some Bayesian credibility intervals were wider, they reflected the nature of statistical uncertainty that comes with the data (e.g., small sample). Bayesian point estimates were also more accurate than non-Bayesian estimates. The results illustrate the importance of analyzing coverage and bias of interval estimates, and how ignoring interval estimates can be misleading

  10. Estimation of individual reference intervals in small sample sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ase Marie; Garde, Anne Helene; Eller, Nanna Hurwitz

    2007-01-01

    In occupational health studies, the study groups most often comprise healthy subjects performing their work. Sampling is often planned in the most practical way, e.g., sampling of blood in the morning at the work site just after the work starts. Optimal use of reference intervals requires...... of that order of magnitude for all topics in question. Therefore, new methods to estimate reference intervals for small sample sizes are needed. We present an alternative method based on variance component models. The models are based on data from 37 men and 84 women taking into account biological variation...... presented in this study. The presented method enables occupational health researchers to calculate reference intervals for specific groups, i.e. smokers versus non-smokers, etc. In conclusion, the variance component models provide an appropriate tool to estimate reference intervals based on small sample...

  11. Sample Size for the "Z" Test and Its Confidence Interval

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    Liu, Xiaofeng Steven

    2012-01-01

    The statistical power of a significance test is closely related to the length of the confidence interval (i.e. estimate precision). In the case of a "Z" test, the length of the confidence interval can be expressed as a function of the statistical power. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  12. Effects Of Cutting Interval On The Feed Value Of Enterolobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of cutting interval on the rumen DM degradation and CP and NDF contents of Enterolobium cyclocarpum leaves was determined. The trees were cut every 6, 9 and 12 weeks at 50 cm above ground level. Leaf samples taken at the ends of the major and minor wet seasons were incubated for 3, 6, 12, 24, 72 and ...

  13. Adaptive Kalman Filter Based on Adjustable Sampling Interval in Burst Detection for Water Distribution System

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    Doo Yong Choi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid detection of bursts and leaks in water distribution systems (WDSs can reduce the social and economic costs incurred through direct loss of water into the ground, additional energy demand for water supply, and service interruptions. Many real-time burst detection models have been developed in accordance with the use of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA systems and the establishment of district meter areas (DMAs. Nonetheless, no consideration has been given to how frequently a flow meter measures and transmits data for predicting breaks and leaks in pipes. This paper analyzes the effect of sampling interval when an adaptive Kalman filter is used for detecting bursts in a WDS. A new sampling algorithm is presented that adjusts the sampling interval depending on the normalized residuals of flow after filtering. The proposed algorithm is applied to a virtual sinusoidal flow curve and real DMA flow data obtained from Jeongeup city in South Korea. The simulation results prove that the self-adjusting algorithm for determining the sampling interval is efficient and maintains reasonable accuracy in burst detection. The proposed sampling method has a significant potential for water utilities to build and operate real-time DMA monitoring systems combined with smart customer metering systems.

  14. Binomial Distribution Sample Confidence Intervals Estimation 7. Absolute Risk Reduction and ARR-like Expressions

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    Andrei ACHIMAŞ CADARIU

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of a controlled clinical trial suppose to interpret some key parameters as the controlled event rate, experimental event date, relative risk, absolute risk reduction, relative risk reduction, number needed to treat when the effect of the treatment are dichotomous variables. Defined as the difference in the event rate between treatment and control groups, the absolute risk reduction is the parameter that allowed computing the number needed to treat. The absolute risk reduction is compute when the experimental treatment reduces the risk for an undesirable outcome/event. In medical literature when the absolute risk reduction is report with its confidence intervals, the method used is the asymptotic one, even if it is well know that may be inadequate. The aim of this paper is to introduce and assess nine methods of computing confidence intervals for absolute risk reduction and absolute risk reduction – like function.Computer implementations of the methods use the PHP language. Methods comparison uses the experimental errors, the standard deviations, and the deviation relative to the imposed significance level for specified sample sizes. Six methods of computing confidence intervals for absolute risk reduction and absolute risk reduction-like functions were assessed using random binomial variables and random sample sizes.The experiments shows that the ADAC, and ADAC1 methods obtains the best overall performance of computing confidence intervals for absolute risk reduction.

  15. Sample size calculations for pilot randomized trials: a confidence interval approach.

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    Cocks, Kim; Torgerson, David J

    2013-02-01

    To describe a method using confidence intervals (CIs) to estimate the sample size for a pilot randomized trial. Using one-sided CIs and the estimated effect size that would be sought in a large trial, we calculated the sample size needed for pilot trials. Using an 80% one-sided CI, we estimated that a pilot trial should have at least 9% of the sample size of the main planned trial. Using the estimated effect size difference for the main trial and using a one-sided CI, this allows us to calculate a sample size for a pilot trial, which will make its results more useful than at present. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Introduction to Sample Size Choice for Confidence Intervals Based on "t" Statistics

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    Liu, Xiaofeng Steven; Loudermilk, Brandon; Simpson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Sample size can be chosen to achieve a specified width in a confidence interval. The probability of obtaining a narrow width given that the confidence interval includes the population parameter is defined as the power of the confidence interval, a concept unfamiliar to many practitioners. This article shows how to utilize the Statistical Analysis…

  17. Empirical Likelihood Confidence Intervals under the Rao-Hartley-Cochran Sampling Design

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Yves G.

    2014-01-01

    The Hartley-Rao-Cochran (RHC) sampling design (Rao et al., 1962) is a popular unequal probability sampling design. We show how empirical likelihood confidence intervals can be derived under this sampling design. Berger and De La Riva Torres (2012) proposed an empirical likelihood approach which can be used for point estimation and to construct confidence intervals under complex sampling designs. We show how this approach can be adjusted for the RHC sampling design. The proposed approach intri...

  18. The impact of different sampling rates and calculation time intervals on ROTI values

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    Jacobsen Knut Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ROTI (Rate of TEC index is a commonly used measure of ionospheric irregularities level. The algorithm to calculate ROTI is easily implemented, and is the same from paper to paper. However, the sample rate of the GNSS data used, and the time interval over which a value of ROTI is calculated, varies from paper to paper. When comparing ROTI values from different studies, this must be taken into account. This paper aims to show what these differences are, to increase the awareness of this issue. We have investigated the effect of different parameters for the calculation of ROTI values, using one year of data from 8 receivers at latitudes ranging from 59° N to 79° N. We have found that the ROTI values calculated using different parameter choices are strongly positively correlated. However, the ROTI values are quite different. The effect of a lower sample rate is to lower the ROTI value, due to the loss of high-frequency parts of the ROT spectrum, while the effect of a longer calculation time interval is to remove or reduce short-lived peaks due to the inherent smoothing effect. The ratio of ROTI values based on data of different sampling rate is examined in relation to the ROT power spectrum. Of relevance to statistical studies, we find that the median level of ROTI depends strongly on sample rate, strongly on latitude at auroral latitudes, and weakly on time interval. Thus, a baseline “quiet” or “noisy” level for one location or choice or parameters may not be valid for another location or choice of parameters.

  19. Confidence Intervals: From tests of statistical significance to confidence intervals, range hypotheses and substantial effects

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    Dominic Beaulieu-Prévost

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available For the last 50 years of research in quantitative social sciences, the empirical evaluation of scientific hypotheses has been based on the rejection or not of the null hypothesis. However, more than 300 articles demonstrated that this method was problematic. In summary, null hypothesis testing (NHT is unfalsifiable, its results depend directly on sample size and the null hypothesis is both improbable and not plausible. Consequently, alternatives to NHT such as confidence intervals (CI and measures of effect size are starting to be used in scientific publications. The purpose of this article is, first, to provide the conceptual tools necessary to implement an approach based on confidence intervals, and second, to briefly demonstrate why such an approach is an interesting alternative to an approach based on NHT. As demonstrated in the article, the proposed CI approach avoids most problems related to a NHT approach and can often improve the scientific and contextual relevance of the statistical interpretations by testing range hypotheses instead of a point hypothesis and by defining the minimal value of a substantial effect. The main advantage of such a CI approach is that it replaces the notion of statistical power by an easily interpretable three-value logic (probable presence of a substantial effect, probable absence of a substantial effect and probabilistic undetermination. The demonstration includes a complete example.

  20. Optimal Selection of the Sampling Interval for Estimation of Modal Parameters by an ARMA- Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    1993-01-01

    Optimal selection of the sampling interval for estimation of the modal parameters by an ARMA-model for a white noise loaded structure modelled as a single degree of- freedom linear mechanical system is considered. An analytical solution for an optimal uniform sampling interval, which is optimal...

  1. A Combined Weighting Method Based on Hybrid of Interval Evidence Fusion and Random Sampling

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    Ying Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity of system and lack of expertise, epistemic uncertainties may present in the experts’ judgment on the importance of certain indices during group decision-making. A novel combination weighting method is proposed to solve the index weighting problem when various uncertainties are present in expert comments. Based on the idea of evidence theory, various types of uncertain evaluation information are uniformly expressed through interval evidence structures. Similarity matrix between interval evidences is constructed, and expert’s information is fused. Comment grades are quantified using the interval number, and cumulative probability function for evaluating the importance of indices is constructed based on the fused information. Finally, index weights are obtained by Monte Carlo random sampling. The method can process expert’s information with varying degrees of uncertainties, which possesses good compatibility. Difficulty in effectively fusing high-conflict group decision-making information and large information loss after fusion is avertible. Original expert judgments are retained rather objectively throughout the processing procedure. Cumulative probability function constructing and random sampling processes do not require any human intervention or judgment. It can be implemented by computer programs easily, thus having an apparent advantage in evaluation practices of fairly huge index systems.

  2. Effect size, confidence intervals and statistical power in psychological research.

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    Téllez A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative psychological research is focused on detecting the occurrence of certain population phenomena by analyzing data from a sample, and statistics is a particularly helpful mathematical tool that is used by researchers to evaluate hypotheses and make decisions to accept or reject such hypotheses. In this paper, the various statistical tools in psychological research are reviewed. The limitations of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST and the advantages of using effect size and its respective confidence intervals are explained, as the latter two measurements can provide important information about the results of a study. These measurements also can facilitate data interpretation and easily detect trivial effects, enabling researchers to make decisions in a more clinically relevant fashion. Moreover, it is recommended to establish an appropriate sample size by calculating the optimum statistical power at the moment that the research is designed. Psychological journal editors are encouraged to follow APA recommendations strictly and ask authors of original research studies to report the effect size, its confidence intervals, statistical power and, when required, any measure of clinical significance. Additionally, we must account for the teaching of statistics at the graduate level. At that level, students do not receive sufficient information concerning the importance of using different types of effect sizes and their confidence intervals according to the different types of research designs; instead, most of the information is focused on the various tools of NHST.

  3. Impact of sampling interval in training data acquisition on intrafractional predictive accuracy of indirect dynamic tumor-tracking radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukumoto, Nobutaka; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Akimoto, Mami; Miyabe, Yuki; Yokota, Kenji; Matsuo, Yukinori; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2017-08-01

    To explore the effect of sampling interval of training data acquisition on the intrafractional prediction error of surrogate signal-based dynamic tumor-tracking using a gimbal-mounted linac. Twenty pairs of respiratory motions were acquired from 20 patients (ten lung, five liver, and five pancreatic cancer patients) who underwent dynamic tumor-tracking with the Vero4DRT. First, respiratory motions were acquired as training data for an initial construction of the prediction model before the irradiation. Next, additional respiratory motions were acquired for an update of the prediction model due to the change of the respiratory pattern during the irradiation. The time elapsed prior to the second acquisition of the respiratory motion was 12.6 ± 3.1 min. A four-axis moving phantom reproduced patients' three dimensional (3D) target motions and one dimensional surrogate motions. To predict the future internal target motion from the external surrogate motion, prediction models were constructed by minimizing residual prediction errors for training data acquired at 80 and 320 ms sampling intervals for 20 s, and at 500, 1,000, and 2,000 ms sampling intervals for 60 s using orthogonal kV x-ray imaging systems. The accuracies of prediction models trained with various sampling intervals were estimated based on training data with each sampling interval during the training process. The intrafractional prediction errors for various prediction models were then calculated on intrafractional monitoring images taken for 30 s at the constant sampling interval of a 500 ms fairly to evaluate the prediction accuracy for the same motion pattern. In addition, the first respiratory motion was used for the training and the second respiratory motion was used for the evaluation of the intrafractional prediction errors for the changed respiratory motion to evaluate the robustness of the prediction models. The training error of the prediction model was 1.7 ± 0.7 mm in 3D for all sampling

  4. Precise confidence intervals of regression-based reference limits: Method comparisons and sample size requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2017-12-01

    Covariate-dependent reference limits have been extensively applied in biology and medicine for determining the substantial magnitude and relative importance of quantitative measurements. Confidence interval and sample size procedures are available for studying regression-based reference limits. However, the existing popular methods employ different technical simplifications and are applicable only in certain limited situations. This paper describes exact confidence intervals of regression-based reference limits and compares the exact approach with the approximate methods under a wide range of model configurations. Using the ratio between the widths of confidence interval and reference interval as the relative precision index, optimal sample size procedures are presented for precise interval estimation under expected ratio and tolerance probability considerations. Simulation results show that the approximate interval methods using normal distribution have inaccurate confidence limits. The exact confidence intervals dominate the approximate procedures in one- and two-sided coverage performance. Unlike the current simplifications, the proposed sample size procedures integrate all key factors including covariate features in the optimization process and are suitable for various regression-based reference limit studies with potentially diverse configurations. The exact interval estimation has theoretical and practical advantages over the approximate methods. The corresponding sample size procedures and computing algorithms are also presented to facilitate the data analysis and research design of regression-based reference limits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interval estimation of the mass fractal dimension for anisotropic sampling percolation clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Moskalev, P. V.; Grebennikov, K. V.; Shitov, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    This report focuses on the dependencies for the center and radius of the confidence interval that arise when estimating the mass fractal dimensions of anisotropic sampling clusters in the site percolation model.

  6. Interval estimation of the mass fractal dimension for isotropic sampling percolation clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Moskalev, P. V.; Grebennikov, K. V.; Shitov, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    This report focuses on the dependencies for the center and radius of the confidence interval that arise when estimating the mass fractal dimensions of isotropic sampling clusters in the site percolation model.

  7. Notes on interval estimation of the gamma correlation under stratified random sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2012-07-01

    We have developed four asymptotic interval estimators in closed forms for the gamma correlation under stratified random sampling, including the confidence interval based on the most commonly used weighted-least-squares (WLS) approach (CIWLS), the confidence interval calculated from the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) type estimator with the Fisher-type transformation (CIMHT), the confidence interval using the fundamental idea of Fieller's Theorem (CIFT) and the confidence interval derived from a monotonic function of the WLS estimator of Agresti's α with the logarithmic transformation (MWLSLR). To evaluate the finite-sample performance of these four interval estimators and note the possible loss of accuracy in application of both Wald's confidence interval and MWLSLR using pooled data without accounting for stratification, we employ Monte Carlo simulation. We use the data taken from a general social survey studying the association between the income level and job satisfaction with strata formed by genders in black Americans published elsewhere to illustrate the practical use of these interval estimators. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Notes on interval estimation of the generalized odds ratio under stratified random sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2013-05-01

    It is not rare to encounter the patient response on the ordinal scale in a randomized clinical trial (RCT). Under the assumption that the generalized odds ratio (GOR) is homogeneous across strata, we consider four asymptotic interval estimators for the GOR under stratified random sampling. These include the interval estimator using the weighted-least-squares (WLS) approach with the logarithmic transformation (WLSL), the interval estimator using the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) type of estimator with the logarithmic transformation (MHL), the interval estimator using Fieller's theorem with the MH weights (FTMH) and the interval estimator using Fieller's theorem with the WLS weights (FTWLS). We employ Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the performance of these interval estimators by calculating the coverage probability and the average length. To study the bias of these interval estimators, we also calculate and compare the noncoverage probabilities in the two tails of the resulting confidence intervals. We find that WLSL and MHL can generally perform well, while FTMH and FTWLS can lose either precision or accuracy. We further find that MHL is likely the least biased. Finally, we use the data taken from a study of smoking status and breathing test among workers in certain industrial plants in Houston, Texas, during 1974 to 1975 to illustrate the use of these interval estimators.

  9. A Variable Sampling Interval Synthetic Xbar Chart for the Process Mean

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Lei Yong; Khoo, Michael Boon Chong; Teh, Sin Yin; Lee, Ming Ha

    2015-01-01

    The usual practice of using a control chart to monitor a process is to take samples from the process with fixed sampling interval (FSI). In this paper, a synthetic X ? control chart with the variable sampling interval (VSI) feature is proposed for monitoring changes in the process mean. The VSI synthetic X ? chart integrates the VSI X ? chart and the VSI conforming run length (CRL) chart. The proposed VSI synthetic X ? chart is evaluated using the average time to signal (ATS) criterion. The o...

  10. The effect of instrumental timbre on interval discrimination.

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    Jean Mary Zarate

    Full Text Available We tested non-musicians and musicians in an auditory psychophysical experiment to assess the effects of timbre manipulation on pitch-interval discrimination. Both groups were asked to indicate the larger of two presented intervals, comprised of four sequentially presented pitches; the second or fourth stimulus within a trial was either a sinusoidal (or "pure", flute, piano, or synthetic voice tone, while the remaining three stimuli were all pure tones. The interval-discrimination tasks were administered parametrically to assess performance across varying pitch distances between intervals ("interval-differences". Irrespective of timbre, musicians displayed a steady improvement across interval-differences, while non-musicians only demonstrated enhanced interval discrimination at an interval-difference of 100 cents (one semitone in Western music. Surprisingly, the best discrimination performance across both groups was observed with pure-tone intervals, followed by intervals containing a piano tone. More specifically, we observed that: 1 timbre changes within a trial affect interval discrimination; and 2 the broad spectral characteristics of an instrumental timbre may influence perceived pitch or interval magnitude and make interval discrimination more difficult.

  11. Confidence Intervals for Standardized Effect Sizes: Theory, Application, and Implementation

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    Ken Kelley

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral, educational, and social sciences are undergoing a paradigmatic shift in methodology, from disciplines that focus on the dichotomous outcome of null hypothesis significance tests to disciplines that report and interpret effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals. Due to the arbitrariness of many measurement instruments used in the behavioral, educational, and social sciences, some of the most widely reported effect sizes are standardized. Although forming confidence intervals for standardized effect sizes can be very beneficial, such confidence interval procedures are generally difficult to implement because they depend on noncentral t, F, and x2 distributions. At present, no main-stream statistical package provides exact confidence intervals for standardized effects without the use of specialized programming scripts. Methods for the Behavioral, Educational, and Social Sciences (MBESS is an R package that has routines for calculating confidence intervals for noncentral t, F, and x2 distributions, which are then used in the calculation of exact confidence intervals for standardized effect sizes by using the confidence interval transformation and inversion principles. The present article discusses the way in which confidence intervals are formed for standardized effect sizes and illustrates how such confidence intervals can be easily formed using MBESS in R.

  12. Examination of histological samples from submerged carrion to aid in the determination of postmortem submersion interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Michael Keith; Panacek, Edward; Green, William; Albers, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    The use of histology in the as a tool for estimating postmortem intervals has rarely been explored but it has the potential for offering medical examiners an additional means for estimating the postmortem submersion interval (PMSI) during a death investigation. This study used perinatal piglets as human analogs which were submerged in freshwater for various time intervals. Each piglet was extracted from the water and underwent a necropsy examination during which histological samples were collected. The samples revealed that the necrotic tissue decomposed relatively predictably over time and that this decompositional progression may have the potential to be used via a scoring system to determine or aid in determining the PMSI. This method for calculating PMSI allows for normalization between piglets of various mass and body types. It also prevents any contamination of the remains via algae growth and animal activity that may exacerbate and possibly exaggerate PMSI calculation.

  13. Considerations for Time Sampling Interval Durations in the Measurement of Young Children's Classroom Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakszeski, Brittany N.; Hojnoski, Robin L.; Wood, Brenna K.

    2017-01-01

    Classroom engagement is important to young children's academic and social development. Accurate methods of capturing this behavior are needed to inform and evaluate intervention efforts. This study compared the accuracy of interval durations (i.e., 5 s, 10 s, 15 s, 20 s, 30 s, and 60 s) of momentary time sampling (MTS) in approximating the…

  14. Two sample Bayesian prediction intervals for order statistics based on the inverse exponential-type distributions using right censored sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Mohie El-Din

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two sample Bayesian prediction intervals for order statistics (OS are obtained. This prediction is based on a certain class of the inverse exponential-type distributions using a right censored sample. A general class of prior density functions is used and the predictive cumulative function is obtained in the two samples case. The class of the inverse exponential-type distributions includes several important distributions such the inverse Weibull distribution, the inverse Burr distribution, the loglogistic distribution, the inverse Pareto distribution and the inverse paralogistic distribution. Special cases of the inverse Weibull model such as the inverse exponential model and the inverse Rayleigh model are considered.

  15. Effects of Interval Training Programme on Resting Heart Rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: It was concluded that moderate intensity interval training programs is effective in the non-pharmacological adjunct management of hypertension and may prevent cardiovascular event through the down regulation of HR in hypertension. Keywords: Hypertension; Interval exercise; cardiovascular risk factor; Heart ...

  16. Reporting Confidence Intervals and Effect Sizes: Collecting the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Ozel, Z. Ebrar Yetkiner; Ozel, Serkan; Allen, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Confidence intervals (CIs) and effect sizes are essential to encourage meta-analytic thinking and to accumulate research findings. CIs provide a range of plausible values for population parameters with a degree of confidence that the parameter is in that particular interval. CIs also give information about how precise the estimates are. Comparison…

  17. A Variable Sampling Interval Synthetic Xbar Chart for the Process Mean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yong Lee

    Full Text Available The usual practice of using a control chart to monitor a process is to take samples from the process with fixed sampling interval (FSI. In this paper, a synthetic X control chart with the variable sampling interval (VSI feature is proposed for monitoring changes in the process mean. The VSI synthetic X chart integrates the VSI X chart and the VSI conforming run length (CRL chart. The proposed VSI synthetic X chart is evaluated using the average time to signal (ATS criterion. The optimal charting parameters of the proposed chart are obtained by minimizing the out-of-control ATS for a desired shift. Comparisons between the VSI synthetic X chart and the existing X, synthetic X, VSI X and EWMA X charts, in terms of ATS, are made. The ATS results show that the VSI synthetic X chart outperforms the other X type charts for detecting moderate and large shifts. An illustrative example is also presented to explain the application of the VSI synthetic X chart.

  18. A Variable Sampling Interval Synthetic Xbar Chart for the Process Mean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lei Yong; Khoo, Michael Boon Chong; Teh, Sin Yin; Lee, Ming Ha

    2015-01-01

    The usual practice of using a control chart to monitor a process is to take samples from the process with fixed sampling interval (FSI). In this paper, a synthetic X control chart with the variable sampling interval (VSI) feature is proposed for monitoring changes in the process mean. The VSI synthetic X chart integrates the VSI X chart and the VSI conforming run length (CRL) chart. The proposed VSI synthetic X chart is evaluated using the average time to signal (ATS) criterion. The optimal charting parameters of the proposed chart are obtained by minimizing the out-of-control ATS for a desired shift. Comparisons between the VSI synthetic X chart and the existing X, synthetic X, VSI X and EWMA X charts, in terms of ATS, are made. The ATS results show that the VSI synthetic X chart outperforms the other X type charts for detecting moderate and large shifts. An illustrative example is also presented to explain the application of the VSI synthetic X chart.

  19. Platelet function investigation by flow cytometry: Sample volume, needle size, and reference intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Oliver Heidmann; Nissen, Peter H; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2017-09-29

    Flow cytometry is an increasingly used method for platelet function analysis because it has some important advantages compared with other platelet function tests. Flow cytometric platelet function analyses only require a small sample volume (3.5 mL); however, to expand the field of applications, e.g., for platelet function analysis in children, even smaller volumes are needed. Platelets are easily activated, and the size of the needle for blood sampling might be of importance for the pre-activation of the platelets. Moreover, to use flow cytometry for investigation of platelet function in clinical practice, a reference interval is warranted. The aims of this work were 1) to determine if small volumes of whole blood can be used without influencing the results, 2) to examine the pre-activation of platelets with respect to needle size, and 3) to establish reference intervals for flow cytometric platelet function assays. To examine the influence of sample volume, blood was collected from 20 healthy individuals in 1.0 mL, 1.8 mL, and 3.5 mL tubes. To examine the influence of the needle size on pre-activation, blood was drawn from another 13 healthy individuals with both a 19- and 21-gauge needle. For the reference interval study, 78 healthy adults were included. The flow cytometric analyses were performed on a NAVIOS flow cytometer (Beckman Coulter, Miami, Florida) investigating the following activation-dependent markers on the platelet surface; bound-fibrinogen, CD63, and P-selectin (CD62p) after activation with arachidonic acid, ristocetin, adenosine diphosphate, thrombin-receptor-activating-peptide, and collagen. The study showed that a blood volume as low as 1.0 mL can be used for platelet function analysis by flow cytometry and that both a 19- and 21-gauge needle can be used for blood sampling. In addition, reference intervals for platelet function analyses by flow cytometry were established.

  20. The different effects of high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training for weightlessness countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; Cheng, Tan; Zhi-Li, Li; Hui-juan, Wang; Wen-juan, Chen; Jianfeng, Zhang; Desheng, Wang; Dongbin, Niu; Qi, Zhao; Chengjia, Yang; Yanqing, Wang

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. But the difference between high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training (MIIT) in simulated weightlessness still has not been well studied. This study sought to characterize the difference between 6 weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training under reduced weight (RW) gait training device and zero-gravity locomotion system (ZLS). Twenty-three subjects (14M/4F, 32.5±4.5 years) volunteered to participate. They were divided into three groups, that were MITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 60% VO _{2} peak for 30min, five days per week) RW group (n=8), HITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 90% VO _{2} peak for 30min, three days per week) RW group (n=8) and HITT ZLS group (n=7). The Z-axis load used in RW group was 80% body weight (BW) and in ZLS was 100% BW. Cardiopulmonary function was measured before, after 4-week training and after 6-week training. Isokinetic knee extension-flexion test at 60(°) deg/s and 180(°) deg/s were performed before and after the 6-week training, and isometric knee extension-flexion test at 180(°) deg/s was also examined at the same time. It was found that the VO _{2} peaks, metabolic equivalent (MET), Speedmax and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly increased after 4 and 6-week training in all three groups and no significant group difference were detected. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion were significantly increased after 6 week-training in all three groups, and only in HITT RW group the total power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion enhanced. The total power and average power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension decreased significantly after 6-week training in all three groups. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension in MIIT RW group was

  1. Sampled fiber grating for WDM signal queuing with picosecond time interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weiqian; Liu, Shuai; Qi, Haifeng; Peng, Gangding; Shen, Mingya

    2017-12-01

    A new sampled fiber grating scheme is investigated for WDM signal queuing in time domain. The queuing is aimed at achieving very short constant time intervals down to picoseconds (ps) for many wavelength channels by a single fiber device. Theory and modeling predict that a consistence of linear spectral profiles exists between reflectivity or transmission spectrum and time delay spectrum. A sampled fiber grating based on Gaussian beam writing is proposed to offer a large number of wavelength channels and time delays within an approximate linear profile. Results for simulating a Gaussian sampled fiber grating show that the time delay minima of 8 channels within a section of the spectral profile have an average time delay step of 2.83 ps and standard deviation of 7.4% from linearity. Fiber gratings were successfully written by Gaussian laser beam in fabrication. A Gaussian sampled fiber grating was measured for time delay spectrum of 4 wavelength channels. An average time delay step of 9.67 ps is obtained. Some issues and related analysis and discussion are given. Our preliminary experiment suggests that the sampled fiber grating scheme can achieve ps-time steps for WDM signal queuing such as high-resolution time delay lines.

  2. Interpregnancy intervals: impact of postpartum contraceptive effectiveness and coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike; Chang, Richard; Howell, Mike; Darney, Philip

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the use of contraceptive methods, which was defined by effectiveness, length of coverage, and their association with short interpregnancy intervals, when controlling for provider type and client demographics. We identified a cohort of 117,644 women from the 2008 California Birth Statistical Master file with second or higher order birth and at least 1 Medicaid (Family Planning, Access, Care, and Treatment [Family PACT] program or Medi-Cal) claim within 18 months after index birth. We explored the effect of contraceptive method provision on the odds of having an optimal interpregnancy interval and controlled for covariates. The average length of contraceptive coverage was 3.81 months (SD = 4.84). Most women received user-dependent hormonal contraceptives as their most effective contraceptive method (55%; n = 65,103 women) and one-third (33%; n = 39,090 women) had no contraceptive claim. Women who used long-acting reversible contraceptive methods had 3.89 times the odds and women who used user-dependent hormonal methods had 1.89 times the odds of achieving an optimal birth interval compared with women who used barrier methods only; women with no method had 0.66 times the odds. When user-dependent methods are considered, the odds of having an optimal birth interval increased for each additional month of contraceptive coverage by 8% (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.09). Women who were seen by Family PACT or by both Family PACT and Medi-Cal providers had significantly higher odds of optimal birth intervals compared with women who were served by Medi-Cal only. To achieve optimal birth spacing and ultimately to improve birth outcomes, attention should be given to contraceptive counseling and access to contraceptive methods in the postpartum period. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Interval algebra - an effective means of scheduling surveillance radar networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Focke, RW

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Interval Algebra provides an effective means to schedule surveillance radar networks, as it is a temporal ordering constraint language. Thus it provides a solution to a part of resource management, which is included in the revised Data Fusion...

  4. Therapeutic effect of a moderate intensity interval training program ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic effect of a moderate intensity interval training program on the lipid profile in men with hypertension: A randomized controlled trial. S Lamina, GC Okoye. Abstract. Objective: Physical inactivity has been established as a major primary risk factor for the development of hypertension. Also, factors such as elevated ...

  5. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin application intervals on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin application intervals on Girolando cows' milk production and composition. Thiago S. Carvalho, Marco Antônio P. da Silva*, Jakeline F. Cabral, Rafaella B. Brasil, Lígia C. de Moura ...

  6. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin application intervals on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) application intervals on chemical composition of milk from Girolando cows with productivity below 20 L/milk/day and animals with productivity above 20.1 liters/milk/day. The study included 30 Girolando cows with production ranging ...

  7. Effect Of Interval Training On Blood Pressure And Exercise Capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) is a determinant of cardiovascular risk in patient with hypertension. The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of interval training program on MAP in black African subjects with hypertension. Two hundred and forty five male patients with mild to moderate ...

  8. On the Influence of the Data Sampling Interval on Computer-Derived K-Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bernard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The K index was devised by Bartels et al. (1939 to provide an objective monitoring of irregular geomagnetic activity. The K index was then routinely used to monitor the magnetic activity at permanent magnetic observatories as well as at temporary stations. The increasing number of digital and sometimes unmanned observatories and the creation of INTERMAGNET put the question of computer production of K at the centre of the debate. Four algorithms were selected during the Vienna meeting (1991 and endorsed by IAGA for the computer production of K indices. We used one of them (FMI algorithm to investigate the impact of the geomagnetic data sampling interval on computer produced K values through the comparison of the computer derived K values for the period 2009, January 1st to 2010, May 31st at the Port-aux-Francais magnetic observatory using magnetic data series with different sampling rates (the smaller: 1 second; the larger: 1 minute. The impact is investigated on both 3-hour range values and K indices data series, as a function of the activity level for low and moderate geomagnetic activity.

  9. Characterizing the temporal dynamics of human papillomavirus DNA detectability using short-interval sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su-Hsun; Cummings, Derek A T; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Gravitt, Patti E; Brotman, Rebecca M

    2014-01-01

    Variable detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA can result in misclassification of infection status, but the extent of misclassification has not been quantitatively evaluated. In 2005-2007, 33 women of ages 22 to 53 years self-collected vaginal swabs twice per week for 16 consecutive weeks. Each of the 955 swabs collected was tested for 37 HPV types/subtypes. Assuming that a woman's underlying infection status did not change over the short study period, biases in prevalence estimates obtained from single versus multiple swabs were calculated. Using event history analysis methods, time to recurrent gain and loss of at least one HPV type was determined, separately. Baseline any-type and high risk-type HPV prevalence was 60.6% and 24.2%, respectively. Cumulative any-HPV and high-risk HPV prevalence over the 16-week period was 84.8% and 60.6%, separately. Overall, there were 319 events of detection and 313 events of loss of detection. Median times to a recurrent detection and loss of detection were 11 and seven days, respectively. Neither vaginal sex nor condom use during follow-up was associated with recurrent viral detection or loss of detection. Assuming the cumulative 16-week prevalence reflects the true prevalence of infection, the baseline any-HPV prevalence underestimated infection status by 24.2%, with a bootstrapped mean of 20.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 8.9%-29.6%]. These findings suggest that a substantial proportion of HPV-infected women are misclassified as being uninfected when using a single-time DNA measurement. Short-term variation in detectable HPV DNA needs to be considered while interpreting the natural history of infections using single samples collected at long intervals.

  10. Evaluation of data loggers, sampling intervals, and editing techniques for measuring the lying behavior of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgerwood, D N; Winckler, C; Tucker, C B

    2010-11-01

    Lying behavior in dairy cattle can provide insight into how cows interact with their environment. Although lying behavior is a useful indicator of cow comfort, it can be time consuming to measure. In response to these time constraints, using data loggers to automate behavioral recording has become increasingly common. We tested the accuracy of the Onset Pendant G data logger (Onset Computer Corporation, Bourne, MA) for measuring lying behavior in dairy cattle (n=24 cows; 12 in each of 2 experiments). Cows wore the logger on the lateral (experiment 1) or medial (experiment 2) side of the hind leg above the metatarsophalangeal joint. Loggers recorded behavior at 4 sampling intervals (6, 30, 60, and 300 s) for at least 1.5 d. Data were smoothed using 3 editing methods to examine the effects of short, potentially erroneous readings. For this purpose, Microsoft Excel macros (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) converted readings (i.e., lying events bordered by standing or vice versa) occurring singly or in consecutive runs of ≤2 or ≤6. Behavior was simultaneously recorded with digital video equipment. The logger accurately measured lying and standing. For example, predictability, sensitivity, and specificity were >99% using 30-s sampling and the single-event filter compared with continuously scored video recordings. The 6- and 30-s sampling intervals were comparable for all aspects of lying behavior when short events were filtered from the data set. Estimates of lying time generated from the 300-s interval unfiltered regimen were positively related (R(2) ≥ 0.99) to estimates of lying time from video, but this sampling regimen overestimated the number of lying bouts. This is likely because short standing and lying bouts were missed (12 and 34% of lying and standing bouts were <300 s in experiment 1 and 2, respectively). In summary, the data logger accurately measured all aspects of lying behavior when the sampling interval was ≤30 s and when short readings of lying and

  11. Combating the scientific decline effect with confidence (intervals).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groppe, David M

    2017-01-01

    A symptom of the need for greater reproducibility in scientific practice is the decline effect-the fact that the size of many experimental effects decline with subsequent study or fail to replicate entirely. A simple way to combat this problem is for scientists to more routinely use confidence intervals (CIs) in their work. CIs provide frequentist bounds on the true size of an effect and can reveal when a statistically significant effect is possibly too small to be reliable or when a large effect might have been missed due to insufficient statistical power. CIs are often lacking in psychophysiological reports, likely due to the large number of dependent variables, which complicates deriving and visualizing CIs. In this article, I explain the value of CIs and show how to compute them for analyses involving multiple variables in various ways that adjust the intervals for the greater uncertainty induced by multiple statistical comparisons. The methods are illustrated using a basic visual oddball ERP dataset and freely available MATLAB software. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. Effect of anthracyclines and isoflurane on QTc interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Venugopal

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Anthracycline chemotherapy can produce significant prolongation of QTc interval. In addition, use of 0.5% end tidal concentration of isoflurane can further augment the QTc interval significantly.

  13. Efficient Estimation for Diffusions Sampled at High Frequency Over a Fixed Time Interval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Nina Munkholt; Sørensen, Michael

    Parametric estimation for diffusion processes is considered for high frequency observations over a fixed time interval. The processes solve stochastic differential equations with an unknown parameter in the diffusion coefficient. We find easily verified conditions on approximate martingale...

  14. Effect of hyperventilation on rate corrected QT interval of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannivelu, Arivalagan; Kudumula, Vikram; Bhole, Vinay

    2013-02-01

    Hyperventilation is known to cause ST segment changes and QT variability in adults, but this has not been systematically studied in children. To investigate the effect of hyperventilation on rate corrected QT interval (QTc) in children. 25 children (male=10) with a median age of 14 (range 8.3-17.6) years were asked to hyperventilate for 1 min before exercise testing using the modified Bruce protocol. Mean QTc at rest, after hyperventilation, at peak exercise and at 1 min of recovery was 425(±31), 460(±30), 446(±38) and 420(±32) ms, respectively. Mean increase (95% CI) in QTc after hyperventilation was 35(19 to 51) ms (phyperventilation (mean QT 352(±41) vs 357(±44) ms). In six children, there were abnormalities in T wave morphology following hyperventilation. The QTc increment following hyperventilation was more pronounced in children with resting QTc hyperventilation was seen in children with both low and intermediate probability of long QT syndrome (LQTS). Peak exercise and early recovery did not cause a statistically significant change in QTc in either of these groups. Hyperventilation produces repolarisation abnormalities, including prolongation of QTc and T wave abnormalities in children with low probability of LQTS. The likely mechanism is delayed adaptation of QT interval with increased heart rate. Thus, a hyperventilation episode can be misdiagnosed as LQTS, especially in an emergency department.

  15. An approach for calculating a confidence interval from a single aquatic sample for monitoring hydrophobic organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, Melissa M; Allan, Sarah E; Anderson, Kim A; Waters, Katrina M

    2012-12-01

    The use of passive sampling devices (PSDs) for monitoring hydrophobic organic contaminants in aquatic environments can entail logistical constraints that often limit a comprehensive statistical sampling plan, thus resulting in a restricted number of samples. The present study demonstrates an approach for using the results of a pilot study designed to estimate sampling variability, which in turn can be used as variance estimates for confidence intervals for future n = 1 PSD samples of the same aquatic system. Sets of three to five PSDs were deployed in the Portland Harbor Superfund site for three sampling periods over the course of two years. The PSD filters were extracted and, as a composite sample, analyzed for 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds. The between-sample and within-sample variances were calculated to characterize sources of variability in the environment and sampling methodology. A method for calculating a statistically reliable and defensible confidence interval for the mean of a single aquatic passive sampler observation (i.e., n = 1) using an estimate of sample variance derived from a pilot study is presented. Coverage probabilities are explored over a range of variance values using a Monte Carlo simulation. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  16. Binaural interference: effects of temporal interferer fringe and interstimulus interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camalier, Corrie R; Grantham, D Wesley; Bernstein, Leslie R

    2014-02-01

    Binaural interference refers to the phenomenon in which the potency of binaural cues conveyed by a "target" stimulus occupying one spectral region is degraded by the presence of an "interferer" stimulus occupying a spectral region remote from the target. It is typified by conditions in which thresholds for detection of interaural temporal difference conveyed by a high-frequency target are elevated when the target is accompanied by a spectrally remote low-frequency interferer. This study explored effects of temporal relations between targets and interferers on binaural interference. In the first experiment, duration by which the interferer preceded and/or trailed the target (onset and offset "fringes") was varied. Results indicated binaural interference decreased with total duration of the temporal fringe, but did not depend on whether that duration was composed of onset, offset, or onset + offset fringes. In the second experiment, binaural interference was measured as a function of the interstimulus interval (ISI) between the two presentations of the target. Results indicated that shorter ISIs increased thresholds in both the interferer and no-interferer conditions, but did not affect binaural interference. These results suggest that the mechanisms underlying the effects of manipulations of the interferer temporal fringe and manipulation of the ISI are essentially independent.

  17. Interval-value Based Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm for cancer-type specific gene selection and sample classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ramyachitra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microarray technology allows simultaneous measurement of the expression levels of thousands of genes within a biological tissue sample. The fundamental power of microarrays lies within the ability to conduct parallel surveys of gene expression using microarray data. The classification of tissue samples based on gene expression data is an important problem in medical diagnosis of diseases such as cancer. In gene expression data, the number of genes is usually very high compared to the number of data samples. Thus the difficulty that lies with data are of high dimensionality and the sample size is small. This research work addresses the problem by classifying resultant dataset using the existing algorithms such as Support Vector Machine (SVM, K-nearest neighbor (KNN, Interval Valued Classification (IVC and the improvised Interval Value based Particle Swarm Optimization (IVPSO algorithm. Thus the results show that the IVPSO algorithm outperformed compared with other algorithms under several performance evaluation functions.

  18. Interval-value Based Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm for cancer-type specific gene selection and sample classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramyachitra, D; Sofia, M; Manikandan, P

    2015-09-01

    Microarray technology allows simultaneous measurement of the expression levels of thousands of genes within a biological tissue sample. The fundamental power of microarrays lies within the ability to conduct parallel surveys of gene expression using microarray data. The classification of tissue samples based on gene expression data is an important problem in medical diagnosis of diseases such as cancer. In gene expression data, the number of genes is usually very high compared to the number of data samples. Thus the difficulty that lies with data are of high dimensionality and the sample size is small. This research work addresses the problem by classifying resultant dataset using the existing algorithms such as Support Vector Machine (SVM), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), Interval Valued Classification (IVC) and the improvised Interval Value based Particle Swarm Optimization (IVPSO) algorithm. Thus the results show that the IVPSO algorithm outperformed compared with other algorithms under several performance evaluation functions.

  19. ON-LINE TOOLS FOR PROPER VERTICAL POSITIONING OF VERTICAL SAMPLING INTERVALS DURING SITE ASSESSMENT: MEETING IN MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, On-Line Tools for Proper Vertical Positioning of Sampling Intervals During Site Assessment, describes an approach to locating monitoring wells that is based on application of ground water models. The ideal use of both the model and site assessment funds is to ...

  20. Population Validity and Cross-Validity: Applications of Distribution Theory for Testing Hypotheses, Setting Confidence Intervals, and Determining Sample Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algina, James; Keselman, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Applications of distribution theory for the squared multiple correlation coefficient and the squared cross-validation coefficient are reviewed, and computer programs for these applications are made available. The applications include confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, and sample size selection. (Contains 2 tables.)

  1. Effects of different sampling intervals on apparent protein and energy digestibility of common feed ingredients by juvenile oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus=Diferentes intervalos de coleta na determinação da digestibilidade aparente da proteína e da energia de ingredientes comuns para o apaiari (Astronotus ocellatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Kochenborger Fernandes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the apparent protein and energy digestibility of common feed ingredients (soybean meal, fish meal, wheat meal and corn by juvenile oscars using two different sampling intervals (30 min. and 12h. The 160 juvenile oscar fish tested (22.37 ± 3.06 g BW were divided into four cylindrical plastic net cages, each one placed in a 1000 L feeding tank. The experiment was completely randomized in a 2 x 4 factorial design (2 feces collection intervals and 4 feed ingredients with four replications. The statistical tests did not detect an interaction effect of sampling interval and type of ingredient on digestibility coefficients. Sampling interval did not affect protein and energy digestibility. The physical characteristics of juvenile oscar feces likely make them less susceptible to nutrient loss by leaching and can therefore be collected at longer intervals. Protein digestibility of the different ingredients was similar, showing that apparent digestibility of both animal and plant ingredients by juvenile oscars was efficient. Energy digestibility coefficients of fish meal and soybean meal were higher than those of wheat meal and corn. Carbohydrate-rich ingredients (wheat meal and corn had the worst energy digestibility coefficients and are therefore not used efficiently by juvenile oscars.O presente estudo avaliou a digestibilidade aparente da proteína e da energia de ingredientes (farelo de soja, farinha de peixe, farelo de trigo e milho por juvenis de apaiari (Astronotus ocellatus usando dois diferentes intervalos de coleta (30 min. e 12h. Os 160 juvenis de apaiari utilizados (22,37 ± 3,06 g de peso corporal foram divididos em quatro tanques rede plásticos e cilíndricos, cada um colocado em um tanque de alimentação de 1.000 L. O experimento foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (2 intervalos de coleta de fezes e 4 ingredientes foram com quatro repetições. Os testes estatísticos não detectaram efeito da

  2. Effect of interval training programme on pulse pressure in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pharmacological management of hypertension and may prevent cardiovascular event through the down regulation of PP in hypertension. Key words: Hypertension, Interval exercise, pulse pressure, cardiovascular risk factor, Blood pressure.

  3. Effects of high-intensity interval training on canoeing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Ta; Lee, Mien-Mien; Hsu, Shu-Ching; Chan, Kuei-Hui

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) utilizing a canoeing ergometer on endurance determinants, as well as aerobic and anaerobic performances among flat-water canoeists. Fourteen well-trained male flat-water canoeists were divided into an HIIT group or an MICT group. All subjects performed a continuous graded exercise test (GXT) and three fixed-distance (200, 500, and 1000 m) performance tests on a canoeing ergometer to determine canoeing economy, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), and power at VO2peak, and to calculate the critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic work capacity before and after the training programmes. The training programme involved training on a canoeing ergometer three times per week for four weeks. HIIT consisted of seven 2 min canoeing bouts at an intensity of 90% VO2peak separated by 1 min of rest. The MICT group was trained at an intensity of 65% VO2peak continuously for 20 min. After four weeks of training, performance in the 200-m distance test and the power at VO2peak significantly improved in the HIIT group; performance in the 500 m and 1000 m distances and CV significantly improved in the MICT group. However, all variables were not significantly different between groups. It is concluded that HIIT for four weeks is an effective training strategy for improvement of short-distance canoeing performance. In contrast, MICT improves middle-distance canoeing performances and aerobic capacity.

  4. An Introduction to Confidence Intervals for Both Statistical Estimates and Effect Sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Mary Margaret

    This paper summarizes methods of estimating confidence intervals, including classical intervals and intervals for effect sizes. The recent American Psychological Association (APA) Task Force on Statistical Inference report suggested that confidence intervals should always be reported, and the fifth edition of the APA "Publication Manual"…

  5. A Further Assessment of Momentary Time-Sampling across Extended Interval Lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvero, Alicia M.; Rappaport, Eva; Taylor, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study compared the estimation of momentary time-sampling (MTS) to actual safety performance of three ergonomic responses: back, shoulder, and feet. Actual safety performance was established for the five participants by measuring the target responses with a continuous procedure. MTS 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 165, 180, 195, 210, 240, and…

  6. Effect of NPK fertilizer and interval management on the chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment comprises of four fertilizer rates and four management intervals fitted into a Latin square design. The soils pH value increased consistently from 3 to 12months. Mean values of organic matter decreased with increase in profile depth from 2.12-1.34g kg-1). The distribution of N from the top soil down the profile ...

  7. The effects of thioridazine on the QTc interval — cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Thioridazine has long been used as a first-line antipsychotic in South Africa without any apparent problems. Recently the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Novartis have warned of potentially lethal arrhythmias that may result from the use of thioridazine. Abnormal QT-interval prolongation on ...

  8. Biostratigraphic analysis of core samples from wells drilled in the Devonian shale interval of the Appalachian and Illinois Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S.J.; Zielinski, R.E.

    1978-07-14

    A palynological investigation was performed on 55 samples of core material from four wells drilled in the Devonian Shale interval of the Appalachian and Illinois Basins. Using a combination of spores and acritarchs, it was possible to divide the Middle Devonian from the Upper Devonian and to make subdivisions within the Middle and Upper Devonian. The age of the palynomorphs encountered in this study is Upper Devonian.

  9. Hematologic reference intervals and age effect in European Strigiformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusti Montolio, Susana; Molina López, Rafael; Cray, Carolyn; Lavín González, Santiago; Nicolás Francisco, Olga; Marco Sánchez, Ignasi; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Cuenca Valera, Rafaela

    2017-09-01

    The clinical importance of hematologic testing in avian veterinary medicine is reflected in the increasing number of studies for the establishment of hematologic RIs of Strigiformes and other species. Age is an important physiologic factor in birds and the effect on hematology variable should be understood. The objective of this study was to determine baseline data of hematologic variables in 5 species of Iberian Strigiformes in different age classes. Nocturnal birds of prey were sampled at Wildlife Health Centers. Packed cell volume was determined by the microhematocrit centrifugation method, and RBC and WBC counts were determined using the direct hemocytometer count method with Natt and Herrick solution. Hemoglobin concentration was measured spectrophotometrically. The MCV, MCHC, and MHC were calculated using the standard formulas. The differential WBC count was performed by the routine microscopic evaluation of 200 cells on a blood smear manually stained with Wright stain. Thrombocyte blood count estimate was obtained from the blood film. No differences were observed between juveniles and adults for any variable evaluated in Tawny owl, Little owl, Scops owl, Long-eared owl, and Barn owl. In addition, PCV, RBC, and HGB of chicks were statistically significantly lower than in juveniles and adults, and total WBC was significantly higher in Tawny owl, Little owl, Scops owl, and Long-eared owl. Our findings provide evidence that laboratory data from chicks of Strigiformes are different compared to juveniles and adults; therefore, separate RIs were defined. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  10. The Acute Effects of Interval-Type Exercise on Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Subjects: Importance of Interval Length. A Controlled, Counterbalanced, Crossover Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Jakobsen

    Full Text Available Interval-type exercise is effective for improving glycemic control, but the optimal approach is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of the interval length on changes in postprandial glycemic control following a single exercise bout. Twelve subjects with type 2 diabetes completed a cross-over study with three 1-hour interventions performed in a non-randomized but counter-balanced order: 1 Interval walking consisting of repeated cycles of 3 min slow (aiming for 54% of Peak oxygen consumption rate [VO2peak] and 3 min fast (aiming for 89% of VO2peak walking (IW3; 2 Interval walking consisting of repeated cycles of 1 min slow and 1 min fast walking (IW1 and 3 No walking (CON. The exercise interventions were matched with regards to walking speed, and VO2 and heart rate was assessed throughout all interventions. A 4-hour liquid mixed meal tolerance test commenced 30 min after each intervention, with blood samples taken regularly. IW3 and IW1 resulted in comparable mean VO2 and heart rates. Overall mean postprandial blood glucose levels were lower after IW3 compared to CON (10.3±3.0 vs. 11.1±3.3 mmol/L; P 0.05 for both. Conversely blood glucose levels at specific time points during the MMTT differed significantly following both IW3 and IW1 as compared to CON. Our findings support the previously found blood glucose lowering effect of IW3 and suggest that reducing the interval length, while keeping the walking speed and time spend on fast and slow walking constant, does not result in additional improvements.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02257190.

  11. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Increasing Explosive Power, Speed, and Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajrin, F.; Kusnanik, N. W.; Wijono

    2018-01-01

    High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is a type of exercise that combines high-intensity exercise and low intensity exercise in a certain time interval. This type of training is very effective and efficient to improve the physical components. The process of improving athletes achievement related to how the process of improving the physical components, so the selection of a good practice method will be very helpful. This study aims to analyze how is the effects of HIIT on increasing explosive power, speed, and agility. This type of research is quantitative with quasi-experimental methods. The design of this study used the Matching-Only Design, with data analysis using the t-test (paired sample t-test). After being given the treatment for six weeks, the results showed there are significant increasing in explosive power, speed, and agility. HIIT in this study used a form of exercise plyometric as high-intensity exercise and jogging as mild or moderate intensity exercise. Increase was due to the improvement of neuromuscular characteristics that affect the increase in muscle strength and performance. From the data analysis, researchers concluded that, Exercises of High Intensity Interval Training significantly effect on the increase in Power Limbs, speed, and agility.

  12. Effects of active recovery during interval training on plasma catecholamines and insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbandian, Harutiun M; Radak, Zsolt; Takeda, Masaki

    2017-05-09

    Active recovery has been used as a method to accelerate the recovery during intense exercise. It also has been shown to improve performance in subsequent exercises, but little is known about its acute effects on the hormonal and metabolic profile. The aim of this research was to study the effects of active recovery on plasma catecholamines and plasma insulin during a high-intensity interval exercise. 7 subjects performed two high-intensity interval training protocols which consisted of three 30 s high-intensity bouts (constant intensity), separated by a recovery of 4 minutes. The recovery was either active recovery or passive recovery. During the main test blood samples were collected and plasma insulin, plasma catecholamines and blood lactate were determined. Furthermore, respiratory gasses were also measured. Plasma insulin and blood lactate were significantly higher in the passive recovery trial, while plasma adrenaline was higher in the active recovery. Additionally, VO2 and VCO2 were significantly more increased during the active recovery trials. These results suggest that active recovery affects the hormonal and metabolic responses to high-intensity interval exercise. Active recovery produces a hormonal environment which may favour lipolysis and oxidative metabolism, while passive recovery may be favouring glycolysis.

  13. Intervals in Generalized Effect Algebras and their Sub-generalized Effect Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Riečanová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider subsets G of a generalized effect algebra E with 0∈G and such that every interval [0, q]G = [0, q]E ∩ G of G (q ∈ G , q ≠ 0 is a sub-effect algebra of the effect algebra [0, q]E. We give a condition on E and G under which every such G is a sub-generalized effect algebra of E.

  14. Effect of Missing Inter-Beat Interval Data on Heart Rate Variability Analysis Using Wrist-Worn Wearables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hyun Jae; Shin, JaeWook

    2017-08-15

    Most of the wrist-worn devices on the market provide a continuous heart rate measurement function using photoplethysmography, but have not yet provided a function to measure the continuous heart rate variability (HRV) using beat-to-beat pulse interval. The reason for such is the difficulty of measuring a continuous pulse interval during movement using a wearable device because of the nature of photoplethysmography, which is susceptible to motion noise. This study investigated the effect of missing heart beat interval data on the HRV analysis in cases where pulse interval cannot be measured because of movement noise. First, we performed simulations by randomly removing data from the RR interval of the electrocardiogram measured from 39 subjects and observed the changes of the relative and normalized errors for the HRV parameters according to the total length of the missing heart beat interval data. Second, we measured the pulse interval from 20 subjects using a wrist-worn device for 24 h and observed the error value for the missing pulse interval data caused by the movement during actual daily life. The experimental results showed that mean NN and RMSSD were the most robust for the missing heart beat interval data among all the parameters in the time and frequency domains. Most of the pulse interval data could not be obtained during daily life. In other words, the sample number was too small for spectral analysis because of the long missing duration. Therefore, the frequency domain parameters often could not be calculated, except for the sleep state with little motion. The errors of the HRV parameters were proportional to the missing data duration in the presence of missing heart beat interval data. Based on the results of this study, the maximum missing duration for acceptable errors for each parameter is recommended for use when the HRV analysis is performed on a wrist-worn device.

  15. Effect of Farming System on Camels Calving Interval in Western Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallam Abdelfadeil Bakheit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen (18 lactating she-camels and two mature male for mating were used to determine the effect of Management System on camel calving interval, The camels were maintained under semi-intensive (N = 9 and Traditional management system (N = 9 in North Kordofan State, western Sudan. The experimental females in each group kept together with the bull during 18 months. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein since 4-months post-partum and continue 14 successive months at monthly interval. The serum samples were separated and stored at -20°C and were analysed for progesterone concentration using progesterone specific radio immuno assay (RIA kits. The results indicated that under semi-intensive system 77.8% of females had been pregnant in 5th - 8th month post-partum and the calving interval varying between 17 to 20 months. Under traditional system and during the experimental period 44.5% of females were pregnant in the 11th – 16th month and the calving interval varying between 23 to 28 months. The ratios of pregnant vs non-pregnant during experimental period in semi-intensive and traditional were 88.9% vs 11.1% and 44.5% vs 55.5%, respectively. Beside the behavioural signs progesterone level consider a good indicator for pregnancy in camels. In pregnant females Progesterone concentration increased significantly during early months. The range of Progesterone concentration varied between 1.10 – 5.76 ng/ml and 0.67 – 2.53 ng/ml in semi-intensive and traditional system, respectively. Our results allow quantifying this impact. With a supplemented diet including 2 Kg of concentrates and 5 kg of roughages per day, the fertility rate will be improved of 67%. It would be possible to expect more than two fold young camels in a year by supplemented 5 kg of concentrates. We conclude that under semi-intensive management dietary supplement during post-partum and early lactation period improves reproductive parameters for instance shortened calving

  16. Effects of Interval Training Programme on Resting Heart Rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DATONYE ALASIA

    Enugu, Nigeria, Department of Physiotherapy, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria ... Results: Findings of the study revealed significant effect of exercise training program on HR. Also, changes in VO max negatively. 2 correlated with changes in HR (r= -.503) at ... cardiovascular parameters.

  17. Effect of physical training on QTc interval in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, A.J.; Dekker, J M; de Vegt, F; Verheij, T C; Rijneke, R D; Schouten, E G

    In order to assess whether heart rate-adjusted QT duration (QTc) is reduced by physical activity in an elderly population, a randomized, controlled intervention study of the effect of a 6-month intensive training program on QTc was undertaken. The participants were 229 healthy men and women, aged

  18. Effects of different irrigation intervals and fertilizer applications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... effects are ascribed to ascorbic acid partly, a natural antioxidant which ... controls enzyme systems and their activity in flavor formation ... Triplicate GC analyses were performed and the results were expressed in GC area % as a mean value and ± standard deviation. Extraction of sugars. Approximately 100 ...

  19. Effects of Interval Training Programme on Resting Heart Rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DATONYE ALASIA

    Student's t and Pearson correlation tests were used in data analysis. Results: Findings of the study revealed significant effect of exercise training program on HR ... presentwith a series of functional and anatomic deficits, such as increasedvascular resistance, vessel rarefaction, increased heart energy expenditure, increased.

  20. Effects of post mortem interval and gender in DNA base excision repair activities in rat brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltys, Daniela Tathiana; Pereira, Carolina Parga Martins; Ishibe, Gabriela Naomi; Souza-Pinto, Nadja Cristhina de, E-mail: nadja@iq.usp.br

    2015-06-15

    Most human tissues used in research are of post mortem origin. This is the case for all brain samples, and due to the difficulty in obtaining a good number of samples, especially in the case of neurodegenerative diseases, male and female samples are often included in the same experimental group. However, the effects of post mortem interval (PMI) and gender differences in the endpoints being analyzed are not always fully understood, as is the case for DNA repair activities. To investigate these effects, in a controlled genetic background, base excision repair (BER) activities were measured in protein extracts obtained from Wistar rat brains from different genders and defined PMI up to 24 hours, using a novel fluorescent-based in vitro incision assay. Uracil and AP-site incision activity in nuclear and mitochondrial extracts were similar in all groups included in this study. Our results show that gender and PMI up to 24 hours have no influence in the activities of the BER proteins UDG and APE1 in rat brains. These findings demonstrate that these variables do not interfere on the BER activities included in these study, and provide a security window to work with UDG and APE1 proteins in samples of post mortem origin.

  1. Economic Statistical Design of Variable Sampling Interval X¯$\\overline X $ Control Chart Based on Surrogate Variable Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Tae-Hoon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In many cases, a X¯$\\overline X $ control chart based on a performance variable is used in industrial fields. Typically, the control chart monitors the measurements of a performance variable itself. However, if the performance variable is too costly or impossible to measure, and a less expensive surrogate variable is available, the process may be more efficiently controlled using surrogate variables. In this paper, we present a model for the economic statistical design of a VSI (Variable Sampling Interval X¯$\\overline X $ control chart using a surrogate variable that is linearly correlated with the performance variable. We derive the total average profit model from an economic viewpoint and apply the model to a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR nuclear fuel measurement system and derive the optimal result using genetic algorithms. Compared with the control chart based on a performance variable, the proposed model gives a larger expected net income per unit of time in the long-run if the correlation between the performance variable and the surrogate variable is relatively high. The proposed model was confined to the sample mean control chart under the assumption that a single assignable cause occurs according to the Poisson process. However, the model may also be extended to other types of control charts using a single or multiple assignable cause assumptions such as VSS (Variable Sample Size X¯$\\overline X $ control chart, EWMA, CUSUM charts and so on.

  2. The Acute Effects of Interval-Type Exercise on Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Subjects: Importance of Interval Length. A Controlled, Counterbalanced, Crossover Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsen, Ida; Solomon, Thomas P.J.; Karstoft, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Interval-type exercise is effective for improving glycemic control, but the optimal approach is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of the interval length on changes in postprandial glycemic control following a single exercise bout. Twelve subjects with type 2 diabetes completed a cross-over study with three 1-hour interventions performed in a non-randomized but counter-balanced order: 1) Interval walking consisting of repeated cycles of 3 min slow (aiming for 5...

  3. Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weston M, et al. Effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) on fitness in adults: A meta-analysis ... 2014;44:1005. Gillen JB, et al. Is high-intensity interval training a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve health ...

  4. Effect of irrigation Interval on the Yield of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted during 2010 and 2011 dry seasons under irrigation at the Ajiwa Irrigation Site in Katsina State (Lat. 130 17' N and Long. 70 05' E) to study the effects of irrigation intervals on the yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.). Treatments consisted of four irrigation intervals (2, 4, 6 and 8 day) laid out in a ...

  5. Effect of Eight Weeks High Intensity Interval Training and Medium Intensity Interval Training and Aloe vera Intake on Serum Vaspin and Insulin Resistance in Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Asgari Hazaveh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The use of herbal supplements and exercise training for the treatment of diabetic has increased.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training and Aloe vera intake on serum vaspin and insulin resistance in diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods: During this experimental study, 32 diabetic rats with STZ Wistar were randomly divided into four groups including the control, high intensity interval training +supplement, moderate intensity interval training + supplement and supplement. Training program was planned for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week. Each session consisted of 6 to 12 periods of 2-minute activity with the intensity of 90% and 60% with one minute rest (speed: 10m/min. In the supplement groups, 300milligrams Aloe vera solution per kilogram of body weight Gavage was given 5 sessions per week for 8 weeks. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: The results showed that high and moderate intensity interval training with supplement has no significant effect on the of serum vaspin (p=0.112. High intensity interval training with supplement had significant effects on insulin in diabetic male rats (0.000. Conclusion: .Based on the findings of this study, it seems that supplementation of Aloe vera with high intensity interval training can have better effects on serum insulin in diabetic rats.

  6. Effect of high-intensity interval exercise on basal triglyceride metabolism in non-obese men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bellou, Elena; Magkos, Faidon; Kouka, Tonia; Bouchalaki, Eirini; Sklaveniti, Dimitra; Maraki, Maria; Tsekouras, Yiannis E; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Kavouras, Stavros A; Sidossis, Labros S

    2013-01-01

    ..., but whether this applies to very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism is not known. We sought to examine the effect of a single bout of high-intensity interval aerobic exercise on basal VLDL-triglyceride (TG...

  7. Retention interval modulates the effect of negative arousing pictures on recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    2018-01-23

    This study examined the modulation of retention interval in the effect of emotion as elicited from negative and positive arousing pictures on recognition memory. Participants underwent seven encoding sessions and one testing session. The encoding sessions were separated by certain lengths of intervals such that there were seven levels of time gaps between encoding and testing. In each encoding session, participants learned a list of 30 pictures (including 10 neutral, 10 positive and 10 negative pictures). In the testing session, they were presented with a list of 210 old and 210 new pictures and made "old/new" and "remember/know" judgements. The results showed that negative arousing pictures enhanced overall recognition in the 2-week interval and enhanced recollection in both the 2-week and 3-week intervals. However, neither negative nor positive arousing pictures had any effect on familiarity regardless of retention interval. The current study contributes to the literature by suggesting that longer retention intervals do not necessarily lead to more pronounced effects of negative arousing pictures and that the modulation of retention interval depends on the specific components of recognition memory.

  8. Introduction of a retention interval in a sustained attention task in rats: effects of a visual distracter and increasing the inter-trial interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Joshua A

    2004-11-30

    The impact of manipulating explicit attentional demands on working memory has not been well studied in rodents. The present experiment was designed to test the effects of incorporating a retention interval in a two-lever sustained attention task that requires discrimination of visual signals and non-signals and that has previously been shown to yield valid measures of attention in the rat. Upon establishing baseline performance, additional manipulations, including presentation of a visual distracter and increasing the length and variability of the inter-trial interval were conducted. During baseline conditions, accurate detection of signals, but not non-signals, decreased as the retention interval was increased. Presentation of a flashing houselight throughout the session eliminated delay-dependent detection of signals. Increasing the inter-trial interval improved detection of signals and decreased detection of non-signals at the longest retention interval. Finally, increasing the variability of the inter-trial interval did not have significant effects on performance above and beyond the effects of increasing the inter-trial interval. The present experiment demonstrates that manipulation of explicit attentional demands can alter working memory performance in the rat. This task may be employed to understand the neuropharmacological and neuroanatomical substrates mediating memory while attentional load is systematically varied.

  9. Separating Interviewer and Sampling-Point Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Schnell; Frauke Kreuter

    2003-01-01

    "Data used in nationwide face-to-face surveys are almost always collected in multistage cluster samples. The relative homogeneity of the clusters selected in this way can lead to design effects at the sampling stage. Interviewers can further homogenize answers within the small geographic clusters that form the sampling points. The study presented here was designed to distinguish between interviewer effects and sampling-point effects using interpenetrated samples for conducting ...

  10. The effect of the time interval between exposures on the susceptibility of chickens to superinfection with Marek's disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, John R; Witter, Richard L; Silva, Robert F; Lee, Lucy F; Finlay, James; Marker, Bryan A; Kaneene, John B; Fulton, Richard M; Fitzgerald, Scott D

    2010-09-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) is ubiquitous within commercial poultry flocks because current vaccines do not prevent MDV infection or transmission. In order for newly-evolved MDV strains to become established within a flock, it seems inevitable that any new strain would need to infect and replicate in chickens previously infected with resident MDV strains. This phenomenon is difficult to detect and there is no clear evidence that it is even possible. Four experiments were performed to demonstrate superinfection and evaluate the effect of time between challenges on the effect of superinfection with the use of two pairs of fully virulent MDV strains that could be discriminated by novel technology: 1) JM/102W and rMd5//38CVI, and 2) rMd5 and rMd5//38CVI. Feather follicle epithelium (FFE), spleen, and tumor samples were collected at single or multiple time points from the same bird to determine the frequency and distribution of each virus present following superinfection, with the use of pyrosequencing and immunohistochemistry. Superinfection was observed in 82 of 149 (55%) FFE samples following short-interval challenge (24 hr) compared to only 6 of 121 (5%) samples following long-interval challenge (13 days), indicating a strong influence of challenge interval. In cases where the first inoculated virus was weak or delayed, the second inoculated virus was detected in 42 of 95 (44%) birds. In tumors from dually challenged birds, the second virus was again present much more often following short-interval challenge (68%) compared to long-interval challenge (11%). Virus mixtures in tumors were less common compared to those in FFE samples. Vaccination with turkey herpesvirus had no significant effect on the virus frequency for either virus pair or challenge time interval, suggesting these conclusions may be applicable to vaccinated chickens in the field. These studies demonstrated superinfection for the first time with two fully virulent MDV strains and suggest that short-interval

  11. Effect of Eight Weeks High Intensity Interval Training and Medium Intensity Interval Training and Aloe vera Intake on Serum Vaspin and Insulin Resistance in Diabetic Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Darya Asgari Hazaveh; Shahin Riyahi Malayeri; Saeid Babaei

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: The use of herbal supplements and exercise training for the treatment of diabetic has increased.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training and Aloe vera intake on serum vaspin and insulin resistance in diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods: During this experimental study, 32 diabetic rats with STZ Wistar were randomly divided into four groups including the contr...

  12. The acute effects of interval exercise on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabaş, Ramazan; Namiduru, Emine S; Bagçeci, Adnan M; Erenler, Ali K; Karakoç, Önder; Örkmez, Mustafa; Akan, Müslüm; Erdemli, Hacı K; Taysi, Seyithan; Tarakçioglu, Mehmet

    2016-09-22

    Volleyball is briefly described as an "interval" sport with both aerobic and anaerobic components. Exercise may influence antioxidant/prooxidant balance, which leads to differences in oxidative stress status between athletes in different sport disciplines, but the results of the previous studies are inconsistent. In this study, we aimed to determine the acute effects of exercise on oxidative stress parameters such as serum total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) levels in volleyball players. Thirteen male volleyball players from the same team participated in this study. The volleyball game lasted approximately 95 minutes including warm-up and cool-down periods. Blood samples were taken before the warm-up and after the cool down. Serum TOS and TAS levels were measured. Oxidative stress index (OSI), a predictor of antioxidant/prooxidant balance (TOS/TAS), was also calculated. The following data were revealed as median (95% confidence interval): TOS, 6.84 μmol H2O2 Eq/L (5.80-8.13) and 5.15 (4.20-6.02); TAS, 1.96 mmol troloxEq/L (1.91- 2.08) and 1.95 (1.86-2.00); and OSI indexes, 3.31 (arbitrary unit) (2.84-4.00) and 2.64 (2.26- 3.18) before and after the match with respectively. Serum TOS and OSI levels were significantly lower after volleyball match when compared to before (plevels (p>0.05). In individuals who exercise active sports, TOS level has been found to be decreased while TAS level has not been affected significantly after volleyball match. Our results suggested that volleyball training may not cause oxidative stress in these players. Regular physical exercise especially, volleyball training may provide adequate protection against exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  13. A Thorough QT Study to Evaluate the Effects of Supratherapeutic Doses of Ledipasvir on the QTc Interval in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Polina; Mathias, Anita; Brainard, Diana M; Song, Qinghua; Ling, John; Kearney, Brian P

    2017-10-23

    This study evaluated the effect of supratherapeutic exposure of the anti-HCV drug ledipasvir on the QTc interval in healthy subjects. Sixty healthy volunteers were randomized to receive twice-daily blinded ledipasvir (120 mg) or placebo, administered for 10 days each, or single doses of open-label moxifloxacin (400 mg). Serial plasma samples for ledipasvir concentration analysis were collected after each treatment. Triplicate time-matched electrocardiograms were collected at baseline and after each treatment. Change from baseline in the QTc for ledipasvir or moxifloxacin versus placebo was determined using several correction formulas (primary: QTcF [Fridericia's]; secondary: QTcN [population] and QTcI [individual]). Pharmacokinetics and exposure-QTc relationships were evaluated. Ledipasvir AUC 0-24 and C max achieved approximately 3.7-fold and 4.2-fold, respectively, above exposures observed following administration of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (90/400 mg) to HCV-infected patients. There was a lack of effect of supratherapeutic ledipasvir on QTc intervals using all correction methods (upper bound of the 2-sided 90%CIs for the mean difference in time-matched baseline-corrected QTc between ledipasvir versus placebo 5 milliseconds, thereby establishing assay sensitivity. Categorical analyses did not demonstrate clinically relevant effects of ledipasvir on QTc intervals or other electrocardiogram parameters. No relationships between ledipasvir plasma concentration and QTc interval were observed. Ledipasvir does not prolong QTc interval. Based on these results and a previous TQT evaluation for sofosbuvir, the fixed-dose combination regimen of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir is not expected to prolong the QTc interval. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  14. Reliability, Validity, Effects Sizes, and Confidence Intervals in Multicultural Teaching and Learning Research and Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    2012-01-01

    Like many journals within education, for "Multicultural Learning and Teaching," this writer found little written on measurement, effect sizes, and confidence intervals; therefore, the purpose of this article is to address these factors. The effect of not addressing these issues is that a basic foundation of science cannot be established…

  15. Acute and delayed effects of high intensity interval resistance training organization on cortisol and testosterone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Blasio, Andrea; Izzicupo, Pascal; Tacconi, Laura; Di Santo, Serena; Leogrande, Marina; Bucci, Ines; Ripari, Patrizio; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Napolitano, Giorgio

    2016-03-01

    The use of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is widely diffused as strategy to enhance aerobic fitness and body composition. In order to offer a more complete training, resistance exercises have been added to HIIT (HIIRT). Aims of our study were to characterize both heart rate and hormonal responses elicited by three different protocols of HIIRT having the same exercises, the same load and number of repetitions for each exercise. Eight healthy trained men (28.61±3.51 years) performed three different workouts: exercise order, recovery and speed of execution were differently organized according to workout. Salivary samples were collected before and after each workout, at 11:00 p.m. and at 7:00 a.m. of the following day. Salive was also collected during a non-training day. Before and after the workout, plasma lactate was measured while a beat-to-beat heart rate recording was executed during each workout. Cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) were measured in salivary samples. Workouts elicited the same heart rate response while random organization seems to elicit the highest lactate, C and T increases. Also when we studied the effects of workouts on prolonged hormones production we observed that workout organization influenced post-exercise hormonal production until the following morning modifying their physiological trend. Even if exercises, load and number of repetitions were maintained fixed, exercise order, structured recovery and speed of execution determined different acute and prolonged effects. The knowledge of these responses is very important because may positively or negatively influence performance and health.

  16. Effects of acute sprint interval cycling and energy replacement on postprandial lipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Eric C; Levine, Ari S; Chapman, Donald P; Hausman, Dorothy B; Cureton, Kirk J

    2011-12-01

    High postprandial blood triglyceride (TG) levels increase cardiovascular disease risk. Exercise interventions may be effective in reducing postprandial blood TG. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sprint interval cycling (SIC), with and without replacement of the energy deficit, on postprandial lipemia. In a repeated-measures crossover design, six men and six women participated in three trials, each taking place over 2 days. On the evening of the first day of each trial, the participants either did SIC without replacing the energy deficit (Ex-Def), did SIC and replaced the energy deficit (Ex-Bal), or did not exercise (control). SIC was performed on a cycle ergometer and involved four 30-s all-out sprints with 4-min active recovery. In the morning of day 2, responses to a high-fat meal were measured. Venous blood samples were collected in the fasted state and at 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min postprandial. There was a trend toward a reduction with treatment in fasting TG (P = 0.068), but no significant treatment effect for fasting insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, or betahydroxybutryrate (P > 0.05). The postprandial area under the curve (mmol·l(-1)·3 h(-1)) TG response was significantly lower in Ex-Def (21%, P = 0.006) and Ex-Bal (10%, P = 0.044) than in control, and significantly lower in Ex-Def (12%, P = 0.032) than in Ex-Bal. There was no treatment effect (P > 0.05) observed for area under the curve responses of insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, or betahydroxybutryrate. SIC reduces postprandial lipemia, but the energy deficit alone does not fully explain the decrease observed.

  17. USAGE OF INTERVAL CAUSE-EFFECT RELATIONSHIP COEFFICIENTS IN THE QUANTITATIVE MODEL OF STRATEGIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry M. Yershov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the method to obtain values of the coefficients of cause-effect relationships between strategic objectives in the form of intervals and use them in solving the problem of the optimal allocation of organization’s resources. We suggest taking advantage of the interval analytical hierarchy process for obtaining the ntervals. The quantitative model of strategic performance developed by M. Hell, S. Vidučić and Ž. Garača is employed for finding the optimal resource allocation. The uncertainty originated in the optimization problem as a result of interval character of the cause-effect relationship coefficients is eliminated through the application of maximax and maximin criteria. It is shown that the problem of finding the optimal maximin, maximax, and compromise resource allocation can be represented as a mixed 0-1 linear programming problem. Finally, numerical example and directions for further research are given.

  18. Concurrent Training in Rugby Sevens: Effects of High-Intensity Interval Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robineau, Julien; Lacome, Mathieu; Piscione, Julien; Bigard, Xavier; Babault, Nicolas

    2017-03-01

    To assess the impact of 2 high-intensity interval-training (HIT) programs (short interval vs sprint interval training) on muscle strength and aerobic performances in a concurrent training program in amateur rugby sevens players. Thirty-six amateur rugby sevens players were randomly assigned to strength and short interval training (INT), strength and sprint interval training (SIT), or a strength-only training group (CON) during an 8-wk period. Maximal strength and power tests, aerobic measurements (peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak] and maximal aerobic velocity), and a specific repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test were conducted before and immediately after the overall training period. From magnitude-based inference and effect size (ES ± 90% confidence limit) analyses, the current study revealed substantial gains in maximal strength and jump-height performance in all groups. The difference in change of slow concentric torque production was greater in CON than in SIT (0.65 ± 0.72, moderate). VO2peak and, consequently, mean performance in the RSA test were improved in the SIT group only (0.64 ± 0.29, moderate; -0.54 ± 0.35, moderate). The study did not emphasize interference on strength development after INT but showed a slight impairment of slow concentric torque production gains after SIT. Compared with INT, SIT would appear to be more effective to develop VO2peak and RSA but could induce lower muscle-strength gains, especially at low velocity.

  19. Effects of intensity and duration in aerobic high-intensity interval training in highly trained junior cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Sandbakk, Silvana B; Ettema, Gertjan; Welde, Boye

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether a long duration of aerobic high-intensity interval training is more effective than shorter intervals at a higher intensity in highly trained endurance athletes. The sample comprised of 12 male and 9 female, national-level, junior cross-country skiers (age, 17.5 ± 0.4 years, maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max): 67.4 ± 7.7 ml min kg), who performed 8-week baseline and 8-week intervention training periods on dry land. During the intervention period, a short-interval group (SIG, n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with short duration intervals (2- to 4-minute bouts, total duration of 15-20 minutes), a long-interval group (LIG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with long duration intervals (5- to 10-minute bouts, total duration of 40-45 minutes). The interval sessions were performed with the athletes' maximal sustainable intensity. A control group (CG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with low-intensity endurance training at 65-74% of maximal heart rate. Before and after the intervention period, the skiers were tested for time-trial performance on 12-km roller-ski skating and 7-km hill run. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold (V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT) were measured during treadmill running. After the intervention training period, the LIG-improved 12-km roller ski, 7-km hill run, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT by 6.8 ± 4.0%, 4.8 ± 2.6%, 3.7 ± 1.6%, and 5.8 ± 3.3%, respectively, from pre- to posttesting, and improved both performance tests and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT when compared with the SIG and the CG (all p high-intensity interval training improved endurance performance and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold more than shorter intervals at a higher intensity.

  20. Effect of the interpregnancy interval on perinatal outcomes in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Agudelo, Agustin; Belizán, José M; Norton, Maureen H; Rosas-Bermúdez, Anyeli

    2005-08-01

    To estimate whether interpregnancy interval is independently associated with increased risk of perinatal death and other adverse perinatal outcomes. We investigated the effect of interpregnancy interval on perinatal outcomes in 1,125,430 pregnancies recorded in the Perinatal Information System database of the Latin American Center for Perinatology and Human Development, Montevideo, Uruguay, between 1985 and 2004. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for 16 major confounding factors using multiple logistic regression models. Compared with infants with interpregnancy intervals of 18-23 months, those born to women with intervals shorter than 6 months had an increased risk of early neonatal death (adjusted OR 1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.96), fetal death (adjusted OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.28-1.83), low birth weight (adjusted OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.78-1.90), very low birth weight (adjusted OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.73-2.31), preterm birth (adjusted OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.71-1.89), very preterm birth (adjusted OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.67-2.26), and small for gestational age (adjusted OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.25-1.36). Intervals of 6-11 months and 60 months and longer were also associated with a significantly greater risk for the 7 adverse perinatal outcomes. In Latin America, interpregnancy intervals shorter than 12 months and longer than 59 months are independently associated with increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. These data suggest that spacing pregnancies appropriately could prevent perinatal deaths and other adverse perinatal outcomes in the developing world.

  1. The effects of high intensity interval training in normobaric hypoxia on aerobic capacity in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Miłosz; Zając, Adam; Maszczyk, Adam; Roczniok, Robert; Poprzęcki, Stanisław; Garbaciak, Wiesław; Zając, Tomasz

    2013-12-18

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of 3-week high intensity interval training in normobaric hypoxia (IHT) on aerobic capacity in basketball players. Twelve male well trained basketball players, randomly divided into a hypoxia (H) group (n=6; age: 22±1.6 years; VO2max: 52.6±3.9 ml/kg/min; body height - BH: 188.8±6.1 cm; body mass - BM: 83.9±7.2 kg; % of body fat - FAT%: 11.2±3.1%), and a control (C) group (n=6; age: 22±2.4 years; VO2max: 53.0±5.2 ml/kg/min; BH: 194.3 ± 6.6 cm; BM: 99.9±11.1 kg; FAT% 11.0±2.8 %) took part in the study. The training program applied during the study was the same for both groups, but with different environmental conditions during the selected interval training sessions. For 3 weeks, all subjects performed three high intensity interval training sessions per week. During the interval training sessions, the H group trained in a normobaric hypoxic chamber at a simulated altitude of 2500 m, while the group C performed interval training sessions under normoxia conditions also inside the chamber. Each interval running training sessions consisted of four to five 4 min bouts at 90% of VO2max velocity determined in hypoxia (vVO2max-hyp) for the H group and 90% of velocity at VO2max determined in normoxia for the group C. The statistical post-hoc analysis showed that the training in hypoxia caused a significant (pintermittent hypoxic training protocol with high intensity intervals (4 to 5 × 4 min bouts at 90% of vVO2max-hyp) is an effective training means for improving aerobic capacity at sea level in basketball players.

  2. Effects of insemination-ovulation interval on fertilization rates and embryo characteristics in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.B.; Graat, E.A.M.; Mullaart, E.; Soede, N.M.; Voskamp-Harkema, W.; Kemp, B.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of the interval between insemination and ovulation on fertilization and embryo characteristics (quality scored as good, fair, poor and degenerate; morphology; number of cell cycles and accessory sperm number) in dairy cattle. Time of ovulation was

  3. Psychotropic drugs and ventricular repolarisation: The effects on QT interval, T-peak to T-end interval and QT dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciavatti, Tiziano; Martinotti, Giovanni; Corbo, Mariangela; Cinosi, Eduardo; Lupi, Matteo; Ricci, Fabrizio; Di Scala, Rosa; D'Ugo, Emilia; De Francesco, Viola; De Caterina, Raffaele; di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to investigate in a clinical setting, the effects of different classes of psychotropic drugs on cardiac electrophysiological measures linked with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a population of 1059 psychiatric inpatients studying the effects of various psychotropic drugs on the T-peak to T-end (TpTe) interval, QT dispersion and QT interval. Methadone use showed a strong association with TpTe prolongation (odds ratio (OR)=12.66 (95% confidence interval (CI), 3.9-41.1), pQT interval. Mood stabilisers showed significant effects on ventricular repolarisation: lithium was associated with a TpTe prolongation (OR=2.12 (95% CI, 1.12-4), p=0.02), while valproic acid with a TpTe reduction (OR=0.6 (95% CI, 0.37-0.98), p=0.04). Among antipsychotics, clozapine increased TpTe (OR=9.5 (95% CI, 2.24-40.39), p=0.002) and piperazine phenothiazines increased QT dispersion (OR=2.73 (95% CI, 1.06-7.02), p=0.037). Treatment with psychotropic drugs influences TpTe and QT dispersion. These parameters might be considered to better estimate the sudden cardiac death risk related to specific medications. Beyond antipsychotics and antidepressants, mood stabilisers determine significant effects on ventricular repolarisation.

  4. Variance estimation, design effects, and sample size calculations for respondent-driven sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salganik, Matthew J

    2006-11-01

    Hidden populations, such as injection drug users and sex workers, are central to a number of public health problems. However, because of the nature of these groups, it is difficult to collect accurate information about them, and this difficulty complicates disease prevention efforts. A recently developed statistical approach called respondent-driven sampling improves our ability to study hidden populations by allowing researchers to make unbiased estimates of the prevalence of certain traits in these populations. Yet, not enough is known about the sample-to-sample variability of these prevalence estimates. In this paper, we present a bootstrap method for constructing confidence intervals around respondent-driven sampling estimates and demonstrate in simulations that it outperforms the naive method currently in use. We also use simulations and real data to estimate the design effects for respondent-driven sampling in a number of situations. We conclude with practical advice about the power calculations that are needed to determine the appropriate sample size for a study using respondent-driven sampling. In general, we recommend a sample size twice as large as would be needed under simple random sampling.

  5. The effects of soil environment on postmortem interval: a macroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggers, Kimberley A; Rogers, Tracy L

    2009-11-01

    Burial environment, in particular soil moisture, has a significant impact on the type, rate, and extent of bone degradation, which ultimately affects estimations of the postmortem interval (PMI). The purpose of this research is to determine the effects of soil moisture on the color, weight, condition, and texture of bone as it relates to the PMI. Bone changes occurring over two different time intervals (2 and 5 months) were examined using 120 sus scrofa leg bones. During each time interval bones were buried in two soil environments, one of which was drier than the other. The bones in both environments lost weight over time but the net weight loss was greater for bones in the higher moisture environment. There was no change in color, texture, or overall condition, indicating that 150 days is not long enough for such alterations to occur, regardless of the moisture level of the burial environment.

  6. [Effects of high-intensity interval training and nutritional education in patients with type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiamarchi, Pedro; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Cárdenas, Patricio; Morales, Sylvana; Cano-Montoya, Johnattan; Bresciani, Guilherme; Álvarez, Cristian

    2017-07-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves cardiometabolic markers, but its effects on the quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is not well known. To determine the effects of a 12-week HIIT exercise program on cardiometabolic and quality of life variables of T2D patients. Nine T2D women were assigned to a HIIT + nutritional education (GE) and 10, to a nutritional education alone group (GC). At baseline and after each intervention, anthropometric and body composition parameters using bio-impedance were assessed, and a blood sample was obtained to measure serum lipid levels, blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Quality of life was assessed using the SF-12 questionnaire adapted for the Chilean population. There were no significant changes on the lipid profile variables in the GE group, although HDL cholesterol was increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the GC group. Total fat mass was decreased in the GE group from 43.5 ± 1.5 to 41.9 ± 1.5%, p < 0.01. Fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin decreased in the GE group. There was a significant correlation between the decrease in total fat mass and that of glycated hemoglobin. There were significant increases in quality of life parameters; physical function, physical role, pain, general health, vitality, emotional role, mental health, and social function in the GE but not in the GC group. A 12-week program of HIIT plus nutritional education improves cardiometabolic and quality of life parameters on type 2 diabetics.

  7. Effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Galdames-Maliqueo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The low levels of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max evaluated in Chilean schoolchildren suggest the startup of trainings that improve the aerobic capacity. Objective: To analyze the effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren. Materials and methods: Thirty-two high school students from the eighth grade, who were divided into two groups, were part of the study (experimental group = 16 students and control group = 16 students. The main analyzed variable was the maximum oxygen consumption through the Course Navette Test. A High-intensity Interval training method was applied based on the maximum aerobic speed obtained through the Test. A mixed ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results: The experimental group showed a significant increase in the Maximum Oxygen Consumption between the pretest and posttest when compared with the control group (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: The results of the study showed a positive effect of the High-intensity Interval Training on the maximum consumption of oxygen. At the end of the study, it is concluded that High-intensity Interval Training is a good stimulation methodology for Chilean schoolchildren.

  8. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T; Porcari, John P

    2015-12-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. There were significant (p training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5%) & mean (+4, +7 and +6%) power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p training in sedentary young adults. Key pointsSteady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained studentsMild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state trainingHIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval trainingEnjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program.

  9. Effect of postmortem interval on the graft endothelium during preservation and after transplantation for keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Mohit; Salvalaio, Gianni; Ferrari, Stefano; Frigo, Anna C; Griffoni, Carlo; Grassetto, Andrea; Ruzza, Alessandro; Camposampiero, Davide; Ponzin, Diego

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the effect of postmortem intervals and prognostic factors on endothelial cell density (ECD) of human donor corneas during preservation and at 1 and 3 years after transplantation in patients transplanted for keratoconus. Two different studies were performed: (1) with 733 donor corneas selected for the preservation study and (2) 64 patients with keratoconus selected retrospectively from 2 hospital clinics. The corneas were evaluated on the basis of the ECD during preservation, study A, and at 1 and 3 years after transplantation, study B. The effect of ≥ 10 hours of postmortem interval on the percentage of corneal endothelial cell loss (ECL) was determined. The multiple regression showed no statistical significance (P = 0.827) of postmortem interval on ECL during preservation. However, for patients with keratoconus, the postmortem interval was statistically significant at both 1 year (P transplantation (P transplantation for patients transplanted for keratoconus, and therefore, it becomes eligible to be one of the potential factors affecting the ECD apart from surgical trauma.

  10. Outcome pre- and postexposure effects: retention interval interacts with primacy and recency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushihara, Kouji; Wheeler, Daniel S; Miller, Ralph R

    2004-10-01

    Effects of outcome-alone pretraining and posttraining exposure were investigated in conditioned suppression experiments conducted within a sensory preconditioning preparation with rats. Experiment 1 found that interference by outcome postexposure was stronger than that by outcome preexposure, suggesting a recency effect. Experiment 2 found that after a long retention interval, outcome preexposure produced more interference than outcome postexposure, suggesting a shift from recency to primacy with increasing retention interval. Experiment 3 showed that presentation of a priming stimulus that had been embedded within the earlier phase of treatment also caused a shift from recency to primacy. These results suggest that, at least in a sensory preconditioning paradigm, retrievability of outcome-alone exposure memory is an important determinant of any outcome-alone exposure effect. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

  11. The effect of high intensity interval exercise on postprandial triacylglycerol and leukocyte activation--monitored for 48 h post exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Morris Gabriel

    Full Text Available Postprandial phenomenon are thought to contribute to atherogenesis alongside activation of the immune system. A single bout of high intensity interval exercise attenuates postprandial triacylglycerol (TG, although the longevity and mechanisms underlying this observation are unknown. The aims of this study were to determine whether this attenuation in postprandial TG remained 2 days after high intensity interval exercise, to monitor markers of leukocyte activation and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Eight young men each completed two three day trials. On day 1: subjects rested (Control or performed 5 x 30 s maximal sprints (high intensity interval exercise. On day 2 and 3 subjects consumed high fat meals for breakfast and 3 h later for lunch. Blood samples were taken at various times and analysed for TG, glucose and TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL-bound LPL-dependent TRL-TG hydrolysis (LTTH. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate granulocyte, monocyte and lymphocyte CD11b and CD36 expression. On day 2 after high intensity interval exercise TG area under the curve was lower (P<0.05 (7.46 ± 1.53 mmol/l/7h compared to the control trial (9.47 ± 3 .04 mmol/l/7h with no differences during day 3 of the trial. LTTH activity was higher (P<0.05 after high intensity interval exercise, at 2 hours of day 2, compared to control. Granulocyte, monocyte and lymphocyte CD11b expression increased with time over day 2 and 3 of the study (P<0.0001. Lymphocyte and monocyte CD36 expression decreased with time over day 2 and 3 (P<0.05. There were no differences between trials in CD11b and CD36 expression on any leukocytes. A single session of high intensity interval exercise attenuated postprandial TG on day 2 of the study, with this effect abolished by day 3.The reduction in postprandial TG was associated with an increase in LTTH. High intensity interval exercise had no effect on postprandial responses of CD11b or CD36.

  12. Human error considerations and annunciator effects in determining optimal test intervals for periodically inspected standby systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, T.P.; Martz, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    This paper incorporates the effects of four types of human error in a model for determining the optimal time between periodic inspections which maximizes the steady state availability for standby safety systems. Such safety systems are characteristic of nuclear power plant operations. The system is modeled by means of an infinite state-space Markov chain. Purpose of the paper is to demonstrate techniques for computing steady-state availability A and the optimal periodic inspection interval tau* for the system. The model can be used to investigate the effects of human error probabilities on optimal availability, study the benefits of annunciating the standby-system, and to determine optimal inspection intervals. Several examples which are representative of nuclear power plant applications are presented.

  13. Effects of bilastine on T-wave morphology and the QTc interval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Claus; Struijk, Johannes J.; Kanters, Jørgen K.

    2012-01-01

    The International Conference of Harmonisation (ICH) E14 guideline for thorough QT studies requires assessing the propensity of new non-antiarrhythmic drugs to affect cardiac repolarization. The present study investigates whether a composite ECG measure of T-wave morphology (Morphology Combination...... Score [MCS]) can be used together with the heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc) in a fully ICH E14-compliant thorough QT study to exclude clinically relevant repolarization effects of bilastine, a novel antihistamine....

  14. Effect of 8 weeks sprint interval training on serum levels of Adiponectin and insulin in overweight children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Kazemi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific studies demonstrated that decreased blood Adiponectin level is associated with insulin resistance in obesity. Also it is well documented that exercise training exerts beneficial effects on obesity but there is few study regarding beneficial effects of sprint Interval training (SIT on childhood obesity. This study was intended to investigate the effect of SIT on serum levels of Adiponectin and insulin in overweight children. Material and Methods: In this study thirty-two obese boy (BMI=27 were randomly assigned to sprint Interval Training (SIT (N=16 and control group(C (N=16. Training protocol consisted of 30s and 90s all-out running that performed 3 sessions per week for 8 weeks. Blood samples were measured by ELISA analysis. Data were analyzed using Independent sample t-test. Results: 8 weeks SIT increase serum levels of Adiponectin (P=0.028 and decrease insulin level (P=0.00. This change was directly related to decrease in values of BMI (P=0.01, total cholesterol (P=0.00 and body weight (P=0.02, but significant change in serum levels of HDL (P=0.50, LDL (P=0.17 and TG (P=0.60 wasn’t observed. Conclusion: These findings suggest that SIT may ameliorate the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity in children probably through elevation of serum Adiponectin level.

  15. Asymmetric time interval between evening and morning milking and its effect on the total daily milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Chládek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of milk obtained in the course of evening and morning milking performed in variable time intervals of either 11 and 13 hours (n = 1.282 or 10 and 14 hours (n = 370 were collected with the aim to quantify the effect of the length of a variable (asymmetric time interval between evening and morning milking on the total amount and composition of daily milk production of dairy cows. Milk samples were analysed in an accredited (EN ISO 17025 laboratory in Brno-Tuřany (Czech Republic and the following contents of individual milk components were estimated: fat (F; g.100g−1, total protein (TP; g.100g−1, lactose (L; lactose monohydrate; g.100g−1, and somatic cell counts (SCC; ­103.ml−1 were estimated in. It was found out that with the increasing total daily milk production the shares of evening and morning milk yield increased as well; however, the percentages of evening and/or morning yields in the total yield remained practically unchanged and represented 43.5 % and 56.5% or 40.4 % and 59.6 % in variants with intervals of 11 and 13 hours and/or 10 and 14 hours, respectively. In the variant with the milking interval of 11 and 13 hours, values of correlation coefficients between the above parameters (i.e. F, TP, L, SCC, and log SCC of evening and morning milk yields on the one hand and the total milk performance on the other ranged from the minimum r = 0.896 (F to the maximum r = 0.980 (TP. In the variant with the interval of 10 and 14 hours, the corresponding values of correlation coefficients were r = 0.848 (F and r = 0.983 (TP. These correlations were statistically highly significant in all cases (P ≤ 0.001. Further, linear regression equations enabling the estimation of milk parameters of the total milk yield on the base of results obtained in evening and morning milking was calculated as well. Values of coefficients of determination (R2 of these equations ranged from 0.803 (F to 0.960 (TP and from 0.718 (F to 0.966 (TP for

  16. Effects of nitrogen levels and harvest interval on the growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa Oleifera Lam) in Sudan Savanna of Nigeria. ... Increase in harvest interval significantly increased fresh and dry leaf yields of Moringa with the highest yields obtained from 4 weeks harvest interval. Nitrogen and harvest interval ...

  17. Effects of submaximal and supramaximal interval training on determinants of endurance performance in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, M; Le Blanc, O; Lucas, S J E; Thibault, G; Bailey, D M; Brassard, P

    2017-03-01

    We compared the effects of submaximal and supramaximal cycling interval training on determinants of exercise performance in moderately endurance-trained men. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max ), peak power output (Ppeak ), and peak and mean anaerobic power were measured before and after 6 weeks (3 sessions/week) of submaximal (85% maximal aerobic power [MP], HIIT85 , n = 8) or supramaximal (115% MP, HIIT115 , n = 9) interval training to exhaustion in moderately endurance-trained men. High-intensity training volume was 47% lower in HIIT115 vs HIIT85 (304 ± 77 vs 571 ± 200 min; P training was generally associated with increased VO2max (HIIT85 : +3.3 ± 3.1 mL/kg/min; HIIT115 : +3.3 ± 3.6 ml/kg/min; Time effect P = 0.002; Group effect: P = 0.95), Ppeak (HIIT85 : +18 ± 9 W; HIIT115 : +16 ± 27 W; Time effect P = 0.045; Group effect: P = 0.49), and mean anaerobic power (HIIT85 : +0.42 ± 0.69 W/kg; HIIT115 : +0.55 ± 0.65 W/kg; Time effect P = 0.01; Group effect: P = 0.18). Six weeks of submaximal and supramaximal interval training performed to exhaustion seems to equally improve VO2max and anaerobic power in endurance-trained men, despite half the accumulated time spent at the target intensity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effects of self-paced interval and continuous training on health markers in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Luke J; Bailey, Stephen J; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the effects of self-paced high-intensity interval and continuous cycle training on health markers in premenopausal women. METHODS: Forty-five inactive females were randomised to a high-intensity interval training (HIIT; n = 15), continuous training (CT; n = 15) or an inactive...... control (CON; n = 15) group. HIIT performed 5 × 5 min sets comprising repetitions of 30-s low-, 20-s moderate- and 10-s high-intensity cycling with 2 min rest between sets. CT completed 50 min of continuous cycling. Training was completed self-paced, 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. RESULTS: Peak oxygen......, whereas blood pressure, submaximal HR, well-being and body mass adaptations were training-type-specific. Both training methods improved established health markers, but the adaptations to HIIT were evoked for a lower time commitment....

  19. Effects of self-paced interval and continuous training on health markers in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Luke J; Bailey, Stephen J; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the effects of self-paced high-intensity interval and continuous cycle training on health markers in premenopausal women. METHODS: Forty-five inactive females were randomised to a high-intensity interval training (HIIT; n = 15), continuous training (CT; n = 15) or an inactive...... control (CON; n = 15) group. HIIT performed 5 × 5 min sets comprising repetitions of 30-s low-, 20-s moderate- and 10-s high-intensity cycling with 2 min rest between sets. CT completed 50 min of continuous cycling. Training was completed self-paced, 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. RESULTS: Peak oxygen...... uptake (16 ± 8 and 21 ± 12%), resting heart rate (HR) (-5 ± 9 and -4 ± 7 bpm) and visual and verbal learning improved following HIIT and CT compared to CON (P HIIT (P 

  20. Modeling circadian and sleep-homeostatic effects on short-term interval timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub eSpäti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Short-term interval timing i.e., perception and action relating to durations in the seconds range, has been suggested to display time-of-day as well as wake dependent fluctuations due to circadian and sleep-homeostatic changes to the rate at which an underlying pacemaker emits pulses; pertinent human data being relatively sparse and lacking in consistency however, the phenomenon remains elusive and its mechanism poorly understood.To better characterize the putative circadian and sleep-homeostatic effects on interval timing and to assess the ability of a pacemaker-based mechanism to account for the data, we measured timing performance in eighteen young healthy male subjects across two epochs of sustained wakefulness of 38.67 h each, conducted prior to (under entrained conditions and following (under free-running conditions a 28 h sleep-wake schedule, using the methods of duration estimation and duration production on target intervals of 10 and 40 s.Our findings of opposing oscillatory time courses across both epochs of sustained wakefulness that combine with increasing and, respectively, decreasing, saturating exponential change for the tasks of estimation and production are consistent with the hypothesis that a pacemaker emitting pulses at a rate controlled by circadian oscillator and increasing with time awake determines human short-term interval timing; the duration-specificity of this pattern is interpreted as reflecting challenges to maintaining stable attention to the task that progressively increase with stimulus magnitude and thereby moderate the effects of pacemaker-rate changes on overt behavior.

  1. Twice-weighted multiple interval estimation of a marginal structural model to analyze cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeld, K S

    2014-03-30

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is an important tool that can be applied to the evaluation of a health treatment or policy. When the observed costs and outcomes result from a nonrandomized treatment, making causal inference about the effects of the treatment requires special care. The challenges are compounded when the observation period is truncated for some of the study subjects. This paper presents a method of unbiased estimation of cost-effectiveness using observational study data that is not fully observed. The method-twice-weighted multiple interval estimation of a marginal structural model-was developed in order to analyze the cost-effectiveness of treatment protocols for advanced dementia residents living nursing homes when they become acutely ill. A key feature of this estimation approach is that it facilitates a sensitivity analysis that identifies the potential effects of unmeasured confounding on the conclusions concerning cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The effect of the inter-phase delay interval in the spontaneous object recognition test for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Thygesen, Kristin Sjølie; Nielsen, Thomas Rune

    2007-01-01

    In the neuroscience community interest for using the pig is growing. Several disease models have been developed creating a need for validation of behavioural paradigms in these animals. Here, we report the effect of different inter-phase delay intervals on the performance of Göttingen minipigs...... in the spontaneous object recognition test. The test consisted of a sample and a test phase. First, the pigs explored two similar objects. After a 10-min, 1-h, or 24-h delay two different objects were presented; one familiar from the sample phase and one novel. An exploration-time difference between the novel...... in our set-up of the spontaneous object recognition test. After a 1-h delay, the pigs still showed a significant habituation to the familiar object, but no discrimination was observed. Discrimination between the two objects was mainly confined to the first half of the test phase, and we observed a high...

  3. THE EFFECTS OF INTERMITTENT EXERCISE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL OUTCOMES IN AN OBESE POPULATION: CONTINUOUS VERSUS INTERVAL WALKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Wallman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of 12 weeks of caloric restriction and interval exercise (INT and caloric restriction and continuous aerobic exercise (CON on physiological outcomes in an obese population. Forty-four individuals (BMI > 30 kg·m-2 were randomised into the INT or CON group. Participant withdrawal resulted in 12 and 14 participants in the INT and CON groups, respectively. All participants were on a strict monitored diet. Exercise involved two 15-min bouts of walking performed on five days per week. Interval exercise consisted of a 2:1 min ratio of low-intensity (40-45% VO2peak and high- intensity (70-75% VO2peak exercise, while the CON group exercised between 50-55% VO2peak. Exercise duration and average intensity (%VO2peak were similar between groups. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 between the two groups for any variable assessed apart from very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C, which significantly decreased over time in the INT group only (p < 0.05, d = 1.03. Caloric restriction and interval exercise compared to caloric restriction and continuous aerobic exercise resulted in similar outcome measures apart from VLDL-C levels, which significantly improved in the INT group only

  4. Effect of remifentanil with and without atropine on heart rate variability and RR interval in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirel, O; Chanavaz, C; Bansard, J Y; Carré, F; Ecoffey, C; Senhadji, L; Wodey, E

    2005-10-01

    Remifentanil can cause bradycardia either by parasympathetic activation or by other negative chronotropic effects. The high frequency (HF) component of heart rate variability (HRV) is a marker of parasympathetic activity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of remifentanil on RR interval and on HRV in children. Forty children ASA I or II were studied after approval by the human studies committee and informed parental consent was obtained. After stabilisation at sevoflurane 1 MAC, they were randomly divided into two groups: one received a 20 microg.kg(-1) atropine injection (AT + REMI) and the other ringer lactate solution (REMI). Three minutes later, a 1 microg.kg(-1) bolus of remifentanil was administered over 1 min, followed by a continual infusion at 0.25 microg.kg(-1).min(-1) for 10 min increased to 0.5 microg.kg(-1).min(-1) for a further 10 min. A time varying, autoregressive analysis of RR sequences was used to estimate classical spectral parameters: low (0.04-0.15 Hz; LF) and high (0.15-0.45 Hz; HF) frequency, whereas the root mean square of successive differences of RR intervals (rmssd) was derived directly from the temporal sequence. Statistical analyses were conducted by means of the multiple correspondence analysis and with non parametrical tests. Remifentanil induced an RR interval lengthening, i.e. bradycardia, in both groups compared to pretreatment values and was associated with an increase of HF and rmssd only for the REMI group. The parasympathetic inhibition by atropine did not totally prevent remifentanil's negative chronotropic effect. A direct negative chronotropic effect of remifentanil is proposed.

  5. Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Trexler, Eric T.; Wingfield, Hailee; Blue, Malia N.M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate two practical interval training protocols on cardiorespiratory fitness, lipids, and body composition in overweight/obese women. Thirty women (mean ± SD; Weight: 88.1 ± 15.9 kg; BMI: 32.0 ± 6.0 kg·m2) were randomly assigned to ten 1-minute high-intensity intervals (90%VO2peak, 1min recovery), or five 2-minute high-intensity intervals (80-100% VO2peak, 1 min recovery), or control. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), peak power output, body composition, and fasting blood lipids were evaluated before and after 3 weeks of training, completed 3 days per week. Results from ANCOVA analyses demonstrated no significant training group differences for any primary variables (p>0.05). When training groups were collapsed, 1MIN and 2MIN resulted in a significant increase in peak power output (∆18.9 ± 8.5 watts; p=0.014) and time to exhaustion (∆55.1 ± 16.4 sec; p=0.001); non-significant increase in VO2peak (∆2.36 ± 1.34 ml·kg−1·min−1; p=0.185); and a significant decrease in fat mass (∆−1.96 ± 0.99kg; p=0.011). Short-term interval exercise training may be effective for decreasing fat mass and improving exercise tolerance in overweight and obese women. PMID:26934687

  6. What is the effect of penicillin dosing interval on outcomes in streptococcal infective endocarditis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoe, J A T; Patel, P A; Baig, M W; West, R

    2013-11-01

    Penicillin is an important treatment option for streptococcal infective endocarditis (IE), but its short half-life requires frequent re-dosing (4- or 6-hourly). There is a variation between the dosing regimens in different guidelines and consequent differences in the dosing interval. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the penicillin dosing interval and outcomes in streptococcal IE. A retrospective study of cases of streptococcal IE was undertaken using the Leeds Endocarditis Service database. Cases were included if the first-line therapy had been penicillin and excluded if patients had received less than 72 h of therapy. Details of antimicrobial therapy and outcomes were collated using strict definitions. Various parameters were considered as independent variables in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Univariate analysis of categorical data was carried out using a χ(2) test, and analysis of continuous data using an unpaired t-test. Two hundred and twelve cases were included in the final analysis. Of the parameters considered, a 4-hourly dosing interval [unadjusted OR = 2.79 (95% CI 1.43-5.62)] and initial echocardiographic evidence of abscess or severe valve regurgitation [unadjusted OR = 0.30 (95% CI 0.13-0.66)] were the only statistically significant factors associated with the success or failure of penicillin therapy. The odds of a successful outcome were almost three times greater with a 4-hourly regimen than with a 6-hourly regimen. Failure of penicillin therapy had no correlation with the MIC of penicillin or the concurrent administration of gentamicin. Penicillin continues to be an effective therapy for IE. This study suggests that a 4-hourly dosing interval may be relevant in predicting the success of initial medical therapy. Further prospective studies are warranted to evaluate relationships in more detail.

  7. Rare genetic variants previously associated with congenital forms of long QT syndrome have little or no effect on the QT interval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghouse, Jonas; Have, Christian Theil; Weeke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: We studied whether variants previously associated with congenital long QT syndrome (cLQTS) have an effect on the QTc interval in a Danish population sample. Furthermore, we assessed whether carriers of variants in cLQTS-associated genes are more prone to experience syncope compared with non...

  8. Sampling: Making Electronic Discovery More Cost Effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luoma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With the huge volumes of electronic data subject to discovery in virtually every instance of litigation, time and costs of conducting discovery have become exceedingly important when litigants plan their discovery strategies.  Rather than incurring the costs of having lawyers review every document produced in response to a discovery request in search of relevant evidence, a cost effective strategy for document review planning is to use statistical sampling of the database of documents to determine the likelihood of finding relevant evidence by reviewing additional documents.  This paper reviews and discusses how sampling can be used to make document review more cost effective by considering issues such as an appropriate sample size, how to develop a sampling strategy, and taking into account the potential value of the litigation in relation to the costs of additional discovery efforts. 

  9. Effect of High Intensity Interval Training with Blood Restriction on Anaerobic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Behi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Limiting venous blood flow restriction is a new approach of  training aims to improving high level of performance among athletes, which has shown prominent results at muscle hypotrophy and strength. KAATSU[1] is a training system including pressure belt imposed on the proximal part of the upper and lower bodies. The present study aims to investigate the effect of HIIT Kaatsu trainings on anaerobic performance among young athletes. The present quasi experimental research was conducted through a pre-test and post-test and three groups including KAATSU intensive interval exercises (n=11, intense interval exercise (n=9 and a control group (n=10. The exercises included running distances of 20 and 40 meters. In the beginning of the protocol most of the exercises was in short distances and as the sessions proceeded, the number of the sets and repetitions increased and it reached to its highest intensity in the last session. During the exercise protocol, intensity of training was considered to be the highest running speed and based on their abilities each individual tried to run as fast as possible. The exercise load was defined based on repetitions and the sets. In the 20 meters distances, the participants took a ten second rest after each repetition and a one minute rest after each set and in 40 meters distances; Subjects took a 20 second rest after each repetition and 2 minute rest between sets. The control group did not performed any of the mentioned exercises. Moreover, before and after four weeks of training the individuals were given RAST and Anaerobic Biking Wingate Test. Statistical result has been shown, there is a significant change between the maximum anaerobic power in Wingate biking test after four weeks within KAATSU intensive interval (P≥ 0.05 and intensive interval (P≥ 0.05 groups, but no significant change was detected in the control group (P> 0.05.  The statistical analysis of this research has been shown that there is

  10. Genetic and environmental effects on parturition and lactation intervals in water buffaloes from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Amorim Ramos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and environmental effects on parturition interval (PI and duration of lactation (DL were evaluated in 107 Jafarabadi, 98 Mediterranean, 1027 Murrah and 624 crossbred buffalo females (n=1856, based on data from the Buffalo Genetic Improvement Program–PROMEBUL from 1980 to 2003. The statistical model included effects of herd, parturition year and month, calf’s sex, parturition order and genetic group, composing 11, 34, 12, 2, 12 and 4 classes, respectively. A significant effect over PI was observed (P<0.01 in all classes, excepting sex. Mean parturition intervals per genetic group presented significant differences through SNK test (P<0.05, with mean values of 451.29; 429.47; 406.97 and 389.78 days in Mediterranean, crossbred, Murrah and Jafarabadi, respectively. Mean DL values were 276.68; 270.33; 258.03 and 235.59 days for Mediterranean, Murrah, crossbred and Jafarabadi groups, respectively. No significant differences in DL were observed in relation to genetic groups. However, herd and parturition order, year and month significantly influenced DL (P<0.01. The herd was the main source of variation over DL, followed by parturition year and month. A regression based on parturition month in relation to PI and DL showed that females giving birth in the last months of the year presented higher PI and DL.

  11. Rates of brain atrophy and clinical decline over 6 and 12-month intervals in PSP: determining sample size for treatment trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitwell, Jennifer L; Xu, Jia; Mandrekar, Jay N; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Jack, Clifford R; Josephs, Keith A

    2012-03-01

    Imaging biomarkers are useful outcome measures in treatment trials. We compared sample size estimates for future treatment trials performed over 6 or 12-months in progressive supranuclear palsy using both imaging and clinical measures. We recruited 16 probable progressive supranuclear palsy patients that underwent baseline, 6 and 12-month brain scans, and 16 age-matched controls with serial scans. Disease severity was measured at each time-point using the progressive supranuclear palsy rating scale. Rates of ventricular expansion and rates of atrophy of the whole brain, superior frontal lobe, thalamus, caudate and midbrain were calculated. Rates of atrophy and clinical decline were used to calculate sample sizes required to power placebo-controlled treatment trials over 6 and 12-months. Rates of whole brain, thalamus and midbrain atrophy, and ventricular expansion, were increased over 6 and 12-months in progressive supranuclear palsy compared to controls. The progressive supranuclear palsy rating scale increased by 9 points over 6-months, and 18 points over 12-months. The smallest sample size estimates for treatment trials over 6-months were achieved using rate of midbrain atrophy, followed by rate of whole brain atrophy and ventricular expansion. Sample size estimates were further reduced over 12-month intervals. Sample size estimates for the progressive supranuclear palsy rating scale were worse than imaging measures over 6-months, but comparable over 12-months. Atrophy and clinical decline can be detected over 6-months in progressive supranuclear palsy. Sample size estimates suggest that treatment trials could be performed over this interval, with rate of midbrain atrophy providing the best outcome measure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Salient stimuli in advertising: the effect of contrast interval length and type on recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G Douglas

    2002-09-01

    Salient auditory stimuli (e.g., music or sound effects) are commonly used in advertising to elicit attention. However, issues related to the effectiveness of such stimuli are not well understood. This research examines the ability of a salient auditory stimulus, in the form of a contrast interval (CI), to enhance recall of message-related information. Researchers have argued that the effectiveness of the CI is a function of the temporal duration between the onset and offset of the change in the background stimulus and the nature of this stimulus. Three experiments investigate these propositions and indicate that recall is enhanced, providing the CI is 3 s or less. Information highlighted with silence is recalled better than information highlighted with music.

  13. Effect of Jump Interval Training on Kinematics of the Lower Limbs and Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ache-Dias, Jonathan; Pupo, Juliano Dal; Dellagrana, Rodolfo A; Teixeira, Anderson S; Mochizuki, Luis; Moro, Antônio R P

    2018-02-01

    Ache-Dias, J, Pupo, JD, Dellagrana, RA, Teixeira, AS, Mochizuki, L, and Moro, ARP. Effect of jump interval training on kinematics of the lower limbs and running economy. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 416-422, 2017-This study analyzed the effects of the addition of jump interval training (JIT) to continuous endurance training (40-minute running at 70% of peak aerobic velocity, 3 times per week for 4 weeks) on kinematic variables and running economy (RE) during submaximal constant-load running. Eighteen recreational runners, randomized into control group (CG) or experimental group (EG) performed the endurance training. In addition, the EG performed the JIT twice per week, which consisted of 4-6 bouts of continuous vertical jumping (30 seconds) with 5-minute intervals. The oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) during the submaximal test (performed at 9 km·h) was similar before (EG: 38.48 ± 2.75 ml·kg·min; CG: 36.45 ± 2.70 ml·kg·min) and after training (EG: 37.42 ± 2.54 ml·kg·min; CG: 35.81 ± 3.10 ml·kg·min). No effect of training, group, or interaction (p > 0.05) was found for RE. There was no interaction or group effect for the kinematic variables (p > 0.05). Most of the kinematic variables had a training effect for both groups (support time [p ≤ 0.05]; step rate [SR; p ≤ 0.05]; and step length [SL; p ≤ 0.05]). In addition, according to the practical significance analysis (percentage chances of a better/trivial/worse effect), important effects in leg stiffness (73/25/2), vertical stiffness (73/25/2), SR (71/27/2), and SL (64/33/3) were found for the EG. No significant relationship between RE and stiffness were found for EG and CG. In conclusion, the results suggest that JIT induces important changes in the kinematics of the lower limbs of recreational runners, but the changes do not affect RE.

  14. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Foster, Courtney V. Farland, Flavia Guidotti, Michelle Harbin, Brianna Roberts, Jeff Schuette, Andrew Tuuri, Scott T. Doberstein, John P. Porcari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly. Steady-state (n = 19 exercised (cycle ergometer 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT. Tabata (n = 21 completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15 completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05 increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18% and PPO (+17, +24 and +14% for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5% & mean (+4, +7 and +6% power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05 than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05 across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults.

  15. Effects of memory age and interval of fear extinction sessions on contextual fear extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Shingo; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Ishii, Daisuke; Tomizawa, Haruna; Shimizu, Eiji

    2014-08-22

    Fear extinction is a major task in our understanding of the biological mechanisms of exposure therapy, one of the most used treatments for stress-related disorders. It was recently reported that an extinction of 5 consecutive days prevents spontaneous recovery of fear memory. Memory age and the timing of fear extinction influence the effect of fear extinction. In this study, we used contextual fear extinction in adult male mice to examine whether memory age influences an extinction of 5 consecutive days and whether consecutiveness is necessary to prevent spontaneous recovery. Our results showed that, although fear memory was not affected by the passage of time, the old fear memory (28 days after fear conditioning) was more sensitive to fear extinction than the young fear memory (7 days after fear conditioning). Additionally, we demonstrated that consecutiveness of extinction sessions is not necessary to prevent spontaneous recovery. Instead, fear extinction sessions at spaced intervals were found to be more effective than consecutive extinction sessions for young fear memory. Our results suggest that taking memory age and the interval of fear extinction sessions into consideration would help to optimize exposure therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Increasing the Time to Reinforcement on Interval Timing in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Higa, Jennifer J.; Tillou, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    The experiment examined interval timing in rats during a momentary, unsignaled, increase in the time to reinforcement. A session began with intervals programmed according to a fixed interval (FI) 60 s reinforcement schedule, changed to either an FI 90 s, FI 120 s, or FI 180 s schedule at an unpredictable point, and then returned to an FI 60 s schedule after 1, 8, or 24 successive long intervals had elapsed. Overall, postreinforcement wait time duration increased with increases in the schedule...

  17. EFFECT OF SPIRAPRIL ON THE LENGTH OF INTERICTAL INTERVAL IN PAROXYSMAL ATRIAL FIBRILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Chikhireva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor spirapril on efficacy of preventive antiarrhythmic therapy in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF.Material and methods. 40 patients with paroxysmal AF were involved in open-label, cross-over study with periods of antiarrhythmic drug withdrawal. During 3 months all patients received by turns two types of therapy: combination of preventive antiarrhythmic therapy with spirapril 6 mg once daily - (CT group or preventive antiarrhythmic therapy only (AT group.Results. AF-free intervals to the first and the second AF paroxysms during antiarrhythmic drug withdrawal were comparable in AT and CT groups (p=0,4 and p=0,6, respectively, logrank test.Conclusion. Spirapril added to the basic preventive antiarrhythmic therapy during 3 months had no effect on the length of interictal period in paroxysmal AF.

  18. EFFECT OF SPIRAPRIL ON THE LENGTH OF INTERICTAL INTERVAL IN PAROXYSMAL ATRIAL FIBRILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Chikhireva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor spirapril on efficacy of preventive antiarrhythmic therapy in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF.Material and methods. 40 patients with paroxysmal AF were involved in open-label, cross-over study with periods of antiarrhythmic drug withdrawal. During 3 months all patients received by turns two types of therapy: combination of preventive antiarrhythmic therapy with spirapril 6 mg once daily - (CT group or preventive antiarrhythmic therapy only (AT group.Results. AF-free intervals to the first and the second AF paroxysms during antiarrhythmic drug withdrawal were comparable in AT and CT groups (p=0,4 and p=0,6, respectively, logrank test.Conclusion. Spirapril added to the basic preventive antiarrhythmic therapy during 3 months had no effect on the length of interictal period in paroxysmal AF.

  19. Effectiveness of Moderate Intensity Interval Training as an Index of Autonomic Nervous Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Satoru; Nagino, Koji; Ito, Takayoshi; Oi, Rie; Nishimura, Kazushi; Morita, Shuhei; Yaoi, Riyo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of moderate intensity interval training from the change of the autonomic nervous activity. Ten male volunteers aged 21-22 years were studied. After 10-minute rest in a seated position, the subjects were asked to perform the strength of moderate cycling exercise in ergometer. Cycling rate was done in 50 times/min. Load resistance of the ergometer was set to 2.0 kgm. Subjects paused the exercise when the heart rate becomes 120 beats/min. Subjects have resumed the exercise when the heart rate returns to the value at rest. This trial was repeated twice. The experiment was ended when the heart rate of the subjects has returned to resting level. When the heart rate during exercise is maintained to less than 120 beats/min, sympathetic nerve activity during exercise did not work actively compared to the baseline. Vagus nerve activity after exercise cessation exceeds the baseline. It is clarified that the exercise as well as activating the vagus nerve activity stimulates the total autonomic nervous activity. It has revealed that at the time of interval training at moderate load the vagus nerve activity can be carried out.

  20. Effectiveness of Moderate Intensity Interval Training as an Index of Autonomic Nervous Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Kai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of moderate intensity interval training from the change of the autonomic nervous activity. Ten male volunteers aged 21-22 years were studied. After 10-minute rest in a seated position, the subjects were asked to perform the strength of moderate cycling exercise in ergometer. Cycling rate was done in 50 times/min. Load resistance of the ergometer was set to 2.0 kgm. Subjects paused the exercise when the heart rate becomes 120 beats/min. Subjects have resumed the exercise when the heart rate returns to the value at rest. This trial was repeated twice. The experiment was ended when the heart rate of the subjects has returned to resting level. When the heart rate during exercise is maintained to less than 120 beats/min, sympathetic nerve activity during exercise did not work actively compared to the baseline. Vagus nerve activity after exercise cessation exceeds the baseline. It is clarified that the exercise as well as activating the vagus nerve activity stimulates the total autonomic nervous activity. It has revealed that at the time of interval training at moderate load the vagus nerve activity can be carried out.

  1. Effect of interpregnancy interval after a mifepristone-induced abortion on neonatal outcomes in subsequent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xiao-Xu; Gao, Er-Sheng; Cheng, Yi-Min; Luo, Lin; Liang, Hong; Huang, Guo-Ying; Miao, Mao-Hua; Yuan, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated effects of interpregnancy interval (IPI) on neonatal outcomes after mifepristone-induced abortion in the first pregnancy. This observational cohort study, conducted from 1998 to 2001 at antenatal clinics in Shanghai, Beijing, and Chengdu, China, included 4682 nulliparous women with one mifepristone-induced abortion in their first pregnancy, who were enrolled and followed up until delivery. We compared neonatal outcomes among women with different IPIs between their mifepristone-induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy. When compared to IPI of 18-24 months, there was an increased risk of the neonate being small for gestational age (SGA) [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.01; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-3.88] when IPI was women without a curettage history after abortion (aOR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.13-5.50). The associations between IPI and preterm delivery (abortion in first pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of SGA in the subsequent pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of missing RR-interval data on heart rate variability analysis in the time domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ko Keun; Lim, Yong Gyu; Kim, Jung Soo; Park, Kwang Suk

    2007-12-01

    In this study, the effects of missing RR-interval data on time-domain analysis were investigated using simulated missing data in real RR-interval tachograms and actual missing RR data in an ECG obtained by an unconstrained measurement. For the simulation, randomly selected data (0-100 s) were removed from real RR data obtained from the MIT-BIH normal sinus rhythm database. In all, 2615 tachograms of 5 min durations were used for this analysis. For certain durations of missing data, the analysis was performed by 1000 Monte Carlo runs. MeanNN, SDNN, SDSD, RMSSD and pNN50 were calculated as the time-domain parameters in each run, and the relative errors between the original and the incomplete tachograms for these parameters were computed. The results of the simulation revealed that MeanNN is the parameter most robust to missing data; this feature can be explained by the theory of finite population correction (FPC). pNN50 is the parameter most sensitive to missing data. MeanNN was also found to be the most robust to real missing RR data derived from a capacitive-coupled ECG recorded during sleep; furthermore, the parameter patterns for the missing data were considerably similar to those for the original RR data, although the relative errors may exceed those of the simulation results.

  3. Design and Operation of a Borehole Straddle Packer for Ground-Water Sampling and Hydraulic Testing of Discrete Intervals at U.S. Air Force Plant 6, Marietta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Owen G.; Waddell, Jonathan P.

    2008-01-01

    A borehole straddle packer was developed and tested by the U.S. Geological Survey to characterize the vertical distribution of contaminants, head, and hydraulic properties in open-borehole wells as part of an ongoing investigation of ground-water contamination at U.S. Air Force Plant 6 (AFP6) in Marietta, Georgia. To better understand contaminant fate and transport in a crystalline bedrock setting and to support remedial activities at AFP6, numerous wells have been constructed that include long open-hole intervals in the crystalline bedrock. These wells can include several discontinuities that produce water, which may contain contaminants. Because of the complexity of ground-water flow and contaminant movement in the crystalline bedrock, it is important to characterize the hydraulic and water-quality characteristics of discrete intervals in these wells. The straddle packer facilitates ground-water sampling and hydraulic testing of discrete intervals, and delivery of fluids including tracer suites and remedial agents into these discontinuities. The straddle packer consists of two inflatable packers, a dual-pump system, a pressure-sensing system, and an aqueous injection system. Tests were conducted to assess the accuracy of the pressure-sensing systems, and water samples were collected for analysis of volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentrations. Pressure-transducer readings matched computed water-column height, with a coefficient of determination of greater than 0.99. The straddle packer incorporates both an air-driven piston pump and a variable-frequency, electronic, submersible pump. Only slight differences were observed between VOC concentrations in samples collected using the two different types of sampling pumps during two sampling events in July and August 2005. A test conducted to assess the effect of stagnation on VOC concentrations in water trapped in the system's pump-tubing reel showed that concentrations were not affected. A comparison was conducted

  4. Effects of varied doses of psilocybin on time interval reproduction in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Jirí; Wittmann, Marc; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2008-04-11

    Action of a hallucinogenic substance, psilocybin, on internal time representation was investigated in two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies: Experiment 1 with 12 subjects and graded doses, and Experiment 2 with 9 subjects and a very low dose. The task consisted in repeated reproductions of time intervals in the range from 1.5 to 5s. The effects were assessed by parameter kappa of the 'dual klepsydra' model of internal time representation, fitted to individual response data and intra-individually normalized with respect to initial values. The estimates kappa were in the same order of magnitude as in earlier studies. In both experiments, kappa was significantly increased by psilocybin at 90 min from the drug intake, indicating a higher loss rate of the internal duration representation. These findings are tentatively linked to qualitative alterations of subjective time in altered states of consciousness.

  5. Assessing human reorientation ability inside virtual reality environments: the effects of retention interval and landmark characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Andrea; Picucci, Luciana; Caffò, Alessandro O; Lancioni, Giulio E; Gyselinck, Valérie

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the navigational behaviour of adult humans following a disorientation procedure that perturbed their egocentric frame of reference. The assessment was carried out in a virtual reality (VR) environment by manipulating the disorientation procedure, the retention interval, the relative positions of target and landmark. The results of experiment I demonstrated that adding a physical rotation to a virtual disorientation procedure did not yield an additional decrease in searching performance. The results of experiment II showed that shortening the delay between study and test phase decreased the errors more markedly for geometric than landmark ones. An orientation specificity effect due to the manipulation of the relative position between target and landmark was discussed across the experiments. In conclusion, VR seemed to be a valuable method for studying human reorientation. Moreover, the virtual experimental setting involved here promoted knowledge of the relationship between working memory and spatial reorientation paradigm.

  6. Effect of interpregnancy interval on the success rate of trial of labor after cesarean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietveld, A L; Teunissen, P W; Kazemier, B M; De Groot, C J M

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the association between interpregnancy interval and success of vaginal birth after cesarean. Retrospective 10-year cohort study of pregnant women with one prior cesarean, who opted for trial of labor (n=36 653). Interpregnancy interval is the time between cesarean and next conception. Vaginal birth success rates were compared between six interval groups. Analysis was performed pooled as well as stratified for induction of labor. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated. Success rate in the reference group (12 to 24 months) was 72%. Success rates were similar among those with an interval of less than 24 months. Intervals of 24 months or more showed a decrease in success rate; 70% in 24- to 35-month intervals (adjusted odds ratio 0.92 (0.87 to 0.98)), 67% in 36- to 59-month intervals (adjusted odds ratio 0.87 (0.81 to 0.94)) and 62% in intervals of more than 60 months (adjusted odds ratio 0.77 (0.67 to 0.88)). An interpregnancy interval of success of vaginal birth after cesarean. Success rates decrease when interval increases.

  7. Effects of self-paced interval and continuous training on health markers in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Luke J; Bailey, Stephen J; Krustrup, Peter; Fulford, Jonathan; Smietanka, Chris; Jones, Andrew M

    2017-11-01

    To compare the effects of self-paced high-intensity interval and continuous cycle training on health markers in premenopausal women. Forty-five inactive females were randomised to a high-intensity interval training (HIIT; n = 15), continuous training (CT; n = 15) or an inactive control (CON; n = 15) group. HIIT performed 5 × 5 min sets comprising repetitions of 30-s low-, 20-s moderate- and 10-s high-intensity cycling with 2 min rest between sets. CT completed 50 min of continuous cycling. Training was completed self-paced, 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. Peak oxygen uptake (16 ± 8 and 21 ± 12%), resting heart rate (HR) (-5 ± 9 and -4 ± 7 bpm) and visual and verbal learning improved following HIIT and CT compared to CON (P HIIT (P HIIT and CT, and there were no changes in fasting serum lipids, fasting blood [glucose] or [glucose] during an oral glucose tolerance test following either HIIT or CT (P > 0.05). No outcome variable changed in the CON group (P > 0.05). Twelve weeks of self-paced HIIT and CT were similarly effective at improving cardiorespiratory fitness, resting HR and cognitive function in inactive premenopausal women, whereas blood pressure, submaximal HR, well-being and body mass adaptations were training-type-specific. Both training methods improved established health markers, but the adaptations to HIIT were evoked for a lower time commitment.

  8. Training effects on endurance capacity in maximal intermittent exercise: comparison between continuous and interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanisho, Kei; Hirakawa, Kazufumi

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 2 different training regimens, continuous (CT) and interval (IT), on endurance capacity in maximal intermittent exercise. Eighteen lacrosse players were divided into CT (n = 6), IT (n = 6), and nontraining (n = 6) groups. Both training groups trained for 3 days per week for 15 weeks using bicycle ergometers. Continuous training performed continuous aerobic training for 20-25 minutes, and IT performed high-intensity pedaling comprising 10 sets of 10-second maximal pedaling with 20-second recovery periods. Maximal anaerobic power, maximal oxygen uptake (V(O2max)), and intermittent power output were measured before and after the training period. The intermittent exercise test consisted of a set of ten 10-second maximal sprints with 40-second intervals. Maximal anaerobic power significantly increased in IT (p training groups (p intermittent exercise test, the average of the total mean power output (1-10 sets) increased in both training groups (p training reduced lactate production and increased the mean power output, but there was little effect on high-power endurance capacity in maximal intermittent exercise. In contrast, although lactate production did not decrease, IT improved fatigability and mean power output in the last stage. These results indicated that the endurance capacities for maximal intermittent and continuous exercises were not identical. Ball game players should therefore improve their endurance capacity with high-intensity intermittent exercise, and it is insufficient to assess their capacity with only V(O2max) or continuous exercise tests.

  9. Mood and selective attention in the cold: the effect of interval versus continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Matthew D; Muller, Sarah M; Kim, Chul-Ho; Ryan, Edward J; Gunstad, John; Glickman, Ellen L

    2011-07-01

    Both mood and cognitive function are altered in cold environments. Body warming through exercise may improve Stroop interference score and lessen total negative mood. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of equal caloric bouts of interval (INT) and continuous (CONT) exercise on mood and selective attention in the cold. Eleven young men underwent two experimental trials in 5°C air. Both trials consisted of 90 min acute cold exposure (ACE), 30 min exercise (INT vs. CONT), and 60 min recovery (REC). The Profile of Mood States (POMS) and Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT) were administered at four time points. Mean body temperature decreased during ACE, increased during exercise, and decreased during REC. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a main effect for time for several of the POMS sub scores. In particular, negative mood was significantly decreased after exercise relative to ACE and then significantly increased during REC. Further, CONT appears to be more effective than INT at decreasing negative mood. Components of the SCWT supported both the arousal and distraction theories for simple perception, but no significant effects were shown for the interference score. In the cold, exercise decreases negative mood but does not appear to affect selective attention. Further mechanistic studies could determine the best mode and intensity of exercise for improving cognitive function in the cold.

  10. Cumulative Instructional Time and Relative Effectiveness Conclusions: Extending Research on Response Intervals, Learning, and Measurement Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Michelle P; Skinner, Christopher H; Forbes, Bethany E; McCurdy, Merilee; Coleman, Mari Beth; Davis, Kristie; Gettelfinger, Maripat

    2016-03-01

    Adapted alternating treatments designs were used to evaluate three computer-based flashcard reading interventions (1-s, 3-s, or 5-s response intervals) across two students with disabilities. When learning was plotted with cumulative instructional sessions on the horizontal axis, the session-series graphs suggest that the interventions were similarly effective. When the same data were plotted as a function of cumulative instructional seconds, time-series graphs suggest that the 1-s intervention caused the most rapid learning for one student. Discussion focuses on applied implications of comparative effectiveness studies and why measures of cumulative instructional time are needed to identify the most effective intervention(s).Comparative effectiveness studies may not identify the intervention which causes the most rapid learning.Session-series repeated measures are not the same as time-series repeated measures.Measuring the time students spend in each intervention (i.e., cumulative instructional seconds) allows practitioners to identify interventions that enhance learning most rapidly.Student time spent working under interventions is critical for drawing applied conclusions.

  11. A study of the effect of birth interval on the development of 9-year-old schoolchildren in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E C

    1979-01-01

    The effect of birth interval on some physical and mental aspects of 9-year old children was studied in Singapore between September 1974 and July 1975. Birth interval falls into 2 main categories -- B1, the interval preceding the birth of the index child and B2, the interval following the birth of the child. It was hypothesized that the shorter the interval B1 the lower the vocabulary score and general attainment of the index child would be and the shorter the interval B2 the lesser the physical growth of the index child would be. A significant difference was found in the Mill Hill vocabulary score, Raven's Progressive Matrices score, as well as height and weight for children born with varying birth intervals. Children with shorter B1 intervals do score lower than those with longer B1 intervals, there being a gradual improvement as B1 progresses from less than 12 months to over 24 months. The relationship is linear. The effect of B2 is less marked and is inconsistent. The most striking correlation is between B1 and vocabulary score, B1 accounting for about 39% of the variation in the Mill Hill test. B2 does not have as great an effect as expected on height and weight, but it was significant at the 5% level for height. B1 is again more important. In both height and weight, neither birth interval is as important as in the verbal and perception tests. Neither family size nor language spoken at home affect the vocabulary score to any significant extent. Income does have an association with all 4 major variables considered and is 2nd in importance to B1 as a predictor variable in the cases of vocabulary score and Raven's score.

  12. Effect of cutting intervals and heights in forage productivity of Moringa oleifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos-Trejo O.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of Moringa oleifera as fodder is due to its good nutritional characteristics and high yield of fresh biomass. Eastern Yucatan, Mexico has favorable soil and climatic conditions for its establishment. The aim of this work was to estimate forage productivity of Moringa oleifera in two cutting intervals and three different heights. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Site of Tizimín fron the National Institute of Forest, Agricultural and lLvestock Researches (INIFAP. The experimental units were placed in a completely randomized design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement and four replications. Forage yield was quantified and foliage samples were taken for DM content. Significant differences (p0.05 were found. In conclusion, during the evaluation of Moringa oleifera, it was found that the best performance in this work is obtained when the cuts on the soles are made every 60 days at a height of 40 cm (1.9119 t ha-1 cut-1; however, more agronomic studies of this plant are recommended in the eastern Yucatan, such as: planting density, arrangement, partnerships with other shrub species in the region, rain and dry periods, in order to have a viable and profitable option forage productivity of this plant.

  13. Acute effect of passive rest intervals and stretching exercise on multiple set performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Claudio do Rosário Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n4p435 The objective of this study was to determine the acute effect of passive rest intervals and static stretching between resistance exercise sets on the number of maximal repetitions (RM, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, and cumulative number of repetitions in multiple sets with a workload adjusted by the 8RM test. Fourteen trained male subjects (24.4 ± 2.1 years; 79.1 ± 7.1 kg; 175.4 ± 5.6 cm were studied. On the first two visits, the subjects were submitted to the test and 8RM re-test using chest press (CP and squat (SQ exercises. On the two subsequent visits, all subjects were randomly assigned to two experimental situations: a 8RM test with a passive rest interval (PI; b 8RM test with static stretching (SS. The subjects performed three sets of CP and SQ, intercalated with 2 minutes of passive rest or 30 seconds of static stretching. ANOVA revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in the second (PI = 6 ± 0.8 x SS = 5.2 ± 1.0 repetitions and third (PI = 4.1 ± 0.8 X SS = 3.3 ± 0.6 repetitions sets for CP and only in the third set (PI = 4.9 ± 0.8 X SS = 4.2 ± 1.0 repetitions for SQ. For RPE, the Wilcoxon test showed significant differences (p < 0.05 between all sets for CP and SQ. For the cumulative number of repetitions, the paired t-test revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 for CP (PI = 18.3 ± 1.5 X SS = 16.8 ± 1.6 repetitions. These results indicate that static stretching between resistance exercise sets decreases 8RM test performance.

  14. QTc interval in young Gujarati hypertensives: Effect of disease, antihypertensive monotherapy, and coexisting risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Jayesh Dalpatbhai; Gadhavi, Bhakti P; Makwana, Amit H; Mehta, Hemant B; Shah, Chinmay J; Gokhale, Pradnya A

    2016-01-01

    To study the effect of disease duration, treatment and risk factors on QTc interval among young hypertensives. A case-control study was conducted on 142 hypertensives (60 males, 82 females) taking calcium channel blocker (CCB) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) as monotherapy. After blood pressure measurement, we recorded lead II electrocardiograph with minimum ten waveforms. QTc was derived from average of ten values using Bazett's formula. QTc interval >0.43 s in male and >0.45 s in female was considered abnormal. Cases had mean duration of hypertension 5 years, mean age of 40 years, and poor blood pressure control (systolic blood pressure >140 and diastolic blood pressure >90 mm of Hg). Newly diagnosed hypertensives had significantly higher QTc values than the matched known cases (0.44 vs. 0.42 s, P < 0.05). Known hypertensives did not differ significantly in QTc values by the duration of disease. CCB users showed small, insignificant disadvantage for abnormally prolonged QTc values than ACEI users. With coexisting diabetes, smoking, and positive family history of hypertension, there was odds risk of 7.69, 2.75, and 2.54, respectively for prolonged QTc. Our study showed prolonged QTc in hypertensives more so in newly diagnosed, unaffected by duration or use of ACEI, or CCB but associated with modifiable risk factors. This underscores high risk of repolarization abnormality-induced future events, suggesting early screening of hypertension, strict blood pressure control, optimum use of QTc measurement, and preventive pharmacotherapy to reduce this aftermath.

  15. Trauma and memory: effects of post-event misinformation, retrieval order, and retention interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Alonso, Pedro M; Goodman, Gail S

    2008-01-01

    The present study concerned effects of misinformation, retrieval order, and retention interval on eyewitness memory for a traumatic event (a vivid murder). Relations between misinformation acceptance and compliance were also examined. The classic three-stage misinformation paradigm (Loftus, 1979) was employed, with a multi-component recognition test added. Either immediately or 2 weeks after viewing a distressing film, 232 adults read a narrative (misleading or control) about the murder and then took a recognition test that tapped memory for central and peripheral details. Test-item order either matched the chronology of the film or was randomly determined. Significant misinformation effects were obtained. Moreover, control participants were more accurate in response to questions about central than peripheral information; however, this was not so for misinformed participants. Sequential but not random retrieval order resulted in a higher proportion of correct responses for central as opposed to peripheral misinformation questions. Compliance was significantly related to misinformation effects. Delay increased participants' suggestibility, impaired memory accuracy, and produced higher confidence ratings for misinformed participants compared to controls. Findings indicate that even for a highly negative event, adults' memory is not immune to inaccuracies and suggestive influences.

  16. [Effect of high-intensity interval training on the reduction of glycosylated hemoglobin in type-2 diabetic adult patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera Eguía, Raúl Alberto; Russell Guzmán, Javier Antonio; Soto Muñoz, Marcelo Enrique; Villegas González, Bastián Eduardo; Poblete Aro, Carlos Emilio; Ibacache Palma, Alejandro

    2015-03-05

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the major non-communicable chronic diseases in the world. Its prevalence in Chile is significant, and complications associated with this disease involve great costs, which is why prevention and treatment of this condition are essential. Physical exercise is an effective means for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The emergence of new forms of physical training, such as "high intensity interval training", presents novel therapeutic alternatives for patients and health care professionals. To assess the validity and applicability of the results regarding the effectiveness of high intensity interval training in reducing glycosylated hemoglobin in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and answer the following question: In subjects with type 2 diabetes, can the method of high intensity interval training compared to moderate intensity exercise decrease glycosylated hemoglobin? We performed a critical analysis of the article "Feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of high intensity interval training in type 2 diabetes". We found no significant differences in the amount of glycosylated hemoglobin between groups of high intensity interval training and moderate-intensity exercise upon completion of the study (p>0.05). In adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, high intensity interval training does not significantly improve glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Despite this, the high intensity interval training method shows as much improvement in body composition and physical condition as the moderate intensity exercise program.

  17. Effect of Calving Interval on Milk Yield and Quality Lactation in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Baul

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Researches were made on 125 lactations from Romanian Black Spotted cows, aimed at studying the evolution of the interval between calving on milk quantity and quality. Data were recorded and statistically analyzed by means of ANOVA / MANOVA determining the average values and dispersion indices. Based on averages parameters of lactation curves were calculated using the mathematical model proposed by Wood, called the incomplete gamma function. The interval between calving significantly influenced (p < 0.05 lactation curve aspect for the percentage of dry defatted from milk for the daily growth rate (parameter c between calving interval 351 to 450 days and of over 450 days (0.00008. Also we’ve met significant differences (p < 0.05 for the initial concentration of the percentage of total solids in milk for parameter a from the interval between calving up to 350 days and calving interval 351-450 days (0.80101.

  18. Pharmacokinetics and effect on the corrected QT interval of single-dose escitalopram in healthy elderly compared with younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyewon; Kim, Anhye; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Park, Sang-In; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Cho, Joo-Youn; Chung, Jae-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Escitalopram is the (S)-enantiomer of citalopram that has a potential QT prolonging effect. In this study, 12 healthy elderly individuals received a single oral dose of escitalopram (20 mg), and their pharmacokinetics and QT effect data were compared with data from 33 younger adults obtained in a previous study. Serial blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected and ECG was performed up to 48 h postdose. The elderly and younger adults showed similar pharmacokinetic profiles. The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence interval) of the elderly compared with the younger adults were 1.02 (0.89-1.17) and 1.01 (0.86-1.17) for the maximum plasma concentration and area under the concentration-time curve, respectively. The mean baseline-adjusted QT (dQT) time profiles were similar and the mean values of maximum dQT were not significantly different between the elderly and the younger adults. The linear mixed-effect model indicated a weak but positive relationship between the escitalopram concentration and dQT, with an estimated coefficient of concentration of 0.43-0.54. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetics and QT effect of a single dose of escitalopram observed in the elderly without comorbidities and younger adults were generally similar.

  19. Atropine unmasks bed-rest effect - A spectral analysis of cardiac interbeat intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, Ary L.; Goldwater, Danielle; Bhargava, Valmik

    1986-01-01

    Heart rate spectral data obtained for 10 male subjects between 35-49 years following orthostatic tolerance testing with lower body negative pressure prebed rest and after 7-10 days of bed rest, while on placebo and after intravenous atropine are analyzed. Comparison of the spectral atropine rms for subjects prebed rest and after bed rest reveal a decrease from 63 + or - 24 ms to 40 + or - 23 ms. It is observed that heart rate interval variability for subjects after bed rest and with atropine is reduced; the heart rate at bed rest with atropine is increased from 70.4 + or - 12.4 beats/min prebed rest to 83.7 + or - 18.9 beats/min; and the exercise tolerance time for subjects in the atropine prebed-rest phase (658 + or - 352 s) is higher than the bed-rest phase (505 + or - 252 s). It is noted that bed rest impairs the cardiovascular capacity to adaptively modulate physiological responses, atropine exposes bed-rest deconditioning effects, and spectral analysis is useful for studying the effects of bed-rest deconditioning on cardiac dynamics.

  20. Effect of vitamin E succinate on inflammatory cytokines induced by high-intensity interval training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sarir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Scope: The anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin E under moderate exercises has been evaluated. However, the effect of vitamin E succinate, which has more potent anti-inflammatory effect than other isomers of vitamin E has not been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E succinate on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a and interleukin-6 (IL-6 production induced by high-intensity interval training (HIIT. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 24 rats were randomly divided into control (C, supplementation (S, HIIT, and HIIT + supplementation (HIIT+S groups. HIIT training protocol on a treadmill (at a speed of 40-54 m/min and vitamin E succinate supplementation (60 mg/kg/day was conducted for 6 weeks. Results: Serum IL-6 in the HIIT group significantly increased compared with the C group (350.42 ± 123.31 pg/mL vs 158.60 ± 41.96 pg/mL; P = 0.002. Also, serum TNF-a concentrations significantly enhanced (718.15 ± 133.42 pg/mL vs 350.87 ± 64.93 pg/mL; P = 0.001 in the HIIT group compared with the C group. Treatment of the training group with vitamin E numerically reduced IL-6 and TNF-a when compared with the HIIT group (217.31 ± 29.21 and 510.23 ± 217.88, respectively, P > 0.05. However, no significant changes were observed in serum TNF-a (P = 0.31 and IL-6 (P = 0.52 concentrations in the HIIT + S group compared with the C group. Conclusion: HIIT-induced IL-6 and TNF-α decreased by administration of Vitamin E succinate.

  1. Effect of vitamin E succinate on inflammatory cytokines induced by high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarir, Hadi; Emdadifard, Ghodsieh; Farhangfar, Homayoun; TaheriChadorneshin, Hossein

    2015-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin E under moderate exercises has been evaluated. However, the effect of vitamin E succinate, which has more potent anti-inflammatory effect than other isomers of vitamin E has not been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E succinate on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production induced by high-intensity interval training (HIIT). In the present study, 24 rats were randomly divided into control (C), supplementation (S), HIIT, and HIIT + supplementation (HIIT+S) groups. HIIT training protocol on a treadmill (at a speed of 40-54 m/min) and vitamin E succinate supplementation (60 mg/kg/day) was conducted for 6 weeks. Serum IL-6 in the HIIT group significantly increased compared with the C group (350.42 ± 123.31 pg/mL vs 158.60 ± 41.96 pg/mL; P = 0.002). Also, serum TNF-α concentrations significantly enhanced (718.15 ± 133.42 pg/mL vs 350.87 ± 64.93 pg/mL; P = 0.001) in the HIIT group compared with the C group. Treatment of the training group with vitamin E numerically reduced IL-6 and TNF-α when compared with the HIIT group (217.31 ± 29.21 and 510.23 ± 217.88, respectively, P > 0.05). However, no significant changes were observed in serum TNF-α (P = 0.31) and IL-6 (P = 0.52) concentrations in the HIIT + S group compared with the C group. HIIT-induced IL-6 and TNF-α decreased by administration of Vitamin E succinate.

  2. Effects of Paradigm and Inter-Stimulus Interval on Age Differences in Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.; Seta, Susan E.; Roker, LaToya A.; Lehr, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine parameters affecting age differences in eyeblink classical conditioning in a large sample of young and middle-aged rabbits. A total of 122 rabbits of mean ages of 4 or 26 mo were tested at inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 600 or 750 msec in the delay or trace paradigms. Paradigm affected both age groups…

  3. High-intensity Interval Training Frequency: Cardiometabolic Effects and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinou, Pinelopi S; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Giannaki, Christoforos D; Terzis, Gerasimos; Hadjicharalambous, Marios

    2018-02-02

    The effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) frequency on cardiometabolic health and quality of life were examined in 35 healthy inactive adults (age: 31.7±2.6 yrs, VO 2 peak: 32.7±7.4 ml·: kg -1 ·: min -1 ). Participants were randomly assigned to a control (CON) and two training groups, which performed 10×60-s cycling at ~83% of peak power, two (HIIT-2) or three times per week (HIIT-3) for eight weeks. Compared with CON, both training regimes resulted in similar improvements in VO 2 peak (HIIT-2: 10.8%, p=0.048, HIIT-3: 13.6%, p=0.017), waist circumference (HIIT-2: -1.4 cm, p=0.048, HIIT-3: -2.4 cm, p=0.028), thigh cross-sectional area (HIIT-2: 11.4 cm 2 , p=0.001, HIIT-3: 9.3 cm 2 , p=0.001) and the physical health component of quality of life (HIIT-2: 8.4, p=0.001, HIIT-3: 12.2, p=0.001). However, HIIT-3 conferred additional health-related benefits by reducing total body and trunk fat percentage (pHIIT only twice per week is effective in promoting cardiometabolic health-related adaptations and quality of life in inactive adults. However, higher HIIT frequency is required for an effect on fat deposits, cholesterol and mental component of well-being. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Cardiac rehabilitation in chronic heart failure: effect of an 8-week, high-intensity interval training versus continuous training

    OpenAIRE

    Freyssin, Céline; Prieur, Fabrice; Verkindt, Chantal; Benaich, Philippe; Maunier, Sébastien; Blanc, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    International audience; OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of an 8-week, high-intensity interval training protocol versus continuous training. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Cardiac rehabilitation center. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (N=26; mean age ± SD, 54±12y) with chronic heart failure were enrolled in a cardiac rehabilitation program for 8 weeks. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups that performed either interval training (IT) or continuous training (CT). ...

  5. Confidence Intervals for the Probability of Superiority Effect Size Measure and the Area under a Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, John; Mullen, Tara

    2012-01-01

    It is good scientific practice to the report an appropriate estimate of effect size and a confidence interval (CI) to indicate the precision with which a population effect was estimated. For comparisons of 2 independent groups, a probability-based effect size estimator (A) that is equal to the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve…

  6. Comparable Effects of Brief Resistance Exercise and Isotime Sprint Interval Exercise on Glucose Homeostasis in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas K. Tong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of a single bout of resistance exercise (RES on glycemic homeostasis to isotime sprint interval exercise (SIE using a within-subjects design. Nineteen nondiabetic males (age: 23.3±0.7 yrs; height: 173.1±1.2 cm; weight: 79.1±4.8 kg; % fat: 22.5±2.5% were studied. RES involved nine exercises of 10 repetitions at 75% 1-RM using a 2 : 2 s tempo and was interspersed with a one-minute recovery; SIE involved four 30 s’ all-out cycling effort interspersed with four minutes of active recovery. Plasma glucose and insulin in response to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test were assessed 12 h after exercise. In comparison to a no exercise control trial (CON, the area under curve (AUC of plasma glucose was reduced with both RES and SIE (P0.05. Such findings suggest that the RES may represent a potential alternative to the SIE in the development of time-efficient lifestyle intervention strategies for improving diabetes risk factors in healthy populations.

  7. Witnesses stumbling down memory lane: The effects of alcohol intoxication, retention interval, and repeated interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagsand, Angelica V; Roos Af Hjelmsäter, Emma; Granhag, Pär Anders; Fahlke, Claudia; Söderpalm Gordh, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Intoxicated eyewitnesses are often discredited by investigators and in court, but few studies have examined how alcohol affects witnesses' memory. The primary aim of the present study was to examine how intoxication (alcohol vs. control), retention interval (immediate vs. one week delay), and number of interviews (one vs. two interviews) affect witnesses' memory. The participants (N = 99) were randomly assigned to consume either orange juice or alcohol mixed with orange juice, and they all witnessed a filmed mock crime afterwards. The recall took place either (a) immediately and after a one week delay or (b) after a one week delay only. No main effect of alcohol was found on the quantity or quality of the witnesses' statements. Both intoxicated and sober witnesses recalled more details, and were more accurate, during immediate compared to delayed recall. For witnesses interviewed twice, an average of 30% new details were provided in the second compared to the first interview, and these were highly accurate. In sum, contrary to what one can expect, intoxicated witnesses with a low to moderate blood alcohol concentration (below 0.10%) were reliable witnesses.

  8. Briefly delayed reinforcement effects on variable-ratio and yoked-interval schedule performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtyn, August F; Lattal, Kennon A

    2013-09-01

    Most investigations of briefly delayed reinforcement have involved schedules that arrange a time-plus-response requirement. The present experiment examined whether briefly delaying reinforcement on schedules that have a ratio requirement differs from results with schedules that have a time-plus-response requirement. Four pigeons responded on a two-component multiple schedule. One component arranged a variable-ratio (VR) 50 and the other a variable-interval (VI) schedule in which the distribution of reinforcers was yoked to the preceding VR schedule. Across a series of conditions, delays were imposed in both schedules. These delays were brief (0.25- or 0.5-s) unsignaled delays and, as control conditions, a 5-s unsignaled delay and a 0.5-s delay signaled by a blackout of the chamber. In the yoked-VI component, the brief unsignaled delay increased response rates in six of nine opportunities and increased the proportion of short interresponse times (IRTs) (reinforcement condition. The results replicate effects reported with time-based schedules and extend these observations by showing that changes commonly observed in VI performance with briefly delayed reinforcement are not characteristic of VR responding. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  9. Effects of autonomous motivational priming on motivation and affective responses towards high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Denver M Y; Teseo, Amanda J; Bray, Steven R

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effect of autonomous motivational priming on motivation, attitudes and intentions towards high-intensity interval training (HIT). Participants (N = 42) performed a graded exercise test to determine their peak aerobic power (WPEAK). At a subsequent testing session, participants were randomised to complete either an autonomous or neutral motivational priming task followed by a 10 × 1 HIT exercise protocol, alternating 1-min bouts of hard (70% WPEAK) and light (12.5% WPEAK) exercises for 20 min. Participants primed with autonomous motivation reported greater enjoyment, P = .009, ηp(2) = .16, and perceived competence, P = .005, ηp(2) = .18, post-exercise compared to those in the neutral priming condition. Participants in the autonomous motivational priming condition also reported more positive attitudes, P = .014, ηp(2) = .14, towards HIT; however, there was no difference between the conditions for task motivation during HIT or intentions, P = .53, ηp(2) = .01, to engage in HIT. These findings highlight autonomous motivational priming as a method of enhancing affective and motivational experiences regarding HIT.

  10. Inferring uncertainty from interval estimates: Effects of alpha level and numeracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke F. Rinne

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interval estimates are commonly used to descriptively communicate the degree of uncertainty in numerical values. Conventionally, low alpha levels (e.g., .05 ensure a high probability of capturing the target value between interval endpoints. Here, we test whether alpha levels and individual differences in numeracy influence distributional inferences. In the reported experiment, participants received prediction intervals for fictitious towns' annual rainfall totals (assuming approximately normal distributions. Then, participants estimated probabilities that future totals would be captured within varying margins about the mean, indicating the approximate shapes of their inferred probability distributions. Results showed that low alpha levels (vs. moderate levels; e.g., .25 more frequently led to inferences of over-dispersed approximately normal distributions or approximately uniform distributions, reducing estimate accuracy. Highly numerate participants made more accurate estimates overall, but were more prone to inferring approximately uniform distributions. These findings have important implications for presenting interval estimates to various audiences.

  11. Scene-context effect in visual memory is independent of retention interval1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    INOUE, KAZUYA; TAKEDA, YUJI

    2012-01-01

    ...) and the retention interval (short, long) between cued and target objects. In this paradigm, a dot cue was sequentially presented on 12 different objects of a scene, then the memory for one of the cued objects was tested...

  12. Scene‐context effect in visual memory is independent of retention interval

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    INOUE, KAZUYA; TAKEDA, YUJI

    2012-01-01

    ...) and the retention interval (short, long) between cued and target objects. In this paradigm, a dot cue was sequentially presented on 12 different objects of a scene, then the memory for one of the cued objects was tested...

  13. Effect of high-intensity interval exercise on basal triglyceride metabolism in non-obese men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bellou, Elena; Magkos, Faidon; Kouka, Tonia; Bouchalaki, Eirini; Sklaveniti, Dimitra; Maraki, Maria; Tsekouras, Yiannis E; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Kavouras, Stavros A; Sidossis, Labros S

    2013-01-01

    A single bout of high-intensity interval aerobic exercise has been shown to produce the same or greater metabolic benefits as continuous endurance exercise with considerably less energy expenditure...

  14. Psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery from high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leighton; Tiller, Nicholas B; Karageorghis, Costas I

    2017-03-01

    Numerous studies have examined the multifarious effects of music applied during exercise but few have assessed the efficacy of music as an aid to recovery. Music might facilitate physiological recovery via the entrainment of respiratory rhythms with music tempo. High-intensity exercise training is not typically associated with positive affective responses, and thus ways of assuaging negative affect warrant further exploration. This study assessed the psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery and prevalence of entrainment in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. Thirteen male runners (M age =20.2±1.9years; BMI=21.7±1.7; V̇O 2 max=61.6±6.1mL·kg·min -1 ) completed three exercise sessions comprising 5×5-min bouts of high-intensity intervals interspersed with 3-min periods of passive recovery. During recovery, participants were administered positively-valenced music of a slow-tempo (55-65bpm), fast-tempo (125-135bpm), or a no-music control. A range of measures including affective responses, RPE, cardiorespiratory indices (gas exchange and pulmonary ventilation), and music tempo-respiratory entrainment were recorded during exercise and recovery. Fast-tempo, positively-valenced music resulted in higher Feeling Scale scores throughout recovery periods (pmusic-moderated differences in cardiorespiratory responses. In conclusion, fast-tempo, positively-valenced music applied during recovery periods engenders a more pleasant experience. However, there is limited evidence that music expedites cardiorespiratory recovery in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. These findings have implications for athletic training strategies and individuals seeking to make high-intensity exercise sessions more pleasant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of high-intensity interval training on progression of cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nytrøen, Kari; Rustad, Lene Annette; Erikstad, Ingrid; Aukrust, Pål; Ueland, Thor; Lekva, Tove; Gude, Einar; Wilhelmsen, Nils; Hervold, Anders; Aakhus, Svend; Gullestad, Lars; Arora, Satish

    2013-11-01

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a progressive form of atherosclerosis occurring in heart transplant (HTx) recipients, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Given the atheroprotective effect of exercise on traditional atherosclerosis, we hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would reduce the progression of CAV among HTx recipients. Forty-three cardiac allograft recipients (mean ± SD age 51 ± 16 years; 67% men; time post-HTx 4.0 ± 2.2 years), all clinically stable and >18 years old, were randomized to either a HIIT group or control group (standard care) for 1 year. The effect of training on CAV progression was assessed by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). IVUS analysis revealed a significantly smaller mean increase [95% CI] in atheroma volume (PAV) of 0.9% [95% CI -;0.3% to 1.9%] in the HIIT group as compared with the control group, 2.5% [1.6% to 3.5%] (p = 0.021). Similarly, the mean increase in total atheroma volume (TAV) was 0.3 [0.0 to 0.6] mm(3)/mm in the HIT group vs 1.1 [0.6 to 1.7] mm(3)/mm in the control group (p = 0.020), and mean increase in maximal intimal thickness (MIT) was 0.02-0.01 to 0.04] mm in the HIIT group vs 0.05 [0.03 to 0.08] mm in the control group (p = 0.054). Qualitative plaque progression (virtual histology parameters) and inflammatory activity (biomarkers) were similar between the 2 groups during the study period. HIIT among maintenance HTx recipients resulted in a significantly impaired rate of CAV progression. Future larger studies should address whether exercise rehabilitation strategies should be included in CAV management protocols. © 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of interval and continuous exercise training on autonomic cardiac function in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Diego A; Arbillaga, Ane; Barberan-Garcia, Anael; Ramirez-Sarmiento, Alba; Torralba, Yolanda; Vilaró, Jordi; Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Gea, Joaquim; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Roca, Josep; Marco, Ester

    2016-01-01

    Both interval (IT) and continuous (CT) exercise training results in an improvement of aerobic capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, their effects on cardiac autonomic function remains unclear. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of a supervised CT vs IT on autonomic cardiac function in COPD patients. COPD patients were divided into two different groups according to training modality (IT or CT). Autonomic cardiac dysfunction (ACD) was defined as a heart rate recovery lower than 12 bpm heart rate after the first minute of maximal exercise (HRR1 ) and an abnormal chronotropic response (CR) to exercise (age: 68 (8) years, %FEV1 : 42 (13) predicted} were trained (15 subjects in the CT group, 14 subjects in the IT group). After training, both groups increased peak oxygen consumption [mean difference ΔVO2 peak: 156 mL/min (P = 0.04) on IT; and 210 mL/min (P = 0.01) on CT], HRR1 [IT, from 10.4 (5) to 13.8 (5) bpm (P = 0.04); and CT, from 14.3 (5) to 17.7 (5) bpm (P = 0.04)] and CR [IT, from 57% (22) to 81% (9) (P = 0.001); and CT, from 48% (28) to 73% (17) (P = 0.001)]. Sixteen patients showed ACD. Among these patients, HRR1 (P = 0.01 for IT and P = 0.04 for CT) and CR (P = 0.001 for IT and P = 0.002 for CT) were enhanced after training. Both IT and CT exercise training improve heart rate recovery and CR in COPD patients. These benefits could help to individualize exercise training. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Temporal Learning and Rhythmic Responding: No Reduction in the Proportion Easy Effect with Variable Response-Stimulus Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Schmidt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present report further investigates the proportion easy effect, a conflict-free version of the proportion congruent effect. In the proportion easy paradigm, it is observed that the difference in performance between easy (high contrast and hard (low contrast items is smaller in a task with mostly hard items relative to a task with mostly easy items. This effect has been interpreted as evidence for temporal learning: participants learn a faster pace (i.e., rhythm of responding in the mostly easy context, which boosts the contrast effect, and a slower pace in the mostly hard context. In the present experiment, intervals between trials were either fixed or randomly varied from trial to trial. Interestingly, the proportion easy effect was still present with variable intervals. These data suggest that participants do not learn the regularity in timing from one response to the next (which was highly inconsistent with variable intervals. As one alternative, participants might be learning the intervals between stimulus onset and responses, which were not manipulated. They could then use this learned timing information to prepare for responding at the anticipated time, resulting in rhythmic responding. The results further imply that variable response-stimulus intervals are insufficient for controlling for rhythmic biases.

  18. Effects of different irrigation intervals and plant density on morphological characteristics, grain and oil yields of sesame (Sesamum indicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parviz rezvani moghadam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of different irrigation intervals and plant density on morphological characteristics, grain and oil yields of sesame, an experiment was conducted at experimental station, college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Four different irrigation intervals (one, two, three and four weeks with four plant densities (20, 30, 40 and 50 plants/m2 were compared in a spilt plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with four replications. Irrigation intervals and plant densities allocated in main plots and subplots, respectively. Different characteristics such as plant height, distance of first capsule from soil surface, number of branches per plant, number of grains per capsule, number of capsules per plant, grain yield, 1000-seed weight, harvest index and oil yield were recorded. The results showed that there were no significant difference between different irrigation intervals in terms of distance of first capsule from soil surface, number of grains per capsule, 1000-seed weight and harvest index. Different irrigation intervals had significant effects on plant height, number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, grain yield and oil yield. There were significant differences between different plant densities in terms of distance of first capsule from soil surface, number of branches per plant, number of graines per capsule, number of capsules per plant, grain yield, harvest index and oil yield. The highest grain yield (798/7 kg/ha and oil yield (412/8 kg/ha were obtained at one week and four weeks irrigation intervals, respectively. Between all treatments, 50 plants/m2 and one week irrigation interval produced the highest grain yield (914/7 kg/ha and oil yield (478/6 kg/ha. Because of shortage of water in Mashhad condition, the results recommended that, 50 plants/m2 and two weeks irrigation interval produced rather acceptable grain yield, with less water consumption.

  19. Effect of the interpregnancy interval after an abortion on maternal and perinatal health in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Agudelo, A; Belizán, J M; Breman, R; Brockman, S C; Rosas-Bermudez, A

    2005-04-01

    To investigate whether the length of the interval between an abortion and the next pregnancy is associated with increased risks of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in Latin America. Retrospective cross-sectional study using information from 258,108 women delivering singleton infants and whose previous pregnancy resulted in abortion recorded in the Perinatal Information System database of the Latin American Centre for Perinatology and Human Development, Montevideo, Uruguay, between 1985 and 2002. Adjusted odds ratios were obtained through logistic regression analysis. Compared with the post-abortion interpregnancy intervals of 18 to 23 months, intervals shorter than 6 months were significantly associated with increased risks of maternal anemia, premature rupture of membranes, low birth weight, very low birth weight, preterm delivery, and very preterm delivery. In Latin America, post-abortion interpregnancy intervals shorter than 6 months are independently associated with increased risks of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in the next pregnancy. Post-abortion interpregnancy interval (PAII): the time elapsed between the day of the abortion and the first day of the last menstrual period for the index pregnancy.

  20. Finite-size effects on return interval distributions for weakest-link-scaling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristopulos, Dionissios T.; Petrakis, Manolis P.; Kaniadakis, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    The Weibull distribution is a commonly used model for the strength of brittle materials and earthquake return intervals. Deviations from Weibull scaling, however, have been observed in earthquake return intervals and the fracture strength of quasibrittle materials. We investigate weakest-link scaling in finite-size systems and deviations of empirical return interval distributions from the Weibull distribution function. Our analysis employs the ansatz that the survival probability function of a system with complex interactions among its units can be expressed as the product of the survival probability functions for an ensemble of representative volume elements (RVEs). We show that if the system comprises a finite number of RVEs, it obeys the κ-Weibull distribution. The upper tail of the κ-Weibull distribution declines as a power law in contrast with Weibull scaling. The hazard rate function of the κ-Weibull distribution decreases linearly after a waiting time τc∝n1/m, where m is the Weibull modulus and n is the system size in terms of representative volume elements. We conduct statistical analysis of experimental data and simulations which show that the κ Weibull provides competitive fits to the return interval distributions of seismic data and of avalanches in a fiber bundle model. In conclusion, using theoretical and statistical analysis of real and simulated data, we demonstrate that the κ-Weibull distribution is a useful model for extreme-event return intervals in finite-size systems.

  1. Finite-size effects on return interval distributions for weakest-link-scaling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristopulos, Dionissios T; Petrakis, Manolis P; Kaniadakis, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    The Weibull distribution is a commonly used model for the strength of brittle materials and earthquake return intervals. Deviations from Weibull scaling, however, have been observed in earthquake return intervals and the fracture strength of quasibrittle materials. We investigate weakest-link scaling in finite-size systems and deviations of empirical return interval distributions from the Weibull distribution function. Our analysis employs the ansatz that the survival probability function of a system with complex interactions among its units can be expressed as the product of the survival probability functions for an ensemble of representative volume elements (RVEs). We show that if the system comprises a finite number of RVEs, it obeys the κ-Weibull distribution. The upper tail of the κ-Weibull distribution declines as a power law in contrast with Weibull scaling. The hazard rate function of the κ-Weibull distribution decreases linearly after a waiting time τ(c) ∝ n(1/m), where m is the Weibull modulus and n is the system size in terms of representative volume elements. We conduct statistical analysis of experimental data and simulations which show that the κ Weibull provides competitive fits to the return interval distributions of seismic data and of avalanches in a fiber bundle model. In conclusion, using theoretical and statistical analysis of real and simulated data, we demonstrate that the κ-Weibull distribution is a useful model for extreme-event return intervals in finite-size systems.

  2. Effect of high-intensity interval training on cardiovascular function, VO2max, and muscular force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Allen, Ryan P; Roberson, Daniel W; Jurancich, Matt

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiovascular function, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular force. Active, young (age and body fat = 25.3 ± 4.5 years and 14.3 ± 6.4%) men and women (N = 20) of a similar age, physical activity, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) completed 6 sessions of HIIT consisting of repeated Wingate tests over a 2- to 3-week period. Subjects completed 4 Wingate tests on days 1 and 2, 5 on days 3 and 4, and 6 on days 5 and 6. A control group of 9 men and women (age and body fat = 22.8 ± 2.8 years and 15.2 ± 6.9%) completed all testing but did not perform HIIT. Changes in resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), VO2max, body composition, oxygen (O2) pulse, peak, mean, and minimum power output, fatigue index, and voluntary force production of the knee flexors and extensors were examined pretraining and posttraining. Results showed significant (p VO2max, O2 pulse, and Wingate-derived power output with HIIT. The magnitude of improvement in VO2max was related to baseline VO2max (r = -0.44, p = 0.05) and fatigue index (r = 0.50, p 0.05) in resting BP, HR, or force production was revealed. Data show that HIIT significantly enhanced VO2max and O2 pulse and power output in active men and women.

  3. Hemodynamic effects of nebivolol in men: comparison of radionuclide angiocardiography with systolic time intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Crée, J; Franken, P; Vandevivere, J; Geukens, H; Verhaegen, H

    1988-06-01

    In a subacute experiment the authors studied the effects of a fourteen -day treatment with nebivolol, 5 mg once a day, in 10 healthy male volunteers with a mean age of thirty-one, twenty-five to thirty-nine years, by comparing the results of the resting ratio of the preejection period (PEP) to the left ventricular ejection time (LVET), as measured by systolic time intervals (STI), with the results obtained by equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography (ERNA), using technetium 99m-labeled autologous red blood cells as a marker. A submaximal treadmill exercise test performed before and during treatment demonstrated that nebivolol significantly (p less than 0.01) reduced peak exercise heart rate and systolic blood pressure from a mean value of 158 +/- 5.4 bpm to 131 +/- 4.3 bpm and from 171 +/- 4.9 mmHg to 144 +/- 4.5 mmHg respectively. The data from the STI and ERNA were calculated and analyzed independently by two observers. A highly significant (r = 0.8182, p = 0.0038) correlation was found between the changes of stroke volume (SV) and PEPc/LVETc during treatment with nebivolol. Furthermore end-diastolic volume significantly(p = 0.03) increased from a mean value of 177 +/- 10.1 ml to 198 +/- 6 ml and stroke volume significantly (p = 0.01) increased from 120 +/- 6.8 ml to 136 +/- 6.3 ml. Systemic vascular resistance tended to decrease from a mean value of 11.4 +/- 1.28 units to 10.6 +/- 1.10 units. No changes could be observed either in ejection fraction or in cardiac output.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Effect of different irrigation intervals and plant density on yield and yield components of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ghadir noorooz poor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different irrigation intervals and plant density on yield and yield components of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa, an experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2002. A split-plot layout based on randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Irrigation intervals (7, 14 and 21 days were allocated to main plots and different plant densities (150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 plant/m2 allocated to sub plots. Plant height, number of branch per plant, number of grain per plant, number of seed per follicule, number of follicule per plant, grain weight per plant, biomass, 1000 seed weight, grain yield and harvest index were recorded. Results showed that irrigation intervals had significant effects on all of the characteristics with the exception of 1000 seed weight and harvest index (HI. Plant density did not have significant effects on 1000 seed weight, number of seed per follicule and plant height. There were significant differences between biological yield, HI, number of follicules per plant and grain yield of different plant densities. The one week irrigation interval produced more grain yield compared with the three weeks irrigation intervals (752 vs. 355 kg/ha. The greatest grain yield was obtained with one week irrigation interval and 250 plant/m2. It seems that due to the lack of water in the area, 150 – 250 plant/m2 with two weeks irrigation interval is the best combination for Black Cumin grain production in Mashhad.

  5. Effects of irrigation intervals and organic manure on morphological traits, essential oil content and yield of oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerami, Farzad; Moghaddam, Parviz R; Ghorbani, Reza; Hassani, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of irrigation intervals and cattle manure levels on morphological traits, essential oil content and yield of oregano, an experiment was conducted at the experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Iran. The experimental design was split-plots, arranged in randomized complete blocks with three replications. Main plots including irrigation intervals (1, 2 and 3 weeks) and four levels of cattle manure at 0, 10, 20 and 30 t ha-1 were allocated to sub plots. Our results showed that increasing irrigation intervals reduced values of all morphological traits except for proportion of stems. Also, values for stems number, plant spread, stem diameter, leaf area, fresh and dry herb yield increased by increasing cattle manure levels. On the other hand, morphological traits not influenced by interaction of treatments except for plant spread and leaf area. The highest essential oil content (2.07%) and yield (66.62 kg ha-1) obtained in highest irrigation intervals and cattle manure levels. Whereas, 1 week irrigation interval without use of cattle manure produce lowest essential oil content (1.55%). For essential oil yield, the lowest value (46.37 kg ha-1) was found in 2 weeks irrigation interval with application of 20 t ha-1 cattle manure.

  6. The effects of maternal calving date and calving interval on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the growth performance of calves born to dams with different calving dates and calving intervals. Early calving dams produced calves with the lowest birth weights, the highest actual weaning weights and the highest pre-breeding heifer weights. The higher weaning weights of early ...

  7. Effectiveness and Safety of High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Monique E.

    2015-01-01

    IN BRIEF Recent research has shown that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) can promote improvements in glucose control and cardiovascular health in individuals with type 2 diabetes. This article summarizes the evidence and highlights the ways in which HIIT might be safely implemented as an adjunct to more traditional exercise approaches. PMID:25717277

  8. Effect of interpregnancy interval on the success rate of trial of labor after cesarean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, A. L.; Teunissen, P. W.; Kazemier, B. M.; de Groot, C. J. M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the association between interpregnancy interval and success of vaginal birth after cesarean. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective 10-year cohort study of pregnant women with one prior cesarean, who opted for trial of labor (n = 36 653). Interpregnancy

  9. Classical Conditioning and Retention of the Infant's Eyelid Response: Effects of Age and Interstimulus Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Arlene H.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reports that lengthy interstimulus interval facilitates classical conditioning in very young infants. Infants trained in a single session at 20 days of age exhibited reliable retention of the conditioned eyelid reflex 10 days later, but infants 10 days of age did not. (Author)

  10. Higher risk of pre-eclampsia after change of partner. An effect of longer interpregnancy intervals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Christensen, Kaare; Olsen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that pre-eclampsia is mainly a disease of first pregnancy, possibly associated with primipaternity. The interpregnancy interval, which is strongly associated with change of partner, has received little attention. In this study, based on Danish hospital records, we...

  11. The effects of maternal calving date and calving interval on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    kg for heifer pre-breeding weight. It is recommended that date of calving and actual weaning weight of calves should be considered when evaluating the reproductive and productive performance of breeding cows. Keywords: calving date, calving interval, growth rate, beef cows. *. Author to whom correspondence should be ...

  12. The effects of maternal calving date and calving interval on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Two models were developed. The following independent variables were used for model 1: year of birth, age of dam, sex of calf, previous calving group of the dam, calving group and birth weight of calf. Model 2 included the same variables as model 1, but calving group was replaced by calving interval. Birth weight of the calf.

  13. Confidence intervals for effect sizes: compliance and clinical significance in the Journal of Consulting and clinical Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgaard, Eric C; Fowler, Robert L

    2010-06-01

    In 2005, the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (JCCP) became the first American Psychological Association (APA) journal to require statistical measures of clinical significance, plus effect sizes (ESs) and associated confidence intervals (CIs), for primary outcomes (La Greca, 2005). As this represents the single largest editorial effort to improve statistical reporting practices in any APA journal in at least a decade, in this article we investigate the efficacy of that change. All intervention studies published in JCCP in 2003, 2004, 2007, and 2008 were reviewed. Each article was coded for method of clinical significance, type of ES, and type of associated CI, broken down by statistical test (F, t, chi-square, r/R(2), and multivariate modeling). By 2008, clinical significance compliance was 75% (up from 31%), with 94% of studies reporting some measure of ES (reporting improved for individual statistical tests ranging from eta(2) = .05 to .17, with reasonable CIs). Reporting of CIs for ESs also improved, although only to 40%. Also, the vast majority of reported CIs used approximations, which become progressively less accurate for smaller sample sizes and larger ESs (cf. Algina & Kessleman, 2003). Changes are near asymptote for ESs and clinical significance, but CIs lag behind. As CIs for ESs are required for primary outcomes, we show how to compute CIs for the vast majority of ESs reported in JCCP, with an example of how to use CIs for ESs as a method to assess clinical significance.

  14. The effects of thioridazine on the QTc interval - cardiovascular safety in a South African setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathlene Seller

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thioridazine has long been used as a first-line antipsychotic in South Africa without any apparent problems. Recently the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA and Novartis have warned of potentially lethal arrhythmias that may result from the use of thioridazine. Abnormal QT-interval prolongation on the electrocardiogram (ECG seems to be the most reliable indicator of risk of arrhythmias, such as torsade de pointes and ventricular fibrillation. Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these warnings are of clinical relevance in a setting where there are already a limited number of antipsychotics available. Method. Thirty hospitalised subjects who required switching from a high-potency to a low-potency antipsychotic were included. All subjects were commenced on thioridazine 300 mg per day and had an ECG 1 week after initiation and 48 hours after each dose adjustment. QTc was determined using Bazett’s formula. Results. Thioridazine induced a significant increase (p = 0.0001 in QTc interval from baseline values of 400.6 (± 27.3 milliseconds to 429.1 (± 44.2 milliseconds. The QTc interval increased to above 450 milliseconds in 7 subjects (23% and thioridazine was discontinued in 2 subjects because of a QTc interval greater or equal to 500 milliseconds. Conclusion. Thioridazine caused a significant, although asymptomatic, increase in QTc interval in almost one-quarter of subjects who received the medication as second-line treatment. Thioridazine should no longer be used as a first-line treatment and if used it should be accompanied by regular ECG monitoring.

  15. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Plasma Levels of GH and IGF-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mahmoud Hejazi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is well-recognized that exercise has a significant impact on the GH/IGF system but less is known about the effects of HIIT on this axis. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ten weeks of HIIT on plasma levels of GH and IGF-I in healthy men. Methods: Twenty young men (age 23.34 ± 2.56 weight 72.47 ± 12.01 height 174.10 ± 5.75 recruited and randomly assigned into control (n=10 and HIIT (n=12 groups. HIIT protocol was started with 4 cycles. Then, every two weeks one cycle was added to the previous ones. Finally, it was to 8 cycles/ session in tenth weeks that lasted 16 minutes. Blood samples were collected prior to and after HIIT program for all subjects and IGF-I and GH levels were measured. Result: HIIT subjects showed a significant increase in IGF-I (P=0.002, F=12.38. However, no significant change was shown in GH levels (P=0.716, F=0.62. Discussion and conclusion: Our findings indicate that the HIIT caused increase in circulating levels of IGF-I independently from GH levels. Both hormones may contribute to positive effects of anabolic conditions.

  16. Model-Based Evaluation of Exenatide Effects on the QT Interval in Healthy Subjects Following Continuous IV Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirincione, Brenda; LaCreta, Frank; Sager, Philip; Mager, Donald E

    2017-08-01

    Investigation of the cardiovascular proarrhythmic potential of a new chemical entity is now an integral part of drug development. Studies suggest that meals and glycemic changes can influence QT intervals, and a semimechanistic model has been developed that incorporates the effects of changes in glucose concentrations on heart rate (HR) and QT intervals. This analysis aimed to adapt the glucose-HR-QT model to incorporate the effects of exenatide, a drug that reduces postprandial increases in glucose concentrations. The final model includes stimulatory drug effects on glucose elimination and HR perturbations. The targeted and constant exenatide plasma concentrations (>200 pg/mL), via intravenous infusions at multiple dose levels, resulted in significant inhibition of glucose concentrations. The exenatide concentration associated with 50% of the stimulation of HR production was 584 pg/mL. After accounting for exenatide effects on glucose and HR, no additional drug effects were required to explain observed changes in the QT interval. Resulting glucose, HR, and QT profiles at all exenatide concentrations were adequately described. For therapeutic agents that alter glycemic conditions, particularly those that alter postprandial glucose, the QT interval cannot be directly compared to that with placebo without first accounting for confounding factors (eg, glucose) either through mathematical modeling or careful consideration of mealtime placement in the study design. © 2017, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  17. Effect of denture cleansers on surface hardness of resilient denture liners at various time intervals- an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahuja, Rasleen Kaur; Garg, Sandeep; Bansal, Sanjay; Dang, Rajat Harvinder

    2013-08-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effect of two chemically distinct denture cleansers and water on the surface hardness of acrylic and silicone based soft denture liners at various time intervals. Two commonly used commercial resilient liner material were selected based on their chemical composition (silicone- and acrylic-based soft liners) for this investigation. 120 cylindrical specimens were made of 15 mm × 10 mm dimensions (according to ASTM: D-2240-64T) in a custom made metal mold. All specimens were stored in artificial saliva throughout the study. Forty specimens were cleansed daily in 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution; forty were cleansed in sodium perborate and remaining forty specimens were daily rinsed in water. Testing was done at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months for surface hardness using a Shore A Durometer. A mean of 3 reading for each sample was subjected to one-way ANOVA, Post Hoc test and pair-t test for statistical analysis. P values of less than 0.05 were taken as statistically significant. Surface hardness of all the samples was significantly higher after a period of 6 months irrespective of the cleansing treatment. Minor changes were observed between control, sodium hypochlorite and sodium perborate groups with time. Greater change was observed in surface hardness of acrylic-based soft denture liners as compared to silicone-based soft liners for all groups, as time progressed. Silicone-based soft denture liners performed significantly better in all cleansing treatments than acrylic-based soft denture liners.

  18. Effect of the VO2 time-averaging interval on the reproducibility of VO2max in healthy athletic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, Adrian W; McNaughton, Lars R; Carroll, Sean

    2007-03-01

    Limited research has investigated the most appropriate oxygen uptake (VO2) data averaging method to obtain reliable and valid maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) values. This study investigated the effect of the VO2 time-averaging interval on the reproducibility of VO2max. Twenty-two competitive distance runners (six female) performed two identical incremental treadmill tests to their limit of exercise tolerance separated by at least 48 h. Commencing at 7 km h(-1), running speed was increased by 1 km h(-1) per minute for five stages and 0.5 km h(-1) thereafter. Breath-by-breath VO2 data collected during each incremental test were time-averaged over 10-, 15-, 20-, 30- and 60-s and the highest averaged VO2 value was regarded as VO2max for each time-averaging interval. The VO2max values derived from different VO2 time-averaging intervals were significantly different for the first (F = 39.6; PVO2max to significantly increase as the time-averaging interval became shorter. The reproducibility of VO2max was similar for all five VO2 time-averages, with no significant differences between the within-subject variance (F = 0.4; P = 0.6). The results of this study suggests that the reproducibility of VO2max is not affected by the length of the VO2 time-average interval. However, VO2max was significantly altered by changing the VO2 time-averaging interval between 10 and 60 s. Consistency in the VO2 time-averaging interval is therefore an important methodological consideration for repeated determinations of VO2max.

  19. Effects of Small-Sided Games vs. Interval Training in Aerobic Fitness and Physical Enjoyment in Young Elite Soccer Players

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Los Arcos, Asier; Vázquez, Juan Sebastián; Martín, Juan; Lerga, Javier; Sánchez, Felipe; Villagra, Federico; Zulueta, Javier J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Small-Sided Games (SSG) vs. Interval Training (IT) in soccer training on aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in youth elite soccer players during the last 8 weeks of the season...

  20. Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes: Compliance and Clinical Significance in the "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgaard, Eric C.; Fowler, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In 2005, the "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" ("JCCP") became the first American Psychological Association (APA) journal to require statistical measures of clinical significance, plus effect sizes (ESs) and associated confidence intervals (CIs), for primary outcomes (La Greca, 2005). As this represents the single largest…

  1. Cost effectiveness of shortening screening interval or extending age range of NHS breast screening programme: computer simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Boer (Rob); A. Threlfall; P. Warmerdam (Peter); A. Street (Andrew); E. Friedman (Eitan); C. Woodman; H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    1998-01-01

    markdownabstract__OBJECTIVE__: To compare the cost effectiveness of two possible modifications to the current UK screening programme: shortening the screening interval from three to two years and extending the age of invitation to a final screen from 64 to 69.

  2. Eclipse intervals for satellites in circular orbit under the effects of Earth’s oblateness and solar radiation pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Ismail

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the circumstances of eclipse for a circular satellites’ orbit are studied. The time of passage of the ingress and egress points is calculated. Finally, the eclipse intervals of satellites’ orbit are calculated. An application was done taken into account the effects of solar radiation pressure and Earth’s oblateness on the orbital elements of circular orbit satellite.

  3. Feasibility and effects of a combined adjuvant high-intensity interval/strength training in breast cancer patients: a single-center pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Sebastian Viktor Waldemar; Laszlo, Roman; Otto, Stephanie; Prokopchuk, Dmytro; Schumann, Uwe; Ebner, Florian; Huober, Jens; Steinacker, Jürgen Michael

    2017-03-21

    To evaluate feasibility of an exercise intervention consisting of high-intensity interval endurance and strength training in breast cancer patients. Twenty-six women with nonmetastatic breast cancer were consecutively assigned to the exercise intervention- (n= 15, mean age 51.9 ± 9.8 years) and the control group (n = 11, mean age 56.9 ± 7.0 years). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing that included lactate sampling, one-repetition maximum tests and a HADS-D questionnaire were used to monitor patients both before and after a supervised six weeks period of either combined high-intensity interval endurance and strength training (intervention group, twice a week) or leisure training (control group). Contrarily to the control group, endurance (mean change of VO2, peak 12.0 ± 13.0%) and strength performance (mean change of cumulative load 25.9 ± 11.2%) and quality of life increased in the intervention group. No training-related adverse events were observed. Our guided exercise intervention could be used effectively for initiation and improvement of performance capacity and quality of life in breast cancer patients in a relatively short time. This might be especially attractive during medical treatment. Long-term effects have to be evaluated in randomized controlled studies also with a longer follow-up. Implications for Rehabilitation High-intensity interval training allows improvement of aerobic capacity within a comparable short time. Standard leisure training in breast cancer patients is rather suitable for the maintenance of performance capacity and quality of life. Guided high-intensity interval training combined with strength training can be used effectively for the improvement of endurance and strength capacity and also quality of life. After exclusion of contraindications, guided adjuvant high-intensity interval training combined with strength training can be safely used in breast cancer patients.

  4. Effects of high-intensity interval cycling performed after resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitkanou, S; Spengos, K; Stasinaki, A-N; Zaras, N; Bogdanis, G; Papadimas, G; Terzis, G

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week). Muscle strength and quadriceps CSA were significantly and similarly increased after both interventions. Fiber CSA increased significantly and similarly after both RE (type I: 13.6 ± 3.7%, type IIA: 17.6 ± 4.4%, type IIX: 23.2 ± 5.7%, P high-intensity interval cycling performed after heavy-resistance exercise may not inhibit resistance exercise-induced muscle strength/hypertrophy after 2 months of training, while it prompts aerobic capacity and muscle capillarization. The addition of high-intensity cycling after heavy-resistance exercise may decrease RFD partly due to muscle architectural changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Strategy sequential difficulty effects vary with working-memory and response-stimulus-intervals: a study in arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uittenhove, Kim; Lemaire, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Strategy sequential difficulty effects are the findings that when participants execute strategies, performance is worse after a difficult strategy than after an easy strategy (Uittenhove & Lemaire, 2012). Strategy sequential difficulty effects are hypothesized to result from decreased working-memory resources following difficult strategy execution. In the present study we found a correlation between individuals' working memory and strategy sequential difficulty effects in arithmetic, supporting a working-memory account of these effects. Furthermore, we varied response-stimulus intervals, and we found decreased strategy sequential difficulty effects with increasing response-stimulus intervals. Implications of these findings for further understanding of strategic variations in human cognition are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sequential Processing and the Matching-Stimulus Interval Effect in ERP Components: An Exploration of the Mechanism Using Multiple Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Genevieve Z; Barry, Robert J; Gonsalvez, Craig J

    2016-01-01

    In oddball tasks, increasing the time between stimuli within a particular condition (target-to-target interval, TTI; nontarget-to-nontarget interval, NNI) systematically enhances N1, P2, and P300 event-related potential (ERP) component amplitudes. This study examined the mechanism underpinning these effects in ERP components recorded from 28 adults who completed a conventional three-tone oddball task. Bivariate correlations, partial correlations and multiple regression explored component changes due to preceding ERP component amplitudes and intervals found within the stimulus series, rather than constraining the task with experimentally constructed intervals, which has been adequately explored in prior studies. Multiple regression showed that for targets, N1 and TTI predicted N2, TTI predicted P3a and P3b, and Processing Negativity (PN), P3b, and TTI predicted reaction time. For rare nontargets, P1 predicted N1, NNI predicted N2, and N1 predicted Slow Wave (SW). Findings show that the mechanism is operating on separate stages of stimulus-processing, suggestive of either increased activation within a number of stimulus-specific pathways, or very long component generator recovery cycles. These results demonstrate the extent to which matching-stimulus intervals influence ERP component amplitudes and behavior in a three-tone oddball task, and should be taken into account when designing similar studies.

  7. The effects of cognitive load during intertrial intervals on judgements of control: The role of working memory and contextual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavus, H A; Msetfi, Rachel M

    2016-11-01

    When there is no contingency between actions and outcomes, but outcomes occur frequently, people tend to judge that they have control over those outcomes, a phenomenon known as the outcome density (OD) effect. Recent studies show that the OD effect depends on the duration of the temporal interval between action-outcome conjunctions, with longer intervals inducing stronger effects. However, under some circumstances OD effect is reduced, for example when participants are mildly depressed. We reasoned that working memory (WM) plays an important role in learning of context; with reduced WM capacity to process contextual information during intertrial intervals (ITIs) during contingency learning might lead to reduced OD effects (limited capacity hypothesis). To test this, we used a novel dual-task procedure that increases the WM load during the ITIs of an operant (e.g., action-outcome) contingency learning task to impact contextual learning. We tested our hypotheses in groups of students with zero (Experiments 1, N=34), and positive contingencies (Experiment 2, N=34). The findings indicated that WM load during the ITIs reduced the OD effects compared to no load conditions (Experiment 1 and 2). In Experiment 2, we observed reduced OD effects on action judgements under high load in zero and positive contingencies. However, the participants' judgements were still sensitive to the difference between zero and positive contingencies. We discuss the implications of our findings for the effects of depression and context in contingency learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Six Sessions of High Intensity Interval Training on Levels of Hypoxanthine, Xanthine, Hypoxanthine-Guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT and Serum Uric Acid in active young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROHOULLAH HAGHSHENAS GATABI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction and objectives: long-term sport and physical activity results in compatibility in maintaining purine derivatives but the compatibility achieved within a few sessions is not well investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 30-seconds high intensity interval training on Hypoxanthine, xanthine, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT and serum uric acid in young college men. Methods: In this study, 18 untrained healthy men were divided into two control and training groups after homogenization based on their personal characteristics. Training included six sessions (every other day for two weeks with different intervals (4, 7, 6, 6, 5 & 4, respectively with a fixed four-minute rest between each interval, and with a constant load of .6 on the cycle-ergometer. Blood samples were taken before and 48 hours after the last training session, and were used to analyze hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid, and serum HGPRT. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. Results: The results showed that high-intensity interval training for two weeks did not cause significant changes in serum HGPRT (P = .73; likewise, the increase in serum hypoxanthine (P = .170 and serum xanthine (P = .170 was not statistically significant but significant reduction was observed in serum uric acid (P = .025. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study indicated that two-week HIIT training is likely to enhance athletic performance and recovery of purine nucleotide cycle.

  9. Heterogeneous Causal Effects and Sample Selection Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breen, Richard; Choi, Seongsoo; Holm, Anders

    2015-01-01

    causal effects might vary over individuals or groups. In this paper we point out one of the under-appreciated hazards of seeking to estimate heterogeneous causal effects: conventional selection bias (that is, selection on baseline differences) can easily be mistaken for heterogeneity of causal effects....... This might lead us to find heterogeneous effects when the true effect is homogenous, or to wrongly estimate not only the magnitude but also the sign of heterogeneous effects. We apply a test for the robustness of heterogeneous causal effects in the face of varying degrees and patterns of selection bias...

  10. Cost-effectiveness of same-admission versus interval cholecystectomy after mild gallstone pancreatitis in the PONCHO trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, D W; Dijksman, L M; Bouwense, S A; Schepers, N J; Besselink, M G; van Santvoort, H C; Boerma, D; Gooszen, H G; Dijkgraaf, M G W

    2016-11-01

    Same-admission cholecystectomy is indicated after gallstone pancreatitis to reduce the risk of recurrent disease or other gallstone-related complications, but its impact on overall costs is unclear. This study analysed the cost-effectiveness of same-admission versus interval cholecystectomy after mild gallstone pancreatitis. In a multicentre RCT (Pancreatitis of biliary Origin: optimal timiNg of CHOlecystectomy; PONCHO) patients with mild gallstone pancreatitis were randomized before discharge to either cholecystectomy within 72 h (same-admission cholecystectomy) or cholecystectomy after 25-30 days (interval cholecystectomy). Healthcare use of all patients was recorded prospectively using clinical report forms. Unit costs of resources used were determined, and patients completed multiple Health and Labour Questionnaires to record pancreatitis-related absence from work. Cost-effectiveness analyses were performed from societal and healthcare perspectives, with the costs per readmission prevented as primary outcome with a time horizon of 6 months. All 264 trial participants were included in the present analysis, 128 randomized to same-admission cholecystectomy and 136 to interval cholecystectomy. Same-admission cholecystectomy reduced the risk of acute readmission for recurrent gallstone-related complications from 16·9 to 4·7 per cent (P = 0·002). Mean total costs from a societal perspective were €234 (95 per cent c.i. -1249 to 738) less per patient in the same-admission cholecystectomy group. Same-admission cholecystectomy was superior to interval cholecystectomy, with a societal incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of -€1918 to prevent one readmission for gallstone-related complications. In mild biliary pancreatitis, same-admission cholecystectomy was more effective and less costly than interval cholecystectomy. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Comparison of the effects of levofloxacin on QT/QTc interval assessed in both healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Atsushi; Nakamura, Yuji; Nishimura, Satomi; Adachi-Akahane, Satomi; Kumagai, Yuji; Gayed, Juleen; Naseem, Asif; Ferber, Georg; Taubel, Jorg; Camm, John

    2012-01-01

    AIMS There is no consensus as to what extent the results of thorough QT interval/corrected QT interval (QT/QTc) studies need to be bridged. METHODS The results of two studies using levofloxacin in Japanese and Caucasian subjects were compared in a post hoc analysis to investigate the similarity of dose–effect responses. RESULTS Concentration–response analysis based on the change of QT interval corrected using Fridericia's formula (QTcF) from time-matched placebo was planned and performed in the combined data sets. At the geometric maximum mean concentration for the two doses in the Caucasian study, a predicted effect on QTcF comparable to the effects observed was found. For the Japanese study, the predicted effect was lower, but the difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS No statistically significant differences in QTc-prolonging effect between Japanese and Caucasian subjects were observed following levofloxacin dosing. However, a trend suggests that Caucasian subjects may be more sensitive. Age and sex did not have an impact. PMID:22442827

  12. Laqueadura intraparto e de intervalo Intrapartum and interval tubal sterilization: characteristics correlated with the procedure and regret in a sample of women from a public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlete Maria dos Santos Fernandes

    2006-10-01

    foi cesárea. Não se detectou diferença nas taxas de satisfação e arrependimento após o procedimento entre os grupos.BACKGROUND: Brazil is a country with a high prevalence of tubal ligation, which is frequently performed at the time of delivery. In recent years, an increase in tubal reversal has been noticed, primarily among young women. OBJECTIVES: To study characteristics correlated with the procedure, determine frequency of intrapartum tubal ligation, measure patient satisfaction rates and tubal sterilization regret, in a sample of post-tubal patients. METHODS: Three hundred and thirty-five women underwent tubal ligation. The variables studied were related to the procedure: age at tubal ligation, whether ligation was performed intrapartum (vaginal or cesarean section or after an interval (other than the intrapartum and puerperal period, health service performing the sterilization, medical expenses paid for the procedure, reason stated for choosing the method and causes related to satisfaction/regret: desire to become pregnant after sterilization, search for treatment and performance of tubal ligation reversal. The women were divided into two groups, a group undergoing ligation in the intrapartum period and a second group ligated after an interval, to evaluate the association between variables by using Fisher's exact test and chi-squared calculation with Yates' correction. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the institution. RESULTS: There was a predominance of Caucasian women over 35 years of age, married, and with a low level of education of which 43.5% had undergone sterilization before 30 years of age. Two hundred and forty-five women underwent intrapartum tubal ligation, 91.2% of them had cesarean delivery and 44.6% vaginal delivery. In both groups undergoing intrapartum tubal ligation and ligation after an interval, 82.0% and 80.8% reported satisfaction with the method. Although 14.6% expressed a desire to become pregnant at some time after

  13. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Thomas Songstad

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats.Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85-90% of maximal oxygen consumption for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats, echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples.Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04 and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02 in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014, superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001 and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049 in the fetal heart.Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated.

  14. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songstad, Nils Thomas; Kaspersen, Knut-Helge Frostmo; Hafstad, Anne Dragøy; Basnet, Purusotam; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Acharya, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85-90% of maximal oxygen consumption) for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats), echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples. Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04) and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02) in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014), superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001) and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049) in the fetal heart. Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated.

  15. Acute and chronic effects of sprint interval exercise on postprandial lipemia in women at-risk for the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Eric C; Gist, Nicholas H; Acitelli, Rachelle M; McConnell, Whitni J; Beck, Catherine D; Hausman, Dorothy B; Murrow, Jonathan R; Cureton, Kirk J; Evans, Ellen M

    2015-04-01

    Individuals diagnosed with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) exhibit elevated postprandial lipemia (PPL). The aims of this investigation were to determine 1) if an acute bout of sprint interval training (SIT) attenuates PPL; and 2) if the attenuation of PPL following 6 wk of SIT is magnified compared with a single session of SIT prior to training in women at-risk for MetS (n = 45; 30-65 yr). Women were randomized to SIT (n = 22) or a nonexercise control (n = 23; CON) for 6 wk. Postprandial responses to a high-fat meal challenge (HFMC) were assessed in the CON group before (B-HFMC) and after (Post-HFMC) without prior exercise and in the SIT group at baseline (B-HFMC) without prior exercise, after an acute bout of SIT (four 30-s all-out sprints with 4-min recovery) prior to (Pre-HFMC), and after the 6-wk intervention (Post-HFMC). Responses to the HFMC were assessed by collecting venous blood samples in the fasted state and at 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min postprandial. Compared with baseline, an acute bout of SIT before (Pre-HFMC) and after the 6-wk intervention (Post-HFMC) significantly attenuated fasted TG (P < 0.05; 16.6% and 12.3%, respectively) and postprandial area under the curve (13.1% and 9.7%, respectively; tAUC) TG responses. There was no difference in fasted or tAUC TG responses between Pre-HFMC and Post-HFMC. SIT is an effective mode of exercise to reduce fasted and postprandial TG concentrations in women at-risk for MetS. Six weeks of SIT does not magnify the attenuation of PPL in response to a single session of SIT. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. [The effect of esmolol on corrected-QT interval, corrected-QT interval dispersion changes seen during anesthesia induction in hypertensive patients taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceker, Zahit; Takmaz, Suna Akın; Baltaci, Bülent; Başar, Hülya

    2015-01-01

    The importance of minimizing the exaggerated sympatho-adrenergic responses and QT interval and QT interval dispersion changes that may develop due to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation during anesthesia induction in the hypertensive patients is clear. Esmolol decreases the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation. However, the effect of esmolol in decreasing the prolonged QT interval and QT interval dispersion as induced by laryngoscopy and intubation is controversial. We investigated the effect of esmolol on the hemodynamic, and corrected-QT interval and corrected-QT interval dispersion changes seen during anesthesia induction in hypertensive patients using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. 60 ASA I-II patients, with essential hypertension using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors were included in the study. The esmolol group received esmolol at a bolus dose of 500mcg/kg followed by a 100mcg/kg/min infusion which continued until the 4th min after intubation. The control group received 0.9% saline similar to the esmolol group. The mean blood pressure, heart rate values and the electrocardiogram records were obtained as baseline values before the anesthesia, 5min after esmolol and saline administration, 3min after the induction and 30s, 2min and 4min after intubation. The corrected-QT interval was shorter in the esmolol group (p=0.012), the corrected-QT interval dispersion interval was longer in the control group (p=0.034) and the mean heart rate was higher in the control group (p=0.022) 30s after intubation. The risk of arrhythmia frequency was higher in the control group in the 4-min period following intubation (p=0.038). Endotracheal intubation was found to prolong corrected-QT interval and corrected-QT interval dispersion, and increase the heart rate during anesthesia induction with propofol in hypertensive patients using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. These effects were prevented with esmolol (500mcg/kg bolus, followed by

  17. The effect of esmolol on corrected-QT interval, corrected-QT interval dispersion changes seen during anesthesia induction in hypertensive patients taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahit Çeker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The importance of minimizing the exaggerated sympatho-adrenergic responses and QT interval and QT interval dispersion changes that may develop due to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation during anesthesia induction in the hypertensive patients is clear. Esmolol decreases the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation. However, the effect of esmolol in decreasing the prolonged QT interval and QT interval dispersion as induced by laryngoscopy and intubation is controversial. We investigated the effect of esmolol on the hemodynamic, and corrected-QT interval and corrected-QT interval dispersion changes seen during anesthesia induction in hypertensive patients using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. METHODS: 60 ASA I-II patients, with essential hypertension using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors were included in the study. The esmolol group received esmolol at a bolus dose of 500 mcg/kg followed by a 100 mcg/kg/min infusion which continued until the 4th min after intubation. The control group received 0.9% saline similar to the esmolol group. The mean blood pressure, heart rate values and the electrocardiogram records were obtained as baseline values before the anesthesia, 5 min after esmolol and saline administration, 3 min after the induction and 30 s, 2 min and 4 min after intubation. RESULTS: The corrected-QT interval was shorter in the esmolol group (p = 0.012, the corrected-QT interval dispersion interval was longer in the control group (p = 0.034 and the mean heart rate was higher in the control group (p = 0.022 30 s after intubation. The risk of arrhythmia frequency was higher in the control group in the 4-min period following intubation (p = 0.038. CONCLUSION: Endotracheal intubation was found to prolong corrected-QT interval and corrected-QT interval dispersion, and increase the heart rate during anesthesia induction with propofol in hypertensive patients using angiotensin converting

  18. Effects of anti-malarial drugs on the electrocardiographic QT interval modelled in the isolated perfused guinea pig heart system

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    Kotaki Hajime

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concern over the potential cardiotoxicity of anti-malarial drugs inducing a prolonged electrocardiographic QT interval has resulted in the almost complete withdrawal from the market of one anti-malarial drug - halofantrine. The effects on the QT interval of four anti-malarial drugs were examined, using the guinea pig heart. Methods The guinea pig heart was isolated, mounted on a Langendorff apparatus, and was then perfused with pyruvate-added Klebs-Henseleit solutions containing graded concentrations of the four agents such as quinidine (0.15 - 1.2 μM, quinine (0.3 - 2.4 μM, halofantrine (0.1 - 2.0 μM and mefloquine (0.1 - 2.0 μM. The heart rate-corrected QaTc intervals were measured to evaluate drug-induced QT prolongation effects. Results Quinidine, quinine, and halofantrine prolonged the QaTc interval in a dose-dependent manner, whereas no such effect was found with mefloquine. The EC50 values for the QaTc prolongation effects, the concentration that gives a half-maximum effect, were quinidine Conclusions In this study, an isolated, perfused guinea pig heart system was constructed to assess the cardiotoxic potential of anti-malarial drugs. This isolated perfused guinea pig heart system could be used to test newly developed anti-malarial drugs for their inherent QT lengthening potential. More information is required on the potential variation in unbound drug concentrations in humans, and their role in cardiotoxicity.

  19. Effect of four weeks high intensity interval training versus aerobic exercise on metallothionein levels of myocardial tissue in rats

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    M. Shabani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative species produced during exercise can cause damages to some tissues such as kidney, liver and skeletal muscle. It seems that metallothionein plays a protective role against these actions. Objective: To assess the effect of four weeks of high intensity interval training versus aerobic exercise on metallothionein levels of myocardial tissue in healthy male rats. Methods: This experimental study was done on 36 male Wistar rats (2 months of age with an average weight of 180±20 in 2015.The rats were randomly divided into three groups: control (n=12, high intensity interval training (n=12, and aerobic training (n=12 groups. The experimental groups exercised according to the training program 5 days a week for 4 weeks. During this period, the control group did not have any training programs. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. Findings: The results indicate no significant difference among the mean metallothionein in control, aerobic exercise and high intensity interval training groups. However, the amount of myocardial metallothionein increased as a result of high intensity interval training and decreased during aerobic exercise. Conclusion: It seems that the duration and intensity of exercise need to be adjusted in order to obtain better results.

  20. The combined effect of green tea and acute interval sprinting exercise on fat oxidation of trained and untrained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahreman, Daniel E; Boutcher, Yati N; Bustamante, Sonia; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2016-03-31

    This study investigated the combined effect of green tea and acute interval sprinting exercise on fat oxidation of trained and untrained males. Fourteen trained and 14 untrained males ingested one capsule containing either green tea or cellulose with breakfast, lunch, and dinner, 24 hours before two exercise sessions. A fourth capsule was consumed 90 minutes before exercise after overnight NPO (nil per os). Participants performed a 20-minute interval sprinting cycling protocol, consisting of repeated bouts of 8-seconds of sprint cycling (at 65% of maximum power output) and 12-seconds of recovery (at 25% of maximum power output), followed by 75 minutes of post-exercise recovery. Fat oxidation was significantly greater in the resting condition after green tea ingestion (p post-exercise in the green tea, compared with the placebo condition (p post-exercise fat oxidation and also elevated plasma glycerol and epinephrine levels during and after interval sprinting. Glycerol and norepinephrine levels during interval sprinting were significantly higher in the untrained group compared with the trained group.

  1. Effect of aerobic interval training on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in people with cardiometabolic disorders: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chueh-Lung; Wu, Ying-Tai; Chou, Chih-Hsuan

    2011-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of high-intensity aerobic interval training (AIT) with active recovery and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CME) on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in adults with cardiometabolic disorders through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Studies were selected from 5 electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Physiotherapy Evidence Database [PEDro] and Cochrane Library Register of Controlled Trials). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), published in English, that compared the effects of AIT with CME on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in adults with cardiometabolic disorders were included. Aerobic interval training was defined as high-intensity training separated by active recovery periods; CME incurred identical energy expenditure as AIT. Each trial was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% CIs were used to determine the effect size for each outcome. Six RCTs with 153 participants (40 overweight/obesity, 19 with metabolic syndrome, and 94 with heart disease) were included. The mean value on the PEDro scale for these studies was 5.0. Aerobic interval training significantly increased peak oxygen consumption (WMD, 3.6 mL·kg·min; 95% CI, 2.3-4.9) with a trend of decreasing fasting glucose (WMD, -0.4 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.9 to 0.2, P = .18) compared with CME. The effects on other metabolic risk factors were similar between AIT and CME. Analysis of a limited number of studies with small sample sizes indicates that AIT is superior to CME in terms of improving exercise capacity. Further high quality studies with larger sample size are required to confirm this finding in adults with cardiometabolic disorders.

  2. Effect of creatine supplementation during the last week of gestation on birth intervals, stillbirth, and preweaning mortality in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, J L; Miles, J R; Rempel, L A

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that creatine supplementation would reduce birth intervals, stillbirth rate, and preweaning survival in pigs because of its reported improvement of athletic performance in humans. In Exp. 1, gilts (n = 42) and first parity sows (n = 75) were mated at estrus. Beginning on d 110 of gestation, dams received either no treatment or 20 g creatine daily until farrowing. At farrowing in November 2008, pigs were monitored by video camera to determine individual piglet birth intervals. On d 1, piglets were weighed, euthanized, and the cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord were collected from the largest and smallest piglets in each litter to measure myelin basic proteins, myelin cholesterol, glucocerebrosides, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelin. Preweaning mortality of the remaining piglets was recorded, including whether a piglet had been overlayed by the dam. A second experiment was performed using gilts (n = 90), farrowing in July 2010, to test differential effects of creatine supplementation during hot, humid weather when dams typically have more difficulty farrowing. Once again, gilts were provided either no supplementation or 20 g creatine daily from d 110 to the day of farrowing. Gilts were video recorded during farrowing, piglets were weighed on d 1, and preweaning mortality (including overlays) was recorded. In Exp. 1, creatine supplementation had no effect on birth intervals or stillbirth rate. Creatine supplementation improved the amount of myelin lipids in brain regions of piglets, particularly the brain stem. Creatine supplementation also reduced overlays of low birth weight piglets from gilts but not second parity sows. Data from Exp. 2 were combined with gilt data from Exp. 1 to examine the effect of creatine, season, and their interaction. There were no effects of treatment or season on birth intervals, stillbirth rates, or overall preweaning mortality. Creatine treatment reduced the incidence of overlays in low

  3. Effects of continuous vs interval exercise training on oxygen uptake efficiency slope in patients with coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Prado, D.M.L.; Rocco,E.A.; SILVA, A. G.; Rocco, D.F.; Pacheco, M.T.; Silva,P.F.; Furlan, V

    2016-01-01

    The oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) is a submaximal index incorporating cardiovascular, peripheral, and pulmonary factors that determine the ventilatory response to exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous exercise training and interval exercise training on the OUES in patients with coronary artery disease. Thirty-five patients (59.3±1.8 years old; 28 men, 7 women) with coronary artery disease were randomly divided into two groups: continuous exercis...

  4. Differential cardiac effects of aerobic interval training versus moderate continuous training in a patient with schizophrenia: a case report.

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    Marco eHerbsleb

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates for patients with schizophrenia are reported to contribute to their reduced life expectancy. Common reasons for increased cardiac mortality rates include cigarette smoking, obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes and poorer health behavior in general. The majority of excess mortality among people with schizophrenia is caused by cardiovascular complications. Reduced vagal activity might be one important mechanism leading to this increased cardiac mortality and has been consistently described in patients and their healthy first-degree relatives.In this case study, we compared two different aerobic exercise regimes in one patient with chronic schizophrenia to investigate their effects on cardiovascular regulation. The patient completed a 6-week period of moderate continuous training followed by a 6-week period of interval training, each regime 2 times per week, on a stationary bicycle. This was followed by a 6-week period of detraining. Primary outcome measures examined heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV at rest while secondary measures assessed fitness parameters such as the ventilatory threshold 1 (VT1. We observed that interval training was far more effective than moderate continuous training in increasing HRV, as indicated by RMSSD (improvement to baseline 27% vs. 18%, and reducing resting heart rate (-14% vs. 0%. Improvement in VT1 (21% vs. -1% was only observed after interval training. Our study provides preliminary data that the type of intervention is highly influential for improving cardiac function in patients with schizophrenia. While cardiovascular function might be influenced by continuous training to some degree, no such effect was present in this patient with schizophrenia. In addition, the beneficial effect of interval training on heart rate regulation vanished completely after a very short period of detraining after the intervention.

  5. Effect of high-intensity interval training on body composition and bioenergetic indices in boys - futsal players

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    Balbasi Fatemeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-intensity interval trainings (HIIT can result in the best improvement of body fitness among athletes in the shortest possible time. The impact of HIIT on bioenergetic factors of futsal players has not been studied extensively. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of 3-week HIIT on body composition indices, maximum aerobic power, and maximum anaerobic power, anaerobic power among boys - futsal players. Material: 30 boys - futsal players (mean± SD age, 13.49±1.03 years; BMI, 20.95±1.78 kg/m2 participated in the study voluntarily. They were randomly assigned to experimental (n=15 and control (n=15 groups. HIIT lasted for three weeks, three sessions a week for 12-36 minutes on treadmill. Weight, body mass index (BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR, thickness of body fat, maximal aerobic power, and maximum anaerobic power were recorded before intervention and 48 hours after the final training session. Aerobic power was measured with 20-m shuttle run, and maximum anaerobic power was measured with RAST test. Paired sample t-test was used to determine pretest-posttest differences, and independent t-test was used to determine between-group differences. The significance level was set to P < 0.05. Results: Significant differences were found in weight, BMI, thickness of body fat, maximum aerobic power and maximum anaerobic power in experimental group (P = 0.001 before and after training intervention, but the change in WHR was not significant (P < 0.05. No significant differences were observed in selected body composition between experimental and control groups, but they exhibited significant differences in maximum aerobic power and maximum anaerobic power (P = 0.001. Conclusion: According to the results, HIIT can be an effective training program for improving the performance of bioenergetic indices of futsal players. Also, it is recommended to study the effect of similar trainings with longer durations on other

  6. Cost-effectiveness of one versus two sample faecal immunochemical testing for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, S Lucas; van Roon, Aafke H C; Reijerink, Jacqueline C I Y; van Vuuren, Anneke J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Habbema, J Dik F; Kuipers, Ernst J; van Leerdam, Monique E; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2013-05-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of a single faecal immunochemical test (FIT) are limited. The performance of FIT screening can be improved by increasing the screening frequency or by providing more than one sample in each screening round. This study aimed to evaluate if two-sample FIT screening is cost-effective compared with one-sample FIT. The MISCAN-colon microsimulation model was used to estimate costs and benefits of strategies with either one or two-sample FIT screening. The FIT cut-off level varied between 50 and 200 ng haemoglobin/ml, and the screening schedule was varied with respect to age range and interval. In addition, different definitions for positivity of the two-sample FIT were considered: at least one positive sample, two positive samples, or the mean of both samples being positive. Within an exemplary screening strategy, biennial FIT from the age of 55-75 years, one-sample FIT provided 76.0-97.0 life-years gained (LYG) per 1000 individuals, at a cost of € 259,000-264,000 (range reflects different FIT cut-off levels). Two-sample FIT screening with at least one sample being positive provided 7.3-12.4 additional LYG compared with one-sample FIT at an extra cost of € 50,000-59,000. However, when all screening intervals and age ranges were considered, intensifying screening with one-sample FIT provided equal or more LYG at lower costs compared with two-sample FIT. If attendance to screening does not differ between strategies it is recommended to increase the number of screening rounds with one-sample FIT screening, before considering increasing the number of FIT samples provided per screening round.

  7. Effect of collection-maturation interval time and pregnancy status of donor mares on oocyte developmental competence in horse cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambini, A; Andrés, G; Jarazo, J; Javier, J; Karlanian, F; Florencia, K; De Stéfano, A; Salamone, D F

    2014-02-01

    The current limitations for obtaining ovaries from slaughterhouses and the low efficiency of in vivo follicular aspiration necessitate a complete understanding of the variables that affect oocyte developmental competence in the equine. For this reason, we assessed the effect on equine oocyte meiotic competence and the subsequent in vitro cloned embryo development of 1) the time interval between ovary collection and the onset of oocyte in vitro maturation (collection-maturation interval time) and 2) the pregnancy status of the donor mares. To define the collection-maturation interval time, collected oocytes were classified according to the slaughtering time and the pregnancy status of the mare. Maturation rate was recorded and some matured oocytes of each group were used to reconstruct zona free cloned embryos. Nuclear maturation rates were lower when the collection-maturation interval time exceeded 10 h as compared to 4 h (32/83 vs. 76/136, respectively; P = 0.0128) and when the donor mare was pregnant as compared to nonpregnant (53/146 vs. 177/329, respectively; P = 0.0004). Low rates of cleaved embryos were observed when the collection-maturation interval time exceeded 10 h as compared to 6 to 10 h (11/27 vs. 33/44, respectively; P = 0.0056), but the pregnancy status of donor mares did not affect cloned equine blastocyst development (3/49 vs. 1/27 for blastocyst rates of nonpregnant and pregnant groups, respectively; P = 1.00). These results indicate that, to apply assisted reproductive technologies in horses, oocytes should be harvested within approximately 10 h after ovary collection. Also, even though ovaries from pregnant mares are a potential source of oocytes, they should be processed at the end of the collection routine due to the lower collection and maturation rate in this group.

  8. EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERVAL EXERCISE VERSUS CONTINUOUS EXERCISE TO IMPROVE EXERCISE TOLERANCE IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE SUBJECTS

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    G. Swathi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: COPD is characterized by chronic airflow limitation and a range of pathological changes in the lung. Chronic inflammation causes structural changes and narrowing of the small airways and destruction of lung parenchyma, leads to the loss of alveolar attachments to the small airways and decreases lung elastic recoil; in turn these changes diminish the expiration and the work of breathing is increased. Scarcity of evidence on continuous and interval exercises is forcing researchers conduct studies on effectiveness of interval exercise with continuous exercise on exercise tolerance in subjects with COPD. Methods: 60 subjects were selected by lottery method. All the subjects were explained about the condition and mode of assessment and written informed consent were obtained from them and divided into 2 groups interval training group and continuous exercise training group and subjects were scheduled to attend exercise session 5 days a week for 4 weeks with exercise duration 20 min’s with cycle ergometer. Outcome measure: six minute walk test and heart rate. Results: On observing the means of post test parameters of experimental group A and experimental group B Independent t-test was done and the P- value is >0.05 .It shows a no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: The results had shown that both interval exercise group and continuous exercise group who received four weeks of therapy has improved significantly on pre and post test values within the groups but when compared between these groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between interval exercise group and continuous exercise group in improving exercise tolerance among COPD subjects.

  9. Effect of a 10 week high intensity interval training supplemented with green tea on lipid profiles and body composition in overweight women

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    Elham Ghasemi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Increasing the intensity of physical activity along with regular consumption of green tea can be effective on energy metabolism, weight, and body fat content. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a 10 week. .high intensity interval training supplemented with consuming green tea .on lipid profiles and body composition in overweight women. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 30 overweight women were purposefully and randomly chosen and divided into 3 equal groups. Training group performed training programs including 3 sessions per week at maximum intensity of 85-95% heart rate and the supplement group consumed 3 tablets of green tea (500 mg daily for 10 weeks High intensity interval training and the supplement group both underwent intervention. Blood samples were collected before and after the intervention in fasting state. Finally,the obtained data was fed into SPSS software (V. 19 and analyzed using paired t test, covariance analysis, one way-variance analysis, and Bonferroni post- hoc tests at the significant level of P<0.05. Results: After the period of high intensity interval training and green tea supplementation triglycerides (P=0.001, LDL (P=0.02, weight (P=0.0001, body mass index (P=0.0001, and body fat percentage (P=0.0001 in all the groups and total cholesterol (P=0.01 decreased ,but  HDL (P=0.01 increased in high intensity interval training plus supplements and high intensity interval training plus placebo groups. However, these two indicators did not differ significantly in the supplement group (P=0.23 and P=0.06, respectively. Furthermore, systolic (P= 0.55 and diastolic (P= 0.15 blood pressure and waist-to-hip ratio (P= 0.08 did not change after intervention in all the groups. Conclusion: It was found that consumption of green tea along with performing of high intensity interval training can be effective in improving of cardiovascular risk factors in overweight women.

  10. Effect of the postfeeding interval on olfactory responses of thrips to herbivore-induced cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rehan; Walter, Gimme H; Wilson, Lewis J; Furlong, Michael J

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the responses of 3 thrips species, Frankliniella schultzei Trybom, F. occidentalis Pergrande, and Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) to herbivore-damaged and undamaged cotton seedlings (Gossypium hirsutum L. [Malvales: Malvaceae]) at a range of time intervals following damage by adult Tetranychus urticae (Koch), adult T. ludeni (Zacher) (Acari: Tetranychidae) or Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae in olfactometer assays. The intensity/frequency of the response of thrips to herbivore-induced plants decreased with time and ultimately disappeared in all cases; however, the rate at which the response declined was related to the herbivore species that inflicted the damage. All 3 species of thrips were attracted to plants damaged by T. urticae for longer than they were to plants damaged by T. ludeni. The duration for which damaged plants remained attractive was also affected by the degree of damage inflicted on cotton seedlings. For example, F. schultzei was attracted to plants damaged by a higher density of two-spotted spider mites (100/plant) for much longer than to plants damaged by a lower density of these mites (50/plant). The results reinforce previous studies that demonstrate that arrangement of variables influences the responses of thrips to their herbivore-induced cotton host plants. Results also show that these responses are variable in time following herbivore damage to cotton plants, which further demonstrates how difficult it is to generalize about the functional significance of these interactions. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  11. The Effect of Age at First Calving and Calving Interval on Productive Life and Lifetime Profit in Korean Holsteins

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    Changhee Do

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to estimate the effect of age at first calving and first two calving intervals on productive life and life time profit in Korean Holsteins. Reproduction data of Korean Holsteins born from 1998 to 2004 and lactation data from 276,573 cows with birth and last dry date that calved between 2000 and 2010 were used for the analysis. Lifetime profit increased with the days of life span. Regression of Life Span on Lifetime profit indicated that there was an increase of 3,800 Won (approximately $3.45 of lifetime profit per day increase in life span. This is evidence that care of each cow is necessary to improve net return and important for farms maintaining profitable cows. The estimates of heritability of age at first calving, first two calving intervals, days in milk for lifetime, lifespan, milk income and lifetime profit were 0.111, 0.088, 0.142, 0.140, 0.143, 0.123, and 0.102, respectively. The low heritabilities indicated that the productive life and economical traits include reproductive and productive characteristics. Age at first calving and interval between first and second calving had negative genetic correlation with lifetime profit (−0.080 and −0.265, respectively. Reducing age at first calving and first calving interval had a positive effect on lifetime profit. Lifetime profit increased to approximately 2,600,000 (2,363.6 from 800,000 Won ($727.3 when age at first calving decreased to (22.3 month from (32.8 month. Results suggested that reproductive traits such as age at first calving and calving interval might affect various economical traits and consequently influenced productive life and profitability of cows. In conclusion, regard of the age at first calving must be taken with the optimum age at first calving for maximum lifetime profit being 22.5 to 23.5 months. Moreover, considering the negative genetic correlation of first calving interval with lifetime profit, it should be reduced against the present

  12. The Effect of Age at First Calving and Calving Interval on Productive Life and Lifetime Profit in Korean Holsteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Changhee; Wasana, Nidarshani; Cho, Kwanghyun; Choi, Yunho; Choi, Taejeong; Park, Byungho; Lee, Donghee

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to estimate the effect of age at first calving and first two calving intervals on productive life and life time profit in Korean Holsteins. Reproduction data of Korean Holsteins born from 1998 to 2004 and lactation data from 276,573 cows with birth and last dry date that calved between 2000 and 2010 were used for the analysis. Lifetime profit increased with the days of life span. Regression of Life Span on Lifetime profit indicated that there was an increase of 3,800 Won (approximately $3.45) of lifetime profit per day increase in life span. This is evidence that care of each cow is necessary to improve net return and important for farms maintaining profitable cows. The estimates of heritability of age at first calving, first two calving intervals, days in milk for lifetime, lifespan, milk income and lifetime profit were 0.111, 0.088, 0.142, 0.140, 0.143, 0.123, and 0.102, respectively. The low heritabilities indicated that the productive life and economical traits include reproductive and productive characteristics. Age at first calving and interval between first and second calving had negative genetic correlation with lifetime profit (−0.080 and −0.265, respectively). Reducing age at first calving and first calving interval had a positive effect on lifetime profit. Lifetime profit increased to approximately 2,600,000 (2,363.6) from 800,000 Won ($727.3) when age at first calving decreased to (22.3 month) from (32.8 month). Results suggested that reproductive traits such as age at first calving and calving interval might affect various economical traits and consequently influenced productive life and profitability of cows. In conclusion, regard of the age at first calving must be taken with the optimum age at first calving for maximum lifetime profit being 22.5 to 23.5 months. Moreover, considering the negative genetic correlation of first calving interval with lifetime profit, it should be reduced against the present trend of increase

  13. Fatigue Behavior and Modeling of Additively Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V Including Interlayer Time Interval Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torries, Brian; Shamsaei, Nima

    2017-12-01

    The effects of different cooling rates, as achieved by varying the interlayer time interval, on the fatigue behavior of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V specimens were investigated and modeled via a microstructure-sensitive fatigue model. Comparisons are made between two sets of specimens fabricated via Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™), with variance in interlayer time interval accomplished by depositing either one or two specimens per print operation. Fully reversed, strain-controlled fatigue tests were conducted, with fractography following specimen failure. A microstructure-sensitive fatigue model was calibrated to model the fatigue behavior of both sets of specimens and was found to be capable of correctly predicting the longer fatigue lives of the single-built specimens and the reduced scatter of the double-built specimens; all data points fell within the predicted upper and lower bounds of fatigue life. The time interval effects and the ability to be modeled are important to consider when producing test specimens that are smaller than the production part (i.e., property-performance relationships).

  14. Fatigue Behavior and Modeling of Additively Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V Including Interlayer Time Interval Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torries, Brian; Shamsaei, Nima

    2017-10-01

    The effects of different cooling rates, as achieved by varying the interlayer time interval, on the fatigue behavior of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V specimens were investigated and modeled via a microstructure-sensitive fatigue model. Comparisons are made between two sets of specimens fabricated via Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™), with variance in interlayer time interval accomplished by depositing either one or two specimens per print operation. Fully reversed, strain-controlled fatigue tests were conducted, with fractography following specimen failure. A microstructure-sensitive fatigue model was calibrated to model the fatigue behavior of both sets of specimens and was found to be capable of correctly predicting the longer fatigue lives of the single-built specimens and the reduced scatter of the double-built specimens; all data points fell within the predicted upper and lower bounds of fatigue life. The time interval effects and the ability to be modeled are important to consider when producing test specimens that are smaller than the production part (i.e., property-performance relationships).

  15. Salivary cortisol concentration after high-intensity interval exercise: Time of day and chronotype effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, Matteo; La Torre, Antonio; Saresella, Marina; Marventano, Ivana; Merati, Giampiero; Vitale, Jacopo Antonino

    2017-01-01

    Due to personal and working necessities, the time for exercise is often short, and scheduled early in the morning or late in the afternoon. Cortisol plays a central role in the physiological and behavioral response to a physical challenge and can be considered as an index of exercise stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the circadian phenotype classification on salivary cortisol concentration in relation to an acute session of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) performed at different times of the day. Based on the morningness-eveningness questionnaire, 12 M-types (N = 12; age 21 ± 2 years; height 179 ± 5 cm; body mass 74 ± 12 kg, weekly training volume 8 ± 1 hours) and 11 E-types (N = 11; age 21 ± 2 years; height 181 ± 11 cm; body mass 76 ± 11 kg, weekly training volume 7 ± 2 hours) were enrolled in a randomized crossover study. All subjects underwent measurements of salivary cortisol secretion before (PRE), immediately after (POST), and 15 min (+15 min), 30 min (+30 min), 45 min (+45 min) and 60 min (+60 min) after the completion of both morning (08.00 am) and evening (08.00 p.m.) high-intensity interval exercise. Two-way analysis of variance with Tuckey's multiple comparisons test showed significant increments over PRE-cortisol concentrations in POSTcondition both in the morning (4.88 ± 1.19 ng · mL-1 vs 6.60 ± 1.86 ng · mL-1, +26.1%, P 0.8) and in the evening (1.56 ± 0.48 ng · mL-1 vs 2.34 ± 0.37, +33.4%, P = 0.034, d > 0.6) exercise in all the 23 subject that performed the morning and the evening HIIE. In addition, during morning exercise, significant differences in cortisol concentration between M-types and E-types at POST (5.49 ± 0.98 ng · mL-1 versus 8.44 ± 1.08 ng · mL-1, +35%, P 0.8), +15 min (4.52 ± 0.42 ng · mL-1 versus 6.61 ± 0.62 ng · mL-1, +31.6%, P 0.8), +30 min (4.10 ± 1.44 ng · mL-1 versus 6.21 ± 1.60 ng · mL-1, +34.0%, P evening HIIE on post-exercise cortisol concentration were

  16. The Effect of the Type of Hemodialysis Buffer on the QTc Interval in Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hekmat

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying the sources of variation in QTc measurementsis important for preventing arrhythmias during and afterhemodialysis. The present study was designed to determine thecorrelation between the type of hemodialysis buffer and thechanges in QTc interval in patients on chronic hemodialysis.Methods: Fifty-nine patients on chronic hemodialysis whoreferred in winter 2007 to hemodialysis centers of Ghaem andHashemi Nejad hospitals, in Mashhad, Iran, were divided intotwo groups according to their last dialysate buffer: acetate orbicarbonate. Electrocardiography, arterial blood gas parameters,serum K+, Na+, ionized calcium, and albumin levels weremeasured prior to and after hemodialysis in all patients.Results: All arterial blood gas parameters and serum electrolytesconcentrations were increased except K+ levels that weresignificantly decreased with hemodialysis. PCO2 and QTc intervalswere slightly increased in all patients, however thisincrease was not statistically significant. We found that thetype of dialysate affected the QTc interval, HCO3, base excess,base excess of extra cellular fluid, and base bufferchanges with no effect on ionized calcium, pH, PCO2, andserum albumin concentration. QTc interval was prolonged byusing bicarbonate and shortened by using acetate dialysatebuffer. We found no correlation between the variations of QTcinterval and serum electrolytes or arterial blood gas parametersin either group.Conclusion: Bicarbonate buffer use in hemodialysis prolongedQTc interval and acetate buffer shortened it. This effectis independent of serum electrolytes and pH changes duringhemodialysis. The effect of bicarbonate buffer is probablydue to more tolerability of ultra filtration, more effectiveedema reduction and augmented body electro-conductivity.

  17. Does the time interval between antimüllerian hormone serum sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation affect its predictive ability in in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Nelson, Scott M; Stoop, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether the time interval between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) may affect the predictive ability of the marker for low and excessive ovarian response....

  18. [Sampling plan, weighting process and design effects of the Brazilian Oral Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nilza Nunes da; Roncalli, Angelo Giuseppe

    2013-12-01

    To present aspects of the sampling plan of the Brazilian Oral Health Survey (SBBrasil Project). with theoretical and operational issues that should be taken into account in the primary data analyses. The studied population was composed of five demographic groups from urban areas of Brazil in 2010. Two and three stage cluster sampling was used. adopting different primary units. Sample weighting and design effects (deff) were used to evaluate sample consistency. In total. 37,519 individuals were reached. Although the majority of deff estimates were acceptable. some domains showed distortions. The majority (90%) of the samples showed results in concordance with the precision proposed in the sampling plan. The measures to prevent losses and the effects the cluster sampling process in the minimum sample sizes proved to be effective for the deff. which did not exceeded 2. even for results derived from weighting. The samples achieved in the SBBrasil 2010 survey were close to the main proposals for accuracy of the design. Some probabilities proved to be unequal among the primary units of the same domain. Users of this database should bear this in mind, introducing sample weighting in calculations of point estimates, standard errors, confidence intervals and design effects.

  19. Effect of inter-twin delivery interval on umbilical artery pH and Apgar score in the second twin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Alon; Peretz, Hadar; Garmi, Gali; Zafran, Noah; Romano, Shabtai; Salim, Raed

    2017-11-02

    To examine the effect of inter-twin delivery interval on umbilical artery pH and Apgar score of the second twin after vaginal delivery of the first twin. Retrospective study conducted at a single teaching hospital. All pregnant women with twin gestation who delivered the first twin vaginally at more than 24 weeks between 1995 and 2015 were included. Major malformations and intrauterine deaths of one or both twins were excluded. Women were divided into those who had an inter-twin delivery interval of less than 30 minutes (group 1) or 30 minutes or more (group 2). Primary outcome was umbilical artery pH less than 7.1 and/or Apgar score less than 7 at 5 minutes of the second twin. Generalized linear regression with log was performed to evaluate the association with delivery interval. Of 88 145 deliveries during this period, 1955 (2.2%) were twins. Overall, 713 twin pregnancies, 596 (83.6%) in group 1 and 117 (16.4%) in group 2, were eligible and included. Mean inter-delivery interval was 11.0 ± 6.5 and 52.5 ± 31.5 minutes in groups 1 and 2, respectively. After adjusting for variables found significantly different between the groups in univariate analysis, inter-delivery interval of less than 30 minutes or 30 minutes or more was not a significant risk factor for pH less than 7.1 and/or Apgar less than 7 (P = .91). The cesarean rate for delivery of the second twin after vaginal delivery of the first twin was 4.3% overall, with a higher rate among group 2 compared with group 1 (18.2% and 3.2%, respectively; P = .001). The second twin's Apgar score and cord artery pH are probably not affected when the inter-twin delivery interval exceeds 30 minutes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. How to learn effectively in medical school: test yourself, learn actively, and repeat in intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Students in medical school often feel overwhelmed by the excessive amount of factual knowledge they are obliged to learn. Although a large body of research on effective learning methods is published, scientifically based learning strategies are not a standard part of the curriculum in medical school. Students are largely unaware of how to learn successfully and improve memory. This review outlines three fundamental methods that benefit learning: the testing effect, active recall, and spaced repetition. The review summarizes practical learning strategies to learn effectively and optimize long-term retention of factual knowledge.

  1. The Effect of High-intensity Interval Training (HIIT on Plasma Levels of Resistin in Male Non-athlete Students (A Trial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Dehghani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Adipose tissue as a source of energy, is known as an important endocrine organ that releases various hormones including resistin. Resistin plays an important role in regulation of energy homeostasis and metabolism. The effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on resistin concentration in individuals is not clearly defined. The present study aimed to determine the effect of 10-weeks of HIIT on plasma resistin levels in male non-athlete students.   Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 26 male non-athlete students were randomly selected and divided into two groups of experimental and control. The experimental group performed interval trainings, in a 10-week training program (3 times a week according to the training program with the intensity of 85-100% HRmax. Blood samples were taken after 14 hours of fasting at different stages and similar conditions, and plasma levels of resistin were measured using a resistin kit (BOSTER Company, USA. The data were analyzed using independent and dependent t-tests at the significance level of α < 0.05.   Results: In this study, 10 weeks of HIIT caused a significant decrease in the plasma levels of resistin in the experimental group compared to the control group (p≤0.05.   Conclusion: From the obtained results, it can be said that HIIT, as a new and effective training method, has a preventive effect on cardiovascular diseases through a significant reduction of resistin.

  2. Effects of Continuous and Interval Training on Running Economy, Maximal Aerobic Speed and Gait Kinematics in Recreational Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mohíno, Fernando; González-Ravé, José M; Juárez, Daniel; Fernández, Francisco A; Barragán Castellanos, Rubén; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on running economy (RE), V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, maximal aerobic speed (MAS), and gait kinematics (step length [SL] and frequency, flight and contact time [CT]) in recreational athletes, with 2 different training methods, Interval and Continuous (CON). Eleven participants were randomly distributed in an interval training group (INT; n = 6) or CON training group (CON; n = 5). Interval training and CON performed 2 different training programs (95-110% and 70-75% of MAS, respectively), which consisted of 3 sessions per week during 6 weeks with the same external workload (%MAS × duration). An incremental test to exhaustion was performed to obtain V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, MAS, RE, and gait variables (high speed camera) before and after the training intervention. There was a significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) in RE at 60 and 90% of MAS by the CON group; without changes in gait. The INT group significantly increased MAS and higher stride length at 80, 90, and 100% of MAS and lower CT at 100% of MAS. As expected, training adaptations are highly specific to the overload applied with CON producing improvements in RE at lower percentage of MAS whereas INT produces improvements in MAS. The significantly increased stride length and decreased CT for the INT group are an important outcome of favorable changes in running gait.

  3. Effectiveness of two weeks of high-intensity interval training on performance and hormone status in adolescent triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Lun; Hsu, Mei-Chich; Astorino, Todd A; Liu, Ta-Wei; Chang, Wen-Dien

    2017-04-01

    Weekly training volumes for triathlete are typically higher and may cause fatigue and musculoskeletal injury risk. High-intensity interval training (HIT) is a potent time-efficient strategy to induce adaptations normally associated with traditional endurance training. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two weeks of in-season HIT on exercise capacity and hormonal responses in young triathletes. Twelve adolescent triathletes performed 18 sessions of HIT over 2 weeks including swim, cycle, and run events. The 6-day training blocks were separated by 1 day of recovery. Pre- and post-training, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and exercise performance were assessed, and blood samples were obtained to detect changes in hormone and metabolite levels. VO2peak was significantly higher (P=0.02) post-training (56.4±8.1 mL·min-1·kg-1) versus pre-training (55.1±7.5 mL·min-1·kg-1). Mean power and total work during 6×10 s repeated-sprint tests significantly increased (P=0.03) after HIT. Additionally, 750 m swim time (pre- vs. post: 689.7±102.5 s vs. 662.0±75 s, P=0.01) and 20 km cycling time (pre- vs. post: 1856.6±274.8 s vs. 1705.4±266.8 s, P=0.02) were significantly lower post-training compared to pre-training, but there was no significant difference in 5 km run time after HIT (pre- vs. post: 1315.8±81.3 s vs. 1292.0±112.9 s, P=0.31). In contrast to pre-training, ammonia concentration was significantly increased (Ptraining. These findings suggest that two weeks of HIT using HRpeak as a monitor of physiological intensity improved VO2peak, sprint performance, and triathlon-specific performance in adolescent triathletes and attenuated levels of muscle damage.

  4. Short interval between two Pap smears: effect on the result of the second smear? A prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolben, Theresa M; Bergauer, Florian; Moeckel, Jochen; Boettcher, Berit; Thaler, Christian J; Kolben, Thomas; Crispin, Alexander; Dannecker, Christian; Mahner, Sven; Gallwas, Julia

    2017-06-01

    A repeat Pap smear is sometimes necessary after a short time interval or even immediately, when patients seek for a second opinion or due to study participation. Only limited information is available on the possible impact of a short interval between two Pap smears. Most institutions therefore practice a minimum time span of 6-8 weeks before obtaining a second smear since a short interval is commonly believed to be associated with an increase of false negative results in the second smear. Two consecutive Pap smears were obtained from 81 women. 41 smears were processed using the conventional technique, whereas liquid-based cytology was used in the remaining 40 women. Smears were independently evaluated by four different cytopathologists. We analyzed the effect of time interval, both processing techniques and inter-observer variance in cytological evaluation. While the result of the second smear shows a tendency towards a more benign outcome (odds ratio (OR) 1.436, 95% CI 0.972-2.121), this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.07). No significant differences were observed between conservative and liquid-based cytology (OR 1.554, 95% CI 0.659-3.667, p = 0.31). There was considerable inter-observer variability, and the observer was a strong predictor of the cytological result (OR 0.632-5.083, 95% CI 0.355-8.975, p smear. Inter-observer variability of different cytopathologists is high and should be kept in mind when evaluating cytology results.

  5. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  6. Essure hysteroscopic sterilization versus interval laparoscopic bilateral tubal ligation: a comparative effectiveness review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounelli, Myrsini; Reaven, Nancy L

    2015-01-01

    A comparative effectiveness analysis was performed to examine the risks and benefits of laparoscopic bilateral tubal ligation compared with hysteroscopic sterilization using the Essure Permanent Birth Control System (Bayer HealthCare AG, Whippany, NJ). Existing evidence shows that both LBTL and Essure are safe and effective methods of female sterilization. Both have high rates of efficacy and low rates of complications although when complications do occur, those related to the Essure procedure are more likely to be minor in nature. The analysis was limited by the restricted number of studies involving head-to-head comparisons of the 2 approaches. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sampling strategies for estimating brook trout effective population size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew R. Whiteley; Jason A. Coombs; Mark Hudy; Zachary Robinson; Keith H. Nislow; Benjamin H. Letcher

    2012-01-01

    The influence of sampling strategy on estimates of effective population size (Ne) from single-sample genetic methods has not been rigorously examined, though these methods are increasingly used. For headwater salmonids, spatially close kin association among age-0 individuals suggests that sampling strategy (number of individuals and location from...

  8. The Effect of Age at First Calving and Calving Interval on Productive Life and Lifetime Profit in Korean Holsteins

    OpenAIRE

    Changhee Do; Nidarshani Wasana; Kwanghyun Cho; Yunho Choi; Taejeong Choi; Byungho Park; Donghee Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to estimate the effect of age at first calving and first two calving intervals on productive life and life time profit in Korean Holsteins. Reproduction data of Korean Holsteins born from 1998 to 2004 and lactation data from 276,573 cows with birth and last dry date that calved between 2000 and 2010 were used for the analysis. Lifetime profit increased with the days of life span. Regression of Life Span on Lifetime profit indicated that there was an increase of 3,800 ...

  9. An Effective Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Entropy to Evaluate Entrepreneurship Orientation of Online P2P Lending Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to measure the entrepreneurship orientation of online P2P lending platforms. The limitations of existing methods for calculating entropy of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IVIFSs are significantly improved by a new entropy measure of IVIFS considered in this paper, and then the essential properties of the proposed entropy are introduced. Moreover, an evaluation procedure is proposed to measure entrepreneurship orientation of online P2P lending platforms. Finally, a case is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method.

  10. Statistical intervals a guide for practitioners

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Gerald J

    2011-01-01

    Presents a detailed exposition of statistical intervals and emphasizes applications in industry. The discussion differentiates at an elementary level among different kinds of statistical intervals and gives instruction with numerous examples and simple math on how to construct such intervals from sample data. This includes confidence intervals to contain a population percentile, confidence intervals on probability of meeting specified threshold value, and prediction intervals to include observation in a future sample. Also has an appendix containing computer subroutines for nonparametric stati

  11. Effects of Cracking Test Conditions on Estimation Uncertainty for Weibull Parameters Considering Time-Dependent Censoring Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Phil Park

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is extremely difficult to predict the initiation time of cracking due to a large time spread in most cracking experiments. Thus, probabilistic models, such as the Weibull distribution, are usually employed to model the initiation time of cracking. Therefore, the parameters of the Weibull distribution are estimated from data collected from a cracking test. However, although the development of a reliable cracking model under ideal experimental conditions (e.g., a large number of specimens and narrow censoring intervals could be achieved in principle, it is not straightforward to quantitatively assess the effects of the ideal experimental conditions on model estimation uncertainty. The present study investigated the effects of key experimental conditions, including the time-dependent effect of the censoring interval length, on the estimation uncertainties of the Weibull parameters through Monte Carlo simulations. The simulation results provided quantified estimation uncertainties of Weibull parameters in various cracking test conditions. Hence, it is expected that the results of this study can offer some insight for experimenters developing a probabilistic crack initiation model by performing experiments.

  12. Effects of Cracking Test Conditions on Estimation Uncertainty for Weibull Parameters Considering Time-Dependent Censoring Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Phil; Park, Chanseok; Cho, Jongweon; Bahn, Chi Bum

    2016-12-23

    It is extremely difficult to predict the initiation time of cracking due to a large time spread in most cracking experiments. Thus, probabilistic models, such as the Weibull distribution, are usually employed to model the initiation time of cracking. Therefore, the parameters of the Weibull distribution are estimated from data collected from a cracking test. However, although the development of a reliable cracking model under ideal experimental conditions (e.g., a large number of specimens and narrow censoring intervals) could be achieved in principle, it is not straightforward to quantitatively assess the effects of the ideal experimental conditions on model estimation uncertainty. The present study investigated the effects of key experimental conditions, including the time-dependent effect of the censoring interval length, on the estimation uncertainties of the Weibull parameters through Monte Carlo simulations. The simulation results provided quantified estimation uncertainties of Weibull parameters in various cracking test conditions. Hence, it is expected that the results of this study can offer some insight for experimenters developing a probabilistic crack initiation model by performing experiments.

  13. The Effect of Interval Training and Nettle Supplement on Glycemic Control and Blood Pressure in Men WithType 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Ghalavand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise and herbal medicine are therapeutic approaches used to control blood sugar and blood pressure in diabetic patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of interval exercise and nettle supplements on blood glucose, and its role on blood pressure control in men with type 2 diabetes. Methods: In this quasi experimental study, 40 men with type 2 diabetes aged 30-50 years old who were qualified based on our inclusion criteria were chosen and randomly divided into 4 groups (interval training [IT], nettle supplement [NS], nettle supplement combined with interval training [IT+NS], and control. Blood pressure (BP and fasting blood glucose (FBS were measured at pre-test and post-test conditions. Paired sample t test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used as statistical tests. Significance level was considered at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Significant differences were detected regarding FBS levels in the three experimental groups in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05. Diastolic BP of the both IT and IT+NS groups was significantly different from the control group (P < 0.05. We also detected a significant difference in the diastolic BP between the IT+NS and the control group. Conclusion: According to our results, aerobic IT and nettle supplementation are effective methods for controlling blood sugar and BP in patients with type 2 diabetes. We also showed that using the combination of the 2 methods was more effective than using the either method alone.

  14. Practice Effects and Stability of Neuropsychological and UHDRS Tests Over Short Retest Intervals in Huntington Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beglinger, Leigh J; Adams, William H; Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Duff, Kevin; Langbehn, Douglas; Biglan, Kevin; Caviness, John; Olson, Blair; Paulsen, Jane S

    2015-01-01

    In Huntington disease (HD), cognitive changes due to disease-progression or treatment are potentially confounded by "practice effects" (PE)--performance improvement from prior exposure to test materials. A practice run-in ("dual baseline") was used in an HD cognitive trial to determine if PE could be minimized and evaluate performance trajectories over multiple visits. Non-depressed adults (N = 36) with mild to moderate HD-related cognitive deficits participated in a clinical trial to examine the efficacy of citalopram to enhance cognition. Cognitive tests were administered at three visits (2 weeks separating each visit), before active treatment randomization. Some tests were also administered at screening. Therefore 3-4 pre-treatment repetitions were available. We examined test improvement using repeated-measures ANOVAs with planned pairwise comparisons. Despite the practice run-in and use of alternate test forms, results indicated ongoing improvements over at least three test sessions on all three UHDRS cognitive tests. Trails A and B showed improvements between the third and fourth session, which suggests that one pre-baseline visit may not be effective in reducing practice on this important and commonly used test. Overall, 7 out of 13 variables showed some degree of short-term PE, even after multiple sessions and alternate forms. Tests assessing processing speed and memory may be particularly confounded by ongoing PE across at least 2-3 sessions. Practice run-in periods and alternate forms may help minimize the impact of such effects in HD clinical trials but awareness of which tests are most susceptible to PE is important in clinical trial design.

  15. The determinants of effective fecundability based on the first birth interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallan, J; Udry, J R

    1986-02-01

    There are substantial differences in fecundability among nine developing countries in different parts of the world. In addition, within countries, later age at marriage has a clear, positive, nonlinear effect on fecundability. Women with higher education and those with more educated husbands have higher fecundability. Urban residents have higher fecundability than rural. The higher fecundability of more recent cohorts is the most consistent observation. Since those variables most frequently shown to have inverse relationships to fertility show direct relationships to fecundability within populations, the role of fecundability as a proximate variable in models of the determinants of fertility requires further specification.

  16. Effects of upper-body sprint-interval training on strength and endurance capacities in female cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandbakk, Kristine; Welde, Boye; Kruken, Andrea Hovstein; Baumgart, Julia; Ettema, Gertjan; Karlsen, Trine; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of adding upper-body sprint-intervals or continuous double poling endurance training to the normal training on maximal upper-body strength and endurance capacity in female cross-country skiers. In total, 17 female skiers (age: 18.1±0.8yr, body mass: 60±7 kg, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): 3.30±0.37 L.min-1) performed an 8-week training intervention. Here, either two weekly sessions of six to eight 30-s maximal upper-body double poling sprint-intervals (SIG, n = 8) or 45-75 min of continuous low-to-moderate intensity double poling on roller skis (CG, n = 9) were added to their training. Before and after the intervention, the participants were tested for physiological and kinematical responses during submaximal and maximal diagonal and double poling treadmill roller skiing. Additionally, we measured maximal upper-body strength (1RM) and average power at 40% 1RM in a poling-specific strength exercise. SIG improved absolute VO2max in diagonal skiing more than CG (8% vs 2%, pSIG and CG) (both pSIG improved 1RM strength more than CG (18% vs 10%, p<0.05), while there was a tendency for difference in average power at 40% 1RM (20% vs 14%, p = 0.06). Oxygen cost and kinematics (cycle length and rate) in double poling and diagonal remained unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that adding upper-body sprint-interval training is more effective than continuous endurance training in improving upper-body maximal strength and VO2max.

  17. Long-Term effect of smartphone-delivered Interval Walking Training on physical activity in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentiner, Laura Staun; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Karstoft, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is a cornerstone in type 2 diabetes (T2D) rehabilitation. Effective long-Term and low-cost strategies to keep these patients' physically active are needed. However, maintaining physical activity behaviour is difficult once formalised interventions end. Structured...... exercise training supported by mobile technology and remote feedback is potentially an effective strategy. The objective of the trial is to investigate whether mobile health support using the InterWalk application for smartphones is effective in increasing physical activity levels in persons with T2D over...... time compared with standard care. We investigate whether Interval Walking Training using the InterWalk application is superior to Danish municipality-based rehabilitation in increasing moderate-And-vigorous physical activity levels in patients with T2D across 52â €..weeks. Secondary, we hypothesise...

  18. A HEMATOBIOCHEMICAL EVALUATION TO COMPARE THE EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING AND AEROBIC EXERCISE TO CONTROL DIABETES MALLITIS AND ITS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneeb Iqbal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes has become a very common disease all over the world since last few decades and is now perceived as a global health disorder. Diabetes mellitus is identified on the basis of constant high concentration of blood glucose level and it mainly occurs due to deficiency of the pancreatic hormone insulin. High-intensity interval training (HIIT is an improved form of interval trainings, and exercise strategies which alternate the periods of small intense anaerobic exercise by less-intense regaining periods. The study aimed to compare the hematological parameters associated with diabetes and muscle activity between healthy humans and diabetic type-1 patients when subjected to HIIT and regular aerobic exercises. Methods: A convenience sample of total 60 participants was taken it comprised of thirty healthy individuals taken from the department of Physical Therapy, University of Sargodha, Lahore campus and thirty diabetic type-1 individuals of age 15-30 years taken from Akhuwat health services clinic Township, Lahore. Participants were divided into four groups of fifteen individuals each. Group one was the diabetic HIIT (DH group with diabetic type-1 patients subjected to HIIT. Group two was the diabetic aerobic (DA group with diabetic type-1 patients subjected to regular aerobic exercises. Group three was control High intensity interval training (HH that consisted of fifteen healthy individuals to be subjected to High intensity interval training exercises (HIIT. Group four (HA was the control aerobic group with fifteen healthy individuals of average lifestyles subjected to regular aerobic exercises. Results: Aerobic exercise was found to be more effective in reducing glucose level, lowering exogenous insulin and glycated hemoglobin, however HIIT proved to be more effective in lowering blood cholesterol level and decrease LDL level and increase HDL level. Conclusion: It was concluded that aerobic exercise program in comparison to high

  19. Effect of the time interval between fusion and activation on epigenetic reprogramming and development of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Yongsheng; Su, Jianmin; Wang, Lijun; Li, Ruizhe; Li, Qian; Wu, Yongyan; Hua, Song; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the time interval between fusion and activation (FA interval) play an important role in nuclear remodeling and in vitro development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. However, the effects of FA interval on the epigenetic reprogramming and in vivo developmental competence of SCNT embryos remain unknown. In the present study, the effects of different FA intervals (0 h, 2 h, and 4 h) on the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were assessed. The results demonstrated that H3 lysine 9 (H3K9ac) levels decreased rapidly after fusion in all three groups. H3K9ac was practically undetectable 2 h after fusion in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups. However, H3K9ac was still evidently detectable in the 0-h FA interval group. The H3K9ac levels increased 10 h after fusion in all three groups, but were higher in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups than that in the 0-h FA interval group. The methylation levels of the satellite I region in day-7 blastocysts derived from the 2-h or 4-h FA interval groups was similar to that of in vitro fertilization blastocysts and is significantly lower than that of the 0-h FA interval group. SCNT embryos derived from 2-h FA interval group showed higher developmental competence than those from the 0-h and 4-h FA interval groups in terms of cleavage rate, blastocyst formation rate, apoptosis index, and pregnancy and calving rates. Hence, the FA interval is an important factor influencing the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos.

  20. Digitally Available Interval-Specific Rock-Sample Data Compiled from Historical Records, Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye County, Nevada.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Wood

    2007-10-24

    Between 1951 and 1992, 828 underground tests were conducted on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to and following these nuclear tests, holes were drilled and mined to collect rock samples. These samples are organized and stored by depth of borehole or drift at the U.S. Geological Survey Core Library and Data Center at Mercury, Nevada, on the Nevada Test Site. From these rock samples, rock properties were analyzed and interpreted and compiled into project files and in published reports that are maintained at the Core Library and at the U.S. Geological Survey office in Henderson, Nevada. These rock-sample data include lithologic descriptions, physical and mechanical properties, and fracture characteristics. Hydraulic properties also were compiled from holes completed in the water table. Rock samples are irreplaceable because pre-test, in-place conditions cannot be recreated and samples cannot be recollected from the many holes destroyed by testing. Documenting these data in a published report will ensure availability for future investigators.

  1. Digitally Available Interval-Specific Rock-Sample Data Compiled from Historical Records, Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Wood

    2009-10-08

    Between 1951 and 1992, underground nuclear weapons testing was conducted at 828 sites on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to and following these nuclear tests, holes were drilled and mined to collect rock samples. These samples are organized and stored by depth of borehole or drift at the U.S. Geological Survey Core Library and Data Center at Mercury, Nevada, on the Nevada Test Site. From these rock samples, rock properties were analyzed and interpreted and compiled into project files and in published reports that are maintained at the Core Library and at the U.S. Geological Survey office in Henderson, Nevada. These rock-sample data include lithologic descriptions, physical and mechanical properties, and fracture characteristics. Hydraulic properties also were compiled from holes completed in the water table. Rock samples are irreplaceable because pre-test, in-place conditions cannot be recreated and samples cannot be recollected from the many holes destroyed by testing. Documenting these data in a published report will ensure availability for future investigators.

  2. CLSI-based transference of the CALIPER database of pediatric reference intervals from Abbott to Beckman, Ortho, Roche and Siemens Clinical Chemistry Assays: direct validation using reference samples from the CALIPER cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estey, Mathew P; Cohen, Ashley H; Colantonio, David A; Chan, Man Khun; Marvasti, Tina Binesh; Randell, Edward; Delvin, Edgard; Cousineau, Jocelyne; Grey, Vijaylaxmi; Greenway, Donald; Meng, Qing H; Jung, Benjamin; Bhuiyan, Jalaluddin; Seccombe, David; Adeli, Khosrow

    2013-09-01

    The CALIPER program recently established a comprehensive database of age- and sex-stratified pediatric reference intervals for 40 biochemical markers. However, this database was only directly applicable for Abbott ARCHITECT assays. We therefore sought to expand the scope of this database to biochemical assays from other major manufacturers, allowing for a much wider application of the CALIPER database. Based on CLSI C28-A3 and EP9-A2 guidelines, CALIPER reference intervals were transferred (using specific statistical criteria) to assays performed on four other commonly used clinical chemistry platforms including Beckman Coulter DxC800, Ortho Vitros 5600, Roche Cobas 6000, and Siemens Vista 1500. The resulting reference intervals were subjected to a thorough validation using 100 reference specimens (healthy community children and adolescents) from the CALIPER bio-bank, and all testing centers participated in an external quality assessment (EQA) evaluation. In general, the transferred pediatric reference intervals were similar to those established in our previous study. However, assay-specific differences in reference limits were observed for many analytes, and in some instances were considerable. The results of the EQA evaluation generally mimicked the similarities and differences in reference limits among the five manufacturers' assays. In addition, the majority of transferred reference intervals were validated through the analysis of CALIPER reference samples. This study greatly extends the utility of the CALIPER reference interval database which is now directly applicable for assays performed on five major analytical platforms in clinical use, and should permit the worldwide application of CALIPER pediatric reference intervals. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Block periodization of high-intensity aerobic intervals provides superior training effects in trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, B R; Hansen, J; Ellefsen, S

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two different methods of organizing endurance training in trained cyclists. One group of cyclists performed block periodization, wherein the first week constituted five sessions of high-intensity aerobic training (HIT), followed by 3 weeks of one weekly HIT session and focus on low-intensity training (LIT) (BP; n = 10, VO2max  = 62 ± 2 mL/kg/min). Another group of cyclists performed a more traditional organization, with 4 weeks of two weekly HIT sessions interspersed with LIT (TRAD; n = 9, VO2max  = 63 ± 2 mL/kg/min). Similar volumes of both HIT and LIT was performed in the two groups. While BP increased VO2max , peak power output (Wmax) and power output at 2 mmol/L [la(-)] by 4.6 ± 3.7%, 2.1 ± 2.8%, and 10 ± 12%, respectively (P training compared with TRAD training (ES = 1.34, ES = 0.85, and ES = 0.71, respectively). The present study suggests that block periodization of training provides superior adaptations to traditional organization during a 4-week endurance training period, despite similar training volume and intensity. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effect of 8 Weeks of High Intensity Interval Training on Plasma Levels of Adiponectin and Leptin in Overweight Nurses

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    Sahar Avazpor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: High intensity interval training (HIIT is a novel training method which has received most attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT on plasma levels of adiponectin and leptin in overweight nurses.Materials and Methods: 27 nurses (mean age 25.81±60 years, height 158.01±67 cm and weight 69.41±25 kg were voluntarily selected and randomly assigned to three groups (each group 9 subjects: 1. HIIT (type 1 including 8 seconds of sprint running and 12 seconds of active recovery 2. HIIT (type 2 including 40-m shuttle run with maximum speed 3. Control group. HIIT (type 1 was performed for eight weeks, three sessions per week, each session 6-9 min. With more than 90% HRmax. HIIT (type 2 was applied for eight weeks, three sessions per week with more than 90% HRmax. The control group did not participate in any training protocol.Results: The data were analyzed by the dependent t test and ANOVA. The results showed that the HIIT (type 1 and (type 2 had significant effects on plasma leptin decrease and plasma adiponectin concentration increase in nurses. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to analyze the intergroup data at p˂0.05.Conclusion: The results showed a significant difference in the variables (leptin and adiponectin among HIIT (type 1, HIIT (type 2 and control.

  5. THE EFFECT OF SKILL-BASED MAXIMAL INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING ON AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE OF FEMALE FUTSAL PLAYERS

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    Mustafa Karahan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of skill-based maximal intensity interval training on aerobic and anaerobic performance variables among female futsal players. The study included 12 elite female futsal players (training group, TG from university league division I and 12 physically active female sports-school students (control group, CG. The CG completed volleyball and basketball courses (each 2 hours per week as part of their school programs; the TG completed an 8-week training program (non-sequential, 4 days per week. Aerobic and anaerobic performance variables were measured before and after the training program via a 20m shuttle run and running anaerobic sprint tests (RAST. Average anaerobic power, fatigue index and VO2max of TG improved by 10.7% 22.1% and 9.6% (p<0.05, respectively. These findings demonstrate that skill-based maximal intensity interval training had significant effects on both aerobic and anaerobic performance variables of female futsal players. The results suggest that this training model may be useful as a training efficiency tool among futsal coaches.

  6. Cardiac rehabilitation in chronic heart failure: effect of an 8-week, high-intensity interval training versus continuous training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyssin, Céline; Verkindt, Chantal; Prieur, Fabrice; Benaich, Philippe; Maunier, Sébastien; Blanc, Philippe

    2012-08-01

    To compare the effects of an 8-week, high-intensity interval training protocol versus continuous training. Randomized controlled trial. Cardiac rehabilitation center. Patients (N=26; mean age ± SD, 54±12y) with chronic heart failure were enrolled in a cardiac rehabilitation program for 8 weeks. Patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups that performed either interval training (IT) or continuous training (CT). IT consisted of 3 sessions of 12 repetitions of 30 seconds of exercise at very high intensity, followed by 60 seconds of complete rest. The CT group performed CT exercises, which consisted of 45 minutes of aerobic exercise. Parameters of gas exchanges: peak oxygen consumption (Vo(2)peak), first ventilator threshold (VT1), distance at six-minute walk test (6MWT), and level of anxiety and depression were measured. The IT group increased significantly their Vo(2)peak, the duration of the exercise test, the oxygen pulse, oxygen consumption at the VT1, and the distance walked during the 6MWT. The CT group only increased the time at the VT1 and the distance performed at the 6MWT. The improvement in the time at the VT1 was significantly higher for the IT group than for the CT group. This study shows that IT at very high intensity for patients with heart failure appears to be more effective than CT in improving indices of submaximal exercise capacity. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of targeted temperature management on QT and corrected QT intervals in patients with cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosol, Zachary; Miranda, David F; Sandoval, Yader; Bart, Bradley A; Smith, Stephen W; Goldsmith, Steven R

    2017-06-01

    Targeted Temperature Management (TTM) improves outcomes after cardiac arrest but may affect the QT and QTc intervals which could increase the chance of subsequent arrhythmia. We report here the effects of TTM on both computer-derived and manually calculated QT and QTc as well as the relationship of the length of the QTc and serious arrhythmia in a retrospective single-center experience. 193 patients undergoing TTM for cardiac arrest were studied. 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECG) were measured before, during and after TTM. We assessed the QT and Bazett-corrected QT intervals (QTc) and examined the relationship between QTc and the occurrence of malignant arrhythmias. Both the QT and QTc increased during TTM whether derived manually or from the computer algorithm, although values were different with the two methods. Neither the QT nor the QTc were significantly longer in those patients with malignant arrhythmias. QT and QTc prolong during TTM. There was no differential increase in the QTc in patients who experienced malignant arrhythmias. While the mechanism of QTc prolongation is not clear, it would not appear that the degree of QTc prolongation has an adverse effect on cardiac rhythm during TTM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of upper-body sprint-interval training on strength and endurance capacities in female cross-country skiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandbakk, Kristine; Welde, Boye; Kruken, Andrea Hovstein; Baumgart, Julia; Ettema, Gertjan; Karlsen, Trine; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of adding upper-body sprint-intervals or continuous double poling endurance training to the normal training on maximal upper-body strength and endurance capacity in female cross-country skiers. In total, 17 female skiers (age: 18.1±0.8yr, body mass: 60±7 kg, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): 3.30±0.37 L.min-1) performed an 8-week training intervention. Here, either two weekly sessions of six to eight 30-s maximal upper-body double poling sprint-intervals (SIG, n = 8) or 45–75 min of continuous low-to-moderate intensity double poling on roller skis (CG, n = 9) were added to their training. Before and after the intervention, the participants were tested for physiological and kinematical responses during submaximal and maximal diagonal and double poling treadmill roller skiing. Additionally, we measured maximal upper-body strength (1RM) and average power at 40% 1RM in a poling-specific strength exercise. SIG improved absolute VO2max in diagonal skiing more than CG (8% vs 2%, ptraining is more effective than continuous endurance training in improving upper-body maximal strength and VO2max. PMID:28241030

  9. A general method to determine sampling windows for nonlinear mixed effects models with an application to population pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Lee Kien; McGree, James; Duffull, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Optimal design methods have been proposed to determine the best sampling times when sparse blood sampling is required in clinical pharmacokinetic studies. However, the optimal blood sampling time points may not be feasible in clinical practice. Sampling windows, a time interval for blood sample collection, have been proposed to provide flexibility in blood sampling times while preserving efficient parameter estimation. Because of the complexity of the population pharmacokinetic models, which are generally nonlinear mixed effects models, there is no analytical solution available to determine sampling windows. We propose a method for determination of sampling windows based on MCMC sampling techniques. The proposed method attains a stationary distribution rapidly and provides time-sensitive windows around the optimal design points. The proposed method is applicable to determine sampling windows for any nonlinear mixed effects model although our work focuses on an application to population pharmacokinetic models. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The effect of different irrigation intervals and plant densities on yield and yield components of two fennel (Foenicolum vulgare landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza koochaki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different irrigation intervals and plant densities on yield and yield components of two fennel landraces, an experiment was conducted at the agricultural research station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2003 and 2004. For this purpose a double split plot experiment based on a Complete Randomized Block Design with three replications was used. Treatments included three irrigation intervals (10, 20 and 30 days, two fennel landraces (Khorasan and Kerman and four plant densities (40, 50, 67 and 100 plant per m2. Row spaces were kept constant (25 cm and plant density were adjusted in row spaces. Results indicated that irrigation affected vegetative and reproductive organs, significantly. With increasing irrigation intervals, plant height, dry matter of stem, total dry matter of plant, lateral branches per m2, umbels per m2, umbels per plant, fertile umbels per main stem, umbels per lateral branch, umbelets per umbel, 1000-seed weight and grain yield were decreased, but main branches per m2 and grain number per umbelet did not show a constant trend. Khorasan landrace had more plant height and 1000-seed weight than Kerman landrace, but main branches per m2, lateral branches per m2, umbels per m2, umbels per main branch, umbelets per umbel, grain number per umbelet and grain yield in Kerman landrace were higher than Khorasan landrace. Two landraces showed no differences in dry matter of stem weight, total dry matter of plant, umbels per plant and umbels per lateral branch. With increasing plant density, umbels per plant, umbels per main branch, umbelets per umbel and grain number per umbelet decreased, significantly. Density had no significant effect on 1000-seed weight. With increasing density, dry matter of stem, total dry matter of plant, main branches per m2, lateral branches per m2, umbels per m2 and grain yield increased, but umbels per lateral branch showed no constant trand. Our results showed that the

  11. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Fat Mass Parameters in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Cardenosa, Alba; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Camacho-Cardenosa, Marta; Marcos-Serrano, Marta; Timón, Rafael; Olcina, Guillermo

    2016-11-21

    Childhood and adolescence are key to the development of chronic disease stages, the distribution of fat an important factor in this regard. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects on fat parameters of a high intensity program developed in adolescents during physical education classes. In 2013, 35 school-age children of Cáceres taken part in this study divided into two groups. The high-intensity group performed for 8 weeks, 4-6 sets of 20 seconds at maximal intensity with a ratio effort / recovery of 1: 3 to 1: 1. The other group, developed continuous aerobic exercise during the same time. It conducted an assessment of fat mass before and after the training program. Repeated measures ANOVA test was used to observe that there were no statistically significant differences. Continuous aerobic training group showed statistically significant differences in intra-group analysis in the percentage of fat mass trunk (Pre: 15.66 ± 4.16 vs Post: 16.95 ± 4.03; +1, 29%; p = 0.04) and the percentage of total fat (Pre: 21.58 ± 3.93 / Post: 22.34 ± 3.70; p = 0.05). Statistically significant differences were not found in the analysis between-groups in any of the studied variables. The training program high intensity physical activity at school carried out during physical education classes did not improve fat mass parameters evaluated. However, maintaining these parameters could be a good result during the development of this stage, where an increase of these occurs.

  12. The effects of interval- vs. continuous exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and substrate oxidation rates in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Wallis, Gareth A; Pedersen, Bente K; Solomon, Thomas P J

    2016-09-01

    For unknown reasons, interval training often reduces body weight more than energy-expenditure matched continuous training. We compared the acute effects of time-duration and oxygen-consumption matched interval- vs. continuous exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), substrate oxidation rates and lipid metabolism in the hours following exercise in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Following an overnight fast, ten T2D subjects (M/F: 7/3; age=60.3±2.3years; body mass index (BMI)=28.3±1.1kg/m(2)) completed three 60-min interventions in a counterbalanced, randomized order: 1) control (CON), 2) continuous walking (CW), 3) interval-walking (IW - repeated cycles of 3min of fast and 3min of slow walking). Indirect calorimetry was applied during each intervention and repeatedly for 30min per hour during the following 5h. A liquid mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT, 450kcal) was consumed by the subjects 45min after completion of the intervention with blood samples taken regularly. Exercise interventions were successfully matched for total oxygen consumption (CW=1641±133mL/min; IW=1634±126mL/min, P>0.05). EPOC was higher after IW (8.4±1.3l) compared to CW (3.7±1.4l, PEPOC than oxygen-consumption matched continuous exercise during a post-exercise MMTT in subjects with T2D, whereas effects on substrate oxidation and lipid metabolism are comparable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High-intensity interval training (HIT) for effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Matthew; Weston, Kathryn L; Prentis, James M; Snowden, Chris P

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of perioperative medicine is leading to greater diversity in development of pre-surgical interventions, implemented to reduce patient surgical risk and enhance post-surgical recovery. Of these interventions, the prescription of pre-operative exercise training is gathering momentum as a realistic means for enhancing patient surgical outcome. Indeed, the general benefits of exercise training have the potential to pre-operatively optimise several pre-surgical risks factors, including cardiorespiratory function, frailty and cognitive function. Any exercise programme incorporated into the pre-operative pathway of care needs to be effective and time efficient in that any fitness gains are achievable in the limited period between the decision for surgery and operation (e.g. 4 weeks). Fortunately, there is a large volume of research describing effective and time-efficient exercise training programmes within the discipline of sports science. Accordingly, the objective of our commentary is to synthesise contemporary exercise training research, both from non-clinical and clinical populations, with the overarching aim of informing the development of effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise training programmes. The development of such exercise training programmes requires the careful consideration of several key principles, namely frequency, intensity, time, type and progression of exercise. Therefore, in light of more recent evidence demonstrating the effectiveness and time efficiency of high-intensity interval training-which involves brief bouts of intense exercise interspersed with longer recovery periods-the principles of exercise training programme design will be discussed mainly in the context of such high-intensity interval training programmes. Other issues pertinent to the development, implementation and evaluation of pre-operative exercise training programmes, such as individual exercise prescription, training session monitoring and potential

  14. Salutary effects of high-intensity interval training in persons with elevated cardiovascular risk [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome L. Fleg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT has been the traditional model for aerobic exercise training for over four decades, a growing body of literature has demonstrated equal if not greater improvement in aerobic capacity and similar beneficial effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and quality of life from high-intensity interval training (HIIT. An advantage of HIIT over MICT is the shorter time required to perform the same amount of energy expenditure. The current brief review summarizes the effects of HIIT on peak aerobic capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults and those with various cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and post heart transplantation.

  15. METHODS OF MEASURING THE EFFECTS OF LIGHTNING BY SIMULATING ITS STRIKES WITH THE INTERVAL ASSESSMENT OF THE RESULTS OF MEASUREMENTS

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    P. V. Kriksin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the development of new methods aimed at more accurate interval estimate of the experimental values of voltages on grounding devices of substations and circuits in the control cables, that occur when lightning strikes to lightning rods; the abovementioned estimate made it possible to increase the accuracy of the results of the study of lightning noise by 28 %. A more accurate value of interval estimation were achieved by developing a measurement model that takes into account, along with the measured values, different measurement errors and includes the special processing of the measurement results. As a result, the interval of finding the true value of the sought voltage is determined with an accuracy of 95 %. The methods can be applied to the IK-1 and IKP-1 measurement complexes, consisting in the aperiodic pulse generator, the generator of high-frequency pulses and selective voltmeters, respectively. To evaluate the effectiveness of the developed methods series of experimental voltage assessments of grounding devices of ten active high-voltage substation have been fulfilled in accordance with the developed methods and traditional techniques. The evaluation results confirmed the possibility of finding the true values of voltage over a wide range, that ought to be considered in the process of technical diagnostics of lightning protection of substations when the analysis of the measurement results and the development of measures to reduce the effects of lightning are being fulfilled. Also, a comparative analysis of the results of measurements made in accordance with the developed methods and traditional techniques has demonstrated that the true value of the sought voltage may exceed the measured value at an average of 28 %, that ought to be considered in the further analysis of the parameters of lightning protection at the facility and in the development of corrective actions. The developed methods have been

  16. Evaluating the sterilizing effect of pyriproxyfen treated mosquito nets against Anopheles gambiae at different blood-feeding intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffer, Aneesa; Protopopoff, Natacha; Mosha, Franklin W; Malone, David; Rowland, Mark W; Oxborough, Richard M

    2015-10-01

    Pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors are widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa and new insecticides with different modes of action are urgently needed. Pyriproxyfen is a juvenile hormone mimic that reduces fecundity and fertility of adult Anopheles mosquitoes when used as a contact insecticide. A long-lasting insecticidal net incorporating pyriproxyfen is under development. As wild, host-seeking females may succeed in blood-feeding at different intervals after initial contact with mosquito nets the aim of this study was to determine the effect that age and gonotrophic status (nulliparous or parous) and the interval between initial pyriproxyfen exposure and blood-feeding has in terms of subsequent reduced fecundity and fertility. Anopheles gambiae s.s. were exposed to pyriproxyfen LLIN for three minutes in WHO cone bioassays. Four regimens were tested with different blood-feeding intervals A-1 hour (nulliparous), B-1 hour (parous), C-24h (nulliparous), or D-120h (nulliparous) after pyriproxyfen exposure. Mosquito oviposition rate, fecundity and fertility of eggs were recorded for several days. All four treatment regimens produced levels of mortality similar to unexposed females. The overall reduction in reproductive rate of 99.9% for regimen A relative to the untreated net was primarily due to oviposition inhibition in exposed females (97%). Pyriproxyfen was equally effective against older parous mosquitoes and when blood-feeding was 24h after exposure. Regimen D produced a reduction in reproductive rate of 60.1% but this was of lesser magnitude than other regimens and was the only regimen that failed to reduce fertility of laid eggs, indicating the effects of pyriproxyfen exposure on reproduction are to some extent reversible as mosquitoes age. In an area of moderate to high mosquito net coverage a host-seeking mosquito is likely to contact a treated mosquito net before: (a) penetrating a holed net and blood-feeding shortly after exposure or, (b) be frustrated

  17. The addition of strength training to aerobic interval training: effects on muscle strength and body composition in CHF patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchla, Anthi; Karatzanos, Eleftherios; Dimopoulos, Stavros; Tasoulis, Athanasios; Agapitou, Varvara; Diakos, Nikolaos; Tseliou, Eleni; Terrovitis, John; Nanas, Serafim

    2011-01-01

    The loss of lean muscle mass and muscle strength is a common problem in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. Endurance training is efficient in improving patient exercise capacity. This study sought to evaluate the additional effects of strength training on muscle strength and body composition in chf patients participating in an interval training program. Twenty consecutive, stable CHF patients participated in a rehabilitation program. Subjects were randomly assigned to aerobic (n = 10) or combined aerobic plus strength training group (n = 10). Aerobic group performed interval training on cycle ergometers. Strength training incorporated exercises for various muscle groups, including quadriceps, hamstrings, biceps brachii, and the deltoids. Both regimes were of the same duration. Body composition was evaluated by whole-body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and quadriceps strength by the sum of the 2-repetition maximum (2-RM) test for each leg. Peak oxygen uptake (.VO(2peak)) and peak work load (W(peak)) as well as oxygen uptake (.VO(2AT)) and workload at anaerobic threshold (W(AT)) were evaluated by a symptom limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Concerning leg lean mass, no significant within-subjects or between-groups changes were observed (P > .05). Both groups improved in 2-RM test (P CHF patients. Adaptations other than hypertrophy, such as muscle fiber type alterations and/or neuromuscular adjustments, may account for these results.

  18. A simple, physiologically-based model of sea turtle remigration intervals and nesting population dynamics: Effects of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeman, Noga; Spotila, James R; O'Connor, Michael P

    2015-09-07

    Variation in the yearly number of sea turtles nesting at rookeries can interfere with population estimates and obscure real population dynamics. Previous theoretical models suggested that this variation in nesting numbers may be driven by changes in resources at the foraging grounds. We developed a physiologically-based model that uses temperatures at foraging sites to predict foraging conditions, resource accumulation, remigration probabilities, and, ultimately, nesting numbers for a stable population of sea turtles. We used this model to explore several scenarios of temperature variation at the foraging grounds, including one-year perturbations and cyclical temperature oscillations. We found that thermally driven resource variation can indeed synchronize nesting in groups of turtles, creating cohorts, but that these cohorts tend to break down over 5-10 years unless regenerated by environmental conditions. Cohorts were broken down faster at lower temperatures. One-year perturbations of low temperature had a synchronizing effect on nesting the following year, while high temperature perturbations tended to delay nesting in a less synchronized way. Cyclical temperatures lead to cyclical responses both in nesting numbers and remigration intervals, with the amplitude and lag of the response depending on the duration of the cycle. Overall, model behavior is consistent with observations at nesting beaches. Future work should focus on refining the model to fit particular nesting populations and testing further whether or not it may be used to predict observed nesting numbers and remigration intervals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relativistic effects on galaxy redshift samples due to target selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Shadab; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Ho, Shirley; Zhu, Hongyu; Giusarma, Elena

    2017-10-01

    In a galaxy redshift survey, the objects to be targeted for spectra are selected from a photometrically observed sample. The observed magnitudes and colours of galaxies in this parent sample will be affected by their peculiar velocities, through relativistic Doppler and relativistic beaming effects. In this paper, we compute the resulting expected changes in galaxy photometry. The magnitudes of the relativistic effects are a function of redshift, stellar mass, galaxy velocity and velocity direction. We focus on the CMASS sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), which is selected on the basis of colour and magnitude. We find that 0.10 per cent of the sample (∼585 galaxies) has been scattered into the targeted region of colour-magnitude space by relativistic effects, and conversely 0.09 per cent of the sample (∼532 galaxies) has been scattered out. Observational consequences of these effects include an asymmetry in clustering statistics, which we explore in a companion paper. Here, we compute a set of weights that can be used to remove the effect of modulations introduced into the density field inferred from a galaxy sample. We conclude by investigating the possible effects of these relativistic modulation on large-scale clustering of the galaxy sample.

  20. Effectiveness of High-Intensity Interval Exercise on Serum Dopamine Level and Improvement of Perceptual-Motor Skills in Male Students with Hyperactivity/Attention Deficit Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Torabi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Known by hyperactivity, inattentiveness, and impulsiveness, the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is considered as a behavioral disorder in the children, as well as in the adolescents. The disorder might also damage their motor skill procedure. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of 6-week high intensity interval exercise on the serum dopamine levels and the improvement of perceptual-motor performance in boys with ADHD. Materials & Methods: In the controlled pretest-posttest semi-experimental study, 20 adolescent male students with ADHD of the eastern Tehran schools were studied in 2015. The subjects, selected by random sampling method, were randomly divided into two groups including experimental (n=10 and control (n=10 groups. 6-week high intensity interval training (3 days a week was conducted in experimental group. The anthropometric indices, dopamine levels, and perceptual-motor performance scores were measured both at the beginning and at the end of the course. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using paired T and independent T tests. Findings: In the experimental group, the dopamine levels significantly increased at the posttest stage compared to the pretest (p=0.01, while BMI (p=0.001 and body fat percentage (p=0.002 significantly decreased. In addition, the motor skill score significantly increased in experimental group (p=0.001. No variable was significantly changed in control group during the 6 weeks (p>0.05. Conclusion: 6-week high intensity interval exercise improves perceptual-motor performance and increases serum dopamine levels in boys with ADHD.

  1. Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Tucker, Patrick S; Fenning, Andrew S

    2017-03-01

    The current review clarifies the cardiometabolic health effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in adults. A systematic search (PubMed) examining HIIT and cardiometabolic health markers was completed on 15 October 2015. Sixty-five intervention studies were included for review and the methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Downs and Black score. Studies were classified by intervention duration and body mass index classification. Outcomes with at least 5 effect sizes were synthesised using a random-effects meta-analysis of the standardised mean difference (SMD) in cardiometabolic health markers (baseline to postintervention) using Review Manager 5.3. Short-term (ST) HIIT (HIIT (≥12 weeks) significantly improved waist circumference (SMD -0.20, 95% CI -0.38 to -0.01; pHIIT demonstrated no effect on insulin, lipid profile, C reactive protein or interleukin 6 in overweight/obese populations. In normal weight populations, ST-HIIT and LT-HIIT significantly improved VO 2 max, but no other significant effects were observed. Current evidence suggests that ST-HIIT and LT-HIIT can increase VO 2 max and improve some cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Performance of Random Effects Model Estimators under Complex Sampling Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yue; Stokes, Lynne; Harris, Ian; Wang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we consider estimation of parameters of random effects models from samples collected via complex multistage designs. Incorporation of sampling weights is one way to reduce estimation bias due to unequal probabilities of selection. Several weighting methods have been proposed in the literature for estimating the parameters of…

  3. High Intensity Interval Training in Handcycling: The Effects of a 7 Week Training Intervention in Able-bodied Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, Patrick; Reed, Kate; Van Der Woude, Luc; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In lower body endurance training, quantities of both moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) can lead to an improved physiological capacity and performance. Limited research is available regarding the endurance and muscular capacity of the upper body, and how training contributes to improvements in performance capacity is still unknown. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of HIIT and MICT on the physiological capacity and handcycling performance of able-bodied men in a well-controlled laboratory setting. Methods: Twenty four recreationally active men (22 ± 2 years; 1.84 ± 0.04 m; 79 ± 10 kg) were matched on incremental handcycling pre-test performance (peakPO) and then randomly assigned to HIIT, MICT, or a non-training control group (CON, 3 × n = 8). Participants in HIIT completed 14 interval training sessions, performing 4 × 4 min intervals at 85% heart rate reserve (%HRR), and seven continuous training sessions at 55 %HRR (every 2nd training session of the week). Participants in MICT performed 21 training sessions of 30 min at 55 %HRR. After the intervention, changes in peak oxygen uptake (peakVO 2 ) and peak power output (peakPO) were compared within and between HIIT, MICT and CON. Results: The average external training load per training session did not differ between MICT and HIIT ( p = 0.713). Improvements after HIIT in peakVO 2 (22.2 ± 8.1%) and peakPO (47.1 ± 20.7%) were significantly larger compared with MICT and CON ( p HIIT occurred despite training 22% less time than MICT. No significant changes were found in CON. Discussion: As in lower body endurance sports, HIIT proved to be very effective in improving the physiological and performance capacity of upper body exercise. Whilst physiological capacity in both training groups improved significantly compared with CON, the present study shows that peakVO 2 and peakPO improved more after HIIT than after MICT in able

  4. Effect of Age and Sex on the QTc Interval in Children and Adolescents With Type 1 and 2 Long-QT Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Arja S; Clur, Sally-Ann B; Geskus, Ronald B; Blank, Andreas C; De Kezel, Charlotte C A; Yoshinaga, Masao; Hofman, Nynke; Wilde, Arthur A M; Blom, Nico A

    2017-04-01

    In congenital long-QT syndrome, age, sex, and genotype have been associated with cardiac events, but their effect on the trend in QTc interval has never been established. We, therefore, aimed to assess the effect of age and sex on the QTc interval in children and adolescents with type 1 (LQT1) and type 2 (LQT2) long-QT syndrome. QTc intervals of 12-lead resting electrocardiograms were determined, and trends over time were analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model. The study included 278 patients with a median follow-up of 4 years (interquartile range, 1-9) and a median number of 6 (interquartile range, 2-10) electrocardiograms per patient. Both LQT1 and LQT2 male patients showed QTc interval shortening after the onset of puberty. In LQT2 male patients, this was preceded by a progressive QTc interval prolongation. In LQT1, after the age of 12 years, male patients had a significantly shorter QTc interval than female patients. In LQT2, during the first years of life and from 14 to 26 years, male patients had a significantly shorter QTc interval than female patients. On the contrary, between 5 and 14 years, LQT2 male patients had significantly longer QTc interval than LQT2 female patients. There is a significant effect of age and sex on the QTc interval in long-QT syndrome, with a unique pattern per genotype. The age of 12 to 14 years is an important transitional period. In the risk stratification and management of long-QT syndrome patients, clinicians should be aware of these age-, sex-, and genotype-related trends in QTc interval and especially the important role of the onset of puberty. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. The effect of biotope-specific sampling for aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of biotope-specific sampling for aquatic macroinvertebrates on reference site classification and the identification of environmental predictors in Mpumalanga, South ... Variables at several scales, including catchment, site and habitat, contributed to observed spatial patterns in macroinvertebrate assemblages.

  6. Effect of sampling frequency on shoreline microbiology assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leecaster, Molly K.; Weisberg, Stephen B. [Southern California Coastal Water, Research Project, Westminster, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    More than 80,000 shoreline bacteriological samples are collected annually in southern California to protect beachgoer health, but sampling frequency varies from daily to monthly among sampling sites. To assess the effectiveness of various sampling frequencies, we used five years of data from 24 Los Angeles area sites that have been monitored daily to simulate five alternative sampling strategies: five weekdays, five days per week including a weekend day, three days per week, weekly, and monthly. For each of these sampling strategies, we included in the simulation the local custom of adaptive sampling, in which a site is resampled the following day if bacterial concentrations exceed the State of California's beach water quality standards. We found that sampling five times per week resulted in observing about 80% of the events in which State standards were exceeded. This frequency dropped to 55%, 25%, and 5% for three times per week, weekly, and monthly sampling, respectively. Adaptive sampling was ineffective because nearly 70% of the water quality exceedences were single-day events, even at the most frequently contaminated sites. This high frequency of single-day events is of concern because the public is typically notified about water quality conditions 24-48 h after samples are collected, meaning that most warnings are out-of-date when they are issued. (Author)

  7. [Comparison of the results of examination of fecal samples from students at six months intervals in the Alahaci village primary school in Sivas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Değerli, Serpil; Celiksöz, Ali; Aslan, Alper; Aciöz, Mehmet; Ozçelik, Semra

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of intestinal parasites in primary school children in the Alahaci Central Village in the Sivas province, but owing to high prevalence of parasites in soil, new stool specimens were taken from the same subject group after 6 months. In the first stage of investigation, stool samples from a total of 189 children were taken and examined. It was found that the 110 (58.2%) out of 189 subjects were infected with parasites. The distribution of parasites was determined to be as follows: Giardia intestinalis in 33 (17.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides in 30 (15.8%), Entamoeba coli in 17 (8.9%), Entamoeba histolytica in 10 (5.3%), Hymenolepis nana in 9 (%4.8%), Endolimax nana in 8 (4.2%), Blastocystis hominis in 2 (1.1%) and Iodamoeba butschlii in 1(0.5%). In the second stage of the investigation (after a 6 months break), stool samples obtained from a total of 175 children were examined and 73 (41.7 %) were found to be infected with parasites. The distribution of parasites was as follows: Giardia intestinalis in 17 (9.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides in 17 (9.7%), Entamoeba coli in 29 (16.6%), Entamoeba histolytica in 1 (0.6%), Hymenolepis nana in 1 (0.6%), Blastocystis hominis in 1 (0.6%), Trichuris trichiura in 1(0.6%) and Iodamoeba butschlii in 6 (3.4%). The lower prevalence observed during the second investigation (p < 0.05), shows the importance of education and treatment of children in the control of parasitic infections.

  8. Effect of different post-feeding intervals on the total time of development of the blowfly Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Madeleine; Amendt, Jens

    2012-09-10

    By estimating the age of the immature stages of flies developing on a corpse, forensic entomologists are able to establish the minimum post-mortem interval. Blowflies, which are the first and most important colonizers, usually leave the cadaver at the end of the last larval stage searching for a pupation site. This period of development is referred as the post-feeding or wandering stage. The characteristics of the ground where the corpse was placed might be of notable importance for the post-feeding dispersal time: For pupariation the larvae prefer an environment protected from light and predators and may have a longer dispersal time in order to reach an appropriate pupation site. Hence, the dispersal time can vary and may influence the total time of development which may lead to an erroneous calculation of the post-mortem interval. This study investigates the effect of various post-feeding time intervals on the development of the blowfly Lucilia sericata at a temperature of 25°C. As larvae reached the post-feeding stage a pupariation substrate was offered at 0 and after 12, 24 and 48h. Only the larvae with a dispersal time of 24h (total time of development 325.2h; median) and 48h (total time of development 347.7h; median) showed a significantly longer total development time compared to the control group (total time of development 318.4h; median). The mortality rate did not differ between groups; however the flies that emerged from the group with a dispersal of 48h were significantly smaller indicating increased energy consumption during dispersal. The results of this study indicate that a prolonged post-feeding stage could increase the total developmental time of L. sericata which should be taken into consideration when interpreting entomological findings. The need for a serious examination of current rearing practices in forensic entomology laboratories is indicated because reference data sets for the time of development are usually produced by offering the post

  9. Determining the effective sample size of a parametric prior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Satoshi; Thall, Peter F; Müller, Peter

    2008-06-01

    We present a definition for the effective sample size of a parametric prior distribution in a Bayesian model, and propose methods for computing the effective sample size in a variety of settings. Our approach first constructs a prior chosen to be vague in a suitable sense, and updates this prior to obtain a sequence of posteriors corresponding to each of a range of sample sizes. We then compute a distance between each posterior and the parametric prior, defined in terms of the curvature of the logarithm of each distribution, and the posterior minimizing the distance defines the effective sample size of the prior. For cases where the distance cannot be computed analytically, we provide a numerical approximation based on Monte Carlo simulation. We provide general guidelines for application, illustrate the method in several standard cases where the answer seems obvious, and then apply it to some nonstandard settings.

  10. Assessing the effectiveness of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) for smoking cessation in women: HIIT to quit study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavey, Toby G; Gartner, Coral E; Coombes, Jeff S; Brown, Wendy J

    2015-12-29

    Smoking and physical inactivity are major risk factors for heart disease. Linking strategies that promote improvements in fitness and assist quitting smoking has potential to address both these risk factors simultaneously. The objective of this study is to compare the effects of two exercise interventions (high intensity interval training (HIIT) and lifestyle physical activity) on smoking cessation in female smokers. This study will use a randomised controlled trial design. Women aged 18-55 years who smoke ≥ 5 cigarettes/day, and want to quit smoking. all participants will receive usual care for quitting smoking. Group 1--will complete two gym-based supervised HIIT sessions/week and one home-based HIIT session/week. At each training session participants will be asked to complete four 4-min (4 × 4 min) intervals at approximately 90% of maximum heart rate interspersed with 3- min recovery periods. Group 2--participants will receive a resource pack and pedometer, and will be asked to use the 10,000 steps log book to record steps and other physical activities. The aim will be to increase daily steps to 10,000 steps/day. Analysis will be intention to treat and measures will include smoking cessation, withdrawal and cravings, fitness, physical activity, and well-being. The study builds on previous research suggesting that exercise intensity may influence the efficacy of exercise as a smoking cessation intervention. The hypothesis is that HIIT will improve fitness and assist women to quit smoking. ACTRN12614001255673 (Registration date 02/12/2014).

  11. The Effect of Bite Registration on the Reproducibility of Parallel Periapical Radiographs Obtained with Two Month Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Khojastehpour

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Digital Subtraction Radiography (DSR needs reproducible alignment between the x-ray source, the object, and the film for obtaining identical projections of the same anatomic region.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of bite registrations (placed on individual bite blocks on the reproducibility of parallel periapical radiographs,obtained every 2 months, in patients undergoing periodontal surgery for furcationinvolvement.Materials and Methods: Ninety eight parallel periapical radiographs were used in this study. The radiographs were taken with individual bite-blocks attached to the beamguiding device. In order to individualize the bite blocks, bite registrations were fabricated using silicon impression material, and were placed on the individual bite blocks. All radiographs in each series were processed under similar conditions and were digitized with the flatbed scanner fitted with a transparency adaptor (hp Scanjet 7400 at 300 dpi resolution. Reproducibility of this method for obtaining similar parallel periapical radiographs was assessed by measuring the horizontal and vertical distances between two selected unchanged reference points on each radiograph and comparing them in each series. Reliability of measurements was analyzed using the one wayrandom model intraclass correlation coefficient for average of raters.Results: For both measurements (Horizontal and Vertical statistically significant reliability was found between three repeated radiographs with two month intervals in 16 patients, as well as 5 repeated radiographs with two month intervals in 10 patients (P<0.001.Conclusion: The result of this study shows that bite registration on individual bite blocks is enough for obtaining identical parallel periapical radiographs.

  12. Poststimulation time interval-dependent effects of motor cortex anodal tDCS on reaction-time task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molero-Chamizo, Andrés; Alameda Bailén, José R; Garrido Béjar, Tamara; García López, Macarena; Jaén Rodríguez, Inmaculada; Gutiérrez Lérida, Carolina; Pérez Panal, Silvia; González Ángel, Gloria; Lemus Corchero, Laura; Ruiz Vega, María J; Nitsche, Michael A; Rivera-Urbina, Guadalupe N

    2018-01-12

    Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) induces long-term potentiation-like plasticity, which is associated with long-lasting effects on different cognitive, emotional, and motor performances. Specifically, tDCS applied over the motor cortex is considered to improve reaction time in simple and complex tasks. The timing of tDCS relative to task performance could determine the efficacy of tDCS to modulate performance. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a single session of anodal tDCS (1.5 mA, for 15 min) applied over the left primary motor cortex (M1) versus sham stimulation on performance of a go/no-go simple reaction-time task carried out at three different time points after tDCS-namely, 0, 30, or 60 min after stimulation. Performance zero min after anodal tDCS was improved during the whole course of the task. Performance 30 min after anodal tDCS was improved only in the last block of the reaction-time task. Performance 60 min after anodal tDCS was not significantly different throughout the entire task. These findings suggest that the motor cortex excitability changes induced by tDCS can improve motor responses, and these effects critically depend on the time interval between stimulation and task performance.

  13. Photogeneration of reactive transient species upon irradiation of natural water samples: Formation quantum yields in different spectral intervals, and implications for the photochemistry of surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchisio, Andrea; Minella, Marco; Maurino, Valter; Minero, Claudio; Vione, Davide

    2015-04-15

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in surface waters is a photochemical source of several transient species such as CDOM triplet states ((3)CDOM*), singlet oxygen ((1)O2) and the hydroxyl radical (OH). By irradiation of lake water samples, it is shown here that the quantum yields for the formation of these transients by CDOM vary depending on the irradiation wavelength range, in the order UVB > UVA > blue. A possible explanation is that radiation at longer wavelengths is preferentially absorbed by the larger CDOM fractions, which show lesser photoactivity compared to smaller CDOM moieties. The quantum yield variations in different spectral ranges were definitely more marked for (3)CDOM* and OH compared to (1)O2. The decrease of the quantum yields with increasing wavelength has important implications for the photochemistry of surface waters, because long-wavelength radiation penetrates deeper in water columns compared to short-wavelength radiation. The average steady-state concentrations of the transients ((3)CDOM*, (1)O2 and OH) were modelled in water columns of different depths, based on the experimentally determined wavelength trends of the formation quantum yields. Important differences were found between such modelling results and those obtained in a wavelength-independent quantum yield scenario. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effectiveness of cooling conditions on temperature of canine EDTA whole blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. Tobias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Preanalytic factors such as time and temperature can have significant effects on laboratory test results. For example, ammonium concentration will increase 31% in blood samples stored at room temperature for 30 min before centrifugation. To reduce preanalytic error, blood samples may be placed in precooled tubes and chilled on ice or in ice water baths; however, the effectiveness of these modalities in cooling blood samples has not been formally evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various cooling modalities on reducing temperature of EDTA whole blood samples. Methods Pooled samples of canine EDTA whole blood were divided into two aliquots. Saline was added to one aliquot to produce a packed cell volume (PCV of 40% and to the second aliquot to produce a PCV of 20% (simulated anemia. Thirty samples from each aliquot were warmed to 37.7 °C and cooled in 2 ml allotments under one of three conditions: in ice, in ice after transfer to a precooled tube, or in an ice water bath. Temperature of each sample was recorded at one minute intervals for 15 min. Results Within treatment conditions, sample PCV had no significant effect on cooling. Cooling in ice water was significantly faster than cooling in ice only or transferring the sample to a precooled tube and cooling it on ice. Mean temperature of samples cooled in ice water was significantly lower at 15 min than mean temperatures of those cooled in ice, whether or not the tube was precooled. By 4 min, samples cooled in an ice water bath had reached mean temperatures less than 4 °C (refrigeration temperature, while samples cooled in other conditions remained above 4.0 °C for at least 11 min. For samples with a PCV of 40%, precooling the tube had no significant effect on rate of cooling on ice. For samples with a PCV of 20%, transfer to a precooled tube resulted in a significantly faster rate of cooling than direct placement of the warmed tube onto ice

  15. Effects on the QT Interval of a Gatifloxacin-Containing Regimen versus Standard Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olliaro, Piero L; Merle, Corinne; Mthiyane, Thuli; Bah, Boubacar; Kassa, Ferdinand; Amukoye, Evans; N Diaye, Alimatou; Perronne, Christian; Lienhardt, Christian; McIlleron, Helen; Fielding, Katherine

    2017-07-01

    The effects on ventricular repolarization-recorded on the electrocardiogram (ECG) as lengthening of the QT interval-of acute tuberculosis and those of standard and alternative antituberculosis regimens are underdocumented. A correction factor (QTc) is introduced to make the QT independent of the heart rate, translating into the slope of the regression line between QT and heart rate being close to zero. ECGs were performed predosing and 1 to 5 h postdosing (month 1, month 2, and end of treatment) around drugs' peak concentration time in tuberculosis patients treated with either the standard 6-month treatment (rifampin and isoniazid for 6 months and pyrazinamide and ethambutol for 2 months; "control") or a test regimen with gatifloxacin, rifampin, and isoniazid given for 4 months (pyrazinamide for the first 2 months) as part of the OFLOTUB study, a randomized controlled trial conducted in five African countries. Drug levels were measured at steady state (month 1) in a subset of patients. We compared treatment effects on the QTc and modeled the effect of individual drugs' maximum concentrations of drug in serum (Cmax) on the Fridericia-corrected QT interval. A total of 1,686 patients were eligible for the correction factor analysis of QT at baseline (mean age, 30.7 years; 27% female). Median heart rate decreased from 96/min at baseline to 71/min at end of treatment, and body temperature decreased from 37.2 to 36.5°C. Pretreatment, the nonlinear model estimated the best correction factor at 0.4081 in between Bazett's (0.5) and Fridericia's (0.33) corrections. On treatment, Fridericia (QTcF) was the best correction factor. A total of 1,602 patients contributed to the analysis of QTcF by treatment arm. The peak QTcF value during follow-up was >480 ms for 21 patients (7 and 14 in the test and control arms, respectively) and >500 ms for 9 patients (5 and 4, respectively), corresponding to a risk difference of -0.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], -2.0% to 2.3%; P = 0

  16. Sharp Bounds on Causal Effects under Sample Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Mellace, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In many empirical problems, the evaluation of treatment effects is complicated by sample selection so that the outcome is only observed for a non-random subpopulation. In the absence of instruments and/or tight parametric assumptions, treatment effects are not point identified, but can be bounded...

  17. The Effect of Retention Interval Task Difficulty on Young Children's Prospective Memory: Testing the Intention Monitoring Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, Caitlin E. V.; Moses, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the impact of retention interval task difficulty on 4- and 5-year-olds' prospective memory (PM) to test the hypothesis that children periodically monitor their intentions during the retention interval and that disrupting this monitoring may result in poorer PM performance. In addition, relations among PM, working memory,…

  18. Effect of endurance and high intensity interval swimming training on cardiac structure and Hand2 expression of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Gharaat

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: In the situation of the present study, both of Endurance and Interval training regimens increase Hand2 gene expression, heart weight and left ventricle weight. Because of the shorter training time, high intensity interval training can be more beneficial to be executed.

  19. Effects of Small-Sided Games vs. Interval Training in Aerobic Fitness and Physical Enjoyment in Young Elite Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Arcos, Asier; Vázquez, Juan Sebastián; Martín, Juan; Lerga, Javier; Sánchez, Felipe; Villagra, Federico; Zulueta, Javier J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Small-Sided Games (SSG) vs. Interval Training (IT) in soccer training on aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in youth elite soccer players during the last 8 weeks of the season. Seventeen U-16 male soccer players (age = 15.5 ± 0.6 years, and 8.5 years of experience) of a Spanish First Division club academy were randomized to 2 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 9) and IT group (n = 8). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 11 sessions with different SSGs, whereas the IT group performed the same number of sessions of IT. Players were tested before and after the 6-week training intervention with a continuous maximal multistage running field test and the counter movement jump test (CMJ). At the end of the study, players answered the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES). During the study, heart rate (HR) and session perceived effort (sRPE) were assessed. SSGs were as effective as IT in maintaining the aerobic fitness in elite young soccer players during the last weeks of the season. Players in the SSG group declared a greater physical enjoyment than IT (P = 0.006; ES = 1.86 ± 1.07). Coaches could use SSG training during the last weeks of the season as an option without fear of losing aerobic fitness while promoting high physical enjoyment.

  20. Effects of Small-Sided Games vs. Interval Training in Aerobic Fitness and Physical Enjoyment in Young Elite Soccer Players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Los Arcos

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Small-Sided Games (SSG vs. Interval Training (IT in soccer training on aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in youth elite soccer players during the last 8 weeks of the season. Seventeen U-16 male soccer players (age = 15.5 ± 0.6 years, and 8.5 years of experience of a Spanish First Division club academy were randomized to 2 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 9 and IT group (n = 8. In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 11 sessions with different SSGs, whereas the IT group performed the same number of sessions of IT. Players were tested before and after the 6-week training intervention with a continuous maximal multistage running field test and the counter movement jump test (CMJ. At the end of the study, players answered the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES. During the study, heart rate (HR and session perceived effort (sRPE were assessed. SSGs were as effective as IT in maintaining the aerobic fitness in elite young soccer players during the last weeks of the season. Players in the SSG group declared a greater physical enjoyment than IT (P = 0.006; ES = 1.86 ± 1.07. Coaches could use SSG training during the last weeks of the season as an option without fear of losing aerobic fitness while promoting high physical enjoyment.

  1. Comparison of the acute effects of high-intensity interval training and continuous aerobic walking on inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Shih-Chun; Westfall, Daniel R; Soneson, Jack; Gurd, Brendon; Hillman, Charles H

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a single bout of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous aerobic exercise (CAE) on inhibitory control. The P3 component of the stimulus-locked ERP was collected in 64 young adults during a modified flanker task following 20 min of seated rest, 20 min of CAE, and 9 min of HIIT on separate days in counterbalanced order. Participants exhibited shorter overall reaction time following CAE and HIIT compared to seated rest. Response accuracy improved following HIIT in the task condition requiring greater inhibitory control compared to seated rest and CAE. P3 amplitude was larger following CAE compared to seated rest and HIIT. Decreased P3 amplitude and latency were observed following HIIT compared to seated rest. The current results replicated previous findings indicating the beneficial effect of acute CAE on behavioral and neuroelectric indices of inhibitory control. With a smaller duration and volume of exercise, a single bout of HIIT resulted in additional improvements in inhibitory control, paralleled by a smaller and more efficient P3 component. In sum, the current study demonstrated that CAE and HIIT differentially facilitate inhibitory control and its underlying neuroelectric activation, and that HIIT may be a time-efficient approach for enhancing cognitive health. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  2. High intensity interval and endurance training have opposing effects on markers of heart failure and cardiac remodeling in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Tanya M; Bloemberg, Darin; da Silva, Mayne L; Simpson, Jeremy A; Quadrilatero, Joe; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2015-01-01

    There has been re-emerging interest and significant work dedicated to investigating the metabolic effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in recent years. HIIT is considered to be a time efficient alternative to classic endurance training (ET) that elicits similar metabolic responses in skeletal muscle. However, there is a lack of information on the impact of HIIT on cardiac muscle in disease. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of ET and HIIT to alter cardiac muscle characteristics involved in the development of diastolic dysfunction, such as ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and angiogenesis, in a well-established rodent model of hypertension-induced heart failure before the development of overt heart failure. ET decreased left ventricle fibrosis by ~40% (P HIIT did not decrease existing fibrosis, and HIIT animals displayed a 20% increase in left ventricular mass (PHIIT also increased brain natriuretic peptide by 50% (PHIIT promoted a pathological adaptation in the left ventricle in the presence of hypertension, highlighting the need for further research on the widespread effects of HIIT in the presence of disease.

  3. Effects of 5 weeks of high-intensity interval training vs. volume training in 14-year-old soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Billy; De Marées, Markus; Koehler, Karsten; Linville, John; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Mester, Joachim

    2011-05-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) in junior and adult soccer has been shown to improve oxygen uptake (VO₂) and enhance soccer performance. The main purpose of this study was to examine the short term effects of a 5-week HIIT vs. high-volume training (HVT) program in 14-year-old soccer players regarding the effects on VO₂max and 1,000-m time (T₁₀₀₀) and on sprinting and jumping performance. In a 5-week period, 19 male soccer players with a mean (SD) age of 13.5 ± 0.4 years performed HIIT at close to ~90% of maximal heart rate. The HVT intensity was set at 60-75% of maximal heart rate. VO₂max increased significantly (7.0%) from pre to post in HIIT but not after HVT. T₁₀₀₀ decreased significantly after HIIT (~-10 vs. ~-5 seconds in HVT). Sprint performance increased significantly in both groups from pre to posttesting without any changes in jumping performance.

  4. Regadenoson, a Novel Pharmacologic Stress Agent for Use in Myocardial Perfusion Imaging, Does Not Have a Direct Effect on the QT Interval in Conscious Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gong; Serpllion, Sabrina; Shryock, John; Messina, Eric; Xu, Xiaobin; Ochoa, Manuel; Belardinelli, Luiz; Hintze, Thomas H

    2009-01-01

    Our goal was to determine the effect of regadenoson (a novel A2A adenosine receptor agonist) on the QT interval in conscious dogs. Eleven mongrel dogs were chronically instrumented for measurements of blood pressure and ECG. Regadenoson (2.5, 5 and 10 μg/kg, IV) caused a dose-dependent QT interval shortening (ΔQT: 14±3, 24±5 and 27±5 ms, mean±SEM, n=7-11, all pRegadenoson- and pacing-induced shortenings in the QT interval were significantly correlated with the R-R interval (r= 0.67 and 0.8, both pRegadenoson at 5 and 10 μg/kg did not cause a significant change in HR or QT interval either during atrial pacing at 165 bpm or after administration of propranolol and atropine to prevent HR from changing, or after treatment of dogs with hexamethonium to block autonomic ganglia. Regadenoson (5-10 μg/kg) caused no significant changes of QT interval in the heart in which HR was kept constant via physiological or pharmacological procedures, indicating that regadenoson has no a direct effect on the QT interval. PMID:19033827

  5. Regadenoson, a novel pharmacologic stress agent for use in myocardial perfusion imaging, does not have a direct effect on the QT interval in conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gong; Serpllion, Sabrina; Shryock, John; Messina, Eric; Xu, Xiaobin; Ochoa, Manuel; Belardinelli, Luiz; Hintze, Thomas H

    2008-11-01

    Our goal was to determine the effect of regadenoson (a novel A2A adenosine receptor agonist) on the QT interval in conscious dogs. Sixteen mongrel dogs were chronically instrumented for measurements of blood pressure and ECG. Regadenoson (2.5, 5, and 10 microg/kg, IV) caused a dose-dependent QT interval shortening (DeltaQT: 14 +/- 3, 24 +/- 5, and 27 +/- 5 ms, mean +/- SEM; n = 7 to 11; all P Regadenoson- and pacing-induced shortenings in the QT interval were significantly correlated with the R-R interval (r = 0.67 and 0.8, both P Regadenoson at 5 and 10 microg/kg did not cause a significant change in HR or QT interval either during atrial pacing at 165 bpm or after administration of propranolol and atropine to prevent HR from changing or after treatment of dogs with hexamethonium to block autonomic ganglia. Regadenoson (5 to 10 microg/kg) caused no significant changes of QT interval in the heart in which HR was kept constant via physiological or pharmacological procedures, indicating that regadenoson has no direct effect on the QT interval.

  6. Effects of sprint interval training on VO2max and aerobic exercise performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloth, M; Sloth, D; Overgaard, K; Dalgas, U

    2013-12-01

    Recently, several studies have examined whether low-volume sprint interval training (SIT) may improve aerobic and metabolic function. The objective of this study was to systematically review the existing literature regarding the aerobic and metabolic effects of SIT in healthy sedentary or recreationally active adults. A systematic literature search was performed (Bibliotek.dk, SPORTDiscus, Embase, PEDro, SveMed+, and Pubmed). Meta-analytical procedures were applied evaluating effects on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Nineteen unique studies [four randomized controlled trials (RCTs), nine matched-controlled trials and six noncontrolled studies] were identified, evaluating SIT interventions lasting 2-8 weeks. Strong evidence support improvements of aerobic exercise performance and VO2max following SIT. A meta-analysis across 13 studies evaluating effects of SIT on VO2max showed a weighted mean effects size of g = 0.63 95% CI (0.39; 0.87) and VO2max increases of 4.2-13.4%. Solid evidence support peripheral adaptations known to increase the oxidative potential of the muscle following SIT, whereas evidence regarding central adaptations was limited and equivocal. Some evidence indicated changes in substrate oxidation at rest and during exercise as well as improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity following SIT. In conclusion, strong evidence support improvement of aerobic exercise performance and VO2max following SIT, which coincides with peripheral muscular adaptations. Future RCTs on long-term SIT and underlying mechanisms are warranted. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. BREED AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON BIRTH WEIGHT, WEANING WEIGHT AND CALVING INTERVAL OF ZEBU CATTLE IN SOUTHEASTERN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose C. Segura

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Records of beef cows from a ranch in southern Mexico gave 1967 birth weights (BW, 1587 weaning weights adjusted to 210 days of age (AWW and 2001 calving intervals (CI for the comparison of the breed groups: Brahman (BR, Guzerat (GU, Nellore (NE and crosses born to zebu dams by Brown Swiss sires. Animals were fed mainly pasture. Data were analysed using general linear procedures. The statistical model that described the data for BW and AWW included the fixed effects of breed group (BR, GU, NE, BS x BR, BS x GU and BS x NE; year of birth or calving (2005 to 2014, season of parity of the cow (dry, rainy, windy, sex of the calf (female or male, parity (1 to =>8 and the simple interaction of year x season of birth or calving. The model for CI was similar to the previous one, except that only the Zebu purebreds were included. The overall means and standard deviations for BW, AWW and CI were 33.5+0.75 kg, 178.9+19.7 kg and 456.4+79.2 days. All effects included in the model had significant effect on BW and AWW, but season and sex on CI. The smallest least squares means for BW corresponded to the cross of BR x NE and the largest to the cross of BS x BR (33.3 and 33.7 kg, respectively; whereas the lowest and largest least squares means for AWW corresponded to the NE (173.8 kg and BS x BR (191.8 kg. NE cows had shorter CI than BR and GU cows (413.9, 446.2 and 481.3, respectively. Male calves weighed more at birth and weaning than females. Year x season interaction indicate that season effects on performance of calves or cows were not similar throughout the years studied.

  8. Effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training on cardiovascular disease risk in testicular cancer survivors: A phase 2 randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott C; DeLorey, Darren S; Davenport, Margie H; Stickland, Michael K; Fairey, Adrian S; North, Scott; Szczotka, Alexander; Courneya, Kerry S

    2017-10-15

    Testicular cancer survivors (TCS) have an increased risk of treatment-related cardiovascular disease (CVD), which may limit their overall survival. We evaluated the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training (HIIT) on traditional and novel CVD risk factors and surrogate markers of mortality in a population-based sample of TCS. This phase 2 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02459132) randomly assigned 63 TCS to usual care (UC) or 12 weeks of supervised HIIT (ie, alternating periods of vigorous-intensity and light-intensity aerobic exercise). The primary outcome was peak aerobic fitness (VO2peak ) assessed via a treadmill-based maximal cardiorespiratory exercise test. Secondary endpoints included CVD risk (eg, Framingham Risk Score), arterial health, parasympathetic nervous system function, and blood-based biomarkers. Postintervention VO2peak data were obtained for 61 participants (97%). HIIT participants attended 99% of the exercise sessions and achieved 98% of the target exercise intensity. Analysis of covariance demonstrated that HIIT was superior to UC for improving VO2peak (adjusted between-group mean difference, 3.7 mL O2 /kg/min; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-5.1 [P<.001]) and multiple secondary outcomes including CVD risk (P = .011), arterial thickness (P<.001), arterial stiffness (P<.001), postexercise parasympathetic reactivation (P = .001), inflammation (P = .045), and low-density lipoprotein (P = .014). Overall, HIIT reduced the prevalence of modifiable CVD risk factors by 20% compared with UC. This randomized trial provides the first evidence that HIIT improves cardiorespiratory fitness, multiple pathways of CVD risk, and surrogate markers of mortality in TCS. These findings have important implications for the management of TCS. Further research concerning the long-term effects of HIIT on CVD morbidity and mortality in TCS is warranted. Cancer 2017;123:4057-65. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer

  9. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females

    OpenAIRE

    Racil, G.; Coquart, J.B.; Elmontassar, W.; Haddad, M; Goebel, R.; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; K. Chamari

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS), with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thr...

  10. Effect of cutting interval to productivity and quality of bangun-bangun (Coleus amboinicus L. as a forage promising commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajimin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coleus amboinicus Lour is one of well known plant and commonly consumed by lactating women in North Sumatera. It is high, in iron and carotene contents. The objective of the research was to study the productivity of C. amboinicus at different cutting intervals. An experiment was carried out in glasshouse as pot trial. Four treatments of cutting interval were 30 days, 40 days, 50 days and 60 days with 10 replications. The treatment was arranged in randomized complete design. Parameters measured were shoot dry matter, and crude protein, Cu, Zn and B contents of leaves, at the beginning, middle and end of the experiment. Result shows that dry matter yield was significantly influenced by cutting interval (P <0.05. The highest shoot dry matter production was obtained at 60 days cutting interval (34.1 g /plant and the lowest at 50 days cutting interval (19.6 g/plant. Similarly, crude protein and Cu, Zn and B content of shoot were also highest at 60 days cutting interval. The shoot dry matter production declined from first cutting to seventh cutting. Crude protein content at 60 days cutting interval was in a range of 12.31-15.59%.

  11. Quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy of subcellular GLUT4 distribution in human skeletal muscle: effects of endurance and sprint interval training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Helen; Shaw, Christopher S.; Worthington, Philip L.; Shepherd, Sam O.; Cocks, Matthew; Wagenmakers, Anton J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Increases in insulin‐mediated glucose uptake following endurance training (ET) and sprint interval training (SIT) have in part been attributed to concomitant increases in glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein content in skeletal muscle. This study used an immunofluorescence microscopy method to investigate changes in subcellular GLUT4 distribution and content following ET and SIT. Percutaneous muscle biopsy samples were taken from the m. vastus lateralis of 16 sedentary males in the overnight fasted state before and after 6 weeks of ET and SIT. An antibody was fully validated and used to show large (> 1 μm) and smaller (<1 μm) GLUT4‐containing clusters. The large clusters likely represent trans‐Golgi network stores and the smaller clusters endosomal stores and GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs). Density of GLUT4 clusters was higher at the fibre periphery especially in perinuclear regions. A less dense punctate distribution was seen in the rest of the muscle fibre. Total GLUT4 fluorescence intensity increased in type I and type II fibres following both ET and SIT. Large GLUT4 clusters increased in number and size in both type I and type II fibres, while the smaller clusters increased in size. The greatest increases in GLUT4 fluorescence intensity occurred within the 1 μm layer immediately adjacent to the PM. The increase in peripheral localisation and protein content of GLUT4 following ET and SIT is likely to contribute to the improvements in glucose homeostasis observed after both training modes. PMID:25052490

  12. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Total, Abdominal and Visceral Fat Mass: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Florie; Pereira, Bruno; Boisseau, Nathalie

    2018-02-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is promoted as a time-efficient strategy to improve body composition. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of HIIT in reducing total, abdominal, and visceral fat mass in normal-weight and overweight/obese adults. Electronic databases were searched to identify all related articles on HIIT and fat mass. Stratified analysis was performed using the nature of HIIT (cycling versus running, target intensity), sex and/or body weight, and the methods of measuring body composition. Heterogeneity was also determined RESULTS: A total of 39 studies involving 617 subjects were included (mean age 38.8 years ± 14.4, 52% females). HIIT significantly reduced total (p = 0.003), abdominal (p = 0.007), and visceral (p = 0.018) fat mass, with no differences between the sexes. A comparison showed that running was more effective than cycling in reducing total and visceral fat mass. High-intensity (above 90% peak heart rate) training was more successful in reducing whole body adiposity, while lower intensities had a greater effect on changes in abdominal and visceral fat mass. Our analysis also indicated that only computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging showed significant abdominal and/or visceral fat-mass loss after HIIT interventions. HIIT is a time-efficient strategy to decrease fat-mass deposits, including those of abdominal and visceral fat mass. There was some evidence of the greater effectiveness of HIIT running versus cycling, but owing to the wide variety of protocols used and the lack of full details about cycling training, further comparisons need to be made. Large, multicenter, prospective studies are required to establish the best HIIT protocols for reducing fat mass according to subject characteristics.

  13. The Effect of Low Volume Interval Training on Resting Blood Pressure in Pre-hypertensive Subjects: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutnik, Benjamin C; Smith, Joshua R; Johnson, Ariel M; Kurti, Stephanie P; Harms, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Clinically pre-hypertensive adults are at a greater risk of developing hypertension, stiffened arteries, and other cardiovascular risks. Endurance exercise training has been shown to improve elevated resting blood pressure and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. However, a primary barrier preventing individuals from engaging in regular physical activity is a lack of time. The purpose of our study was to determine if a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocol would be as effective as continuous aerobic endurance training (ET) on resting blood pressure in pre-hypertensive participants. Additionally, this study investigated the effects of HIIT vs. ET on CRP. Twelve pre-hypertensive participants (33.3±6.1 yrs; 3M/9W) participated in 8 weeks of cycle ergometer exercise training. The ET exercised for 30 continuous min/day, 4 days/week at 40% VO2max reserve. The HIIT exercised at a 1:1 work-to-rest for 20 min/day, 3 days/week at 60% peak power. Resting mean arterial pressure and CRP were compared throughout the study. Both groups showed decreases (p<0.001) in mean arterial pressure (ET: -11.5 ± 5.9 mmHg; HIIT: -8.6 ± 4.8 mmHg) following the 8 weeks. For CRP, there was a significant decrease (p=0.014) as a main effect of time. VO2max increased (p<0.001) approximately 25% for both HIIT and ET. These preliminary data suggest HIIT and ET similarly decreased resting blood pressure and increased VO2max.

  14. High intensity interval and endurance training have opposing effects on markers of heart failure and cardiac remodeling in hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya M Holloway

    Full Text Available There has been re-emerging interest and significant work dedicated to investigating the metabolic effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT in recent years. HIIT is considered to be a time efficient alternative to classic endurance training (ET that elicits similar metabolic responses in skeletal muscle. However, there is a lack of information on the impact of HIIT on cardiac muscle in disease. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of ET and HIIT to alter cardiac muscle characteristics involved in the development of diastolic dysfunction, such as ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and angiogenesis, in a well-established rodent model of hypertension-induced heart failure before the development of overt heart failure. ET decreased left ventricle fibrosis by ~40% (P < 0.05, and promoted a 20% (P<0.05 increase in the left ventricular capillary/fibre ratio, an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein (P<0.05, and a decrease in hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha protein content (P<0.05. In contrast, HIIT did not decrease existing fibrosis, and HIIT animals displayed a 20% increase in left ventricular mass (P<0.05 and a 20% decrease in cross sectional area (P<0.05. HIIT also increased brain natriuretic peptide by 50% (P<0.05, in the absence of concomitant angiogenesis, strongly suggesting pathological cardiac remodeling. The current data support the longstanding belief in the effectiveness of ET in hypertension. However, HIIT promoted a pathological adaptation in the left ventricle in the presence of hypertension, highlighting the need for further research on the widespread effects of HIIT in the presence of disease.

  15. The Effect of Age on the V˙O2max Response to High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støren, Øyvind; Helgerud, Jan; Sæbø, Mona; Støa, Eva Maria; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Unhjem, Runar J; Hoff, Jan; Wang, Eivind

    2017-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is documented to yield effective improvements in the cardiovascular system and be an excellent strategy for healthy aging. However, it is not determined how age may affect the training response of key components of aerobic endurance. We recruited 72 males (mean ± SD, weight = 84.9 ± 12.9 kg, height = 180.4 ± 5.8 cm) and 22 females (weight = 76.0 ± 17.2 kg, height = 171.2 ± 6.7 cm) from 20 to 70+ yr with a training status typical for their age group and divided them into six decade cohorts. The participants followed supervised training with a targeted intensity of 90%-95% of maximal HR (HRmax) three times a week for 8 wk. After HIIT, all age groups increased (P training status (r = 0.66, P training-induced decrease in the younger cohorts. In healthy individuals with an aerobic capacity typical for what is observed in the population, the training response is likely not affected by age in a short-term training intervention but may rather be affected by the initial training status. These findings imply that individuals across age all have a great potential for cardiovascular improvements, and that HIIT may be used as an excellent strategy for healthy aging.

  16. Effectiveness of a computerized alert system based on re-testing intervals for limiting the inappropriateness of laboratory test requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Brambilla, Marco; Bonelli, Patrizia; Aloe, Rosalia; Balestrino, Antonio; Nardelli, Anna; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Fabi, Massimo

    2015-11-01

    There is consolidated evidence that the burden of inappropriate laboratory test requests is very high, up to 70%. We describe here the function of a computerized alert system linked to the order entry, designed to limit the number of potentially inappropriate laboratory test requests. A computerized alert system based on re-testing intervals and entailing the generation of pop-up alerts when preset criteria of appropriateness for 15 laboratory tests were violated was implemented in two clinical wards of the University Hospital of Parma. The effectiveness of the system for limiting potentially inappropriate tests was monitored for 6months. Overall, 765/3539 (22%) test requests violated the preset criteria of appropriateness and generated the appearance of electronic alert. After alert appearance, 591 requests were annulled (17% of total tests requested and 77% of tests alerted, respectively). The total number of test requests violating the preset criteria of inappropriateness constantly decreased over time (26% in the first three months of implementation versus 17% in the following period; prequests, generating significant economic saving and educating physicians to a more efficient use of laboratory resources. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on People Living with Type 2 Diabetes: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormgoor, Shohn G; Dalleck, Lance C; Zinn, Caryn; Harris, Nigel K

    2017-10-01

    People with type 2 diabetes typically present with comorbidities, such as elevated blood pressure, high cholesterol, high blood glucose, obesity and decreased fitness, all contributive to increased risk for cardiovascular complications. Determination of effective exercise modalities for the management of such complications is important. One such modality is high-intensity interval training (HIIT). To conduct the review, PubMed and EBSCOHost databases were searched through June 1, 2016, for all HIIT intervention studies conducted in people living with type 2 diabetes. Thereafter, the central characteristics of HIIT were analyzed to obtain a broader understanding of the cardiometabolic benefits achievable by HIIT. Fourteen studies were included for review, but the heterogeneity of the participants with type 2 diabetes, the training equipment and HIIT parameters, accompanied by variations in supervision, dietary advice and medications, prevented direct comparisons. However HIIT, regardless of the specific parameters employed, was a suitable option in pursuing improved glycemic control, body composition, aerobic fitness, blood pressure and lipidemia measures in individuals with type 2 diabetes. HIIT is a therapy with at least equivalent benefit to moderate-intensity continuous training; hence, HIIT should be considered when prescribing exercise interventions for people living with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Biofertilizers and Irrigation Intervals on Yield Component and Yield of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum- graecum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jaberi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought is one of the most important factors whichdecrease crop production in arid and semi-arid regions of the world (1, 20. Appropriate nutritional management has an effective role in the resistance to environmental stresses on crops (7. An important issue about sustainability of food production is the maintenance of soil fertility through the use of organic matter and biofertilizers. One option to increase agricultural production is the use of beneficial soil microorganisms such as PGPR and fungi (45. This group of bacteria through biological fixation of nitrogen, increase phosphorus and potassium solubility, an increasethe availability of mineral elements in the soil, inhibits pathogen appearance and producehormones that regulate the growth of plants to affect crop yield (18, 47. Mycorrhiza enablesymbiosis with the roots of most crop plants, through the availability of phosphorus, nitrogen and other nutrients and thus increases water absorption and produces plant hormones, increases resistance to pathogens and environmental stresses, strengthens the soil microbial community and induces improving the growth and performance of plants in agricultural systems (5, 32, 37, 40.Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum- graecum L.is an annual herbaceous plant that reaches a height of 50 cm (14. Since limited water is at very critical level now, the importance of further research in this area is felt. So, the study of medicinal plants considring water management and organic food is very important. Therefore, the aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of organic and biofertilizers and irrigation on yield and yield components of fenugreek in Birjand. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of irrigation intervals and biofertilizers on quantitative traits and yield of fenugreek, an experiment was carried out in a split plot based on a complete randomized block design with 3replications at the research station, Faculty of Agriculture

  19. High Intensity Interval Training in Handcycling : The Effects of a 7 Week Training Intervention in Able-bodied Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Patrick; Reed, Kate; Van Der Woude, Luc; Hettinga, Florentina J.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In lower body endurance training, quantities of both moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) can lead to an improved physiological capacity and performance. Limited research is available regarding the endurance and muscular capacity of

  20. Screen-detected versus interval cancers: Effect of imaging modality and breast density in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmermans, Lore; Bacher, Klaus; Thierens, Hubert [Ghent University, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, QCC-Gent, Ghent (Belgium); Bleyen, Luc; Herck, Koen van [Ghent University, Centrum voor Preventie en Vroegtijdige Opsporing van Kanker, Ghent (Belgium); Lemmens, Kim; Ongeval, Chantal van; Steen, Andre van [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Martens, Patrick [Centrum voor Kankeropsporing, Bruges (Belgium); Brabander, Isabel de [Belgian Cancer Registry, Brussels (Belgium); Goossens, Mathieu [UZ Brussel, Dienst Kankerpreventie, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-09-15

    To investigate if direct radiography (DR) performs better than screen-film mammography (SF) and computed radiography (CR) in dense breasts in a decentralized organised Breast Cancer Screening Programme. To this end, screen-detected versus interval cancers were studied in different BI-RADS density classes for these imaging modalities. The study cohort consisted of 351,532 women who participated in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme in 2009 and 2010. Information on screen-detected and interval cancers, breast density scores of radiologist second readers, and imaging modality was obtained by linkage of the databases of the Centre of Cancer Detection and the Belgian Cancer Registry. Overall, 67% of occurring breast cancers are screen detected and 33% are interval cancers, with DR performing better than SF and CR. The interval cancer rate increases gradually with breast density, regardless of modality. In the high-density class, the interval cancer rate exceeds the cancer detection rate for SF and CR, but not for DR. DR is superior to SF and CR with respect to cancer detection rates for high-density breasts. To reduce the high interval cancer rate in dense breasts, use of an additional imaging technique in screening can be taken into consideration. (orig.)

  1. Contrasting effects of a mixed-methods high-intensity interval training intervention in girl football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Matthew D; Hurst, Christopher; Taylor, Jonathan M

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the responses of girl athletes to training interventions throughout maturation. This study evaluated group and individual responses to an 8-week, mixed-methods, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) programme in girl football players. Thirty-seven players (age 13.4 ± 1.5 years) were tested for 20-m speed, repeated-sprint ability, change-of-direction speed and level 1 yo-yo intermittent recovery (YYIR). Players were subcategorised into before-, at- and after-PHV (peak height velocity) based on maturity offset. Very likely moderate (25%; ±90% confidence limits = 9.2) improvements occurred in YYIR, but data were unclear in players before-PHV with moderate individual differences in response. Decrements in repeated-sprint ability were most likely very large (6.5%; ±3.2) before-PHV, and likely moderate (1.7%; ±1.0) at-PHV. Data were unclear after-PHV. A very likely moderate (2.7%; ±1.0) decrement occurred in change-of-direction speed at-PHV while there was a very likely increase (-2.4%; ±1.3) in after-PHV players. Possibly small (-1.1%; ±1.4) improvements in 20-m speed occurred before-PHV but the effect was otherwise unclear with moderate to large individual differences. These data reflect specific responses to training interventions in girls of different biological maturity, while highlighting individual responses to HIIT interventions. This can assist practitioners in providing effective training prescription.

  2. Seasonal influence on adherence to and effects of an interval walking training program on sedentary female college students in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Aiko; Masuki, Shizue; Nemoto, Ken-ichi; Nose, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Habitual exercise training is recommended to young people for their health promotion, but adherence may be influenced by atmospheric temperature (T a ) if performed outdoors. We compared the adherence to and the effects of a home-based interval walking training (IWT) program on sedentary female college students between winter and summer. For summer training over 176 days, 48 subjects (18-22 years old) were randomly divided into two groups: the control group (CNTsummer, n = 24), which maintained a sedentary lifestyle as before, and the IWT group (IWTsummer, n = 24), which performed IWT while energy expenditure was monitored by accelerometry. For winter training over 133 days, another group of 47 subjects (18-24 years old) was randomly divided into CNTwinter (n = 24) and IWTwinter (n = 23), as in summer. The peak T a per day was 26 ± 6 °C (SD) (range of 9-35 °C) in summer, much higher than 7 ± 5 °C (range of - 3-20 °C) in winter (P period, participants walked 2.1 ± 0.3 (SE) days/week in IWTsummer, less than 4.2 ± 0.3 days/week in IWTwinter (P period (P > 0.8). After training, the peak aerobic capacity and knee flexion force increased in IWTwinter (P 0.3). Conversely, these parameters decreased in the summer groups. Thus, the adherence to and effects of IWT on sedentary female college students in Japan decreased in summer at least partially due to a high T a .

  3. The Effects of Sprint Interval vs. Continuous Endurance Training on Physiological and Metabolic Adaptations in Young Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalcakan Gulbin Rudarli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of sprint interval training (SIT and continuous endurance training (CET on selected anthropometric, aerobic, and anaerobic performance indices as well as the blood lipid profile, inflammatory and muscle damage markers in healthy young males. Fifteen recreationally active male volunteers (age: 21.7 ±2.2 years, body mass: 83.0 ±8.0 kg, body height: 1.82 ±0.05 m were divided into two groups according to their initial VO2max levels. Training programs were conducted 3 times per week for 7 weeks. The SIT program consisted of 4-6 Wingate anaerobic sprints with a 4.5 min recovery, while CET consisted of 30-50 min cycling at 60% VO2max. Biochemical, anthropometric and fitness assessments were performed both pre and post-intervention. Significant improvements in VO2max, anaerobic power and capacity, and VO2 utilization during the submaximal workout and significant decreases in body fat and in waist circumference after the intervention occurred in both SIT and CET groups. Significantly greater gross efficiency was measured in the CET group. No differences in the lipid profile or serum levels of inflammatory, myocardial and skeletal muscle damage markers were observed after the training period. The study results agree with the effectiveness of a 30 s all-out training program with a reduced time commitment for anthropometric, aerobic and anaerobic adaptation and eliminate doubts about its safety as a model.

  4. Interval Size and Affect: An Ethnomusicological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarha Moore

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This commentary addresses Huron and Davis's question of whether "The Harmonic Minor Provides an Optimum Way of Reducing Average Melodic Interval Size, Consistent with Sad Affect Cues" within any non-Western musical cultures. The harmonic minor scale and other semitone-heavy scales, such as Bhairav raga and Hicaz makam, are featured widely in the musical cultures of North India and the Middle East. Do melodies from these genres also have a preponderance of semitone intervals and low incidence of the augmented second interval, as in Huron and Davis's sample? Does the presence of more semitone intervals in a melody affect its emotional connotations in different cultural settings? Are all semitone intervals equal in their effect? My own ethnographic research within these cultures reveals comparable connotations in melodies that linger on semitone intervals, centered on concepts of tension and metaphors of falling. However, across different musical cultures there may also be neutral or lively interpretations of these same pitch sets, dependent on context, manner of performance, and tradition. Small pitch movement may also be associated with social functions such as prayer or lullabies, and may not be described as "sad." "Sad," moreover may not connote the same affect cross-culturally.

  5. Effect of method of sample preparation on ruminal in situ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of method of sample preparation on the degradation kinetics of herbage when applying the in situ technique. Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum cv. Midmar) was harvested at three and four weeks after cutting and fertilizing with 200 kg nitrogen (N)/ha. Freshly cut herbage ...

  6. Effects of sample size on the second magnetization peak in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    8+ crystals are observed at low temperatures, above the temperature where the SMP totally disappears. In particular, the onset of the SMP shifts to lower fields as the sample size decreases - a result that could be interpreted as a size effect in ...

  7. Interval ANOVA simultaneous component analysis (i-ASCA) applied to spectroscopic data to study the effect of fundamental fermentation variables in beer fermentation metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Silvia; Lyndgaard, Christian Bøge; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the effect of different settings on beer fermentation process applying an interval-based version of ASCA on FT-IR data. Three main factors (yeast type, temperature, fermentation time) are included in the experimental design, being high sources of variation in brewing...... and strictly interdependent; thus, difficult to be studied through a univariate approach. The three-factor full factorial design leads to a spectral multi-set data, with a total of 12 independent fermentations, which is explored combining ASCA and an interval adaptation of ASCA (interval-ASCA or i...... and temperature, in smaller variable regions. The proposed approach demonstrates how interval-ASCA on FT-IR data, isolating the variation in the data according to the experimental design used, allows a rapid and accurate test for parameter control in beer manufacturing....

  8. Metabolic effects of resistance or high-intensity interval training among glycemic control-nonresponsive children with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, C; Ramírez-Campillo, R; Ramírez-Vélez, R; Martínez, C; Castro-Sepúlveda, M; Alonso-Martínez, A; Izquierdo, M

    2017-07-31

    Little evidence exists on which variables of body composition or muscular strength mediates more glucose control improvements taking into account inter-individual metabolic variability to different modes of exercise training. We examined 'mediators' to the effects of 6-weeks of resistance training (RT) or high-intensity interval training (HIT) on glucose control parameters in physically inactive schoolchildren with insulin resistance (IR). Second, we also determined both training-induce changes and the prevalence of responders (R) and non-responders (NR) to decrease the IR level. Fifty-six physically inactive children diagnosed with IR followed a RT or supervised HIT program for 6 weeks. Participants were classified based on ΔHOMA-IR into glycemic control R (decrease in homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) fat by the waist circumference can explain more the effects (decreases) of HOMA-IR in physically inactive schoolchildren under RT or HIT regimes. The same analysis showed that increased one-maximum repetition leg-extension was correlated with the change in HOMA-IR (β=-0.058; P=0.049). Furthermore, a change in the waist circumference fully mediated the dose-response relationship between changes in the leg-extension strength and HOMA-IR (β'=-0.004; P=0.178). RT or HIT were associated with significant improvements in body composition, muscular strength, blood pressure and cardiometabolic parameters irrespective of improvement in glycemic control response. Both glucose control RT-R and HIT-R (respectively), had significant improvements in mean HOMA-IR, mean muscular strength leg-extension and mean measures of adiposity. The improvements in the lower body strength and the decreases in waist circumference can explain more the effects of the improvements in glucose control of IR schoolchildren in R group after 6 weeks of RT or HIT, showing both regimes similar effects on body composition or muscular strength independent of interindividual metabolic response

  9. Weighted regression analysis and interval estimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald W. Seegrist

    1974-01-01

    A method for deriving the weighted least squares estimators for the parameters of a multiple regression model. Confidence intervals for expected values, and prediction intervals for the means of future samples are given.

  10. Effects of high intensity interval training versus moderate intensity continuous training on the reduction of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic adult patients: CAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete Aro, Carlos Emilio; Russell Guzmán, Javier Antonio; Soto Muñoz, Marcelo Enrique; Villegas González, Bastián Eduardo

    2015-08-13

    Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between an excessive production of reactive oxygen species and/or a deficiency in the level of endogenous and exogenous antioxidant defenses. The presence of reactive oxygen species in large concentrations and for long periods is associated with the occurrence of various diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exercise represents an effective means for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and is also able to reduce long-term oxidative stress levels. High-intensity interval training has shown to be an efficient and viable option for type 2 diabetes mellitus control. In turn, high-intensity interval training seems to have positive effects on oxidative stress levels by increasing levels of endogenous antioxidants. To assess the validity and applicability of the results regarding the effectiveness of high-intensity interval training compared to moderate intensity continuous training to reduce oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to answer the following question: In adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, can the method of high-intensity interval training, compared to moderate intensity continuous training reduce oxidative stress levels? We performed a critical analysis of the article "Continuous training vs Interval training in glycemic control and macro and microvascular reactivity in patients with type 2 diabetes". No statistically significant differences were observed in concentrations of superoxide dismutase in any of the experimental groups. Only in the interval group a decrease in malondialdehyde regarding control group and baseline (pinterval group there was an increase in glutathione peroxidase compared to the group of continuous aerobic training and baseline (pinterval training group. Despite the fact that both training groups show improvements over markers of lipid profile and fitness, high intensity interval training has shown to be more effective in the

  11. Genomic data sampling and its effect on classification performance assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azuaje Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supervised classification is fundamental in bioinformatics. Machine learning models, such as neural networks, have been applied to discover genes and expression patterns. This process is achieved by implementing training and test phases. In the training phase, a set of cases and their respective labels are used to build a classifier. During testing, the classifier is used to predict new cases. One approach to assessing its predictive quality is to estimate its accuracy during the test phase. Key limitations appear when dealing with small-data samples. This paper investigates the effect of data sampling techniques on the assessment of neural network classifiers. Results Three data sampling techniques were studied: Cross-validation, leave-one-out, and bootstrap. These methods are designed to reduce the bias and variance of small-sample estimations. Two prediction problems based on small-sample sets were considered: Classification of microarray data originating from a leukemia study and from small, round blue-cell tumours. A third problem, the prediction of splice-junctions, was analysed to perform comparisons. Different accuracy estimations were produced for each problem. The variations are accentuated in the small-data samples. The quality of the estimates depends on the number of train-test experiments and the amount of data used for training the networks. Conclusion The predictive quality assessment of biomolecular data classifiers depends on the data size, sampling techniques and the number of train-test experiments. Conservative and optimistic accuracy estimations can be obtained by applying different methods. Guidelines are suggested to select a sampling technique according to the complexity of the prediction problem under consideration.

  12. Effects of high-intensity interval training on physical capacities and substrate oxidation rate in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzer, S; Tringali, G; Caccavale, M; De Micheli, R; Abbruzzese, L; Sartorio, A

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effects of a 3-week weight-management program entailing moderate energy restriction, nutritional education, psychological counseling and three different exercise training (a: low intensity, LI: 40 % V'O2max; b: high intensity, HI: 70 % V'O2max; c: high-intensity interval training, HIIT), on body composition, energy expenditure and fat oxidation rate in obese adolescents. Thirty obese adolescents (age: 15-17 years, BMI: 37.5 kg m-2) participated in this study. Before starting (week 0, W0) and at the end of the weight-management program (week 3, W3), body composition was assessed by an impedancemeter; basal metabolic rate (BMR), energy expenditure and substrate oxidation rate were measured during exercise and post-exercise recovery by indirect calorimetry. At W3, body mass (BM) and fat mass (FM) decreased significantly in all groups, the decreases being significantly greater in the LI than in the HI and HIIT subgroups (BM: -8.4 ± 1.5 vs -6.3 ± 1.9 vs -4.9 ± 1.3 kg and FM: -4.2 ± 1.9 vs -2.8 ± 1.2 vs -2.3 ± 1.4 kg, p post-exercise recovery. A 3-week weight-management program induced a greater decrease in BM and FM in the LI than in the HI and HIIT subgroups, and greater increase in V'O2peak and fat oxidation rate in the HI and HIIT than in the LI subgroup.

  13. Effects of resistance-guided high intensity interval functional electrical stimulation cycling on an individual with paraplegia: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbow, David R; Credeur, Daniel P

    2017-09-04

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) are more than twice as likely to develop and die from cardio-metabolic diseases as compared to able-bodied. This increased risk is thought to be in part due to accelerated muscle atrophy and reduced blood flow through sublesional arteries. Thus, strategies to recondition paralyzed skeletal muscles may help reduce cardio-metabolic disease risk. The purpose of this case report was to examine the impact of a novel, resistance-guided, high intensity interval training functional electrical stimulation (RG-HIIT-FES) cycling program on cardio-metabolic health in people with chronic SCI. One adult female with chronic T10 SCI. A novel RG-HIIT-FES cycling program three times per week for 10 weeks. Measures of body composition and cardio-metabolic health (vascular endothelial function of the brachial artery via flow-mediated dilation) and HbA1c blood values were performed at baseline and following completion of the RG-HIIT-FES program. Total body lean mass and legs lean mass increased 2.8% and 5.3% respectively while vastus lateralis thickness increased by 59.5%. Reactive hyperemia and flow mediated dilation change in brachial artery diameter increased by 11.1% and 147.7% following the program, respectively. HbA1c level changed minimally (5 to 4.9%). This case report suggests that RG-HIIT-FES cycling was an effective strategy to improve lean mass, and systemic vascular endothelial health in an individual with chronic SCI.

  14. Interval estimates and their precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Luboš; Vrabec, Michal

    2015-06-01

    A task very often met in in practice is computation of confidence interval bounds for the relative frequency within sampling without replacement. A typical situation includes preelection estimates and similar tasks. In other words, we build the confidence interval for the parameter value M in the parent population of size N on the basis of a random sample of size n. There are many ways to build this interval. We can use a normal or binomial approximation. More accurate values can be looked up in tables. We consider one more method, based on MS Excel calculations. In our paper we compare these different methods for specific values of M and we discuss when the considered methods are suitable. The aim of the article is not a publication of new theoretical methods. This article aims to show that there is a very simple way how to compute the confidence interval bounds without approximations, without tables and without other software costs.

  15. It's in the Sample: The Effects of Sample Size and Sample Diversity on the Breadth of Inductive Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Chris A.; Fisher, Anna V.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental studies have provided mixed evidence with regard to the question of whether children consider sample size and sample diversity in their inductive generalizations. Results from four experiments with 105 undergraduates, 105 school-age children (M = 7.2 years), and 105 preschoolers (M = 4.9 years) showed that preschoolers made a higher…

  16. Yield and quality of milk and udder health in Martina Franca ass: effects of daily interval and time of machine milking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Martemucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty asses of Martina Franca breed, machine milked twice a day, were used to assess the influence of milking interval (3-h, 5-h, and 8-h; N=5 and time (700, 1200 and 1900 on milk yield and udder health. Individual milk samples were taken to determine fat, protein and lactose con- tent. Sensory analysis profile was also assessed. Milk’s total bacterial count (TBC, somatic cell con- tent (SCC and udder’s skin temperature were considered to assess udder health. Milk yield increases by 28.4% (P<0.01 with a milking interval from 3-h to 8-h and is higher (P<0.01 at morning milking. The maximum milk yield per milking corresponds to 700 milking (1416.9 mL thus indicating a circa- dian rhythm in milk secretion processes. Milking intervals of 5 and 8 hours cause a decrease (P<0.01 in milk fat and lactose content. The 8-h interval leads to an increase (P<0.01 in SCC but without any significance for the health udder. No alterations about CBT, clinical evaluation and temperature of ud- der were observed. Milk organoleptic characteristics were better in the 3-h interval milking.

  17. Methods for calculating confidence and credible intervals for the residual between-study variance in random effects meta-regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Meta-regression is becoming increasingly used to model study level covariate effects. However this type of statistical analysis presents many difficulties and challenges. Here two methods for calculating confidence intervals for the magnitude of the residual between-study variance in random effects meta-regression models are developed. A further suggestion for calculating credible intervals using informative prior distributions for the residual between-study variance is presented. Methods Two recently proposed and, under the assumptions of the random effects model, exact methods for constructing confidence intervals for the between-study variance in random effects meta-analyses are extended to the meta-regression setting. The use of Generalised Cochran heterogeneity statistics is extended to the meta-regression setting and a Newton-Raphson procedure is developed to implement the Q profile method for meta-analysis and meta-regression. WinBUGS is used to implement informative priors for the residual between-study variance in the context of Bayesian meta-regressions. Results Results are obtained for two contrasting examples, where the first example involves a binary covariate and the second involves a continuous covariate. Intervals for the residual between-study variance are wide for both examples. Conclusions Statistical methods, and R computer software, are available to compute exact confidence intervals for the residual between-study variance under the random effects model for meta-regression. These frequentist methods are almost as easily implemented as their established counterparts for meta-analysis. Bayesian meta-regressions are also easily performed by analysts who are comfortable using WinBUGS. Estimates of the residual between-study variance in random effects meta-regressions should be routinely reported and accompanied by some measure of their uncertainty. Confidence and/or credible intervals are well-suited to this purpose. PMID:25196829

  18. Influence of Inter-Training Intervals on Intermanual Transfer Effects in Upper-Limb Prosthesis Training: A Randomized Pre-Posttest Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sietske Romkema

    Full Text Available Improvement in prosthetic training using intermanual transfer (the transfer of motor skills from the trained, “unaffected” hand to the untrained, “affected” hand has been shown in previous studies. The aim of this study is to determine the influence of the inter-training interval on the magnitude of the intermanual transfer effects. This was done using a mechanistic, randomized, single-blinded pretest-posttest design. Sixty-four able-bodied, right-handed participants were randomly assigned to the Short and Long Interval Training Groups and the Short and Long Interval Control Groups. The Short and Long Interval Training Groups used a prosthesis simulator in their training program. The Short and Long Interval Control Groups executed a sham training program, that is, a dummy training program in which the same muscles were trained as with the prosthesis simulator. The Short Interval Training Group and the Short Interval Control Groups trained on consecutive days, while the Long Interval Training Group and Long Interval Control Group trained twice a week. To determine the improvement in skills, a test was administered before, immediately after, and at two points in time after the training. Training was performed with the “unaffected” arm; tests were performed with the “affected” arm. The outcome measurements were: the movement time (the time from the beginning of the movement until completion of the task; the duration of maximum hand opening, (the opening of the prosthetic hand while grasping an object; and the grip-force control (the error from the required grip-force during a tracking task. Intermanual transfer was found in movement times, but not in hand opening or grip-force control. The length of the inter-training interval did not affect the magnitude of intermanual transfer effects. No difference in the intermanual transfer effect in upper-limb prosthesis training was found for training on a daily basis as compared to training

  19. Evaluate the Effect of Commercially Available Denture Cleansers on Surface Hardness and Roughness of Denture Liners at Various Time Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hilal S.; Singh, Sumeet; Hari, Prasad A.; Amarnath, G. S.; Kundapur, Vinaya; Pasha, Naveed; Anand, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: Chemical cleansing by denture cleansers is first choice for denture plaque control. The most common problems while using denture cleansers are hardening, porosity, odor sorption, water sorption, solubility, and colour change, bacterial and fungal growth. Chemical cleansing procedures have been found to have an effect on the physical and mechanical properties of denture liners. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of commercially available denture cleansers on surface hardness and roughness of acrylic and silicon based denture liners at various time interval. Method: Two autopolymerising denture liners Kooliner (acrylic) and GC reline soft (silicon) were tested with two commercially available denture cleansers, polident and efferdent plus. Total of 120 specimens were prepared and all the specimens were divided into six groups based on the relining materials and denture cleansers used. Surface hardness and surface roughness was tested using Shore A durometer and profilometer respectively at the end of day 1, day 7, day 30 and day 90. All the specimens were stored in artificial saliva throughout the study. Cleanser solution was prepared daily by adding Polident and Efferdent plus denture cleanser tablet into 250ml of enough very warm (not hot) water. Acrylic and silicon liner groups were cleansed in a solution of denture cleanser and water for 15 minutes daily, rinsed with water and stored in artificial saliva at room temperature. The data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and independent t-test. Result: The acrylic soft lining showed gradual hardening and increase in surface roughness after immersion in denture cleanser and also with time. Acrylic liner material showed maximum hardness and roughness with Polident followed by Efferdent plus and water (control group). Silicone lining material showed a slight difference in hardness and roughness between the test group and control group. There was a slight increase in hardness in

  20. Effectiveness of high-intensity interval training on the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu MH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Meng Hsiu Wu,1,2 Chin Pang Lee,1–3 Shih Chieh Hsu,1,3 Chia Ming Chang,1,3 Ching Yen Chen1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 2Men’s Health Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 3School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Background: Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT is emerging as a time-efficient exercise strategy for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and for controlling blood sugar levels and hypertension. In addition, patient acceptance of HIIT may improve adherence to exercise programs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of HIIT for improving the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia. Methods: Twenty patients attending a psychiatric day care unit volunteered for an 8-week program of HIIT. Blood pressure, resting heart rate, body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio were measured weekly. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score was recorded at baseline and at the end of the study. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI scores were recorded every 2 weeks. Results: Statistically significant changes occurred in the physical and mental parameters measured in the 18 patients who completed the study. Body weight, body mass index, resting heart rate, and pulse pressure decreased significantly. Mean arterial pressure and diastolic blood pressure increased significantly. Mental health scores improved, with the Negative Scale score decreasing from 31.17±5.95 to 27.78±3.57 (P<0.01 and the General Psychopathology Scale score from 14.28±2.16 to 13.00±1.72 (P<0.01. Positive Scale scores changed, but not significantly, from 12.28±2.27 to 12.33±2.00 (P=0.729. Scores on the BDI (from 19.56±15.28 to 15.89±14.33, P<0.001 and BAI (from 13.67±13.83 to 10.06±11.18, P=0.003 both improved significantly. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that HIIT has positive

  1. Effects of 12-week high-intensity interval training on plasma visfatin concentration and insulin resistance in overweight men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Matinhomaee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on visfatin and insulin resistance (IR in overweight adult men during a weight-loss program. Eighteen overweight men (age = 31.8 ± 9.2 years; body mass index = 28.6 ± 1.4 kg/m2 were randomly recruited into one of the two groups, namely, HIIT (3 days/week, 20 minutes/day; 85–95% peak oxygen uptake and diet-induced weight-loss combined (DHIIT; n = 10 and diet-induced weight loss only (DIO; n = 8. The DHIIT and DIO groups undertook a 12-week weight-loss intervention using a moderate isocaloric energy-deficit diet. Both DHIIT and DIO groups demonstrated a significant reduction in body weight (p < 0.01. Total fat mass (p < 0.05 and lean body mass (p < 0.05 were decreased in the DIO group with no significant changes in abdominal fat mass, plasma insulin concentration, homeostasis model assessment-estimated IR (HOMA-IR, blood glucose level, and plasma visfatin. In the DHIIT group, total fat mass (p < 0.01, abdominal fat mass (p < 0.05, plasma insulin concentration (p < 0.05, plasma visfatin (p < 0.01, and HOMA-IR (p < 0.05 were reduced and lean body mass remained unchanged. In conclusion, adding a low-volume 20-minute HIIT (three times/week to an energy-deficit diet not only can improve the efficiency of weight-loss program in the reduction of body fat, plasma visfatin levels, and HOMA-IR, but also has a reservation effect on lean body mass.

  2. Effects of Mesh Size on Sieved Samples of Corophium volutator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewe, Tara L.; Hamilton, Diana J.; Diamond, Antony W.

    2001-08-01

    Corophium volutator (Pallas), gammaridean amphipods found on intertidal mudflats, are frequently collected in mud samples sieved on mesh screens. However, mesh sizes used vary greatly among studies, raising the possibility that sampling methods bias results. The effect of using different mesh sizes on the resulting size-frequency distributions of Corophium was tested by collecting Corophium from mud samples with 0·5 and 0·25 mm sieves. More than 90% of Corophium less than 2 mm long passed through the larger sieve. A significantly smaller, but still substantial, proportion of 2-2·9 mm Corophium (30%) was also lost. Larger size classes were unaffected by mesh size. Mesh size significantly changed the observed size-frequency distribution of Corophium, and effects varied with sampling date. It is concluded that a 0·5 mm sieve is suitable for studies concentrating on adults, but to accurately estimate Corophium density and size-frequency distributions, a 0·25 mm sieve must be used.

  3. Exploring effective sampling design for monitoring soil organic carbon in degraded Tibetan grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaofeng; Bao, Xiaoying; Wang, Shiping; Zhu, Xiaoxue; Luo, Caiyun; Zhang, Zhenhua; Wilkes, Andreas

    2016-05-15

    The effects of climate change and human activities on grassland degradation and soil carbon stocks have become a focus of both research and policy. However, lack of research on appropriate sampling design prevents accurate assessment of soil carbon stocks and stock changes at community and regional scales. Here, we conducted an intensive survey with 1196 sampling sites over an area of 190 km(2) of degraded alpine meadow. Compared to lightly degraded meadow, soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in moderately, heavily and extremely degraded meadow were reduced by 11.0%, 13.5% and 17.9%, respectively. Our field survey sampling design was overly intensive to estimate SOC status with a tolerable uncertainty of 10%. Power analysis showed that the optimal sampling density to achieve the desired accuracy would be 2, 3, 5 and 7 sites per 10 km(2) for lightly, moderately, heavily and extremely degraded meadows, respectively. If a subsequent paired sampling design with the optimum sample size were performed, assuming stock change rates predicted by experimental and modeling results, we estimate that about 5-10 years would be necessary to detect expected trends in SOC in the top 20 cm soil layer. Our results highlight the utility of conducting preliminary surveys to estimate the appropriate sampling density and avoid wasting resources due to over-sampling, and to estimate the sampling interval required to detect an expected sequestration rate. Future studies will be needed to evaluate spatial and temporal patterns of SOC variability. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Effects of 6-month aerobic interval training on skeletal muscle metabolism in middle-aged metabolic syndrome patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guadalupe-Grau, A; Fernández-Elías, V E; Ortega, J F

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic interval training (AIT) improves the health of metabolic syndrome patients (MetS) more than moderate intensity continuous training. However, AIT has not been shown to reverse all metabolic syndrome risk factors, possibly due to the limited duration of the training programs. Thus, we asses...

  5. Effects of sample size on the second magnetization peak in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    *E-mail: yeshurun@mail.biu.ac.il. Abstract. Effects of sample size on the second magnetization peak (SMP) in. Bi2Sr2CaCuO8+δ crystals are ... a termination of the measured transition line at Tl, typically 17–20 K (see figure 1). The obscuring and eventual disappearance of the SMP with decreasing tempera- tures has been ...

  6. What effect does VOC sampling time have on derived OH reactivity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sonderfeld

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art techniques allow for rapid measurements of total OH reactivity. Unknown sinks of OH and oxidation processes in the atmosphere have been attributed to what has been termed “missing” OH reactivity. Often overlooked are the differences in timescales over which the diverse measurement techniques operate. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs acting as sinks of OH are often measured by gas chromatography (GC methods which provide low-frequency measurements on a timescale of hours, while sampling times are generally only a few minutes. Here, the effect of the sampling time and thus the contribution of unmeasured VOC variability on OH reactivity is investigated. Measurements of VOC mixing ratios by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS conducted during two field campaigns (ClearfLo and PARADE in an urban and a semi-rural environment were used to calculate OH reactivity. VOCs were selected to represent variability for different compound classes. Data were averaged over different time intervals to simulate lower time resolutions and were then compared to the mean hourly OH reactivity. The results show deviations in the range of 1 to 25 %. The observed impact of VOC variability is found to be greater for the semi-rural site.The selected compounds were scaled by the contribution of their compound class to the total OH reactivity from VOCs based on concurrent gas chromatography measurements conducted during the ClearfLo campaign. Prior to being scaled, the variable signal of aromatic compounds results in larger deviations in OH reactivity for short sampling intervals compared to oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs. However, once scaled with their lower share during the ClearfLo campaign, this effect was reduced. No seasonal effect on the OH reactivity distribution across different VOCs was observed at the urban site.

  7. Effect of Planting Density and Harvest Interval on the Leaf Yield and Quality of Moringa (Moringa oleifera under Diverse Agroecological Conditions of Northern South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Mabapa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder livestock farmers who depend on natural communal grazing lands are particularly vulnerable to climate change as well as to food insecurity and should be encouraged to grow drought-tolerant fodder crops. Moringa oleifera is a highly valued plant, due to its exceptionally high nutritional content. This study was conducted at two experimental sites in the Limpopo province of northern South Africa to evaluate for the first time the effect of plant density and cutting interval on biomass production and chemical composition of moringa grown under two diverse climatic conditions. Four different planting densities (435,000, 300,000, 200,000, and 100,000 plants/ha were arranged in a randomized complete block design and experimental samples were replicated four times. Data for biomass and gravimetric soil moisture content were collected each time the plants reached a height of 50 cm. Harvested leaves were analysed for chemical composition. An increase in the plant density led to elevated biomass production at both study locations, ranging between 527 and 2867 kg/ha. Moringa is capable of meeting all nutrient requirements of livestock depending on harvest time and location.

  8. Why sampling scheme matters: the effect of sampling scheme on landscape genetic results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Schwartz; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2008-01-01

    There has been a recent trend in genetic studies of wild populations where researchers have changed their sampling schemes from sampling pre-defined populations to sampling individuals uniformly across landscapes. This reflects the fact that many species under study are continuously distributed rather than clumped into obvious "populations". Once individual...

  9. Particulate matter sample deposit geometry and effective filter face velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, Charles E; Dillner, Ann M; Indresand, Hege

    2009-09-01

    Aerosol filter face velocities can be underestimated when the sample deposit area does not cover the entire face of the filter. In many aerosol samplers, Teflon filters are backed with a metal support screen. In these samplers, air flows through the filter only in the small area upstream of each hole in the screen, resulting in a sample deposit that is an array of tiny dots that mimics the array of holes. Thus, the filter deposit area is smaller than the total filter area and the effective face velocity is greater than that calculated from the sample deposit envelope. The Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network has used filter holders with two different screen hole arrays. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) and the Federal Reference Method samplers also use a metal support screen, but with much smaller screen holes than IMPROVE. These networks also use larger filters and lower flow rates than those used in IMPROVE. Filter face velocities for all of these networks that are calculated using the actual deposit array area range from 1.6 to 3.5 times larger than those calculated incorrectly using the entire sample deposit envelope.

  10. Effect of sampling regime on estimation of basal metabolic rate and standard evaporative water loss using flow-through respirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C E; Withers, P C

    2010-01-01

    Strict criteria have been established for measurement of basal metabolic rate and standard evaporative water loss to ensure that data can be compared intra- and interspecifically. However, data-sampling regimes vary, from essentially continuous sampling to interrupted (switching) systems with data recorded periodically at more widely spaced intervals. Here we compare one continuous and three interrupted sampling regimes to determine whether sampling regime has a significant effect on estimation of basal metabolic rate or standard evaporative water loss. Compared to continuous 20-s sampling averaged over 20 min, sampling every 6 min and averaging over 60 min overestimated basal metabolic rate and evaporative water loss, sampling every 3 min and averaging over 21 min underestimated basal metabolic rate, and sampling every 12 min and averaging over 36 min showed no difference in estimates. Increasing the period over which the minimum mean was calculated significantly increased estimates of physiological variables. Reducing the frequency of sampling from 20 s to a longer interval of 3, 6, or 12 min underestimated basal metabolic rate but not evaporative water loss. This indicates that sampling frequency per se influences estimates of basal metabolic rate and that differences are not just an artifact of differences in the period over which the mean is calculated. Sampling regime can have a highly significant influence on estimation of standard physiological variables, although the actual differences between sampling regimes were generally small (usually <5%). Although continuous sampling is the preferred sampling regime for open-flow respirometry studies, if time and cost are prohibitive, then use of an appropriate switching system will result in smaller errors than measuring individuals continuously for shorter periods.

  11. Peer effects on obesity in a sample of European children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia A; Bammann, Karin; Eiben, Gabriele; Kourides, Yiannis; Kovács, Éva; Lauria, Fabio; Konstabel, Kenn; Santaliestra-Pasias, Alba M; Vyncke, Krishna; Pigeot, Iris

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzes peer effects on childhood obesity using data from the first two waves of the IDEFICS study, which applies several anthropometric and other measures of fatness to approximately 14,000 children aged two to nine participating in both waves in 16 regions of eight European countries. Peers are defined as same-sex children in the same school and age group. The results show that peer effects do exist in this European sample but that they differ among both regions and different fatness measures. Peer effects are larger in Spain, Italy, and Cyprus--the more collectivist regions in our sample--while waist circumference generally gives rise to larger peer effects than BMI. We also provide evidence that parental misperceptions of their own children's weight goes hand in hand with fatter peer groups, supporting the notion that in making such assessments, parents compare their children's weight with that of friends and schoolmates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Methods of Human Body Odor Sampling: The Effect of Freezing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lenochova, Pavlina; Roberts, S. Craig; Havlicek, Jan

    Body odor sampling is an essential tool in human chemical ecology research. However, methodologies of individual studies vary widely in terms of sampling material, length of sampling, and sample processing...

  13. Confidence interval estimation for an empirical model quantifying the effect of soil moisture and plant development on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaf conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, we address uncertainty analysis for a model, presented in a companion paper, quantifying the effect of soil moisture and plant development on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaf conductance. To achieve this we present several methods for confidence interval estimation. Estimation ...

  14. Long-term effects of fire and fire-return interval on population structure and growth of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelcy R. Ford; Emily S. Minor; Gordon A. Fox

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of fire and fire frequency on stand structure and longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill.) growth and population demography in an experimental research area in a southwest Florida sandhill community. Data were collected from replicated plots that had prescribed fire-return intervals of 1, 2, 5, or 7 years or were left...

  15. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda, N.M.M.; Seeger, J.P.; Stevens, G.G.; Hijmans-Kersten, B.T.P.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Bellersen, L.; Lamfers, E.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF). To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT). We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT) in HF

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERVAL EXERCISE VERSUS CONTINUOUS EXERCISE TO IMPROVE EXERCISE TOLERANCE IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE SUBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    G.Swathi; A.Chaturvedi.P; P.Apparao; P.Kiranprakash; A.Nityal

    2015-01-01

    Background: COPD is characterized by chronic airflow limitation and a range of pathological changes in the lung. Chronic inflammation causes structural changes and narrowing of the small airways and destruction of lung parenchyma, leads to the loss of alveolar attachments to the small airways and decreases lung elastic recoil; in turn these changes diminish the expiration and the work of breathing is increased. Scarcity of evidence on continuous and interval exercises is forcing researchers c...

  17. Effects of Interval Training-Based Glycolytic Capacity on Physical Fitness in Recreational Long-Distance Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatoń Marek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of 8-week-long interval training (targeting glycolytic capacity on selected markers of physical fitness in amateur long-distance runners. Methods. The study involved 17 amateur long-distance runners randomly divided into an experimental (n = 8 and control (n = 9 group. The control group performed three or four continuous training sessions per week whereas the experimental group performed two interval running training sessions and one continuous running training session. A graded treadmill exercise test and the 12-min Cooper test were performed pre- and post-training. Results. O2max and the rate of recovery increased in the experimental group. Relative oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, and heart rate speed decreased in low- (6 km/h and medium-intensity (12 km/h running. Conclusions. Both training modalities showed similar results. However, the significant differences in training volume (4-8 min interval training vs. 40-150 min continuous training indicates that the modalities targeting glycolytic capacity may be more efficient for amateur runners prepare for long-distance events.

  18. Efectos del entrenamiento continuo e interválico de carga externa similar sobre la frecuencia cardiaca Effects of continuous and interval training similar external load on heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Tuimil

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Los objetivos de este estudio fueron comparar la frecuencia cardíaca (FC media entre dos tipos de entrenamiento de carga externa equiparada basados en la carrera, la relación de la velocidad aeróbica máxima (VAM con la F.C. de reserva (FCR y los efectos de estos dos tipos de entrenamiento sobre la F.C. basal (FCB. El estudio se llevó a cabo con ocho estudiantes de educación física (23,25 años; VAM: 17,93 Km.h-1 que realizaron dos tipos de entrenamiento: CC =8 km al 70%VAM y CI= 4x(1000m al 90%VAM+1000m al 50% VAM. Se registró la FC durante el entrenamiento y la FCB antes y después del mismo. La diferencia de la FC media entre ambos métodos no fue estadísticamente significativa, sin embargo las medias del CC (FCCC (Z=2,240; p<0,05 y CI (FCCI (Z=2,380; p<0,05 fueron significativamente más elevadas que la calculada al 70% de FCR. La FCB se elevó de forma significativa (Z=2,319; p=0.020 solamente después del entrenamiento CI. En conclusión, dos métodos de entrenamiento distintos, pero de intensidad media similar, pueden dar lugar a una FC media también similar. La intensidad de carrera programada en función de la VAM es significativamente superior a la programada en función de la FCR. El entrenamiento interválico puede tener un mayor efecto sobre el incremento de la FCB.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Frecuencia cardíaca media, frecuencia cardíaca de reserva, frecuencia cardíaca basal, VAM, carrera continua, carrera interválica.

    The aims of this study were to compare the mean heart rate response in two training methods of equal average intensity based on running, the relationship of the maximal aerobic speed (VAM with the reserve heart rate (FCR and the effects of these modes of training on the basal heart rate (FCB. The study was carried out with eight physical activity students (23,25 years old; VAM: 17,93 Km.h-1

  19. The Effects of Free-Living Interval-Walking Training on Glycemic Control, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Winding, Kamilla; Knudsen, Sine H

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo evaluate the feasibility of free-living walking training in type 2 diabetes patients, and to investigate the effects of interval-walking training versus continuous-walking training upon physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSSubjects......-matched continuous walking for improving physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control....... at moderate intensity, whereas interval walkers alternated 3-min repetitions at low and high intensity. Before and after the 4-month intervention, the following variables were measured: VO(2)max, body composition, and glycemic control (fasting glucose, HbA(1c), oral glucose tolerance test, and continuous...

  20. Low-volume high-intensity interval training vs continuous aerobic cycling in patients with chronic heart failure: A pragmatic randomised clinical trial of feasibility and effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Koufaki, Pelagia; Mercer, Tom; George, K.; Nolan, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The health benefits of high-intensity interval\\ud training in cardiac rehabilitation warrant further research.\\ud We compared the effectiveness of low-volume high-intensity\\ud interval training vs continuous aerobic exercise training in\\ud chronic heart failure.\\ud Design/Settings: Unblinded, two arm parallel design with\\ud random assignment to exercise interventions in out-patient\\ud hospital rehabilitation gym.\\ud Methods: Patients with signs of chronic heart failure and\\ud ejec...

  1. The effects of interval- vs. continuous exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and substrate oxidation rates in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Wallis, Gareth A.; Pedersen, Bente K.

    2016-01-01

    ), substrate oxidation rates and lipid metabolism in the hours following exercise in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Following an overnight fast, ten T2D subjects (M/F: 7/3; age = 60.3 ± 2.3 years; body mass index (BMI) = 28.3 ± 1.1 kg/m2) completed three 60-min interventions in a counterbalanced......, free fatty acids and glycerol concentrations, and glycerol kinetics were increased comparably during and after IW and CW compared to CON. Conclusions Interval exercise results in greater EPOC than oxygen-consumption matched continuous exercise during a post-exercise MMTT in subjects with T2D, whereas......Background For unknown reasons, interval training often reduces body weight more than energy-expenditure matched continuous training. We compared the acute effects of time-duration and oxygen-consumption matched interval- vs. continuous exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC...

  2. Interval Temporal Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monica, Dario Della; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    We discuss a family of modal logics for reasoning about relational structures of intervals over (usually) linear orders, with modal operators associated with the various binary relations between such intervals, known as Allen’s interval relations. The formulae of these logics are evaluated at int...

  3. Effects of sample size on KERNEL home range estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, D.E.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Kernohan, Brian J.; Brundige, Gary C.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Gitzen, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Kernel methods for estimating home range are being used increasingly in wildlife research, but the effect of sample size on their accuracy is not known. We used computer simulations of 10-200 points/home range and compared accuracy of home range estimates produced by fixed and adaptive kernels with the reference (REF) and least-squares cross-validation (LSCV) methods for determining the amount of smoothing. Simulated home ranges varied from simple to complex shapes created by mixing bivariate normal distributions. We used the size of the 95% home range area and the relative mean squared error of the surface fit to assess the accuracy of the kernel home range estimates. For both measures, the bias and variance approached an asymptote at about 50 observations/home range. The fixed kernel with smoothing selected by LSCV provided the least-biased estimates of the 95% home range area. All kernel methods produced similar surface fit for most simulations, but the fixed kernel with LSCV had the lowest frequency and magnitude of very poor estimates. We reviewed 101 papers published in The Journal of Wildlife Management (JWM) between 1980 and 1997 that estimated animal home ranges. A minority of these papers used nonparametric utilization distribution (UD) estimators, and most did not adequately report sample sizes. We recommend that home range studies using kernel estimates use LSCV to determine the amount of smoothing, obtain a minimum of 30 observations per animal (but preferably a?Y50), and report sample sizes in published results.

  4. Effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function in inactive latin-american adults: a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Quiñonez, Paula Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training is effective for improving cardiometabolic health and physical fitness in inactive adults. However, limited research has been conducted on the optimal exercise training intensity for this population. We investigate the effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function and physical fitness in physically inactive adults. Twenty inactive adults were randomly allocated to receive either moderate intensity training (MCT group) or high intens...

  5. Effect of high-intensity interval versus continuous exercise training on functional capacity and quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Villelabeitia Jaureguizar, Koldobika; Vicente Campos, Davinia; Ruiz Bautista, Lorena; Hernández de la Peña, César; Arriaza Gómez, María José; Calero Rueda, María José; Mahillo Fernández, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    There is strong evidence that exercise training has beneficial health effects in patients with cardiovascular disease. Most studies have focused on moderate continuous training (MCT); however, a body of evidence has begun to emerge demonstrating that highintensity interval training (HIIT) has significantly better results in terms of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of MCT versus HIIT on functional capacity and quality of life and t...

  6. Effect of continuous and interval exercise training on the PETCO2 response during a graded exercise test in patients with coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Enéas A. Rocco; Prado, Danilo M L; Silva, Alexandre G.; Lazzari, Jaqueline M. A.; Bortz, Pedro C; Rocco,Débora F. M.; Carla G. Rosa; Valter Furlan

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the following: 1) the effects of continuous exercise training and interval exercise training on the end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PETCO2) response during a graded exercise test in patients with coronary artery disease; and 2) the effects of exercise training modalities on the association between PETCO2 at the ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) and indicators of ventilatory efficiency and cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with co...

  7. Effects of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on pacing during 5-km running trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R; Damasceno, M; Cruz, R; Silva-Cavalcante, M D; Lima-Silva, A E; Bishop, D J; Bertuzzi, R

    2017-10-19

    This study analyzed the influence of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on the pacing strategy adopted by runners during a 5-km running trial. Sixteen male recreational long-distance runners were randomly assigned to a control group (CON, n=8) or a high-intensity interval training group (HIIT, n=8). The HIIT group performed high-intensity interval-training twice per week, while the CON group maintained their regular training program. Before and after the training period, the runners performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion to measure the onset of blood lactate accumulation, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and peak treadmill speed (PTS). A submaximal constant-speed test to measure the running economy (RE) and a 5-km running trial on an outdoor track to establish pacing strategy and performance were also done. During the 5-km running trial, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and time to cover the 5-km trial (T5) were registered. After the training period, there were significant improvements in the HIIT group of ∼7 and 5% for RE (P=0.012) and PTS (P=0.019), respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups for VO2max (P=0.495) or onset of blood lactate accumulation (P=0.101). No difference was found in the parameters measured during the 5-km trial before the training period between HIIT and CON (P>0.05). These findings suggest that 4 weeks of HIIT can improve some traditional physiological variables related to endurance performance (RE and PTS), but it does not alter the perception of effort, pacing strategy, or overall performance during a 5-km running trial.

  8. Effects of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on pacing during 5-km running trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the influence of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on the pacing strategy adopted by runners during a 5-km running trial. Sixteen male recreational long-distance runners were randomly assigned to a control group (CON, n=8 or a high-intensity interval training group (HIIT, n=8. The HIIT group performed high-intensity interval-training twice per week, while the CON group maintained their regular training program. Before and after the training period, the runners performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion to measure the onset of blood lactate accumulation, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, and peak treadmill speed (PTS. A submaximal constant-speed test to measure the running economy (RE and a 5-km running trial on an outdoor track to establish pacing strategy and performance were also done. During the 5-km running trial, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE and time to cover the 5-km trial (T5 were registered. After the training period, there were significant improvements in the HIIT group of ∼7 and 5% for RE (P=0.012 and PTS (P=0.019, respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups for VO2max (P=0.495 or onset of blood lactate accumulation (P=0.101. No difference was found in the parameters measured during the 5-km trial before the training period between HIIT and CON (P>0.05. These findings suggest that 4 weeks of HIIT can improve some traditional physiological variables related to endurance performance (RE and PTS, but it does not alter the perception of effort, pacing strategy, or overall performance during a 5-km running trial.

  9. Effects-Driven Participatory Design: Learning from Sampling Interruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandrup, Morten; Østergaard, Kija Lin; Hertzum, Morten

    2017-01-01

    a sustained focus on pursued effects and uses the experience sampling method (ESM) to collect real-use feedback. To illustrate the use of the method we analyze a case that involves the organizational implementation of electronic whiteboards at a Danish hospital to support the clinicians’ intra......Participatory design (PD) can play an important role in obtaining benefits from healthcare information technologies, but we contend that to fulfil this role PD must incorporate feedback from real use of the technologies. In this chapter we describe an effects-driven PD approach that revolves around....... The investigation showed that the electronic whiteboards had little potential for reducing the number of phone calls at the operating ward. The combination of quantitative data and qualitative feedback worked both as a basis for aligning assumptions to data and showed ESM as an instrument for triggering in...

  10. AFM tip-sample convolution effects for cylinder protrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Fei-Hu; Gan, Yang

    2017-11-01

    A thorough understanding about the AFM tip geometry dependent artifacts and tip-sample convolution effect is essential for reliable AFM topographic characterization and dimensional metrology. Using rigid sapphire cylinder protrusions (diameter: 2.25 μm, height: 575 nm) as the model system, a systematic and quantitative study about the imaging artifacts of four types of tips-two different pyramidal tips, one tetrahedral tip and one super sharp whisker tip-is carried out through comparing tip geometry dependent variations in AFM topography of cylinders and constructing the rigid tip-cylinder convolution models. We found that the imaging artifacts and the tip-sample convolution effect are critically related to the actual inclination of the working cantilever, the tip geometry, and the obstructive contacts between the working tip's planes/edges and the cylinder. Artifact-free images can only be obtained provided that all planes and edges of the working tip are steeper than the cylinder sidewalls. The findings reported here will contribute to reliable AFM characterization of surface features of micron or hundreds of nanometers in height that are frequently met in semiconductor, biology and materials fields.

  11. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme L. da Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n=8: control standard diet (CS, control high-fat diet (CH, continuous training standard diet (CTS, continuous training high-fat diet (CTH, interval training standard diet (ITS, and interval training high-fat diet (ITH. The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats.

  12. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racil, G; Coquart, J B; Elmontassar, W; Haddad, M; Goebel, R; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS), with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thrice weekly, or a no-training control group. The HIIT and MIIT groups showed improved (p training groups. Significant decreases occurred in blood leptin (p = 0.021, ES = 0.67 and p = 0.011, ES = 0.73) and in RPE (p = 0.001, ES = 0.76 and p = 0.017, ES = 0.57) in HIIT and MIIT, respectively. In the post-intervention period, blood leptin was strongly associated with %BF (p high-intensity interval training may produce more positive effects on health determinants in comparison with the same training mode at a moderate intensity.

  13. Low-volume high-intensity interval training vs continuous aerobic cycling in patients with chronic heart failure: a pragmatic randomised clinical trial of feasibility and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufaki, Pelagia; Mercer, Thomas H; George, Keith P; Nolan, James

    2014-04-01

    The health benefits of high-intensity interval training in cardiac rehabilitation warrant further research. We compared the effectiveness of low-volume high-intensity interval training vs continuous aerobic exercise training in chronic heart failure. Unblinded, two arm parallel design with random assignment to exercise interventions in out-patient hospital rehabilitation gym. Patients with signs of chronic heart failure and ejection fraction training (n = 9) or high-intensity interval training (n = 8). Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined during cycle ergometry using respiratory gas exchange analysis. Functional capacity was assessed via sit-to-stand and gait speed. Quality of life was assessed using the MOS Short-Form 36 and Minnesota living with heart failure questionnaires. Cardiac autonomic regulation was assessed using Heart Rate Variability. Analysis of Covariance revealed significant time effects but no group × time interactions for exercise and functional capacity outcomes. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) improved by a mean of 14.9% (SD 16.3%) from baseline and by 22% (SD 28.3) at ventilatory threshold in both groups. Sit-to-stand (11.9 (SD 11%)) and gait speed (16.0 (SD 19%)) improved similarly in both groups. No changes in quality of life or heart rate variability were noted. Training adaptations in high-intensity interval training were achieved despite a significantly reduced time commitment and total work volume compared to continuous aerobic exercise training. Low-volume high-intensity interval training is a feasible and well tolerated training modality in cardiac rehabilitation settings, but is not more effective than continuous aerobic exercise training.

  14. Effect of sample stratification on dairy GWAS results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Li

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial insemination and genetic selection are major factors contributing to population stratification in dairy cattle. In this study, we analyzed the effect of sample stratification and the effect of stratification correction on results of a dairy genome-wide association study (GWAS. Three methods for stratification correction were used: the efficient mixed-model association expedited (EMMAX method accounting for correlation among all individuals, a generalized least squares (GLS method based on half-sib intraclass correlation, and a principal component analysis (PCA approach. Results Historical pedigree data revealed that the 1,654 contemporary cows in the GWAS were all related when traced through approximately 10–15 generations of ancestors. Genome and phenotype stratifications had a striking overlap with the half-sib structure. A large elite half-sib family of cows contributed to the detection of favorable alleles that had low frequencies in the general population and high frequencies in the elite cows and contributed to the detection of X chromosome effects. All three methods for stratification correction reduced the number of significant effects. EMMAX method had the most severe reduction in the number of significant effects, and the PCA method using 20 principal components and GLS had similar significance levels. Removal of the elite cows from the analysis without using stratification correction removed many effects that were also removed by the three methods for stratification correction, indicating that stratification correction could have removed some true effects due to the elite cows. SNP effects with good consensus between different methods and effect size distributions from USDA’s Holstein genomic evaluation included the DGAT1-NIBP region of BTA14 for production traits, a SNP 45kb upstream from PIGY on BTA6 and two SNPs in NIBP on BTA14 for protein percentage. However, most of these consensus effects had

  15. Positive Effect of Large Birth Intervals on Early Childhood Hemoglobin Levels in Africa Is Limited to Girls: Cross-Sectional DHS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeworki, Robel; Smits, Jeroen; Tolboom, Jules; van der Ven, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Short birth intervals are independently associated with increased risk of adverse maternal, perinatal, infant and child outcomes. Anemia in children, which is highly prevalent in Africa, is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Birth spacing is advocated as a tool to reduce anemia in preschool African children, but the role of gender differences and contextual factors has been neglected. The present study aims to determine to what extent the length of preceding birth interval influences the hemoglobin levels of African preschool children in general, as well as for boys and girls separately, and which contextual factors thereby play a crucial role. This cross-sectional study uses data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted between 2003 and 2011 in 20 African countries. All preschool children aged 6-59 months with a valid hemoglobin measurement and a preceding birth interval of 7-72 months as well as their corresponding multigravida mothers aged 21-49 years were included in the study. Hemoglobin levels of children and mothers were measured in g/l, while birth intervals were calculated as months difference between consecutive births. Multivariate analyses were done to examine the relationship between length of preceding birth interval and child hemoglobin levels, adjusted for factors at the individual, household, community, district, and country level. A positive linear relationship was observed between birth interval and the 49,260 included children's hemoglobin level, whereby age and sex of the child, hemoglobin level of the mother, household wealth, mother's education and urbanization of place of residence also showed positive associations. In the interaction models, the effect of a month increase in birth interval is associated with an average increase of 0.025 g/l in hemoglobin level (P = 0.001) in girls, while for boys the effect was not significant. In addition, for girls, the effect of length of preceding birth interval was

  16. Positive Effect of Large Birth Intervals on Early Childhood Hemoglobin Levels in Africa Is Limited to Girls: Cross-Sectional DHS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robel Afeworki

    Full Text Available Short birth intervals are independently associated with increased risk of adverse maternal, perinatal, infant and child outcomes. Anemia in children, which is highly prevalent in Africa, is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Birth spacing is advocated as a tool to reduce anemia in preschool African children, but the role of gender differences and contextual factors has been neglected. The present study aims to determine to what extent the length of preceding birth interval influences the hemoglobin levels of African preschool children in general, as well as for boys and girls separately, and which contextual factors thereby play a crucial role.This cross-sectional study uses data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS conducted between 2003 and 2011 in 20 African countries. All preschool children aged 6-59 months with a valid hemoglobin measurement and a preceding birth interval of 7-72 months as well as their corresponding multigravida mothers aged 21-49 years were included in the study. Hemoglobin levels of children and mothers were measured in g/l, while birth intervals were calculated as months difference between consecutive births. Multivariate analyses were done to examine the relationship between length of preceding birth interval and child hemoglobin levels, adjusted for factors at the individual, household, community, district, and country level. A positive linear relationship was observed between birth interval and the 49,260 included children's hemoglobin level, whereby age and sex of the child, hemoglobin level of the mother, household wealth, mother's education and urbanization of place of residence also showed positive associations. In the interaction models, the effect of a month increase in birth interval is associated with an average increase of 0.025 g/l in hemoglobin level (P = 0.001 in girls, while for boys the effect was not significant. In addition, for girls, the effect of length of preceding

  17. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training and Strength Training on Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Hormonal Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenning, Ida; Rieber-Mohn, Astrid; Lundgren, Kari Margrethe; Shetelig Løvvik, Tone; Garnæs, Kirsti Krohn; Moholdt, Trine

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women, and associates with insulin resistance. Exercise is advocated in this disorder, but little knowledge exists on the optimal exercise regimes. We assessed the effects of high intensity interval training and strength training on metabolic, cardiovascular, and hormonal outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Three-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Thirty-one women with polycystic ovary syndrome (age 27.2 ± 5.5 years; body mass index 26.7 ± 6.0 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to high intensity interval training, strength training, or a control group. The exercise groups exercised three times weekly for 10 weeks. The main outcome measure was change in homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). HOMA-IR improved significantly only after high intensity interval training, by -0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.45, -0.20), equal to 17%, with between-group difference (p = 0.014). After high intensity interval training, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 0.2 (95% CI, 0.02, 0.5) mmol/L, with between group difference (p = 0.04). Endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, increased significantly after high intensity interval training, by 2.0 (95% CI, 0.1, 4.0) %, between-group difference (p = 0.08). Fat percentage decreased significantly after both exercise regimes, without changes in body weight. After strength training, anti-Müllarian hormone was significantly reduced, by -14.8 (95% CI, -21.2, -8.4) pmol/L, between-group difference (p = 0.04). There were no significant changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin or leptin in any group. High intensity interval training for ten weeks improved insulin resistance, without weight loss, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Body composition improved significantly after both strength training and high intensity interval training. This pilot study

  18. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training and Strength Training on Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Hormonal Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Almenning

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women, and associates with insulin resistance. Exercise is advocated in this disorder, but little knowledge exists on the optimal exercise regimes. We assessed the effects of high intensity interval training and strength training on metabolic, cardiovascular, and hormonal outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Three-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Thirty-one women with polycystic ovary syndrome (age 27.2 ± 5.5 years; body mass index 26.7 ± 6.0 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to high intensity interval training, strength training, or a control group. The exercise groups exercised three times weekly for 10 weeks.The main outcome measure was change in homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. HOMA-IR improved significantly only after high intensity interval training, by -0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.45, -0.20, equal to 17%, with between-group difference (p = 0.014. After high intensity interval training, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 0.2 (95% CI, 0.02, 0.5 mmol/L, with between group difference (p = 0.04. Endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, increased significantly after high intensity interval training, by 2.0 (95% CI, 0.1, 4.0 %, between-group difference (p = 0.08. Fat percentage decreased significantly after both exercise regimes, without changes in body weight. After strength training, anti-Müllarian hormone was significantly reduced, by -14.8 (95% CI, -21.2, -8.4 pmol/L, between-group difference (p = 0.04. There were no significant changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin or leptin in any group.High intensity interval training for ten weeks improved insulin resistance, without weight loss, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Body composition improved significantly after both strength training and high intensity interval training. This pilot

  19. Avaliação dos níveis de retinol no colostro humano coletado no intervalo de 24 horas Evaluation of retinol levels in human colostrum in two samples collected at an interval of 24 hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla D. S. Ribeiro

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a concentração de retinol no colostro coletado em intervalo de 24 h. MÉTODOS: Coletou-se o colostro de 24 puérperas em dois períodos, tempo zero (T0 e tempo 24 h (T24, e um pool da união de T0 e T24. A gordura foi determinada pelo crematócrito, e o retinol por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. RESULTADOS: Quando expresso por volume de leite (µg/dL, o nível de retinol sofreu variações entre T0, T24 e pool: 94,9±58,9; 129±78,6 e 111,9±60,4 µg/dL, respectivamente. Entretanto, quando expresso pela quantidade de gordura (µg/g, não foi observada diferença significativa. CONCLUSÕES: O retinol quantificado no colostro através de coleta única não deve ser utilizado como indicador do estado nutricional em vitamina A, devido à grande variabilidade no decorrer das coletas. Sugere-se que os resultados sejam expressos por grama de gordura, para minimizar as variações em decorrência do volume de leite.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate retinol concentration in colostrum samples collected with a 24 hour interval. METHODS: Colostrum was collected from 24 recently-delivered mothers at two points in time, 0 hours (T0 and 24 hours later (T24, and a pooled sample of colostrum from T0 and T24 was also analyzed. Fat content was determined by creamatocrit, and retinol assayed by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: When expressed in terms of volume of milk (µg/dL, retinol levels varied across T0, T24 and the pooled sample: 94.9±58.9, 129±78.6 and 111.9±60.4 µg/dL, respectively. However, when expressed with relation to fat content (µg/g, no significant difference was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Retinol assayed in colostrum from a single sample should not be used as an indicator of vitamin A nutritional status, due to the great variation between samples collected at different times. It is suggested that results be expressed per gram of fat, in order to minimize variations resulting from the volume of milk.

  20. Effect of postmortem time interval on in vitro culture potential of goat skin tissues stored at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahipal; Ma, Xiaoling; Sharma, Anil

    2012-09-01

    Animal cloning using somatic cell nuclear transfer technology has renewed the interest in postmortem tissue storage, since these tissues can be used to reintroduce the lost genes back into the breeding pool in animal agriculture, preserve the genetic diversity, and revive the endangered species. However, for successful cloning of animals, integrity of nuclear DNA is essential. Cell viability and their potential to in vitro culture ensure nuclear integrity. The aim of this study was to determine the limits of postmortem time interval within which live cells can be recovered from goat skin tissues. To test the postmortem tissue storage limits, we cultured 2-3 mm(2) skin pieces (n = 70) from the ears of three breeds of goats (n = 7) after 0, 2, 4, and 6 days of postmortem storage at 24°C. After 10 days of culture, outgrowth of fibroblast-like cells (>50 cells) around the explants was scored. All the explants irrespective of breed displayed outgrowth of cells on the dish containing fresh tissues (i.e., day 0 of storage). However, the number of explants exhibiting outgrowth reduced with increasing time interval. Only 53.85 % explants displayed outgrowth after 2 days of tissue storage. The number of explants displaying outgrowth was much smaller after 4 (16.67 %) and 6 days (13.3 %) of storage. In general, the number of outgrowing cells per explant, on a given day, also decreased with increasing postmortem storage time interval. To test the differences between cell cultures, we established secondary cultures from one of the goats exhibiting outgrowth of cells after 6 days of tissue storage and compared them to similar cells from fresh tissues. Comparison of both the cell lines revealed similar cell morphology and growth curves and had doubling times of 23.04 and 22.56 h, respectively. These results suggest that live cells can be recovered from goat (and perhaps other animal) tissues stored at room temperature even after 6 days of their death with comparable growth

  1. Effect of aerobic interval training on serum IL-10, TNFα, and adipokines levels in women with multiple sclerosis: possible relations with fatigue and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarzade, Motahare; Ranjbar, Rouholah; Majdinasab, Nastaran; Patel, Darpan; Molanouri Shamsi, Mehdieh

    2017-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis is associated with immune system dysfunction and chronic inflammation; however, possible relations between immunologic and metabolic factors and some psychological indexes such as fatigue and quality of life, especially in relation to exercise training, have not yet been investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aerobic interval training on interleukin-10/tumor necrosis factor ratio and adipokine (leptin and adiponectin) concentrations in women with multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, the relationship between these factors with fatigue and quality of life were assessed. Forty women with multiple sclerosis (Expanded Disability Status Scale ≤3) were randomized into either a non-exercising control or training group. The training group performed 8-weeks of upper and lower limb aerobic interval training. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factorα, interleukin-10, leptin, and adiponectin were measured before and after the 8-week intervention. Moreover, antropometric measures and measures for fatigue and quality of life were determined at the onset of and after exercise training. The results revealed that leptin and tumor necrosis factorα levels significantly decreased subsequent to the aerobic interval training. Although blood adiponectin levels considerably increased in the training group, interleukin-10 and interleukin-10/tumor necrosis factorα ratio underwent no substantial change after the exercise training. In addition, the aerobic interval training was associated with improvement in fatigue, quality of life, and maximal oxygen consumption. Our findings suggested that aerobic interval training can be an effective strategy for managing the immune system at least by its significant impact on inflammatory cytokines and adipokines levels in women with multiple sclerosis. Additionally, this positive impact improved fatigue and adipose tissue indicators.

  2. The effects of short versus long inter-set rest intervals in resistance training on measures of muscle hypertrophy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgic, Jozo; Lazinica, Bruno; Mikulic, Pavle; Krieger, James W; Schoenfeld, Brad Jon

    2017-09-01

    Although the effects of short versus long inter-set rest intervals in resistance training on measures of muscle hypertrophy have been investigated in several studies, the findings are equivocal and the practical implications remain unclear. In an attempt to provide clarity on the topic, we performed a systematic literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) electronic databases. Six studies were found to have met the inclusion criteria: (a) an experimental trial published in an English-language peer-reviewed journal; (b) the study compared the use of short (≤60 s) to long (>60 s) inter-set rest intervals in a traditional dynamic resistance exercise using both concentric and eccentric muscle actions, with the only difference in resistance training among groups being the inter-set rest interval duration; (c) at least one method of measuring changes in muscle mass was used in the study; (d) the study lasted for a minimum of four weeks, employed a training frequency of ≥2 resistance training days per week, and (e) used human participants without known chronic disease or injury. Current evidence indicates that both short and long inter-set rest intervals may be useful when training for achieving gains in muscle hypertrophy. Novel findings involving trained participants using measures sensitive to detect changes in muscle hypertrophy suggest a possible advantage for the use of long rest intervals to elicit hypertrophic effects. However, due to the paucity of studies with similar designs, further research is needed to provide a clear differentiation between these two approaches.

  3. Effects of Fertilizer Types and Irrigation Intervals of on Quantity Criteria of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia, Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis and Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of fertilizer types and irrigation regimes on quantitative criteria of three medicinal plants: lavander, rosemary and hyssop, an experiment was conducted at Research Field of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during two growing years of 2007-2010. A split-split plot design with three replications was used. Treatments were three irrigation intervals (10, 20, 30 days as main plots and three types of fertilizers in six levels: control, Nitroxin containing Azotobacter sp. and Azospirilum sp. (5lit/ha, nitrogen fertilizer (50 and 100 kg/ha, cow manure (10 and 20 ton/ha as subplots. Animal manure and chemical fertilizer were applied at the time of transferring seedlings to the field and Nitroxin was used with the first irrigation. Shoot harvesting was performed twice during the plant growth at the time of full flowering. Increasing irrigation intervals reduced dry matter yield of three species and the highest yield of lavender (3990 kg/ha, rosemary (2380 kg/ha and hyssop (7380 kg/ha were obtained with 10 days interval. Also the effect of fertilizer was not significant but the highest yield for lavender (3930kg/ha, rosemary (2535kg/ha was obtained with 50 kg/ha chemical fertilizer and the highest yield of hyssop (6117kg/ha resulted in application of 20 ton/ha animal manure. The ratio of leaf dry weight to stem dry weight for both years was gained with 30 days irrigation interval at 20 ton/ha animal manure. In general, the best treatment was 30 days interval irrigation and 20 ton/ha animal manure for the best yield and respective in local conditions

  4. [Effect on nonlinear summation of postsynaptic potentials on the average potential and distribution of interspike intervals of a neuron].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losev, I S

    1980-01-01

    A probability model of the neuron is considered which uses a simple equivalent electric scheme of the synapse suggesting that characteristic time of conductivity change is much less than the time constant of the membrane tau. The model is characterized by the fact that the distribution of potential jumps depends on the accumulated potential u(t). Formula are obtained for the average value and dispersion of the membrane potential. They coincide with the known formula (1) deduced for the contrary case of slow conductivity changes at tau lambda greater than 1 (lambda - frequency of elementary jumps of conductivity). For tau lambda greater than 1 distribution of probability of interimpulse intervals at arbitrary form of distribution function of jumps F (delta u, u) is described.

  5. Long-term effect of smartphone-delivered Interval Walking Training on physical activity in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentiner, Laura Staun; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Karstoft, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    time compared with standard care. We investigate whether Interval Walking Training using the InterWalk application is superior to Danish municipality-based rehabilitation in increasing moderate-and-vigorous physical activity levels in patients with T2D across 52 weeks. Secondary, we hypothesise....... The primary outcome is change in moderate-and-vigorous physical activity. The key secondary outcome includes motivation for physical activity behaviour change. Other secondary outcomes are VO2-peak, strength in the lower extremities. Exclusion criterion is medical contraindication to exercise. We include up...... to 246 patients and randomly allocate them into a control (standard group) or an experimental group (8-12 weeks of IWT supported by the smartphone-based InterWalk application) in a 1:2 fashion. After intervention, the experimental group is randomly allocated into two follow-up conditions...

  6. The acute effects of interval- vs. continuous-walking exercise on glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Christensen, Camilla S; Pedersen, Bente K

    2014-01-01

    . Design: Cross-over, controlled with trials performed in randomized order. Setting: Hospitalized and ambulatory care. Patients: Diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2DM; n=10, no withdrawels). Interventions: Subjects performed three 1-hour interventions: 1) interval-walking (IW; repeated cycles of 3 minutes...... of slow and fast walking); 2) continuous-walking (CW); 3) Control (CON). Oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured continuously to match mean VO2 between exercise sessions (∼75% VO2peak). Main Outcome Measures: A mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT; 450 kcal, 55% carbohydrate) with stable glucose isotopic tracers...... was provided after each intervention and glucose kinetics were measured during the following 4 hours. Free-living glycemic control was assessed for ∼32 hours following the MMTT using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Results: VO2 was well-matched between the exercise interventions. IW decreased mean...

  7. On effects of trawling, benthos and sampling design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John S; Dayton, Paul; Thrush, Simon; Kaiser, Michel J

    2006-08-01

    The evidence for the wider effects of fishing on the marine ecosystem demands that we incorporate these considerations into our management of human activities. The consequences of the direct physical disturbance of the seabed caused by towed bottom-fishing gear have been studied extensively with over 100 manipulations reported in the peer-reviewed literature. The outcome of these studies varies according to the gear used and the habitat in which it was deployed. This variability in the response of different benthic systems concurs with established theoretical models of the response of community metrics to disturbance. Despite this powerful evidence, a recent FAO report wrongly concludes that the variability in the reported responses to fishing disturbance mean that no firm conclusion as to the effects of fishing disturbance can be made. This thesis is further supported (incorrectly) by the supposition that current benthic sampling methodologies are inadequate to demonstrate the effects of fishing disturbance on benthic systems. The present article addresses these two erroneous conclusions which may confuse non-experts and in particular policy-makers.

  8. Effects-Driven Participatory Design: Learning from Sampling Interruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandrup, Morten; Østergaard, Kija Lin; Hertzum, Morten; Karasti, Helena; Simonsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Participatory design (PD) can play an important role in obtaining benefits from healthcare information technologies, but we contend that to fulfil this role PD must incorporate feedback from real use of the technologies. In this paper we describe an effects-driven PD approach that revolves around a sustained focus on pursued effects and uses the experience sampling method (ESM) to collect real-use feedback. To illustrate the use of the method we analyze a case that involves the organizational implementation of electronic whiteboards at a Danish hospital to support the clinicians' intra- and interdepartmental coordination. The hospital aimed to reduce the number of phone calls involved in coordinating work because many phone calls were seen as unnecessary interruptions. To learn about the interruptions we introduced an app for capturing quantitative data and qualitative feedback about the phone calls. The investigation showed that the electronic whiteboards had little potential for reducing the number of phone calls at the operating ward. The combination of quantitative data and qualitative feedback worked both as a basis for aligning assumptions to data and showed ESM as an instrument for triggering in-situ reflection. The participant-driven design and redesign of the way data were captured by means of ESM is a central contribution to the understanding of how to conduct effects-driven PD.

  9. Exploring the effect of drought extent and interval on the Florida snail kite: Interplay between spatial and temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Wolf M.; Bennetts, Robert E.; Kitchens, Wiley M.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    The paper aims at exploring the viability of the Florida snail kite population under various drought regimes in its wetland habitat. The population dynamics of snail kites are strongly linked with the hydrology of the system due to the dependence of this bird species on one exclusive prey species, the apple snail, which is negatively affected by a drying out of habitat. Based on empirical evidence, it has been hypothesised that the viability of the snail kite population critically depends not only on the time interval between droughts, but also on the spatial extent of these droughts. A system wide drought is likely to result in reduced reproduction and increased mortality, whereas the birds can respond to local droughts by moving to sites where conditions are still favourable. This paper explores the implications of this hypothesis by means of a spatially-explicit individual-based model. The specific aim of the model is to study in a factorial design the dynamics of the kite population in relation to two scale parameters, the temporal interval between droughts and the spatial correlation between droughts. In the model high drought frequencies led to reduced numbers of kites. Also, habitat degradation due to prolonged periods of inundation led to lower predicted numbers of kites. Another main result was that when the spatial correlation between droughts was low, the model showed little variability in the predicted numbers of kites. But when droughts occurred mostly on a system wide level, environmental stochasticity strongly increased the stochasticity in kite numbers and in the worst case the viability of the kite population was seriously threatened.

  10. The Effect of Tear Supplementation on Ocular Surface Sensations during the Interblink Interval in Patients with Dry Eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lóránt Dienes

    Full Text Available To investigate the characteristics of ocular surface sensations and corneal sensitivity during the interblink interval before and after tear supplementation in dry eye patients.Twenty subjects (41.88±14.37 years with dry eye symptoms were included in the dry eye group. Fourteen subjects (39.13±11.27 years without any clinical signs and/or symptoms of dry eye were included in the control group. Tear film dynamics was assessed by non-invasive tear film breakup time (NI-BUT in parallel with continuous recordings of ocular sensations during forced blinking. Corneal sensitivity to selective stimulation of corneal mechano-, cold and chemical receptors was assessed using a gas esthesiometer. All the measurements were made before and 5 min after saline and hydroxypropyl-guar (HP-guar drops.In dry eye patients the intensity of irritation increased rapidly after the last blink during forced blinking, while in controls there was no alteration in the intensity during the first 10 sec followed by an exponential increase. Irritation scores were significantly higher in dry eye patients throughout the entire interblink interval compared to controls (p0.05.Ocular surface irritation responses due to tear film drying are considerably increased in dry eye patients compared to normal subjects. Although tear supplementation improves the protective tear film layer, and thus reduce unpleasant sensory responses, the rapid rise in discomfort is still maintained and might be responsible for the remaining complaints of dry eye patients despite the treatment.

  11. The Effect of Tear Supplementation on Ocular Surface Sensations during the Interblink Interval in Patients with Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Lóránt; Kiss, Huba J.; Perényi, Kristóf; Szepessy, Zsuzsanna; Nagy, Zoltán Z.; Barsi, Árpád; Acosta, M. Carmen; Gallar, Juana; Kovács, Illés

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the characteristics of ocular surface sensations and corneal sensitivity during the interblink interval before and after tear supplementation in dry eye patients. Methods Twenty subjects (41.88±14.37 years) with dry eye symptoms were included in the dry eye group. Fourteen subjects (39.13±11.27 years) without any clinical signs and/or symptoms of dry eye were included in the control group. Tear film dynamics was assessed by non-invasive tear film breakup time (NI-BUT) in parallel with continuous recordings of ocular sensations during forced blinking. Corneal sensitivity to selective stimulation of corneal mechano-, cold and chemical receptors was assessed using a gas esthesiometer. All the measurements were made before and 5 min after saline and hydroxypropyl-guar (HP-guar) drops. Results In dry eye patients the intensity of irritation increased rapidly after the last blink during forced blinking, while in controls there was no alteration in the intensity during the first 10 sec followed by an exponential increase. Irritation scores were significantly higher in dry eye patients throughout the entire interblink interval compared to controls (p0.05). Conclusion Ocular surface irritation responses due to tear film drying are considerably increased in dry eye patients compared to normal subjects. Although tear supplementation improves the protective tear film layer, and thus reduce unpleasant sensory responses, the rapid rise in discomfort is still maintained and might be responsible for the remaining complaints of dry eye patients despite the treatment. PMID:26302222

  12. Effect of 12 Weeks of Intensive Interval and Combined Training on Apolipoprotein A and B, Visfatin and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Middle-Aged Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hosseinian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Probabely through improvements in the levels of apolipoproteins (ApoA and ApoB and visfatin, the sport activities helps to reduce the risks of cardio-vascular diseases in the diabetic persons. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of intensive interval and combined trainings on the levels of ApoA and ApoB, visfatin, and insulin resistance in the middle-aged women with Type II diabetes. Materials & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 52 middle-aged female patients with Type II diabetes were studied in Shahr-e-Kord in 2015. The subjects, selected by convenience sampling method, were randomly divided into three groups, incluing simultaneous strength-endurance training, interval intensive training, and control groups. 12-week trainings, composed of three endurance training sessions per week with 60% of maximum heart rate and two resistance training sessions per week with 70% of one maximum repetition, were done in strength-endurance group. Three training sessions per week with 4-10 repetition of 30-second Wingate test on the ergometer were conducted in interval intensive training group with maximum effort. Data was analyzed by SPSS 21 software using dependent T test, covariance analysis, and LSD test. Findings: At the post-test stage and following interval intensive trainings, ApoA reduction (p=0.03 and ApoB/ApoA (p=0.01 were significant. However, no significant difference was observed in combined group. The levels of visfatin and serum insulin and insulin resistance index significantly decreased in both training groups (p<0.01. Conclusion: The interval intensive trainings further affect the levels of blood apolipoprotein, visfatin, and insulin resistance in the middle-aged women with Type II diabetes, than the combined endurance-resistance trainings.

  13. Effect of non-dipper and dipper blood pressure patterns on Tp-Te interval and Tp-Te/QT ratio in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaagac, Kemal; Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Yontar, Osman Can; Kuzeytemiz, Mustafa; Vatansever, Fahriye; Tutuncu, Ahmet; Ozluk, Ozlem Arican; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Demir, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of blood pressure (BP) rhythm on the values of Tp-Te interval and Tp-Te/QT ratio in patients with metabolic syndrome. Seventy patients with newly diagnosed hypertension who fulfilled the metabolic syndrome criteria according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (NCEP/ATP-III) were evaluated with 24-hour blood pressure holter monitoring. According to blood pressure rhythm, 35 patients with dipper blood pressure pattern and 35 patients with non-dipper blood pressure pattern were enrolled as two groups in our study. QT, corrected QT (QTc), Tp-Te interval and Tp-Te/QT ratio were measured from the 12-lead electrocardiogram. These parameters were compared between the groups. The nocturnal systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in non-dipper patients than the dipper group. Baseline characteristics and QT, QTc intervals were similar in both groups. Tp-Te (91±12.24 vs 74±9.96; p Te/QT (0.24±0.027 vs 0.20±0.025; p Te/QTc (0.22±0.023 vs 0.18±0.023; p Te interval, Tp-Te/QT ratio end Tp-Te/QTc ratio were prominently increased in non-dipper hypertensive patients than dippers with metabolic syndrome.

  14. Effects of interval between age at first pregnancy and age at diagnosis on breast cancer survival according to menopausal status: a register-based study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JungSun; Oh, Minkyung

    2014-09-18

    The influence of parity and time interval between age at first pregnancy (AFP) and age at diagnosis on breast cancer survival is not established in the same way as their influence on breast cancer risk. We aimed to investigate the association of time interval or parity with prognosis in pre- and postmenopausal women in Korea. We conducted a retrospective study of 29,167 women with breast cancer through the Korean Breast Cancer Registry from 1993-2009. Information on reproductive factors, including breastfeeding, AFP, and parity were collected from a routine questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between menopausal status and overall mortality (OM) and breast-cancer-specific mortality (BCSM), adjusting for treatment and stage. High parity (≥5) increased the hazard ratios (HR) of BCSM (HR = 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83-2.11, p breast cancer diagnosis and AFP reduced the HRs of BCSM (HR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.96-0.98, p = 0.001) and OM (HR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97-0.98, p breast cancer prognosis in both pre- and postmenopausal women. The time intervals between reproductive events had different effects on breast cancer outcomes depending on menopausal status.

  15. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age-specific refe......Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-specific reference intervals for coagulation tests during normal pregnancy. Eight hundred one women with expected normal pregnancies were included in the study. Of these women, 391 had no complications during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, or postpartum period. Plasma samples were obtained at gestational weeks 13......-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S...

  16. Effective sampling strategy to detect food and feed contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouzembrak, Yamine; Fels, van der Ine

    2017-01-01

    Sampling plans for food safety hazards are aimed to be used to determine whether a lot of food is contaminated (with microbiological or chemical hazards) or not. One of the components of sampling plans is the sampling strategy. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three

  17. Effective sampling strategy to detect food and feed contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouzembrak, Yamine; Fels, van der Ine

    2018-01-01

    Sampling plans for food safety hazards are aimed to be used to determine whether a lot of food is contaminated (with microbiological or chemical hazards) or not. One of the components of sampling plans is the sampling strategy. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three

  18. Effects of Blood Sample Collection Pre- and Post- Slaughter, Edta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were immediately subjected to Wet mount (WM), Haemotocrit centrifugation test (HCT) and Thin smear (TS) tests. The results revealed that, of the 100 samples examined, 19 (19%) were positive for the presence of Microfilaria spp while 6(6%) yielded Trypanosome spp. Of the 19 samples detected having ...

  19. Effects of a Single Bout of Interval Hypoxia on Cardiorespiratory Control in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duennwald, Tobias; Bernardi, Luciano; Gordin, Daniel; Sandelin, Anna; Syreeni, Anna; Fogarty, Christopher; Kytö, Janne P.; Gatterer, Hannes; Lehto, Markku; Hörkkö, Sohvi; Forsblom, Carol; Burtscher, Martin; Groop, Per-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxemia is common in diabetes, and reflex responses to hypoxia are blunted. These abnormalities could lead to cardiovascular/renal complications. Interval hypoxia (IH) (5–6 short periods of hypoxia each day over 1–3 weeks) was successfully used to improve the adaptation to hypoxia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We tested whether IH over 1 day could initiate a long-lasting response potentially leading to better adaptation to hypoxia. In 15 patients with type 1 diabetes, we measured hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses (HCVRs), ventilatory recruitment threshold (VRT-CO2), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), blood pressure, and blood lactate before and after 0, 3, and 6 h of a 1-h single bout of IH. All measurements were repeated on a placebo day (single-blind protocol, randomized sequence). After IH (immediately and after 3 h), hypoxic and HCVR increased, whereas the VRT-CO2 dropped. No such changes were observed on the placebo day. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased, whereas blood lactate decreased after IH. Despite exposure to hypoxia, BRS remained unchanged. Repeated exposures to hypoxia over 1 day induced an initial adaptation to hypoxia, with improvement in respiratory reflexes. Prolonging the exposure to IH (>2 weeks) in type 1 diabetic patients will be a matter for further studies. PMID:23733200

  20. Effects of a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Treadmill Training on Corticomotor Excitability following Stroke: Implications for Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Madhavan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. High intensity interval treadmill training (HIITT has been gaining popularity for gait rehabilitation after stroke. In this study, we examined the changes in excitability of the lower limb motor cortical representation (M1 in chronic stroke survivors following a single session of HIITT. We also determined whether exercise-induced changes in excitability could be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS enhanced with a paretic ankle skill acquisition task. Methods. Eleven individuals with chronic stroke participated in two 40-minute treadmill-training sessions: HIITT alone and HITT preceded by anodal tDCS enhanced with a skill acquisition task (e-tDCS+HIITT. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS was used to assess corticomotor excitability of paretic and nonparetic tibialis anterior (TA muscles. Results. HIIT alone reduced paretic TA M1 excitability in 7 of 11 participants by ≥ 10%. e-tDCS+HIITT increased paretic TA M1 excitability and decreased nonparetic TA M1 excitability. Conclusions. HIITT suppresses corticomotor excitability in some people with chronic stroke. When HIITT is preceded by tDCS in combination with a skill acquisition task, the asymmetry of between-hemisphere corticomotor excitability is reduced. Significance. This study provides preliminary data indicating that the cardiovascular benefits of HIITT may be achieved without suppressing motor excitability in some stroke survivors.

  1. Effects of sample storage time, temperature and syringe type on blood gas tensions in samples with high oxygen partial pressures.

    OpenAIRE

    Pretto, J. J.; Rochford, P D

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Although plastic arterial sampling syringes are now commonly used, the effects of sample storage time and temperature on blood gas tensions are poorly described for samples with a high oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) taken with these high density polypropylene syringes. METHODS--Two ml samples of tonometered whole blood (PaO2 86.7 kPa, PaCO2 4.27 kPa) were placed in glass syringes and in three brands of plastic blood gas syringes. The syringes were placed either at room temperature...

  2. Serial position, output order, and list length effects for words presented on smartphones over very long intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortis Mack, Cathleen; Cinel, Caterina; Davies, Nigel; Harding, Michael; Ward, Geoff

    2017-12-01

    Three experiments examined whether or not benchmark findings observed in the immediate retrieval from episodic memory are similarly observed over much greater time-scales. Participants were presented with experimentally-controlled lists of words at the very slow rate of one word every hour using an iPhone recall application, RECAPP, which was also used to recall the words in either any order (free recall: Experiments 1 to 3) or the same order as presented (serial recall: Experiment 3). We found strong temporal contiguity effects, weak serial position effects with very limited recency, and clear list length effects in free recall; clear primacy effects and classic error gradients in serial recall; and recency effects in a final two-alternative forced choice recognition task (Experiments 2 and 3). Our findings extend the timescales over which temporal contiguity effects have been observed, but failed to find consistent evidence for strong long-term recency effects with experimenter-controlled stimuli.

  3. The effect of eight week interval acute training on plasma visfatin, TNF-α and IL-6 in rats: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Daryanoosh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adipokines are peptides secreted by adipose tissue that affect whole-body energy metabolism. Exercise training exerts beneficial effects on adipose tissue. However, less is known regarding visfatin’s, IL-6 & TNF-α response to an interval acute training. Therefore, we investigated the effects of acute interval exercise on plasma visfatin, TNF-α and IL-6 levels, in healthy female rats. Furthermore, correlate between changes probably these factors were also assessed.Methods: This study was conducted experimentally. Forty five female sprague dawley rat were randomly divided into three groups: pre test (n= 15, treadmill exercise (n= 15 and sedentary controls (n= 15. The acute alternative exercise consisted of treadmill running: 3 session/ week for 8 week. The changes of plasma IL-6, TNF-α and Visfatin levels were measured by ELISA analysis. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with measures (ANOVA and post hoc Tukey test.Results: Acute interval treadmill exercise led to significant decreases in visfatin (P= 0/036, IL-6 (P= 0/009 and TNF-α (P= 0/022 plasma levels between the groups. Also, this study no significant correlations between the changes in adipokines were observed.Conclusion: Decreased levels of TNF-α and IL-6 correlated with intensity and duration exercise. Furthermore, probably there were some factors except weight decreasing that affects on visfatin decrease. Therefore, the reduction of this factor may cause in preventing metabolic disease.

  4. A pilot study examining the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Kellie; Pumpa, Kate L; Arnolda, Leonard; Cooke, Julie; Yip, Desmond; Craft, Paul S; Semple, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in cancer survivors. Cancer survivors within 24 months post-diagnosis were randomly assigned into the low-volume high-intensity interval training group (n = 8) or the continuous low to moderate intensity training group (n = 8) group for 36 sessions (12 weeks) of supervised exercise. The low-volume high-intensity interval training (LVHIIT) group performed 7 × 30 s intervals (≥85% maximal heart rate) and the continuous low to moderate intensity training (CLMIT) group performed continuous aerobic training for 20 min (≤55% maximal heart rate) on a stationary bike or treadmill. Significant improvements (time) were observed for 13 of the 23 dependent variables (ES 0.05-0.61, p ≤ 0.05). An interaction effect was observed for six minute walk test (18.53% [32.43-4.63] ES 0.50, p ≤ 0.01) with the LVHIIT group demonstrating greater improvements. These preliminary findings suggest that both interventions can induce improvements in quality of life, functional capacity and selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. The LVHIIT program was well tolerated by the participants and our results suggest that LVHIIT is the preferred modality to improve fitness (6MWT); it remains to be seen which intervention elicits the most clinically relevant outcomes for patients. A larger sample size with a control group is required to confirm the significance of these findings.

  5. The effect on glycaemic control of low-volume high-intensity interval training versus endurance training in individuals with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Kamilla M; Munch, Gregers W; Iepsen, Ulrik W

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with a lower time commitment can be as effective as endurance training (END) on glycaemic control, physical fitness and body composition in individuals with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 29 individuals with type 2...... diabetes were allocated to control (CON; no training), END or HIIT groups. Training groups received 3 training sessions per week consisting of either 40 minutes of cycling at 50% of peak workload (END) or 10 1-minute intervals at 95% of peak workload interspersed with 1 minute of active recovery (HIIT...... in the HIIT group (20% ± 20%) compared with the END group (8% ± 9%) despite lower total energy expenditure and time usage during the training sessions. HIIT decreased whole body and android fat mass compared with the CON group. In addition, visceral fat mass, HbA1c, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose...

  6. Effect of periodized high intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition and attitudes towards hunger in active men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Heath, Brendyn; Bandong, Jason; Ordille, Gina M; Contreras, Ramon; Montell, Matthew; Schubert, Matthew M

    2017-06-21

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake similar to aerobic exercise. However, changes in body composition are equivocal in response to HIIT. We examined changes in body composition and dietary restraint in response to 20 sessions of HIIT varying in structure. Thirty nine active men and women (age and VO2max = 22.5 ± 4.4 yr and 40.1 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min) were randomized to one of three periodized HIIT regimes performed on a cycle ergometer. Before and after training, body composition was assessed using skinfolds (SKF), circumference measures, and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) following standardized procedures. Hunger, restraint, and disinhibition were also measured using the 3-Factor Eating Questionnaire and Power of Food Survey. Control participants (n = 32, age and VO2max = 25.6 ± 4.4 yr and 40.6 ± 4.9 mL/kg/min) matched for age and fitness level underwent all testing but did not complete HIIT. There was no change (p > 0.05) in body mass, circumferences, or BIA-derived body fat in response to HIIT. However, SKF-derived body fat declined (p = 0.04) with HIIT, and genderXtime (p = 0.03) and genderXtimeXregimen interactions (p = 0.04) were shown in that women but not men exhibited significant reductions in body fat. Hunger was reduced from baseline to post-training (p = 0.028), but this response was not different in response to HIIT compared to controls. Twenty sessions of low-volume HIIT reduce body fat in women but not men, but do not alter perceptions of hunger.

  7. Effect of Risk Aversion on Single Sample Attribute Inspection Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert Moskowitz; Robert Plante

    1984-01-01

    The impact of a decision maker's risk aversion on the choice of an optimal sampling plan is empirically examined for various batch sizes and prior distributions of the process quality level. These plans are compared to those of the classical linear cost model. The comparisons show that substantial differences in the characteristics of an optimal sampling plan (i.e., probability of acceptance, optimal sample size and expected total cost) occur when risk aversion is considered. A discussion of ...

  8. Guide for Calculating and Interpreting Effect Sizes and Confidence Intervals in Intellectual and Developmental Disability Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper includes a nontechnical description of methods for calculating effect sizes in intellectual and developmental disability studies. Different hypothetical studies are used to illustrate how null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) and effect size findings can result in quite different outcomes and therefore conflicting results. Whereas…

  9. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    -specific reference intervals for coagulation tests during normal pregnancy. Eight hundred one women with expected normal pregnancies were included in the study. Of these women, 391 had no complications during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, or postpartum period. Plasma samples were obtained at gestational weeks 13...... protein S was stable. Gestational age-specific reference values are essential for the accurate interpretation of a subset of haemostatic tests during pregnancy, delivery, and puerperium.......Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age...

  10. Effects of GPS sampling intensity on home range analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey J. Kolodzinski; Lawrence V. Tannenbaum; David A. Osborn; Mark C. Conner; W. Mark Ford; Karl V. Miller

    2010-01-01

    The two most common methods for determining home ranges, minimum convex polygon (MCP) and kernel analyses, can be affected by sampling intensity. Despite prior research, it remains unclear how high-intensity sampling regimes affect home range estimations. We used datasets from 14 GPS-collared, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to describe...

  11. The effect of glucose dose and fasting interval on cognitive function: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, six-way crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Lauren; Scholey, Andrew B; Finnegan, Yvonne; Hu, Henglong; Sünram-Lea, Sandra I

    2012-04-01

    Previous research has identified a number of factors that appear to moderate the behavioural response to glucose administration. These include physiological state, dose, types of cognitive tasks used and level of cognitive demand. Another potential moderating factor is the length of the fasting interval prior to a glucose load. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effect of glucose dose and fasting interval on mood and cognitive function. The current study utilised a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced, six period crossover design to examine potential interactions between length of fasting interval (2 versus 12 hours) and optimal dose for cognition enhancement. Results demonstrated that the higher dose (60 g) increased working memory performance following an overnight fast, whereas the lower dose (25 g) enhanced working memory performance following a 2-h fast. The data suggest that optimal glucose dosage may differ under different conditions of depleted blood glucose resources. In addition, glucoregulation was observed to be a moderating factor. However, further research is needed to develop a model of the moderating and mediating factors under which glucose facilitation is best achieved.

  12. Effects of high-intensity interval versus continuous exercise training on post-exercise heart rate recovery in coronary heart-disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villelabeitia-Jaureguizar, Koldobika; Vicente-Campos, Davinia; Senen, Alejandro Berenguel; Jiménez, Verónica Hernández; Garrido-Lestache, María Elvira Barrios; Chicharro, Jose López

    2017-10-01

    Heart rate recovery (HRR) has been considered a prognostic and mortality indicator in both healthy and coronary patients. Physical exercise prescription has shown improvements in VO2peak and HRR, but most of the studies have been carried out applying continuous training at a moderate intensity, being very limited the use of protocols of high intensity interval training in coronary patients. We aimed to compare the effects of a moderate continuous training (MCT) versus a high intensity interval training (HIIT) programme on VO2peak and HRR. Seventy three coronary patients were assigned to either HIIT or MCT groups for 8weeks. Incremental exercise tests in a cycloergometer were performed to obtain VO2peak data and heart rate was monitored during and after the exercise test to obtain heart rate recovery data. Both exercise programmes significantly increase VO2peak with a higher increase in the HIIT group (HIIT: 4.5±4.46ml/kg/min vs MCT: 2.46±3.57ml/kg/min; p=0.039). High intensity interval training resulted in a significantly increase in HRR at the first and second minute of the recovery phase (15,44±7,04 vs 21,22±6,62, ptraining. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Absence of QTc-interval-prolonging or hemodynamic effects of a single dose of bitter-orange extract in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Bokyung; Cios, Deborah; Kluger, Jeffrey; White, C Michael

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the hemodynamic and electrocardiographic effects of a single dose of commercially available bitter-orange dried-fruit extract, which is increasingly being used in dietary supplements. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. University of Connecticut, Storrs Campus. Eighteen healthy volunteers aged 18 years or older. Subjects were given either placebo or bitter-orange dried-fruit extract (450 mg standardized to 27 mg of m- or p-synephrine) in phase 1. The opposite treatment was given during phase 2 after a washout period of at least 7 days. The rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval and blood pressure were measured before dosing and at 1, 3, 5, and 8 hours after dosing. Mean+/-SD values of the maximum postdose values were compared between groups. Subjects receiving bitter-orange extract versus those receiving placebo had similar postdose QTc intervals (402+/-29 vs 403+/-24 msec, p=0.653), systolic blood pressure (114+/-10 vs 115+/-8 mm Hg, p=0.686) and diastolic blood pressure (68+/-9 vs 68+/-8, p=0.879). Bitter-orange dried-fruit extract standardized to m- or p-synephrine 27 mg did not significantly alter the QTc interval or blood pressure after a single dose was administered. Future studies are necessary to ensure the safety of this herbal product with multiple doses.

  14. The Effect of a 12-Week Moderate Intensity Interval Training Program on the Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile in Men Smoking Cigarettes or Hookah: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdessalem Koubaa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To examine the impact of interval training program on the antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in men smoking cigarettes or hookah unable or unwilling to quit smoking. Methods. Thirty-five participants performed an interval training (2 : 1 work : rest ratio 3 times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity of 70% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to a biochemical test session before and after the training program. Results. The increase of total antioxidant status (TAS, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and α-tocopherol, is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS and hookah smokers (HS groups. The decrease of malondialdehyde (MDA and the increase of glutathione reductase (GR are more pronounced in smokers groups compared to those of nonsmokers (NS. Superoxide dismutase (SOD increases in NS, CS, and HS groups by 10.1%, 19.5%, and 13.3%, respectively (P<0.001. Likewise, a significant improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio was observed in CS and HS groups (P<0.05. Conclusion. Although the interval training program does not have a significant effect on blood lipid levels, it seems to be very beneficial in the defense and prevention programs of oxidative stress.

  15. Effect of time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy on local recurrence-free survival in preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Joo; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Tae Won; Jang, Se Jin; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Jin Cheon [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Sik [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The concentration of capecitabine peaks at 1–2 hours after administration. We therefore assumed that proper timing of capecitabine administration and radiotherapy would maximize radiosensitization and influence survival among patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 223 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent preoperative chemoradiation, followed by surgery from January 2002 to May 2006. All patients underwent pelvic radiotherapy (50 Gy/25 fractions) and received capecitabine twice daily at 12-hour intervals (1,650 mg/m2/day). Patients were divided into two groups according to the time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy. Patients who took capecitabine 1 hour before radiotherapy were classified as Group A (n = 109); all others were classified as Group B (n = 114). The median follow-up period was 72 months (range, 7 to 149 months). Although Group A had a significantly higher rate of good responses (44% vs. 25%; p = 0.005), the 5-year local recurrence-free survival rates of 93% in Group A and 97% in Group B did not differ significantly (p = 0.519). The 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were also comparable between the groups. Despite the better pathological response in Group A, the time interval between capecitabine and radiotherapy administration did not have a significant effect on survivals. Further evaluations are needed to clarify the interaction of these treatment modalities.

  16. Generalized SAMPLE SIZE Determination Formulas for Investigating Contextual Effects by a Three-Level Random Intercept Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    Behavioral and psychological researchers have shown strong interests in investigating contextual effects (i.e., the influences of combinations of individual- and group-level predictors on individual-level outcomes). The present research provides generalized formulas for determining the sample size needed in investigating contextual effects according to the desired level of statistical power as well as width of confidence interval. These formulas are derived within a three-level random intercept model that includes one predictor/contextual variable at each level to simultaneously cover various kinds of contextual effects that researchers can show interest. The relative influences of indices included in the formulas on the standard errors of contextual effects estimates are investigated with the aim of further simplifying sample size determination procedures. In addition, simulation studies are performed to investigate finite sample behavior of calculated statistical power, showing that estimated sample sizes based on derived formulas can be both positively and negatively biased due to complex effects of unreliability of contextual variables, multicollinearity, and violation of assumption regarding the known variances. Thus, it is advisable to compare estimated sample sizes under various specifications of indices and to evaluate its potential bias, as illustrated in the example.

  17. The Effects of Lavender Scent on Pain of Blood Sampling in Term Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Razaghi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction  After birth, many infants were in hospital undergo repeated invasive procedures and because there is increasing evidence of short-term and long-term adverse neurodevelopment consequences, pain management in neonates is very important. Methods and Materials This was a quasi experimental study of clinical trial type that carried out on 80 term neonate that were allocated to two intervention (40 neonates and control (40 neonates groups. In experimental group, infants at night for 8 hours before blood sampling were exposed to the scent of lavender. And the next day, at the time of blood sampling was used of the scent of lavender. Simultaneously with the needle, pain assessment scale scores Douleur Aigue Nouveau-ne (DAN or neonatal pain discomfort by a trained person, was calculated and recorded. Duration of crying in seconds from start cry to silence that lasted at least 5 seconds interval was measured. The control group did not receive additional action for pain relief. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 16 software. Results Average rating of DAN score was in control group 5.97 ± 1.94 and in experimental group 4.47+1.81. Mann–Whitney test results showed a significant difference in pain scores in the two groups (P=0.001. The crying time between groups was not significant difference (P = 0.12. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the scent of lavender is effective in reducing the pain caused by sampling in term neonates but had no effect on the duration of crying infants. Since neonatal pain management is an important task for nurse, using of the scent of lavender as a non pharmacological method of pain management in neonates requires further investigation.

  18. Associations of clinical characteristics and interval between maintenance visits with peri-implant pathology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. de Araújo Nobre, Miguel; S. Maló, Paulo; H. Oliveira, Sílvia

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of clinical characteristics and the interval between maintenance visits on incidence of peri-implant pathology in a sample of 1,350 patients treated with dental implants...

  19. Sample-Size Planning for More Accurate Statistical Power: A Method Adjusting Sample Effect Sizes for Publication Bias and Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samantha F; Kelley, Ken; Maxwell, Scott E

    2017-11-01

    The sample size necessary to obtain a desired level of statistical power depends in part on the population value of the effect size, which is, by definition, unknown. A common approach to sample-size planning uses the sample effect size from a prior study as an estimate of the population value of the effect to be detected in the future study. Although this strategy is intuitively appealing, effect-size estimates, taken at face value, are typically not accurate estimates of the population effect size because of publication bias and uncertainty. We show that the use of this approach often results in underpowered studies, sometimes to an alarming degree. We present an alternative approach that adjusts sample effect sizes for bias and uncertainty, and we demonstrate its effectiveness for several experimental designs. Furthermore, we discuss an open-source R package, BUCSS, and user-friendly Web applications that we have made available to researchers so that they can easily implement our suggested methods.

  20. Effect of polyethylene and organic mulches in different intervals of irrigation on morphological characteristics and grain yield of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mahdipour Afra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of polyethylene and organic mulches in different Irrigation intervals on morphological characteristics and seed grain of sunflower (Helianthus annus L. hybrid Azrgol, an experiment was conducted in split-plot design based on randomized complete blocks with three replications at research farm of college of Aboureihan, University of Tehran during year of 2009. Main factor was three irrigation interval including of 7, 12 and 17 days and sub-factors were treatments without mulch as control and different types of mulch (polyethylene, cow manure including of 8.5 t.ha-1,17 t.ha-1, 25 t.ha-1, wheat stubble mulch in three levels of 2.5, 5.5 and 7.5 t.ha-1. Plant height, head diameter, seed number in each head, 1000-seed weight, seed yield, oil yield, harvest index were investigated. The results indicated that the effect of irrigation period and the effect of mulches for all measured traits were significant. Highest seed yield with average of 2.965 t.ha-1 was obtained from 7 days irrigation and also polyethylene mulch and stubble mulch level three in different irrigation periods, had the highest yield. The overall results showed that, using mulches by reducing irrigation water use can increases the quality and quantity seed yield. Regarding the results of the study and non-toxic effects of stubble mulches in agriculture, we suggest their usage.

  1. An Optimization-Based Approach to Calculate Confidence Interval on Mean Value with Interval Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kais Zaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a methodology for construction of confidence interval on mean values with interval data for input variable in uncertainty analysis and design optimization problems. The construction of confidence interval with interval data is known as a combinatorial optimization problem. Finding confidence bounds on the mean with interval data has been generally considered an NP hard problem, because it includes a search among the combinations of multiple values of the variables, including interval endpoints. In this paper, we present efficient algorithms based on continuous optimization to find the confidence interval on mean values with interval data. With numerical experimentation, we show that the proposed confidence bound algorithms are scalable in polynomial time with respect to increasing number of intervals. Several sets of interval data with different numbers of intervals and type of overlap are presented to demonstrate the proposed methods. As against the current practice for the design optimization with interval data that typically implements the constraints on interval variables through the computation of bounds on mean values from the sampled data, the proposed approach of construction of confidence interval enables more complete implementation of design optimization under interval uncertainty.

  2. Measures to reduce glyphosate runoff from hard surfaces, 2: effect of time interval between application and first precipitation event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijendijk, C.D.; Beltman, W.H.J.; Smidt, R.A.; Pas, van der L.J.T.; Kempenaar, C.

    2005-01-01

    In this research the effect of moisture conditions of hard surfaces on emission of herbicides from hard surfaces was quantified. In addition the dissipation of glyphosate applied on brick-pavement is determined in time. The outdoor experiment was carried out on 3 and 17 June 2003. In previous

  3. Hotspot and sampling analysis for effective maintenance and performance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    In this project, we propose two sampling methods addressing how much and where the agencies need to collect infrastraucture condition data for accurate Level-of-Maintenance (LOM) estimation in maintenance network with single type or multiple ty...

  4. Antidot effects on micromagnetic behavior of Py ferromagnetic samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetis, Hakan; Denizli, Haluk

    2016-09-01

    The coercivity and magnetic hysteresis behavior of permalloy (Py) samples have been studied in the presence of square arrays of the circular antidots. The open source OOMMF micromagnetic software is used to numerically solve the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. In calculations, Py samples are designed in such a way that they include a different number of antidot in an array which possess the same total surface area. In this way, the total Py region stayed unchanged despite the growing number of antidots in a fixed sample size. We found significant increase in the coercive field for the sample with the smallest antidot spacing. The results are discussed within the framework of superdomain (SD) and superdomain wall (SDW) formation.

  5. Effects of post-sampling analysis time, type of blood samples and collection tubes on values of blood gas testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajić, Jasmina; Kadić, Damira; Hasić, Sabaheta; Serdarević, Nafija

    2015-08-01

    To investigate effects of post-sampling analysis time, a type of blood samples and collection tubes on blood gas testing. This study included 100 patients at the Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases, Clinical Centre Sarajevo. The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and carbon dioxide (pCO2), and the oxygen saturation level of hemoglobin (sO2) were analyzed in the arterial blood samples (ABS) and capillary blood samples (CBS) by a potentiometric method using a blood gas analyzer ABL 555 (Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark). Paired measurements of ABS were performed within 15 minutes and after 60 minutes from sampling and compared. The results of CBS obtained within 15 minutes were compared with matching ABS results, as well as the results obtained from CBS within 15 minutes taken into glass and plastic tubes. pO2 and sO2 values were significantly lower after 60 minutes compared to those within 15 minutes in ABS (9.20±1.89 vs. 9.51±1.95 and 91.25±5.03 vs. 92.40±4.5; pblood values were not influenced significantly (p>0.05). The length of post-sampling analysis time, a type of blood samples and collection tubes have significant impact on blood oxygen parameters. Analysis within 15 minutes after blood sampling is considered as appropriate. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  6. Strategy difficulty effects in young and older adults' episodic memory are modulated by inter-stimulus intervals and executive control processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Lucile; Uittenhove, Kim; Lemaire, Patrick; Taconnat, Laurence

    2017-04-01

    Efficient execution of strategies is crucial to memory performance and to age-related differences in this performance. Relative strategy complexity influences memory performance and aging effects on memory. Here, we aimed to further our understanding of the effects of relative strategy complexity by looking at the role of cognitive control functions and the time-course of the effects of relative strategy complexity. Thus, we manipulated inter-stimulus intervals (ISI) and assessed executive functions. Results showed that (a) performance as a function of the relative strategy difficulty of the current and previous trial was modulated by ISI, (b) these effects were modulated by inhibition capacities, and (c) significant age differences were found in the way ISI modulates relative strategy difficulty. These findings have important implications for understanding the relationships between aging, executive control, and strategy execution in episodic memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Antiemetics and cardiac effects potentially linked to prolongation of the QT interval: Case/non-case analysis in the national pharmacovigilance database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochoy, M; Auffret, M; Béné, J; Gautier, S

    2017-02-01

    Observational retrospective studies have linked domperidone and prolonged QT interval, ventricular arrhythmias and risk of sudden death. Since then, antiemetic prescription was applied to other molecules (including metopimazine). The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile of adverse cardiac effects associated with QT prolongation for each antiemetic available in France. We conducted disproportionality analyses (case/non-case method), based on the observations recorded consecutively in the French national pharmacovigilance database between 2004 and 2013. Cases were defined by following MedDRA terms: prolongation of the QT interval, syncope, sudden death, cardiac arrest, ventricular arrhythmias including torsades de pointes; non-cases were other adverse events reported during the same period. We analyzed the presence of each antiemetic among cases and non-cases and measured the disproportionality by reporting odds ratios (ROR). We validate the assay with a positive control (methadone) and a negative control (acetaminophen). We compared 2093 cases (94 with antiemetics) to 253,665 non-cases (7015 with antiemetics). Among antiemetics, adverse cardiac effects studied were more frequently found with notifications including domperidone (ROR=2.0, 95% CI=[1.3; 3.0]), ondansetron (ROR=1.8, 95% CI=[1.3; 2.6]) and granisetron (ROR=3.4, 95% CI=[1.5; 7.6]). Metopimazine was not statistically associated with that risk (ROR=2.0; 95% CI=[0.8; 4.8]). We confirmed a risk of cardiac adverse event related to prolongation of the QT interval with domperidone and setrons. These results suggest caution when prescribing antiemetics and encourage systematic reporting of adverse cardiac effects observed with these molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Seismicity and Deformation of Krafla Volcano, Iceland. Intervals of Low Seismicity Rate during Rapid Inflation Explained By the Kaiser Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimisson, E. R.; Einarsson, P.; Sigmundsson, F.; Brandsdottir, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Krafla central volcano in NE-Iceland produced about 20 dike intrusions during a rifting episode 1975-1984. These intrusions were always preceded by inflation of the caldera. Once a dike started propagating rapid deflation was observed. The first deflation event began in December 1975 with a dike traveling laterally from the magma chamber. Leveling measurements revealed subsidence of 2 m close to the deflation center. In February 1976 a stage of inflation began and at the same time the seismicity rate in the caldera rose in good correlation with the inflation. A small intrusion started propagating in late September 1976 which was accompanied by maximum subsidence of about 14 cm. However in the next 3 inflation and deflation cycles the inflation periods were almost aseismic until the inflation level of previous cycle was exceeded. At that point a sharp increase in the caldera earthquake count was observed. This phenomenon was observed until late April 1977 when a fissure eruption occurred inside the caldera. By inverting leveling data from 87 stations for a Mogi source and regarding the volume change of the source as a measure of stress we suggest that this phenomenon can be explained by the Kaiser effect. The Kaiser effect is well known from rock mechanics where under cyclic loading and unloading rocks, and other materials, induce dramatic increase in acoustic emissions when the load exceeds that of previous cycles. Krafla demonstrated the same effect while the external stress field was not significantly changed during the aforementioned 3 inflation/deflation cycles. This condition was disturbed when eruption occurred inside the caldera. The state of stress in the vicinity of the magma chamber was changed and subsequent inflation periods were not accompanied by significant seismicity. These results indicate that the Kaiser effect is an important part of understanding the relationship between deformation and seismicity in active volcanoes. The importance of

  9. Detecting spatial structures in throughfall data: The effect of extent, sample size, sampling design, and variogram estimation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Beate; Zimmermann, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    In the last decades, an increasing number of studies analyzed spatial patterns in throughfall by means of variograms. The estimation of the variogram from sample data requires an appropriate sampling scheme: most importantly, a large sample and a layout of sampling locations that often has to serve both variogram estimation and geostatistical prediction. While some recommendations on these aspects exist, they focus on Gaussian data and high ratios of the variogram range to the extent of the study area. However, many hydrological data, and throughfall data in particular, do not follow a Gaussian distribution. In this study, we examined the effect of extent, sample size, sampling design, and calculation method on variogram estimation of throughfall data. For our investigation, we first generated non-Gaussian random fields based on throughfall data with large outliers. Subsequently, we sampled the fields with three extents (plots with edge lengths of 25 m, 50 m, and 100 m), four common sampling designs (two grid-based layouts, transect and random sampling) and five sample sizes (50, 100, 150, 200, 400). We then estimated the variogram parameters by method-of-moments (non-robust and robust estimators) and residual maximum likelihood. Our key findings are threefold. First, the choice of the extent has a substantial influence on the estimation of the variogram. A comparatively small ratio of the extent to the correlation length is beneficial for variogram estimation. Second, a combination of a minimum sample size of 150, a design that ensures the sampling of small distances and variogram estimation by residual maximum likelihood offers a good compromise between accuracy and efficiency. Third, studies relying on method-of-moments based variogram estimation may have to employ at least 200 sampling points for reliable variogram estimates. These suggested sample sizes exceed the number recommended by studies dealing with Gaussian data by up to 100 %. Given that most previous

  10. The effects of sample scheduling and sample numbers on estimates of the annual fluxes of suspended sediment in fluvial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Clarke, Robin T.; Merten, Gustavo Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1970s, there has been both continuing and growing interest in developing accurate estimates of the annual fluvial transport (fluxes and loads) of suspended sediment and sediment-associated chemical constituents. This study provides an evaluation of the effects of manual sample numbers (from 4 to 12 year−1) and sample scheduling (random-based, calendar-based and hydrology-based) on the precision, bias and accuracy of annual suspended sediment flux estimates. The evaluation is based on data from selected US Geological Survey daily suspended sediment stations in the USA and covers basins ranging in area from just over 900 km2 to nearly 2 million km2 and annual suspended sediment fluxes ranging from about 4 Kt year−1 to about 200 Mt year−1. The results appear to indicate that there is a scale effect for random-based and calendar-based sampling schemes, with larger sample numbers required as basin size decreases. All the sampling schemes evaluated display some level of positive (overestimates) or negative (underestimates) bias. The study further indicates that hydrology-based sampling schemes are likely to generate the most accurate annual suspended sediment flux estimates with the fewest number of samples, regardless of basin size. This type of scheme seems most appropriate when the determination of suspended sediment concentrations, sediment-associated chemical concentrations, annual suspended sediment and annual suspended sediment-associated chemical fluxes only represent a few of the parameters of interest in multidisciplinary, multiparameter monitoring programmes. The results are just as applicable to the calibration of autosamplers/suspended sediment surrogates currently used to measure/estimate suspended sediment concentrations and ultimately, annual suspended sediment fluxes, because manual samples are required to adjust the sample data/measurements generated by these techniques so that they provide depth-integrated and cross

  11. The Effect of 12 Weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT on Homocysteine and CRP Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Body Composition in Overweight Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahim Bahram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: High levels of homocysteine inflammatory markers and C-Reactive Protein (CRP cause many complications, including atherosclerosis, venous thrombosis, and cardiovascular problems. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of 12-weekHigh Intensity Interval Training (HIIT on homocysteine, CRP, and body composition in overweight men. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 20 students of Kashan University of Medical Sciences with a body mass index between 25 and 30 kg/m2, were purposefully selected and were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group had practiced in the HIIT program with the intensity of up to 90 percent of maximum heart rate for 12 weeks. Before and after exercise, the amount of homocysteine, CRP, weight, body fat percentage, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio were calculated. The data were analyzed by using dependent and independent t-test at a significance level of P<0.05. Results: The results showed that12 weeks of HIIT had significant effects on reducing serum levels of homocysteine and HSCRP, body weight, body fat percentage, BMI, and WHR in the experimental group compared to the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that 12 weeks of intense interval training as a non-invasive method can have a positive effect on reducing the amount of homocysteine, HS-CRP, and some anthropometric indexes of obesity and overweight.

  12. Antidot effects on micromagnetic behavior of Py ferromagnetic samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetis, Hakan, E-mail: yetis_h@ibu.edu.tr; Denizli, Haluk

    2016-09-01

    The coercivity and magnetic hysteresis behavior of permalloy (Py) samples have been studied in the presence of square arrays of the circular antidots. The open source OOMMF micromagnetic software is used to numerically solve the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert (LLG) equation. In calculations, Py samples are designed in such a way that they include a different number of antidot in an array which possess the same total surface area. In this way, the total Py region stayed unchanged despite the growing number of antidots in a fixed sample size. We found significant increase in the coercive field for the sample with the smallest antidot spacing. The results are discussed within the framework of superdomain (SD) and superdomain wall (SDW) formation. - Highlights: • The choice of antidot parameters in a finite sized Py film affects the magnetic reversal process. • The antidot pattern causes the formation of SDs and LE-SDWs at nano-meter scales. • A significant increase in the coercivity is found for the sample with the largest number of antidots.

  13. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Racil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS, with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thrice weekly, or a no-training control group. The HIIT and MIIT groups showed improved (p˂0.05 body mass (BM, BMI Z-score, and percentage of body fat (%BF. Only the HIIT group showed decreased waist circumference (WC (p=0.017. The effect of exercise on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max was significant (p=0.019, ES=0.48 and p=0.010, ES=0.57, HIIT and MIIT, respectively. The decrease of rate-pressure product (RPP (p<0.05, ES=0.53 and ES=0.46, HIIT and MIIT, respectively followed the positive changes in resting heart rate and blood pressures. Blood glucose, insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin decreased (p<0.05 in both training groups. Significant decreases occurred in blood leptin (p=0.021, ES=0.67 and p=0.011, ES=0.73 and in RPE (p=0.001, ES=0.76 and p=0.017, ES=0.57 in HIIT and MIIT, respectively. In the post-intervention period, blood leptin was strongly associated with %BF (p<0.001 and VO2max (p<0.01 in the HIIT and MIIT groups, respectively, while RPE was strongly associated with BM (p<0.01 in the HIIT group. The results suggest that high-intensity interval training may produce more positive effects on health determinants in comparison with the same training mode at a moderate intensity.

  14. The effect of 6-week high intensity interval training on the VEGF/COL-18 ratio and some echocardiographic indices in rats with myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Karbalaeifar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Myocardial infarction (MI is the irreversible cell death caused by ischemia in parts of myocardium. The molecular process of increased capillary density in response to activity and its appropriate intensity is not clear yet. Therefore, this research aimed to evaluate the effect of 6-week high intensity interval training on the VEGF/COL-18 ratio and echocardiographic indices in rats with MI. Methods: Twelve Wistar male rats of 10 weeks old and mean weight 250-300gr were allocated to two groups of experimental (60 minutes of interval treadmill running for four minutes with the intensity of 85-90 and two minutes of active rest at 50-60 percent of VO2max for four days a week for 6 weeks and control group (without any training. Real-time PCR was used to assess the expression of VEGF and COL-18 genes after inducing MI, and shortening fractional and ejection fraction were investigated as echocardiographic indices. Data were analyzed in SPSS18 using independent t test (α≤ 0.05. Results: The findings showed that there was no significant increase in the VEGF/COL-18 ratio in the HIIT group (1.856 mg/ml as compared with the control group (1.245 mg/ml (p=0.263. A significant increase was observed in the HIIT group for SF (77.461±7.022% and EF (41.625±6.847% as compared with the control group (64.483±3.695% and (31.320±3.460%, respectively (p=0.001. Conclusion: In general, 6 weeks of high intensity interval training can effectively increase angiogenesis factors and improve myocardial function in male Wistar rats after MI.

  15. Simultaneous Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT and Consumption of Flaxseed on Serum Levels of TNF-α and IL1β in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khademi Y.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims The high concentration of Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β and Tumor Necrosis Factor- α (TNF-α is an important risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the simultaneous effect of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT and the use of flaxseed oil with different doses on the serum levels of TNF-α and IL1β in rats. Materials & Methods In this experimental study, 30 Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: control, training, 10mg/kg supplement, 30mg/kg supplement, training with 10mg/kg supplement and training with 30mg/kg supplement. The groups performed High- Intensity Interval Training (HIIT for 10 weeks and received flaxseed oil extracts. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and LSD post hoc test. Findings Serum levels of IL1β in the training group and training groups with doses of 10 and 30mg/kg of extract were significantly lower than the control group. Serum levels of IL1β in the training group with 30mg/kg of extract, was significantly lower than group with 10mg/ kg of extract. Also, serum levels of TNF-α in the training group, training groups with doses of 10 and 30mg/kg of extract and group with 30mg/kg of extract were significantly lower than the control group. Serum levels of TNF-α in the training group with 30mg/kg of extract were significantly lower than other groups (p<0.05. Conclusion High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT and consumption of flaxseed oil for 10 weeks have interactive effects on reduction of serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in rats.

  16. The effects of four weeks of creatine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on cardiorespiratory fitness: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Joel T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-intensity interval training has been shown to be a time-efficient way to induce physiological adaptations similar to those of traditional endurance training. Creatine supplementation may enhance high-intensity interval training, leading to even greater physiological adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT and creatine supplementation on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance (maximal oxygen consumption (VO2PEAK, time-to-exhaustion (VO2PEAKTTE, ventilatory threshold (VT, and total work done (TWD in college-aged men. Methods Forty-three recreationally active men completed a graded exercise test to determine VO2PEAK, VO2PEAKTTE, and VT. In addition, participants completed a time to exhaustion (TTE ride at 110% of the maximum workload reached during the graded exercise test to determine TWD (TTE (sec × W = J. Following testing, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: creatine (creatine citrate (Cr; n = 16, placebo (PL; n = 17, or control (n = 10 groups. The Cr and PL groups completed four weeks of HIIT prior to post-testing. Results Significant improvements in VO2PEAK and VO2PEAKTTE occurred in both training groups. Only the Cr group significantly improved VT (16% vs. 10% improvement in PL. No changes occurred in TWD in any group. Conclusion In conclusion, HIIT is an effective and time-efficient way to improve maximal endurance performance. The addition of Cr improved VT, but did not increase TWD. Therefore, 10 g of Cr per day for five days per week for four weeks does not seem to further augment maximal oxygen consumption, greater than HIIT alone; however, Cr supplementation may improve submaximal exercise performance.

  17. Wuchereria bancrofti in Tanzania: microfilarial periodicity and effect of blood sampling time on microfilarial intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Poul Erik; Niemann, L.; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    1997-01-01

    of blood sampling before peak time is discussed, and the importance of taking sampling time into consideration when analysing data from epidemiological studies is emphasized. A simple method is devised which can be used to adjust for the influence of time on mf intensities, in studies where accurate......The circadian periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial (mf) intensities in peripheral blood was analysed in a group of infected individuals from an endemic community in north-eastern Tanzania. The mf density was quantified at two-hourly intervals for 24 hours. A clear nocturnal periodic...... information on mf intensities is necessary, and where it is impossible to obtain all samples at peak time....

  18. The design effect and cluster samples: optimising tuberculosis prevalence surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, B.; Gopi, P. G.; Borgdorff, M. W.; Yamada, N.; Dye, C.

    2008-01-01

    Cross-sectional surveys of disease prevalence, including for tuberculosis (TB), often use a two (or more) stage sampling procedure. By choosing clusters of people randomly from all possible clusters, the logistic costs of doing the survey can be reduced. However, this increases the statistical

  19. Short Communication: A cost effective light trap for sampling tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—A simple and relatively cheap locally-assembled light trap was used to sample pre-settlement fish larvae in the Malindi Marine Park, Kenya, for two years. The trap was assembled locally using a water dispenser bottle, plastic bottle necks, buckets, 12V rechargeable alkaline batteries and a diver's dry box. The light ...

  20. Effective sampling of random surfaces by baby universe surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambjørn, J.; Białas, P.; Jurkiewicz, J.; Burda, Z.; Petersson, B.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a new, very efficient algorithm for sampling of random surfaces in the Monte Carlo simulations, based on so-called baby universe surgery, i.e. cutting and pasting of baby universe. It drastically reduces slowing down as compared to the standard local flip algorithm, thereby allowing

  1. MRI derived brain atrophy in PSP and MSA-P. Determining sample size to detect treatment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paviour, Dominic C; Price, Shona L; Lees, Andrew J; Fox, Nick C

    2007-04-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system (MSA) atrophy are associated with progressive brain atrophy. Serial MRI can be applied in order to measure this change in brain volume and to calculate atrophy rates. We evaluated MRI derived whole brain and regional atrophy rates as potential markers of progression in PSP and the Parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P). 17 patients with PSP, 9 with MSA-P and 18 healthy controls underwent two MRI brain scans. MRI scans were registered, and brain and regional atrophy rates (midbrain, pons, cerebellum, third and lateral ventricles) measured. Sample sizes required to detect the effect of a proposed disease-modifying treatment were estimated. The effect of scan interval on the variance of the atrophy rates and sample size was assessed. Based on the calculated yearly rates of atrophy, for a drug effect equivalent to a 30% reduction in atrophy, fewer PSP subjects are required in each treatment arm when using midbrain rather than whole brain atrophy rates (183 cf. 499). Fewer MSA-P subjects are required, using pontine/cerebellar, rather than whole brain atrophy rates (164/129 cf. 794). A reduction in the variance of measured atrophy rates was observed with a longer scan interval. Regional rather than whole brain atrophy rates calculated from volumetric serial MRI brain scans in PSP and MSA-P provide a more practical and powerful means of monitoring disease progression in clinical trials.

  2. Effect of time interval between core preparation and post cementation on pushout bond strength of glass fiber-reinforced posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niakan, Mahsa; Mosharraf, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of timing of coronal preparation on the pushout bond strength of fiber postluted with resin cement in the root canal. In this experimental study, 48 mandibular human premolars were selected in a 3-week range. After root canal treatment and postspace preparation, a post #2(Angelus, Brazil) was cemented into the canal by a resin-based cement (Bifix SE, VOCO, Germany). Cylindrical resin composite cores were built on the posts. Then, the specimens were divided into 4 groups of 12 specimens each: one control group without core preparation and 3 experimental groups with core preparation that was done 15 min, 1 h, and 24 h after postcementation. One day after postcementation, each root was sectioned into 3 segments. Each slice was connected to universal testing machine. The load was applied at the speed of 0.5 mm/min till failure happened. The collected data were analyzed (SPSS/PC 20.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) using two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey test at P 0.05). Nevertheless, there were significant differences among root regions (P fiber post and bond strength is higher in the cervical segment.

  3. A method for the measurement of shielding effectiveness of planar samples requiring no sample edge preparation or contact

    OpenAIRE

    Marvin, Andrew C.; Dawson, Linda; Flintoft, Ian Dand; Dawson, John F.

    2009-01-01

    A method is presented for the measurement of shielding effectiveness of planar materials with nonconducting surfaces such as carbon fiber composites. The method overcomes edge termination problems with such materials by absorbing edge-diffracted energy. A dynamic range of up to 100 dB has been demonstrated over a frequency range of 1-8.5 GHz, depending on the size of the sample under test. Comparison with ASTM D4935 and nested reverberation measurements of shielding effectiveness shows good a...

  4. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Versus Continuous Exercise Training on Functional Capacity and Quality of Life in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaureguizar, Koldobika Villelabeitia; Vicente-Campos, Davinia; Bautista, Lorena Ruiz; de la Peña, Cesar Hernández; Gómez, María José Arriaza; Rueda, María José Calero; Fernández Mahillo, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence that exercise training has beneficial health effects in patients with cardiovascular disease. Most studies have focused on moderate continuous training (MCT); however, a body of evidence has begun to emerge demonstrating that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has significantly better results in terms of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of MCT versus HIIT on functional capacity and quality of life and to assess safety. Seventy-two patients with ischemic heart disease were assigned to either HIIT or MCT for 8 weeks. We analyzed cardiopulmonary exercise test data, quality of life, and adverse events. High-intensity interval training resulted in a significantly greater increase in (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2peak (4.5 ± 4.7 mL·kg·min) compared with MCT (2.5 ± 3.6 mL·kg·min) (P training protocols improved quality of life. No adverse events were reported in either of the groups. On the basis of the results of this study, HIIT should be considered for use in cardiac rehabilitation as it resulted in a greater increase in functional capacity compared with MCT. We also observed greater improvement in quality of life without any increase in cardiovascular risk.

  5. The Effects of Sport-Specific Drills Training or High-Intensity Interval Training in Young Tennis Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Sanz, David; Sarabia, Jose Manuel; Moya, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effects of combining high-intensity training (HIT) and sport-specific drill training (MT) versus sportspecific drill training alone (DT) on fitness performance characteristics in young tennis players. Twenty young tennis players (14.8 ± 0.1 y) were assigned to either DT (n = 10) or MT (n = 10) for 8 wk. Tennis drills consisted of two 16- to 22-min on-court exercise sessions separated by 3 min of passive rest, while MT consisted of 1 sport-specific DT session and 1 HIT session, using 16-22 min of runs at intensities (90-95%) related to the velocity obtained in the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (VIFT) separated by 3 min of passive rest. Pre- and posttests included peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), VIFT, speed (20 m, with 5- and 10-m splits), 505 Agility Test, and countermovement jump (CMJ). There were significant improvements after the training period in VO2peak (DT 2.4%, ES = moderate; MT 4.2%, ES = large) and VIFT (DT 2.2%, ES = small; MT 6.3%, ES = large) for both DT and MT, with no differences between training protocols. Results also showed a large increase in the 505 Agility Test after MT, while no changes were reported in the other tests (sprint and CMJ), either for MT or DT. Even though both training programs resulted in significant improvements in aerobic performance, a mixed program combining tennis drills and runs based on the VIFT led to greater gains and should be considered the preferred training method for improving aerobic power in young athletes.

  6. Updating representations of temporal intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, James; Anderson, Britt

    2015-12-01

    Effectively engaging with the world depends on accurate representations of the regularities that make up that world-what we call mental models. The success of any mental model depends on the ability to adapt to changes-to 'update' the model. In prior work, we have shown that damage to the right hemisphere of the brain impairs the ability to update mental models across a range of tasks. Given the disparate nature of the tasks we have employed in this prior work (i.e. statistical learning, language acquisition, position priming, perceptual ambiguity, strategic game play), we propose that a cognitive module important for updating mental representations should be generic, in the sense that it is invoked across multiple cognitive and perceptual domains. To date, the majority of our tasks have been visual in nature. Given the ubiquity and import of temporal information in sensory experience, we examined the ability to build and update mental models of time. We had healthy individuals complete a temporal prediction task in which intervals were initially drawn from one temporal range before an unannounced switch to a different range of intervals. Separate groups had the second range of intervals switch to one that contained either longer or shorter intervals than the first range. Both groups showed significant positive correlations between perceptual and prediction accuracy. While each group updated mental models of temporal intervals, those exposed to shorter intervals did so more efficiently. Our results support the notion of generic capacity to update regularities in the environment-in this instance based on temporal information. The task developed here is well suited to investigations in neurological patients and in neuroimaging settings.

  7. Sampling effects on the identification of roadkill hotspots: Implications for survey design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara M; Marques, J Tiago; Lourenço, André; Medinas, Denis; Barbosa, A Márcia; Beja, Pedro; Mira, António

    2015-10-01

    Although locating wildlife roadkill hotspots is essential to mitigate road impacts, the influence of study design on hotspot identification remains uncertain. We evaluated how sampling frequency affects the accuracy of hotspot identification, using a dataset of vertebrate roadkills (n = 4427) recorded over a year of daily surveys along 37 km of roads. "True" hotspots were identified using this baseline dataset, as the 500-m segments where the number of road-killed vertebrates exceeded the upper 95% confidence limit of the mean, assuming a Poisson distribution of road-kills per segment. "Estimated" hotspots were identified likewise, using datasets representing progressively lower sampling frequencies, which were produced by extracting data from the baseline dataset at appropriate time intervals (1-30 days). Overall, 24.3% of segments were "true" hotspots, concentrating 40.4% of roadkills. For different groups, "true" hotspots accounted from 6.8% (bats) to 29.7% (small birds) of road segments, concentrating from 60% (lizards, lagomorphs, carnivores) of roadkills. Spatial congruence between "true" and "estimated" hotspots declined rapidly with increasing time interval between surveys, due primarily to increasing false negatives (i.e., missing "true" hotspots). There were also false positives (i.e., wrong "estimated" hotspots), particularly at low sampling frequencies. Spatial accuracy decay with increasing time interval between surveys was higher for smaller-bodied (amphibians, reptiles, small birds, small mammals) than for larger-bodied species (birds of prey, hedgehogs, lagomorphs, carnivores). Results suggest that widely used surveys at weekly or longer intervals may produce poor estimates of roadkill hotspots, particularly for small-bodied species. Surveying daily or at two-day intervals may be required to achieve high accuracy in hotspot identification for multiple species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of parity, birth weight babies, pregnancy interval and a history of hemorrhage with the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage (Case Study in the RSUD Ngudi Waluyo Wlingi Blitar on 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izfa Rifdiani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum hemorrhage is one of the problems was the cause of maternal deaths in Indonesia. The maternal mortality rate is one indicator for the degree of health specially of a woman. Postpartum hemorrhage is bleeding or blood loss of 500 cc or more that occurred after the child is born. The research objective was to analyze the effect of parity, birth weight babies, pregnancy interval and a history of postpartum hemorrhage in the mother after giving birth to the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage in Ngudi Waluyo Hospital Wlingi Blitar 2014. This study used a case-control design. The populations in this study are all mothers who gave birth in Ngudi Waluyo Hospital Wlingi Blitar 2014. The sampling technique was simple random sampling. The results were obtained no effect of parity on the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage (OR=0,810, CI 95% 0,329effect of birth weight babies on the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage (OR=0,651, CI 95% 0,104effect of pregnancy interval on the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage (OR = 17.953, 95% CI 3.550 effect of a history of bleeding on the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage postpartum (OR = 18.104, 95% CI 3.559 interval, a history of postpartum hemorrhage, the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage

  9. Short-Term Effects of Combined High-Intensity Strength and Sprint Interval Training on Anthropometric Characteristics and Physical Performance of Elite Team Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed Souhail; Fieseler, Georg; Bartels, Thomas; Schulze, Stephan; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Shepard, Roy J; Schwesig, René

    2017-12-01

    Muscular strength and speed are critical physical factors in determining the technical and tactical skills of elite team handball players. This study thus investigated the effect of high-intensity muscular strength and sprint interval training (SIT) on lower limb explosive performance and anthropometric characteristics in 22 male handball athletes aged 20.2 ± 0.1 years. A training group (TG, n = 12) and a control group (CG, n = 10) were followed over 8 weeks parallel to regular handball training. The TG received combined additional high-intensity muscular strength and interval training twice per week during this period. The muscular training was comprised of 3 - 4 sets of 70 - 85 % of 1-RM (repetition maximum) of dynamic back half squat exercise; followed immediately by a short sprint program with 4, 5, and 6 maximal intensity repetitions of 30 m runs. Strength (1-RM of the half back-squat and bench press), first step (V1S), first 5 m (V5 m), squat jumps (SJ), counter movement jumps (CMJ) and the Modified Agility Test (MAT) were tested at the beginning and end of the study. Significant interaction effects (group × time) were observed for all parameters (η² range: 0.531 (MAT) to 0.829 (First 5 m)). All 10 parameters showed relevant intervention effects (d> 0.5) in the TG (highest intervention effect: CMJ: d = 4.05), the mean effect size being d = 1.85. In contrast, scores for the CG either remained unchanged or decreased (d = -0.24). We conclude that combined high-intensity strength and sprint interval training during the competitive season should be recommended to elite male handball players as a means of improving handball-related performance characteristics without compromising other critical aspects of the individual's performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. The Effect of Folate Supplementation on Ghrelin of Stomach and Insulin Level of Serum in Male Wistar Rats during 10 Weeks of High Intensity Interval Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gorzi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: High intensity training can lead to lower the appetite. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of folate supplementation on ghrelin level of stomach and insulin level of serum in male wistar rats during 10 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT. Materials and Methods: Twenty seven male Wistar rats (weight= 203.94±27.34 gr, Age: 9 weeks after one week familiarization, were randomly divided into four groups: control (n=6, folate supplementation (n=6, (HIIT (n=7 and HIIT+ folate supplement (n=8. HIIT training protocol started with 30 m/min running on treadmill for 1 min with 10 reps and 2 min active rest at the first week and reached to 75-80 m/min for 1 min with 7 reps and 3 min active rest at last 3 weeks. Acylated ghrelin level of stomach tissue and serum level of insulin were assayed by ELISA kit. Results: The results of Kruskal-vallis analysis showed that the ghrelin level of stomach was increased significantly (p=0.001 in folate+HIIT in compare with HIIT group. Also, insulin level of serum was decreased significantly (p=0.001 in folate +HIIT in compare with control and HIIT groups. Conclusion: Based on our results, folate supplementation during high intensity interval training, increased the ghrelin of stomach and decreased the insulin level of serum. So, it seems that folate supplementation can prevent from losing appetite in athletes who train with high intensity training with interval type.

  11. The effect of a 10-week high-intensity interval training and ginger consumption on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Nayebifar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most of the cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by doing regular physical exercises and using herbal supplements. The present study is aimed at assessing ginger supplement and high-intensity interval training (HIIT on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women. Materials and Methods: The present study is a randomized, experimental, and controlled one in which thirty healthy overweight women aged 20–30 years were randomly divided into three equal groups, namely, ginger, ginger + HIIT, and placebo + HIIT. The training groups performed high-intensity interval exercises (i.e. 40-m maximal shuttle run for ten consecutive weeks. The supplement groups daily took 3 g of ginger pills and the third group took placebo. Results: Paired t-test revealed a significant decrease in the density of type 1 monocytes chemo tactic protein (MCP-1 in HIIT + ginger (P = 0.026 and HIIT + placebo (P = 0.001 groups. Besides, maximum aerobic capacity in the two training groups significantly increased P = 0.002 and P = 0.000, respectively. In spite of this, analysis of variance showed no significant differences in three groups regarding the three indices such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 (P = 0.093, MCP-1(P = 0.075, and serum interleukin-10 (IL-10 (P = 0.164. Conclusion: A 10-week intensive interval exercise, by itself or together with ginger supplement, improved MCP-1 and maximum oxygen consumption in overweight women, without any significant effect on soluble ICAM-1 and IL-10. These findings indicate the relative and efficient role of HIIT in overweight women without the necessity to combine with ginger as an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory supplement.

  12. The Effect of High Intensity Interval Run Training on Cross-sectional Area of the Vastus Lateralis in Untrained College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Rebekah R; Malinowski, Amy; Piacentini, Meredith; Thrush, David; Salley, Eric; Losey, Cassidy; Hayes, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic cycling has been repeatedly shown to induce hypertrophy in skeletal muscle across a variety of populations, while there has been a lack of investigation into the impact of running upon hypertrophy. An increasingly popular model of aerobic exercise is high-intensity interval training (HIIT); in addition to its positive impact upon cardiovascular health, HIIT may be sufficient for inducing significant muscular hypertrophy. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of a high-intensity interval running protocol upon hypertrophy of the vastus lateralis in an untrained, young population. Twelve recreationally active university students (Male: 2; Female: 10; 19.9±0.5 yr.; 169.8±1.9 cm; 63.8±2.3 kg; VO2max: 42.1±1.6 ml•kg-1min-1) completed 24.5±0.6 sessions of high-intensity interval run training over 10 weeks. The protocol consisted of four sets of 4 minutes running at 90-95% HRmax followed by 3 minutes active rest at 70% HRmax. Relative and absolute aerobic capacity increased 5.2±2.2% and 6.0±2.3% respectively as a result of the intervention (phypertrophy of the vastus lateralis in a young population following a running protocol. These data support the existing body of evidence suggesting aerobic exercise to be an effective mode of improving cardiorespiratory fitness as well as increasing whole muscle size of the quadriceps.

  13. The effect of a 10-week high-intensity interval training and ginger consumption on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayebifar, Shila; Afzalpour, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kazemi, Toba; Eivary, Seyed Hosein Abtahi; Mogharnasi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most of the cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by doing regular physical exercises and using herbal supplements. The present study is aimed at assessing ginger supplement and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women. Materials and Methods: The present study is a randomized, experimental, and controlled one in which thirty healthy overweight women aged 20–30 years were randomly divided into three equal groups, namely, ginger, ginger + HIIT, and placebo + HIIT. The training groups performed high-intensity interval exercises (i.e. 40-m maximal shuttle run) for ten consecutive weeks. The supplement groups daily took 3 g of ginger pills and the third group took placebo. Results: Paired t-test revealed a significant decrease in the density of type 1 monocytes chemo tactic protein (MCP-1) in HIIT + ginger (P = 0.026) and HIIT + placebo (P = 0.001) groups. Besides, maximum aerobic capacity in the two training groups significantly increased P = 0.002 and P = 0.000, respectively. In spite of this, analysis of variance showed no significant differences in three groups regarding the three indices such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) (P = 0.093), MCP-1(P = 0.075), and serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) (P = 0.164). Conclusion: A 10-week intensive interval exercise, by itself or together with ginger supplement, improved MCP-1 and maximum oxygen consumption in overweight women, without any significant effect on soluble ICAM-1 and IL-10. These findings indicate the relative and efficient role of HIIT in overweight women without the necessity to combine with ginger as an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory supplement. PMID:28255324

  14. Validation of the Marijuana Effect Expectancies Questionnaire (MEEQ in a Non-Clinical French-Speaking Adolescent Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Schmits

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Teenagers commonly use cannabis. Expectancies related to the effects of cannabis play an important role in its consumption and are frequently measured with the Marijuana Effect Expectancies Questionnaire (MEEQ. This study aims to assess the psychometric properties (factor structure, internal consistency reliability, criterion validity of the French MEEQ. A sample of 1,343 non-clinical teenagers (14–18 years were recruited to answer a self-report questionnaire; 877 of them responded twice (one-year interval. A four-factor structure was obtained: Cognitive Impairment and Negative, Relaxation and Social Facilitation, Perceptual Enhancement and Craving and Negative Behavioral Effect Expectancies. It is concluded that the French MEEQ constitutes an appropriate tool to measure cannabis effect expectancies among adolescents.

  15. Effects of sampling conditions on DNA-based estimates of American black bear abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufenberg, Jared S.; Van Manen, Frank T.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    DNA-based capture-mark-recapture techniques are commonly used to estimate American black bear (Ursus americanus) population abundance (N). Although the technique is well established, many questions remain regarding study design. In particular, relationships among N, capture probability of heterogeneity mixtures A and B (pA and pB, respectively, or p, collectively), the proportion of each mixture (π), number of capture occasions (k), and probability of obtaining reliable estimates of N are not fully understood. We investigated these relationships using 1) an empirical dataset of DNA samples for which true N was unknown and 2) simulated datasets with known properties that represented a broader array of sampling conditions. For the empirical data analysis, we used the full closed population with heterogeneity data type in Program MARK to estimate N for a black bear population in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee. We systematically reduced the number of those samples used in the analysis to evaluate the effect that changes in capture probabilities may have on parameter estimates. Model-averaged N for females and males were 161 (95% CI = 114–272) and 100 (95% CI = 74–167), respectively (pooled N = 261, 95% CI = 192–419), and the average weekly p was 0.09 for females and 0.12 for males. When we reduced the number of samples of the empirical data, support for heterogeneity models decreased. For the simulation analysis, we generated capture data with individual heterogeneity covering a range of sampling conditions commonly encountered in DNA-based capture-mark-recapture studies and examined the relationships between those conditions and accuracy (i.e., probability of obtaining an estimated N that is within 20% of true N), coverage (i.e., probability that 95% confidence interval includes true N), and precision (i.e., probability of obtaining a coefficient of variation ≤20%) of estimates using logistic regression. The capture probability

  16. Monitoring the effective population size of a brown bear (Ursus arctos) population using new single-sample approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrbinšek, Tomaž; Jelenčič, Maja; Waits, Lisette; Kos, Ivan; Jerina, Klemen; Trontelj, Peter

    2012-02-01

    The effective population size (N(e) ) could be the ideal parameter for monitoring populations of conservation concern as it conveniently summarizes both the evolutionary potential of the population and its sensitivity to genetic stochasticity. However, tracing its change through time is difficult in natural populations. We applied four new methods for estimating N(e) from a single sample of genotypes to trace temporal change in N(e) for bears in the Northern Dinaric Mountains. We genotyped 510 bears using 20 microsatellite loci and determined their age. The samples were organized into cohorts with regard to the year when the animals were born and yearly samples with age categories for every year when they were alive. We used the Estimator by Parentage Assignment (EPA) to directly estimate both N(e) and generation interval for each yearly sample. For cohorts, we estimated the effective number of breeders (N(b) ) using linkage disequilibrium, sibship assignment and approximate Bayesian computation methods and extrapolated these estimates to N(e) using the generation interval. The N(e) estimate by EPA is 276 (183-350 95% CI), meeting the inbreeding-avoidance criterion of N(e) > 50 but short of the long-term minimum viable population goal of N(e) > 500. The results obtained by the other methods are highly consistent with this result, and all indicate a rapid increase in N(e) probably in the late 1990s and early 2000s. The new single-sample approaches to the estimation of N(e) provide efficient means for including N(e) in monitoring frameworks and will be of great importance for future management and conservation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Effect of nitrogen fertilization rate and regrowth interval of grass herbage on methane emission of zero-grazing lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, D; Podesta, S C; Hatew, B; Klop, G; van Laar, H; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2015-05-01

    Dairy cattle farming in temperate regions often relies on grass herbage (GH)-based diets but the effect of several grass management options on enteric CH4 emission has not been fully investigated yet. We investigated the combined effect of N fertilization rate and length of regrowth period of GH (predominantly ryegrass) on CH4 emission from lactating dairy cows. In a randomized block design, 28 lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows received a basal diet of GH and compound feed [85:15; dry matter (DM) basis]. Treatments consisted of GH cut after 3 or 5 weeks of regrowth, after receiving either a low (20kg of N/ha) or a high (90kg of N/ha) fertilization rate after initial cut. Feed intake, digestibility, milk production and composition, N and energy balance, and CH4 emission were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after an adaptation to the diet for 12d. Cows were restricted-fed during measurements and mean DM intake was 15.0±0.16kg/d. Herbage crude protein content varied between 76 and 161g/kg of DM, and sugar content between 186 and 303g/kg of DM. Fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) and feed digestibility increased with increased N fertilization rates and a shorter regrowth interval. Increasing the N fertilization rate increased daily CH4 emission per cow (+10%) and per unit of DM intake (+9%), tended to increase the fraction of gross energy intake emitted as CH4 (+7%), and (partly because of the low crude protein content for the low fertilized GH) only numerically reduced CH4 per unit of FPCM. The longer regrowth interval increased CH4 emission per unit of FPCM (+14%) compared with the shorter regrowth interval, but did not affect CH4 emission expressed in any other unit. With increasing N fertilization CH4 emission decreased per unit of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (-13%) but not per unit of digestible organic matter intake. There was no interaction of the effect of N fertilization rate and regrowth interval on CH4

  18. Interval between Intra-Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy and Surgery for Locally Advanced Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Impacts on Effectiveness of Chemotherapy and on Overall Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Fung Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The interval between intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (IAIC and surgery was investigated in terms of its effects on survival in patients with locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Methods. This retrospective study analyzed 126 patients who had completed treatment modalities for stage IV OSCC. All patients were followed up for 3 years. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods were used to determine how survival was affected by general factors, primary tumor volume, TNM stage, and duration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results. In 126 patients treated for locally advanced OSCC by preoperative induction IAIC using methotrexate, multivariate analysis of relevant prognostic factors showed that an IAIC duration longer than 90 days was significantly associated with poor prognosis (hazard ratio, 1.77; P=0.0259. Conclusions. Duration of IAIC is a critical factor in the effectiveness of multimodal treatment for locally advanced OSCC. Limiting the induction course to 90 days improves overall survival.

  19. Inter-Pregnancy Interval

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buchi

    optimal interval after which they can conceive especially if the previous birth was by caesarean ... after termination of pregnancy (as early as 14 days). 6 than do women who deliver at term. Majority of these .... Contraceptive Pills (COCPs) are commenced at 6 months post partum in a breast feeding mother because the ...

  20. Product interval automata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We identify a subclass of timed automata called product interval automata and develop its theory. These automata consist of a network of timed agents with the key restriction being that there is just one clock for each agent and the way the clocks are read and reset is determined by the distribution of shared actions across ...

  1. Product interval automata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    in both logical and language theoretic terms. We also show that product interval automata are expressive enough to model the timed behaviour of asynchronous digital circuits. Keywords. Timed automata; distributed systems; logic. 1. Introduction. Timed automata as formulated by Alur & Dill (1994) have become a canonical ...

  2. Effects of in-season short-term aerobic and high-intensity interval training program on repeated sprint ability and jump performance in handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermassi, Souhail; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Schwesig, René; Fieseler, Georg; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Chamari, Karim; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed-Souhaiel

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a 7-week in-season aerobic and high-intensity interval-training program on performance tests linked to successful handball play (e.g., repeated sprint and jumping ability). Thirty participants (age 17.0±1.2 years, body mass 81.1±3.4 kg, height 1.82±0.07 m) performed a Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1), a squat (SJ) and a Countermovement Jump Test (CMJ), as well as a repeated Sprint Ability Test (RSA). From this, maximal aerobic speed (MAS, reached at the end of the Yo-Yo IR1), jumping ability, best time in a single sprint trial (RSAbest), total time (RSATT) and the performance decrement (RSAdec) during all sprints were calculated. Later, subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (CG; N.=15) performing their normal training schedule (5 weekly sessions of ~90 minutes of handball training) or an experimental group (EG; N.=15). The EG performed two 30 min sessions per week of high-intensity aerobic exercises at 100-130% of MAS in addition to their normal training schedule. A significant improvement in MAS (d=4.1), RSAbest (d=1.9), RSATT (d=1.5) and RSAdec (d=2.3) after the training period was demonstrated. Also, significant interaction effects (time x group) were found for all parameters as the EG significantly improved performances in all tests after training. The greatest interaction effects were observed in MAS (η2=0.811) and CMJ (η2=0.759). No relevant changes in test performances were found in the CG (mean d=-0.02). These results indicate that individually speed-controlled aerobic and interval training is effective for improving specific handball performance.

  3. The effects of the preferential 5-HT2A agonist psilocybin on prepulse inhibition of startle in healthy human volunteers depend on interstimulus interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollenweider, Franz X; Csomor, Philipp A; Knappe, Bernhard; Geyer, Mark A; Quednow, Boris B

    2007-09-01

    Schizophrenia patients exhibit impairments in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response. Hallucinogenic 5-HT(2A) receptor agonists are used for animal models of schizophrenia because they mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia in humans and induce PPI deficits in animals. Nevertheless, one report indicates that the 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist psilocybin increases PPI in healthy humans. Hence, we investigated these inconsistent results by assessing the dose-dependent effects of psilocybin on PPI in healthy humans. Sixteen subjects each received placebo or 115, 215, and 315 microg/kg of psilocybin at 4-week intervals in a randomized and counterbalanced order. PPI at 30-, 60-, 120-, 240-, and 2000-ms interstimulus intervals (ISIs) was measured 90 and 165 min after drug intake, coinciding with the peak and post-peak effects of psilocybin. The effects of psilocybin on psychopathological core dimensions and sustained attention were assessed by the Altered States of Consciousness Rating Scale (5D-ASC) and the Frankfurt Attention Inventory (FAIR). Psilocybin dose-dependently reduced PPI at short (30 ms), had no effect at medium (60 ms), and increased PPI at long (120-2000 ms) ISIs, without affecting startle reactivity or habituation. Psilocybin dose-dependently impaired sustained attention and increased all 5D-ASC scores with exception of Auditory Alterations. Moreover, psilocybin-induced impairments in sustained attention performance were positively correlated with reduced PPI at the 30 ms ISI and not with the concomitant increases in PPI observed at long ISIs. These results confirm the psilocybin-induced increase in PPI at long ISIs and reveal that psilocybin also produces a decrease in PPI at short ISIs that is correlated with impaired attention and consistent with deficient PPI in schizophrenia.

  4. The fallacy of placing confidence in confidence intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, R.D.; Hoekstra, R.; Rouder, J.N.; Lee, M.D.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    Interval estimates – estimates of parameters that include an allowance for sampling uncertainty – have long been touted as a key component of statistical analyses. There are several kinds of interval estimates, but the most popular are confidence intervals (CIs): intervals that contain the true

  5. The fallacy of placing confidence in confidence intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Richard D.; Hoekstra, Rink; Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Lee, Michael D.; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2016-01-01

    Interval estimates – estimates of parameters that include an allowance for sampling uncertainty – have long been touted as a key component of statistical analyses. There are several kinds of interval estimates, but the most popular are confidence intervals (CIs): intervals that contain the true

  6. Biological variation: Evaluation of methods for constructing confidence intervals for estimates of within-person biological variation for different distributions of the within-person effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røraas, Thomas; Støve, Bård; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Sandberg, Sverre

    2017-05-01

    Precise estimates of the within-person biological variation, CVI, can be essential both for monitoring patients and for setting analytical performance specifications. The confidence interval, CI, may be used to evaluate the reliability of an estimate, as it is a good measure of the uncertainty of the estimated CVI. The aim of the present study is to evaluate and establish methods for constructing a CI with the correct coverage probability and non-cover probability when estimating CVI. Data based on 3 models for distributions for the within-person effect were simulated to assess the performance of 3 methods for constructing confidence intervals; the formula based method for the nested ANOVA, the percentile bootstrap and the bootstrap-t methods. The performance of the evaluated methods for constructing a CI varied, both dependent on the size of the CVI and the type of distributions. The bootstrap-t CI have good and stable performance for the models evaluated, while the formula based are more distribution dependent. The percentile bootstrap performs poorly. CI is an essential part of estimation of the within-person biological variation. Good coverage probability and non-cover probabilities for CI are achievable by using the bootstrap-t combined with CV-ANOVA. Supplemental R-code is provided online. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of recipient oocyte age and interval from fusion to activation on development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) nuclear transfer embryos derived from fetal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, F; Jiang, J; Li, N; Zhang, S; Sun, H; Luo, C; Wei, Y; Shi, D

    2011-09-15

    The objective was to investigate the effect of recipient oocyte age and the interval from activation to fusion on developmental competence of buffalo nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. Buffalo oocytes matured in vitro for 22 h were enucleated by micromanipulation under the spindle view system, and a fetal fibroblast (pretreated with 0.1 μg/mL aphidicolin for 24 h, followed by culture for 48 h in 0.5% fetal bovine serum) was introduced into the enucleated oocyte, followed by electrofusion. Both oocytes and NT embryos were activated by exposure to 5 μM ionomycin for 5 min, followed by culture in 2 mM 6-dimethyl-aminopurine for 3 h. When oocytes matured in vitro for 28, 29, 30, 31, or 32 h were activated, more oocytes matured in vitro for 30 h developed into blastocysts in comparison with oocytes matured in vitro for 32 h (31.3 vs 19.9%, P fusion (P fusion. However, 3 of 16 recipients were pregnant following transfer of blastocysts developed from the NT embryos activated at 3 h after fusion, and two of these recipients maintained pregnancy to term. We concluded that the developmental potential of buffalo NT embryos was related to recipient oocyte age and the interval from fusion to activation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness of Different Rest Intervals Following Whole-Body Vibration on Vertical Jump Performance between College Athletes and Recreationally Trained Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole C. Dabbs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different rest intervals following whole-body vibration on counter-movement vertical jump performance. Sixteen females, eight recreationally trained and eight varsity athletes volunteered to participate in four testing visits separated by 24 h. Visit one acted as a familiarization visit where subjects were introduced to the counter-movement vertical jump and whole-body vibration protocols. Visits 2–4 contained 2 randomized conditions. Whole-body vibration was administered in four bouts of 30 s with 30 s rest between bouts. During whole-body vibration subjects performed a quarter squat every 5 s, simulating a counter-movement vertical jump. Whole-body vibration was followed by three counter-movement vertical jumps with five different rest intervals between the vibration exposure and jumping. For a control condition, subjects performed squats with no whole-body vibration. There was a significant (p < 0.05 main effect for time for vertical jump height, peak power output, and relative ground reaction forces, where a majority of individuals max jump from all whole-body vibration conditions was greater than the control condition. There were significant (p < 0.05 group differences, showing that varsity athletes had a greater vertical jump height and peak power output compared to recreationally trained females. There were no significant (p > 0.05 group differences for relative ground reaction forces. Practitioners and/or strength and conditioning coaches may utilize whole-body vibration to enhance acute counter-movement vertical jump performance after identifying individuals optimal rest time in order to maximize the potentiating effects.

  9. Effects of Exercise Modality During Additional "High-Intensity Interval Training" on Aerobic Fitness and Strength in Powerlifting and Strongman Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulakis-Korakakis, Patroklos; Langdown, Louis; Lewis, Adam; Fisher, James P; Gentil, Paulo; Paoli, Antonio; Steele, James

    2018-02-01

    Androulakis-Korakakis, P, Langdown, L, Lewis, A, Fisher, JP, Gentil, P, Paoli, A, and Steele, J. Effects of exercise modality during additional "high-intensity interval training" on aerobic fitness and strength in powerlifting and strongman athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 450-457, 2018-Powerlifters and strongman athletes have a necessity for optimal levels of muscular strength while maintaining sufficient aerobic capacity to perform and recover between events. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been popularized for its efficacy in improving both aerobic fitness and strength but never assessed within the aforementioned population group. This study looked to compare the effect of exercise modality, e.g., a traditional aerobic mode (AM) and strength mode (SM), during HIIT on aerobic fitness and strength. Sixteen well resistance-trained male participants, currently competing in powerlifting and strongman events, completed 8 weeks of approximately effort- and volume-matched HIIT in 2 groups: AM (cycling, n = 8) and SM (resistance training, n = 8). Aerobic fitness was measured as predicted V[Combining Dot Above]O2max using the YMCA 3 minutes step test and strength as predicted 1 repetition maximum from a 4-6RM test using a leg extension. Both groups showed significant improvements in both strength and aerobic fitness. There was a significant between-group difference for aerobic fitness improvements favoring the AM group (p ≤ 0.05). There was no between-group difference for change in strength. Magnitude of change using within-group effect size for aerobic fitness and strength was considered large for each group (aerobic fitness, AM = 2.6, SM = 2.0; strength, AM = 1.9, SM = 1.9). In conclusion, our results support enhanced strength and aerobic fitness irrespective of exercise modality (e.g., traditional aerobic and resistance training). However, powerlifters and strongman athletes wishing to enhance their aerobic fitness should consider HIIT using an

  10. Applications of interval computations

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    1996-01-01

    Primary Audience for the Book • Specialists in numerical computations who are interested in algorithms with automatic result verification. • Engineers, scientists, and practitioners who desire results with automatic verification and who would therefore benefit from the experience of suc­ cessful applications. • Students in applied mathematics and computer science who want to learn these methods. Goal Of the Book This book contains surveys of applications of interval computations, i. e. , appli­ cations of numerical methods with automatic result verification, that were pre­ sented at an international workshop on the subject in EI Paso, Texas, February 23-25, 1995. The purpose of this book is to disseminate detailed and surveyed information about existing and potential applications of this new growing field. Brief Description of the Papers At the most fundamental level, interval arithmetic operations work with sets: The result of a single arithmetic operation is the set of all possible results as the o...

  11. Glucose effectiveness, but not insulin sensitivity, is improved after short-term interval training in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Clark, Margaret A; Jakobsen, Ida

    2017-01-01

    walking training (CWT) on S G and insulin sensitivity (S I) in individuals with type 2 diabetes; and (2) to assess the association of changes in S G and S I with changes in glycaemic control. METHODS: Fourteen participants with type 2 diabetes underwent three trials (IWT, CWT and no training......) in a crossover study. Exclusion criteria were exogenous insulin treatment, smoking, pregnancy, contraindications to structured physical activity and participation in recurrent training (>90 min/week). The trials were performed in a randomised order (computerised-generated randomisation). IWT and CWT consisted......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The role of glucose effectiveness (S G) in training-induced improvements in glucose metabolism in individuals with type 2 diabetes is unknown. The objectives and primary outcomes of this study were: (1) to assess the efficacy of interval walking training (IWT) and continuous...

  12. The effects of 2 weeks of interval vs continuous walking training on glycaemic control and whole-body oxidative stress in individuals with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Clark, Margaret A; Jakobsen, Ida

    2017-01-01

    training-induced improvements in glycaemic control were associated with systemic oxidative stress levels. METHODS: Participants (n = 14) with type 2 diabetes completed a crossover trial using three interventions (control intervention [CON], CWT and IWT), each lasting 2 weeks. These were performed......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oxygen consumption-matched short-term interval walking training (IWT) vs continuous walking training (CWT) on glycaemic control, including glycaemic variability, in individuals with type 2 diabetes. We also assessed whether any...... was assessed: 24 h continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and urinary free 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-iso PGF2α; a marker for oxidative stress), physical fitness and body composition. Neither participants nor assessors were blinded to the interventions. RESULTS: No intervention-induced changes were seen...

  13. Capturing the sampling effects : A TOD sensor performance model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Bijl, P.; Valeton, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The standard way to characterize sensor performance is by means of the Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference (MRTD) and Minimum Resolvable Contrast (MRC) methods. These methods are based on Fourier analysis and work reasonably well for linear (analogue) systems. However, nonlinear effects, such

  14. Gyroid Optical Metamaterials: Calculating the Effective Permittivity of Multidomain Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, James A; Saba, Matthias; Dehmel, Raphael; Gunkel, Ilja; Gu, Yibei; Wiesner, Ulrich; Hess, Ortwin; Wilkinson, Timothy D; Baumberg, Jeremy J; Steiner, Ullrich; Wilts, Bodo D

    2016-10-19

    Gold gyroid optical metamaterials are known to possess a reduced plasma frequency and linear dichroism imparted by their intricate subwavelength single gyroid morphology. The anisotropic optical properties are, however, only evident when a large individual gyroid domain is investigated. Multidomain gyroid metamaterials, fabricated using a polyisoprene-b-polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock terpolymer and consisting of multiple small gyroid domains with random orientation and handedness, instead exhibit isotropic optical properties. Comparing three effective medium models, we here show that the specular reflectance spectra of such multidomain gyroid optical metamaterials can be accurately modeled over a broad range of incident angles by a Bruggeman effective medium consisting of a random wire array. This model accurately reproduces previously published results tracking the variation in normal incidence reflectance spectra of gold gyroid optical metamaterials as a function of host refractive index and volume fill fraction of gold. The effective permittivity derived from this theory confirms the change in sign of the real part of the permittivity in the visible spectral region (so, that gold gyroid metamaterials exhibit both dielectric and metallic behavior at optical wavelengths). That a Bruggeman effective medium can accurately model the experimental reflectance spectra implies that small multidomain gold gyroid optical metamaterials behave both qualitatively and quantitatively as an amorphous composite of gold and air (i.e., nanoporous gold) and that coherent electromagnetic contributions arising from the subwavelength gyroid symmetry are not dominant.

  15. Peer Effects on Obesity in a Sample of European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes peer effects on childhood obesity using data from the first two waves of the IDEFICS study, which applies several anthropometric and other measures of fatness to approximately 14,000 children aged two to nine participating in both waves in 16 regions of eight European countries...

  16. Fitness Effects of 10-Month Frequent Low-Volume Ball Game Training or Interval Running for 8–10-Year-Old School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Nejst Larsen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the exercise intensity and fitness effects of frequent school-based low-volume high-intensity training for 10 months in 8–10-year-old children. 239 Danish 3rd-grade school children from four schools were cluster-randomised into a control group (CON, n=116 or two training groups performing either 5×12 min/wk small-sided football plus other ball games (SSG, n=62 or interval running (IR, n=61. Whole-body DXA scans, flamingo balance, standing long-jump, 20 m sprint, and Yo-Yo IR1 children’s tests (YYIR1C were performed before and after the intervention. Mean running velocity was higher (p2; 5.6±3.4 versus 3.7±3.4% and highest HR zone (>90% HRmax; 12.4±8.9 versus 8.4±8.0% in IR compared to SSG. After 10 months, no significant between-group differences were observed for YYIR1C performance and HR after 2 min of YYIR1C (HRsubmax, but median-split analyses showed that HRsubmax was reduced (p0.05 were observed for whole-body or leg aBMD, lean mass, postural balance, or jump length. In conclusion, frequent low-volume ball games and interval running can be conducted over a full school year with high intensity rate but has limited positive fitness effects in 8–10-year-old children.

  17. Effect of Group Exercising and Adjusting the Brace at Shorter Intervals on Cobb Angle and Quality of Life of Patients with Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hedayati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bracing along with exercising is the most effective protocol in patients with idiopathic scoliosis which have Cobb angles of 25 to 45 degrees. However, since the psychological aspects of scoliosis treatment may affect the quality of life, and the exact time for adjusting the pads of Milwaukee brace is unknown; Therefore the aim of this study was evaluating the effect of exercising in a group, with adjusting the brace in shorter intervals, in compare to routine protocol, in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Matterials & Methods: Thirty-four patients with idiopathic scoliosis which had Cobb angles of 50 to 15 degrees were included in this study and were divided into experimental and control groups. The patients of two groups participated in an eleven-week treatment program, differ between the two groups. Quality of life scores of both groups were evaluated before and after intervention using SRS-22 questionnaire, as well as scoliosis angles before and after the intervention according to the primary and secondary radiographic X-rays. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using Paired T-Test in each group, and Independent T-Test between the two groups before and after treatment. The severity of scoliosis curvature and satisfaction domain of the experimental group was reduced significantly in compared with the control group, after intervention (P=0.04. Moreover in the case of  the quality of life in patients with Cobb angles less than 30 degrees, compared with patients with Cobb angles greater than 31 degrees, in the domains of self-image, satisfaction, and total score, the difference was significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: Adjusting the brace at shorter intervals along with exercising as a group, during the eleven weeks of treatment, has increased satisfaction and reduced the scoliosis Cobb angles of patients.

  18. Soft Interval-Valued Neutrosophic Rough Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Broumi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we first defined soft interval-valued neutrosophic rough sets(SIVN- rough sets for short which combines interval valued neutrosophic soft set and rough sets and studied some of its basic properties. This concept is an extension of soft interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy rough sets( SIVIF- rough sets. Finally an illustrative example is given to verify the developped algorithm and to demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness.

  19. The effect of curriculum sample selection for medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Marieke; Fluit, Cornelia; Fransen, Jaap; Latijnhouwers, Mieke; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Laan, Roland

    2017-03-01

    In the Netherlands, students are admitted to medical school through (1) selection, (2) direct access by high pre-university Grade Point Average (pu-GPA), (3) lottery after being rejected in the selection procedure, or (4) lottery. At Radboud University Medical Center, 2010 was the first year we selected applicants. We designed a procedure based on tasks mimicking the reality of early medical school. Applicants took an online course followed by an on-site exam, resembling courses and exams in early medical school. Based on the exam scores, applicants were selected or rejected. The aim of our study is to determine whether curriculum sample selection explains performance in medical school and is preferable compared to selection based on performance in secondary school. We gathered data on the performance of students of three consecutive cohorts (2010-2012, N = 954). We compared medical school performance (course credits and grade points) of selected students to the three groups admitted in other ways, especially lottery admissions. In regression analyses, we controlled for out of context cognitive performance by adjusting for pu-GPA. Selection-admitted students outperformed lottery-admitted students on most outcome measures, unadjusted as well as adjusted for pu-GPA (p ≤ 0.05). They had higher grade points than non-selected lottery students, both unadjusted and adjusted for pu-GPA (p ≤ 0.025). Adjusted for pu-GPA, selection-admitted students and high-pu-GPA students performed equally. We recommend this selection procedure as it adds to secondary school cognitive performance for the general population of students, is efficient for large numbers of applicants and not labour-intensive.

  20. Effects of bilastine on T-wave morphology and the QTc interval: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, thorough QTc study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Claus; Struijk, Johannes J; Kanters, Jørgen K; Andersen, Mads P; Toft, Egon; Tyl, Benoît

    2012-05-01

    The International Conference of Harmonisation (ICH) E14 guideline for thorough QT studies requires assessing the propensity of new non-antiarrhythmic drugs to affect cardiac repolarization. The present study investigates whether a composite ECG measure of T-wave morphology (Morphology Combination Score [MCS]) can be used together with the heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc) in a fully ICH E14-compliant thorough QT study to exclude clinically relevant repolarization effects of bilastine, a novel antihistamine. Thirty participants in this crossover study were randomly assigned to receive placebo, moxifloxacin 400 mg, bilastine at therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses (20 and 100 mg) and bilastine 20 mg co-administered with ketoconazole 400 mg. Resting ECGs recorded at 12 nominal time points before and after treatments were used to determine Fridericia corrected QTc (QTcF) and MCS from the T-wave characteristics: asymmetry, flatness and notching. There were no effects of bilastine monotherapy (20 and 100 mg) on MCS or QTcF at those study times where the bilastine plasma concentrations were highest. MCS changes for bilastine monotherapy did not exceed the normal intrasubject variance of T-wave shapes for triplicate ECG recordings. Maximum QTcF prolongation for bilastine monotherapy was 5 ms or less: 3.8 ms (90% CI 0.3, 7.3 ms) for bilastine 20 mg and 5.0 ms (90% CI 2.0, 8.0 ms) for bilastine 100 mg. There were no indications of bilastine inducing larger repolarization effects on T-wave morphology as compared with the QTcF interval, as evidenced by the similarity of z-score equivalents for placebo-corrected changes in MCS and QTcF values. This study shows that bilastine, at therapeutic and supratherapeutic dosages, does not induce any effects on T-wave morphology or QTcF. These results confirm the absence of an effect for bilastine on cardiac repolarization.

  1. [Physicochemical Environmental Change during Bio-Preservation in Cellular and Biomolecular Suspension Samples and Its Effects on the Sample Quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakashi, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    The quality of biospecimens is an important issue for clinical assays. These specimens contain various biomarkers, e.g., cells, proteins, nucleic acids, and phospholipids, most of which start to degrade just after sampling from patients. Because this degradation proceeds in a water-rich condition, under which water, as a solvent, dominates the degradation rate, the samples are often preserved at a low temperature in a frozen, lyophilized, or desiccated state to inhibit the motion of water molecules. However, frozen and/or desiccated water solutions surrounding the biomarkers markedly change the physicochemical environment, and can sometimes accelerate the degradation process. This physicochemical variation in water solutions includes dehydration by freezing or desiccation, osmotic stress by frozen-induced condensation, intra-/extracellular ice formation, and vitrification. This article provides an outline of such physicochemical variation in water solutions and its effects, especially on a fluid specimen, like a blood sample. The outline is composed of three parts after the introduction chapter: 1) general physicochemical changes in the water solution during freezing, frozen storage, and thawing, 2) damage of cells and proteins during freezing, frozen storage, and thawing, and 3) physicochemical changes of the water solution during desiccation and lyophilization and their effects on cells and proteins. As the mechanism of cellular damage is different from that of protein damage, they are discussed separately.

  2. The effect of sampling frequency on the accuracy of estimates of milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    sasas.co.za/Sajas.html. 9. The effect of sampling frequency on the accuracy of ... weekly sampling procedure currently used by the South African National Dairy Cattle Performance Testing Scheme. However, replacement of proportional bulking of ...

  3. Effect of Different Obturation Materials on Residual Antimicrobial Activity of 2% Chlorhexidine in Dentin at Different Time Intervals: An Ex Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Bolhari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gutta percha/AH26 and Resilon/RealSeal SE on residual antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine (CHX in human root dentin and suggest the best filling material when CHX is used as final irrigant.Materials and Methods: One-hundred and forty-four single-rooted human teeth were selected for this study. Canals were instrumented to the apical size #35. Smear layer was removed using 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA and then 108 teeth were irrigated with 2% CHX and randomly divided into three groups of gutta percha/AH26, Resilon/RealSeal SE and positive controls. Each group was divided into three subgroups for different time intervals (one, three and six weeks. Thirty-six teeth, as negative controls, were irrigated with saline and obturated with gutta percha/AH26 and Resilon/RealSeal SE. Dentin powder was prepared at the afore-mentioned intervals. After exposure to Enterococcus faecalis for 24 hours, colony forming units (CFUs were counted and residual antimicrobial activity was calculated. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal Wallis test and one-way ANOVA. The significance level was set at P<0.05.Results: The antimicrobial activity of CHX gradually decreased in a time-dependent manner but it maintained over 95% of its antimicrobial activity after six weeks. Moreover, Resilon/RealSeal SE significantly decreased the antimicrobial activity of CHX in comparison with gutta-percha/AH26 (P<0.05.Conclusion: After a final irrigation with CHX, gutta-percha/AH26 is a better choice for root canal obturation.Key words: Chlorhexidine; Gutta-Percha; Epoxy resin AH-26; Resilon sealer. 

  4. The effect on glycaemic control of low-volume high-intensity interval training versus endurance training in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winding, Kamilla M; Munch, Gregers W; Iepsen, Ulrik W; Van Hall, Gerrit; Pedersen, Bente K; Mortensen, Stefan P

    2017-12-22

    To evaluate whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with a lower time commitment can be as effective as endurance training (END) on glycaemic control, physical fitness and body composition in individuals with type 2 diabetes. A total of 29 individuals with type 2 diabetes were allocated to control (CON; no training), END or HIIT groups. Training groups received 3 training sessions per week consisting of either 40 minutes of cycling at 50% of peak workload (END) or 10 1-minute intervals at 95% of peak workload interspersed with 1 minute of active recovery (HIIT). Glycaemic control (HbA1c, oral glucose tolerance test, 3-hour mixed meal tolerance test with double tracer technique and continuous glucose monitoring [CGM]), lipolysis, VO 2 peak and body composition were evaluated before and after 11 weeks of intervention. Exercise training increased VO 2 peak more in the HIIT group (20% ± 20%) compared with the END group (8% ± 9%) despite lower total energy expenditure and time usage during the training sessions. HIIT decreased whole body and android fat mass compared with the CON group. In addition, visceral fat mass, HbA1c, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, glycaemic variability and HOMA-IR decreased after HIIT. The reduced postprandial glucose in the HIIT group was driven primarily by a lower rate of exogenous glucose appearance. In the CON group, postprandial lipolysis was augmented over the 11-week control period. Despite a ~45% lower training volume, HIIT resulted in similar or even better improvements in physical fitness, body composition and glycemic control compared to END. HIIT therefore appears to be an important time-efficient treatment for individuals with type 2 diabetes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effects of short deprivation and re-exposure intervals on the ethanol drinking behavior of selectively bred high alcohol-consuming rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Schultz, Jonathon A; Peper, Caron L; Lumeng, Lawrence; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J

    2008-08-01

    Alcoholics generally display cycles of excessive ethanol intake, abstinence and relapse behavior. Using an animal model of relapse-like drinking, the alcohol deprivation effect (ADE), our laboratory has shown that repeated 2-week cycles of ethanol deprivation and re-exposure, following an initial 6-week access period, result in a robust ADE by alcohol-preferring (P) and high alcohol-drinking (HAD-1 and HAD-2) rats. These rat l