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Sample records for sampling alters interpretations

  1. Alterations in Spanish Language Interpretation During Pediatric Critical Care Family Meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinow, Carolyn S; Corso, Irene; Lorenzo, Javier; Lawrence, Kiley A; Magnus, David C; Van Cleave, Alisa C

    2017-11-01

    To characterize alterations in Spanish language medical interpretation during pediatric critical care family meetings. Descriptive, observational study using verbatim transcripts of nine PICU family meetings conducted with in-person, hospital-employed interpreters. A single, university-based, tertiary children's hospital. Medical staff, family members, ancillary staff, and interpreters. None. Interpreted speech was compared with original clinician or family speech using the qualitative research methods of directed content analysis and thematic analysis. Alterations occurred in 56% of interpreted utterances and included additions, omissions, substitutions, editorializations, answering for the patient/clinician, confessions, and patient advocacy. Longer utterances were associated with more alterations. To minimize interpreter alterations during family meetings, physicians should speak in short utterances (fewer than 20 words) and ask interpreters to interrupt in order to facilitate accurate interpretation. Because alterations occur, physicians may also regularly attempt to assess the family's understanding.

  2. Alterations during medical interpretation of ICU family conferences that interfere with or enhance communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Kiemanh; Thornton, J Daryl; Engelberg, Ruth A; Jackson, J Carey; Curtis, J Randall

    2008-07-01

    Many conferences in the ICU occur with the families of patients with limited English proficiency, requiring a medical interpreter. Despite the importance of medical interpretation, little is known about the alterations that occur and their effect on communication. This study characterizes the types, prevalence, and potential effects of alterations in interpretation during ICU family conferences involving end-of-life discussions. We identified ICU family conferences in two hospitals in which a medical interpreter was used. Ten conferences were audiotaped; 9 physicians led these conferences, and 70 family members participated. Research interpreters different from those attending the conference translated the non-English language portions of the audiotaped conferences. We identified interpretation alterations, grouped them into four types, and categorized their potential effects on communication. For each interpreted exchange between clinicians and family, there was a 55% chance that an alteration would occur. These alterations included additions, omissions, substitutions, and editorializations. Over three quarters of alterations were judged to have potentially clinically significant consequences on the goals of the conference. Of the potentially significant alterations, 93% were likely to have a negative effect on communication; the remainder, a positive effect. The alterations with potentially negative effects included interference with the transfer of information, reduced emotional support, and reduced rapport. Those with potential positive effects included improvements in conveying information and emotional support. Alterations in medical interpretation seem to occur frequently and often have the potential for negative consequences on the common goals of the family conference. Further studies examining and addressing these alterations may help clinicians and interpreters to improve communication with family members during ICU family conferences.

  3. Contributions of pathological alterations to forensic anthropology interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas H. Ubelaker

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathology plays a key role in various aspects of interpretation within forensic anthropology.  These contributions include observations of the effects of pathological conditions and using them to facilitate identification efforts.  In the context of the broader definition of pathology as “something abnormal” it forms the foundation of much of the logic, methodology and practice of forensic anthropology.  In fact, only unusual conditions not shared by many others can be utilized for positive identification.  Recovery efforts and evaluation of the evidence of foul play, as well as the estimation sex, age at death, ancestry, living stature, time since death and other important components depend upon recognition of normal and abnormal patterns.  The multifaceted contributions of pathology to the practice of forensic anthropology are firmly documented in casework applications

  4. Conodont color alteration (CAI) as an aid to structural interpretation in the Black Pine Mountains, Idaho

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    Smith, Fred J.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.

    2012-01-01

    The Black Pine Mountains, southeastern Cassia County, Idaho, consist of southern and northern blocks separated by a northeast-trending, high-angle fault. Differences in conodont color alteration values distinguish the two blocks. The southern block has significantly higher organic maturation levels than the northern block and is interpreted to have been thrust northeastward adjacent to the northern block.

  5. 40 CFR 761.316 - Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpreting PCB concentration... § 761.79(b)(3) § 761.316 Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling... concentration measured in that sample. If the sample surface concentration is not equal to or lower than the...

  6. Current developments in forensic interpretation of mixed DNA samples (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    HU, NA; CONG, BIN; LI, SHUJIN; MA, CHUNLING; FU, LIHONG; ZHANG, XIAOJING

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent improvements have provided contemporary forensic investigations with a variety of tools to improve the analysis of mixed DNA samples in criminal investigations, producing notable improvements in the analysis of complex trace samples in cases of sexual assult and homicide. Mixed DNA contains DNA from two or more contributors, compounding DNA analysis by combining DNA from one or more major contributors with small amounts of DNA from potentially numerous minor contributors. These samples are characterized by a high probability of drop-out or drop-in combined with elevated stutter, significantly increasing analysis complexity. At some loci, minor contributor alleles may be completely obscured due to amplification bias or over-amplification, creating the illusion of additional contributors. Thus, estimating the number of contributors and separating contributor genotypes at a given locus is significantly more difficult in mixed DNA samples, requiring the application of specialized protocols that have only recently been widely commercialized and standardized. Over the last decade, the accuracy and repeatability of mixed DNA analyses available to conventional forensic laboratories has greatly advanced in terms of laboratory technology, mathematical models and biostatistical software, generating more accurate, rapid and readily available data for legal proceedings and criminal cases. PMID:24748965

  7. Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    Although nobody can question the practical efficiency of quantum mechanics, there remains the serious question of its interpretation. As Valerio Scarani puts it, "We do not feel at ease with the indistinguishability principle (that is, the superposition principle) and some of its consequences." Indeed, this principle which pervades the quantum world is in stark contradiction with our everyday experience. From the very beginning of quantum mechanics, a number of physicists--but not the majority of them!--have asked the question of its "interpretation". One may simply deny that there is a problem: according to proponents of the minimalist interpretation, quantum mechanics is self-sufficient and needs no interpretation. The point of view held by a majority of physicists, that of the Copenhagen interpretation, will be examined in Section 10.1. The crux of the problem lies in the status of the state vector introduced in the preceding chapter to describe a quantum system, which is no more than a symbolic representation for the Copenhagen school of thought. Conversely, one may try to attribute some "external reality" to this state vector, that is, a correspondence between the mathematical description and the physical reality. In this latter case, it is the measurement problem which is brought to the fore. In 1932, von Neumann was first to propose a global approach, in an attempt to build a purely quantum theory of measurement examined in Section 10.2. This theory still underlies modern approaches, among them those grounded on decoherence theory, or on the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus: see Section 10.3. Finally, there are non-standard interpretations such as Everett's many worlds theory or the hidden variables theory of de Broglie and Bohm (Section 10.4). Note, however, that this variety of interpretations has no bearing whatsoever on the practical use of quantum mechanics. There is no controversy on the way we should use quantum mechanics!

  8. Fourier Transform Raman and Statistical Analysis of Thermally Altered Samples of Amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, Georgiana I; Caggiani, Maria C; Colomban, Philippe; Mangone, Annarosa; Teodor, Eugenia D; Teodor, Eugen S; Radu, Gabriel L

    2015-12-01

    We report the experimental results that refer to a Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) survey of thermally altered Baltic and Romanian amber and the related statistical interpretation of data using principal component analysis (PCA). Although FT-Raman spectra show several small changes in the characteristic features of the investigated amber samples which may be used for discrimination, their visual recognition is relatively difficult, especially when interpreting data from archeological samples, and thus multivariate data analysis may be the solution to more accurately assign the geological origin based on overall characteristic spectral features. The two categories of amber have different behavior in terms of degradation during the experimental alteration, and Romanian amber is more susceptible to physico-chemical transformations by the aggressive environment when compared with Baltic amber. The obtained data were in accordance with the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) remarks published previously in a dedicated journal. The Raman technique is an alternative method that requires little to no sample preparation, water does not cause interference, and the spectra can be collected from a small volume (1-50 μm in diameter).

  9. A new approach for hydrothermal alteration mapping by selecting and interpreting principal components in Landsat ETM+ images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kashkoei Jahroomi

    2016-07-01

    to validate the obtained results of the image processing with geological evidence,petrographic studies of rock samples collected from major outcrops in the study area were made. It was found that quartz, calcite, epidote, sericite and chlorite are the main constituents of sericiticand propylitic alteration assemblages in the study area. The minerals are virtually enhanced in Landsat ETM+ using the proposed methods and confirm the results obtained from multispectral data analysis. Conclusion This study provides a new and improved approach to obtain the most meaningful spectral data for oxides, carbonates and clay minerals in multispectral images. As these minerals are typically found in hydrothermal alteration, the method presented in this article can be used for enhancement of such mineral spectral data, which can be very helpful in prospecting and exploration for hidden mineral deposits. Acknowledgments The first author wishes to sincerely thank Z.Gholami (PhD student, Shiraz University for her assistance during this study. Also, we would like to thank Dr.Ranjabar (ShahidBahonar University of Kerman and Dr. H.Tangestani (Shiraz University for their constructive comments. Financial support for this study was provided by the ZABPAK Company. References Drury, S.A., 2001. Image interpretation in geology. Routledge, London, 304 pp. Jafari, H., 2009. Evaluate the economic potential of copper in Hararan (Kerman province using by lithogeochemical methods. Journal of Land and Resources, 1(2: 25-31. Masumi, F. and Ranjbar, H., 2011. Hydrothermal alteration mapping using image sensors ASTER and ETM+ in the northern half of the Geological Map 1:100,000 Baft. Journal of Earth Sciences, 20(79: 121-128. Reddy, M.A., 2008. Textbook of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, Haydarabad, 476 pp.

  10. The role of sample preparation in interpretation of trace element concentration variability in moss bioindication studies

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    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Lamothe, P.J.; Crock, J.G.; Galuszka, A.; Dolegowska, S.

    2011-01-01

    Trace element concentrations in plant bioindicators are often determined to assess the quality of the environment. Instrumental methods used for trace element determination require digestion of samples. There are different methods of sample preparation for trace element analysis, and the selection of the best method should be fitted for the purpose of a study. Our hypothesis is that the method of sample preparation is important for interpretation of the results. Here we compare the results of 36 element determinations performed by ICP-MS on ashed and on acid-digested (HNO3, H2O2) samples of two moss species (Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi) collected in Alaska and in south-central Poland. We found that dry ashing of the moss samples prior to analysis resulted in considerably lower detection limits of all the elements examined. We also show that this sample preparation technique facilitated the determination of interregional and interspecies differences in the chemistry of trace elements. Compared to the Polish mosses, the Alaskan mosses displayed more positive correlations of the major rock-forming elements with ash content, reflecting those elements' geogenic origin. Of the two moss species, P. schreberi from both Alaska and Poland was also highlighted by a larger number of positive element pair correlations. The cluster analysis suggests that the more uniform element distribution pattern of the Polish mosses primarily reflects regional air pollution sources. Our study has shown that the method of sample preparation is an important factor in statistical interpretation of the results of trace element determinations. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Professional judgment and the interpretation of viable mold air sampling data.

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    Johnson, David; Thompson, David; Clinkenbeard, Rodney; Redus, Jason

    2008-10-01

    Although mold air sampling is technically straightforward, interpreting the results to decide if there is an indoor source is not. Applying formal statistical tests to mold sampling data is an error-prone practice due to the extreme data variability. With neither established exposure limits nor useful statistical techniques, indoor air quality investigators often must rely on their professional judgment, but the lack of a consensus "decision strategy" incorporating explicit decision criteria requires professionals to establish their own personal set of criteria when interpreting air sampling data. This study examined the level of agreement among indoor air quality practitioners in their evaluation of airborne mold sampling data and explored differences in inter-evaluator assessments. Eighteen investigators independently judged 30 sets of viable mold air sampling results to indicate: "definite indoor mold source," "likely indoor mold source," "not enough information to decide," "likely no indoor mold source," or "definitely no indoor mold source." Kappa coefficient analysis indicated weak inter-observer reliability, and comparison of evaluator mean scores showed clear inter-evaluator differences in their overall scoring patterns. The responses were modeled on indicator "traits" of the data sets using a generalized, linear mixed model approach and showed several traits to be associated with respondents' ratings, but they also demonstrated distinct and divergent inter-evaluator response patterns. Conclusions were that there was only weak overall agreement in evaluation of the mold sampling data, that particular traits of the data were associated with the conclusions reached, and that there were substantial inter-evaluator differences that were likely due to differences in the personal decision criteria employed by the individual evaluators. The overall conclusion was that there is a need for additional work to rigorously explore the constellation of decision criteria

  12. Rapid DNA analysis for automated processing and interpretation of low DNA content samples.

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    Turingan, Rosemary S; Vasantgadkar, Sameer; Palombo, Luke; Hogan, Catherine; Jiang, Hua; Tan, Eugene; Selden, Richard F

    2016-01-01

    types that can be processed and minimizes the time between sample collection, sample processing and analysis, and generation of actionable intelligence. The fully integrated Expert System is capable of interpreting a wide range or sample types and input DNA quantities, allowing samples to be processed and interpreted without a technical operator.

  13. Improving interpretation of infrared spectra for OM characterization by subtraction of spectra from incinerated samples

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    Ellerbrock, Ruth H.; Gerke, Horst H.; Leue, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Non-destructive methods such as diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT) have been applied to characterize organic matter (OM) at intact structural surfaces among others. However, it is often difficult to distinguish effects of organic components on DRIFT signal intensities from those of mineral components. The objective of this study was to re-evaluate DRIFT spectra from intact earthworm burrow walls and coated cracks to improve the interpretation of C-H and C=O bands. We compared DRIFT and transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of entire samples that were from the same pedogenetic soil horizon, but different in mineral composition and texture (i.e., glacial till versus loess). Spectra of incinerated samples were subtracted from the original spectra. Transmission FTIR and DRIFT spectra were almost identical for entire soil samples. However, the DRIFT spectra were affected by the bulk mode bands (i.e., wavenumbers 2000 to 1700 cm-1) that affected spectral resolution and reproducibility. The ratios between C-H and C=O band intensities as indicator for OM quality obtained with DRIFT were smaller than those obtained from transmission FTIR. A spectral subtraction procedure was found to reduce effects of mineral absorption bands on DRIFT spectra allowing an improved interpretation. DRIFT spectroscopy as a non-destructive method for analyzing OM composition at intact surfaces in structured soils could be calibrated with information obtained with the more detailed transmission FTIR and complementary methods.

  14. Improved Geologic Interpretation of Non-invasive Electrical Resistivity Imaging from In-situ Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucelli, A.; Aborn, L.; Jacob, R.; Malusis, M.; Evans, J.

    2016-12-01

    Non-invasive geophysical techniques are useful in characterizing the subsurface geology without disturbing the environment, however, the ability to interpret the subsurface is enhanced by invasive work. Since geologic materials have electrical resistivity values it allows for a geologic interpretation to be made based on variations of electrical resistivity measured by electrical resistivity imaging (ERI). This study focuses on the pre-characterization of the geologic subsurface from ERI collected adjacent to the Montandon Marsh, a wetland located near Lewisburg, PA within the West Branch of the Susquehanna River watershed. The previous invasive data, boreholes, indicate that the subsurface consists of limestone and shale bedrock overlain with sand and gravel deposits from glacial outwash and aeolian processes. The objective is to improve our understanding of the subsurface at this long-term hydrologic research site by using excavation results, specifically observed variations in geologic materials and electrical resistivity laboratory testing of subsurface samples. The pre-excavation ERI indicated that the shallow-most geologic material had a resistivity value of 100-500 ohm-m. In comparison, the laboratory testing indicated the shallow-most material had the same range of electrical resistivity values depending on saturation levels. The ERI also showed that there was an electrically conductive material, 7 to 70 ohm-m, that was interpreted to be clay and agreed with borehole data, however, the excavation revealed that at this depth range the geologic material varied from stratified clay to clay with cobbles to weathered residual clay. Excavation revealed that the subtle variations in the electrical conductive material corresponded well with the variations in the geologic material. We will use these results to reinterpret previously collected ERI data from the entire long-term research site.

  15. Interpretation of conduit voltage measurements on the Poloidal Field Insert Sample using the CUDI-CICC numerical code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilyin, Y.; Nijhuis, Arend; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    2006-01-01

    The results of simulations with the CUDI–CICC code on the poloidal field insert sample (PFIS) tested in the SULTAN test facility are presented. The interpretations are based on current distribution analysis from self-field measurements with Hall sensor arrays and current sharing measurements. The

  16. Nicotine Pharmacokinetics in Rats Is Altered as a Function of Age, Impacting the Interpretation of Animal Model Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Evelyn L.; Zhao, Bin; Cui, Jason Z.; Novalen, Maria; Miksys, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Several behavioral studies report that adolescent rats display a preference for nicotine compared with adults. However, age-related pharmacokinetic differences may confound the interpretation of these findings. Thus, differences in pharmacokinetic analyses of nicotine were investigated. Nicotine was administered via acute s.c. (1.0 mg base/kg) or i.v. (0.2 mg base/kg) injection to early adolescent (EA; postnatal day 25) and adult (AD; postnatal day 71) male Wistar rats. Nicotine and its primary metabolite, cotinine, and additional metabolites nornicotine, nicotine-1′-N-oxide, trans-3′-hydroxycotinine, and norcotinine were sampled from 10 minutes to 8 hours (plasma) and 2 to 8 hours (brain) post nicotine and analyzed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Following s.c. nicotine, the EA cohort had lower levels of plasma nicotine, cotinine, and nicotine-1′-N-oxide at multiple time points, resulting in a lower area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for nicotine (P nicotine-1′-N-oxide (P nicotine and its metabolites, and by age. Following i.v. nicotine administration, similar age-related differences were observed, and this route allowed detection of a 1.6-fold-larger volume of distribution and 2-fold higher plasma clearance in the EA cohort compared with the AD cohort. Thus, unlike in humans, there are substantial age differences in nicotine pharmacokinetics such that for a given nicotine dose, adolescent rats will have lower plasma and brain nicotine compared with adults, suggesting that this should be considered when interpreting animal model data. PMID:24980255

  17. Design, analysis, and interpretation of field quality-control data for water-sampling projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David K.; Schertz, Terry L.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Sandstrom, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    The process of obtaining and analyzing water samples from the environment includes a number of steps that can affect the reported result. The equipment used to collect and filter samples, the bottles used for specific subsamples, any added preservatives, sample storage in the field, and shipment to the laboratory have the potential to affect how accurately samples represent the environment from which they were collected. During the early 1990s, the U.S. Geological Survey implemented policies to include the routine collection of quality-control samples in order to evaluate these effects and to ensure that water-quality data were adequately representing environmental conditions. Since that time, the U.S. Geological Survey Office of Water Quality has provided training in how to design effective field quality-control sampling programs and how to evaluate the resultant quality-control data. This report documents that training material and provides a reference for methods used to analyze quality-control data.

  18. Planning considerations for a Mars Sample Receiving Facility: summary and interpretation of three design studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, David W; Allen, Carlton C; Bass, Deborah S; Buxbaum, Karen L; Campbell, James K; Lindstrom, David J; Miller, Sylvia L; Papanastassiou, Dimitri A

    2009-10-01

    It has been widely understood for many years that an essential component of a Mars Sample Return mission is a Sample Receiving Facility (SRF). The purpose of such a facility would be to take delivery of the flight hardware that lands on Earth, open the spacecraft and extract the sample container and samples, and conduct an agreed-upon test protocol, while ensuring strict containment and contamination control of the samples while in the SRF. Any samples that are found to be non-hazardous (or are rendered non-hazardous by sterilization) would then be transferred to long-term curation. Although the general concept of an SRF is relatively straightforward, there has been considerable discussion about implementation planning. The Mars Exploration Program carried out an analysis of the attributes of an SRF to establish its scope, including minimum size and functionality, budgetary requirements (capital cost, operating costs, cost profile), and development schedule. The approach was to arrange for three independent design studies, each led by an architectural design firm, and compare the results. While there were many design elements in common identified by each study team, there were significant differences in the way human operators were to interact with the systems. In aggregate, the design studies provided insight into the attributes of a future SRF and the complex factors to consider for future programmatic planning.

  19. Experimental Evaluation of the Surface Alteration of Gasket Samples under Operative Conditions

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    M.C. Bignozzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the surface alteration of gasket samples commercialized by two alternative producers. These gaskets, in polymeric materials, are installed in process plants used for cleaning tires molds by a pioneering ultrasonic process. They are exposed to a combination of ultrasonic waves, temperature, humidity and acid attack causing several erosion phenomena. Their surface degradation under ordinary operative conditions was investigated using mechanical and tribological tests. The experimental characterization was performed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermograms, differential scanning calorimetry curves and infrared spectra aiming at defining the specific mechanics of wearing. As a conclusion, it was possible to state that even if samples exhibit similar chemical structures, their thermal and mechanical properties as well as their geometric dimensions are different. Such differences in the materials might cause various unexpected wear behaviors when gaskets are employed in the same working conditions.


  20. Influence of Lead on the Interpretation of Bone Samples with Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

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    Abdolhamed Shahedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is devoted to tracing and identifying the elements available in bone sample using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS. The bone samples were prepared from the thigh of laboratory rats, which consumed 325.29 g/mol lead acetate having 4 mM concentration in specified time duration. About 76 atomic lines have been analyzed and we found that the dominant elements are Ca I, Ca II, Mg I, Mg II, Fe I, and Fe II. Temperature curve and bar graph were drawn to compare bone elements of group B which consumed lead with normal group, group A, in the same laboratory conditions. Plasma parameters including plasma temperature and electron density were determined by considering Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE condition in the plasma. An inverse relationship has been detected between lead absorption and elements like Calcium and Magnesium absorption comparing elemental values for both the groups.

  1. Within-otolith variability in chemical fingerprints: implications for sampling designs and possible environmental interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Bulleri, Fabio; Pennetta, Antonio; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Clarke, K Robert; Guidetti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Largely used as a natural biological tag in studies of dispersal/connectivity of fish, otolith elemental fingerprinting is usually analyzed by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). LA-ICP-MS produces an elemental fingerprint at a discrete time-point in the life of a fish and can generate data on within-otolith variability of that fingerprint. The presence of within-otolith variability has been previously acknowledged but not incorporated into experimental designs on the presumed, but untested, grounds of both its negligibility compared to among-otolith variability and of spatial autocorrelation among multiple ablations within an otolith. Here, using a hierarchical sampling design of spatial variation at multiple scales in otolith chemical fingerprints for two Mediterranean coastal fishes, we explore: 1) whether multiple ablations within an otolith can be used as independent replicates for significance tests among otoliths, and 2) the implications of incorporating within-otolith variability when assessing spatial variability in otolith chemistry at a hierarchy of spatial scales (different fish, from different sites, at different locations on the Apulian Adriatic coast). We find that multiple ablations along the same daily rings do not necessarily exhibit spatial dependency within the otolith and can be used to estimate residual variability in a hierarchical sampling design. Inclusion of within-otolith measurements reveals that individuals at the same site can show significant variability in elemental uptake. Within-otolith variability examined across the spatial hierarchy identifies differences between the two fish species investigated, and this finding leads to discussion of the potential for within-otolith variability to be used as a marker for fish exposure to stressful conditions. We also demonstrate that a 'cost'-optimal allocation of sampling effort should typically include some level of within-otolith replication in the

  2. Within-otolith variability in chemical fingerprints: implications for sampling designs and possible environmental interpretation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Di Franco

    Full Text Available Largely used as a natural biological tag in studies of dispersal/connectivity of fish, otolith elemental fingerprinting is usually analyzed by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS. LA-ICP-MS produces an elemental fingerprint at a discrete time-point in the life of a fish and can generate data on within-otolith variability of that fingerprint. The presence of within-otolith variability has been previously acknowledged but not incorporated into experimental designs on the presumed, but untested, grounds of both its negligibility compared to among-otolith variability and of spatial autocorrelation among multiple ablations within an otolith. Here, using a hierarchical sampling design of spatial variation at multiple scales in otolith chemical fingerprints for two Mediterranean coastal fishes, we explore: 1 whether multiple ablations within an otolith can be used as independent replicates for significance tests among otoliths, and 2 the implications of incorporating within-otolith variability when assessing spatial variability in otolith chemistry at a hierarchy of spatial scales (different fish, from different sites, at different locations on the Apulian Adriatic coast. We find that multiple ablations along the same daily rings do not necessarily exhibit spatial dependency within the otolith and can be used to estimate residual variability in a hierarchical sampling design. Inclusion of within-otolith measurements reveals that individuals at the same site can show significant variability in elemental uptake. Within-otolith variability examined across the spatial hierarchy identifies differences between the two fish species investigated, and this finding leads to discussion of the potential for within-otolith variability to be used as a marker for fish exposure to stressful conditions. We also demonstrate that a 'cost'-optimal allocation of sampling effort should typically include some level of within

  3. Snake mitochondrial genomes: phylogenetic relationships and implications of extended taxon sampling for interpretations of mitogenomic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Snake mitochondrial genomes are of great interest in understanding mitogenomic evolution because of gene duplications and rearrangements and the fast evolutionary rate of their genes compared to other vertebrates. Mitochondrial gene sequences have also played an important role in attempts to resolve the contentious phylogenetic relationships of especially the early divergences among alethinophidian snakes. Two recent innovative studies found dramatic gene- and branch-specific relative acceleration in snake protein-coding gene evolution, particularly along internal branches leading to Serpentes and Alethinophidia. It has been hypothesized that some of these rate shifts are temporally (and possibly causally) associated with control region duplication and/or major changes in ecology and anatomy. Results The near-complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of three henophidian snakes were sequenced: Anilius scytale, Rhinophis philippinus, and Charina trivirgata. All three genomes share a duplicated control region and translocated tRNALEU, derived features found in all alethinophidian snakes studied to date. The new sequence data were aligned with mt genome data for 21 other species of snakes and used in phylogenetic analyses. Phylogenetic results agreed with many other studies in recovering several robust clades, including Colubroidea, Caenophidia, and Cylindrophiidae+Uropeltidae. Nodes within Henophidia that have been difficult to resolve robustly in previous analyses remained uncompellingly resolved here. Comparisons of relative rates of evolution of rRNA vs. protein-coding genes were conducted by estimating branch lengths across the tree. Our expanded sampling revealed dramatic acceleration along the branch leading to Typhlopidae, particularly long rRNA terminal branches within Scolecophidia, and that most of the dramatic acceleration in protein-coding gene rate along Serpentes and Alethinophidia branches occurred before Anilius diverged from other

  4. Morphological variation of Gephyrocapsa oceanica Kamptner 1943 in plankton samples: implications for ecologic and taxonomic interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, Jörg; Klaas, Christine

    2008-07-01

    Morphological analysis of Gephyrocapsa spp. in plankton samples confirms the existence of five out of six morphotypes that were previously reported from Holocene sediments. Our data suggest a much higher diversity within the genus Gephyrocapsa than the currently accepted species circumscriptions. Furthermore, we confirm the morphological species delineations made by Kamptner that allow the separation of three morphological groups within the genus Gephyrocapsa: one group with large bridge angles (G. oceanica var. typica Kamptner 1943), a second group with small bridge angles (G. oceanica var. californiensis Kamptner 1956) and a third group of small coccoliths (G. aperta Kamptner 1963). However, a seemingly continuous transition from small to large coccoliths within G. oceanica var. typica along a temperature gradient points either to a high phenotypic plasticity of G. oceanica var. typica or numerous sibling species highly adapted to specific environmental conditions. Testing of these hypotheses is of utmost importance to understanding the diversity of marine plankton and its evolution, and to assessing the impact of future and past environmental change on primary producers such as coccolithophorids.

  5. Inherent bacterial DNA contamination of extraction and sequencing reagents may affect interpretation of microbiota in low bacterial biomass samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassing, Angela; Dowd, Scot E; Galandiuk, Susan; Davis, Brian; Chiodini, Rodrick J

    2016-01-01

    The advent and use of highly sensitive molecular biology techniques to explore the microbiota and microbiome in environmental and tissue samples have detected the presence of contaminating microbial DNA within reagents. These microbial DNA contaminants may distort taxonomic distributions and relative frequencies in microbial datasets, as well as contribute to erroneous interpretations and identifications. We herein report on the occurrence of bacterial DNA contamination within commonly used DNA extraction kits and PCR reagents and the effect of these contaminates on data interpretation. When compared to previous reports, we identified an additional 88 bacterial genera as potential contaminants of molecular biology grade reagents, bringing the total number of known contaminating microbes to 181 genera. Many of the contaminants detected are considered normal inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract and the environment and are often indistinguishable from those genuinely present in the sample. Laboratories working on bacterial populations need to define contaminants present in all extraction kits and reagents used in the processing of DNA. Any unusual and/or unexpected findings need to be viewed as possible contamination as opposed to unique findings.

  6. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  7. Administration of antibiotic agents before intraoperative sampling in orthopedic infections alters culture results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mayahi, Mohamed; Cian, Anais; Lipsky, Benjamin A; Suvà, Domizio; Müller, Camillo; Landelle, Caroline; Miozzari, Hermès H; Uçkay, Ilker

    2015-11-01

    Many physicians and surgeons think that prescribing antibiotics before intraoperative sampling does not alter the microbiological results. Case-control study of adult patients hospitalized with orthopedic infections. Among 2740 episodes of orthopedic infections, 1167 (43%) had received antibiotic therapy before surgical sampling. Among these, 220 (19%) grew no pathogens while the proportion of culture-negative results in the 2573 who had no preoperative antibiotic therapy was only 6%. By multivariate analyses, pre-operative antibiotic exposure was associated with significantly more culture-negative results (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 2.1-3.7), more non-fermenting rods and skin commensals (odds ratio 2.8 and 3.0, respectively). Even a single pre-operative dose of antibiotic was significantly associated with subsequent culture-negative results (19/93 vs. 297/2350; χ²-test, p = 0.01) and skin commensals (17/74 vs. 274/2350; p = 0.01) compared to episodes without preceding prophylaxis. Prior antibiotic use, including single-dose prophylactic administrations, is three-fold associated with culture-negative results, non-fermenting rods and resistant skin commensals. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid and extensive alteration of phosphorus speciation during oxic storage of wet sediment samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kraal

    Full Text Available The chemical forms of phosphorus (P in sediments are routinely measured in studies of P in modern and ancient marine environments. However, samples for such analyses are often exposed to atmospheric oxygen during storage and handling. Recent work suggests that long-term exposure of pyrite-bearing sediments can lead to a decline in apatite P and an increase in ferric Fe-bound P. Here, we report on alterations in P speciation in reducing modern Baltic Sea sediments that we deliberately exposed to atmospheric oxygen for a period of either one week or one year. During oxidation of the sediment, extensive changes occurred in all measured P reservoirs. Exchangeable P all but disappeared during the first week of exposure, likely reflecting adsorption of porewater PO4 by Fe(III (oxyhydroxides (i.e. ferric Fe-bound P formation. Detrital and organic P were also rapidly affected: decreases in both reservoirs were already observed after the first week of exposure to atmospheric oxygen. This was likely because of acidic dissolution of detrital apatite and oxidation of organic matter, respectively. These processes produced dissolved PO4 that was then scavenged by Fe(III (oxyhydroxides. Interestingly, P in authigenic calcium phosphates (i.e. apatite: authigenic Ca-P remained unaffected after the first week of exposure, which we attributed to the shielding effect of microfossils in which authigenic Ca-P occurs in Baltic Sea sediments. This effect was transient; a marked decrease in the authigenic Ca-P pool was observed in the sediments after one year of exposure to oxygen. In summary, we show that handling and storage of wet sediments under oxic conditions can lead to rapid and extensive alteration of the original sediment P speciation.

  9. Technical note: Improvement of cadaveric skin samples (with severe morphological alteration connected to putrefaction or injury) by an extended histological processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boracchi, M; Andreola, S; Gentile, G; Maghin, F; Marchesi, M; Muccino, M; Zoja, R

    2016-04-01

    The microscopic study and the interpretation of skin samples with advanced post-mortal phenomena or with particular destructive injuries is problematic for the forensic pathologist. In an attempt of restoring the histological architecture of cadaveric skin and overcoming these types of problem, the Authors performed a histological processing that was longer than the standard: it was extended until 62 days to evaluate the improvement of the microscopic morphological aspect. Cutaneous samples were taken from 25 cadavers (5 typologies of skin: charred, putrified, corifed, mummified and partially skeletonized), fixed with a 10%-buffered formalin and then processed in two different ways: one half of the samples was routinely addressed to the standard-time automatic technique, while the other half was manually processed with prolonged times. All the slides were then stained in Hematoxylin-Eosin. The standard-processed slides demonstrated marked morphological alterations and artefacts at the microscopic observation; conversely, those processed with the prolonged manual technique showed an improvement in the morphological structure, sometimes permitting the identification of the anatomical components. Though it is characterized by the inconvenience of protracted times, the application of a long-term manual histological processing to cadaveric skin samples with advanced post-mortal alteration permits to better observe the anatomical architecture of skin and it could be useful and helpful in the evaluation of such cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison between WHO (World Health Organization 2010 and WHO 1999 parameters for semen analysis – interpretation of 529 consecutive samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Catanzariti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantify how many men with normal semen according to WHO (WHO - World Health Organization 1999 criteria, should be considered with abnormal semen according to 2010 criteria and vice versa; to study which parameter of volume, concentration, motility and morphology is the most responsible of this change. Materials and methods: We studied, using WHO 1999 parameters, 529 consecutive semen samples from 427 men, collected in our Department from January 2008 to December 2009, then we re-evaluated those results using WHO 2010 parameters; we also studied each parameter to understand how changed the classification from normal (defined normal by all parameters to abnormal (defined abnormal by at least one parameter using the two WHO criteria. Results: 3 men (0.56% were azoospermic. Among the remaining 526 samples, 199 (37.83% were considered normal and 246 (46.76% abnormal both according to WHO 1999 and WHO 2010 criteria; we found that none of the samples classified normal according to the previous criteria was classified abnormal according the more recent criteria, while 82 (15.58% evaluated as abnormal according 1999 criteria changed to normal according 2010 criteria. The concordance between 1999 and 2010 evaluation was 84.44%. Conclusions: In this study we noted that the changes from WHO 1999 to WHO 2010 criteria did not modify the interpretation of semen quality, because comparing the two classifications we demonstrated that there is a substantial agreement, considering the three parameters (count, motility and morphology all together, and also considering each single parameter. Anyhow, almost 16% of the patients considered infertile according to the old criteria, should be evaluated normal by the new classification and they should not need any treatment for infertility.

  11. Comparison between WHO (World Health Organization) 2010 and WHO 1999 parameters for semen analysis - interpretation of 529 consecutive samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzariti, Francesco; Cantoro, Ubaldo; Lacetera, Vito; Muzzonigro, Giovanni; Polito, Massimo

    2013-09-26

    To quantify how many men with normal semen according to WHO (WHO - World Health Organization) 1999 criteria, should be considered with abnormal semen according to 2010 criteria and vice versa; to study which parameter of volume, concentration, motility and morphology is the most responsible of this change. We studied, using WHO 1999 parameters, 529 consecutive semen samples from 427 men, collected in our Department from January 2008 to December 2009, then we re-evaluated those results using WHO 2010 parameters; we also studied each parameter to understand how changed the classification from normal (defined normal by all parameters) to abnormal (defined abnormal by at least one parameter) using the two WHO criteria. 3 men (0.56%) were azoospermic. Among the remaining 526 samples, 199 (37.83%) were considered normal and 246 (46.76%) abnormal both according to WHO 1999 and WHO 2010 criteria; we found that none of the samples classified normal according to the previous criteria was classified abnormal according the more recent criteria, while 82 (15.58%) evaluated as abnormal according 1999 criteria changed to normal according 2010 criteria. The concordance between 1999 and 2010 evaluation was 84.44%. In this study we noted that the changes from WHO 1999 to WHO 2010 criteria did not modify the interpretation of semen quality, because comparing the two classifications we demonstrated that there is a substantial agreement, considering the three parameters (count, motility and morphology) all together, and also considering each single parameter. Anyhow, almost 16% of the patients considered infertile according to the old criteria, should be evaluated normal by the new classification and they should not need any treatment for infertility.

  12. A novel SNP analysis method to detect copy number alterations with an unbiased reference signal directly from tumor samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaFramboise William A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic instability in cancer leads to abnormal genome copy number alterations (CNA as a mechanism underlying tumorigenesis. Using microarrays and other technologies, tumor CNA are detected by comparing tumor sample CN to normal reference sample CN. While advances in microarray technology have improved detection of copy number alterations, the increase in the number of measured signals, noise from array probes, variations in signal-to-noise ratio across batches and disparity across laboratories leads to significant limitations for the accurate identification of CNA regions when comparing tumor and normal samples. Methods To address these limitations, we designed a novel "Virtual Normal" algorithm (VN, which allowed for construction of an unbiased reference signal directly from test samples within an experiment using any publicly available normal reference set as a baseline thus eliminating the need for an in-lab normal reference set. Results The algorithm was tested using an optimal, paired tumor/normal data set as well as previously uncharacterized pediatric malignant gliomas for which a normal reference set was not available. Using Affymetrix 250K Sty microarrays, we demonstrated improved signal-to-noise ratio and detected significant copy number alterations using the VN algorithm that were validated by independent PCR analysis of the target CNA regions. Conclusions We developed and validated an algorithm to provide a virtual normal reference signal directly from tumor samples and minimize noise in the derivation of the raw CN signal. The algorithm reduces the variability of assays performed across different reagent and array batches, methods of sample preservation, multiple personnel, and among different laboratories. This approach may be valuable when matched normal samples are unavailable or the paired normal specimens have been subjected to variations in methods of preservation.

  13. Interpretation of 1.5-m resolution AUV bathymetry using ROV observations and samples at Davidson and Rodriguez Seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H.; Conlin, D.; Thompson, D.

    2010-12-01

    The summits and upper flanks of Rodriguez and Davidson Seamounts off California were mapped at 1.5-m resolution by the MBARI Mapping AUV. The seamounts were built by episodic eruptions on abandoned spreading ridges 10-12 and 10-15 Ma, respectively. They consist of ridges and elongate cones that parallel the old spreading axes, yet have strikingly different summit morphologies. Video observations and samples from prior ROV Tiburon dives are used to interpret the textures revealed in the AUV data, and are extrapolated to make geologic maps of the seamounts. The summit of Davidson is rugged and studded with cones of three general classes: completely smooth cones with nearly circular bases, mounds elongated into subparallel ridges, and disorganized mounds of rounded shapes. The elongated mound ridge-lines are roughly rectangular in cross-section, and smooth apron-like slopes descend below. They and the smooth cones occupy the highest points on the seamount but also occur deeper, whereas the disorganized mounds occur only deeper. Smooth, flat pockets lie between the cones. The disorganized mounds were identified as pillow lavas during ROV dives. The mounds that form ridges are blocky ’a’a-like flows, probably oriented over eruptive fissures. Lava samples vary from basalt to trachyte, and there is no correlation between the presumed fluidity of the lavas and occurrence of pillows. The smooth aprons below the blocky flows, and presumably the smooth cones, are glass-rich, volcaniclastic debris produced by explosive activity above. The debris has bedding parallel to the steep slopes, and has lithified into pavement. Pelagic sediment has accumulated between the cones. An inflated flow drained at its distal end in a valley between two ridges; collapses in the flow have drainback veneers like bath-tub rings on the inner surfaces. The summit of Rodriguez has no cones, but they dot the flanks. They are smooth with nearly circular bases and mounds elongated into ridges with

  14. Discovery of Lipid Alterations in Biological Samples using UPLC, Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry and TransOmics

    OpenAIRE

    Astarita, G.; Isaac, G; Shockcor, J; Langridge, J.; Martin, LeRoy

    2013-01-01

    Lipids play essential roles in health and disease. The discovery of novel alterations in lipid levels related to human diseases could lead to the development of novel biomarkers and shed light on the etiology of many human diseases. The challenge with global lipid analysis is the chemical complexity and the large range of concentrations of thousands of lipid species that are present in biological samples. Here we present a robust workflow for global lipid profiling, which employs UPLC, ion mo...

  15. The risk of altering soil and sediment samples upon extract preparation for analytical and bio-analytical investigations--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Schulze, Tobias; Hollert, Henner

    2008-04-01

    Organic total extracts play an important role in soil and sediment risk assessment. Beside a routine application in analytical chemistry, they are used in bio-analytical investigations as a "worst-case scenario" or, e.g., in order to simulate chronic intoxication, and as samples for effect-directed analysis. While theoretically providing highly reliable data and good reproducibility, the whole process of sample handling and extract preparation can lead to extracts that might fail to accurately represent a toxic potential of their corresponding sampling site. This review identifies and discusses the most important possible alterations that have the potential to lead to over and, more often, underestimation of the effectiveness of extracts. Since incorrect data will compromise soil and sediment risk assessment as a whole, results from analytical and bio-analytical investigations of extracts demand cautious interpretation. Reliability of extract testing grows with reproducibility; experiments should therefore be repeated with independent extraction replicates. New or optimized extraction procedures should circumvent the issues mentioned here while being suitable for routine application.

  16. Interpreting meta-analysis according to the adequacy of sample size. An example using isoniazid chemoprophylaxis for tuberculosis in purified protein derivative negative HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Kristian; Anema, Aranka; Mills, Edward

    2010-01-01

    To illustrate the utility of statistical monitoring boundaries in meta-analysis, and provide a framework in which meta-analysis can be interpreted according to the adequacy of sample size. To propose a simple method for determining how many patients need to be randomized in a future trial before ...

  17. Combination of statistical methods and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for more comprehensive, molecular-level interpretations of petroleum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Manhoi; Yeo, Injoon; Park, Eunsuk; Kim, Young Hwan; Yoo, Jongshin; Kim, Eunkyoung; No, Myoung-han; Koh, Jaesuk; Kim, Sunghwan

    2010-01-01

    Complex petroleum mass spectra obtained by Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) were successfully interpreted at the molecular level by applying principle component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). A total of 40 mass spectra were obtained from 20 crude oil samples using both positive and negative atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Approximately 400,000 peaks were identified at the molecular level. Conventional data analyses would have been impractical with so much data. However, PCA grouped samples into score plots based on their molecular composition. In this way, the overall compositional difference between samples could be easily displayed and identified by comparing score and loading plots. HCA was also performed to group and compare samples based on selected peaks that had been grouped by PCA. Subsequent heat map analyses revealed detailed compositional differences among grouped samples. This study demonstrates a promising new approach for studying multiple, complex petroleum samples at the molecular level.

  18. Haemolysis during sample preparation alters microRNA content of plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela B Kirschner

    Full Text Available The presence of cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs has been detected in a range of body fluids. The miRNA content of plasma/serum in particular has been proposed as a potential source of novel biomarkers for a number of diseases. Nevertheless, the quantification of miRNAs from plasma or serum is made difficult due to inefficient isolation and lack of consensus regarding the optimal reference miRNA. The effect of haemolysis on the quantification and normalisation of miRNAs in plasma has not been investigated in great detail. We found that levels of miR-16, a commonly used reference gene, showed little variation when measured in plasma samples from healthy volunteers or patients with malignant mesothelioma or coronary artery disease. Including samples with evidence of haemolysis led to variation in miR-16 levels and consequently decreased its ability to serve as a reference. The levels of miR-16 and miR-451, both present in significant levels in red blood cells, were proportional to the degree of haemolysis. Measurements of the level of these miRNAs in whole blood, plasma, red blood cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed that the miRNA content of red blood cells represents the major source of variation in miR-16 and miR-451 levels measured in plasma. Adding lysed red blood cells to non-haemolysed plasma allowed a cut-off level of free haemoglobin to be determined, below which miR-16 and miR-451 levels displayed little variation between individuals. In conclusion, increases in plasma miR-16 and miR-451 are caused by haemolysis. In the absence of haemolysis the levels of both miR-16 and miR-451 are sufficiently constant to serve as normalisers.

  19. The effect of sampling rate on interpretation of the temporal characteristics of radiative and convective heating in wildland flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Frankman; Brent W. Webb; Bret W. Butler; Daniel Jimenez; Michael Harrington

    2012-01-01

    Time-resolved radiative and convective heating measurements were collected on a prescribed burn in coniferous fuels at a sampling frequency of 500 Hz. Evaluation of the data in the time and frequency domain indicate that this sampling rate was sufficient to capture the temporal fluctuations of radiative and convective heating. The convective heating signal contained...

  20. Association of human papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis with intraepithelial alterations in cervix samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Wohlmeister

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different infectious agents and their association with human papillomavirus (HPV in cervical carcinogenesis have not been completely elucidated. This study describes the association between cytological changes in cervical epithelium and the detection of the most relevant aetiological agents of sexually transmitted diseases. Samples collected from 169 patients were evaluated by conventional cytology followed by molecular analysis to detect HPV DNA, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2,Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, andTreponema pallidum, besides genotyping for most common high-risk HPV. An association between cytological lesions and different behavioural habits such as smoking and sedentariness was observed. Intraepithelial lesions were also associated with HPV and C. trachomatis detection. An association was also found between both simple and multiple genotype infection and cytological changes. The investigation of HPV and C. trachomatisproved its importance and may be considered in the future for including in screening programs, since these factors are linked to the early diagnosis of patients with precursor lesions of cervical cancer.

  1. Maternal obesity alters immune cell frequencies and responses in umbilical cord blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Randall M; Marshall, Nicole E; Jeske, Daniel R; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Thornburg, Kent; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2015-06-01

    Maternal obesity is one of the several key factors thought to modulate neonatal immune system development. Data from murine studies demonstrate worse outcomes in models of infection, autoimmunity, and allergic sensitization in offspring of obese dams. In humans, children born to obese mothers are at increased risk for asthma. These findings suggest a dysregulation of immune function in the children of obese mothers; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal body weight and the human neonatal immune system. Umbilical cord blood samples were collected from infants born to lean, overweight, and obese mothers. Frequency and function of major innate and adaptive immune cell populations were quantified using flow cytometry and multiplex analysis of circulating factors. Compared to babies born to lean mothers, babies of obese mothers had fewer eosinophils and CD4 T helper cells, reduced monocyte and dendritic cell responses to Toll-like receptor ligands, and increased plasma levels of IFN-α2 and IL-6 in cord blood. These results support the hypothesis that maternal obesity influences programming of the neonatal immune system, providing a potential link to increased incidence of chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and cardiovascular disease in the offspring. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The Australian longitudinal study on male health sampling design and survey weighting: implications for analysis and interpretation of clustered data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittal, Matthew J; Carlin, John B; Currier, Dianne; Downes, Marnie; English, Dallas R; Gordon, Ian; Pirkis, Jane; Gurrin, Lyle

    2016-10-31

    The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men) used a complex sampling scheme to identify potential participants for the baseline survey. This raises important questions about when and how to adjust for the sampling design when analyzing data from the baseline survey. We describe the sampling scheme used in Ten to Men focusing on four important elements: stratification, multi-stage sampling, clustering and sample weights. We discuss how these elements fit together when using baseline data to estimate a population parameter (e.g., population mean or prevalence) or to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome (e.g., an odds ratio). We illustrate this with examples using a continuous outcome (weight in kilograms) and a binary outcome (smoking status). Estimates of a population mean or disease prevalence using Ten to Men baseline data are influenced by the extent to which the sampling design is addressed in an analysis. Estimates of mean weight and smoking prevalence are larger in unweighted analyses than weighted analyses (e.g., mean = 83.9 kg vs. 81.4 kg; prevalence = 18.0 % vs. 16.7 %, for unweighted and weighted analyses respectively) and the standard error of the mean is 1.03 times larger in an analysis that acknowledges the hierarchical (clustered) structure of the data compared with one that does not. For smoking prevalence, the corresponding standard error is 1.07 times larger. Measures of association (mean group differences, odds ratios) are generally similar in unweighted or weighted analyses and whether or not adjustment is made for clustering. The extent to which the Ten to Men sampling design is accounted for in any analysis of the baseline data will depend on the research question. When the goals of the analysis are to estimate the prevalence of a disease or risk factor in the population or the magnitude of a population-level exposure-outcome association, our advice is to adopt an analysis that respects the

  3. The Australian longitudinal study on male health sampling design and survey weighting: implications for analysis and interpretation of clustered data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Spittal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men used a complex sampling scheme to identify potential participants for the baseline survey. This raises important questions about when and how to adjust for the sampling design when analyzing data from the baseline survey. Methods We describe the sampling scheme used in Ten to Men focusing on four important elements: stratification, multi-stage sampling, clustering and sample weights. We discuss how these elements fit together when using baseline data to estimate a population parameter (e.g., population mean or prevalence or to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome (e.g., an odds ratio. We illustrate this with examples using a continuous outcome (weight in kilograms and a binary outcome (smoking status. Results Estimates of a population mean or disease prevalence using Ten to Men baseline data are influenced by the extent to which the sampling design is addressed in an analysis. Estimates of mean weight and smoking prevalence are larger in unweighted analyses than weighted analyses (e.g., mean = 83.9 kg vs. 81.4 kg; prevalence = 18.0 % vs. 16.7 %, for unweighted and weighted analyses respectively and the standard error of the mean is 1.03 times larger in an analysis that acknowledges the hierarchical (clustered structure of the data compared with one that does not. For smoking prevalence, the corresponding standard error is 1.07 times larger. Measures of association (mean group differences, odds ratios are generally similar in unweighted or weighted analyses and whether or not adjustment is made for clustering. Conclusions The extent to which the Ten to Men sampling design is accounted for in any analysis of the baseline data will depend on the research question. When the goals of the analysis are to estimate the prevalence of a disease or risk factor in the population or the magnitude of a population-level exposure

  4. Relationship between the size of the samples and the interpretation of the mercury intrusion results of an artificial sandstone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, H.; Zhang, H.; Zuo, Y.; Gao, P.; Ye, G.

    2018-01-01

    Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) measurements are widely used to determine pore throat size distribution (PSD) curves of porous materials. The pore throat size of porous materials has been used to estimate their compressive strength and air permeability. However, the effect of sample size on

  5. Comments on the analysis interpretation by Rogers and Latendresse regarding samples coming from the Shroud of Turin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bella, Marco [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); Garlaschelli, Luigi [Department of Chemistry, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli 10, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Samperi, Roberto, E-mail: Marco.Bella@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2016-05-20

    Highlights: • A paper by R. Rogers supported the presence of an “invisible mending” on the Turin Shroud. • We have shown that no mass spectrometry evidence supports this pseudoscientific theory. • M. Latendresse commented on our work, but wrongly assigned a key spectrum. • The two samples underwent different treatments, making them non-comparable. • No evidence of any kind (chemical or instrumental) supports this pseudoscientific theory. - Abstract: The presence of a “invisible mending” has been proposed as an explanation for medieval radiocarbon dating measurements made on the Shroud of Turin. Here we show that the chemical analysis which was to support this theory is not consistent, and no scientific data confirm these speculations. Specifically, the samples of the Shroud image fibers underwent a different cleaning procedure with regards to those allegedly belonging to the medieval mending. There is no reliable indication of the supposedly diagnostic compounds (e.g. gum Arabic, pentoses). The only detectable difference between the samples is the presence of a compound with an aliphatic chain which cannot be identified more in detail, e.g. as sebum.

  6. Relationship between serum uric acid and electrocardiographic alterations in a large sample of general population: data from the Brisighella Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Rosticci, Martina; Reggi, Alessandra; Derosa, Giuseppe; Parini, Angelo; Grandi, Elisa; D'Addato, Sergio; Borghi, Claudio

    2015-06-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA) may contribute to the increased cardiovascular damage through direct injury to the endothelium and alteration of cardiovascular function. To evaluate the association of SUA with the presence of the most recurrent electrographic alterations and with the length of the main ECG intervals in a large sample of general population. For this study, on the database of the Brisighella Heart Study, we evaluated the available data of 790 men and 849 women, excluding subjects affected by gout or taking antihyperuricemic agents, those taking drug increasing the QT interval and those using beta-blockers or non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers at the moment of the ECG registration. Multiple ascending stepwise regression analyses were carried out to determine the independent predictors of the predefined ECG alterations. The prevalence of predefined ECG alterations was comparable between genders, with the exception of sinus bradicardia, left-anterior fascicular block, atrio-ventricular blocks and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), which appeared to be more frequent in men. The multivariate analysis revealed that SUA was associated to ischaemic alterations, LVH, sinus tachycardia and tachyarrhytmias. Age was associated to all evaluated ECG alterations beyond sinus tachycardia and LVH. Male sex was associated to sinus bradicardia, atrio-ventricular blocks, anterior-left fascicular block and LVH. Blood pressure was associated to different ECG alterations, but with clinically relevant OR with ischaemic alterations and LVH. SUA level is related the prevalence of both organic and rhythm ECG alterations in a wide sample of general population.

  7. Interpretation of mercury content in national samples of sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus and marlin (Makaira spp . Or Tetrapturus spp. from international toxicological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Callega

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Total mercury results in eleven samples of sail fish and eleven samples of marlin from national market places (where they are called with those names, from a study by the Costarican Fishing Federation, are presented. Sail fish samples vary between 0,85 and 1,30 mg of mercury/kg of fish, with an average of (1,07±0,17 mg of mercury/kg of fish, and marlin samples varied between 0,41 and 1,18 mg of mercury/kg of fish with an average of (0,83±0,27 mg of mercury/kg of fish. Both cases showed mercury concentrations close to the maximum recommended value of the World Health Organization (WHO of 1 mg of mercury/kg of fish for predatory species. At least 64% of the samples were equal to or above the toxicological threshold of WHO, defined as the provisional tolerable weekly intake, PTWI, calculated for portion sizes between 100 g and 150 g. Results show the presence of mercury in these samples, and are used to interpret mercury content compared to WHO values and propose recommendations for Costa Rica. These results are consistent with mercury accumulation in the ocean and in predatory fish observed worldwide, documented with a large number of references.

  8. Sample preparation and data interpretation procedures for the examination of xenobiotic compounds in skin by indirect imaging MALDI-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prideaux, Brendan; Atkinson, Sally J.; Carolan, Vikki A.; Morton, Jacqueline; Clench, Malcolm R.

    2007-02-01

    Aspects of the indirect examination of xenobiotic distribution on the surface of and within skin sections by imaging matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) have been examined. A solvent assisted blotting technique previously developed for the examination of the absorption of agrochemicals into leaves has been examined for the analysis of the distribution of hydrocortisone on the surface of skin. It was found that by careful control of the extraction and blotting procedure an 80-fold sensitivity improvement could by obtained over dry blotting with only 10% lateral diffusion of the image. However, in contrast it was found that the use of a hydrophobic blotting membrane was more suitable for the examination of the transdermal absorption of the pesticide chlorpyrifos. The potential of incorporating a derivatisation step into the solvent assisted blotting procedure was investigated by blotting isocyanate treated skin onto a methanol soaked blotting membrane. This served the dual purpose of derivatising the isocyanate to a stable substituted urea derivative and extracting it from the skin. Preliminary data indicate that this approach may have some merit for field sampling for such compound and clearly derivatisation also offers the potential for sensitivity enhancements. Finally, the use of principal components analysis with an ion species specific normalisation procedure is proposed to identify regions of drug treated skin where the ion abundance of the compound of interest is low.

  9. Direct and indirect alcohol biomarkers data collected in hair samples - multivariate data analysis and likelihood ratio interpretation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Alladio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentration values of direct and indirect biomarkers of ethanol consumption were detected in blood (indirect or hair (direct samples from a pool of 125 individuals classified as either chronic (i.e. positive and non-chronic (i.e. negative alcohol drinkers. These experimental values formed the dataset under examination (Table 1. Indirect biomarkers included: aspartate transferase (AST, alanine transferase (ALT, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, mean corpuscular volume of the erythrocytes (MCV, carbohydrate-deficient-transferrin (CDT. The following direct biomarkers were also detected in hair: ethyl myristate (E14:0, ethyl palmitate (E16:0, ethyl stearate (E18:1, ethyl oleate (E18:0, the sum of their four concentrations (FAEEs, i.e. Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters and ethyl glucuronide (EtG; pg/mg. Body mass index (BMI was also collected as a potential influencing factor. Likelihood ratio (LR approaches have been used to provide predictive models for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse, based on different combinations of direct and indirect alcohol biomarkers, as described in “Evaluation of direct and indirect ethanol biomarkers using a likelihood ratio approach to identify chronic alcohol abusers for forensic purposes” (E. Alladio, A. Martyna, A. Salomone, V. Pirro, M. Vincenti, G. Zadora, 2017 [1].

  10. Does respondent driven sampling alter the social network composition and health-seeking behaviors of illicit drug users followed prospectively?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby E Rudolph

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Respondent driven sampling (RDS was originally developed to sample and provide peer education to injection drug users at risk for HIV. Based on the premise that drug users' social networks were maintained through sharing rituals, this peer-driven approach to disseminate educational information and reduce risk behaviors capitalizes and expands upon the norms that sustain these relationships. Compared with traditional outreach interventions, peer-driven interventions produce greater reductions in HIV risk behaviors and adoption of safer behaviors over time, however, control and intervention groups are not similarly recruited. As peer-recruitment may alter risk networks and individual risk behaviors over time, such comparison studies are unable to isolate the effect of a peer-delivered intervention. This analysis examines whether RDS recruitment (without an intervention is associated with changes in health-seeking behaviors and network composition over 6 months. New York City drug users (N = 618 were recruited using targeted street outreach (TSO and RDS (2006-2009. 329 non-injectors (RDS = 237; TSO = 92 completed baseline and 6-month surveys ascertaining demographic, drug use, and network characteristics. Chi-square and t-tests compared RDS- and TSO-recruited participants on changes in HIV testing and drug treatment utilization and in the proportion of drug using, sex, incarcerated and social support networks over the follow-up period. The sample was 66% male, 24% Hispanic, 69% black, 62% homeless, and the median age was 35. At baseline, the median network size was 3, 86% used crack, 70% used cocaine, 40% used heroin, and in the past 6 months 72% were tested for HIV and 46% were enrolled in drug treatment. There were no significant differences by recruitment strategy with respect to changes in health-seeking behaviors or network composition over 6 months. These findings suggest no association between RDS recruitment and changes in

  11. Optimization of PMAxx pretreatment to distinguish between human norovirus with intact and altered capsids in shellfish and sewage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, Walter; Khezri, Mohammad; Ollivier, Joanna; Le Guyader, Françoise S; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Aznar, Rosa; Sánchez, Gloria

    2018-02-02

    Shellfish contamination by human noroviruses (HuNoVs) is a serious health and economic problem. Recently an ISO procedure based on RT-qPCR for the quantitative detection of HuNoVs in shellfish has been issued, but these procedures cannot discriminate between inactivated and potentially infectious viruses. The aim of the present study was to optimize a pretreatment using PMAxx to better discriminate between intact and heat-treated HuNoVs in shellfish and sewage. To this end, the optimal conditions (30min incubation with 100μM of PMAxx and 0.5% of Triton, and double photoactivation) were applied to mussels, oysters and cockles artificially inoculated with thermally-inactivated (99°C for 5min) HuNoV GI and GII. This pretreatment reduced the signal of thermally-inactivated HuNoV GI in cockles and HuNoV GII in mussels by >3 log. Additionally, this pretreatment reduced the signal of thermally-inactivated HuNoV GI and GII between 1 and 1.5 log in oysters. Thermal inactivation of HuNoV GI and GII in PBS, sewage and bioaccumulated oysters was also evaluated by the PMAxx-Triton pretreatment. Results showed significant differences between reductions observed in the control and PMAxx-treated samples in PBS following treatment at 72 and 95°C for 15min. In sewage, the RT-qPCR signal of HuNoV GI was completely removed by the PMAxx pretreatment after heating at 72 and 95°C, while the RT-qPCR signal for HuNoV GII was completely eliminated only at 95°C. Finally, the PMAxx-Triton pretreatment was applied to naturally contaminated sewage and oysters, resulting in most of the HuNoV genomes quantified in sewage and oyster samples (12 out of 17) corresponding to undamaged capsids. Although this procedure may still overestimate infectivity, the PMAxx-Triton pretreatment represents a step forward to better interpret the quantification of intact HuNoVs in complex matrices, such as sewage and shellfish, and it could certainly be included in the procedures based on RT-qPCR. Copyright

  12. Radiology image perception and observer performance: How does expertise and clinical information alter interpretation? Stroke detection explored through eye-tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lindsey; Gale, Alastair; Darker, Iain; Toms, Andoni; Saada, Janak

    2009-02-01

    Historically, radiology research has been dominated by chest and breast screening. Few studies have examined complex interpretative tasks such as the reading of multidimensional brain CT or MRI scans. Additionally, no studies at the time of writing have explored the interpretation of stroke images; from novices through to experienced practitioners using eye movement analysis. Finally, there appears a lack of evidence on the clinical effects of radiology reports and their influence on image appraisal and clinical diagnosis. A computer-based, eye-tracking study was designed to assess diagnostic accuracy and interpretation in stroke CT and MR imagery. Eight predetermined clinical cases, five images per case, were presented to participants (novices, trainee, and radiologists; n=8). The presence or absence of abnormalities was rated on a five-point Likert scale and their locations reported. Half cases of the cases were accompanied by clinical information; half were not, to assess the impact of information on observer performance. Results highlight differences in visual search patterns amongst novice, trainee and expert observers; the most marked differences occurred between novice readers and experts. Experts spent more time in challenging areas of interest (AOI) than novices and trainee, and were more confident unless a lesion was large and obvious. The time to first AOI fixation differed by size, shape and clarity of lesion. 'Time to lesion' dropped significantly when recognition appeared to occur between slices. The influence of clinical information was minimal.

  13. Individual-level variation and higher-level interpretations of space use in wide-ranging species: An albatross case study of sampling effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Elizabeth Gutowsky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecologists and managers need to know the spatial extent of at-sea areas most frequented by the groups of wildlife they study or manage. Defining group-specific ranges and distributions (i.e. space use at the level of species, population, age-class, etc. can help to identify the source or severity of common or distinct threats among different at-risk groups. In biologging studies, this is accomplished by estimating the space use of a group based on a sample of tracked individuals. A major assumption of these studies is consistency in individual movements among members of a group. The implications of scaling up individual-level tracking data to infer higher-level spatial patterns for groups (i.e. size and extent of areas used, overlap or segregation among groups is not well documented for wide-ranging pelagic species with high potential for individual variation in space use. We present a case study exploring the effects of sampling (i.e. number and identity of individuals contributing to an analysis on defining group-specific space use with year-round multi-colony tracking data from two highly vagile species, Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis and black-footed (P. nigripes albatrosses. The results clearly demonstrate that caution is warranted when defining space use for a specific species-colony-period group based on datasets of small, intermediate, or relatively large sample sizes (ranging from n=3-42 tracked individuals due to a high degree of individual-level variation in movements. Overall, we provide further support to the recommendation that biologging studies aiming to define higher-level patterns in space use exercise restraint in the scope of inference, particularly when pooled Kernel Density Estimation techniques are applied to small datasets for wide-ranging species. Transparent reporting in respect to the potential limitations of the data can in turn better inform both biological interpretations and science-based management

  14. Meta-interpreting SETL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aliffi

    1988-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a SETL interpreter written in SETL. This module may be reused as a basis to build debuggers, type checkers, symbolic executers, tracers, and many other general purpose programming tools. Other more advanced uses include experimenting with altered semantics for SETL and building interpreters for multi-paradigm languages, as in SetLog project, which aims at constructing a language integrating logic programming and set-oriented programming.

  15. Conference Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leal Lobato, Ana Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Conference Interpreters: How to serve the cause of minorized communities in the new postmonolingual / ‘postmonodiscoursive’ order,......Conference Interpreters: How to serve the cause of minorized communities in the new postmonolingual / ‘postmonodiscoursive’ order,...

  16. Interpreting Idioms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Susan; Estill, Robert

    A study investigated the immediate comprehension processes involved in the interpretation of English idiomatic expressions. Idioms such as "bury the hatchet" were presented to 48 college students in sentential contexts that either biased the subject toward a literal or a figurative interpretation or left the interpretation ambiguous. In control…

  17. MicroRNA alterations and associated aberrant DNA methylation patterns across multiple sample types in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, Erik Digman; Gao, Shan; Hulf, Toby

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) expression is broadly altered in cancer, but few studies have investigated miRNA deregulation in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of >30 miRNA genes in a range of tissues, and we aimed to investigate this further in OSCC....

  18. How to Make Nothing Out of Something: Analyses of the Impact of Study Sampling and Statistical Interpretation in Misleading Meta-Analytic Conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Robert Cunningham

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The limited resource model states that self-control is governed by a relatively finite set of inner resources on which people draw when exerting willpower. Once self-control resources have been used up or depleted, they are less available for other self-control tasks, leading to a decrement in subsequent self-control success. The depletion effect has been studied for over 20 years, tested or extended in more than 600 studies, and supported in an independent meta-analysis (Hagger, Wood, Stiff, and Chatzisarantis, 2010. Meta-analyses are supposed to reduce bias in literature reviews. Carter, Kofler, Forster, and McCullough’s (2015 meta-analysis, by contrast, included a series of questionable decisions involving sampling, methods, and data analysis. We provide quantitative analyses of key sampling issues: exclusion of many of the best depletion studies based on idiosyncratic criteria and the emphasis on mini meta-analyses with low statistical power as opposed to the overall depletion effect. We discuss two key methodological issues: failure to code for research quality, and the quantitative impact of weak studies by novice researchers. We discuss two key data analysis issues: questionable interpretation of the results of trim and fill and funnel plot asymmetry test procedures, and the use and misinterpretation of the untested Precision Effect Test [PET] and Precision Effect Estimate with Standard Error (PEESE procedures. Despite these serious problems, the Carter et al. meta-analysis results actually indicate that there is a real depletion effect – contrary to their title.

  19. CLImAT: accurate detection of copy number alteration and loss of heterozygosity in impure and aneuploid tumor samples using whole-genome sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenhua; Liu, Yuanning; Shen, Yi; Wang, Minghui; Li, Ao

    2014-09-15

    Whole-genome sequencing of tumor samples has been demonstrated as an efficient approach for comprehensive analysis of genomic aberrations in cancer genome. Critical issues such as tumor impurity and aneuploidy, GC-content and mappability bias have been reported to complicate identification of copy number alteration and loss of heterozygosity in complex tumor samples. Therefore, efficient computational methods are required to address these issues. We introduce CLImAT (CNA and LOH Assessment in Impure and Aneuploid Tumors), a bioinformatics tool for identification of genomic aberrations from tumor samples using whole-genome sequencing data. Without requiring a matched normal sample, CLImAT takes integrated analysis of read depth and allelic frequency and provides extensive data processing procedures including GC-content and mappability correction of read depth and quantile normalization of B-allele frequency. CLImAT accurately identifies copy number alteration and loss of heterozygosity even for highly impure tumor samples with aneuploidy. We evaluate CLImAT on both simulated and real DNA sequencing data to demonstrate its ability to infer tumor impurity and ploidy and identify genomic aberrations in complex tumor samples. The CLImAT software package can be freely downloaded at http://bioinformatics.ustc.edu.cn/CLImAT/. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Evidence-based guidelines for determination of sample size and interpretation of the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Kim; King, Madeleine T; Velikova, Galina; Martyn St-James, Marrissa; Fayers, Peter M; Brown, Julia M

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE; To use published literature to estimate large, medium, and small differences in quality of life (QOL) data from the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30). An innovative method combining systematic review of published studies, expert opinions, and meta-analysis was used to estimate large, medium, and small differences for QLQ-C30 scores. Published mean data were identified from the literature. Differences (contrasts) between groups (eg, between treatment groups, age groups, and performance status groups) were reviewed by 34 experts in QOL measurement and cancer treatment. The experts, blinded to actual QOL results, were asked to predict these differences. A large difference was defined as one representing unequivocal clinical relevance. A medium difference was defined as likely to be clinically relevant but to a lesser extent. A small difference was one believed to be subtle but nevertheless clinically relevant. A trivial difference was used to describe circumstances unlikely to have any clinical relevance. Actual QOL results were combined using meta-analytic techniques to estimate differences corresponding to small, medium, or large effects. Nine hundred eleven articles were identified, leading to 152 relevant articles (2,217 contrasts) being reviewed by at least two experts. Resulting estimates from the meta-analysis varied depending on the subscale. Thus, the recommended minimum to detect medium differences ranges from 9 (cognitive functioning) to 19 points (role functioning). Guidelines for the size of effects are provided for the QLQ-C30 subscales. These guidelines can be used for sample size calculations for clinical trials and can also be used to aid interpretation of differences in QLQ-C30 scores.

  1. The interpretability of family history reports of alcoholism in general community samples: findings in a midwestern U.S. twin birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Madden, Pamela A F; Nelson, Elliot C; Knopik, Valerie S; Glowinski, Anne L; Grant, Julia D; Lynskey, Michael T; Jacob, Theodore; Sher, Kenneth J; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Heath, Andrew C

    2012-06-01

    Although there is a long tradition in alcoholism research of using family history ratings, the interpretability of family history reports of alcoholism from general community samples has yet to be established. Telephone interview data obtained from a large cohort of female like-sex twins (N = 3,787, median age 22) and their biological parents (N = 2,928, assessed at twins' median age 15) were analyzed to determine agreement between parent self-report, parent ratings of coparent, and twin narrow (alcohol problems) and broad (problem or excessive drinking) ratings of each parent. In European ancestry (EA) families, high tetrachoric correlations were observed between twin and cotwin ratings of parental alcohol problems, between twin and parent ratings of coparent alcohol problems using symptom-based and single-item assessments, as well as moderately high correlations between twin and both mother and father self-reports. In African American (AA) families, inter-rater agreement was substantially lower than for EA families, with no cases where father ratings of maternal alcohol problems agreed with either twin ratings or mother self-report, and both cotwin agreement and mother-twin agreement were reduced. Differences between EA and AA families were not explained by differences in years of cohabitation with father or mother's education; however, underreporting of problems by AA parents may have contributed. Results support the use of family history ratings of parental alcoholism in general community surveys for EA families, but suggest that family history assessment in AA families requires improved methods. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Interpretation miniatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Hrvoje

    Most physicists do not have patience for reading long and obscure interpretation arguments and disputes. Hence, to attract attention of a wider physics community, in this paper various old and new aspects of quantum interpretations are explained in a concise and simple (almost trivial) form. About the “Copenhagen” interpretation, we note that there are several different versions of it and explain how to make sense of “local nonreality” interpretation. About the many-world interpretation (MWI), we explain that it is neither local nor nonlocal, that it cannot explain the Born rule, that it suffers from the preferred basis problem, and that quantum suicide cannot be used to test it. About the Bohmian interpretation, we explain that it is analogous to dark matter, use it to explain that there is no big difference between nonlocal correlation and nonlocal causation, and use some condensed-matter ideas to outline how nonrelativistic Bohmian theory could be a theory of everything. We also explain how different interpretations can be used to demystify the delayed choice experiment, to resolve the problem of time in quantum gravity, and to provide alternatives to quantum nonlocality. Finally, we explain why is life compatible with the second law.

  3. Short communication: Analytical method and amount of preservative added to milk samples may alter milk urea nitrogen measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Holley L; Hristov, Alexander N

    2017-02-01

    Milk urea N (MUN) is used by dairy nutritionists and producers to monitor dietary protein intake and is indicative of N utilization in lactating dairy cows. Two experiments were conducted to explore discrepancies in MUN results provided by 3 milk processing laboratories using different methods. An additional experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1, 3-diol (bronopol) on MUN analysis. In experiment 1, 10 replicates of bulk tank milk samples, collected from the Pennsylvania State University's Dairy Center over 5 consecutive days, were sent to 3 milk processing laboratories in Pennsylvania. Average MUN differed between laboratory A (14.9 ± 0.40 mg/dL; analyzed on MilkoScan 4000; Foss, Hillerød, Denmark), laboratory B (6.5 ± 0.17 mg/dL; MilkoScan FT + 6000), and laboratory C (7.4 ± 0.36 mg/dL; MilkoScan 6000). In experiment 2, milk samples were spiked with urea at 0 (7.3 to 15.0 mg/dL, depending on the laboratory analyzing the samples), 17.2, 34.2, and 51.5 mg/dL of milk. Two 35-mL samples from each urea level were sent to the 3 laboratories used in experiment 1. Average analyzed MUN was greater than predicted (calculated for each laboratory based on the control; 0 mg of added urea): for laboratory A (23.2 vs. 21.0 mg/dL), laboratory B (18.0 vs. 13.3 mg/dL), and laboratory C (20.6 vs. 15.2 mg/dL). In experiment 3, replicated milk samples were preserved with 0 to 1.35 mg of bronopol/mL of milk and submitted to one milk processing laboratory that analyzed MUN using 2 different methods. Milk samples with increasing amounts of bronopol ranged in MUN concentration from 7.7 to 11.9 mg/dL and from 9.0 to 9.3 mg/dL when analyzed on MilkoScan 4000 or CL 10 (EuroChem, Moscow, Russia), respectively. In conclusion, measured MUN concentrations varied due to analytical procedure used by milk processing laboratories and were affected by the amount of bronopol used to preserve milk sample, when milk was analyzed using a mid-infrared analyzer

  4. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and should be rather linked with conforming interpretation. And what this actually implies is that it is not the virtue of certainty and predictability – which are usually associated with objectivity- but coherence that makes the foundation of applicability of objectivity in law.What could be observed from the analyses, is that both the phenomenon of conforming interpretation and objective interpretation play the role of arguments in the interpretive discourse, arguments that provide justification that interpretation is not arbitrary or subjective. With regards to the important part of the ideology of legal application which is the conviction that decisions should be taken on the basis of law in order to exclude arbitrariness, objective interpretation could be read as a question “what kind of authority “supports” certain interpretation”? that is almost never free of judicial creativity and judicial activism.One can say that, objective and conforming interpretation are just another arguments used in legal discourse.

  5. Interpretive Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  6. Towards a phylogenetic generic classification of Thelypteridaceae: Additional sampling suggests alterations of neotropical taxa and further study of paleotropical genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Thaís Elias; Hennequin, Sabine; Schneider, Harald; Smith, Alan R; Batista, João Aguiar Nogueira; Ramalho, Aline Joseph; Proite, Karina; Salino, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Thelypteridaceae is one of the largest fern families, having about 950 species and a cosmopolitan distribution but with most species occurring in tropical and subtropical regions. Its generic classification remains controversial, with different authors recognizing from one up to 32 genera. Phylogenetic relationships within the family have not been exhaustively studied, but previous studies have confirmed the monophyly of the lineage. Thus far, sampling has been inadequate for establishing a robust hypothesis of infrafamilial relationships within the family. In order to understand phylogenetic relationships within Thelypteridaceae and thus to improve generic reclassification, we expand the molecular sampling, including new samples of Old World taxa and, especially, many additional neotropical representatives. We also explore the monophyly of exclusively or mostly neotropical genera Amauropelta, Goniopteris, Meniscium, and Steiropteris. Our sampling includes 68 taxa and 134 newly generated sequences from two plastid genomic regions (rps4-trnS and trnL-trnF), plus 73 rps4 and 72 trnL-trnF sequences from GenBank. These data resulted in a concatenated matrix of 1980 molecular characters for 149 taxa. The combined data set was analyzed using maximum parsimony and bayesian inference of phylogeny. Our results are consistent with the general topological structure found in previous studies, including two main lineages within the family: phegopteroid and thelypteroid. The thelypteroid lineage comprises two clades; one of these included the segregates Metathelypteris, Coryphopteris, and Amauropelta (including part of Parathelypteris), whereas the other comprises all segregates of Cyclosorus s.l., such as Goniopteris, Meniscium, and Steiropteris (including Thelypteris polypodioides, previously incertae sedis). The three mainly neotropical segregates were found to be monophyletic but nested in a broadly defined Cyclosorus. The fourth mainly neotropical segregate, Amauropelta

  7. Penultimate interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Yair

    2010-10-01

    Interpretation is at the center of psychoanalytic activity. However, interpretation is always challenged by that which is beyond our grasp, the 'dark matter' of our mind, what Bion describes as ' O'. O is one of the most central and difficult concepts in Bion's thought. In this paper, I explain the enigmatic nature of O as a high-dimensional mental space and point to the price one should pay for substituting the pre-symbolic lexicon of the emotion-laden and high-dimensional unconscious for a low-dimensional symbolic representation. This price is reification--objectifying lived experience and draining it of vitality and complexity. In order to address the difficulty of approaching O through symbolization, I introduce the term 'Penultimate Interpretation'--a form of interpretation that seeks 'loopholes' through which the analyst and the analysand may reciprocally save themselves from the curse of reification. Three guidelines for 'Penultimate Interpretation' are proposed and illustrated through an imaginary dialogue. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  8. Tissue and serum samples of patients with papillary thyroid cancer with and without benign background demonstrate different altered expression of proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mardiaty Iryani; Lee, Ching Chin; Mat Junit, Sarni; Ng, Khoon Leong

    2016-01-01

    Background Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is mainly diagnosed using fine-needle aspiration biopsy. This most common form of well-differentiated thyroid cancer occurs with or without a background of benign thyroid goiter (BTG). Methods In the present study, a gel-based proteomics analysis was performed to analyse the expression of proteins in tissue and serum samples of PTC patients with (PTCb; n = 6) and without a history of BTG (PTCa; n = 8) relative to patients with BTG (n = 20). This was followed by confirmation of the levels of proteins which showed significant altered abundances of more than two-fold difference (p AHSG). The different altered expression of tissue and serum A1AT as well as serum AHSG between PTCa and PTCb patients were also validated by ELISA. Discussion The distinctive altered abundances of the tissue and serum proteins form preliminary indications that PTCa and PTCb are two distinct cancers of the thyroid that are etiologically and mechanistically different although it is currently not possible to rule out that they may also be due other reasons such as the different stages of the malignant disease. These proteins stand to have a potential use as tissue or serum biomarkers to discriminate the three different thyroid neoplasms although this requires further validation in clinically representative populations. PMID:27672505

  9. Quantum interpretations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goernitz, T.; Weizsaecker, C.F.V.

    1987-10-01

    Four interpretations of quantum theory are compared: the Copenhagen interpretation (C.I.) with the additional assumption that the quantum description also applies to the mental states of the observer, and three recent ones, by Kochen, Deutsch, and Cramer. Since they interpret the same mathematical structure with the same empirical predictions, it is assumed that they formulate only different linguistic expressions of one identical theory. C.I. as a theory on human knowledge rests on a phenomenological description of time. It can be reconstructed from simple assumptions on predictions. Kochen shows that mathematically every composite system can be split into an object and an observer. Deutsch, with the same decomposition, describes futuric possibilities under the Everett term worlds. Cramer, using four-dimensional action at a distance (Wheeler-Feynman), describes all future events like past facts. All three can be described in the C.I. frame. The role of abstract nonlocality is discussed.

  10. Interpreting Physics

    CERN Document Server

    MacKinnon, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first to offer a systematic account of the role of language in the development and interpretation of physics. An historical-conceptual analysis of the co-evolution of mathematical and physical concepts leads to the classical/quatum interface. Bohrian orthodoxy stresses the indispensability of classical concepts and the functional role of mathematics. This book analyses ways of extending, and then going beyond this orthodoxy orthodoxy. Finally, the book analyzes how a revised interpretation of physics impacts on basic philosophical issues: conceptual revolutions, realism, and r

  11. COPS: A Sensitive and Accurate Tool for Detecting Somatic Copy Number Alterations Using Short-Read Sequence Data from Paired Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Neeraja M.; Gaur, Prakhar; Chaudhary, Rakshit; Rao, Arjun A.; Panda, Binay

    2012-01-01

    Copy Number Alterations (CNAs) such as deletions and duplications; compose a larger percentage of genetic variations than single nucleotide polymorphisms or other structural variations in cancer genomes that undergo major chromosomal re-arrangements. It is, therefore, imperative to identify cancer-specific somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs), with respect to matched normal tissue, in order to understand their association with the disease. We have devised an accurate, sensitive, and easy-to-use tool, COPS, COpy number using Paired Samples, for detecting SCNAs. We rigorously tested the performance of COPS using short sequence simulated reads at various sizes and coverage of SCNAs, read depths, read lengths and also with real tumor:normal paired samples. We found COPS to perform better in comparison to other known SCNA detection tools for all evaluated parameters, namely, sensitivity (detection of true positives), specificity (detection of false positives) and size accuracy. COPS performed well for sequencing reads of all lengths when used with most upstream read alignment tools. Additionally, by incorporating a downstream boundary segmentation detection tool, the accuracy of SCNA boundaries was further improved. Here, we report an accurate, sensitive and easy to use tool in detecting cancer-specific SCNAs using short-read sequence data. In addition to cancer, COPS can be used for any disease as long as sequence reads from both disease and normal samples from the same individual are available. An added boundary segmentation detection module makes COPS detected SCNA boundaries more specific for the samples studied. COPS is available at ftp://115.119.160.213 with username “cops” and password “cops”. PMID:23110103

  12. COPS: a sensitive and accurate tool for detecting somatic Copy Number Alterations using short-read sequence data from paired samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraja M Krishnan

    Full Text Available Copy Number Alterations (CNAs such as deletions and duplications; compose a larger percentage of genetic variations than single nucleotide polymorphisms or other structural variations in cancer genomes that undergo major chromosomal re-arrangements. It is, therefore, imperative to identify cancer-specific somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs, with respect to matched normal tissue, in order to understand their association with the disease. We have devised an accurate, sensitive, and easy-to-use tool, COPS, COpy number using Paired Samples, for detecting SCNAs. We rigorously tested the performance of COPS using short sequence simulated reads at various sizes and coverage of SCNAs, read depths, read lengths and also with real tumor:normal paired samples. We found COPS to perform better in comparison to other known SCNA detection tools for all evaluated parameters, namely, sensitivity (detection of true positives, specificity (detection of false positives and size accuracy. COPS performed well for sequencing reads of all lengths when used with most upstream read alignment tools. Additionally, by incorporating a downstream boundary segmentation detection tool, the accuracy of SCNA boundaries was further improved. Here, we report an accurate, sensitive and easy to use tool in detecting cancer-specific SCNAs using short-read sequence data. In addition to cancer, COPS can be used for any disease as long as sequence reads from both disease and normal samples from the same individual are available. An added boundary segmentation detection module makes COPS detected SCNA boundaries more specific for the samples studied. COPS is available at ftp://115.119.160.213 with username "cops" and password "cops".

  13. Ethnic differences in COMT genetic effects on striatal grey matter alterations associated with childhood ADHD: A voxel-based morphometry study in a Japanese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Koji; Fujisawa, Takashi X; Takiguchi, Shinichiro; Naruse, Hiroaki; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Tomoda, Akemi

    2017-06-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with deficits in the dopaminergic fronto-striatal systems mediating higher-level cognitive functions. We hypothesised that a dopamine-regulating gene, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), would have differential effects on the neural systems of different ethnic samples with ADHD. In Caucasian children with ADHD, the COMT Val-homozygotes have been previously shown to be associated with striatal grey matter volume (GMV) alterations. By using voxel-based morphometry, we examined whether Asian children with ADHD would exhibit a pattern opposite to that found in Caucasian samples. Structural brain images were obtained for Japanese children with ADHD (n = 17; mean age = 10.3 years) and typically developing (TD) children (n = 15; mean age = 12.8 years). COMT Val158Met genotype data were also obtained for the ADHD group. Reduced GMV in the left striatum was observed in the ADHD group versus the TD group. This reduced GMV was modulated by COMT polymorphism; Met-carriers exhibited smaller striatal GMV than the Val/Val genotype. Contrasting with previous findings in Caucasians, the COMT Met allele was associated with striatal GMV alterations in Japanese children with ADHD. These results suggest the existence of ethnic differences in the COMT genetic effect on ADHD-related striatal abnormalities.

  14. Tissue and serum samples of patients with papillary thyroid cancer with and without benign background demonstrate different altered expression of proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiaty Iryani Abdullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC is mainly diagnosed using fine-needle aspiration biopsy. This most common form of well-differentiated thyroid cancer occurs with or without a background of benign thyroid goiter (BTG. Methods In the present study, a gel-based proteomics analysis was performed to analyse the expression of proteins in tissue and serum samples of PTC patients with (PTCb; n = 6 and without a history of BTG (PTCa; n = 8 relative to patients with BTG (n = 20. This was followed by confirmation of the levels of proteins which showed significant altered abundances of more than two-fold difference (p < 0.01 in the tissue and serum samples of the same subjects using ELISA. Results The data of our study showed that PTCa and PTCb distinguish themselves from BTG in the types of tissue and serum proteins of altered abundance. While higher levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT and heat shock 70 kDa protein were associated with PTCa, lower levels of A1AT, protein disulfide isomerase and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 N seemed apparent in the PTCb. In case of the serum proteins, higher abundances of A1AT and alpha 1-beta glycoprotein were detected in PTCa, while PTCb was associated with enhanced apolipoprotein A-IV and alpha 2-HS glycoprotein (AHSG. The different altered expression of tissue and serum A1AT as well as serum AHSG between PTCa and PTCb patients were also validated by ELISA. Discussion The distinctive altered abundances of the tissue and serum proteins form preliminary indications that PTCa and PTCb are two distinct cancers of the thyroid that are etiologically and mechanistically different although it is currently not possible to rule out that they may also be due other reasons such as the different stages of the malignant disease. These proteins stand to have a potential use as tissue or serum biomarkers to discriminate the three different thyroid neoplasms although this requires further validation in clinically

  15. Interpretation of stable isotope, denitrification, and groundwater age data for samples collected from Sandia National Laboratories /New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater Area of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrid, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Singleton, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Visser, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-02

    This report combines and summarizes results for two groundwater-sampling events (October 2012 and October/November 2015) from the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater (BSG) Area of Concern (AOC) located in the Lurance Canyon Arroyo southeast of Albuquerque, NM in the Manzanita Mountains. The first phase of groundwater sampling occurred in October 2012 including samples from 19 wells at three separate sites that were analyzed by the Environmental Radiochemistry Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as part of a nitrate Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) evaluation. The three sites (BSG, Technical Area-V, and Tijeras Arroyo) are shown on the regional hydrogeologic map and described in the Sandia Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report. The first phase of groundwater sampling included six monitoring wells at the Burn Site, eight monitoring wells at Technical Area-V, and five monitoring wells at Tijeras Arroyo. Each groundwater sample was analyzed using the two specialized analytical methods, age-dating and denitrification suites. In September 2015, a second phase of groundwater sampling took place at the Burn Site including 10 wells sampled and analyzed by the same two analytical suites. Five of the six wells sampled in 2012 were resampled in 2015. This report summarizes results from two sampling events in order to evaluate evidence for in situ denitrification, the average age of the groundwater, and the extent of recent recharge of the bedrock fracture system beneath the BSG AOC.

  16. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-01-01

    The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and ...

  17. CLImAT-HET: detecting subclonal copy number alterations and loss of heterozygosity in heterogeneous tumor samples from whole-genome sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenhua; Li, Ao; Wang, Minghui

    2017-03-15

    Copy number alterations (CNA) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) represent a large proportion of genetic structural variations of cancer genomes. These aberrations are continuously accumulated during the procedure of clonal evolution and patterned by phylogenetic branching. This invariably results in the emergence of multiple cell populations with distinct complement of mutational landscapes in tumor sample. With the advent of next-generation sequencing technology, inference of subclonal populations has become one of the focused interests in cancer-associated studies, and is usually based on the assessment of combinations of somatic single-nucleotide variations (SNV), CNA and LOH. However, cancer samples often have several inherent issues, such as contamination of normal stroma, tumor aneuploidy and intra-tumor heterogeneity. Addressing these critical issues is imperative for accurate profiling of clonal architecture. We present CLImAT-HET, a computational method designed for capturing clonal diversity in the CNA/LOH dimensions by taking into account the intra-tumor heterogeneity issue, in the case where a reference or matched normal sample is absent. The algorithm quantitatively represents the clonal identification problem using a factorial hidden Markov model, and takes an integrated analysis of read counts and allele frequency data. It is able to infer subclonal CNA and LOH events as well as the fraction of cells harboring each event. The results on simulated datasets indicate that CLImAT-HET has high power to identify CNA/LOH segments, it achieves an average accuracy of 0.87. It can also accurately infer proportion of each clonal population with an overall Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.99 and a mean absolute error of 0.02. CLImAT-HET shows significant advantages when compared with other existing methods. Application of CLImAT-HET to 5 primary triple negative breast cancer samples demonstrates its ability to capture clonal diversity in the CAN

  18. Stevens Pond: A postglacial pollen diagram from a small Typha Swamp in Northwestern Minnesota, interpreted from pollen indicators and surface samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.R.

    1967-01-01

    The pollen assemblages of a core in the coniferhardwood formation in northwestern Minnesota are compared with the floristics of the recent vegetation in the region. Percentage levels of the main tree components have been compared first with those from recent surface samples taken at the same short

  19. An Interpreter's Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters' View of Musculoskeletal Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, William L

    2003-01-01

    Sign language interpreters are at increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders. This study used content analysis to obtain detailed information about these disorders from the interpreters' point of view...

  20. Frenchglen Interpretive Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this interpretive plan is to provide guidance for the development of the interpretive exhibits for the Frenchglen Interpretive Center, as well as the...

  1. Interpreting Impoliteness: Interpreters’ Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Radanović Felberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpreters in the public sector in Norway interpret in a variety of institutional encounters, and the interpreters evaluate the majority of these encounters as polite. However, some encounters are evaluated as impolite, and they pose challenges when it comes to interpreting impoliteness. This issue raises the question of whether interpreters should take a stance on their own evaluation of impoliteness and whether they should interfere in communication. In order to find out more about how interpreters cope with this challenge, in 2014 a survey was sent to all interpreters registered in the Norwegian Register of Interpreters. The survey data were analyzed within the theoretical framework of impoliteness theory using the notion of moral order as an explanatory tool in a close reading of interpreters’ answers. The analysis shows that interpreters reported using a variety of strategies for interpreting impoliteness, including omissions and downtoning. However, the interpreters also gave examples of individual strategies for coping with impoliteness, such as interrupting and postponing interpreting. These strategies border behavioral strategies and conflict with the Norwegian ethical guidelines for interpreting. In light of the ethical guidelines and actual practice, mapping and discussing different strategies used by interpreters might heighten interpreters’ and interpreter-users’ awareness of the role impoliteness can play in institutional interpreter– mediated encounters. 

  2. Chemical alteration of limestone and marble samples exposed to acid rain and weathering in the eastern United States, 1984--1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, K.J.

    1991-06-01

    In a long-term program that began in 1984, limestone and marble briquettes have been exposed to both anthropogenic acid deposition and natural weathering of four field sites in the eastern United States. Similar tests began at an Ohio site in 1986. Effects of exposure on the briquettes and other materials at the sites are evaluated periodically by several federal agencies cooperating in the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). A primary contribution of Argonne National Laboratory to the NAPAP has been chemical analysis to determine changes in the samples caused by exposure to the environment. Wet chemical analysis was used to detect sulfates, nitrates, fluorides, chlorides, and a series of metal cations in sequential layers of stone removed from the briquettes after field exposure. Results from the first four years of the program indicate that rinsing by rain keeps skyward-facing stone relatively clean of reaction products, especially sulfate, the most abundant product. On groundward-facing samples, sulfate concentrations increased linearly with exposure time, and values were proportional to atmospheric SO{sub 2} concentrations at the site. Sulfate concentrations in groundward samples were much higher in limestone than in marble, because of the greater porosity of the limestone. A steep sulfate gradient was seen in both sample types from the surface to the interior. On skyward surfaces, material losses per rain event due to complete dissolution of accumulated sulfates were approximately equal to concentrations measured in runoff. Preexposed limestone samples had sulfate accumulations deep in their interiors, while fresh, unexposed limestone did not. No substantial changes in cation accumulations wee detected in either limestone or marble.

  3. Interpreting. PEPNet Tipsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroch, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    An interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that both hearing and deaf individuals may fully interact. The common types of services provided by interpreters are: (1) American Sign Language (ASL) Interpretation--a visual-gestural language with its own linguistic features; (2) Sign Language…

  4. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We...

  5. Current validity of diagnosis of permanent vegetative state: A longitudinal study in a sample of patients with altered states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, E; Olaya, J; Colomer, C; Moliner, B; Ugart, P; Rodriguez, C; Llorens, R; Ferri, J

    2017-07-13

    Altered states of consciousness have traditionally been associated with poor prognosis. At present, clinical differences between these entities are beginning to be established. Our study included 37 patients diagnosed with vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and 43 in a minimally conscious state (MCS) according to the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). All patients were followed up each month for at least 6 months using the CRS-R. We recorded the time points when vegetative state progressed from 'persistent' to 'permanent' based on the cut-off points established by the Multi-Society-Task-Force: 12 months in patients with traumatic injury and 3 months in those with non-traumatic injury. A logistic regression model was used to determine the factors potentially predicting which patients will emerge from MCS. In the UWS group, 23 patients emerged from UWS but only 9 emerged from MCS. Of the 43 patients in the MCS group, 26 patients emerged from that state during follow-up. Eight of the 23 patients (34.7%) who emerged from UWS and 17 of the 35 (48.6%) who emerged from MCS recovered after the time points proposed by the Multi-Society-Task-Force. According to the multivariate regression analysis, aetiology (P<.01), chronicity (P=.01), and CRS-R scores at admission (P<.001) correctly predicted emergence from MCS in 77.5% of the cases. UWS and MCS are different clinical entities in terms of diagnosis and outcomes. Some of the factors traditionally associated with poor prognosis, such as time from injury and likelihood of recovery, should be revaluated. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Altered Expression Patterns of Inflammation-Associated and Trophic Molecules in Substantia Nigra and Striatum Brain Samples from Parkinson's Disease, Incidental Lewy Body Disease and Normal Control Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Douglas G; Lue, Lih-Fen; Serrano, Geidy; Adler, Charles H; Caviness, John N; Sue, Lucia I; Beach, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of inflammation has been consistently associated with pathology in Parkinson's disease (PD)-affected brains, and has been suggested as a causative factor. Dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta, whose loss results in the clinical symptoms associated with PD, are particularly susceptible to inflammatory damage and oxidative stress. Inflammation in the striatum, where SN dopaminergic neurons project, is also a feature of PD brains. It is not known whether inflammatory changes occur first in striatum or SN. Many animal models of PD have implicated certain inflammatory molecules with dopaminergic cell neuronal loss; however, there have been few studies to validate these findings by measuring the levels of these and other inflammatory factors in human PD brain samples. This study also included samples from incidental Lewy body disease (ILBD) cases, since ILBD is considered a non-symptomatic precursor to PD, with subjects having significant loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-producing neurons. We hypothesized that there may be a progressive change in key inflammatory factors in ILBD samples intermediate between neurologically normal and PD. To address this, we used a quantitative antibody-array platform (Raybiotech-Quantibody arrays) to measure the levels of 160 different inflammation-associated cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and related molecules in extracts of SN and striatum from clinically and neuropathologically characterized PD, ILBD, and normal control cases. Patterns of changes in inflammation and related molecules were distinctly different between SN and striatum. Our results showed significantly different levels of interleukin (IL)-5, IL-15, monokine induced by gamma interferon, and IL-6 soluble receptor in SN between disease groups. A different panel of 13 proteins with significant changes in striatum, with IL-15 as the common feature, was identified. Although the ability to detect some proteins was limited by sensitivity

  7. Architectural design of an Algol interpreter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. K.

    1971-01-01

    The design of a syntax-directed interpreter for a subset of Algol is described. It is a conceptual design with sufficient details and completeness but as much independence of implementation as possible. The design includes a detailed description of a scanner, an analyzer described in the Floyd-Evans productions, a hash-coded symbol table, and an executor. Interpretation of sample programs is also provided to show how the interpreter functions.

  8. Interpretation biases in paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulich, George; Freeman, Daniel; Shergill, Sukhi; Yiend, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Information in the environment is frequently ambiguous in meaning. Emotional ambiguity, such as the stare of a stranger, or the scream of a child, encompasses possible good or bad emotional consequences. Those with elevated vulnerability to affective disorders tend to interpret such material more negatively than those without, a phenomenon known as "negative interpretation bias." In this study we examined the relationship between vulnerability to psychosis, measured by trait paranoia, and interpretation bias. One set of material permitted broadly positive/negative (valenced) interpretations, while another allowed more or less paranoid interpretations, allowing us to also investigate the content specificity of interpretation biases associated with paranoia. Regression analyses (n=70) revealed that trait paranoia, trait anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility predicted paranoid interpretation bias, whereas trait anxiety and cognitive inflexibility predicted negative interpretation bias. In a group comparison those with high levels of trait paranoia were negatively biased in their interpretations of ambiguous information relative to those with low trait paranoia, and this effect was most pronounced for material directly related to paranoid concerns. Together these data suggest that a negative interpretation bias occurs in those with elevated vulnerability to paranoia, and that this bias may be strongest for material matching paranoid beliefs. We conclude that content-specific biases may be important in the cause and maintenance of paranoid symptoms. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Genre and Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Despite the immensity of genre studies as well as studies in interpretation, our understanding of the relationship between genre and interpretation is sketchy at best. The article attempts to unravel some of intricacies of that relationship through an analysis of the generic interpretation carried...... out by us all in everyday life, and the role of generic interpretation in scholarly work. The article argues that the role played by genre in interpretation has as much to do with the individual characteristics of an utterance as with its relationship to other utterances. An interest in the generic...... traits of an utterance will lead to a characterization of its individual, as well as its general characteristics. The article proceeds to describe three central concepts within genre studies that are applicable to generic interpretation: “horizon of expectation,” “world,” and the triad “theme...

  10. On court interpreters' visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    of the service they receive. Ultimately, the findings will be used for training purposes. Future - and, for that matter, already practising - interpreters as well as the professional users of interpreters ought to take the reality of the interpreters' work in practice into account when assessing the quality...... in by the participants almost immediately after the interrogations and supplemented by interviews. The main objective of the project is to explore the interpreters' own perception of the quality of the service they render as well as the professional users´ and the other language users' perception of the quality...... of the interpreter as an invisible language switcher. However, a closer look at the data shows that, even in a less complex constellation like the one analysed here, there is clear evidence of the interpreter's visibility. We shall identify various forms of visibility based on the discourse data...

  11. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  12. Alterações do TSH em pacientes com síndrome de Down: uma interpretação nem sempre fácil Alterations of TSH in Down's syndrome patients: a hard interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato M. Nisihara

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar as concentrações de hormônio estimulante da tireóide (TSH e a presença de anticorpos antitireoperoxidase (anti-TPO em pacientes com síndrome de Down (SD atendidos no ambulatório do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos no estudo 72 pacientes com SD, não aparentados e selecionados consecutivamente, com média de idade de 6,15 anos. Oitenta crianças sadias, pareadas com os pacientes, foram utilizadas como controles. Em todas as amostras foram determinadas as concentrações séricas de TSH e de anti-TPO, através do método de dosagem imunométrica. RESULTADOS: Trinta pacientes com SD (42,9% apresentaram alterações nas concentrações de TSH, sendo que 4,3% tinham valores menores que 0,5µUI/ml e 38,6%, valores superiores a 5µUI/ml (5,1 a 22 (média de 5,56 ± 4,18µUI/ml. Nos controles, a concentração média de TSH foi 2,76µUI/ml (± 1,14, evidenciando-se um aumento significativo nos níveis de TSH nos pacientes com SD (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels and the presence of antithyroperoxidase antibody (anti-TPO in Down’s syndrome (DS patients from Hospital de Clínicas of Universidade Federal do Paraná (HC/UFPR. METHODS: Seventy-two DS patients, non-related and consecutively selected (mean age 6.15 were included in the study. Eighty matched healthy children were used as controls. The TSH measurement and the anti-TPO were determined by immunometric assay in all samples. RESULTS: Thirty patients with DS (42.9% presented abnormal levels of TSH; 4.3% showed values below 0.5µIU/ml and 38.6% presented values higher than 5µIU/ml (range 5.1-22; mean 5.56 ± 4.18µIU/ml. The mean concentration of TSH in the controls was 2.76 ± 1.14µIU/ml, indicating a significant increase in TSH levels in the DS patients (p < 0.001. Similarly, a significant difference was observed in the anti-TPO positivity in the patients’ group (15.4% when

  13. Genetic testing and risk interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talya Miron-Shatz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic screening for BRCA1 and BRCA2 gives women the opportunity for early detection, surveillance, and intervention. One key feature of genetic testing and counseling is the provision of personal lifetime risk. However, little attention has been paid to how women interpret lifetime risk information, despite the fact that they base screening, treatment and family planning decisions on such information. To study this vital issue, we set out to test the ability of women to choose the most appropriate interpretation of National Cancer Institute's (NCI message about lifetime risk of developing cancer for a woman with altered BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Participants included 277 women who had not undergone genetic testing or had cancer and 207 women who had undergone genetic testing or had cancer. Over 50\\% of the women who had not undergone genetic testing or had cancer and 40\\% of those who had undergone genetic testing or had cancer misunderstood NCI's information. Furthermore, in line with a growing body of research, we found that high numeracy level (objective or subjective is positively associated with a woman's ability to correctly interpret NCI's message.

  14. Assessment of organic matter resistance to biodegradation in volcanic ash soils assisted by automated interpretation of infrared spectra from humic acid and whole soil samples by using partial least squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Zulimar; Pérez Trujillo, Juan Pedro; Hernández-Hernández, Sergio Alexander; Almendros, Gonzalo; Sanz, Jesús

    2014-05-01

    From a practical viewpoint, the most interesting possibilities of applying infrared (IR) spectroscopy to soil studies lie on processing IR spectra of whole soil (WS) samples [1] in order to forecast functional descriptors at high organizational levels of the soil system, such as soil C resilience. Currently, there is a discussion on whether the resistance to biodegradation of soil organic matter (SOM) depends on its molecular composition or on environmental interactions between SOM and mineral components, such could be the case with physical encapsulation of particulate SOM or organo-mineral derivatives, e.g., those formed with amorphous oxides [2]. A set of about 200 dependent variables from WS and isolated, ash free, humic acids (HA) [3] was obtained in 30 volcanic ash soils from Tenerife Island (Spain). Soil biogeochemical properties such as SOM, allophane (Alo + 1 /2 Feo), total mineralization coefficient (TMC) or aggregate stability were determined in WS. In addition, structural information on SOM was obtained from the isolated HA fractions by visible spectroscopy and analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS). Aiming to explore the potential of partial least squares regression (PLS) in forecasting soil dependent variables, exclusively using the information extracted from WS and HA IR spectral profiles, data were processed by using ParLeS [4] and Unscrambler programs. Data pre-treatments should be carefully chosen: the most significant PLS models from IR spectra of HA were obtained after second derivative pre-treatment, which prevented effects of intrinsically broadband spectral profiles typical in macromolecular heterogeneous material such as HA. Conversely, when using IR spectra of WS, the best forecasting models were obtained using linear baseline correction and maximum normalization pre-treatment. With WS spectra, the most successful prediction models were obtained for SOM, magnetite, allophane, aggregate stability, clay and total aromatic compounds, whereas the PLS

  15. Prosody and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erekson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Prosody is a means for "reading with expression" and is one aspect of oral reading competence. This theoretical inquiry asserts that prosody is central to interpreting text, and draws distinctions between "syntactic" prosody (for phrasing) and "emphatic" prosody (for interpretation). While reading with expression appears as a criterion in major…

  16. Linguistics in Text Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Ole

    2011-01-01

    A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'.......A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'....

  17. Hirsch on interpretation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Szahaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the article is to reconstruct and critique E.D. Hirsch’s position in the debate about the necessary conditions and results of any interpretation. The author of this article seeks to demonstrate the difficulties connected with the intentionalist approach to the theory of interpretation which is typical of E.D. Hirsch and which unjustifiably privileges authorial intention. He also attempts to uncover the hidden assumptions of this approach by showing that, generally speaking, the dualist tendencies that are present in Hirsch’s theory cannot be justified. One of the objectives of this article is to propose an alternative approach to interpretation, which has been inspired by Stanley Fish and which emphasizes the integrity and monistic nature of interpretation as well as its constructivist and inevitably evaluative character. The author points to the fact that the arbitrarily established evaluation limits are unjustified as there is an element of evaluation on every level of interpretation and that the difference between understanding and interpretation cannot be validated. Also, one cannot interpret a text without each time referring to the social and cultural context.

  18. Interpretation as doing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard Krarup, Jonna

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the paper is to address and discuss relationships between the aesthetic perception and interpretation of contemporary landscape architecture. I will try to do this by setting up a cross-disciplinary perspective that looks into themes from the contemporary art scene and aesthetic...... concept of landscape and design in landscape architecture, and hereby address the question of how interpretation might be processed. It is also my premise that a key point in this is the interplay between different sensory experiences of both material and non-material aspects......, and that it is this interplay that the individual collects into an entity – an interpretation – through an intellectual process....

  19. Interpretive Error in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Stephen; Scott, Jinel; Gale, Brian; Fuchs, Travis; Kolla, Srinivas; Reede, Deborah

    2017-04-01

    Although imaging technology has advanced significantly since the work of Garland in 1949, interpretive error rates remain unchanged. In addition to patient harm, interpretive errors are a major cause of litigation and distress to radiologists. In this article, we discuss the mechanics involved in searching an image, categorize omission errors, and discuss factors influencing diagnostic accuracy. Potential individual- and system-based solutions to mitigate or eliminate errors are also discussed. Radiologists use visual detection, pattern recognition, memory, and cognitive reasoning to synthesize final interpretations of radiologic studies. This synthesis is performed in an environment in which there are numerous extrinsic distractors, increasing workloads and fatigue. Given the ultimately human task of perception, some degree of error is likely inevitable even with experienced observers. However, an understanding of the causes of interpretive errors can help in the development of tools to mitigate errors and improve patient safety.

  20. Cytological artifacts masquerading interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo Sahay

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: In order to justify a cytosmear interpretation, a cytologist must be well acquainted with delayed fixation-induced cellular changes and microscopic appearances of common contaminants so as to implicate better prognosis and therapy.

  1. Life Cycle Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonou, Alexandra; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2017-01-01

    The interpretation is the final phase of an LCA where the results of the other phases are considered together and analysed in the light of the uncertainties of the applied data and the assumptions that have been made and documented throughout the study. This chapter teaches how to perform...... an interpretation. The process of interpretation starts with identification of potentially significant issues in the previous stages of goal and scope definition, inventory analysis and impact assessment, and examples of potential significant issues are given for each phase. The significance is then determined...... is given on how to draw conclusions based on the previous steps of the interpretation, qualify the conclusions in terms of their robustness, and develop recommendations based on the results of the study....

  2. Sign Language Interpreters' Training

    OpenAIRE

    Andriakopoulou, Eirini; Bouras, Christos; Giannaka, Eri

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, the evolution of technology and the increasing use of computers gave the opportunity for developing new methods of education of deaf individuals and sign language interpreters. The e-learning environments that have been developed for the education of sign language provide web-based courses, designed to effectively teach to anyone the Sign Language. Recognizing the difficulties and barriers of sign language training as well as the importance of sign language interpreters for the comm...

  3. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Interpretive Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant to incorp......Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant...... to incorporate into lexicographical theory, some scholars have since then assumed that this function exists(2), including the author of this contribution. In Agerbo (2016), I present arguments supporting the incorporation of the interpretive function into the function theory and suggest how non-linguistic signs...... can be treated in specific dictionary articles. However, in the current article, due to the results of recent research, I argue that the interpretive function should not be considered an individual main function. The interpretive function, contrary to some of its definitions, is not connected...

  5. Conjunctive interpretations of disjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert van Rooij

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this extended commentary I discuss the problem of how to account for "conjunctive" readings of some sentences with embedded disjunctions for globalist analyses of conversational implicatures. Following Franke (2010, 2009, I suggest that earlier proposals failed, because they did not take into account the interactive reasoning of what else the speaker could have said, and how else the hearer could have interpreted the (alternative sentence(s. I show how Franke's idea relates to more traditional pragmatic interpretation strategies. doi:10.3765/sp.3.11 BibTeX info

  6. Reflections and Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reflections and Interpretations is an anthology on The Freedom Writers’ methodology. It is an anthology for all those with a professional need for texts explaining, not only how The Freedom Writers’ tools are being used, but also why they work so convincingly well. It is not an anthology of guide......Reflections and Interpretations is an anthology on The Freedom Writers’ methodology. It is an anthology for all those with a professional need for texts explaining, not only how The Freedom Writers’ tools are being used, but also why they work so convincingly well. It is not an anthology...

  7. Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickl Peter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems of modern physics are man made. The Copenhagen version of quantum mechanics is formulated in a vague prosaic way, inconsistencies and paradoxes are the price. New interpretations try to solve the problem, however a reformulation rather than an interpretation is needed. In this manuscript I will point out, where the Copenhagen formulation of quantum mechanics is flawed and how one can make sense out of it. Then I will show, that it is possible to give a precise formulation of quantum mechanics without losing its compelling ability in describing experiments.

  8. Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickl, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The problems of modern physics are man made. The Copenhagen version of quantum mechanics is formulated in a vague prosaic way, inconsistencies and paradoxes are the price. New interpretations try to solve the problem, however a reformulation rather than an interpretation is needed. In this manuscript I will point out, where the Copenhagen formulation of quantum mechanics is flawed and how one can make sense out of it. Then I will show, that it is possible to give a precise formulation of quantum mechanics without losing its compelling ability in describing experiments.

  9. Normative interpretations of diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2009-01-01

    Normative interpretations of particular cases consist of normative principles or values coupled with social theoretical accounts of the empirical facts of the case. The article reviews the most prominent normative interpretations of the Muhammad cartoons controversy over the publication of drawings...... of the Prophet Muhammad in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten. The controversy was seen as a case of freedom of expression, toleration, racism, (in)civility and (dis)respect, and the article notes different understandings of these principles and how the application of them to the controversy implied different...

  10. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy: principles and spectral interpretation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larkin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    .... The book reviews basic principles, instrumentation, sampling methods, quantitative analysis, origin of group frequencies and qualitative interpretation using generalized Infrared (IR) and Raman spectra...

  11. Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEPNet-Northeast, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

  12. Conflicts in interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, G.; Hendriks, P.; Hoop, H. de; Krämer, I.; Swart, Henriëtte de; Zwarts, J.

    2007-01-01

    The leading hypothesis of this paper is that interpretation is a process of constraint satisfaction, conflict resolution, and optimization, along the lines of Optimality Theory. Support for this view is drawn from very different domains, and based on both experimental and theoretical research. We

  13. Listening and Message Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

  14. Interpreting the Santal Rebellion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Birkelund

    2016-01-01

    Postcolonial studies have interpreted the Santal Rebellion, the hul of 1855, as a peasant rebellion that the colonial power construed as an ethnic rebellion (R. Guha). Anthropologists and historians have stressed the near-complete mobilisation of the Santals, whereas a later colonial historian (W...

  15. Food sustainability: diverging interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiking, H.; de Boer, J.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of sustainability in general and food sustainability, in particular, entails many aspects and many interpretations. During a conference on food sustainability a broad, multidisciplinary picture was painted and many key issues were dealt with, from ecology, economy and society. In

  16. Diplomatic Worldview: Interpretative Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayzhol I. Karipbaev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to topical issues of interpretative pluralism, which formed the basis of the modern worldview. The attitude "world as text" enables to reveal new methodological, ontological and axiological perspectives of man’s self-determination in this world, his possibilities to participate in social reality construction. Such approach, offered within postmodernism, enables to expand our epistemological horizons.

  17. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning; Tarp, Sven

    2018-01-01

    in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...

  18. Interpretations of Greek Mythology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Jan

    1987-01-01

    This collection of original studies offers new interpretations of some of the best known characters and themes of Greek mythology, reflecting the complexity and fascination of the Greek imagination. Following analyses of the concept of myth and the influence of the Orient on Greek mythology, the

  19. Interpreting the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  20. Interpretation as conflict resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Henriëtte de; Zwart, J.

    Semantic interpretation is not a simple process. When we want to know what a given sentence means, more is needed than just a simple ‘adding up’ of the meanings of the component words. Not only can the words in a sentence interact and conflict with each other, but also with the linguistic and

  1. Characterization and interpretation of a fractured rocky massif from borehole data. Boreholes of geothermal project at Soultz-sous-Forets and other examples of unidirectional sampling; Caracterisation et interpretation d`un volume rocheux fracture a partir de donnees de forages. Les forages geothermiques de Soultz-sous-Forets et autres exemples d`echantillonnages unidirectionnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezayes, CH.

    1995-12-18

    In this thesis, we study fractures from borehole data on two sites: in one, located at Soultz-sous-Forets (Alsace) in the Rhine graben, boreholes reach a delta Jurassic series forming a petroleum reservoir. At Soultz, fractures have been studied on cores and borehole images. Striated faults present on cores permit to determine the tectonic history of the granite, completed by field study in Vosges Massif. This history corresponds to the Rhine graben history knowing by different authors. The analysis of vertical induced fractures observed on borehole images indicates a present-day NW-SE to NNW-SSE compression. These variations of stress direction are confirmed by others in situ measurements, as hydraulic injection, micro-seismicity, etc... On cores and borehole images, numerous fractures have been observed. Most of them are linked to the E-W distension, which permits the Rhine graben opening at Oligocene. At greatest scale, in quartz minerals, the micro-fractures are constitute by fluid inclusion trails. Several sets are related to the E-W distension, but others sets are linked to compressive stages. These sets are not observed on cores. This is a under-sampling of some fractures by the boreholes, but theses fractures exit into to rock massif. On borehole images, fracture density is weakest than the cores, however the set organisation is the same. At Ravenscar, the distribution of fracture spacing along different unidirectional sampling shows a exponential negative law. However, the fracture density varies with sampling. (author) 199 refs.

  2. Interpretation and consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Rychlewski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses some theoretical problems associated with the description of the modern book market. In particular, he is interested in the release notes and book covers in the context of the literary categories of interpretation and reception. He postulates that the marketing practices of publishers should be called a “manipulative interpretation”, insofar as the information about books and book covers fulfills a double function: that of advertising and affecting the reception of the text. Referring to the two types of interpretation, “exegesis” and “usage”, he believes that the discussed phenomena fall between these two extremes. Both the release notes and book covers are the domain of a limited “usage”, the accuracy of which verifies the market.

  3. Improving the effectiveness of interpreted consultations: Australian interpreter, general practitioner and patient perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Nancy; Farley, Rebecca; Claudio, Fernanda; Avila, Patricia

    2018-03-01

    Healthcare consultations with patients lacking English proficiency are challenging for all parties, even in Australian primary care where the engagement of interpreters is encouraged and fully subsidised. Our objective was to understand these challenges from the perspectives of interpreters, patients and general practitioners in order to improve the effectiveness of interpreted consultations. Our investigator team approached the interpreted consultation as an interprofessional collaboration. A convenience sample of seven general practitioners, eight health interpreters and six representatives from culturally and linguistically diverse communities (representing the patient perspective) participated in three separate focus group discussions, lasting 60-90 min each, exploring participant experiences with healthcare consultations in which interpreters were present. Two semistructured interviews were undertaken subsequently with three additional community representatives purposively recruited to increase participant diversity. Data were collected in 2016 and analysed inductively using a method of constant comparison to identify, and reach consensus on, key emerging themes. All participant groups emphasised the importance of working with trained interpreters, rather than relying on family interpreters or a doctor's own second language skills. Although participants reported experiences of effective interpreted consultations, other reports suggested that some doctors are unaware of, or have difficulty following, accepted guidelines about speech, gaze and turn-taking. Challenges identified in relation to interpreted consultations fell into the five themes of contextual constraints, consultation complexity, communication difficulties, the interpreter role and collaboration. Some general practitioner participants appeared to be unsure and anxious about the etiquette of interpreted consultations, and there was some confusion between and within participant groups about

  4. IMAGE INTERPRETATION TASK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to a research requirement of the Department of the Army, an extensive exploratory survey of human factors problems in image in...imagery. (2) How can the Army best utilize its available human resources to cope with ever increasing variety of image types and at the same time...experiments conduct ed to date within each of four subtask areas encompassed by the research program of the Image Interpretation Task.

  5. Measurement, Interpretation and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Lombardi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During many years since the birth of quantum mechanics, instrumentalistinterpretations prevailed: the meaning of the theory was expressed in terms of measurementsresults. However, in the last decades, several attempts to interpret it from a realist viewpointhave been proposed. Among them, modal interpretations supply a realist non-collapseaccount, according to which the system always has definite properties and the quantum staterepresents possibilities, not actualities. But the traditional modal interpretations faced someconceptual problems when addressing imperfect measurements. The modal-Hamiltonianinterpretation, on the contrary, proved to be able to supply an adequate account of themeasurement problem, both in its ideal and its non-ideal versions. Moreover, in the non-idealcase, it gives a precise criterion to distinguish between reliable and non-reliable measurements.Nevertheless, that criterion depends on the particular state of the measured system, and thismight be considered as a shortcoming of the proposal. In fact, one could ask for a criterionof reliability that does not depend on the features of what is measured but only on theproperties of the measurement device. The aim of this article is precisely to supply such acriterion: we will adopt an informational perspective for this purpose.

  6. Interpretation and creationism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, J L

    1994-08-01

    This paper is an attempt to raise questions about certain underlying and implicit assumptions in some hermeneutic and narrative approaches to psychoanalysis. Starting from the view that Freud saw interpretation in the clinical setting as an attempt to unveil the analysand's psychic reality, it is argued that he envisaged that psychoanalysis aims to interpret what is real in the analysand's inner world--an empirical line of thought underpinned by the idea of analytic neutrality and an emphasis on the analysand's capacity to judge reality. By contrast, the tendency within the hermeneutic-narrative tradition is to demote psychic reality in favour of an emphasis on the analyst's capacity to interpret in order to help his analysand construct meaning. This approach may be said to put the analyst's words in the place of those of the Creator; in other words, it amounts to a 'verbal creationism', which the author argues is rooted in the idealistic philosophy of Hegel, Vico and Descartes and, further back, can be traced to the Book of Genesis--a conclusion causing the author to express some reservations.

  7. Interpreting postmortem drug analysis and redistribution in determining cause of death: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael KennedyDepartment of Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, St Vincent's Hospital, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Multiple interacting factors alter the measured concentration of almost all drugs after death. The ratio of centrally to peripherally collected samples provides an indication of this redistribution. At present, there are no reliable markers from which to accurately predict how much an individual drug has redistributed. Knowledge of antemortem factors is essential for the interpretation of the effects of any measured drug or toxin. Keywords: postmortem drugs, drug redistribution

  8. Genetic structure of different cat populations in Europe and South America at a microgeographic level: importance of the choice of an adequate sampling level in the accuracy of population genetics interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ruiz-Garcia

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenotypic markers, coat color, pattern and hair length, of natural domestic cat populations observed in four cities (Barcelona, Catalonia; Palma Majorca, Balearic Islands; Rimini, Italy and Buenos Aires, Argentina were studied at a microgeographical level. Various population genetics techniques revealed that the degree of genetic differentiation between populations of Felis catus within these cities is relatively low, when compared with that found between populations of other mammals. Two different levels of sampling were used. One was that of "natural" colonies of cat families living together in specific points within the cities, and the other referred to "artificial" subpopulations, or groups of colonies, inhabiting the same district within a city. For the two sampling levels, some of the results were identical: 1 little genic heterogeneity, 2 existence of panmixia, 3 similar levels of expected heterozygosity in all populations analyzed, 4 no spatial autocorrelation, with certain differentiation in the Buenos Aires population compared to the others, and 5 very high correlations between colonies and subpopulations with the first factors from a Q factor analysis. Nevertheless, other population genetic statistics were greatly affected by the differential choice of sampling level. This was the case for: 1 the amount of heterogeneity of the FST and GST statistics between the cities, which was greater at the subpopulation level than at colony level, 2 the existence of correlations between genic differentiation statistics and size variables at subpopulation level, but not at the colony level, and 3 the relationships between the genetic variables and the principal factors of the R factorial analysis. This suggests that care should be taken in the choice of the sampling unit, for inferences on population genetics to be valid at the microgeographical level.Os marcadores fenotípicos cor da pelagem, padrão e comprimento dos pelos de popula

  9. [Interpreting medical devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulygin, V P; Chepaĭkin, A G

    2002-01-01

    The specific properties of softwares for interpretation of physiological signals are discussed. Problems in the presentation of inaccurate knowledge and in the assessment of the quality of software realization of this knowledge are identified. Ways of describing inaccuracies by using the factors of certainty, inaccurate logic, linguistic approximations, and three-value logic are considered. Using the well-known approaches to testing the ECG and external respiration analyzing systems as examples, the authors show it necessary to develop special methods to evaluate the efficiency, selectivity, and stability of inferences for slight-magnitude conclusions.

  10. Biblical Interpretation Beyond Historicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biblical Interpretation beyond Historicity evaluates the new perspectives that have emerged since the crisis over historicity in the 1970s and 80s in the field of biblical scholarship. Several new studies in the field, as well as the ‘deconstructive’ side of literary criticism that emerged from...... East leads to the need for an evidence-based history of Palestine. This volume analyses the consequences of the question: “If the Bible is not history, what is it then?” The editors, Hjelm and Thompson are members of the Copenhagen School, which was formed in the light of this question...

  11. Changing interpretations of Plotinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2013-01-01

    ’ writings relatively late, in the 18th and 19th centuries, and that it was primarily made possible by Brucker’s methodology for history of philosophy, dating from the 1740s, in which the concept system of philosophy was essential. It is observed that the concept was absent in Ficino’s commentary from the 15......th century, and that it remained absent in interpretative works produced between the 15th and 18th century. It is also argued that it is erroneous to assume that Plotinus presented a system of philosophy, or intended to do so — we do not find this concept in Plotinus’ writings, and his own statements...

  12. Physical interpretation of antigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars, Itzhak; James, Albin

    2016-02-01

    Geodesic incompleteness is a problem in both general relativity and string theory. The Weyl-invariant Standard Model coupled to general relativity (SM +GR ), and a similar treatment of string theory, are improved theories that are geodesically complete. A notable prediction of this approach is that there must be antigravity regions of spacetime connected to gravity regions through gravitational singularities such as those that occur in black holes and cosmological bang/crunch. Antigravity regions introduce apparent problems of ghosts that raise several questions of physical interpretation. It was shown that unitarity is not violated, but there may be an instability associated with negative kinetic energies in the antigravity regions. In this paper we show that the apparent problems can be resolved with the interpretation of the theory from the perspective of observers strictly in the gravity region. Such observers cannot experience the negative kinetic energy in antigravity directly, but can only detect in and out signals that interact with the antigravity region. This is no different from a spacetime black box for which the information about its interior is encoded in scattering amplitudes for in/out states at its exterior. Through examples we show that negative kinetic energy in antigravity presents no problems of principles but is an interesting topic for physical investigations of fundamental significance.

  13. Equivalent statistics and data interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2017-08-01

    Recent reform efforts in psychological science have led to a plethora of choices for scientists to analyze their data. A scientist making an inference about their data must now decide whether to report a p value, summarize the data with a standardized effect size and its confidence interval, report a Bayes Factor, or use other model comparison methods. To make good choices among these options, it is necessary for researchers to understand the characteristics of the various statistics used by the different analysis frameworks. Toward that end, this paper makes two contributions. First, it shows that for the case of a two-sample t test with known sample sizes, many different summary statistics are mathematically equivalent in the sense that they are based on the very same information in the data set. When the sample sizes are known, the p value provides as much information about a data set as the confidence interval of Cohen's d or a JZS Bayes factor. Second, this equivalence means that different analysis methods differ only in their interpretation of the empirical data. At first glance, it might seem that mathematical equivalence of the statistics suggests that it does not matter much which statistic is reported, but the opposite is true because the appropriateness of a reported statistic is relative to the inference it promotes. Accordingly, scientists should choose an analysis method appropriate for their scientific investigation. A direct comparison of the different inferential frameworks provides some guidance for scientists to make good choices and improve scientific practice.

  14. Convolutional Neural Networks - Generalizability and Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmgren-Hansen, David

    from data despite it being limited in amount or context representation. Within Machine Learning this thesis focuses on Convolutional Neural Networks for Computer Vision. The research aims to answer how to explore a model's generalizability to the whole population of data samples and how to interpret...

  15. Biased Facial Expression Interpretation in Shy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokin, Jessica; Younger, Alastair; Gosselin, Pierre; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between shyness and the interpretations of the facial expressions of others was examined in a sample of 123 children aged 12 to 14?years. Participants viewed faces displaying happiness, fear, anger, disgust, sadness, surprise, as well as a neutral expression, presented on a computer screen. The children identified each expression…

  16. Interpretation of Internet technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    2001-01-01

    Research scope: The topic of the research project is to investigate how new internet technologies such as e-trade and customer relation marketing and management are implemented in Danish food processing companies. The aim is to use Weick's (1995) sensemaking concept to analyse the strategic...... processes leading to the use of internet marketing technologies and to investigate how these new technologies are interpreted into the organisation. Investigating the organisational socio-cognitive processes underlying the decision making processes will give further insight into the socio......'s social networks and roles, and how these changes affect the organisation's use of new technology (Barley 1986; 1990; Compton, White & DeWine 1991; Orlikowski 2000)....

  17. Interpreting social enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Borzaga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Institutional and organizational variety is increasingly characterizing advanced economic systems. While traditional economic theories have focused almost exclusively on profit-maximizing (i.e., for-profit enterprises and on publicly-owned organizations, the increasing relevance of non-profit organizations, and especially of social enterprises, requires scientists to reflect on a new comprehensive economic approach for explaining this organizational variety. This paper examines the main limitations of the orthodox and institutional theories and asserts the need for creating and testing a new theoretical framework, which considers the way in which diverse enterprises pursue their goals, the diverse motivations driving actors and organizations, and the different learning patterns and routines within organizations. The new analytical framework proposed in the paper draws upon recent developments in the theories of the firm, mainly of an evolutionary and behavioral kind. The firm is interpreted as a coordination mechanism of economic activity, and one whose objectives need not coincide with profit maximization. On the other hand, economic agents driven by motivational complexity and intrinsic, non-monetary motivation play a crucial role in forming firm activity over and above purely monetary and financial objectives. The new framework is thought to be particularly suitable to correctly interpret the emergence and role of nontraditional organizational and ownership forms that are not driven by the profit motive (non-profit organizations, mainly recognized in the legal forms of cooperative firms, non-profit organizations and social enterprises. A continuum of organizational forms ranging from profit making activities to public benefit activities, and encompassing mutual benefit organizations as its core constituent, is envisaged and discussed.

  18. What Language Do Interpreters Speak?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Gerald B.

    1982-01-01

    States that both the register and variety of an interpreter's speech are quite limited and analyzes the linguistic characteristics of "International English," the English used by interpreters at international conferences. (CFM)

  19. Critical Assessment of Metagenome Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sczyrba, Alexander; Hofmann, Peter; Belmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Methods for assembly, taxonomic profiling and binning are key to interpreting metagenome data, but a lack of consensus about benchmarking complicates performance assessment. The Critical Assessment of Metagenome Interpretation (CAMI) challenge has engaged the global developer community to benchmark...

  20. Users’ Quality Expectations in Conference Interpreting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Amini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of an unpublished doctoral thesis on “Conference Interpreting in Malaysia”. Expectations of users were explored by an on-site questionnaire-based survey study in Malaysian conference interpreting setting. The relative importance of various linguistic and non-linguistic criteria for quality was obtained through quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. A reliable sample of 256 interpreting “users” (Cronbach alpha coefficient=0.81 were collected from five international conferences in Malaysia. Analysis of the results revealed that users attached high value to the linguistic criteria of sense-consistency with original message (94.1%, logical cohesion (91.1%, fluency of delivery (91%, correct terminology (89.8%, correct grammar (82.8%, completeness of interpretation (80.2%, synchronicity (73%, and style (70.5% rating the criteria very important or important. The parameters of pleasant voice (60.9%, lively intonation (60.4%, and native accent (57.3% were considered desirable, but not essential as they received the least importance by the users. Findings from the open-ended questions showed that users consider “wide range of topics” and “broadening one’s horizons” as the most interesting aspects of conference interpreting. Users indicated that they were willing to listen to the interpretation even if they understood it. These suggest that interpreters are seen as a professional source of knowledge from users’ perspectives. While stressing on the linguistic aspects and the importance of output-related quality criteria, the researcher calls for taking further notice of situational particularities and background variables, pragmatic communication issues, and contextual features with a more extensive view of the profession, in addition to the methodological issues that have always been argued in interpreting quality research.

  1. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  2. The debbuggable interpreter design pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Vrany, Jan; Bergel, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed The use of Interpreter and Visitor design patterns has been widely adopted to implement programming language interpreters due to their expressive and simple design. However, no general approach to conceive a debugger is commonly adopted. This paper presents the debuggable interpreter design pattern as a general approach to extend a language interpreter with debugging facilities such as step-over and step-into. Moreover, it enables multiple debuggers coexisting and extends ...

  3. A History of Oral Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, Eugene; Bahn, Margaret L.

    This historical account of the oral interpretation of literature establishes a chain of events comprehending 25 centuries of verbal tradition from the Homeric Age through 20th Century America. It deals in each era with the viewpoints and contributions of major historical figures to oral interpretation, as well as with oral interpretation's…

  4. Student Interpretations of Political Cartoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedient, Douglas; Moore, David M.

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy and types of interpretations that fifth, eighth, and eleventh graders gave to 24 editorial cartoons in four issue areas and the effect of intelligence on political cartoon interpretation. Numerous misinterpretations and no interpretations indicates assumptions that cartoons are an effective teaching medium…

  5. Categories of theories and interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    In this paper we study categories of theories and interpretations. In these categories, notions of sameness of theories, like synonymy, bi-interpretability and mutual interpretability, take the form of isomorphism. We study the usual notions like monomorphism and product in the various theories.

  6. Interpretation of growth hormone provocative tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Orskov, H; Ranke, M B

    1995-01-01

    To compare interpretations of growth hormone (GH) provocative tests in laboratories using six different GH immunoassays (one enzymeimmunometric assay (EIMA, assay 1), one immunoradiometric assay (IRMA, assay 5), one time-resolved fluorimmunometric assay (TRFIA, assay 3) and three radioimmunoassays...... (RIAs, assays 2, 4 and 6)), aliquots of peak samples from GH provocative tests were distributed between the four participating laboratories, quantified in the respective immunoassays and interpreted according to the cut-off values for provocative tests defined for each assay method. There was a high...

  7. Fitting and interpreting occupancy models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H Welsh

    Full Text Available We show that occupancy models are more difficult to fit than is generally appreciated because the estimating equations often have multiple solutions, including boundary estimates which produce fitted probabilities of zero or one. The estimates are unstable when the data are sparse, making them difficult to interpret, and, even in ideal situations, highly variable. As a consequence, making accurate inference is difficult. When abundance varies over sites (which is the general rule in ecology because we expect spatial variance in abundance and detection depends on abundance, the standard analysis suffers bias (attenuation in detection, biased estimates of occupancy and potentially finding misleading relationships between occupancy and other covariates, asymmetric sampling distributions, and slow convergence of the sampling distributions to normality. The key result of this paper is that the biases are of similar magnitude to those obtained when we ignore non-detection entirely. The fact that abundance is subject to detection error and hence is not directly observable, means that we cannot tell when bias is present (or, equivalently, how large it is and we cannot adjust for it. This implies that we cannot tell which fit is better: the fit from the occupancy model or the fit ignoring the possibility of detection error. Therefore trying to adjust occupancy models for non-detection can be as misleading as ignoring non-detection completely. Ignoring non-detection can actually be better than trying to adjust for it.

  8. Conducting psychotherapy with an interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuay, Justin; Chopra, Prem; Kaplan, Ida; Szwarc, Josef

    2015-06-01

    This qualitative study assessed how clinicians prepared and used interpreters during psychotherapeutic sessions and investigated the strategies they used to manage the dynamics of this process. Ten therapists were interviewed at the Victorian Foundation for the Survivors of Torture (VFST). A semi-structured interview format was used. Thematic analysis was conducted on transcripts of recorded interviews to identify key themes. Factors affecting the provision of psychotherapy with interpreters agreed with general guidelines for working with interpreters but there were exceptions. The possible roles of the interpreter as a cultural consultant, community advocate and co-therapist were explored. Specific troubleshooting strategies were identified for improving empathy, redefining roles, and adjusting interactions with interpreters. Working with interpreters in psychotherapy is a complex process. These findings may benefit clinicians providing psychotherapy to patients using interpreters. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  9. Audiometry screening and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jennifer Junnila; Cleveland, Leanne M; Davis, Jenny L; Seales, Jennifer S

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of hearing loss varies with age, affecting at least 25 percent of patients older than 50 years and more than 50 percent of those older than 80 years. Adolescents and young adults represent groups in which the prevalence of hearing loss is increasing and may therefore benefit from screening. If offered, screening can be performed periodically by asking the patient or family if there are perceived hearing problems, or by using clinical office tests such as whispered voice, finger rub, or audiometry. Audiometry in the family medicine clinic setting is a relatively simple procedure that can be interpreted by a trained health care professional. Pure-tone testing presents tones across the speech spectrum (500 to 4,000 Hz) to determine if the patient's hearing levels fall within normal limits. A quiet testing environment, calibrated audiometric equipment, and appropriately trained personnel are required for in-office testing. Pure-tone audiometry may help physicians appropriately refer patients to an audiologist or otolaryngologist. Unilateral or asymmetrical hearing loss can be symptomatic of a central nervous system lesion and requires additional evaluation.

  10. Orientalismi: nuove prospettive interpretative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Proglio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at reconsidering the concept of Orientalism in a new and multiple perspective, and at proposing a different interpretation of the relationship between culture and power, starting from Edward Said’s theoretical frame of reference. If Said’s representational model is repositioned out of structuralist and foucaultian frameworks and separated from the gramscian idea of hegemony-subordination, indeed, it may be possible to re-discuss the traditional profile identifying the Other in the European cultures. My basic assumption here is that Orientalism should not be understood as a consensus mechanism, which is able to produce diversified images of the Orient and the Oriental on demand. Although, of course, in most cases Orientalism is connected to the issue of power, its meanings could also be explained —as it will be soon shown— otherwise. Let’s take The Invisible Cities by Italo Calvino as an example. Here the narratives are not just multiple repetitions of Venice —in Said’s case, the same would hold for Europeanism—, but they could be strategically re-appropriated by those “others” and “alterities” whose bodies and identities are imposed by the Eurocentric discourse. In this sense, a double link may be identified with queer theories and postcolonial studies, and the notion of subordination will be rethought. Finally, from the above mentioned borders, a new idea of image emerges, which appears as linear, uniform and flattened only to the European gaze, whereas in actual fact it is made of imaginaries and forms of knowledge, which combine representation with the conceptualization of power relationships.

  11. Geomagnetic paleointensity in historical pyroclastic density currents: Testing the effects of emplacement temperature and postemplacement alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Julie A.; Gee, Jeffrey S.; Jackson, Mike J.; Avery, Margaret S.

    2015-10-01

    Thellier-type paleointensity experiments were conducted on welded ash matrix or pumice from the 1912 Novarupta (NV) and 1980 Mt. St. Helens (MSH) pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) with the intention of evaluating their suitability for geomagnetic paleointensity studies. PDCs are common worldwide, but can have complicated thermal and alteration histories. We attempt to address the role that emplacement temperature and postemplacement hydrothermal alteration may play in nonideal paleointensity behavior of PDCs. Results demonstrate two types of nonideal behavior: unstable remanence in multidomain (MD) titanomagnetite, and nonideal behavior linked to fumarolic and vapor phase alteration. Emplacement temperature indirectly influences MSH results by controlling the fraction of homogenous MD versus oxyexsolved pseudo-single domain titanomagnetite. NV samples are more directly influenced by vapor phase alteration. The majority of NV samples show distinct two-slope behavior in the natural remanent magnetization—partial thermal remanent magnetization plots. We interpret this to arise from a (thermo)chemical remanent magnetization associated with vapor phase alteration, and samples with high water content (>0.75% loss on ignition) generate paleointensities that deviate most strongly from the true value. We find that PDCs can be productively used for paleointensity, but that—as with all paleointensity studies—care should be taken in identifying potential postemplacement alteration below the Curie temperature, and that large, welded flows may be more alteration-prone. One advantage in using PDCs is that they typically have greater areal (spatial) exposure than a basalt flow, allowing for more extensive sampling and better assessment of errors and uncertainty.

  12. Cutting Corners: Provider Perceptions of Interpretation Services and Factors Related to Use of an Ad Hoc Interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Rachel; Parker, Veronica G; Sherrill, Windsor W; Coltman, Kinneil; Hudson, Matthew F; Nichols, Christina M; Yates, Adam M; Pribonic, Anne Paige

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed health providers' perceptions of factors related to professional interpretation services and the association between these factors and the potential use of ad hoc interpreters. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 150 health services providers at a large, regional health system in South Carolina. Providers rated "ability to communicate effectively during a clinical encounter" as paramount regarding the use of interpretation services. The most important factors related to the likely use of ad hoc interpreters (cutting corners) included locating a qualified interpreter, having to wait for a qualified interpreter, and technical difficulties regarding phone and video technology. Health care organizations may benefit from increasing staff awareness about patient safety and legal and regulatory risks involved with the use of ad hoc interpreters. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Mantoux test and its interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Nayak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tuberculin skin test is one of the few investigations dating from the 19 th century that are still widely used as an important test for diagnosing tuberculosis. Though very commonly used by physicians worldwide its interpretation always remains difficult and controversial. Various factors like age, immunological status coexisting illness etc influence its outcome, so also its interpretation. Utmost care is required while interpreting the result and giving an opinion. This article has been written with the purpose of elucidating the performance and interpretation of the standard tuberculin test.

  14. Components of simultaneous interpreting: Comparing interpreting with shadowing and paraphrasing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffels, I.K.; de Groot, A.M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting is a complex task where the interpreter is routinely involved in comprehending, translating and producing language at the same time. This study assessed two components that are likely to be major sources of complexity in SI: The simultaneity of comprehension and production,

  15. Alexithymia tendencies and mere exposure alter social approachability judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Darren W; McKeen, Nancy A

    2011-04-01

    People have a fundamental motivation for social connection and social engagement, but how do they decide whom to approach in ambiguous social situations? Subjective feelings often influence such decisions, but people vary in awareness of their feelings. We evaluated two opposing hypotheses based on visual familiarity effects and emotional awareness on social approachability judgments. These hypotheses differ in their interpretation of the familiarity or mere exposure effect with either an affective or cognitive interpretation. The responses of our 128-student sample supported the cognitive interpretation. Lower emotional awareness or higher alexithymia was associated with higher approachability judgments to familiarized faces and lower approachability judgments to novel faces. These findings were independent of the Big Five personality factors. The results indicate that individual differences in emotional awareness should be integrated into social decision-making models. The results also suggest that cognitive-perceptual alterations may underlie the poorer social outcomes associated with alexithymia. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Revised interpretations of stable C and O patterns in carbonate rocks resulting from meteoric diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Peter K.; Oehlert, Amanda M.

    2018-02-01

    A positive correlation between the δ13C and δ18O values of carbonate rocks is a screening tool widely used to identify the overprint of meteoric diagenesis on the original isotopic composition of a sample. In particular, it has been suggested that systematic change from negative to positive δ13C and δ18O values with increasing depth in the core is an indicator of alteration within the zone of mixing between meteoric and marine waters. In this paper, we propose that such covariance is not generated within the traditionally defined mixing zone, and that positive correlations between δ13C and δ18O values in marine carbonates are not necessarily indicators of meteoric alteration. This new interpretation is based on data collected from the shallow sub-surface of the Bahamas, a region unequivocally influenced by meteoric waters to depths of at least 200 m below the current sediment-water interface. The classic interpretation of the diagenetic environments, based on changes in the δ13C and δ18O values, would suggest the maximum penetration of freshwater occurs between 65 and 100 m below seafloor. Below these depths, a strong positive covariation between the δ13C and δ18O values exists, and would traditionally be defined as the mixing zone. However, based upon known changes in sea level, the penetration of the freshwater lens extends significantly below this limit. We contend that the zone showing covariance of δ13C and δ18O values is actually altered within the freshwater lens, and not the mixing zone as previously proposed. The co-varying trend in δ13C and δ18O values is the result of diagenetic processes occurring at the interface between vadose and phreatic zones. Significantly greater rates of recrystallization and neomorphism are driven by the increased rates of oxidation of organic matter at this transition with progressively less alteration occurring with increasing depth. As sea level oscillates, the position of this interface moves through the

  17. Interpreting Marginal Effects in the Multinomial Logit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the challenges when researchers interpret results about relationships between variables from discrete choice models with multiple outcomes. The recommended approach is demonstrated by testing predictions from transaction cost theory on a sample of 246 Scandinavian firms...

  18. Pragmatics in Court Interpreting: Additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    Danish court interpreters are expected to follow ethical guidelines, which instruct them to deliver exact verbatim versions of source texts. However, this requirement often clashes with the reality of the interpreting situation in the courtroom. This paper presents and discusses the findings of a...

  19. Using interpretation services during clerkships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijbers, Laura; Gerritsen, Debby; Suurmond, Jeanine

    2017-01-01

    Although using professional interpreters is known to improve health outcomes for patients when language barriers are present, care providers often hesitate to use them. Training in how to use interpreters has been effective in increasing students' knowledge and self-efficacy, but little is known

  20. Intercultural pragmatics and court interpreting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2008-01-01

      This paper reports on an on-going investigation of conversational implicature in triadic speech events: Interpreter-mediated questionings in criminal proceedings in Danish district courts. The languages involved are Danish and English, and the mode of interpreting is the consecutive mode....... The court interpreters are all state-authorized court interpreters and thus fully competent professionals.   The centrality of pragmatics in triadic speech events has been demonstrated by a number of studies (e.g. Berk-Seligson 2002, Hale 2004, Jacobsen 2002). Thus, conversational implicatures, which...... are a normal part of any interaction, occur also in courtroom interaction where questions and answers are not always entirely explicit and straightforward. However, preserving degrees of ambiguity and non-explicitness is very difficult for interpreters who may have to resort to certain strategies to translate...

  1. A new method for evaluating the quality of medical interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, M Barton; Heckscher, Rachel; Mayo, Sandra J; Li, Wenjun; Wilson, Ira B

    2004-01-01

    To develop and implement a method to evaluate the quality of medical interpretation in a pediatric outpatient setting and explore the patterns and correlates of errors and failures in translation. Observational study of a convenience sample of 13 Spanish-speaking families attending pediatric outpatient clinics at an urban teaching hospital, their English-speaking providers, and interpreters. Visits were audiotaped and transcribed. The transcripts were divided into segments consisting of continuous sections of dialogue in a single language, plus any translation of that dialogue, and segments were coded for characteristics of the translation, word count, and the identity of the speakers. Translation quality on an ordinal scale derived from a set of nominal codes. We found that 66.1% of segments in which translation should have occurred were translated with substantial errors or omissions or not translated at all. In 29.8% of segments, the interpreter engaged in speech unrelated to interpretation. Quality of interpretation was inversely associated with the word count per segment and, independently, whether the interpreter engaged in speech acts which did not consist of interpretation, which we call "role exchange." We give several examples and qualitative discussion of "role exchange" and show that it not necessarily associated with mistranslation but may have egregious consequences. Interpreters who lack appropriate training fail to interpret accurately. Engaging in speech behaviors other than interpreting is associated with a higher rate of errors.

  2. Quantification of brain endocannabinoid levels: methods, interpretations and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczynski, Matthew W; Parsons, Loren H

    2010-01-01

    Endocannabinoids play an important role in a diverse range of neurophysiological processes including neural development, neuroimmune function, synaptic plasticity, pain, reward and affective state. This breadth of influence and evidence for altered endocannabinoid signalling in a variety of neuropathologies has fuelled interest in the accurate quantification of these lipids in brain tissue. Established methods for endocannabinoid quantification primarily employ solvent-based lipid extraction with further sample purification by solid phase extraction. In recent years in vivo microdialysis methods have also been developed for endocannabinoid sampling from the brain interstitial space. However, considerable variability in estimates of endocannabinoid content has led to debate regarding the physiological range of concentrations present in various brain regions. This paper provides a critical review of factors that influence the quantification of brain endocannabinoid content as determined by lipid extraction from bulk tissue and by in vivo microdialysis. A variety of methodological issues are discussed including analytical approaches, endocannabinoid extraction and purification, post-mortem changes in brain endocannabinoid content, cellular reactions to microdialysis probe implantation and caveats related to lipid sampling from the extracellular space. The application of these methods for estimating brain endocannabinoid content and the effects of endocannabinoid clearance inhibition are discussed. The benefits, limitations and pitfalls associated with each approach are emphasized, with an eye toward the appropriate interpretation of data gathered by each method. This article is part of a themed issue on Cannabinoids. To view the editorial for this themed issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00831.x PMID:20590555

  3. Interpreters: telephonic, in-person interpretation and bilingual providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Kristen L; Wiener, Ethan; Roosevelt, Genie; Bajaj, Lalit; Hampers, Louis C

    2010-03-01

    Language barriers affect health care interactions. Large, randomized studies of the relative efficacy of interpreter modalities have not been conducted. To compare the efficacy of telephonic and in-person medical interpretation to visits with verified bilingual physicians. This was a prospective, randomized trial. The setting was an urban pediatric emergency department at which approximately 20% of visits are by families with limited English proficiency. The participants were families who responded affirmatively when asked at triage if they would prefer to communicate in Spanish. Randomization of each visit was to (1) remote telephonic interpretation via a double handset in the examination room, (2) an in-person emergency department-dedicated medical interpreter, or (3) a verified bilingual physician. Interviews were conducted after each visit. The primary outcome was a blinded determination of concordance between the caregivers' description of their child's diagnosis with the physician's stated discharge diagnosis. Secondary outcomes were qualitative measures of effectiveness of communication and satisfaction. Verified bilingual providers were the gold standard for noninferiority comparisons. A total of 1201 families were enrolled: 407 were randomly assigned to telephonic interpretation and 377 to in-person interpretation, and 417 were interviewed by a bilingual physician. Concordance between the diagnosis in the medical record and diagnosis reported by the family was not different between the 3 groups (telephonic: 95.1%; in-person: 95.5%; bilingual: 95.4%). The in-person-interpreter cohort scored the quality and satisfaction with their visit worse than both the bilingual and telephonic cohorts (P bilingual-provider cohort were less satisfied with their language service than those in the in-person and telephonic cohorts (P bilingual provider as a gold standard, noninferiority was demonstrated for both interpreter modalities (telephonic and in-person) for quality

  4. Interpreting Sustainability for Urban Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ordóñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Incisive interpretations of urban-forest sustainability are important in furthering our understanding of how to sustain the myriad values associated with urban forests. Our analysis of earlier interpretations reveals conceptual gaps. These interpretations are attached to restrictive definitions of a sustainable urban forest and limited to a rather mechanical view of maintaining the biophysical structure of trees. The probing of three conceptual domains (urban forest concepts, sustainable development, and sustainable forest management leads to a broader interpretation of urban-forest sustainability as the process of sustaining urban forest values through time and across space. We propose that values—and not services, benefits, functions or goods—is a superior concept to refer to what is to be sustained in and by an urban forest.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) of the Office of Research and Development provides remote sensing technical support including aerial photograph acquisition and interpretation to the EPA Program Offices, ORD Laboratorie...

  6. Interpretation of wave energy spectra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, E.F

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines for interpreting nondirectional wave energy spectra and presented. A simple method is given for using the spectrum to estimate a significant height and period for each major wave train in most sea states...

  7. Analyzing and Interpreting Historical Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipping, Matthias; Wadhwani, Dan; Bucheli, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter outlines a methodology for the interpretation of historical sources, helping to realize their full potential for the study of organization, while overcoming their challenges in terms of distortions created by time, changes in context, and selective production or preservation. Drawing...... on social scientific methods as well as the practice and reflections of historians, the chapter describes analytical and interpretive process based on three basic elements, illustrating them with exemplars from management research: source criticism to identify possible biases and judge the extent to which...... a source can be trusted to address the research question; triangulation with additional sources to confirm or question an interpretation and strengthen the overall findings; hermeneutics to relate sources to their original contexts and make their interpretation by a researcher today more robust...

  8. Dialectica Interpretation with Marked Counterexamples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifon Trifonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Goedel's functional "Dialectica" interpretation can be used to extract functional programs from non-constructive proofs in arithmetic by employing two sorts of higher-order witnessing terms: positive realisers and negative counterexamples. In the original interpretation decidability of atoms is required to compute the correct counterexample from a set of candidates. When combined with recursion, this choice needs to be made for every step in the extracted program, however, in some special cases the decision on negative witnesses can be calculated only once. We present a variant of the interpretation in which the time complexity of extracted programs can be improved by marking the chosen witness and thus avoiding recomputation. The achieved effect is similar to using an abortive control operator to interpret computational content of non-constructive principles.

  9. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  10. COURT INTERPRETING AT DENPASAR COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Made Puspani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a research on interpreting (oral translation on a criminal case ofdrug user in the court proceedings at Denpasar Court. The study of theinterpreting is concerned with two-ways rendition from Indonesian into Englishand vice-versa. The study is related to: (1 the description of modes of interpretingapplied by the interpreter, (2 the application of translation strategies: shift,addition and deletion of information, (3 factors that underlie the application ofthe strategies, and (4 the impact of the application of those strategies towards thequality of the interpreting.The methodology applied in this study is qualitative based on eclectictheories (translation, syntax, semantics and pragmatics. The utilization of thetheories is in accordance with the type of the data analyzed in regard to thetranslation phenomena as an applied study and its complexity.The interpreting at court applied the consecutive and simultaneous modes.The strategy of shift was applied when there were differences in structure betweenthe source and the target languages. Addition of information was used when theinterpreter emphasized the message of the source language in the target language.The deletion of information applied if the context in the target language has beencovered, and it was not necessary for the interpreter to interpret the same thingbecause the message of the source language was pragmatically implied in thetarget language.The factors which underlie the application of the interpreting strategies incourt interpreting were communication factor and the differences in the languagesystems between the source and the target languages. The impact of the use of thestrategies towards the quality of the interpreting happened when the interpretationof the source language message into the message of the target language and themessage in the source language was not completely render into the targetlanguage.The novelties of the research are: (1 relevance theory and its

  11. Court interpreting and pragmatic meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction.......In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction....

  12. Design, operation, and interpretation of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlstrom, B L; Barnett, M L

    2010-08-01

    Randomized controlled clinical trials offer the best evidence for changing clinical practice and informing public health policy. Using examples from the literature, this paper reviews clinical trials for those who may be unfamiliar with their design, operation, and interpretation. In the design of a clinical trial, the question to be answered and a clinically meaningful outcome must be clearly defined. Ethics must be considered, sample size carefully estimated, and use of biomarkers and surrogate outcomes understood. Prominent issues in trial implementation include developing a manual of operations, trial registration, subject recruitment and retention, use of a data coordinating center, and data and safety monitoring. Interpretation of clinical trials requires understanding differences between efficacy and effectiveness; superiority, equivalence, and non-inferiority; intent-to-treat; primary and secondary analyses; and limitations of unregistered small clinical trials compared with large multi-center Phase III trials that are more likely to be representative of a population and change clinical practice or public health policy.

  13. Abstract Interpretation and Attribute Gramars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non-standard ...... is presented in the thesis. Methods from abstract interpretation can also be used in correctness proofs of attribute grammars. This proof technique introduces a new class of attribute grammars based on domain theory. This method is illustrated with examples.......The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non......-standard semantics where the ``meaning'' contains information about the runtime behaviour of programs. In an abstract interpretation the analysis is proved correct by relating it to the usual semantics for the language. Attribute grammars provide a method and notation to specify code generation and program analysis...

  14. 77 FR 30886 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Interpretation of Unblockable Drain AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety... interpretation of the term ``unblockable drain,'' as used in the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act... document does not alter the current requirement that public pools and spas be in compliance with the VGBA...

  15. [Interpreting the hospitalization experiences of patients with spine lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Ana Lúcia Pereira; de Freitas, Consuelo Helena Aires; Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative study with theoretical axis in symbolic interactionism interpretative of Norman Denzin that had as objective to comprehend the meanings of experiences lived by being victim of spine lesion in context hospital and to describe the narratives in range of experiences lived. The subjects of research were seven patient victims of spine lesion traumatic hospitalized in unity of neurology of Institute Dr. José Frota, sited in Fortaleza/Ce. Interpreted hard fronting to balance of oneself, given to sudden breaking of trajectory of their lives, the organic alterations acquired that pass to be motives of fears, uncertain, non-comfort and menace to life that had along their families.

  16. Interpretive reliability of two common MMPI-2 profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Deskovitz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Users of multi-scale tests like the MMPI-2 tend not to interpret scales one at a time in a way that would correspond to standard scale-level reliability information. Instead, clinicians integrate inferences from a multitude of scales simultaneously, producing a descriptive narrative that is thought to characterize the examinee. This study was an attempt to measure the reliability of such integrated interpretations using a q-sort research methodology. Participants were 20 MMPI-2 users who responded to E-mail solicitations on professional listservs and in personal emails. Each participant interpreted one of two common MMPI-2 profiles using a q-set of 100 statements designed for MMPI-2 interpretation. To measure the “interpretive reliability” of the MMPI-2 profile interpretations, q-sort descriptions were intercorrelated. Mean pairwise interpretive reliability was .39, lower than expected, and there was no significant difference in reliability between profiles. There was also not a significant difference between within-profile and cross-profile correlations. Q-set item analysis was conducted to determine which individual statements had the most impact on interpretive reliability. Although sampling in this study was limited, implications for the field reliability of MMPI-2 interpretation are sobering.

  17. A Genealogical Interpretation of Principal Components Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVean, Gil

    2009-01-01

    Principal components analysis, PCA, is a statistical method commonly used in population genetics to identify structure in the distribution of genetic variation across geographical location and ethnic background. However, while the method is often used to inform about historical demographic processes, little is known about the relationship between fundamental demographic parameters and the projection of samples onto the primary axes. Here I show that for SNP data the projection of samples onto the principal components can be obtained directly from considering the average coalescent times between pairs of haploid genomes. The result provides a framework for interpreting PCA projections in terms of underlying processes, including migration, geographical isolation, and admixture. I also demonstrate a link between PCA and Wright's fst and show that SNP ascertainment has a largely simple and predictable effect on the projection of samples. Using examples from human genetics, I discuss the application of these results to empirical data and the implications for inference. PMID:19834557

  18. Natural fumarolic alteration of fluorapatite, olivine, and basaltic glass, and implications for habitable environments on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausrath, Elisabeth M; Tschauner, Oliver

    2013-11-01

    Fumaroles represent a very important potential habitat on Mars because they contain water and nutrients. Global deposition of volcanic sulfate aerosols may also have been an important soil-forming process affecting large areas of Mars. Here we identify alteration from the Senator fumarole, northwest Nevada, USA, and in low-temperature environments near the fumarole to help interpret fumarolic and acid vapor alteration of rocks and soils on Mars. We analyzed soil samples and fluorapatite, olivine, and basaltic glass placed at and near the fumarole in in situ mineral alteration experiments designed to measure weathering under natural field conditions. Using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, we clearly observe hydroxyl-carbonate-bearing fluorapatite as a fumarolic alteration product of the original material, fluorapatite. The composition of apatites as well as secondary phosphates has been previously used to infer magmatic conditions as well as fumarolic conditions on Mars. To our knowledge, the observations reported here represent the first documented instance of formation of hydroxyl-carbonate-bearing apatite from fluorapatite in a field experiment. Retreat of olivine surfaces, as well as abundant NH4-containing minerals, was also characteristic of fumarolic alteration. In contrast, alteration in the nearby low-temperature environment resulted in formation of large pits on olivine surfaces, which were clearly distinguishable from the fumarolic alteration. Raman signatures of some fumarolically impacted surfaces are consistent with detection of the biological molecules chlorophyll and scytenomin, potentially useful biosignatures. Observations of altered minerals on Mars may therefore help identify the environment of formation and understand the aqueous history and potential habitability of that planet.

  19. Interpretation of correlations in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Man; Bounsanga, Jerry; Voss, Maren Wright

    2017-11-01

    Critically analyzing research is a key skill in evidence-based practice and requires knowledge of research methods, results interpretation, and applications, all of which rely on a foundation based in statistics. Evidence-based practice makes high demands on trained medical professionals to interpret an ever-expanding array of research evidence. As clinical training emphasizes medical care rather than statistics, it is useful to review the basics of statistical methods and what they mean for interpreting clinical studies. We reviewed the basic concepts of correlational associations, violations of normality, unobserved variable bias, sample size, and alpha inflation. The foundations of causal inference were discussed and sound statistical analyses were examined. We discuss four ways in which correlational analysis is misused, including causal inference overreach, over-reliance on significance, alpha inflation, and sample size bias. Recent published studies in the medical field provide evidence of causal assertion overreach drawn from correlational findings. The findings present a primer on the assumptions and nature of correlational methods of analysis and urge clinicians to exercise appropriate caution as they critically analyze the evidence before them and evaluate evidence that supports practice. Critically analyzing new evidence requires statistical knowledge in addition to clinical knowledge. Studies can overstate relationships, expressing causal assertions when only correlational evidence is available. Failure to account for the effect of sample size in the analyses tends to overstate the importance of predictive variables. It is important not to overemphasize the statistical significance without consideration of effect size and whether differences could be considered clinically meaningful.

  20. 8 CFR 1240.44 - Interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpreter. 1240.44 Section 1240.44 Aliens....44 Interpreter. Any person acting as interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the...

  1. 25 CFR 81.16 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interpreters. 81.16 Section 81.16 Indians BUREAU OF... STATUTE § 81.16 Interpreters. Interpreters, where needed, may be provided to explain the manner of voting... that the interpreter does not influence the voter in casting the ballot. The interpreter may accompany...

  2. Narrative pedagogy and art interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Bonnie; Hayden-Miles, Marie

    2011-04-01

    Contemporary practices in nursing education call for changes that will assist students in understanding a complex, rapidly changing world. Narrative pedagogy is an approach that offers teachers a way to actively engage students in the process of teaching and learning. The narrative approach provides ways to think critically, make connections, and ask questions to gain understanding through dialogue. The hermeneutic circle of understanding offers a way to interpret stories and discover meaning. Narratives exist in art forms that can be interpreted to evoke discussions and thinking that relate to nursing practice. Art interpretation is a way to gain access to others and acquire a deeper appreciation for multiple perspectives in the teaching-learning process. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Interpretative reports and critical values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Elisa; Plebani, Mario

    2009-06-01

    In the clinical laboratory to allow an effective testing process, post-analytical activity can have two goals in trying to improve patient safety: result interpretation and communication of critical values. Both are important issues, and their success requires a cooperative effort. Misinterpretation of laboratory test results or ineffectiveness in their notification can lead to diagnostic errors or errors in identifying patient critical conditions. With the awareness that the incorrect interpretation of tests and the breakdown in the communication of critical values are preventable errors, laboratorians should make every effort to prevent the types of errors that potentially harm patients. In order to improve the reliability of laboratories, we attempt to explain how interpretative reporting and automated notification of critical values can be used to reduce errors. Clinical laboratories can therefore work to improve clinical effectiveness, without forgetting that everything should be designed to provide the best outcomes for patients.

  4. MEPAG Recommendations for a 2018 Mars Sample Return Caching Lander - Sample Types, Number, and Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.

    2011-01-01

    The return to Earth of geological and atmospheric samples from the surface of Mars is among the highest priority objectives of planetary science. The MEPAG Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (MEPAG E2E-iSAG) was chartered to propose scientific objectives and priorities for returned sample science, and to map out the implications of these priorities, including for the proposed joint ESA-NASA 2018 mission that would be tasked with the crucial job of collecting and caching the samples. The E2E-iSAG identified four overarching scientific aims that relate to understanding: (A) the potential for life and its pre-biotic context, (B) the geologic processes that have affected the martian surface, (C) planetary evolution of Mars and its atmosphere, (D) potential for future human exploration. The types of samples deemed most likely to achieve the science objectives are, in priority order: (1A). Subaqueous or hydrothermal sediments (1B). Hydrothermally altered rocks or low temperature fluid-altered rocks (equal priority) (2). Unaltered igneous rocks (3). Regolith, including airfall dust (4). Present-day atmosphere and samples of sedimentary-igneous rocks containing ancient trapped atmosphere Collection of geologically well-characterized sample suites would add considerable value to interpretations of all collected rocks. To achieve this, the total number of rock samples should be about 30-40. In order to evaluate the size of individual samples required to meet the science objectives, the E2E-iSAG reviewed the analytical methods that would likely be applied to the returned samples by preliminary examination teams, for planetary protection (i.e., life detection, biohazard assessment) and, after distribution, by individual investigators. It was concluded that sample size should be sufficient to perform all high-priority analyses in triplicate. In keeping with long-established curatorial practice of extraterrestrial material, at least 40% by

  5. Interpretation of Chemical Pathology Test Results in Paediatrics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At any time we interprete paediatric chemical pathology test results we must take into consideration a number of factors, which are related with and restricted to ... which include; blood sample collection process, method of sample analyses or measurement techniques, are the basis for the reference interval or range that are ...

  6. Interpretive Flexibility in Mobile Health:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Mathiassen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    -sponsored program, mobile technology proved to have considerable interpretive flexibility with variation in perceived nature of technology, technology strategy, and technology use between agencies. What was first seen as a very promising innovation across the Danish home care sector subsequently became the topic...... of debate as technology use arrangements ran counter to existing norms and values in individual agencies. Conclusions: Government-sponsored programs can have both positive and negative results, and managers need to be aware of this and the interpretive flexibility of mobile technology. Mobile technology...

  7. Vicarious posttraumatic growth among interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splevins, Katie A; Cohen, Keren; Joseph, Stephen; Murray, Craig; Bowley, Jake

    2010-12-01

    An emerging evidence base indicates that posttraumatic growth might be experienced vicariously by those working alongside trauma survivors. In this study we explored the vicarious experiences of eight interpreters working in a therapeutic setting with asylum seekers and refugees. We adopted a qualitative approach, using semistructured interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four interrelated themes emerged from the findings: feeling what your client feels, beyond belief, finding your own way to deal with it, and a different person. Although all participants experienced distress, they also perceived themselves to have grown in some way. The implications for a theory of vicarious posttraumatic growth are discussed, along with clinical applications.

  8. Clinical interpretation of leukocyte responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, K S; Rakich, P M

    1989-07-01

    Basic information has been presented concerning leukocyte (neutrophil, monocyte, lymphocyte, eosinophil, and basophil) function, production, kinetics, and response to various physiological and disease states. Using this information, veterinary practitioners should be able to interpret leukogram data from sick and healthy dogs and cats. Specifically, characteristic leukogram patterns such as physiological leukocytosis, corticosteroid-associated changes, and the presence of infection or severe inflammation should be recognized. In addition, interpretation of individual leukocyte responses should be possible. Several tables have been provided to assist in constructing a differential diagnosis to explain increases or decreases in absolute leukocyte numbers that lie outside of expected reference intervals.

  9. Measuring Flow Rate in Crystalline Bedrock Wells Using the Dissolved Oxygen Alteration Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Sarah A; Robbins, Gary A

    2017-07-01

    Determination of vertical flow rates in a fractured bedrock well can aid in planning and implementing hydraulic tests, water quality sampling, and improving interpretations of water quality data. Although flowmeters are highly accurate in flow rate measurement, the high cost and logistics may be limiting. In this study the dissolved oxygen alteration method (DOAM) is expanded upon as a low-cost alternative to determine vertical flow rates in crystalline bedrock wells. The method entails altering the dissolved oxygen content in the wellbore through bubbler aeration, and monitoring the vertical advective movement of the dissolved oxygen over time. Measurements were taken for upward and downward flows, and under ambient and pumping conditions. Vertical flow rates from 0.06 to 2.30 Lpm were measured. To validate the method, flow rates determined with the DOAM were compared to pump discharge rates and found to be in agreement within 2.5%. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  10. Alteration of Lunar Rock Surfaces through Interaction with the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frushour, A. M.; Noble, S. K; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L P.

    2014-01-01

    Space weathering occurs on all ex-posed surfaces of lunar rocks, as well as on the surfaces of smaller grains in the lunar regolith. Space weather-ing alters these exposed surfaces primarily through the action of solar wind ions and micrometeorite impact processes. On lunar rocks specifically, the alteration products produced by space weathering form surface coatings known as patina. Patinas can have spectral reflectance properties different than the underlying rock. An understanding of patina composition and thickness is therefore important for interpreting re-motely sensed data from airless solar system bodies. The purpose of this study is to try to understand the physical and chemical properties of patina by expanding the number of patinas known and characterized in the lunar rock sample collection.

  11. Probabilistic interpretation of resonant states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We provide probabilistic interpretation of resonant states. We do this by showing that the integral of the modulus square of resonance wave functions (i.e., the conventional norm) over a properly expanding spatial domain is independent of time, and therefore leads to probability conservation. This is in contrast with the ...

  12. A Generator for Composition Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    Composition of program components must be expressed in some language, and late composition can be achieved by an interpreter for the composition language. A suitable notion of component is obtained by identifying it with the semantics of a generalised structured command. Experiences from...... notion of components. Actual compositions can be type checked before execution....

  13. Interpretative challenges in face analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira, Sandi Michele; Hernández-Flores, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    In current research on face analysis questions of who and what should be interpreted, as well as how, are of central interest. In English language research, this question has led to a debate on the concepts of P1 (laypersons, representing the “emic” perspective) and P2 (researchers, representing ...

  14. Interpretation bias characterizes trait rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Nilly; Hertel, Paula; Ngo, Thuy Anh; Shachar, Tal; Redak, Shimrit

    2014-03-01

    Rumination, a maladaptive cognitive style of responding to negative mood, is thought to be maintained by a variety of cognitive biases. However, it is unknown whether rumination is characterized by interpretation biases. Two experiments examined the link between rumination and interpretation biases, revealed in lexical-decision tasks (LDT). A homograph with both benign and ruminative or otherwise negative meaning was presented on each trial and followed by a letter string, to which participants responded by judging whether it was a word or a non-word. Letter strings were non-words or words related or unrelated to one meaning of the homograph. In both experiments, faster latencies to respond to targets related to the ruminative meaning of the homographs were produced by students with higher scores on self-report measures of rumination. Moreover, these biases were associated with both brooding, the maladaptive form of rumination, and reflection, the more adaptive component. No measure of rumination was significantly correlated with general biases toward negative meaning (Experiment 1) or with threatening interpretations of homographs (Experiment 2). The paucity of available rumination-related homographs dictated the use of non-fully randomized stimuli presentation (Experiment 1) or the use of only one set of the meanings associated with the homographs (Experiment 2). Rumination is associated with a tendency to interpret ambiguous information in a rumination-consistent manner. This tendency may exacerbate ruminative thinking and can possibly be a target for future intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Defunctionalized Interpreters for Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    by Reynolds in ``Definitional Interpreters for Higher-Order Programming Languages'' for functional implementations of denotational semantics, natural semantics, and big-step abstract machines using closure conversion, CPS transformation, and defunctionalization. Over the last few years, the author and his...

  16. Interpretation of Recurrent Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten With; Larsen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses techniques for interpretation and characterization of trained recurrent nets for time series problems. In particular, we focus on assessment of effective memory and suggest an operational definition of memory. Further we discuss the evaluation of learning curves. Various nume...

  17. Probabilistic interpretation of resonant states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is in contrast with the conventional employment of a bi-orthogonal basis that precludes probabilistic interpretation, since wave ... In many textbooks, resonance is defined as a pole of the S matrix. It is, however, ..... [1] M Razavy, Quantum theory of tunneling §§5.2 & 5.3 (World Scientific, Singapore,. 2003) and references ...

  18. Andries van Aarde's Matthew Interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-01-14

    Jan 14, 2011 ... This article focused on Andries van Aarde's interpretation of the Gospel of Matthew. It argues that Van Aarde has changed his approach to Matthew in the course of time. At the beginning of his career he focused on structural analysis and even made a contribution to the Gattung problem from a structural ...

  19. A D To C Interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Naming ...... ..... ....................... 111-2 Comments .............. ............. 111-3 .... Classes ...... .. ..... ......... . 111-4 Operators...of Punctuation Symbols ............. 111-8 Nv Abstract In a continuing effort to define and analyze the D langu - age a partial interpreter has been...except expression type checking. D contains weaknesses; most notably in its class construction. Although, this is a perceived problem and not a functional

  20. Interpreting chromosomal abnormalities using Prolog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, G; Friedman, J M

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes an expert system for interpreting the standard notation used to represent human chromosomal abnormalities, namely, the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Written in Prolog, this program is very powerful, easy to maintain, and portable. The system can be used as a front end to any database that employs cytogenetic notation, such as a patient registry.

  1. Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

  2. Local Outlier Detection with Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Xuan-Hong; Micenková, Barbora; Assent, Ira

    2013-01-01

    that this learning task can be solved via the matrix eigen-decomposition and its solution contains essential information to reveal features that are most important to interpret the exceptional properties of outliers. We demonstrate the appealing performance of LODI via a number of synthetic and real world datasets...

  3. Software Copyright Interpretation. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, LeRoy

    1985-01-01

    This digest presents a reprint of an article which addresses the issue of the rights of computer software owners to duplicate materials. A conservative approach to software copyright is taken which looks to how the law will likely be interpreted, rather than waiting for the definitive decision by a court. Three major issues involved with software…

  4. Multiagent architecture for scene interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealet, Fabienne; Collin, Bertrand; Sella, G.; Garbay, Catherine

    2000-06-01

    Scene interpretation is a crucial problem for navigation and guidance systems. The necessary integration of a large variety of heterogeneous knowledge leads us to design an architecture that distributes knowledge and that performs parallel and concurrent processing. We choose a multi- agent approach which specialized agents implementation is based on incrementality, distribution, cooperation, attention mechanism and adaptability.

  5. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which is based on the p-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular...

  6. Interpreting Hymns for Deaf Worshippers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Madeline M.; Boster, Shirley

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the special problems of interpreting hymns written in archaic English and then matching words of a translation to music. Addresses the question of whether competence in ASL and knowledge of signs for religious terms are sufficient for hymns to be of value to deaf worshippers. (EKN)

  7. Simultaneous interpreting: A cognitive perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffels, I.K.; de Groot, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting (SI) is one of the most complex language tasks imaginable. During SI, one has to listen to and comprehend the input utterance in one language, keep it in working memory until it has been receded and can be produced in the other language, and produce the translation of an

  8. Judicial Deference to Inconsistent Agency Statutory Interpretations

    OpenAIRE

    Yehonatan Givati; Matthew C. Stephenson

    2011-01-01

    Although administrative law doctrine requires courts to defer to an agency's reasonable statutory interpretation, the doctrine is unclear as to whether an agency gets less deference when it changes its own prior interpretation. We formally analyze how judicial deference to revised agency interpretations affects the ideological content of agencies' interpretations. We find a nonmonotonic relationship between judicial deference to inconsistent agency interpretations and interpretive extremism. ...

  9. Judicial Deference to Inconsistent Agency Statutory Interpretations

    OpenAIRE

    Givati, Yehonatan; Stephenson, Matthew Caleb

    2011-01-01

    Although administrative law doctrine requires courts to defer to an agency’s reasonable statutory interpretation, the doctrine is unclear as to whether an agency gets less deference when it changes its own prior interpretation. We formally analyze how judicial deference to revised agency interpretations affects the ideological content of agencies’ interpretations. We find a nonmonotonic relationship between judicial deference to inconsistent agency interpretations and interpretive extremism. ...

  10. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — NHTSA's Chief Counsel interprets the statutes that the agency administers and the regulations that it promulgates. The Chief Counsel's interpretations, issued in the...

  11. Acknowledging hubris in interpretative data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Simon

    2013-07-01

    AIM" To explore the notion of 'hubris' as an important consideration of reflexive thinking in qualitative research and how over-exuberant assumptions when interpreting data can impede conceptual development. The author draws on experiences of hubris in his grounded theory PhD study. The study has undergone two phases of data collection and analysis. Phase one involved semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 20 registered nurse mentors. Preliminary findings were further developed by theoretical sampling of nurse mentors and practice educators in four major health boards in the UK, including 12 focus groups (n=43) and three further semi-structured interviews. Recognising hubris as a critical component of reflexive thinking was a feature of a grounded theory study exploring mentors' experiences of assessing students on the borderline of achievement in nursing practice. Three examples of hubris contributing to hastily advanced interpretive analysis are discussed in terms of the researcher's personal and professional positioning towards participants, the development of categories and the ethical management of data. The complexity of hubris as an important aspect of . reflexive thinking is highlighted. Virtue ethics and the importance of keen interpretative husbandry as part of reflexive mindfulness are proposed, if not as solutions to the dilemmas of hubris, then at least as safeguarding against analytic pitfalls. The grounded theory study findings will make practice recommendations concerning mentors' support of students on the borderline of achievement of competence. The study will offer a theoretical perspective on mentorship conceptualised as a community of assessors throughout the duration of nursing programmes rather than purely an individual activity between student and mentor.

  12. How to Boost Positive Interpretations? A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menne-Lothmann, Claudia; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Höhn, Petra; Kasanova, Zuzana; Haller, Simone P.; Drukker, Marjan; van Os, Jim; Wichers, Marieke; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.

    2014-01-01

    The current meta-analysis explores the strength of effects of cognitive bias modification training for interpretation bias (CBM-I) on positive (i.e., adaptive) interpretations and mood as well as the training and sample characteristics influencing these effects. Data-bases were searched with the key words “interpret* bias AND training” and “interpret* bias AND modif*”. Reference lists of identified articles were checked and authors of identified articles were contacted for further relevant articles and unpublished data. Studies were reviewed for inclusion with eligibility criteria being that the study (a) aimed to target interpretation biases through any kind of training, (b) assessed mood and/or interpretation bias as outcome measures, (c) allocated individuals to training conditions at random, and (d) recruited adult samples. A meta-analytic multilevel mixed-effects model was employed to assess standardized mean changes in interpretation bias, negative mood, and emotional reactivity. In addition, several training and sample characteristics were explored for their potential to enhance benign training effectiveness. On average, benign CBM-I resulted in an increase in positive interpretation bias (pnegative mood state (pmood effects, whereas feedback about training performance and inclusion of non-benign training items (instead of including benign items only) boosted cognitive effects only. Finally, training was more effective in women (cognitive and mood effects) and presumably samples with symptomatic emotional dysregulation (cognitive effects). Although the effects of emotional dysregulation and number of training sessions could not well be distinguished, there is an indication that when used with imagery instructions and more training sessions, benign CBM-I can be employed as a useful complementary treatment to usual psychotherapies. PMID:24968234

  13. Directionality effects in simultaneous language interpreting: the case of sign language interpreters in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of The Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives was assessed by 5 certified sign language interpreters who did not participate in the study. Two measures were used to assess interpreting quality: the propositional accuracy of the interpreters' interpretations and a subjective quality measure. The results showed that the interpreted narratives in the SLN-to-Dutch interpreting direction were of lower quality (on both measures) than the interpreted narratives in the Dutch-to-SLN and Dutch-to-SSD directions. Furthermore, interpreters who had begun acquiring SLN when they entered the interpreter training program performed as well in all 3 interpreting directions as interpreters who had acquired SLN from birth.

  14. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eng Kien; Tan, Eng Loy

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women undergo profound anatomical and physiological changes so that they can cope with the increased physical and metabolic demands of their pregnancies. The cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems all undergo important physiological alterations and adaptations needed to allow development of the fetus and to allow the mother and fetus to survive the demands of childbirth. Such alterations in anatomy and physiology may cause difficulties in interpreting signs, symptoms, and biochemical investigations, making the clinical assessment of a pregnant woman inevitably confusing but challenging. Understanding these changes is important for every practicing obstetrician, as the pathological deviations from the normal physiological alterations may not be clear-cut until an adverse outcome has resulted. Only with a sound knowledge of the physiology and anatomy changes can the care of an obstetric parturient be safely optimized for a better maternal and fetal outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

    We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the φ-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational φ-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

  16. Design of interpretable fuzzy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cpałka, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    This book shows that the term “interpretability” goes far beyond the concept of readability of a fuzzy set and fuzzy rules. It focuses on novel and precise operators of aggregation, inference, and defuzzification leading to flexible Mamdani-type and logical-type systems that can achieve the required accuracy using a less complex rule base. The individual chapters describe various aspects of interpretability, including appropriate selection of the structure of a fuzzy system, focusing on improving the interpretability of fuzzy systems designed using both gradient-learning and evolutionary algorithms. It also demonstrates how to eliminate various system components, such as inputs, rules and fuzzy sets, whose reduction does not adversely affect system accuracy. It illustrates the performance of the developed algorithms and methods with commonly used benchmarks. The book provides valuable tools for possible applications in many fields including expert systems, automatic control and robotics.

  17. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  18. Computer enhancement through interpretive techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, G.; Spaanenburg, H. A. E.; Stumpf, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    The improvement in the usage of the digital computer through the use of the technique of interpretation rather than the compilation of higher ordered languages was investigated by studying the efficiency of coding and execution of programs written in FORTRAN, ALGOL, PL/I and COBOL. FORTRAN was selected as the high level language for examining programs which were compiled, and A Programming Language (APL) was chosen for the interpretive language. It is concluded that APL is competitive, not because it and the algorithms being executed are well written, but rather because the batch processing is less efficient than has been admitted. There is not a broad base of experience founded on trying different implementation strategies which have been targeted at open competition with traditional processing methods.

  19. Abstract Interpretation Using Attribute Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof...... technique is based on fixpoint induction and introduces an extended class of attribute grammars as to express a standard semantics....

  20. Geologic Interpretation of Gravity Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-19

    stratigraphic horizons/levels, but also in facial -lithologic special features of these rocks. Page 410-411. I I Doe-= 000002-02 2/2 8 U 4 l DOC - 88020221...38 (967, 11l). D e a n W. C. Frequency analisis for gravity and magnetic interpretation. Geophys.. vol. XXIII. No 1. 1958. E I c i n s T. A. The

  1. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  2. University Interpreting: Linguistic Issues for Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Jemina

    2002-01-01

    A study investigated 10 Auslan/English interpreters' use of translation style when interpreting for a university lecture. Results found the interpreters predominantly used a free or literal interpretation approach, but switched between translation styles at particular points of a text, leading to the suggestion of the concept of translational…

  3. 10 CFR 19.4 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 19.4 Section 19.4 Energy NUCLEAR... interpretation by the General Counsel will be recognized to be binding upon the Commission. ...

  4. 10 CFR 50.3 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 50.3 Section 50.3 Energy NUCLEAR... interpretation by the General Counsel will be recognized to be binding upon the Commission. ...

  5. 10 CFR 36.5 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 36.5 Section 36.5 Energy NUCLEAR... interpretation by the General Counsel, will be recognized to be binding upon the Commission. ...

  6. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR... interpretation by the General Counsel, will be recognized to be binding upon the Commission. ...

  7. 32 CFR 1605.81 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpreters. 1605.81 Section 1605.81 National... ORGANIZATION Interpreters § 1605.81 Interpreters. (a) The local board, district appeal board and the National Selective Service Appeal Board are authorized to use interpreters when necessary. (b) The following oath...

  8. Interpreting Inexplicit Language during Courtroom Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun

    2009-01-01

    Court interpreters are required to provide accurate renditions of witnesses' utterances during courtroom examinations, but the accuracy of interpreting may be compromised for a number of reasons, among which is the effect on interpretation of the limited contextual information available to court interpreters. Based on the analysis of the discourse…

  9. 8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22... EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm to interpret and translate accurately...

  10. Understanding AOP through the Study of Interpreters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I return to the question of what distinguishes AOP languages by considering how the interpreters of AOP languages differ from conventional interpreters. Key elements for static transformation are seen to be redefinition of the set and lookup operators in the interpretation of the language. This analysis also yields a definition of crosscutting in terms of interlacing of interpreter actions.

  11. Interpreting histopathology in the epididymis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grava Kempinas, Wilma; Klinefelter, Gary Robert

    2014-01-01

    While most of this Special Issue is devoted to the testis (which is where most drug and chemically induced toxicity of the male reproductive tract is identified), being able to recognize and understand the potential effects of toxicants on the epididymis is immensely important and an area that is often overlooked. The epididymis is the organ where the post-testicular sperm differentiation occurs, through a complex and still not completely understood sperm maturation process, allowing them to fertilize the oocyte. Also in the epididymis, sperm are stored until ejaculation, while being protected from immunogenic reaction by a blood-epididymis barrier. From a toxicologic perspective the epididymis is inherently complicated as its structure and function can be altered both indirectly and directly. In this review we will discuss the factors that must be considered when attempting to distinguish between indirect and direct epididymal toxicity and highlight what is currently known about mechanisms of epididymal toxicants, using the rat as a reference model. We identify 2 distinguishable signature lesions – one representing androgen deprivation (secondary to Leydig cell toxicity in the testis) and another representing a direct acting toxicant. Other commonly observed alterations will also be shown and discussed. Finally, we point out that many of the key functions of the epididymis can be altered in the absence of a detectable change in tissue structure. Collectively, we hope this will provide pathologists with increased confidence in identification of epididymal toxicity and enable more informed guidance as mechanism of action is considered. PMID:26413396

  12. Neuro-ontological interpretation of spiritual experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frecska, Ede; Luna, Luis Eduardo

    2006-10-01

    The prevailing neuroscientific paradigm considers information processing within the central nervous system as occurring through hierarchically organized and interconnected neural networks. The hierarchy of neural networks doesn't end at the neuroaxonal level; it incorporates subcellular mechanisms as well. When the size of the hierarchical components reaches the nanometer range and the number of elements exceeds that of the neuroaxonal system, an interface emerges for a possible transition between neurochemical and quantum physical events. "Signal nonlocality", accessed by means of quantum entanglement is an essential feature of the quantum physical domain. The presented interface may imply that some manifestations of altered states of consciousness, unconscious/conscious shifts have quantum origin with significant psychosomatic implications. Healing methods based on altered states of consciousness and common in spiritual or shamanic traditions escape neuroscientific explanations based on classical cognition denoted here as "perceptual-cognitive-symbolic" (characteristic of ordinary states of consciousness). Another channel of information processing, called "direct-intuitive-nonlocal" (characteristic of non-ordinary states of consciousness) is required to be introduced for interpretation. The first one is capable of modeling via symbolism and is more culturally bound due to its psycholinguistic features. The second channel lacks the symbolic mediation, therefore it has more transcultural similarity and practically ineffable for the first one, though culture specific transliteration may occur. Different traditional healing rituals pursue the same end: to destroy "profane" sensibility. The ritual use of hallucinogens, the monotonous drumming, the repeated refrains, the fatigue, the fasting, the dancing and so forth, create a sensory condition which is wide open to the so-called "supernatural". According to contemporary anthropological views, the breakdown of ordinary

  13. REQUIREMENTS FOR A GENERAL INTERPRETATION THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda Laura Lungu Petruescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Time has proved that Economic Analysis is not enough as to ensure all the needs of the economic field. The present study wishes to propose a new approach method of the economic phenomena and processes based on the researches made outside the economic space- a new general interpretation theory- which is centered on the human being as the basic actor of economy. A general interpretation theory must assure the interpretation of the causalities among the economic phenomena and processes- causal interpretation; the interpretation of the correlations and dependencies among indicators- normative interpretation; the interpretation of social and communicational processes in economic organizations- social and communicational interpretation; the interpretation of the community status of companies- transsocial interpretation; the interpretation of the purposes of human activities and their coherency – teleological interpretation; the interpretation of equilibrium/ disequilibrium from inside the economic systems- optimality interpretation. In order to respond to such demands, rigor, pragmatism, praxiology and contextual connectors are required. In order to progress, the economic science must improve its language, both its syntax and its semantics. The clarity of exposure requires a language clarity and the scientific theory progress asks for the need of hypotheses in the building of the theories. The switch from the common language to the symbolic one means the switch from ambiguity to rigor and rationality, that is order in thinking. But order implies structure, which implies formalization. Our paper should be a plea for these requirements, requirements which should be fulfilled by a modern interpretation theory.

  14. An open room for interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofte-Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Based on a concept that I have developed, which is called: "An open room for interpretation", the following article states that creative work and aesthetic expression in a pedagogical context with 2-6 years old children must give space for the children's own expressions. To teach music should...... not only be seen as a learning task where initiative and product is defined by the teacher. In contrast, I suggest that creative activities and aesthetic processes must be seen as an interaction between children's immediate physicality and curiosity and the teacher's musical skills and abilities to follow...... and develop the children’s initiative....

  15. Process mining meets abstract interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona Vargas, Josep; Cortadella Fortuny, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of process models out of system traces is an interesting problem that has received significant attention in the last years. In this work, a theory for the derivation of a Petri net from a set of traces is presented. The method is based on the theory of abstract interpretation, which has been applied successfully in other areas. The principal application of the theory presented is Process Mining, an area that tries to incorporate the use of formal models both in the design and us...

  16. Static Analysis Using Abstract Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthaud, Maxime

    2017-01-01

    Short presentation about static analysis and most particularly abstract interpretation. It starts with a brief explanation on why static analysis is used at NASA. Then, it describes the IKOS (Inference Kernel for Open Static Analyzers) tool chain. Results on NASA projects are shown. Several well known algorithms from the static analysis literature are then explained (such as pointer analyses, memory analyses, weak relational abstract domains, function summarization, etc.). It ends with interesting problems we encountered (such as C++ analysis with exception handling, or the detection of integer overflow).

  17. Statistical transformation and the interpretation of inpatient glucose control data from the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, George E; Castro, Janna C; Cook, Curtiss B

    2014-05-01

    Glucose control can be problematic in critically ill patients. We evaluated the impact of statistical transformation on interpretation of intensive care unit inpatient glucose control data. Point-of-care blood glucose (POC-BG) data derived from patients in the intensive care unit for 2011 was obtained. Box-Cox transformation of POC-BG measurements was performed, and distribution of data was determined before and after transformation. Different data subsets were used to establish statistical upper and lower control limits. Exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts constructed from April, October, and November data determined whether out-of-control events could be identified differently in transformed versus nontransformed data. A total of 8679 POC-BG values were analyzed. POC-BG distributions in nontransformed data were skewed but approached normality after transformation. EWMA control charts revealed differences in projected detection of out-of-control events. In April, an out-of-control process resulting in the lower control limit being exceeded was identified at sample 116 in nontransformed data but not in transformed data. October transformed data detected an out-of-control process exceeding the upper control limit at sample 27 that was not detected in nontransformed data. Nontransformed November results remained in control, but transformation identified an out-of-control event less than 10 samples into the observation period. Using statistical methods to assess population-based glucose control in the intensive care unit could alter conclusions about the effectiveness of care processes for managing hyperglycemia. Further study is required to determine whether transformed versus nontransformed data change clinical decisions about the interpretation of care or intervention results. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  18. Interpretation of ultrasonic images; Interpretation von Ultraschall-Abbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, W.; Schmitz, V.; Kroening, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    During the evaluation of ultrasonic images, e.g. SAFT-reconstructed B-scan images (SAFT=Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique) it is often difficult to decide, what is the origin of reconstructed image points: were they caused by defects, specimens geometry or mode-conversions. To facilitate this evaluation a tool based on the comparison of data was developed. Different kinds of data comparison are possible: identification of that RF-signals, which caused the reconstructed image point. This is the comparison of a reconstructed image with the corresponding RF-data. Comparison of two reconstructed images performing a superposition using logical operators. In this case e.g. the reconstruction of an unknown reflector is compared with that of a known one. Comparison of raw-RF-data by simultaneous scanning through two data sets. Here the echoes of an unknown reflector are compared with the echoes of a known one. The necessary datasets of known reflectors may be generated experimentally on reference reflectors or modelled. The aim is the identification of the reflector type, e.g. cracklike or not, the determination of position, size and orientation as well as the identification of accompanying satellite echoes. The interpretation of the SAFT-reconstructed B-scan image is carried out by a complete description of the reflector. In addition to the aim of interpretation the tool described is well suited to educate and train ultrasonic testers. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Bei der Auswertung von Ultraschall-Abbildungen, z.B. SAFT-rekonstruierten B-Bildern (SAFT=Synthetische Apertur Fokus Technik), ist es oft schwierig zu entscheiden, wo rekonstruierte Bildpunkte herruehren: wurden sie durch Materialfehler, Bauteilgeometrie oder durch Wellenumwandlungen versursacht. Um diese Auswertung zu erleichtern, wurde ein Werkzeug entwickelt, welches auf dem Vergleich von Datensaetzen basiert. Es koennen verschiedene Arten des Datenvergleichs durchgefuehrt werden: Identifikation der HF

  19. Comparison of different concepts for interpretation of chromosomal aberrations in urothelial cells detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischinger, Johannes; Guttenberg, Lutz Philipp; Hennenlotter, Jörg; Gakis, Georgios; Aufderklamm, Stefan; Rausch, Steffen; Neumann, Eva; Bedke, Jens; Kruck, Stefan; Schwentner, Christian; Stenzl, Arnulf; Todenhöfer, Tilman

    2017-04-01

    Urine fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become a broadly used marker for noninvasive detection of bladder cancer (BC). However, it has been discussed whether the interpretation algorithm proposed by the manufacturer could be improved. Aim of the present study was to compare alternative evaluation strategies of FISH for detection of BC. We included 1048 patients suspicious for BC, who underwent urine FISH examination before cystoscopy (diagnostic cohort). Herefrom, we selected 122 patients (prognostic cohort) with a history of non-muscle-invasive BC who were cystoscopically tumor free and received FISH analysis ahead of a follow-up period of 24 months. FISH results were interpreted by the algorithms of UroVysion™, Bubendorf et al. and Zellweger et al. In the diagnostic cohort, 228 patients (21.8%) had BC at time of evaluation; in the prognostic cohort 39 patients (32.0%) experienced tumor recurrence. Alterations in chromosome 3, 7 and 17 correlated with the presence of BC. Relative loss of 9p21 was associated with BC and higher risk for progression. The evaluation strategy proposed by Zellweger et al. showed highest accuracy of all FISH assessments. Performance of evaluation strategies differed in voided urine samples and samples obtained after mechanical manipulation. The performance of FISH in BC diagnosis strongly depends on the interpretation criteria. Alternative evaluation methods partly show superior diagnostic performance compared to the manufacturer's algorithm. The introduction of specific cutoffs for tetraploid cells improves specificity. Further modifications of the interpretation algorithm of the Urovysion(®) FISH assay have the potential to positively affect the value of this test in diagnosis and surveillance of BC.

  20. Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

  1. [Effect of using an interpreter in psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rikke Sander; Nørregaard, Trine Maria; Carlsson, Jessica

    2017-05-22

    An evaluation of the effect of using an interpreter in psychotherapy is quite complex. In the few existing studies on the use of interpreters in psychotherapy no significant difference was found in treatment outcome related to whether an interpreter was used or not. On the other hand, the inclusion of an interpreter affects the therapeutic alliance and the relationships between the parties. The role of the interpreter in psychotherapy is characterized by diversity, and the included studies indicate the need for training to improve the cooperation between the interpreter and the therapist.

  2. Exploring School Stress in Middle Childhood: Interpretations, Experiences, and Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotardi, Valerie A.

    2017-01-01

    With increased academic and social challenges at school, middle childhood can be a particularly stressful time. The present study explored how a sample of children from a supportive learning environment interpreted, experienced and reported coping with everyday stress at school. Using a phenomenological approach, third graders attending an…

  3. Direct interpretation of dreams: typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Daele, L

    1992-12-01

    The dream typology assorts dreams into three major categories: dreams whose origin is endogenous, exogenous, or relational. Dreams of the first type arise from somatic needs, feelings, and states that accompany organismic adjustments to system requirements. Dreams of the second type are initiated by kinetic and dispositional tendencies toward engagement and exploration of the outer world. And dreams of the third type derive from interpersonal dispositions to interaction and relationship with other people. Within each category, dreams may occur at different levels of complexity. The dream typology permits the integration of psychoanalytic observations about the dreams from a variety of perspectives within a common framework. Freud's view that a dream is a wish fulfillment finds its primary niche in endogenous need, wish fulfillment, and convenience dreams. Kohut's observations about self-state dreams and inner regulation (1971, 1977) are accommodated to the middle range of endogenous dreams, and Jung's individuation dreams (1930) occupy the advanced range. Similarly, Bonime's interpersonal approach to dream interpretation (1962) is encompassed by relational dreams of the middle level. In addition, types and modes of dreams that are only infrequently encountered in clinical psychoanalysis are accommodated. The dream typology suggests that different psychoanalytic theories are like the position papers that might have derived from the fabled committee of learned blind who were commissioned to determine the appearance of an elephant. Each individual got a hold on some part, but could not see the whole; so for each, the part became the whole. The psychoanalytic theorist is in exactly an analogous position because, in fact, he is blind to the extent of the unconscious and is constrained to what he can infer. What he can infer depends on cohort, client population, and how he calibrates his observations. The result has been procrustean interpretation, dissention, and a

  4. Music and Alterity Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Martí

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of alterity constitutes an important issue in anthropological research and, therefore, in the study of musical practices, as well. Without it, we could hardly understand other kinds of music situated in different spaces and time from the observer. In order to effectively approach these musical practices, we have to develop strategies to help us reduce as much as possible that which distorts the vision of the other. However, beyond the strictly epistemological and methodological issues, the study of music cannot ignore the ethical question related to the manner in which Western thought has understood and treated the other: through a hierarchical and stereotypical type of thinking based on the condition of otherness. Throughout the article, different alterity procedures are presented and discussed, such as synecdochization, exoticization, undervaluation, overvaluation, misunderstanding and exclusion. Taking these different alterity strategies into account may help us to better understand how the musical other is constructed, used and ultimately instrumentalized.

  5. Interpreting neurodynamics: concepts and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Rotter, Stefan

    2008-12-01

    The dynamics of neuronal systems, briefly neurodynamics, has developed into an attractive and influential research branch within neuroscience. In this paper, we discuss a number of conceptual issues in neurodynamics that are important for an appropriate interpretation and evaluation of its results. We demonstrate their relevance for selected topics of theoretical and empirical work. In particular, we refer to the notions of determinacy and stochasticity in neurodynamics across levels of microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic descriptions. The issue of correlations between neural, mental and behavioral states is also addressed in some detail. We propose an informed discussion of conceptual foundations with respect to neurobiological results as a viable step to a fruitful future philosophy of neuroscience.

  6. Interpretation of neonatal chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Plain radiographs for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are obtained using the portable X-ray equipment in order to evaluate the neonatal lungs and also to check the position of the tubes and catheters used for monitoring critically-ill neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress is caused by a variety of medical or surgical disease conditions. Clinical information about the gestational week, respiratory symptoms, and any events during delivery is essential for interpretation of the neonatal chest radiographs. Awareness of common chest abnormality in the prematurely born or term babies is also very important for chest evaluation in the newborn. Furthermore, knowledge about complications such as air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia following treatment are required to accurately inform the clinicians. The purpose of this article was to briefly review radiographic findings of chest diseases in newborns that are relatively common in daily practice.

  7. Touch design and narrative interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Sumin; Unsworth, Len

    2016-01-01

    Interactivity is often considered as the defining feature of a book app. However, what constitutes interactivity in the context of apps is not always clear. We postulate in this chapter a multimodal social semiotic theory of interactivity, which considers interactivity as not simply a function...... of technology, but also a resource for meaning making. We distinguish two basic types of interactivity—intra-text and extra-text—incorporated in the touch design, and explore the different functions they perform in a broad range of picture book apps. In particular, we look at the app version of The Heart...... and the Bottle in depth, and illustrate how interactive design elements help to create an interpretative possibility of the story. We suggest that a better understanding of interactive touch design would promote more effective adult-child interactions around mobile applications....

  8. Interpreting physicochemical experimental data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colclough, Nicola; Wenlock, Mark C

    2015-09-01

    With the wealth of experimental physicochemical data available to chemoinformaticians from the literature, commercial, and company databases an increasing challenge is the interpretation of such datasets. Subtle differences in experimental methodology used to generate these datasets can give rise to variations in physicochemical property values. Such methodology nuances will be apparent to an expert experimentalist but not necessarily to the data analyst and modeller. This paper describes the differences between common methodologies for measuring the four most important physicochemical properties namely aqueous solubility, octan-1-ol/water distribution coefficient, pK(a) and plasma protein binding highlighting key factors that can lead to systematic differences. Insight is given into how to identify datasets suitable for combining.

  9. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....

  10. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: abml@iac.es, E-mail: rjt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cid@astro.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-09-10

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  11. Social Interpretations of Readiness for Kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, M. Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    Data from this ethnographic study of kindergartens in three communities suggest that teachers, parents, and the school as an institution interacted to develop a social interpretation of school readiness. This interpretation framed children's kindergarten experience in each community. (BC)

  12. Pure Quantum Interpretations Are not Viable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, I.

    2011-02-01

    Pure interpretations of quantum theory, which throw away the classical part of the Copenhagen interpretation without adding new structure to its quantum part, are not viable. This is a consequence of a non-uniqueness result for the canonical operators.

  13. Decoherence and Copenhagen Interpretation : A Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give a reasonable explanation (not proof) to the Copenhagen interpretation of Quantum Mechanics from the view point of decoherence theory. Mathematical physicists with strong mission must prove {\\bf the Copenhagen interpretation} at all costs.

  14. Language production and interpretation linguistics meets cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Zeevat, Henk

    2014-01-01

    A model of production and interpretation of natural language utterances is developed which explains why communication is normally fast and successful. Interpretation is taken to be analogous with visual perception in finding the most probable hypothesis that explains the utterance.

  15. Davisson-Germer Experiment, Another Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    2002-03-01

    This work shows a new interpretation of the Davisson-Germer experiment. If this experiment represents a class of empirical results, and if the new interpretation has validity, then questions about the formulations of quantum mechanics may follow.

  16. Creative Double Bind in Oral Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Eric E.; Langellier, Kristin M.

    1982-01-01

    Explains how oral interpretation is uniquely communicative and how the double bind theory of communication can include creativity. Discusses (1) double bind and oral interpretation, (2) creating aesthetic text, and (3) the performance of double bind. (PD)

  17. A modular interpretation of various cubic towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this article we give a Drinfeld modular interpretation for various towers of function fields meeting Zink's bound.......In this article we give a Drinfeld modular interpretation for various towers of function fields meeting Zink's bound....

  18. Digital Landscapes: Rethinking Poetry Interpretation in Multimodal Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hessa A. Alghadeer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of the fact that a great deal of scholarly studies in the field of digital humanities have emphasized implementing various modes of digital literacy, critical perspectives considering the use of multimodal texts in literature, namely poetry, have received scant attention. Beyond the boundaries of printed texts and verbal means, the present study aims to cast some light on how meaning making in poetry into multimodal contexts becomes crucial to poetry interpretation in multimodal contexts. In particular, the study tackles the theory of multimodality in regard to the poetry genre and briefly reviews its significance in relevant studies. The paper then shifts to show how the multimodalities in question enhance the transformation of print-based poetic texts into creative multimodal poetry experiences. Ultimately, the study provides insight into how digital media have altered our perspectives on definitions, interpretations, and appreciation of poetry.

  19. Probability interpretations of intraclass reliabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Research where many organizations are rated by different samples of individuals such as clients, patients, or employees frequently uses reliabilities computed from intraclass correlations. Consumers of statistical information, such as patients and policy makers, may not have sufficient background

  20. Functional interpretation and the existence property

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that functional interpretation can be used to show the existence property of intuitionistic number theory. On the basis of truth variants a comparison is then made between realisability and functional interpretation showing a structural difference between the two.......It is shown that functional interpretation can be used to show the existence property of intuitionistic number theory. On the basis of truth variants a comparison is then made between realisability and functional interpretation showing a structural difference between the two....

  1. Mapping hydrothermal altered mineral deposits using Landsat 7 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and low cost (Yetkin 2003). There are many studies around the world related to hydrothermal alteration mapping .... for many years in remote sensing to display spectral variations effectively (e.g., Goetz et al. 1983). It is based on ... affect the viewer's interpretations and may lead to misguided results. Therefore, the band ratio.

  2. 12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 609.920 Section 609.920 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations and Definitions § 609.920 Interpretations. (a) E-SIGN preempts most statutes and regulations, including the Act and its implementing regulations that...

  3. 10 CFR 40.6 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 40.6 Section 40.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Provisions § 40.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the...

  4. 44 CFR 12.4 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 12.4 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized in writing by the Administrator, including internal instructions, no interpretation of the meaning of the... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interpretations. 12.4 Section...

  5. 10 CFR 20.1006 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 20.1006 Section 20.1006 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION General Provisions § 20.1006 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the...

  6. 10 CFR 7.3 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 7.3 Section 7.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.3 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an NRC officer or employee...

  7. 10 CFR 9.5 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 9.5 Section 9.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS § 9.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an officer or employee of the...

  8. 10 CFR 26.7 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 26.7 Section 26.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Administrative Provisions § 26.7 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in...

  9. 10 CFR 34.5 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS General Provisions § 34.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by any officer or... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 34.5 Section 34.5 Energy NUCLEAR...

  10. 10 CFR 25.7 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 25.7 Section 25.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION General Provisions § 25.7 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by...

  11. 10 CFR 21.4 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 21.4 Section 21.4 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION REPORTING OF DEFECTS AND NONCOMPLIANCE General Provisions § 21.4 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the...

  12. Comprehension and Error Monitoring in Simultaneous Interpreters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    In the current study we explored lexical, syntactic, and semantic processes during text comprehension in English monolinguals and Spanish/English (first language/second language) bilinguals with different experience in interpreting (nontrained bilinguals, interpreting students and professional interpreters). The participants performed an…

  13. 8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpreter. 1240.5 Section 1240.5 Aliens... PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.5 Interpreter. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be...

  14. Informal interpreting in Dutch general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zendedel, R.

    2017-01-01

    When health care providers and migrant patients do not share a common language, informal interpreters - usually family members of the patients - come along to bridge the language gap. While patients usually feel comfortable with having an informal interpreter, this type of interpreter-mediated

  15. 29 CFR 18.604 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Interpreters. 18.604 Section 18.604 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Witnesses § 18.604 Interpreters. An interpreter is subject to the...

  16. Decoherence and the many worlds interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigelt, Carsten Thomas [University Bonn (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The theory of decoherence gives us a good account (at least for open systems) of how classical properties emerge from the quantum world. Recent experiments based on decoherence offers strong arguments against the quantum-classical division proposed by the early Copenhagen Interpretation. But even if decoherence may support the view that quantum mechanics can be considered as fundamental theory the question remains if this sheds new light to the question of how a realistic interpretation of quantum theory can be achieved? In the last years proponents of decoherence pointed out that the theory fits perfectly into the framework of many worlds interpretations. The question that I address is, in what sense these interpretations can be considered as realistic interpretations? To answer this question I argue that in the context of decoherence we have strong reasons to interpret quantum states in a realistic sense. A problem for many worlds interpretations arises when the meaning of Everett's relative states is considered since these interpretations strongly dependent on the interpretation of relative states. I show that einselection proposed by the decoherence theory will determine Everett's relative states in an objective sense but these states must be interpreted as epistemic states. I conclude that this ambiguity between realistic interpreted quantum states and epistemic relative states limits the strict realistic character of many worlds interpretation.

  17. Using Playing Cards to Differentiate Probability Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Puga, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The aprioristic (classical, naïve and symmetric) and frequentist interpretations of probability are commonly known. Bayesian or subjective interpretation of probability is receiving increasing attention. This paper describes an activity to help students differentiate between the three types of probability interpretations.

  18. A robust interpretation of duration calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzle, M.; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2005-01-01

    Calculus (DC), our findings are that the robust interpretation of DC is equivalent to a multi-valued interpretation that uses the real numbers as semantic domain and assigns Lipschitz-continuous interpretations to all operators of DC. Furthermore, this continuity permits approximation between discrete...

  19. Modular interpreters with implicit context propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Inostroza Valdera (Pablo); T. van der Storm (Tijs)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractModular interpreters are a crucial first step towards component-based language development: instead of writing language interpreters from scratch, they can be assembled from reusable, semantic building blocks. Unfortunately, traditional language interpreters can be hard to extend because

  20. Venous Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neck to help locate abnormally functioning glands or pituitary adenoma . This test is most often used after an unsuccessful neck exploration. Inferior petrosal sinus sampling , in which blood samples are taken from veins that drain the pituitary gland to study disorders related to pituitary hormone ...

  1. Sampling Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  2. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...

  3. 210Pb, 230Th, and 10Be in Central Indian Basin seamount sediments: Signatures of degassing and hydrothermal alteration of recent origin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B; Borole, D.V.; Aldahan, A.; Patil, S.K.; Mascarenhas-Pereira, M.B; Possnert, G.; Ericsson, T.; Ramaswamy, V.; Gupta, S.M.

    ) the presence of altered minerals such as smectite and zeolites, and 4) distinctly different magnetic properties in the altered sediments. A predominant influence of neutral chloride type hydrothermal fluids is interpreted. This is the first report of recently...

  4. Sup(210)Pb, sup(230)Th, and sup(10)Be in Central Indian Basin seamount sediments: Signatures of degassing and hydrothermal alteration of recent origin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Borole, D.V.; Aldahan, A.; Patil, S.K.; Mascarenhas-Pereira, M.B.L.; Possnert, G.; Ericsson, T.; Ramaswamy, V.; Gupta, S.M.

    ) the presence of altered minerals such as smectite and zeolites, and 4) distinctly different magnetic properties in the altered sediments. A predominant influence of neutral chloride type hydrothermal fluids is interpreted. This is the first report of recently...

  5. Environmental sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckett, J.M.

    1998-12-31

    Environmental Sampling (ES) is a technology option that can have application in transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The basic process is to take a sample from the environment, e.g., soil, water, vegetation, or dust and debris from a surface, and through very careful sample preparation and analysis, determine the types, elemental concentration, and isotopic composition of actinides in the sample. The sample is prepared and the analysis performed in a clean chemistry laboratory (CCL). This ES capability is part of the IAEA Strengthened Safeguards System. Such a Laboratory is planned to be built by JAERI at Tokai and will give Japan an intrinsic ES capability. This paper presents options for the use of ES as a transparency measure for nuclear nonproliferation.

  6. How Misinformation Alters Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel B.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    1998-01-01

    Notes that a multitude of studies have demonstrated that misleading postevent information affects people's memories. Contents that the fuzzy-trace theory is a positive step toward understanding the malleability of memory. Discusses fuzzy-trace theory in terms of three primary areas of study: altered response format, maximized misinformation…

  7. Genetic alterations in Glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); P.J. French (Pim)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractGliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have

  8. Chemistry, mineralogy and alteration intensity of hydrothermal altered Mt Unzen conduit rocks (Shimabara/Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kai-Uwe; Yilmaz, Tim; Gilg, H. Albert; Janots, Emilie; Mayer, Klaus; Nakada, Setsuya; Dingwell, Donald

    2017-04-01

    Investigations were carried out on hydrothermally altered coherent dacitic dykes samples from (USDP-4) drill core at Mt Unzen stratovolcano (Shimabara/Japan). XRF, XRD, EMPA, C-O-isotope, hot-cathode CL and SEM analysis led to insights concerning chemistry, mineralogy, and intensity and type of alteration as well as the origin of carbonate-precipitating fluids. Additionally a textural characterization of the occurring replacement features in the volcanic conduit rocks was performed. The occurrence of the main secondary phases such as chlorite, pyrite, carbonates, and R1 (Reichweite parameter) illite-smectite and kaolinite group minerals indicate a weak to moderate propylitic to phyllic hydrothermal alteration. The dacitic samples of the dykes show different hydrothermal alteration features: (i) carbonate and chlorite pseudomorphs after hornblende as well as core and zonal textures due to replacement of plagioclase by R1 illite-smectite as well as kaolinite group minerals, (ii) colloform banded fracture fillings and fillings in dissolution vugs, and (iii) chlorite, R1 illite-smectite as well as kaolinite group minerals in the groundmass. Late chlorite veins crosscut precipitates of R1 illite-smectite as well as kaolinite group minerals. Carbonates in fractures and in pseudomorphs after hornblende comprise iron-rich dolomite solid solutions ("ankerite") and calcite. Isotopic values indicate a hydrothermal-magmatic origin for the carbonate formation. The chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index (CCPI) and the Ishikawa alteration index (AI), applied to the investigated samples show significant differences (CCPI=52.7-57.8; AI=36.1-40.6) indicating their different degree of alteration. According to Nakada et al., 2005, the C13 to C16 dykes represent the feeder dyke from the latest eruption (1991-1995) whereas C8 represents an earlier dyke feeder dyke from an older eruption. Weakest alteration, which was obtained in samples C16-1-5 and C13-2-5, correlates with the alteration

  9. Elevating sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuz, Joseph M.; Takayama, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    Sampling – the process of collecting, preparing, and introducing an appropriate volume element (voxel) into a system – is often under appreciated and pushed behind the scenes in lab-on-a-chip research. What often stands in the way between proof-of-principle demonstrations of potentially exciting technology and its broader dissemination and actual use, however, is the effectiveness of sample collection and preparation. The power of micro- and nanofluidics to improve reactions, sensing, separation, and cell culture cannot be accessed if sampling is not equally efficient and reliable. This perspective will highlight recent successes as well as assess current challenges and opportunities in this area. PMID:24781100

  10. Ontological interpretation of biomedical database content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana da Silva, Filipe; Jansen, Ludger; Freitas, Fred; Schulz, Stefan

    2017-06-26

    Biological databases store data about laboratory experiments, together with semantic annotations, in order to support data aggregation and retrieval. The exact meaning of such annotations in the context of a database record is often ambiguous. We address this problem by grounding implicit and explicit database content in a formal-ontological framework. By using a typical extract from the databases UniProt and Ensembl, annotated with content from GO, PR, ChEBI and NCBI Taxonomy, we created four ontological models (in OWL), which generate explicit, distinct interpretations under the BioTopLite2 (BTL2) upper-level ontology. The first three models interpret database entries as individuals (IND), defined classes (SUBC), and classes with dispositions (DISP), respectively; the fourth model (HYBR) is a combination of SUBC and DISP. For the evaluation of these four models, we consider (i) database content retrieval, using ontologies as query vocabulary; (ii) information completeness; and, (iii) DL complexity and decidability. The models were tested under these criteria against four competency questions (CQs). IND does not raise any ontological claim, besides asserting the existence of sample individuals and relations among them. Modelling patterns have to be created for each type of annotation referent. SUBC is interpreted regarding maximally fine-grained defined subclasses under the classes referred to by the data. DISP attempts to extract truly ontological statements from the database records, claiming the existence of dispositions. HYBR is a hybrid of SUBC and DISP and is more parsimonious regarding expressiveness and query answering complexity. For each of the four models, the four CQs were submitted as DL queries. This shows the ability to retrieve individuals with IND, and classes in SUBC and HYBR. DISP does not retrieve anything because the axioms with disposition are embedded in General Class Inclusion (GCI) statements. Ambiguity of biological database content is

  11. Oncogene alterations in endometrial carcinosarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscuola, Michele; Van de Vijver, Koen; Castilla, María Ángeles; Romero-Pérez, Laura; López-García, María Ángeles; Díaz-Martín, Juan; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Oliva, Esther; Palacios Calvo, José

    2013-05-01

    Endometrial carcinosarcomas are aggressive neoplasias composed of high-grade carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. The pathogenesis and specific genetic alterations underlying these tumors are still not well known. We analyzed alterations in oncogenes involved in the pathogenesis of endometrial carcinomas that might represent predictive markers for specific therapies. Immunohistochemistry for HER2 (tyrosine kinase-type cell surface receptor HER2) and c-KIT (tyrosine-protein kinase Kit) and fluorescence in situ hybridization for EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and ALK (anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase) were carried out for 76 endometrial carcinosarcoma samples on sequential tissue microarray sections. Analysis of 238 mutations across 19 common oncogenes was performed on 34 samples using the Sequenom OncoCarta Panel (Sequenom, Hamburg, Germany). We observed EGFR, HER2, and c-KIT expression in 71%, 1.5%, and 2.7% of tumors, respectively. EGFR amplification was detected in 11 of 76 endometrial carcinosarcomas (14.5%). Four samples showed both amplification and aneuploidy (5.2%). ALK amplification together with chromosome 2 polysomy was found in 1.3% of endometrial carcinosarcomas. In total, 23 mutations in 9 different oncogenes were detected in 15 (44.1%) of 34 endometrial carcinosarcomas. Five endometrial carcinosarcomas (14.7%) had 2 or more mutations. Eleven tumors (32.3%) had mutations affecting the PI3K (phosphoinositide-3-kinase)/AKT (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1) (6 mutations in PIK3CA (PI3K catalytic alpha polypeptide) and 1 in AKT) and/or RAS/BRAF (serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf) pathway (3 KRAS [kirsten RAS oncogene homolog], 2 NRAS [neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog], and 1 BRAF). Mutations in PDGFRA (platelet-derived growth factor receptor, alpha polypeptide) and/or KIT were found in 5 endometrial carcinosarcomas (14.7%). Finally, we found mutations in MET (met proto-oncogene [hepatocyte growth factor

  12. IMAGE INTERPRETATION OF COASTAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lazaridou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Coasts were formed with the overall shape of earth's surface. Τhey represent a landform, as determined by the science of geomorphology. Being the boundary between land and sea, they present important features – particularities such as water currents, waves, winds, estuaries, drainage network, pollution etc. Coasts are examined at various levels: continents – oceans, states – large seas, as for example Mediterranean Sea. Greece, because of its horizontal and vertical partitioning, presents great extent and variety of coasts as mainland, peninsulas and islands. Depending on geomorphology, geology, soils, hydrology, land use of the inland and the coasts themselves, these are very diverse. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. This paper concerns critical considerations on the above. It also includes the case of Thessaloniki coasts in Greece, particularly river estuaries areas (river delta. The study of coastal areas of the wide surroundings of Thessaloniki city includes visual image interpretation – digital image processing techniques on satellite data of high spatial resolution.

  13. Medical interpretation for immigrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forst, Linda; Masters, Deborah; Zanoni, Joseph; Avila, Susan; Chaidez, Francisco; Miller, Arlene

    2012-01-01

    Foreign-born workers have high rates of occupational mortality and morbidity, despite downward trends for the U.S. workforce overall. They have limited access to health care services. Medical interpreters (MIs) facilitate care of acutely injured, low-English-proficiency (LEP) patients, including those sustaining occupational injuries. Our goal was to assess the potential for MIs to serve as advocates of LEP patients injured at work and to deliver preventive messages. We conducted interviews and a focus group of MIs regarding their attitudes toward foreign-born workers, knowledge of occupational health, and perceived roles. They were familiar with occupational injuries and sympathetic toward foreign-born workers, and they described their roles as conduits, cultural brokers, and advocates for hospitals, providers, and patients. More detailed and representative data would require a larger investigation. However, the time-sensitive nature of policy-making at this point mandates that occupational health stakeholders participate in the national dialogue on standards, training, and licensure for MIs to promote improved access and quality of health care for LEP patients who have been injured at work.

  14. Psychoanalytic interpretation and cognitive transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, M F

    1981-01-01

    Psychoanalytic metapsychology should be recognized for what it is, namely a theory of cognition and affect that is not derived directly from clinical data but is advanced in order to provide the development background that will let us deal with the clinical findings of psychoanalysis as aberrations of and deviations from the normal and expected evolution of the thinking process. Its cornerstone is Freud's belief that thought depends on the forging of links between the sensory perception of objects and their appropriate verbal descriptions. He made no secret of his dissatisfaction with his metapsychology and repeatedly revised it in an attempt to encompass those clinical discoveries of psychoanalysis that outstripped the explanatory power of that metapsychology and demonstrated its shortcomings. Using what we now know about normal development in infancy and childhood through the work of Piaget, Vygotsky and other investigators, it is possible to formulate an explanatory theory that does justice to the varied and complex findings uncovered by the application of the psychoanalytic method. For example, the significance of Freud's postulated second censorship between the preconscious and consciousness, as well as the importance of the defence of disavowal that Freud emphasized in his writings after 1927, can now be accounted for with a theory of thought formation that was not available to the founder of psychoanalysis. The implications of this proposed reformulation for psychoanalytic interpretation and for the application of psychoanalysis to an increasingly wide range of psychopathology is discussed in some detail.

  15. Parenting Practices, Interpretive Biases, and Anxiety in Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, R. Enrique; Niditch, Laura A.; Hensley-Maloney, Lauren; Moore, Kathryn W.; Creveling, C. Christiane

    2013-01-01

    A number of factors are believed to confer risk for anxiety development in children; however, cultural variation of purported risk factors remains unclear. We examined relations between controlling and rejecting parenting styles, parental modeling of anxious behaviors, child interpretive biases, and child anxiety in a mixed clinically anxious (n = 27) and non-clinical (n = 20) sample of Latino children and at least one of their parents. Families completed discussion-based tasks and questionnaires in a lab setting. Results indicated that child anxiety was: linked with parental control and child interpretative biases; associated with parental modeling of anxious behaviors at a trend level; and not associated with low parental acceptance. Findings that controlling parenting and child interpretive biases were associated with anxiety extend current theories of anxiety development to the Latino population. We speculate that strong family ties may buffer Latino children from detrimental effects of perceived low parental acceptance. PMID:23434545

  16. Parenting practices, interpretive biases, and anxiety in Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, R Enrique; Niditch, Laura A; Hensley-Maloney, Lauren; Moore, Kathryn W; Creveling, C Christiane

    2013-03-01

    A number of factors are believed to confer risk for anxiety development in children; however, cultural variation of purported risk factors remains unclear. We examined relations between controlling and rejecting parenting styles, parental modeling of anxious behaviors, child interpretive biases, and child anxiety in a mixed clinically anxious (n=27) and non-clinical (n=20) sample of Latino children and at least one of their parents. Families completed discussion-based tasks and questionnaires in a lab setting. Results indicated that child anxiety was: linked with parental control and child interpretative biases, associated with parental modeling of anxious behaviors at a trend level, and not associated with low parental acceptance. Findings that controlling parenting and child interpretive biases were associated with anxiety extend current theories of anxiety development to the Latino population. We speculate that strong family ties may buffer Latino children from detrimental effects of perceived low parental acceptance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adolescents' Interpretation of the Concept of Wellness: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanonu, Ezihe Loretta; Jooste, Karien

    2016-12-01

    Introduction: This study sought to explore and describe the interpretation which adolescents ascribe to the term wellness at a selected high school in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Methods: A qualitative research design was utilized. Nine focus-group discussions were conducted among 58 adolescents. Sample was selected purposefully and collected data was analyzed using open coding. Results: Findings reflected adolescents' interpretations of the term wellness in the realm of holistic well-being transcending the nonexistence of illness or sickness in the body. The interpretations given include: healthy living which embrace eating enough nutritious foods, exercising regularly and being actively involved in physical activities; practicing self-care habits such as personal hygiene and grooming; well-being of the mind (psychological, emotional); having a balanced personality and interpersonal processes; being focused and goal directed and spiritual well-being. Conclusion: It is imperative to consider adolescents' understandings of wellness when planning, designing, implementing and evaluating adolescent wellness programs.

  18. Sign Language Interpreting: The Relationship between Metalinguistic Awareness and the Production of Interpreting Omissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Jemina; Barker, Roz

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the findings of the first linguistic analysis of sign language interpreting carried out in Australia. A study was conducted on 10 Australian Sign Language/English interpreters to determine the rate and occurrence of interpreting omissions and the interpreters' level of metalinguistic awareness in relation to their production…

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid space alterations in melancholic depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Via

    Full Text Available Melancholic depression is a biologically homogeneous clinical entity in which structural brain alterations have been described. Interestingly, reports of structural alterations in melancholia include volume increases in Cerebro-Spinal Fluid (CSF spaces. However, there are no previous reports of CSF volume alterations using automated whole-brain voxel-wise approaches, as tissue classification algorithms have been traditionally regarded as less reliable for CSF segmentation. Here we aimed to assess CSF volumetric alterations in melancholic depression and their clinical correlates by means of a novel segmentation algorithm ('new segment', as implemented in the software Statistical Parametric Mapping-SPM8, incorporating specific features that may improve CSF segmentation. A three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI was obtained from seventy patients with melancholic depression and forty healthy control subjects. Although imaging data were pre-processed with the 'new segment' algorithm, in order to obtain a comparison with previous segmentation approaches, tissue segmentation was also performed with the 'unified segmentation' approach. Melancholic patients showed a CSF volume increase in the region of the left Sylvian fissure, and a CSF volume decrease in the subarachnoid spaces surrounding medial and lateral parietal cortices. Furthermore, CSF increases in the left Sylvian fissure were negatively correlated with the reduction percentage of depressive symptoms at discharge. None of these results were replicated with the 'unified segmentation' approach. By contrast, between-group differences in the left Sylvian fissure were replicated with a non-automated quantification of the CSF content of this region. Left Sylvian fissure alterations reported here are in agreement with previous findings from non-automated CSF assessments, and also with other reports of gray and white matter insular alterations in depressive samples using automated approaches

  20. Immunization alters body odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bruce A; Opiekun, Maryanne; Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2014-04-10

    Infections have been shown to alter body odor. Because immune activation accompanies both infection and immunization, we tested the hypothesis that classical immunization might similarly result in the alteration of body odors detectable by trained biosensor mice. Using a Y-maze, we trained biosensor mice to distinguish between urine odors from rabies-vaccinated (RV) and unvaccinated control mice. RV-trained mice generalized this training to mice immunized with the equine West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine compared with urine of corresponding controls. These results suggest that there are similarities between body odors of mice immunized with these two vaccines. This conclusion was reinforced when mice could not be trained to directly discriminate between urine odors of RV- versus WNV-treated mice. Next, we trained biosensor mice to discriminate the urine odors of mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; a general elicitor of innate immunological responses) from the urine of control mice. These LPS-trained biosensors could distinguish between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and RV-treated mouse urine. Finally, biosensor mice trained to distinguish between the odors of RV-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine did not generalize this training to discriminate between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine. From these experiments, we conclude that: (1) immunization alters urine odor in similar ways for RV and WNV immunizations; and (2) immune activation with LPS also alters urine odor but in ways different from those of RV and WNV. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Problems at simultaneous interpreting education: linguadidactic aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishkova Elena Jurievna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the problems which students are facing while mastering the skills of a simultaneous interpreting. The article offers a number of exercises to help solve these problems. The authors underline that it is hardly possible to prepare professional simultaneous interpreters among undergraduates for some reasons, and above all because of insufficient time and absence of technical equipment. Nevertheless, the authors conclude by stating the importance of systematic development of students' perceptive skills, attention, memory and reaction required for providing simultaneous interpreting. The main difficulties in simultaneous interpreting training can be connected with three stages of interpreting: listening, comprehension and speaking. Listening challenges deal with a bad speaker’s pronunciation, some technical problems, as well as regional accents or pigeons. As for comprehension problems they are usually connected with the fact that the interpreter isn’t well grounded in the discussion topic, or he isn’t good at topic terminology. It stands to reason that a well-skilled interpreter should prepare to the interpreting topic beforehand. Speaking difficulties can be connected with a poor interpreter’s pronunciation, often caused a stress factor and a lack of topic knowledge. As a rule an excellent pronunciation, a good articulation and a trained voice are necessary for a professional interpreter. The main principal of training exercises given in this article covers all interpreting difficulties mentioned above.

  2. The emergent Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowood, Timothy J.

    2014-05-01

    We introduce a new and conceptually simple interpretation of quantum mechanics based on reduced density matrices of sub-systems from which the standard Copenhagen interpretation emerges as an effective description of macroscopically large systems. This interpretation describes a world in which definite measurement results are obtained with probabilities that reproduce the Born rule. Wave function collapse is seen to be a useful but fundamentally unnecessary piece of prudent book keeping which is only valid for macro-systems. The new interpretation lies in a class of modal interpretations in that it applies to quantum systems that interact with a much larger environment. However, we show that it does not suffer from the problems that have plagued similar modal interpretations like macroscopic superpositions and rapid flipping between macroscopically distinct states. We describe how the interpretation fits neatly together with fully quantum formulations of statistical mechanics and that a measurement process can be viewed as a process of ergodicity breaking analogous to a phase transition. The key feature of the new interpretation is that joint probabilities for the ergodic subsets of states of disjoint macro-systems only arise as emergent quantities. Finally we give an account of the EPR-Bohm thought experiment and show that the interpretation implies the violation of the Bell inequality characteristic of quantum mechanics but in a way that is rather novel. The final conclusion is that the Copenhagen interpretation gives a completely satisfactory phenomenology of macro-systems interacting with micro-systems.

  3. Interpret teaching and teach interpreting: positions assumed in the interpretative act in mainstream contexts for deaf people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrei Gesser

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present some descriptions about the educational interpreter performance in the context of a mainstream school, more specifically in the 7th grade with four deaf students included, in which a bilingual project has being carried out. Relying on the assumption that inclusion forces interpreters to activate pedagogical practices during the interpretative act, this investigation payed attention to two phenomena: by one hand, the constructions of temporal spaces in the classroom that claim ties and partnerships between interpreters and teachers, beyond the technical interpretation itself. By the other hand, the configurations regarding interpretative decisions making emerged from pedagogical happenings. The data analysis indicates that there is a switch between the “interpreter-positon” and the “master-position”, being the last activated by the interpreter inner desire in creating ties and connections with deaf students in their learning process; and the former position, as an effect of the interpreter´s own challenges faced daily, in linguistic, cognitive, referential, and physical terms.

  4. Interpret teaching and teach interpreting: positions assumed in the interpretative act in mainstream contexts for deaf people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrei Gesser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present some descriptions about the educational interpreter performance in the context of a mainstream school, more specifically in the 7th grade with four deaf students included, in which a bilingual project has being carried out. Relying on the assumption that inclusion forces interpreters to activate pedagogical practices during the interpretative act, this investigation payed attention to two phenomena: by one hand, the constructions of temporal spaces in the classroom that claim ties and partnerships between interpreters and teachers, beyond the technical interpretation itself. By the other hand, the configurations regarding interpretative decisions making emerged from pedagogical happenings. The data analysis indicates that there is a switch between the “interpreter-positon” and the “master-position”, being the last activated by the interpreter inner desire in creating ties and connections with deaf students in their learning process; and the former position, as an effect of the interpreter´s own challenges faced daily, in linguistic, cognitive, referential, and physical terms.

  5. Siliceous microfossil extraction from altered Monterey rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C.O.; Casey, R.E.

    1986-04-01

    Samples of altered Monterey rocks of differing lithologies were processed by various methods to develop new techniques for extracting siliceous microfossils. The preliminary use of thin sections made from the same rocks reduced the number of probable samples (samples worth further processing) by about one-third. Most of the siliceous microfossils contained in altered Monterey rocks appear to be highly recrystallized and are extremely fragile; however, some contained silicified and silica-infilled radiolarians and planktonic and benthonic foraminifera, which are very tough. In general the most useful techniques were gently hydrochloric acid, hydrogen peroxide, formic acid, monosodium glutamate, and regular siliceous microfossil extraction techniques. Unsuccessful techniques and a new siliceous microfossil flotation technique are also documented.

  6. Informal interpreting in general practice: Comparing the perspectives of general practitioners, migrant patients and family interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendedel, Rena; Schouten, Barbara C; van Weert, Julia C M; van den Putte, Bas

    2016-06-01

    To explore differences in perspectives of general practitioners, Turkish-Dutch migrant patients and family interpreters on interpreters' role, power dynamics and trust in interpreted GP consultations. 54 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with the three parties focusing on interpreter's role, power and trust in interpreters. In line with family interpreters' perspective, patients expected the interpreters to advocate on their behalf and felt empowered when they did so. GPs, on the contrary, felt annoyed and disempowered when the family interpreters performed the advocacy role. Family interpreters were trusted by patients for their fidelity, that is, patients assumed that family interpreters would act in their best interest. GPs, on the contrary, mistrusted family interpreters when they perceived dishonesty or a lack of competence. Opposing views were found between GPs on the one hand and family interpreters and patients on the other hand on interpreter's role, power dynamics and the different dimensions of trust. These opposing perspectives might lead to miscommunication and conflicts between the three interlocutors. GPs should be educated to become aware of the difficulties of family interpreting, such as conflicting role expectations, and be trained to be able to call on professional interpreters when needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical Interpretation of Variants in Cancer (CIViC) Knowledgebase | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CIViC is an open access, open source, community-driven web resource for Clinical Interpretation of Variants in Cancer. Our goal is to enable precision medicine by providing an educational forum for dissemination of knowledge and active discussion of the clinical significance of cancer genome alterations.

  8. Petrography, alteration and genesis of iron mineralization in Roshtkhar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Biabangard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Iron mineralization in Roshtkhar is located in 48 Km east of the city of Roshtkhar and south of the Khorasan Razavi province. It is geologically located in the north east of the Lut block and the Khaf-Bardeskan volcano-plutonic belt. The Khaf-Bardeskan belt is an important metallogenic province since it is a host of valuable ore deposits such as the Kuh-e-Zar Au-Spicularite, the Tanourcheh and the Khaf Iron ore deposits (Karimpour and Malekzadeh Shafaroudi, 2007. Iron and Copper mineralization in this belt are known as the hydrothermal, skarn and IOCG types (Karimpour and Malekzadeh Shafaroudi, 2007. IOCG deposits are a new type of magmatic to hydrothermal mineralization in the continental crust (Hitzman et al., 1992. Precambrian marble, Lower Paleozoic schist and metavolcanics are the oldest rocks of the area. The younger units are Oligocene conglomerate, shale and sandstone, Miocene marl and Quaternary deposits. Iron oxides and Cu sulfides are associated with igneous rocks. Fe and Cu mineralization in Roshtkhar has been subject of a few studies such as Yousefi Surani (2006. This study describes the petrography of the host rocks, ore paragenesis, alteration types, geochemistry, genesis and other features of the Fe and Cu mineralization in the Roshtkhar iron. Methods After detailed field studies and sampling, 30 thin sections and 20 polished sections that were prepared from host rocks and ores were studied by conventional petrographic and mineraloghraphic methods in the geology department of the University of Sistan and Baluchestan. 5 samples from the alteration zones were examined by XRD in the Yamagata University in Japan, and 8 samples from the less altered ones were analyzed by XRF and ICP-OES in the Kharazmi University and the Iranian mineral processing research center (IMPRC in Karaj, respectively. The XRF and ICP-OES data are presented in Table 1. Result and discussion The host rocks of the Roshtkhar Iron deposit are diorite

  9. An information gap in DNA evidence interpretation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Perlin

    Full Text Available Forensic DNA evidence often contains mixtures of multiple contributors, or is present in low template amounts. The resulting data signals may appear to be relatively uninformative when interpreted using qualitative inclusion-based methods. However, these same data can yield greater identification information when interpreted by computer using quantitative data-modeling methods. This study applies both qualitative and quantitative interpretation methods to a well-characterized DNA mixture and dilution data set, and compares the inferred match information. The results show that qualitative interpretation loses identification power at low culprit DNA quantities (below 100 pg, but that quantitative methods produce useful information down into the 10 pg range. Thus there is a ten-fold information gap that separates the qualitative and quantitative DNA mixture interpretation approaches. With low quantities of culprit DNA (10 pg to 100 pg, computer-based quantitative interpretation provides greater match sensitivity.

  10. Spent fuel UO{sub 2} matrix alteration in aqueous media under oxidizing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegou, C.; Muzeau, B.; Broudic, V.; Roudil, D.; Deschanels, X. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Rhone Valley Research Center, DTCD/SECM/LMPA, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2007-07-01

    The effects of {alpha}{beta}{gamma} radiolysis of water on oxidation and dissolution of the UO{sub 2} matrix of spent fuel were investigated in aerated media. The prospect of long-term interim storage of spent fuel assemblies in pools requires prior examination of an incident scenario in which a cladding failure could eventually lead to contact between water and the fuel. Radiolytic oxidation of the matrix together with the formation of secondary phases subject to volume expansion could then no longer be disregarded, and could enhance the degradation of the failed rod. To determine the amplitude of the alteration various spent fuel leaching experiments conducted at different degrees of oxidizing conditions and of accessibility of species at the reaction interface are discussed. This work is based on modeling the radiolysis processes and on various possible interpretations of leaching test results. Properly interpreting these results implies full knowledge of the fuel sample history, and the development of a rigorous experimental approach to eliminate any artifacts (problems due to the residual inventory at the grain boundaries, or to inaccurate estimates of the actual surface area). The results indicate that despite highly variable oxidizing conditions (presence of an external {gamma} irradiation source, addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, aerated water) the spent fuel matrix alteration determined from the release of tracer elements such as Cs and Sr is always the same. Conversely, allowing for the alteration conditions (no solution renewal and no complexants), the uranium concentrations in solution do indeed depend on the oxidizing conditions as does the nature of the secondary phases liable to precipitate. (orig.)

  11. A Very Short Self-Interpreter

    OpenAIRE

    Mazonka, Oleg; Cristofani, Daniel B.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we would like to present a very short (possibly the shortest) self-interpreter, based on a simplistic Turing-complete imperative language. This interpreter explicitly processes the statements of the language, which means the interpreter constitutes a description of the language inside that same language. The paper does not require any specific knowledge; however, experience in programming and a vivid imagination are beneficial.

  12. Working with interpreters: practical advice for use of an interpreter in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadziabdic, Emina; Hjelm, Katarina

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this descriptive commentary is to improve communication in healthcare when an interpreter is used by providing practical advice to healthcare staff when they consider using interpreters. This descriptive commentary considered the issues of preparation and implementation of interpretation sessions to reveal the complexities and dilemmas of an effective healthcare encounter with interpreters. Using the design of a discursive paper, this article seeks to explore and position of what is published in the literature on the topic studied and on the basis of previous studies to provide practical advice on the use of interpreters. The descriptive commentary showed that the interpreter should be used not only as a communication aid but also as a practical and informative guide in the healthcare system. In preparing the interpretation session, it is important to consider the type (trained professional interpreter, family member or bilingual healthcare staff as interpreters) and mode (face to face and telephone) of interpreting. Furthermore, it is important to consider the interpreter's ethnic origin, religious background, gender, language or dialect, social group, clothes, appearance and attitude. During the healthcare encounter, the interpreter should follow the recommendations given in guidelines for interpreters. Healthcare staff should choose an appropriate room and be aware of their own behaviour, appearance and attitude during the healthcare encounter. Good planning is needed, with carefully considered choices concerning the right kind of interpreter, mode of interpretation and individual preferences for the interpretation in order to deliver high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. Depending on the nature of the healthcare encounter, healthcare staff need to plan interpreting carefully and in accordance with the individuals' desires and choose the type of interpreter and mode of interpreting that best suits the need in the actual healthcare situation in

  13. Twist and Shout? Developing Sixth-Form Students' Thinking about Historical Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Understanding historical interpretation involves understanding how historical knowledge is constructed. How do sixth formers model historical epistemology? In this article Arthur Chapman examines a small sample of data relating to sixth form students' ideas about why historians construct differing interpretations of the past. He argues that…

  14. Evidence of Pragmatic Impairments in Speech and Proverb Interpretation in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Marc H.; Chance, Steven A.; Cram, David F.; Crow, Tim J.; Luc, Aslan; Hage, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been suggested to involve linguistic pragmatic deficits. In this study, two aspects of pragmatic ability were assessed; comprehension and production. Drawing on relevance theory and Gricean implicatures to assess shared attention and interpretation in a linguistic context, discourse samples and proverb interpretation were…

  15. CONJUNCTIVAL IMPRESSION CYTOLOGY (CIC- TECHNIQUE AND INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidharan P

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND To outline the technique and interpretation of Conjunctival Impression Cytology (CIC. 20 normal subjects between the age of 20-40 years with normal Schirmer’s basic secretion test (>10 mm and Tear Breakup Time (TBUT >10 secs were included in this study. Subjects with a history of contact lens use, ocular surgery, degenerative corneal disease, autoimmune and metabolic disease and subjects on systemic or topical medications were excluded from the study. MATERIALS AND METHODS The Conjunctival Impression Cytology (CIC sample was collected from superotemporal quadrant of bulbar conjunctiva using cellulose acetate filter paper 0.45 µm (millipore, stored and stained with PAS and Hematoxylin stain. The sample so obtained was then analysed for epithelial cells, goblet cells, mucin spots, mucin strands, mucus debris and other cells, e.g. neutrophils, mast cells, etc. Goblet cell density was then calculated as number of goblet cells multiplied by 100 number of epithelial cells and expressed as % per HPF. Squamous metaplasia was observed and graded based on goblet cell density and morphology, morphological changes of the nucleus and epithelial cells, metachromatic changes of cytoplasm and keratinisation and Nuclearto-Cytoplasmic Ratio (N/C. RESULTS The GCD in the superotemporal quadrant of bulbar conjunctiva ranged from 24.2% to 36.5% with a mean of 30.60%. None of the eyes showed any squamous metaplasia. The technique of CIC, staining, calculation of goblet cell density and grading of squamous metaplasia will be discussed. CONCLUSION CIC is a simple, rapid, reliable, reproducible, noninvasive and effective technique, which can be used for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of ocular surface disorders.

  16. Hydrothermal Alteration on Basaltic Mauna Kea Volcano as a Template for Identification of Hydrothermal Alteration on Basaltic Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Graff, T. G.; Ming, D. W.; Mertzman, S. A.; Bell, J. F., III

    2003-01-01

    Certain samples of palagonitic tephra from Mauna Kea Volcano (Hawaii) are spectral analogues for bright martian surface materials at visible and near-IR wavelengths because both are characterized by a ferric absorption edge extending from about 400 to 750 nm and relatively constant reflectivity extending from about 750 nm to beyond 2000 nm. Palagonite is a yellow or orange isotropic mineraloid formed by hydration and devitrification of basaltic glass. For Mars-analogue palagonite, the pigment is nanometersized ferric oxide particles (np-Ox) dispersed throughout an allophane-like hydrated basaltic glass matrix. Crystalline phyllosilicates are not generally detected, and the hydration state of the is not known. The poorly crystalline nature of glass alteration products implies relatively low temperature formation pathways. We report here x-ray diffraction, major element, Mossbauer, and VNIR data for 9 basaltic tephras. Thermal emission spectra are reported in a separate abstract. Our multidisciplinary approach both tightly constrains mineralogical interpretations and maximizes overlap with datasets available for the martian surface available now and in the future.

  17. Neck muscle fatigue alters upper limb proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabihhosseinian, Mahboobeh; Holmes, Michael W R; Murphy, Bernadette

    2015-05-01

    Limb proprioception is an awareness by the central nervous system (CNS) of the location of a limb in three-dimensional space and is essential for movement and postural control. The CNS uses the position of the head and neck when interpreting the position of the upper limb, and altered input from neck muscles may affect the sensory inputs to the CNS and consequently may impair the awareness of upper limb joint position. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fatigue of the cervical extensors muscles (CEM) using a submaximal fatigue protocol alters the ability to recreate a previously presented elbow angle with the head in a neutral position. Twelve healthy individuals participated. CEM activity was examined bilaterally using surface electromyography, and kinematics of the elbow joint was measured. The fatigue protocol included an isometric neck extension task at 70 % of maximum until failure. Joint position error increased following fatigue, demonstrating a significant main effect of time (F 2, 18 = 19.41, p ≤ 0.0001) for absolute error. No significant differences were found for variable error (F 2, 18 = 0.27, p = 0.76) or constant error (F 2, 18 = 1.16 of time, p ≤ 0.33). This study confirms that fatigue of the CEM can reduce the accuracy of elbow joint position matching. This suggests that altered afferent input from the neck subsequent to fatigue may impair upper limb proprioception.

  18. Mind, Matter, Information and Quantum Interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Maleeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I give a new information-theoretic analysis of the formalisms and interpretations of quantum mechanics (QM in general, and of two mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics in particular: The Copenhagen interpretation and David Bohm’s interpretation of quantum mechanics. Adopting Juan G. Roederer’s reading of the notion of pragmatic information, I argue that pragmatic information is not applicable to the Copenhagen interpretation since the interpretation is primarily concerned with epistemology rather than ontology. However it perfectly fits Bohm’s ontological interpretation of quantum mechanics in the realms of biotic and artificial systems. Viewing Bohm’s interpretation of QM in the context of pragmatic information imposes serious limitations to the qualitative aspect of such an interpretation, making his extension of the notion active information to every level of reality illegitimate. Such limitations lead to the idea that, contrary to Bohm’s claim, mind is not a more subtle aspect of reality via the quantum potential as active information, but the quantum potential as it affects particles in the double-slit experiment represents the non-algorithmic aspect of the mind as a genuine information processing system. This will provide an information-based ground, firstly, for refreshing our views on quantum interpretations and secondly, for a novel qualitative theory of the relationship of mind and matter in which mind-like properties are exclusive attributes of living systems. To this end, I will also take an information-theoretic approach to the notion of intentionality as interpreted by John Searle.

  19. Teaching Fourth Generation Evaluation through Monologue Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Eric; Sparks, Cheryl

    1992-01-01

    This article illustrates the use of monologue interpretation, in which an interpreter illuminates issues in a speaker's monologue to translate theoretical pedagogical material into usable classroom applications. The example shows how the tenets of Guba and Lincoln's (1989) Responsive Constructivist Fourth Generation Model were presented via…

  20. Extending and embedding the Python interpreter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rossum (Guido)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPython is an interpreted, object-oriented programming language. This document describes how to write modules in C or C++ to extend the Python interpreter with new modules. Those modules can define new functions but also new object types and their methods. The document also describes

  1. Educational principles and techniques for interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. David Boulanger; John P. Smith

    1973-01-01

    Interpretation is in large part education, since it attempts to convey information, concepts, and principles while creating attitude changes and such emotional states as wonder, delight, and appreciation. Although interpreters might profit greatly by formal training in the principles and techniques of teaching, many have not had such training. Some means of making the...

  2. Against ``Against Many-Worlds Interpretations''

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    The paper entitled ``Against Many-Worlds Interpretations'' by A. Kent, which has recently been submitted to the e-Print archive (gr-qc/9703089) contained some misconceptions. The claims on Everett's many-worlds interpretation are quoted and answered.

  3. Interpreting Histograms. As Easy as It Seems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Histograms are widely used, but recent studies have shown that they are not as easy to interpret as it might seem. In this article, we report on three studies on the interpretation of histograms in which we investigated, namely, (1) whether the misinterpretation by university students can be considered to be the result of heuristic reasoning, (2)…

  4. Optimality Theory and Lexical Interpretation and Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweg, L.; Legendre, G.; Putnam, M.T.; de Swart, H.; Zaroukian, E.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter argues for an optimization approach to the selection and interpretation of words. Several advantages of such an approach to lexical semantics are discussed. First of all, it will be argued that competition, entailing that words and interpretations are always judged in relation to other

  5. Interpreting Tools by Imagining Their Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Alistair

    2017-01-01

    By prompting imagined or actual bodily experience, we can guide interpretation of tools to emphasize the action that those tools perform. The technique requires little more than an extension from looking at an object, to imagining how the body engages with it, perhaps even trying out those specialist postures, to nourish an interpretation centered…

  6. Who can monitor the court interpreter's performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bodil

    2009-01-01

    and the conflict about her competence was negotiated. Because of this unusual constellation, combined with a multi-method approach, this single case study can shed some light on the question of the participants' ability to monitor the interpreter's performance. Legal professional users of interpreters tend...

  7. How Young People Interpret Teachers' Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Manfred

    Results of four experiments concerning the way young people interpret an intended or expressed sanction (praise or blame) from a teacher are presented. The intention of the four studies was to expose the flaws in Meyer's 1984 attempted explanations of such interpretation, in which sanctions are paradoxically received by the student as an…

  8. Infusing Counseling Skills in Test Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Melanie E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents an instructional model based on Neurolinguistic Programming that links counseling student course work in measurement and test interpretation with counseling techniques and theory. A process incorporating Neurolinguistic Programming patterns is outlined for teaching graduate students the counseling skills helpful in test interpretation.…

  9. [Interpreting Historic Sites & the Built Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellis, Ken, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This issue focuses on the interpretation of built environments, from Washington Irving's 19th century home in Tarrytown, New York, to structures in contemporary Chicago. Barbara Carson, Margaret Piatt, and Renee Friedman discuss the interpretation of interior and exterior spaces and explain how to teach history with objects instead of teaching the…

  10. Representing Interpreters' Knowledge: Why, What, and How?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting is a highly specialized communicative task which requires cooperation of a number of cognitive skills. Execution of these skills in a concrete act of interpreting requires immediate access to various kinds of knowledge, linguistic and non-linguistic. The command of such ...

  11. ECG (Electrocardiogram) Interpretation Training Program - Reference Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-08

    evident yet! The above changes are also found primarily in transmural ihfarct, when the entire heart wall muscle is involved. Less extensive but no...interpretation. There are many others available, from beginners programmed learning modules to extensive works on the finer details of interpretation. Topics

  12. Factors influencing children's interpretation and acquisition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipenga

    quantitatively analysed using Statistical Package for Social. Sciences (SPSS). The results showed that children's interpretation and acquisition of idioms is not dependent on the analysability and internal structure of the idioms, although these may affect interpretation and acquisition. The idiom can be analysable or can.

  13. 78 FR 66865 - Interpretation of Rest Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 135 Interpretation of Rest Requirements AGENCY... application of certain rest requirements during on-demand operations. Section 346 of the FAA Modernization and... finalize the interpretation proposed in Docket No. FAA-2010-1259, relating to rest requirements, and...

  14. 75 FR 80746 - Interpretation of Rest Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 135 Interpretation of Rest Requirements AGENCY: Federal... proposes to interpret the application of 14 CFR 135.263 and the rest requirements of Sec. 135.267(d) to... pilot rest requirements. See Nov. 20, 2000, Letter to Captain Richard D. Rubin from James W. Whitlow...

  15. Using Interpretation Theory in Art Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Cathy A.

    1982-01-01

    One of the current interpretive approaches in social science research is that of the German philosopher, Hans-Georg Gadamer. Gadamer's dialectical hermeneutics sees interpretation as being grounded in an understanding that is historical, dialectical, and linguistic. Describes the author's use of this method in an art education research project.…

  16. Designing for collaborative interpretation in telemonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tariq Osman; Bjørn, Pernille; Kensing, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Record at Copenhagen University Hospital and evaluate the new practices and the collaborative technology related to the transformed role of the patients. Results: The interpretation of ICD data is a collaborative practice engaging clinicians and patients and involving three separate collaborative processes......Purpose: We investigate why clinicians experience problems interpreting implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) data when the patient is absent, and we explore how to reintroduce patients into the socio-technical setup of telemonitored interpretation practices. Method: An action research study...... with a design interventionist perspective was conducted to investigate the telemonitoring arrangement for chronic heart patients with ICDs and to identify the nature of the collaborative practices involved in ICD data interpretation. We diagnose the main challenges involved in collaborative interpretation...

  17. Chain graph models and their causal interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt; Richardson, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    Chain graphs are a natural generalization of directed acyclic graphs and undirected graphs. However, the apparent simplicity of chain graphs belies the subtlety of the conditional independence hypotheses that they represent. There are many simple and apparently plausible, but ultimately fallacious......, interpretations of chain graphs that are often invoked, implicitly or explicitly. These interpretations also lead to flawed methods for applying background knowledge to model selection. We present a valid interpretation by showing how the distribution corresponding to a chain graph may be generated from...... the equilibrium distributions of dynamic models with feed-back. These dynamic interpretations lead to a simple theory of intervention, extending the theory developed for directed acyclic graphs. Finally, we contrast chain graph models under this interpretation with simultaneous equation models which have...

  18. Integrating Emotions Into the Critical Interpretive Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina Skewes; Hense, Cherry; Medcalf, Laura; Murphy, Melissa; Fairchild, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Critical interpretive synthesis is a particular form of systematic review that critically examines the decisions made by authors while conducting and publishing about their research and practices. It differs from empirical syntheses of qualitative research by emphasizing the interpreted and constructed nature of this form of secondary analysis. In this article, we extend previous literature on critical interpretive syntheses by highlighting the integration of emotional responses when developing critical questions for interrogating the literature and interpreting results. Our extension of the critical interpretive synthesis is illustrated through examples from five studies examining literature in our own field of music therapy, as well as related fields of disability studies, mental health, music psychology, and child welfare. The methodology we have refined uses an iterative and recursive method that promotes increased critical awareness of the assumptions driving the production of research in health contexts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. The logical interpretation and the measurement problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuletic, Mark I.

    The measurement problem is one of the two key problems in the foundations of quantum mechanics, carrying with it the seeming implication that instead of the familiar definite states of affairs we think we experience, there typically should exist only phenomenologically ill-defined "superpositions" of such states of affairs. Dissatisfaction with this implication has led to the development of many wildly different interpretations of quantum mechanics, positing everything from pilot waves to splitting universes. A recent tradition of interpretation draws heavily upon decoherence and a "consistent histories" formalism to try to resolve the standard conceptual problems of quantum mechanics. Roland Omnes, one physicist in this tradition, argues that his own "logical interpretation" resolves every paradox and conceptual difficulty raised by quantum mechanics, except for what he calls the "objectification problem." Figuring out what relation the objectification problem has to the measurement problem, and, more generally, what the logical interpretation has to say about the measurement problem, turns out to be very difficult, even with the benefit of correspondence. In my dissertation, I have tried to narrow down the possibilities for what Omnes might have in mind with respect to the measurement problem, and considered whether any of these constitutes an advance over what came before. I conclude that there are two plausible possibilities: either (i) an overly aggressive pragmatic spirit has caused Omnes to fail to even realize that a critical part of the measurement problem exists, or (ii) the logical interpretation is best understood as offering a stochastic hidden factor interpretation, with complementarity operating at the level of the hidden factors, even though Omnes himself would resist describing the logical interpretation in this way. I also conclude that the logical interpretation, far from saving classical logic, actually undermines it. While this may not

  20. Evaluating the effectiveness of guided versus non-guided interpretation in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Roberts

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the face of growing pressure placed on the natural environment, the study on which this article is based considered the effectiveness of interpretive provision in mitigating the harmful effects of tourism on the environment. The aim of this research was to determine whether guided or non-guided interpretation is most effective in reaching the stated goals of interpretation. The four key goals of interpretation, namely visitor satisfaction, knowledge gain, attitude change and modification of behaviour intent, were used in the assessment of the relative effectiveness of guided and non-guided interpretation in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Through comparing responses to questionnaires from post-visit samples and observing both guided and non-guided interpretation, the research found that guided interpretation was only marginally more effective in reaching the four key goals of interpretation than the non-guided interpretive media. Guided interpretation was found to be more effective in terms of visitor satisfaction, whilst guided and non-guided interpretation had only marginal differences in effectiveness in relation to knowledge gain, attitude change and intent to modify behaviour.Conservation implications: The necessity of implementing an appropriate interpretation programme within protected areas cannot be overemphasised. The interpretation programme should be designed to include elements of both guided and non-guided interpretation in order to achieve a predetermined goal. The effectiveness of the programme should be evaluated periodically and amended where appropriate.

  1. Interpretation criteria in Western blot diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavin, S; McDonagh, S; Evans, R; Milner, R M; Chatterton, J M W; Ho-Yen, D O

    2011-01-01

    This study reviews the Lyme borreliosis Western blot interpretation process, including what bands are classed as specific, the number of bands needed for a positive result, the role of band intensity and the use of clinical information. In 2008, 3688 patients (4223 serum samples) were tested by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), with 832 patients tested by confirmatory in-house IgG Western blot: 272 patients were Western blot-positive, 170 were weak positive, 156 were equivocal and 234 were negative. These results were assessed, and a review of interpretation criteria from both the USA and Europe was carried out. New interpretation criteria and a testing algorithm were developed. The revised criteria changed the results in 109/3688 (3%) patients and produced significantly more Western blot-positive and weak-positive patients than with the current criteria (485 vs. 442, P blot interpretation and improved the sensitivity and robustness of their Western blot method. Using a protocol tailored to patients that incorporates clinical characteristics means that the entire process will be easier and will aid the management of patients.

  2. Application of Demand-Control Theory to Sign Language Interpreting: Implications for Stress and Interpreter Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Robyn K.; Pollard, Robert Q., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    This article uses the framework of demand-control theory to examine the occupation of sign language interpreting. It discusses the environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal demands that impinge on the interpreter's decision latitude and notes the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders, turnover, and burnout in the interpreting profession.…

  3. Interpreter's Wrist: Repetitive Stress Injury and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Sign Language Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedt, Joe D.

    1992-01-01

    In a survey concerning repetitive stress injury (RSI) and carpal tunnel syndrome, 87 percent of the 40 sign language interpreters reported that they had at some time experienced at least 2 symptoms associated with RSI, and most interpreters knew others with RSI problems. Data indicate that RSI is a severe problem among sign language interpreters.…

  4. Arabic-speaking migrants' experiences of the use of interpreters in healthcare: a qualitative explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadziabdic, Emina; Hjelm, Katarina

    2014-06-16

    Arabic-speaking migrants have constituted a growing population in recent years. This entails major challenges to ensure good communication in the healthcare encounter in order to provide individual and holistic healthcare. One of the solutions to ensure good communication between patient and healthcare staff who do not share the same language is to use a professional interpreter. To our knowledge, no previous qualitative studies have been found concerning Arabic-speaking migrants and the use of interpreters. This study aims to ascertain their individual experiences which can help extend our understanding of the studied area. A purposive sample of 13 Arabic-speaking persons with experience of using interpreters in healthcare encounters. Data were collected between November 2012 and March 2013 by four focus-group interviews and analysed with qualitative analysis according to a method described for focus groups. Four categories appeared from the analysis: 1) The professional interpreter as spokesperson; 2) Different types of interpreters and modes of interpretation adapting to the healthcare encounter; 3) The professional interpreter's task and personal properties affected the use of professional interpreters in a healthcare encounter; 4) Future planning of the use of professional interpreters in a healthcare encounter. The main findings were that the use of interpreters was experienced both as a possibility and as a problem. The preferred type of interpreters depended on the interpreter's dialect and ability to interpret correctly. Besides the professional interpreter's qualities of good skill in language and medical terminology, translation ability, neutrality and objectivity, Arabic-speaking participants stated that professional interpreters need to share the same origin, religion, dialect, gender and political views as the patient in order to facilitate the interpreter use and avoid inappropriate treatment. The study showed that the personal qualities of a good

  5. The psychotherapist and the sign language interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Ed; Brugmans, Petra

    2006-01-01

    Specialized psychotherapy for deaf people in the Dutch and Western European mental health systems is still a rather young specialism. A key policy principle in Dutch mental health care for the deaf is that they should receive treatment in the language most accessible to them, which is usually Dutch Sign Language (Nederlandse Gebarentaal or NGT). Although psychotherapists for the deaf are trained to use sign language, situations will always arise in which a sign language interpreter is needed. Most psychotherapists have the opinion that working with a sign language interpreter in therapy sessions can be a valuable alternative option but also see it as a second-best solution because of its impact on the therapeutic process. This paper describes our years of collaborationship as a therapist and a sign language interpreter. If this collaborationship is optimal, it can generate a certain "therapeutic power" in the therapy sessions. Achieving this depends largely on the interplay between the therapist and the interpreter, which in our case is the result of literature research and our experiences during the last 17 years. We analyze this special collaborative relationship, which has several dimensions and recurrent themes like, the role conception of the interpreter, situational interpreting, organizing the interpretation setting, or managing therapeutic phenomena during therapy sessions.

  6. The Future Of Court Interpreting In Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrić Katja

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Court interpreting in Croatia is a very unregulated field especially regarding the training and the skills that are to be acquired in order to pro- vide accurate translation at courts. One of the prerequisites according to the Regulations on Court Interpreters in Croatia is knowledge of the structure of judicial power, state government and legal terminology. Although the Regulations prescribe that the training should last no longer than two months, the organisations providing such training shorten this to three or four days. Taking into account all that has been said one realizes that in such short time a per- son cannot be properly qualified to practice as a court interpreter. According to the EU Directive on the right to interpretation and translation in criminal proceedings member states should provide adequate training in order to ensure the quality of interpretation and to avoid that suspected or accused persons complain that the quality of interpretation was not good enough to secure the fairness of the proceeding, which according to Article 2 of the Directive they have the right to. Since Croatia joined the European Union on 1 July 2013, it will have to change its Regulations on Court Interpreters in order to com- ply with this Directive. This paper will try to analyze the problems within the scope of court interpreter’s profession in Croatia both in civil and in criminal proceedings. Several examples will be suggested as the possible model for modifying court interpreting in Croatia. Since this profession is often underrated by the national courts, the paper will suggest ways to prevent such views and point out the importance of good court interpretation

  7. The formal verification of generic interpreters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windley, P.; Levitt, K.; Cohen, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    The task assignment 3 of the design and validation of digital flight control systems suitable for fly-by-wire applications is studied. Task 3 is associated with formal verification of embedded systems. In particular, results are presented that provide a methodological approach to microprocessor verification. A hierarchical decomposition strategy for specifying microprocessors is also presented. A theory of generic interpreters is presented that can be used to model microprocessor behavior. The generic interpreter theory abstracts away the details of instruction functionality, leaving a general model of what an interpreter does.

  8. Chlorite alteration in aqueous solutions and uranium removal by altered chlorite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eungyeong; Ahn, Hyangsig [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Ho Young, E-mail: hyjo@korea.ac.kr [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji-Hun; Koh, Yong-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • Chlorite alteration and the U removal capacity of altered chlorite were investigated. • Initial pH affected more chlorite dissolution than ionic strength. • Chlorite dissolution at pH{sub o} = 3–8 was inversely proportional to the U removal capacity. • Chlorite dissolution at pH{sub o} = 10 was proportional to the U removal capacity. • The formation of Fe-containing secondary minerals affected the U removal capacity. - Abstract: Chlorite alteration and the U removal capacity of altered chlorite were investigated. Batch kinetic dissolution tests using clinochlore CCa-2 were conducted for 60 days in aqueous solutions of various pHs and ionic strengths. Batch sorption tests using these altered chlorite samples were conducted for 48 h with natural groundwater containing 3.06 × 10{sup −6} M U. Chlorite dissolution was influenced more by pH{sub o} than by the ionic strength of the solution. TEM analysis revealed Fe(oxy)hydroxide aggregates in the solid residue from the batch dissolution test with 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4} solution at pH{sub o} = 10. The U removal capacity of the reacted chlorite samples at pH{sub o} = 6–10 was higher than that of the reacted chlorite samples at pH{sub o} = 3. The degree of dissolution of chlorite samples reacted at pH{sub o} = 3–8 was inversely proportional to the U removal capacity, but that of chlorite samples reacted at pH{sub o} = 10 was proportional to the U removal capacity. The positive correlation between the U removal capacity and degree of chlorite dissolution at pH{sub o} = 10 might be due to the formation of Fe-containing secondary minerals and changes in the reactive sites.

  9. In vitro alteration of hematological parameters and blood viscosity by the perfluorocarbon: Oxycyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Françoise; Sanders, Katherine; Sieckmann, Donna; Moon-Massat, Paula

    2016-05-01

    While perfluorocarbons (PFCs) may be useful in some clinical situations, previous studies have shown that interferences with chemistry analytes can occur with blood samples containing PFCs. This in vitro study focused on how the PFC Oxycyte may affect hematology measurements in blood samples. Swine blood diluted with Oxycyte or saline (Controls) were analyzed for Hemoglobin (Hb), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV),Hematocrit (Hct) and Fluorocrit (Fct) using a HemaVet, ABL-735 (ABL), or microhematocrit. Ancillary tests (blood viscosity, electrolytes, cell counts, and red blood cell morphology) were performed secondarily. Increasing Oxycyte resulted in increases in MCV, Hct, and visible cell shape change and morphology vs. Effects correlated with lower sodium in Oxycyte samples vs. With increasing Oxycyte, Hb became higher than Controls or became unpredictable depending on the instrument (HemaVet or ABL, respectively). Fct was smaller than predicted and likely represented the heaviest components of Oxycyte. At ≥50 % Oxycyte, RBC hemolysis rendered further measurements impractical. Viscosity first increased then decreased with increasing Oxycyte, peaking at ~40 % Oxycyte. Hct, MCV, Hb, and RBC morphology may be affected by Oxycyte. These observations correlated with lower sodium and increasing Oxycyte, causing hemolysis at high Oxycyte concentrations. These changes were due to alterations in the blood samples in vitro and this should be considered when interpreting hematology parameters from in vivo studies.

  10. Altered fingerprints: analysis and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Feng, Jianjiang; Jain, Anil K

    2012-03-01

    The widespread deployment of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) in law enforcement and border control applications has heightened the need for ensuring that these systems are not compromised. While several issues related to fingerprint system security have been investigated, including the use of fake fingerprints for masquerading identity, the problem of fingerprint alteration or obfuscation has received very little attention. Fingerprint obfuscation refers to the deliberate alteration of the fingerprint pattern by an individual for the purpose of masking his identity. Several cases of fingerprint obfuscation have been reported in the press. Fingerprint image quality assessment software (e.g., NFIQ) cannot always detect altered fingerprints since the implicit image quality due to alteration may not change significantly. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) compiling case studies of incidents where individuals were found to have altered their fingerprints for circumventing AFIS, 2) investigating the impact of fingerprint alteration on the accuracy of a commercial fingerprint matcher, 3) classifying the alterations into three major categories and suggesting possible countermeasures, 4) developing a technique to automatically detect altered fingerprints based on analyzing orientation field and minutiae distribution, and 5) evaluating the proposed technique and the NFIQ algorithm on a large database of altered fingerprints provided by a law enforcement agency. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed approach in detecting altered fingerprints and highlight the need to further pursue this problem.

  11. Agents of Change: Interpreters as Witnesses of Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Mullamaa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we would like to share the preliminary results of our on-going research on the memories of interpreters. From 2011-2012 we have carried out in-depth interviews with representatives of two different samples: experienced dialogue interpreters a in Estonia and  b in Sweden, most of whom have worked from the 1960s till today. This article sums up the preliminary results on the sample from Estonia. The focus is on the development of the interpreter´s role as reflecting the changes in society, cultural and social practices. As for the theoretical background, we view the processes within the framework of Transition Studies (cf. Lauristin, Vihalemm 2010;  Kennedy 2002. The methodological framework is ethnographic research. More specifically:  we combine narrative studies and memory research ( Kõresaar, Kirss 2004; Riessman 1993, Middleton, Brown 2005, Gilbert 2008; method:  semi-structured interviews (cf. Nunan 1992, Van Maanen 1983, Gilbert 2008. The analysis of our on-going research also enables us to test and share with our readers the pros and cons of the chosen methodology and methods.

  12. Application of demand-control theory to sign language interpreting: implications for stress and interpreter training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, R K; Pollard, R Q

    2001-01-01

    The translation work of sign language interpreters involves much more than language. The characteristics and goings-on in the physical environment, the dynamics and interactions between the people who are present, and even the "inner noise" of the interpreter contribute to the accuracy, or lack thereof, of the resulting translation. The competent interpreter must understand and respond appropriately to the language and nonlanguage aspects of each interpreting assignment. We use the framework of demand-control theory (Karasek, 1979) to examine the complex occupation of sign language interpreting. Demand-control theory is a job analysis method useful in studies of occupational stress and reduction of stress-related illness, injury, and burnout. We describe sources of demand in the interpreting profession, including demands that arise from factors other than those associated with languages (linguistic demands). These include environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal demands. Karasek's concept of control, or decision latitude, is also explored in relation to the interpreting profession. We discuss the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders (CTD), turnover, and burnout in the interpreting profession in light of demand-control theory and data from interpreter surveys, including a new survey study described herein. We conclude that nonlinguistic demand factors in particular and perceived restrictions in decision latitude likely contribute to stress, CTD, burnout, and the resulting shortage of sign language interpreters. We make suggestions for improvements in interpreter education and professional development, including the institution of an advanced, supervised professional training period, modeled after internships common in other high demand professional occupations.

  13. Principles of interpretation, tourism and heritage interpretation – the experience of Romanian museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dumbraveanu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a generic theoretical framework related to interpretation as a field of study focusing on tourism interpretation and heritage interpretation. It primarily focuses on discussing the international evolution of this field and the principles of interpretation as presented by their author, Freeman Tilden. Secondly, the paper attempts to analyze to what extent modern interpretation is experienced in Romania by means of two relevant case studies selected. The two case studies selected are significant and symbolic institutions within their system, well known and internationally visited: the Peasant Museum in Bucharest and the Memorial to the Victims of Communism and to the Resistance in Sighetu Marmatiei. Thirdly, the paper draws a broader picture showing whether the principles of interpretation and heritage interpretation are familiar to Romanian museums and to what extent they are in use.

  14. Interpretation of ambiguous information in clinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogg, Karin; Bradbury, Katherine E; Bradley, Brendan P

    2006-10-01

    The present study used two cognitive tasks--a text comprehension task and a homophone task--to investigate whether clinically depressed individuals have a negative bias when interpreting ambiguous information. Previous research indicates that both tasks are sensitive to anxiety-related interpretive biases, and that the former is less prone to response bias effects. Negative memory biases were also assessed. Results showed that, compared with normal controls, depressed individuals made more negative interpretations on the homophone task, and they also showed an enhanced negative recall bias. However, the groups did not differ in interpretative bias on the text comprehension task. Possible explanations of the results are discussed, including the potential influences of self-referent processing and response bias.

  15. Interpreters' notes. On the choice of language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale empirical study on note-taking in consecutive interpreting. As data, the study draws on the notes produced by four subjects while interpreting one Spanish source text consecutively into Danish, on the one hand, and one Danish source text into Spanish......, on the other. The aim of the study is to explore what governs conference interpreters' choice of language for their notes. The categories traditionally used to discuss, describe and explain this choice are those of 'source language' and 'target language', and these categories are therefore subject...... to particular scrutiny here. However, somewhat surprisingly, the results of the analyses indicate that the choice of language in note-taking is governed mainly by the status of the language in the interpreters' language combination, i.e. whether it is an A- or a B-language, and much less by its status...

  16. [The professional interpreter disappears: quality is jeopardized].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendijk-van den Berg, Irene; Verdonk, Petra; Abma, Tineke

    2014-01-01

    According to Dutch law, patients have the right to comprehensible communication. However, professional interpreters are not being used sufficiently: health care providers often do not recognize when language barriers interfere with comprehension. The use of professional interpreters declined even further when the Dutch government withdrew its funding for medical interpreters in January 2012. Additionally, the government's stance that non-native speakers have to master the language and organize translating help when needed seems to have given a signal to health care providers that this is not their responsibility. Nonetheless, health care providers are obliged by law to provide comprehensible information. Therefore, it is important to provide proper training so they can recognize language barriers and know when a professional interpreter is necessary. In addition, a financial aid system needs to be developed for those patients who cannot reasonably be expected to have mastered the language.

  17. Assessing Government Transparency : An Interpretive Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.J.; t Hart, P.; Worthy, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    How can we evaluate government transparency arrangements? While the complexity and contextuality of the values at stake defy straightforward measurement, this article provides an interpretative framework to guide and structure assessments of government transparency. In this framework, we discern

  18. Malheur National Wildlife Refuge : Interpretive Development Prospectus

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Prospectus conceptually describes signs and orientation exhibits proposed for installation at decision or confusion points and interpretive exhibits proposed...

  19. 77 FR 32441 - Proposed Legal Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20591; telephone: 202-267- 3073. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On May 12, 2010, the FAA received a request for a legal interpretation from the Independent Pilots Association...

  20. Applied photo interpretation for airbrush cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge, J. L.; Bridges, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    New techniques of cartographic portrayal have been developed for the compilation of maps of lunar and planetary surfaces. Conventional photo interpretation methods utilizing size, shape, shadow, tone, pattern, and texture are applied to computer processed satellite television images. The variety of the image data allows the illustrator to interpret image details by inter-comparison and intra-comparison of photographs. Comparative judgements are affected by illumination, resolution, variations in surface coloration, and transmission or processing artifacts. The validity of the interpretation process is tested by making a representational drawing by an airbrush portrayal technique. Production controls insure the consistency of a map series. Photo interpretive cartographic portrayal skills are used to prepare two kinds of map series and are adaptable to map products of different kinds and purposes.

  1. Abstract Interpretation as a Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Rosendahl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In David Schmidt's PhD work he explored the use of denotational semantics as a programming language. It was part of an effort to not only treat formal semantics as specifications but also as interpreters and input to compiler generators. The semantics itself can be seen as a program and one may examine different programming styles and ways to represent states. Abstract interpretation is primarily a technique for derivation and specification of program analysis. As with denotational semantics we may also view abstract interpretations as programs and examine the implementation. The main focus in this paper is to show that results from higher-order strictness analysis may be used more generally as fixpoint operators for higher-order functions over lattices and thus provide a technique for immediate implementation of a large class of abstract interpretations. Furthermore, it may be seen as a programming paradigm and be used to write programs in a circular style.

  2. Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge: Resource Interpretation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A major goal of this planning exercise is to prepare the following integrated plan for resource interpretation to be sited at designated locations in Tetlin National...

  3. Statutory Interpretation: General Principles and Recent Trends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costello, George

    2006-01-01

    .... Because the Court has recently placed renewed emphasis on statutory text and somewhat reduced emphasis on legislative history and other interpretive sources extrinsic to the text, this report focuses...

  4. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  5. Interpretive Listening: An Alternative to Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John

    1983-01-01

    Outlines an alternative interpretive approach to listening which is grounded in the hermeneutic phenomenologies of Heidegger, Gadamer, and Ricoeur. Explains four features of this alternative: openness, linguisticality, play, and the fusion of horizons. Discusses conceptual and pedagogical implications. (PD)

  6. Music alters visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolij, Jacob; Meurs, Maaike

    2011-04-21

    Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory) and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  7. Altered Perspectives: Immersive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    Immersive environments provide an exciting experiential technology to visualize the natural world. Given the increasing accessibility of 360o cameras and virtual reality headsets we are now able to visualize artistic principles and scientific concepts in a fully immersive environment. The technology has become popular for photographers as well as designers, industry, educational groups, and museums. Here we show a sci-art perspective on the use of optics and light in the capture and manipulation of 360o images and video of geologic phenomena and cultural heritage sites in Alaska, England, and France. Additionally, we will generate intentionally altered perspectives to lend a surrealistic quality to the landscapes. Locations include the Catacombs of Paris, the Palace of Versailles, and the Northern Lights over Fairbanks, Alaska. Some 360o view cameras now use small portable dual lens technology extending beyond the 180o fish eye lens previously used, providing better coverage and image quality. Virtual reality headsets range in level of sophistication and cost, with the most affordable versions using smart phones and Google Cardboard viewers. The equipment used in this presentation includes a Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera. Here we will demonstrate the use of 360o imaging with attendees being able to be part of the immersive environment and experience our locations as if they were visiting themselves.

  8. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  9. Revolutionizing volunteer interpreter services: an evaluation of an innovative medical interpreter education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbún Avalos, Oswaldo; Pennington, Kaylin; Osterberg, Lars

    2013-12-01

    In our ever-increasingly multicultural, multilingual society, medical interpreters serve an important role in the provision of care. Though it is known that using untrained interpreters leads to decreased quality of care for limited English proficiency patients, because of a short supply of professionals and a lack of formalized, feasible education programs for volunteers, community health centers and internal medicine practices continue to rely on untrained interpreters. To develop and formally evaluate a novel medical interpreter education program that encompasses major tenets of interpretation, tailored to the needs of volunteer medical interpreters. One-armed, quasi-experimental retro-pre-post study using survey ratings and feedback correlated by assessment scores to determine educational intervention effects. Thirty-eight students; 24 Spanish, nine Mandarin, and five Vietnamese. The majority had prior interpreting experience but no formal medical interpreter training. Students completed retrospective pre-test and post-test surveys measuring confidence in and perceived knowledge of key skills of interpretation. Primary outcome measures were a 10-point Likert scale for survey questions of knowledge, skills, and confidence, written and oral assessments of interpreter skills, and qualitative evidence of newfound knowledge in written reflections. Analyses showed a statistically significant (P  0.8). The second half of the program was also quantitatively and qualitatively shown to be a vital learning experience, resulting in 18 % more students passing the oral assessments; a 19 % increase in mean scores for written assessments; and a newfound understanding of interpreter roles and ways to navigate them. This innovative program was successful in increasing volunteer interpreters' skills and knowledge of interpretation, as well as confidence in own abilities. Additionally, the program effectively taught how to navigate the roles of the interpreter to maintain

  10. Post-structural feminist interpretive interactionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefford, Elaine; Sundin, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    To present an adaptation of interpretive interactionism that incorporates and honours feminist values and principles. Interpretive interactionism as described by Denzin can be useful when examining interactive processes. It is especially useful when events affect turning points in people's lives. When issues of power and power imbalances are of interest, a critical post-structural lens may be of use to the researcher. The authors planned to examine the interactions between midwives and women at the 'epiphaneal' points of decision making during second-stage labour. It became clear that it was necessary to honour and thus incorporate feminist principles and values in their methodology. This paper draws on a recently completed PhD project to demonstrate the application of post-structural feminist interpretive interactionism. Twenty six midwives representing each state and territory across Australia who were representative of every model of midwifery care offered in Australia were interviewed to gauge their experiences of what they believed represented good and poor case examples of decision making during second-stage labour. The authors critique the philosophical underpinnings of interpretive interactionism, and then modify these to acknowledge and incorporate post-structural and feminist ideologies. Interpretive interactionism is a useful methodology when the research question is best addressed by examining interactional processes and the meanings people make of them, especially if these occur at turning points in people's lives. Interpretive interactionism methodology can and should be improved by taking account of issues of power, feminism and post-structural values. Post-structural feminist interpretative interactionism has much to offer healthcare researchers who want to develop methodologically robust findings. Post-structural feminist interpretive interactionism enables the researcher to be more cognisant of the complex social political and historical context

  11. Electrocardiography: A Technologist's Guide to Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Colin; Currie, Geoffrey M; Gilmore, David; Kiat, Hosen

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear medicine technologist works with electrocardiography when performing cardiac stress testing and gated cardiac imaging and when monitoring critical patients. To enhance patient care, basic electrocardiogram interpretation skills and recognition of key arrhythmias are essential for the nuclear medicine technologist. This article provides insight into the anatomy of an electrocardiogram trace, covers basic electrocardiogram interpretation methods, and describes an example case typical in the nuclear medicine environment. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  12. Reflections on sign language interpreting typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Pires Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a literature review that intend to think about the typology applied currently to sign language interpretating. We did not reach a consensus on the terms translation or interpretation and only the use of certain terminology, even without consideration of other broader possibilities of conceptualization, can not achieve the precision we have to pursue so that we can exchange researching in order to promote the dialogue among researchers.

  13. Imagery versus verbal interpretive cognitive bias modification for compulsive checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Melissa J; Grisham, Jessica R

    2016-08-01

    Pathological doubting and checking is a common symptom presentation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Previous research has established that compulsive checkers do not display an actual memory deficit, but lack confidence in their memories and experience intolerance of uncertainty regarding the completion of tasks. We investigated whether interpretive cognitive bias modification (CBM-I) reduced memory distrust and intolerance of uncertainty in a nonclinical sample. We also examined the possible enhancement of CBM-I for OCD through imagery training. The results provide evidence that participants who received positive imagery CBM-I training may have interpreted novel ambiguous checking scenarios more adaptively and endorsed negative checking beliefs less relative to participants in the control imagery CBM-I condition. Findings on behavioural checking tasks did not indicate any specific response to CBM-I training. Future research may translate these suggestive findings into a useful adjunct to traditional strategies targeting maladaptive OCD beliefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [How to fit and interpret multilevel models using SPSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Antonio; Ruiz, Miguel A; San Martín, Rafael

    2007-05-01

    Hierarchic or multilevel models are used to analyse data when cases belong to known groups and sample units are selected both from the individual level and from the group level. In this work, the multilevel models most commonly discussed in the statistic literature are described, explaining how to fit these models using the SPSS program (any version as of the 11 th ) and how to interpret the outcomes of the analysis. Five particular models are described, fitted, and interpreted: (1) one-way analysis of variance with random effects, (2) regression analysis with means-as-outcomes, (3) one-way analysis of covariance with random effects, (4) regression analysis with random coefficients, and (5) regression analysis with means- and slopes-as-outcomes. All models are explained, trying to make them understandable to researchers in health and behaviour sciences.

  15. Log Odds and the Interpretation of Logit Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Edward C; Dowd, Bryan E

    2017-05-30

    We discuss how to interpret coefficients from logit models, focusing on the importance of the standard deviation (σ) of the error term to that interpretation. We show how odds ratios are computed, how they depend on the standard deviation (σ) of the error term, and their sensitivity to different model specifications. We also discuss alternatives to odds ratios. There is no single odds ratio; instead, any estimated odds ratio is conditional on the data and the model specification. Odds ratios should not be compared across different studies using different samples from different populations. Nor should they be compared across models with different sets of explanatory variables. To communicate information regarding the effect of explanatory variables on binary {0,1} dependent variables, average marginal effects are generally preferable to odds ratios, unless the data are from a case-control study. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  16. How to perform and interpret cine MR enterography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnorowski, Amelia M; Guglielmo, Flavius F; Mitchell, Donald G

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) enterography has become a fundamental tool for small bowel evaluation. Multiphasic cine imaging is a useful component of MR enterography evaluation because it provides functional information about bowel motility. Cine MR enterography can be used to evaluate for strictures and adhesions. Bowel motility evaluation has been shown to increase pathologic lesion detection in Crohn's disease and has been incorporated into disease activity scoring systems. Currently, cine MR enterography remains underutilized. The purpose of this article is to outline how to perform and interpret cine MR enterography. The authors describe how to perform a multiphasic balanced steady state free precession sequence using different MR systems and give practical advice on how to display and interpret the cine sequence. Sample cases illustrate how the cine sequence complements standard MR enterography evaluation with T2 -weighted, contrast-enhanced T1 -weighted, and diffusion-weighted imaging. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Cling - The LLVM-based C++ Interpreter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Cling (http://cern.ch/cling) is a C++ interpreter, built on top of clang (http://clang.llvm.org) and LLVM (http://llvm.org). Like its predecessor CINT, cling offers an interactive, terminal-like prompt. It enables exploratory programming with rapid edit / run cycles. The ROOT team has more than 15 years of experience with C++ interpreters, and this has been fully exploited in the design of cling. However, matching the concepts of an interpreter to a compiler library is a non-trivial task; we will explain how this is done for cling, and how we managed to implement cling as a small (10,000 lines of code) extension to the clang and llvm libraries. The resulting features clearly show the advantages of basing an interpreter on a compiler. Cling uses clang's praised concise and easy to understand diagnostics. Building an interpreter on top of a compiler library makes the transition between interpreted and compiled code much easier and smoother. We will present the design, e.g. how cling treats the C++ extensions ...

  18. Diferentes critérios de inclusão amostral e suas interpretações: estudo de caso em floresta estacional decidual Different sizes of the smallest individual sampled and their interpretations: case study in the seasonally dry forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walnir Gomes Ferreira-Júnior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As florestas estacionais deciduais (FEDs, amplamente distribuídas no Brasil, são formações sujeitas a diferentes métodos de inventários. Consequentemente, os dados gerados podem afetar a comparação com outras formações vegetais. Este estudo apresenta e discute alterações proporcionadas pela amostragem da vegetação utilizando circunferência ao nível do solo (CNS ≥ 10 cm e circunferência à altura do peito (CAP ≥ 15 cm, em fragmentos de FED. O uso de diferentes critérios proporciona uma visão ambígua de um mesmo fragmento florestal, manifestada pelas diferenças em sua estrutura horizontal e riqueza de espécies. The dry forests, widely distributed in Brazil, are formations subject to different sampling method. Consequently, the data generated may affect the comparison among other vegetation formations. Therefore, this study presents and discusses changes caused by sampling vegetation using circumference at soil height (CSH ≥ 10 cm and circumference at breast height (CBH ≥ 15 cm. Different criteria provide an ambiguous vision of a same forest fragment, resulting in different structure and species richness.

  19. Alteration and Lithogeochemistry of Altered Rocks at Well KMJ-49 Kamojang Geothermal Field, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.YUDIANTORO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Kamojang geothermal field is located in a 1.2 to 0.452 Ma. Quarternary volcanic caldera system. Around the geothermal field, there are several volcanoes (cinder cones which include: Gunung sanggar, Gunung ciharus, Gunung jawa, Gunung pasir jawa and Gunung cakra (here “gunung” means “mount”. The activity of this volcanic complex contributes greatly to the presence of Kamojang geothermal field, which forming steam dominated system with high temperature around 250oC. The system has capacities of 260 MWe and 140 MWe. Volcanic rocks found around the geothermal field have been altered in general and some of them are difficult to be identified their initial character. Thus, it is necessary to study alteration rocks and lithogeochemistry of a geothermal field. Based on this idea, this study uses some methods consisting of: petrographic, geochemical and alteration box plot analysis. The analyses have been conducted for the surface samples and alteration rocks of cutting from Well KMJ-49. This study is expected to improve the understanding on the characteristics of Kamojang geothermal field. AI and CCPI calculation results indicate that the surface samples have a value ranging from 20 to 34 AI and CCPI ranges from 63 to73. While subsurface samples have AI values around 15-46 and CCPI ranges from 68 to 86. The relations of CPPI and AI will be reflected in the texture and mineralogy of the type and condition of the rock.

  20. Global geologic context for rock types and surface alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, M.B.; McSween, H.Y.; Tanaka, K.L.; Head, J. W.

    2004-01-01

    Petrologic interpretations of thermal emission spectra from Mars orbiting spacecraft indicate the widespread occurrence of surfaces having basaltic and either andesitic or partly altered basalt compositions. Global concentration of ice-rich mantle deposits and near-surface ice at middle to high latitudes and their spatial correlation with andesitic or partly altered basalt materials favor the alteration hypothesis. We propose the formation of these units through limited chemical weathering from basalt interactions with icy mantles deposited during periods of high obliquity. Alteration of sediments in the northern lowlands depocenter may have been enhanced by temporary standing bodies of water and ice. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  1. Interpreter perspectives of in-person, telephonic, and videoconferencing medical interpretation in clinical encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Erika Leemann; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Nickleach, Dana; López, Monica; Karliner, Leah S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine professional medical interpreters’ perspectives of in-person and remote interpreting modalities. Methods Survey of interpreters at three medical centers assessing satisfaction with aspects of communication using each modality, and adequacy of videoconferencing medical interpretation (VMI) and telephonic interpretation for 21 common clinical scenarios in the hospital and ambulatory care settings. Results 52 interpreters completed the survey (73% response). All modalities were equally satisfactory for conveying information. Respondents favored in-person to telephonic interpretation for establishing rapport (95% versus 71%, p = .002) and for facilitating clinician understanding of patients’ social and cultural backgrounds (92% versus 69%, p = .002). Scenarios with substantial educational or psychosocial dimensions had no more than 70% of respondents rating telephonic interpretation as adequate (25–70%); for all of these scenarios, VMI represented an improvement (52–87%). Conclusion From the interpreter perspective, telephonic interpretation is satisfactory for information exchange, but less so for interpersonal aspects of communication. In scenarios where telephonic interpretation does not suffice, particularly those with substantial educational or psychosocial components, VMI offers improved communication. Practice implications Differences in interpreters’ perspectives of modalities based on communication needs and clinical scenario suggest mixed use of multiple modalities may be the best language access strategy. PMID:21930360

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site gravity survey and interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, L.J.; Fett, J.D.

    1983-04-01

    A portion of the WIPP site has been extensively surveyed with high-precision gravity. The main survey (in T22S, R31E) covered a rectangular area 2 by 4-1/3 mi encompassing all of WIPP site Zone II and part of the disturbed zone to the north of the site. Stations were at 293-ft intervals along 13 north-south lines 880 ft apart. The data are considered accurate to within a few hundredths of a milligal. Long-wavelength gravity anomalies correlate well with seismic time structures on horizons below the Castile Formation. Both the gravity anomalies and the seismic time structures are interpreted as resulting from related density and velocity variations within the Ochoan Series. Shorter wavelength negative gravity anomalies are interpreted as resulting from bulk density alteration in the vicinity of karst conduits. The WIPP gravity survey was unable to resolve low-amplitude, long-wavelength anomalies that should result from the geologic structures within the disturbed zone. It did indicate the degree and character of karst development within the surveyed area.

  3. Thermal conductivity of carbon foams. Measurements and interpretation; Conductivite thermique de mousses de carbone. Mesures et interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourret, F.; Fort, C.; Duffa, G. [CEA CESTA, 33 - Le Barp (France)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes thermal diffusivity measurements performed with the flash method on carbon foams with open porosity at ambient and higher temperatures. The influence of gas inclusions in the pores has been studied too. In this type of highly insulating material, radiant heat transfer plays a major role. The experiments carried out are interpreted in terms of equivalent thermal conductivity and show the difficulties encountered, in particular the dependence with sample thickness. An interpretation based on a direct simulation with an equivalent periodical material is given with an estimation of the gaseous conductivity based on the kinetics theory of gases. This study demonstrates that the notion of equivalent thermal conductivity is not applicable to all experiments. (J.S.) 10 refs.

  4. Software for interpreting cardiopulmonary exercise tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corry David B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET has become an important modality for the evaluation and management of patients with a diverse array of medical problems. However, interpreting these tests is often difficult and time consuming, requiring significant expertise. Methods We created a computer software program (XINT that assists in CPET interpretation. The program uses an integrative approach as recommended in the Official Statement of the American Thoracic Society/American College of Chest Physicians (ATS/ACCP on Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing. In this paper we discuss the principles behind the software. We also provide the detailed logic in an accompanying file (Additional File 1. The actual program and the open source code are also available free over the Internet at http://www.xint.org. For convenience, the required download files can also be accessed from this article. Additional file 1 XINTlogic. This file provides the detailed logic used by the XINT program. The variable names are described in Table 1. The actual source code may also be read directly simply by opening the source code with a text editor. Click here for file Results To test the clinical usefulness of XINT, we present the computer generated interpretations of the case studies discussed in the ATS/ACCP document in another accompanying file (Additional File 2. We believe the interpretations are consistent with the document's criteria and the interpretations given by the expert panel. Additional file 2 XINTinterpretations. These are the XINT generated reports based on the five examples provided in the ATS/ACCP statement on cardiopulmonary exercise testing 1. Click here for file Conclusion Computers have become an integral part of modern life. Peer-reviewed scientific journals are now able to present not just medical concepts and experimental studies, but actual functioning medical interpretive software. This has enormous potential to improve medical

  5. A new interpretative paradigm for Conformational Protein Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnati, Luigi Francesco; Guidolin, Diego; Woods, Amina S; Ciruela, Francisco; Carone, Chiara; Vallelunga, Annamaria; Escuela, Dasiel Oscar Borroto; Genedani, Susanna; Fuxe, Kjell

    2013-03-01

    Conformational Protein Diseases (CPDs) comprise over forty clinically and pathologically diverse disorders in which specific altered proteins accumulate in cells or tissues of the body. The most studied are Alzheimerβ's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, prion diseases, inclusion body myopathy, and the systemic amyloidoses. They are characterised by three dimensional conformational alterations, which are often rich in β- structure. Proteins in this non-native conformation are highly stable, resistant to degradation, and have an enhanced tendency to aggregate with like protein molecules. The misfolded proteins can impart their anomalous properties to soluble, monomeric proteins with the same amino acid sequence by a process that has been likened to seeded crystallization. However, these potentially pathogenic proteins also have important physiological actions, which have not completely characterized. This opens up the question of what process transforms physiological actions into pathological actions and most intriguing, is why potentially dangerous proteins have been maintained during evolution and are present from yeasts to humans. In the present paper, we introduce the concept of mis-exaptation and of mis-tinkering since they may help in clarifying some of the double edged sword aspects of these proteins. Against this background an original interpretative paradigm for CPDs will be given in the frame of the previously proposed Red Queen Theory of Aging.

  6. Effects of language concordance and interpreter use on therapeutic alliance in Spanish-speaking integrated behavioral health care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Bianca T; Bridges, Ana J; Anastasia, Elizabeth A; Ojeda, Carlos A; Rodriguez, Juventino Hernandez; Gomez, Debbie

    2016-02-01

    The discrepancy between the growing number of Spanish speakers in the U.S. and the availability of bilingual providers creates a barrier to accessing quality mental health care. Use of interpreters provides one strategy for overcoming this linguistic barrier; however, concerns about whether sessions with interpreters, versus bilingual providers, impede therapeutic alliance remain. The current study explored associations between the use of interpreters and therapeutic alliance in a sample of 458 Spanish-speaking patients seen for integrated behavioral health visits at primary care clinics. Patients completed a brief (4 item) therapeutic alliance scale at their behavioral health appointment. In addition, to supplement the quantitative study data, a pilot study of 30 qualitative interviews was conducted with a new sample of 10 Spanish-speaking patients, 10 behavioral health consultants (BHCs), and 10 trained interpreters. Quantitative results showed that interpreter use did not relate to therapeutic alliance, even when controlling for relevant demographic variables. However, qualitative interviews suggested major themes regarding the relative benefits and challenges of using interpreters for patients, interpreters, and BHCs. In interviews, patients expressed a strong preference for bilingual providers. Benefits included greater privacy, sense of trust, and accuracy of communication. However, in their absence, interpreters were seen as increasing access to services and facilitating communication with providers, thereby addressing the behavioral health needs of patients with limited English proficiency. BHCs and interpreters emphasized the importance of interpreter training and a good collaborative relationship with interpreters to minimize negative effects on the quality of care. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Conodont color alteration index and upper Paleozoic thermal history of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Cassiane Negreiros; Sanz-López, Javier; Blanco-Ferrera, Silvia; Lemos, Valesca Brasil; Scomazzon, Ana Karina

    2015-12-01

    The conodont color alteration index (CAI) was determined in elements from core samples of the Frasnian Barreirinha Formation (one well) and of the Pennsylvanian-Permian Tapajós Group (twenty three wells and one limestone quarry) in the Amazonas Basin. The thermal history of the basin is analyzed using the CAI value distribution represented in maps and stratigraphic sections through correlation schemes, and in conjunction with previously published data. The pattern of palaeotemperatures for CAI values of 1.5-3 is coincident with organic matter maturation under a sedimentary overburden providing diagenetic conditions in the oil/gas window. Locally, conodonts show metamorphism (CAI value of 6-7) in relation to the intrusion of diabase bodies in beds including high geothermal gradient evaporites. Microtextural alteration on the surface conodonts commonly shows several types of overgrowth microtextures developed in diagenetic conditions. Locally, recrystallization in conodonts with a high CAI value is congruent with contact metamorphism in relation to Mesozoic intrusions. The CAI values of 1.5 or 2 observed close to the surface in several areas of the basin may be interpreted in relation to a high thermal palaeogradient derived from the magmatic episode or/and to the local denudation of the upper part of the Paleozoic succession prior to this thermal event.

  8. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for elemental characterization of calcitic alterations on cave walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassel, Léna; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Trichard, Florian; Pelascini, Frédéric; Ammari, Faten; Chapoulie, Rémy; Ferrier, Catherine; Lacanette, Delphine; Bousquet, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Cave walls are affected by different kinds of alterations involving preservative issues in the case of ornate caves, in particular regarding the rock art covering the walls. In this context, coralloids correspond to a facies with popcorn-like aspect belonging to the speleothem family, mostly composed of calcium carbonate. The elemental characterization indicates the presence of elements that might be linked to the diagenesis and the expansion of the alterations as demonstrated by prior analyses on stalagmites. In this study, we report the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to characterize the elemental composition of one coralloid sample with a portable instrument allowing punctual measurements and a laboratory mapping setup delivering elemental images with spatial resolution at the micrometric scale, being particularly attentive to Mg, Sr, and Si identified as elements of interest. The complementarity of both instruments allows the determination of the internal structure of the coralloid. Although a validation based on a reference technique is necessary, LIBS data reveal that the external layer of the coralloid is composed of laminations correlated to variations of the LIBS signal of Si. In addition, an interstitial layer showing high LIBS signals for Fe, Al, and Si is interpreted to be a detrital clay interface between the external and the internal part of the coralloid. These preliminary results sustain a possible formation scenario of the coralloid by migration of the elements from the bedrock.

  9. DIFFICULTY OF AMENDMENT AND INTERPRETATIVE CHOICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Coan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme difficulty of amending the U.S. Constitution plays a central but largely unexamined role in theoretical debates over interpretive choice. In particular, conventional wisdom assumes that the extreme difficulty of Article V amendment weakens the case for originalism. This view might ultimately be correct, but it is not the freestanding argument against originalism it is often presumed to be. Rather, it depends on contestable normative and empirical premises that require defense. If those premises are wrong, the stringency of Article V might actually strengthen the case for originalism. Or Article V might have no impact on that case one way or another. This “complexity thesis” highlights and clarifies the role that difficulty of amendment plays across a range of significant interpretive debates, including those surrounding writtenness, John Hart Ely’s representation-reinforcement theory, interpretive pluralism, and originalism as a theory of positive law. It also has important implications for the under-studied relations between statutory and constitutional interpretation and federal and state constitutional interpretation.

  10. Interpretive bias, repressive coping, and trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, James J; McNally, Maria A; Skariah, Ancy; Butt, Ayesha A; Eysenck, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    According to vigilance-avoidance theory, repressors have an avoidant interpretive bias, i.e., they interpret ambiguous self-relevant situations in a nonthreatening fashion. This study sought to demarcate the range of situations associated with avoidant interpretive bias in repressors. Four groups of participants, representing the four combinations of low- and high-trait anxiety and defensiveness, were identified. Those low in trait anxiety and high in defensiveness were categorized as repressors. Participants (N = 163) rated their likelihood of making both threatening and nonthreatening interpretations of 32 ambiguous scenarios over four domains: social, intellectual, physical, and health. Half the scenarios were self-relevant and half were other relevant. Brief measures of state anxiety were taken after each likelihood rating. Repressors displayed an avoidant interpretive bias for ambiguous threats in the social and intellectual domains but not the health or physical domains. This was due to repressors' low level of trait anxiety rather than their high defensiveness. Individuals high in trait anxiety are especially sensitive to situations involving social evaluation but not those characterized by danger to their health or physical well-being.

  11. Interpreting Sheepskin Effects of Investment in Schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyeb Shabbir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, significant amount of research has produced evidence in support of the signaling, credential or “sheepskin” effects in rates of return to schooling for studies of the developed as well as developing countries. An example of the former is the seminal empirical work by Hungerfold and Solon (1987 as well as more recent research for the U. S. [Park (1999 and Flores-Lagunes and Light (2007] and other developed countries [Mcguinness (2003 and Antelius (2000 for Europe, for instance, and Bauer et al. for Japan (2004]. Examples of such work for developing countries include Shabbir (1991 for Pakistan, Schady (2003 for the Philippines, and Mora (2008 for Colombia.Testing the sheepskin or credential hypothesis is tantamount to ascertaining if the marginal rate of return to education increases discontinuously for the years when completion diplomas (or degrees are awarded to the individual.Despite the existence of sheepskin effects, very few attempts have been made either for developed or developing countries to specifically try to identify the possible channels by which such effects may exert themselves. Notable exceptions are Flores-Lagunes and Light (2007 for the U. S. and Riddle (2008 for Canada..This paper tries to address this neglected yet important question by empirically exploring this question in the case of Pakistan. Specifically, this paper explores the above question of interpretation of sheepskin effects in the case of Pakistan. Using the IFPRI-sponsored, 1987 Pakistan Survey of Rural Education, Migration and Employment (PSREME, it tests the hypothesis whether observed sheepskin effects are signaling individual innate ability and/or family background. Thus understanding more fully the sheepskin mechanism, will allow us to better appreciate the role of schooling and degree completion in determining earnings.According to the results of this paper, the sheepskin effects prove to be robust both to an inclusion of measures

  12. Coupled Interpretation of Geoelectrical Surveying Results in Environmental Site Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skold, M.; Hubbard, S. S.; Karaoulis, M.; Revil, A.; Spycher, N.; Watson, D. B.; Wu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Geoelectric methods are sensitive to material properties which can be used to investigate subsurficial processes at contaminated sites. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measures the electrical resistivity distribution in the ground; the self-potential (SP) method is based on source current densities resulting from ground water flow; and induced polarization (IP) responds to geochemical interactions between mineral surfaces and pore fluids. Ground water flow patterns and contaminant migration may be better understood if the results of these survey methods are interpreted jointly rather than separately. The purpose of this project is to jointly interpret results of geophysical surveying and laboratory characterization of soil and ground water samples to assess ground water flow patterns and contaminant migration at a site within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Historical disposal of liquid waste containing nitric acid and uranium in unlined ponds has resulted in contamination of soil and ground water. ERT, SP, and IP surveying was performed downgradient of the source area and the geophysical behavior of sediment and ground water samples was investigated in the laboratory. Measured electrical conductivity and self-potential anomalies coincided with elevated nitrate and uranium concentrations indicating preferential flow from the source area. The self-potential response can be related to ground water flow either by calculating the excess of charge in the diffuse layer surrounding mineral surfaces or by the streaming potential coupling coefficient. Geochemical reactions between pore water and minerals and their surfaces were modeled using the contaminant transport software TOUGHREACT. Surface complexation modeling using the Gouy-Chapman diffuse double layer was used to simulate charge density-surface potential relationship. Laboratory measurements of the streaming potential coupling coefficient of sediment samples at various pH and salt concentrations were

  13. Don't panic: interpretation bias is predictive of new onsets of panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woud, Marcella L; Zhang, Xiao Chi; Becker, Eni S; McNally, Richard J; Margraf, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Psychological models of panic disorder postulate that interpretation of ambiguous material as threatening is an important maintaining factor for the disorder. However, demonstrations of whether such a bias predicts onset of panic disorder are missing. In the present study, we used data from the Dresden Prediction Study, in which a epidemiologic sample of young German women was tested at two time points approximately 17 months apart, allowing the study of biased interpretation as a potential risk factor. At time point one, participants completed an Interpretation Questionnaire including two types of ambiguous scenarios: panic-related and general threat-related. Analyses revealed that a panic-related interpretation bias predicted onset of panic disorder, even after controlling for two established risk factors: anxiety sensitivity and fear of bodily sensations. This is the first prospective study demonstrating the incremental validity of interpretation bias as a predictor of panic disorder onset. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. TREHS (Temporary Rivers Ecological and Hydrological Status): new software for investigating the degree of hydrologic alteration of temporary streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart, Francesc; Llorens, Pilar; Cid, Núria; latron, Jérôme; Bonada, Núria; Prat, Narcís

    2017-04-01

    individuals, and by interpretation of aerial photographs. Up to six metrics defining the permanence of water flow, the presence of stagnant pools and their temporal patterns of occurrence are used to determine the natural and observed river regime, and to assess the degree of hydrological alteration. Here, given the lack of agreed standards to evaluate the ecological relevance of the observed alterations, the thresholds that define quality class boundaries are provisional and may be updated using expert knowledge. Finally, the software characterizes the differences between the natural and actual regimes, performs a diagnosis of the hydrological status (degree of hydrologic alteration) along with an assessment of the significance and robustness of the diagnosis, and recommends the best period for biological quality samplings.

  15. Formulation of court interpreting models: A South African perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa there are no models of court interpreting to serve as a guide for court interpreters when performing their task. This is because there is no proper definition of the role of a court interpreter. Models of court interpreting define and describe the process by stating what court interpreters are actually doing when ...

  16. Developmental levels of processing in metaphor interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J; Pascual-Leone, J

    1989-08-01

    We outline a theory of metaphor interpretation. The theory posits varying levels of semantic processing and formalizes them in terms of kinds of semantic-mapping operators that transform properties of the metaphoric vehicle (i.e., predicate) into properties of the metaphoric topic (i.e., subject). We used cognitive-developmental theory to estimate the mental-processing complexity of the various mapping operators, and thereby to predict the timing of their emergence in childhood, and to construct a measure of the metaphoric-processing levels. Metaphor interpretations collected from children (aged 6-12 years) and adults were coded and scored according to the processing levels. In two separate developmental studies, processing score increased with age in a predictable way. Growth in a mental-attentional resource accounted for much of the developmental variance in metaphor interpretation. Possible moderating effects of knowledge and context are discussed.

  17. Interpretation in Quantum Physics as Hidden Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2010-10-01

    Prior research has demonstrated how the realist perspectives of classical physics students can translate into specific beliefs about quantum phenomena when taking an introductory modern physics course. Student beliefs regarding the interpretation of quantum mechanics often vary by context, and are most often in alignment with instructional goals in topic areas where instructors are explicit in promoting a particular perspective. Moreover, students are more likely to maintain realist perspectives in topic areas where instructors are less explicit in addressing interpretive themes, thereby making such issues part of a hidden curriculum. We discuss various approaches to addressing student perspectives and interpretive themes in a modern physics course, and explore the associated impacts on student thinking.

  18. Conversations through barriers of language and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jane; Cassidy, Irene; Graham, Margaret M; Tuohy, Dympna

    Ireland has become a multicultural society in just over a decade, with non-Irish nationals comprising 12% of the population. The challenge for nurses working in the Irish healthcare system is to provide culturally appropriate care to this diverse population. This paper reports on a qualitative descriptive study exploring nurses' experiences of communicating with people from diverse cultures, and focuses on language barriers and the use of interpreters. The findings indicate that communicating with people who do not share the same first language is challenging, in particular the participants (nurses) were concerned about their ability to make a comprehensive assessment that ultimately forms the basis for quality care provision. The use of interpreters can inform the assessment process, but there are challenges in accessing and utilising these services. Further continuing education is required to promote culturally appropriate care. There is a need for increased discussion between nurses and interpreters to maximise communication with patients.

  19. Recognising and Interpreting Named Temporal Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brucato, Matteo; Derczynski, Leon; Llorens, Hectjor

    2013-01-01

    in conventional temporally-annotated corpora – for example Michaelmas or Vasant Panchami. UsingWikipedia and linked data, we automatically construct a resource of English named temporal expressions, and use it to extract training examples from a large corpus. These examples are then used to train and evaluate......This paper introduces a new class of temporal expression – named temporal expressions – and methods for recognising and interpreting its members. The commonest temporal expressions typically contain date and time words, like April or hours. Research into recognising and interpreting these typical...... expressions is mature in many languages. However, there is a class of expressions that are less typical, very varied, and difficult to automatically interpret. These indicate dates and times, but are harder to detect because they often do not contain time words and are not used frequently enough to appear...

  20. Path integral distance for data interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Volchenkov, D

    2015-01-01

    The process of data interpretation is always based on the implicit introduction of equivalence relations on the set of walks over the database. Every equivalence relation on the set of walks specifies a Markov chain describing the transitions of a discrete time random walk. In order to geometrize and interpret the data, we propose the new distance between data units defined as a "Feynman path integral", in which all possible paths between any two nodes in a graph model of the data are taken into account, although some paths are more preferable than others. Such a path integral distance approach to the analysis of databases has proven its efficiency and success, especially on multivariate strongly correlated data where other methods fail to detect structural components (urban planning, historical language phylogenies, music, street fashion traits analysis, etc. ). We believe that it would become an invaluable tool for the intelligent complexity reduction and big data interpretation.

  1. Pengalaman Menjadi Homeschooler-mom Sebuah Studi Kualitatif Dengan Pendekatan Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA)

    OpenAIRE

    Majid, Dewi Yulia Nurul; Desiningrum, Dinie Ratri

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi dan memahami pengalaman ibu yang melaksanakan homeschooling (homeschooler-mom). Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif fenomenologi dengan pendekatan Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA).Partisipan penelitian ini didapat dengan metode non-probability sampling dengan salah satu strategisnowball sampling.Partisipan berjumlah 3 orang dengan karakteristik: (1) Ibu yang melaksanakan praktik homeschooling pada anak, tidak terbatas jenjan...

  2. Adolescents’ Interpretation of the Concept of Wellness: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezihe Loretta Ahanonu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study sought to explore and describe the interpretation which adolescents ascribe to the term wellness at a selected high school in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Methods: A qualitative research design was utilized. Nine focus-group discussions were conducted among 58 adolescents. Sample was selected purposefully and collected data was analyzed using open coding. Results: Findings reflected adolescents’ interpretations of the term wellness in the realm of holistic well-being transcending the nonexistence of illness or sickness in the body. The interpretations given include: healthy living which embrace eating enough nutritious foods, exercising regularly and being actively involved in physical activities; practicing self-care habits such as personal hygiene and grooming; well-being of the mind (psychological, emotional; having a balanced personality and interpersonal processes; being focused and goal directed and spiritual well-being. Conclusion: It is imperative to consider adolescents’ understandings of wellness when planning, designing, implementing and evaluating adolescent wellness programs.

  3. Electrocardiogram interpretation in general practice: relevance to prehospital thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, W A; Saltissi, S

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess, in the context of their possible role in prehospital thrombolysis, the ability of general practitioners to recognise acute transmural myocardial ischaemia/infarction on an electrocardiogram. DESIGN--150 doctors (every fifth name) were selected from the alphabetical list of 750 on Merseyside general practitioner register and without prior warning were asked to interpret a series of six 12 lead electrocardiograms. Three of these showed acute transmural ischaemia/infarction, one was normal, and two showed non-acute abnormalities. Details of doctors' ages, postgraduate training, and clinical practice were sought. SETTING--General practitioners' surgeries and postgraduate centres within the Merseyside area. PARTICIPANTS--106 general practitioners (mean age 45 years) agreed to participate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Accuracy of general practitioners' interpretations of the six electrocardiograms. RESULTS--82% of general practitioners correctly recognised a normal electrocardiogram. Recognition of acute abnormalities was less reliable. Between 33% and 61% correctly identified acute transmural ischaemia/infarction depending on the specific trace presented. Accurate localisation of the site of the infarct was achieved only by between 8% and 30% of participants, while between 22% and 25% correctly interpreted non-acute abnormalities. Neither routine use of electrocardiography nor postgraduate hospital experience in general medicine was associated with significantly greater expertise. CONCLUSION--The current level of proficiency of a sample of general practitioners in the Merseyside area in recognising acute transmural ischaemia/infarction on an electrocardiogram suggests that refresher training is needed if general practitioners are to give prehospital thrombolysis. Images PMID:8398491

  4. Mitochondrial DNA sequence alterations observed between blood and buccal cells within the same individuals having betel quid (BQ)-chewing habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Chung-Yen; Hsieh, Ling-Ling; Lee, Tzu-Cheng; Yang, Shi-Bing; Linville, Jason; Chou, Su-Lien; Yang, Chiou-Herr

    2006-01-27

    There are hundreds of millions of betel quid (BQ) lovers widely spreading around the world. Compositions in BQ may generate reactive oxygen species, which would induce DNA damage. However, oral epithelial cells as well as blood have often been used as reference samples in comparison with the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of hairs. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of mtDNA sequence variation in regular BQ-chewers' oral epithelial cells, and thus to evaluate the forensic availability of the buccal cells from BQ-chewers using the mtDNA markers. The hypervariable segments I and II in the D-loop control region of mtDNA between paired samples of blood and buccal scrape cells from 75 non-BQ-chewers (to be a control group), 60 BQ-chewers, and 67 oral cancerous patients were DNA sequenced and compared. Among the three groups, the alteration rates of 1.3% (1 out of 75), 10% (6 out of 60), and 61% (41 out of 67) were identified from the control, BQ-chewers, and the cancerous group, respectively. In the cancerous group, as expected, high rate of DNA alteration between blood and buccal samples was found. In the BQ-chewers, one and five individuals had the length and point alterations, respectively. Interestingly, most of point alteration sites, e.g., mtDNA positions 153, 16189, 16093 identified from BQ-chewers, were also observed in previous literatures. As for the control subjects, one case with point alteration, and none with length alteration, was identified. For all the three groups, not only the oral cells but also the normal blood samples exhibited high frequency (>55%) of length heteroplasmy at poly-(C)n track. Statistical analyses revealed that significance was observed between the severity of mtDNA alteration in BQ-chewers' oral epithelial cells and the history of BQ-chewing (p = 0.02), with a tendency of positive association. Based on the guidelines by Carracedo et al., we suggest that the interpretation of mtDNA variations between

  5. Arabic-speaking migrants’ experiences of the use of interpreters in healthcare: a qualitative explorative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Arabic-speaking migrants have constituted a growing population in recent years. This entails major challenges to ensure good communication in the healthcare encounter in order to provide individual and holistic healthcare. One of the solutions to ensure good communication between patient and healthcare staff who do not share the same language is to use a professional interpreter. To our knowledge, no previous qualitative studies have been found concerning Arabic-speaking migrants and the use of interpreters. This study aims to ascertain their individual experiences which can help extend our understanding of the studied area. Method A purposive sample of 13 Arabic-speaking persons with experience of using interpreters in healthcare encounters. Data were collected between November 2012 and March 2013 by four focus-group interviews and analysed with qualitative analysis according to a method described for focus groups. Results Four categories appeared from the analysis: 1) The professional interpreter as spokesperson; 2) Different types of interpreters and modes of interpretation adapting to the healthcare encounter; 3) The professional interpreter’s task and personal properties affected the use of professional interpreters in a healthcare encounter; 4) Future planning of the use of professional interpreters in a healthcare encounter. The main findings were that the use of interpreters was experienced both as a possibility and as a problem. The preferred type of interpreters depended on the interpreter’s dialect and ability to interpret correctly. Besides the professional interpreter’s qualities of good skill in language and medical terminology, translation ability, neutrality and objectivity, Arabic-speaking participants stated that professional interpreters need to share the same origin, religion, dialect, gender and political views as the patient in order to facilitate the interpreter use and avoid inappropriate treatment. Conclusion The study

  6. [Pitfalls for renogram interpretation in pediatric urology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballouhey, Q; Lescure, V; Larradet, M; El-Badaoui, A; Grimaudo Benaïssa, A; Guigonis, V; Monteil, J; Verbeke, S; Fourcade, L

    2016-01-01

    Renograms are currently used for functional assessment by pediatric urologists. The aim of the present work was to focus on the potential pitfalls concerning renography. Potential confounding factors are described in reference to concrete cases. The main types of pitfalls concern venous or urinary catheters and background area definition. Protocols and renogram interpretation are critiqued in a bibliographic review. We propose a technical update and original data on the potential pitfalls in renography interpretation. Multidisciplinary discussion between nuclear medicine, pediatrics and pediatric surgery departments is required before drawing conclusions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Aiding the Interpretation of Ancient Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette

    How can Decision Support System (DSS) software aid the interpretation process involved in the reading of ancient documents? This paper discusses the development of a DSS prototype for the reading of ancient texts. In this context the term ‘ancient documents’ is used to describe mainly Greek...... tool it is important first to comprehend the interpretation process involved in reading ancient documents. This is not a linear process but rather a recursive process where the scholar moves between different levels of reading, such as ‘understanding the meaning of a character’ or ‘understanding...

  8. A Relativistic Symmetrical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Michael B.

    This poster describes a relativistic symmetrical interpretation (RSI) which postulates: quantum mechanics is intrinsically time-symmetric, with no arrow of time; the fundamental objects of quantum mechanics are transitions; a transition is fully described by a complex transition amplitude density with specified initial and final boundary conditions, and; transition amplitude densities never collapse. This RSI is compared to the Copenhagen Interpretation (CI) for the analysis of Einstein's bubble experiment using both the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations. The RSI has no zitterbewegung in the particle's rest frame, resolves some inconsistencies of the CI, and gives intuitive explanations of some previously mysterious quantum effects.

  9. Gestalt descriptions embodiments and medical image interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Jan Kyrre Berg Olsen

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I will argue that medical specialists interpret and diagnose through technological mediations like X-ray and fMRI images, and by actualizing embodied skills tacitly they are determining the identity of objects in the perceptual field. The initial phase of human interpretation...... of visual perception. My argument is that biology, society and instruments constitute unique individual ontologies influencing specialist readings of the technological output, in other words, putting limits on the “truth-to-nature” relation, which is so much sought for in science....

  10. Interpreting MARC: Where's the Bibliographic Data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Thomale

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The MARC data format was created early in the history of digital computers. In this article, the author entertains the notion that viewing MARC from a modern technological perspective leads to interpretive problems such as a confusion of "bibliographic data" with "catalog records." He explores this idea through examining a specific MARC interpretation task that he undertook early in his career and then revisited nearly four years later. Revising the code that performed the task confronted him with his own misconceptions about MARC that were rooted in his worldview about what he thought "structured data" should be and helped him to place MARC in a more appropriate context.

  11. Two interpretive systems for natural language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-02-01

    It is proposed that humans have available to them two systems for interpreting natural language. One system is familiar from formal semantics. It is a type based system that pairs a syntactic form with its interpretation using grammatical rules of composition. This system delivers both plausible and implausible meanings. The other proposed system is one that uses the grammar together with knowledge of how the human production system works. It is token based and only delivers plausible meanings, including meanings based on a repaired input when the input might have been produced as a speech error.

  12. List search hardware for interpretive software

    CERN Document Server

    Altaber, Jacques; Mears, B; Rausch, R

    1979-01-01

    Interpreted languages, e.g. BASIC, are simple to learn, easy to use, quick to modify and in general 'user-friendly'. However, a critically time consuming process during interpretation is that of list searching. A special microprogrammed device for fast list searching has therefore been developed at the SPS Division of CERN. It uses bit- sliced hardware. Fast algorithms perform search, insert and delete of a six-character name and its value in a list of up to 1000 pairs. The prototype shows retrieval times of the order of 10-30 microseconds. (11 refs).

  13. Gene set analysis for interpreting genetic studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pers, Tune H

    2016-01-01

    remains. More efficient interpretation requires more complete and consistent gene set representations of biological pathways, phenotypes and functional annotations. In this review, I examine different types of gene sets, discuss how inconsistencies in gene set definitions impact GSA, describe how GSA has...... and functional annotations and may hence point towards novel biological insights. However, despite the growing availability of GSA tools, the sizeable amount of variants identified for a vast number of complex traits, and many irrefutably trait-associated gene sets, the gap between discovery and interpretation...

  14. Hydrothermal Alteration of the Mt Unzen Conduit (Shimabara/Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, T. I.; Mayer, K.; Hess, K. U.; Janots, E.; Gilg, H. A.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    Investigations were carried out on hydrothermally altered coherent dacitic dykes samples from (USDP-4) drill core at Mt Unzen stratovolcano (Shimabara/Japan). XRF, XRD, EMPA, and C-O-isotope analysis led to insights concerning chemistry, mineralogy, and intensity of alteration as well as the origin of carbonate-precipitating fluids. Additionally a textural characterization of the occurring replacement features in the magma conduit zone was performed. The occurrence of the main secondary phases such as chlorite, pyrite, carbonates, and R1 (Reichweite parameter) illite-smectite indicate a weak to moderate propylitic to phyllic hydrothermal alteration. The dacitic samples of the dykes show different hydrothermal alteration features: (i) carbonate pseudomorphs after hornblende as well as core and zonal textures due to replacement of plagioclase by R1 illite-smectite, (ii) colloform banded fracture fillings and fillings in dissolution vugs, and (iii) chlorite and R1 illite-smectite in the groundmass. Carbonates in fractures comprise iron-rich dolomite solid solutions ("ankerite") and calcite. Isotopic values of d13Cvpdb = -4.59 ± 0.6‰ and d18Ovpdb = -21.73 ± 0.5‰ indicate a hydrothermal-magmatic origin for the carbonate formation. The chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index (CCPI) and the Ishikawa alteration index (AI), applied to the investigated samples show significant differences (CCPI=52.7-57.8; AI=36.1-40.6) indicating their different degree of alteration. According to Nakada et al., 2005, the C13 to C16 dykes represent the feeder dyke from the latest eruption (1991-1995) whereas C8 represents an earlier dyke feeder dyke from an older eruption. Weakest conduit alteration, which was obtained in samples C16-1-5 and C13-2-5, correlates with the alteration degree of the pristine dome rocks. Highest CCPI value was determined for sample C14-1-5 and the highest AI value was determined for sample C15-2-6. The degrees of alteration do not indicate highest alteration of the

  15. Lack of trust in maternal support is associated with negative interpretations of ambiguous maternal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Simon; Waters, Theodore; Vandevivere, Eva; Braet, Caroline; Bosmans, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Attachment theory assumes that children who lack trust in maternal availability for support are more inclined to interpret maternal behavior in congruence with their expectation that mother will remain unavailable for support. To provide the first test of this assumption, early adolescents (9-13 years old) were asked to assess whether ambiguous interactions with mother should be interpreted in a positive or a negative way. In our sample (n = 322), results showed that early adolescents' lack o...

  16. Cognate Facilitation in Sentence Context--Translation Production by Interpreting Trainees and Non-Interpreting Trilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijewska, Agnieszka; Chmiel, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Conference interpreters form a special case of language users because the simultaneous interpretation practice requires very specific lexical processing. Word comprehension and production in respective languages is performed under strict time constraints and requires constant activation of the involved languages. The present experiment aimed at…

  17. Court Interpreting in Denmark - the role of court interpreters in Danish courtrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    1999-01-01

    Court interpreters in Denmark are expected to follow the guidelines laid down in the document Instructions for Interpreters, which was published in 1994, and which deals with four principal areas: accuracy and completeness, impartiality, confidentiality and conflict of interest. This paper conten...

  18. The Optimum Text in Simultaneous Interpreting: A Cognitive Approach to Interpreters' Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexieva, Bistra

    A discussion of text translatability in simultaneous interpreting (SI) looks at semantic redundancy, the repetition of semantic components essential to creating an utterance, and offers some classroom techniques for teaching interpreting skills. It is proposed that the translatability of a text in SI should be studied in terms of the experiential…

  19. Informal Interpreting in General Practice: Comparing the perspectives of General Practitioners, migrant patients and family interpreters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zendedel, R.; Schouten, B.C.; van Weert, J.C.M.; van den Putte, B.

    Objective To explore differences in perspectives of general practitioners, Turkish-Dutch migrant patients and family interpreters on interpreters’ role, power dynamics and trust in interpreted GP consultations. Methods 54 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with the three parties

  20. Genetic alteration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoo Chul; Kang, Tae Woong; Lee, Jin Oh [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Cancer of stomach, colon and liver are a group of the most common cancer in Korea. However, results with current therapeutic modalities are still unsatisfactory. The intensive efforts have been made to understand basic pathogenesis and to find better therapeutic tools for the treatment of this miserable disease. We studied the alteration of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes in hepatocellular carcinoma in Korea. We found that alteration of Rb gene, APC were 33 %, 13 % respectively. But alterations of oncogenes such as myc, ras and mdm2 were rarely found. Our results suggests that HBV may act as oncogenic role in hepatocarcinogenesis instead of oncogenes. 6 figs, 2 tabs. (Author).

  1. A survey of language barriers from the perspective of pediatric oncologists, interpreters, and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbe, Marisa; Simon, Christian; Angiolillo, Anne; Ruccione, Kathy; Kodish, Eric D

    2006-11-01

    Oncologists in the US increasingly face the challenge of communicating with non-English speaking parents of children with cancer. This study explores this challenge from the perspectives of a sample of pediatric oncologists, interpreters, and Spanish-speaking parents of children with newly diagnosed leukemia. Thirty-seven oncologists and 17 professional language interpreters based at two non-profit pediatric hospitals in the US were surveyed on the topic of language barriers in pediatric care. Seventeen parents who communicated with their child's oncologist through an interpreter were also surveyed. All groups expressed considerable concern over the process of communicating across a language barrier. For oncologists, these concerns included the accuracy and completeness of interpretations, complexity of information, and loss of confidence and control over the communication process. For interpreters, they included complexity of information, information overload, and lack of clinician sensitivity toward the cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds of limited English proficiency (LEP) families. Parent concerns included difficulties comprehending information and anxiety over the possibility of missing out on important information. All groups provided multiple suggestions for improving communication across a language barrier. Oncologists, interpreters, and parents expressed considerable concern over the process of communicating across a language barrier. Some of these concerns could be minimized through efforts to boost interpreter accuracy and completeness, including the use of more simple, easy to understand language. Other issues, such as differences in culture and socioeconomic background, warrant consideration of the intercultural knowledge and skills of interpreters. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Symbol recognition and interpretation of HIV/AIDS pictorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % of the respondents interpreted correctly, for picture 2, 62.2% recognized the picture while 76.7% interpreted correctly. For picture 3, 57% of the respondents were able to recognize the picture while 88% interpreted the pictures correctly.

  3. Interpretation of the recent Kolar events

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay 400 005, India. 3Present address: Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009, India. MS received 25 May 1989. Abstract. We give plausible interpretations of the unusual events seen in the proton decay detector at Kolar Gold Fields indicating the existence of a ...

  4. Solving statelessness : Interpreting the right to nationality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieks, Caia; Hirsch Ballin, Ernst; Recalde Vela, María José

    This article examines what is necessary to solve statelessness in a sustainable manner that enhances the enjoyment of human rights. It does so by interpreting the right to nationality using three lenses through which the meaning of a response to statelessness can be better understood. It draws on

  5. Qualitative interpretation of high resolution aeromagnetic (HRAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative interpretation of high resolution aeromagnetic (HRAM) data from some parts of offshore Niger delta, Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... The original raster map, obtained from the Nigeria Geological Survey Agency (NGSA) in half degree sheet, was subjected to qualitative data analysis using the ...

  6. CONSTITUTIONAL INTERPRETATION OF ROMANIA: POST MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. RATHNASWAMY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Austria had in 1920 Constitutional Court followed by Italy in 1946, Germany in 1949, Romania in 1989, South Africa in 1991, and Ethiopia in 1995. Each Constitution has its provisions on the constitutional interpretation. Romania has its own provisions and it is considered here its legality and the best possible measures and recommendations for future. Judicial power is vested in judiciary to interpret constitution, laws, and actions of other organs of government. Judicial review is the function resulted upon judicial power. Political body joins through the appointment of its members in the judicial review and it limits the independence of judiciary. It also reduces the values of separation of powers. Challenges and opportunities of growth and development do influence the spirit of separation of powers and judicial independence. The principle of inherent judicial power in judiciary inducts upon the constitutional interpretation. Thus, the principles of constitutional interpretation are varying in Romania and other similar constitutional courts of Germany, Ethiopia, and Italy but not in South Africa.

  7. Measurement and interpretation of electrokinetic phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgado, A.V.; Gonzalez-Caballero, F.; Hunter, R.J.; Koopal, L.K.; Lyklema, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this report, the status quo and recent progress in electrokinetics are reviewed. Practical rules are recommended for performing electrokinetic measurements and interpreting their results in terms of well-defined quantities, the most familiar being the ¿-potential or electrokinetic potential. This

  8. Measurement and interpretation of electrokinetic phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgado, A.V.; Gonzalez-Caballero, F.; Hunter, R.J.; Koopal, L.K.; Lyklema, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, the status quo and recent progress in electrokinetics are reviewed. Practical rules are recommended for performing electrokinetic measurements and interpreting their results in terms of well-defined quantities, the most familiar being the zeta-potential or electrokinetic potential.

  9. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lc2o

    Systems theory is used to explore innovation, change and ... methodology for aligning an innovative, interpretive qualitative case .... importance. Researchers can adopt either a single-case or multiple-case study design depending on the phenomenon in question. A single-case design could be criticized for its inability to ...

  10. Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book is the third volume of the paperback versions of "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Third Edition." This portion of the handbook considers the tasks of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting empirical materials, and comprises the Handbook's Parts IV ("Methods of Collecting and Analyzing Empirical Materials") and V ("The Art and…

  11. Galileo and the Interpretation of the Bible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, William E.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that, contrary to the common view, Galileo and the theologians of the Inquisition share the same fundamental principles of biblical interpretation. Contends that Galileo and these theologians thought that the Bible contained truths about nature, but Galileo denied what the theologians accepted as scientifically true. Contains 93 references.…

  12. A Complexity Analysis of Functional Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernest, Mircea-Dan; Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    We give a quantitative analysis of G ̈odel’s functional interpretation and its monotone variant. The two have been used for the extraction of programs and numerical bounds as well as for conservation results. They apply both to (semi-)intuitionistic as well as (combined with negative translation...

  13. 14 CFR 240.1 - Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF ACCOUNTS AND PROPERTY § 240.1 Interpretation. (a) In the exercise of the authority... said office in accordance with the laws of the United States and regulations thereunder, and his... these credentials will result in penalties as provided by law. United States of America, Civil...

  14. From Interpreter to logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied to the lam......Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...... to the lambda-calculus. The key transformation here is Reynoldss defunctionalization that transforms a tail-recursive, continuation-passing interpreter into a transition system, i.e., an abstract machine. Similar denotational and operational semantics were studied by de Bruin and de Vink (their article...... at TAPSOFT 1989), and we compare their study with our derivation. Additionally, we present a direct-style interpreter of propositional Prolog expressed with control operators for delimited continuations....

  15. Scepticism and the Interpreter | Cox | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper defends an argument from interpretation against the possibility of massive error. The argument shares many important features with Donald Davidson's famous argument, but also key differences. I defend the argument against claims that it begs the question against scepticism and that it leaves the sceptic with an ...

  16. From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied to the lam......Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...... to the lambda-calculus. The key transformation here is Reynoldss defunctionalization that transforms a tail-recursive, continuation-passing interpreter into a transition system, i.e., an abstract machine. Similar denotational and operational semantics were studied by de Bruin and de Vink (their article...... at TAPSOFT 1989), and we compare their study with our derivation. Additionally, we present a direct-style interpreter of propositional Prolog expressed with control operators for delimited continuations....

  17. From Interpreter to Logic Engine by Defunctionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied to the lam......Starting from a continuation-based interpreter for a simple logic programming language, propositional Prolog with cut, we derive the corresponding logic engine in the form of an abstract machine. The derivation originates in previous work (our article at PPDP 2003) where it was applied...... to the lambda-calculus. The key transformation here is Reynoldss defunctionalization that transforms a tail-recursive, continuation-passing interpreter into a transition system, i.e., an abstract machine. Similar denotational and operational semantics were studied by de Bruin and de Vink (their article...... at TAPSOFT 1989), and we compare their study with our derivation. Additionally, we present a direct-style interpreter of propositional Prolog expressed with control operators for delimited continuations....

  18. Re-Interpreting the "Chinese miracle"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xingyuan; Ljungwall, Christer; Guo, Sujian

    2011-01-01

    The rapid economic development and transformation of Chinese society over the past three decades has, by a large mass of analysts, been called a "Miracle." This paper not only addresses the shortcomings of existing interpretations but also develops a new multi-dimensional framework based on North...

  19. The Copenhagen interpretation as an emergent phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowood, Timothy J.

    2013-08-01

    The Copenhagen interpretation has been remarkably successful but seems at odds with the underlying linearity of quantum mechanics. We show how it can emerge in a simple way from the underlying microscopic quantum world governed by Schrödinger’s equation without the need for observers or their brains. In order to achieve this, we assemble pieces of various pre-existing ideas. Firstly, we adopt a relational approach and use the eigenvectors of the reduced density matrix of a quantum sub-system, or equivalently the Schmidt decomposition, to define the ‘internal state’ of a sub-system. Previous work has identified serious objections to such an interpretation because it apparently leads to macroscopic superpositions and physically unacceptable instabilities near degeneracies. We show that both these problems are solved if the sub-system consists of a large number of coarse-grained degrees of freedom as one expects in order to make contact with the classical world. We further argue that coarse graining is a necessary ingredient because measuring devices have both finite spatial and temporal resolutions. What results is an interpretation in which both decoherence and coarse graining play key roles and from which the rules of the Copenhagen interpretation are seen to emerge in realistic situations that include the measurement of the position of a particle and a decay process.

  20. Popper's experiment and the Copenhagen interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Asher

    1999-01-01

    Popper conceived an experiment whose analysis led to a result that he deemed absurd. Popper wrote that his reasoning was based on the Copenhagen interpretation and therefore invalidated the latter. Actually, Popper's argument involves counterfactual reasoning and violates Bohr's complementarity principle. The absurdity of Popper's result only confirms Bohr's approach.

  1. PRAMANA Inconsistencies in interpreting the atmospheric neutrino ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    March 2004 physics pp. 635-638. Inconsistencies in interpreting the atmospheric neutrino anomaly. JOHN M LoSЕССО. Physics Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556, USA. Abstract. We note a discrepancy between the value of R expected on the basis of the muon neutrino angular distribution ...

  2. calvin's interpretation of the lord's prayer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND SOURCES. Calvin's principal work, the Institutio Christianae .... The division between the elect and the wicked, which was also taught in the. 1542 Geneva Catechism (Question 268), ... The fifth and sixth petitions present different problems. Why are they an obstacle to interpretation?

  3. Interpretive Research Design. Concepts and Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz-Shea, P.; Yanow, D.

    2012-01-01

    Research design is fundamental to all scientific endeavors, at all levels and in all institutional settings. In many social science disciplines, however, scholars working in an interpretive-qualitative tradition get little guidance on this aspect of research from the positivist-centered training

  4. Geometric Interpretations of Some Psychophysical Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michael V.

    A theory of psychophysics is discussed that enlarges the classical theory in three general ways: (1) the multidimensional nature of perception is made explicit; (2) the transformations of the theory are interpreted geometrically; and (3) attributes are distinguished from sensations and only partially ordered. It is shown that, with the enlarged…

  5. Aspectual Effects on Interpretation in Early Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyams, Nina

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the temporal and modal meanings associated with root infinitives (RIs) and other non-finite clauses in several typologically diverse languages--English, Russian, Greek and Dutch. I discuss the role that event structure, aspect, and modality play in the interpretation of these clauses. The basic hypothesis is that in the…

  6. Environmental interpretation in Uganda's national parks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken in three of Uganda's forested national parks to provide informatiun on the status of environmental interpretation. Sixty questionnaires were administered to range guides and park wardens in Kibale, Rwenzori, and Mnunt. Elgon :"'ational Parks to collect information on job description of rangers and ...

  7. 48 CFR 9904.403-61 - Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.403-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403-61 Interpretation. (a) Questions have arisen as to...

  8. 48 CFR 9904.401-61 - Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.401-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-61 Interpretation. (a) 9904.401, Cost Accounting...

  9. 48 CFR 9904.402-61 - Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.402-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-61 Interpretation. (a) 9904.402, Cost Accounting...

  10. Financial Stability: the Problem of Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaniak Mykola M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with studying the problem of interpretation of the concept of «financial stability», allocating the major groups of approaches to its interpretation and clarifying the reasons for absence of a single uniform definition. On the basis of an analysis, approaches to interpretation of the category of «financial stability» have been divided into three main groups. In the definitions by central banks (the first group emphasis is more often placed upon the matter that a system (not necessarily financial is considered stable if it is able to perform all their functions even under conditions of minor adverse shocks and upheavals. The second way to interpretation – by contradiction – must be taken into consideration in the process of studying the financial stability. According to the third group of views, a system can be considered financially stable until the process of transforming savings into investments remains unbroken. The main reasons for the absence of a single clear formulation of the concept of «financial stability» have been identified, namely: different approaches used by scientists to understanding the content of financial system; refocusing from studying the financial stability towards financial crises; accounting the indicator of financial stability in place of the indicator of financial disturbances. A prospective direction for further research is assessment of financial stability through practical consideration of quantitative characteristics that influence on such stability

  11. The metaphysics of quantum mechanics: Modal interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, Stuart Murray

    2004-11-01

    This dissertation begins with the argument that a preferred way of doing metaphysics is through philosophy of physics. An understanding of quantum physics is vital to answering questions such as: What counts as an individual object in physical ontology? Is the universe fundamentally indeterministic? Are indiscernibles identical? This study explores how the various modal interpretations of quantum mechanics answer these sorts of questions; modal accounts are one of the two classes of interpretations along with so-called collapse accounts. This study suggests a new alternative within the class of modal views that yields a more plausible ontology, one in which the Principle of the Identity of Indisceribles is necessarily true. Next, it shows that modal interpretations can consistently deny that the universe must be fundamentally indeterministic so long as they accept certain other metaphysical commitments: either a perfect initial distribution of states in the universe or some form of primitive dispositional properties. Finally, the study sketches out a future research project for modal interpretations based on developing quantified quantum logic.

  12. Trained interpretive bias survives mood change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, E.; van den Hout, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that interpretations can be trained using Cognitive Bias Modification procedures (CBM). The effects are replicable, stable over time and there is some evidence of generalizability. As a next step in determining the boundaries of the CBM model, the present experiment was

  13. Geometric interpretation of density displacements and charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ``geometric” interpretation of the electronic density displacements in the Hilbert space is given and the associated projection-operator partitioning of the hardness and softness operators (kernels) is developed. The eigenvectors |á 〉 = \\{| 〉 \\} of the hardness operator define the complete (identity) projector P ^ = |  ...

  14. Interpretation of Whorf from Different Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanlong

    2016-01-01

    The paper interprets Whorf's notion by turning to his original writings. Specifically, the paper makes a detailed analysis of Whorf's notion from anthropological linguistics, which largely deals with his famous distinction between overt category and covert category and his detailed description of the American Indian language Hopi; contrastive…

  15. Towards a Quantum Mechanical Interpretation of Homeopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    1999-01-01

    A quantum interpretation of the homeopathic method is presented. It is shown that provided neither the medication itself, nor the patient is observed, a net effect is expected, even at homeopathic dilutions. The temporal dilution in homeopathic exercise is explained in terms of Heisenberg's theory

  16. Life Interpretation and Religion among Icelandic Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.

    2009-01-01

    Does religion play any specific part in Icelandic teenagers' life interpretation? This paper examines Icelandic teenagers' talk about religion and presents some of the findings in interviews with teenagers in a qualitative research project. The focus is especially on how three individuals express themselves about the influence of religion on their…

  17. Audience Effects in American Sign Language Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenberg, Julia

    2009-01-01

    There is a system of English mouthing during interpretation that appears to be the result of language contact between spoken language and signed language. English mouthing is a voiceless visual representation of words on a signer's lips produced concurrently with manual signs. It is a type of borrowing prevalent among English-dominant…

  18. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to review the methodology for interpretive qualitative case study research method using systems theory. The paper also addresses the underlying assumptions of this research methodology and how these affect the way research questions are answered. In reviewing this methodology, an example is ...

  19. Modeling and interpretation of line observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, Inga

    Models for the interpretation of line observations from protoplanetary disks are summarized. The spectrum ranges from 1D LTE slab models to 2D thermo-chemical radiative transfer models and their use depends largely on the type/nature of observational data that is analyzed. I discuss the various

  20. Constitutional interpretation : a view from a distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how the notion of distance works in the practice of interpretation by studying the philosophical underpinnings of the originalism debate in American constitutionalism. Focusing on some of its most important spokespeople, the paper shows that they start from the historicist

  1. Competency in ECG Interpretation Among Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeć, Grzegorz; Magoń, Wojciech; Hołda, Mateusz; Podolec, Piotr

    2015-11-06

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) is commonly used in diagnosis of heart diseases, including many life-threatening disorders. We aimed to assess skills in ECG interpretation among Polish medical students and to analyze the determinants of these skills. Undergraduates from all Polish medical schools were asked to complete a web-based survey containing 18 ECG strips. Questions concerned primary ECG parameters (rate, rhythm, and axis), emergencies, and common ECG abnormalities. Analysis was restricted to students in their clinical years (4th-6th), and students in their preclinical years (1st-3rd) were used as controls. We enrolled 536 medical students (females: n=299; 55.8%), aged 19 to 31 (23±1.6) years from all Polish medical schools. Most (72%) were in their clinical years. The overall rate of good response was better in students in years 4th-5th than those in years 1st-3rd (66% vs. 56%; pmedical students in their clinical years have a good level of competency in interpreting the primary ECG parameters, but their ability to recognize ECG signs of emergencies and common heart abnormalities is low. ECG interpretation skills are determined by self-education but not by attendance at regular ECG classes. Our results indicate qualitative and quantitative deficiencies in teaching ECG interpretation at medical schools.

  2. Abstract Interpretation as a Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2013-01-01

    In David Schmidts PhD work he explored the use of denotational semantics as a programming language. It was part of an effort to not only treat formal semantics as specifications but also as interpreters and input to compiler generators. The semantics itself can be seen as a program and one may...

  3. Interpreting Luguru Religious Practice through Colonialist Eyes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interpreting Luguru Religious Practice through Colonialist Eyes: Child Sacrifice and East African Dance in Brett Young's The Crescent Moon. ... His presentation of this ostensible dimension of tribal worship as a vestige of transplanted ancient Semitic propitiation rituals is found to be unwarranted. Keywords: Francis Brett ...

  4. Phenomenology and the Interpretation of Psychopathological Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Gallagher, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    psychiatric object”; Marková & Berrios, 2009; see also Chapter 2, this volume) as readily operationalizable object-like entities, with a nonstandard phenomenological approach that emphasizes the importance of a specific kind of interpretive interview. The descriptive methods of today's psychiatry perpetuate...

  5. Statistical aspects of food safety sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongenburger, I; den Besten, H M W; Zwietering, M H

    2015-01-01

    In food safety management, sampling is an important tool for verifying control. Sampling by nature is a stochastic process. However, uncertainty regarding results is made even greater by the uneven distribution of microorganisms in a batch of food. This article reviews statistical aspects of sampling and describes the impact of distributions on the sampling results. Five different batch contamination scenarios are illustrated: a homogeneous batch, a heterogeneous batch with high- or low-level contamination, and a batch with localized high- or low-level contamination. These batch contamination scenarios showed that sampling results have to be interpreted carefully, especially when heterogeneous and localized contamination in food products is expected.

  6. Serological Investigation And Interpreting Serum Chemistry Profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the above number of samples 20 serum samples only are used as infected group and 20 serum samples from clinically healthy animals considered as control group. Serum samples were used to establish the concentration of total protein, albumin, glucose, total cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus. Serum nitrate ...

  7. Interpretation of patient-reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelleri, Joseph C; Bushmakin, Andrew G

    2014-10-01

    A patient-reported outcome is any report on the status of a patient's health condition that comes directly from the patient. Clear and meaningful interpretation of patient-reported outcome scores are fundamental to their use as they can be valuable in designing studies, evaluating interventions, educating consumers, and informing health policy makers involved with regulatory, reimbursement, and advisory agencies. Interpretation of patient-reported outcome scores, however, is often not well understood because of insufficient data or lack of experience or clinical understanding to draw from. This article provides an update review on two broad approaches--anchor-based and distributed-based--aimed at enhancing the understanding and meaning of patient-reported outcome scores. Anchor-based approaches include percentages based on thresholds, criterion-group interpretation, content-based interpretation, and clinical important difference. Distributed-based approaches include effect size, probability of relative benefit, and responder analysis and cumulative proportions. A third strategy called mediation analysis, which can elucidate a health condition measured by a patient-reported outcome in the context of an intervention's mechanism of action, is also highlighted and illustrated. Mediation analysis in the context of interpretation of patient-reported outcome scores is a relatively new development. The logic and rationale of the three methods are expressed generally. While the three approaches themselves are not new, some applications of them taken from their examples published in the past few years are original and coalesced in this article to add real-life implications of the different methodologies in one integrated report. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Interpreting parameters in the logistic regression model with random effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2000-01-01

    interpretation, interval odds ratio, logistic regression, median odds ratio, normally distributed random effects......interpretation, interval odds ratio, logistic regression, median odds ratio, normally distributed random effects...

  9. Delineation of Hydrothermally Altered Zones that Favour Gold Mineralization in Isanlu Area, Nigeria Using Aeroradiometric Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ohioma, Ohi Jerry; Ezomo, Friday; Akinsunmade, Akinniyi

    2017-01-01

    Aeroradiometric data set of Isanlu sheet 225 (1:100,000) has been acquired with a view to analyze and interpret for the delineation of hydrothermally altered zones that favour gold mineralization. The acquired aero-radiometric data was subjected to filtering algorithm and enhancement techniques such as shaded relief enhancement, elemental ratio enhancement using Geosoft Oasis Montaj Software. Moreover, Golden Software Surfer was used to identify and present the revealed hydrothermally altered...

  10. Interpretation of benthic foraminiferal stable isotopes in subtidal estuarine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-M. Paulet

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a novel approach for the interpretation of stable isotope signatures recorded in benthic foraminifera from subtidal estuarine environments. The stable isotopic composition (δ18O and δ13C of living Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica is examined at four stations in the Auray River estuary (Gulf of Morbihan, France sampled in two contrasting seasons, spring 2006 and winter 2007. Comparing benthic foraminiferal δ18O measurements with theoretical oxygen isotopic equilibrium values, calculated on the basis of water temperature and salinity measurements in the upper and lower estuary, i.e., T-S-δ18Oeq. diagrams, strongly suggests that foraminiferal faunas sampled at the four stations calcified during different periods of the year. This interpretation can be refined by using the benthic foraminiferal δ13C, which is mainly determined by the mixing of sea and river water. In the upper estuary foraminifera mainly calcified in early spring and winter, whereas in the lower estuary calcification mainly took place in spring, summer and autumn. This new method provides insight into the complexity of estuarine benthic foraminiferal stable isotope records. In addition, it can also be used to obtain new information on preferred calcification periods of benthic foraminiferal taxa in different parts of the estuary.

  11. Interpreting "statistical hypothesis testing" results in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmukaddam, Sanjeev B

    2012-04-01

    Difference between "Clinical Significance and Statistical Significance" should be kept in mind while interpreting "statistical hypothesis testing" results in clinical research. This fact is already known to many but again pointed out here as philosophy of "statistical hypothesis testing" is sometimes unnecessarily criticized mainly due to failure in considering such distinction. Randomized controlled trials are also wrongly criticized similarly. Some scientific method may not be applicable in some peculiar/particular situation does not mean that the method is useless. Also remember that "statistical hypothesis testing" is not for decision making and the field of "decision analysis" is very much an integral part of science of statistics. It is not correct to say that "confidence intervals have nothing to do with confidence" unless one understands meaning of the word "confidence" as used in context of confidence interval. Interpretation of the results of every study should always consider all possible alternative explanations like chance, bias, and confounding. Statistical tests in inferential statistics are, in general, designed to answer the question "How likely is the difference found in random sample(s) is due to chance" and therefore limitation of relying only on statistical significance in making clinical decisions should be avoided.

  12. Hypothesis tests for hydrologic alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Charles N.; Croteau, Kelly E.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2015-11-01

    Hydrologic systems can be altered by anthropogenic and climatic influences. While there are a number of statistical frameworks for describing and evaluating the extent of hydrologic alteration, here we present a new framework for assessing whether statistically significant hydrologic alteration has occurred, or whether the shift in the hydrologic regime is consistent with the natural variability of the system. Four hypothesis tests based on shifts of flow duration curves (FDCs) are developed and tested using three different experimental designs based on different strategies for resampling of annual FDCs. The four hypothesis tests examined are the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS), Kuiper (K), confidence interval (CI), and ecosurplus and ecodeficit (Eco). Here 117 streamflow sites that have potentially undergone hydrologic alteration due to reservoir construction are examined. 20 years of pre-reservoir record is used to develop the critical value of the test statistic for type I errors of 5% and 10%, while 10 years of post-alteration record is used to examine the power of each test. The best experimental design, based on calculating the mean annual FDC from an exhaustive jackknife resampling regime, provided a larger number of unique values of each test statistic and properly reproduced type I errors. Of the four tests, the CI test consistently had the highest power, while the K test had the second highest power; KS and Eco always had the lowest power. The power of the CI test appeared related to the storage ratio of the reservoir, a rough measure of the hydrologic alteration of the system.

  13. Detecting truly clonal alterations from multi-region profiling of tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Benjamin; Traulsen, Arne; Sottoriva, Andrea; Dingli, David

    2017-03-01

    Modern cancer therapies aim at targeting tumour-specific alterations, such as mutations or neo-antigens, and maximal treatment efficacy requires that targeted alterations are present in all tumour cells. Currently, treatment decisions are based on one or a few samples per tumour, creating uncertainty on whether alterations found in those samples are actually present in all tumour cells. The probability of classifying clonal versus sub-clonal alterations from multi-region profiling of tumours depends on the earliest phylogenetic branching event during tumour growth. By analysing 181 samples from 10 renal carcinoma and 11 colorectal cancers we demonstrate that the information gain from additional sampling falls onto a simple universal curve. We found that in colorectal cancers, 30% of alterations identified as clonal with one biopsy proved sub-clonal when 8 samples were considered. The probability to overestimate clonal alterations fell below 1% in 7/11 patients with 8 samples per tumour. In renal cell carcinoma, 8 samples reduced the list of clonal alterations by 40% with respect to a single biopsy. The probability to overestimate clonal alterations remained as high as 92% in 7/10 renal cancer patients. Furthermore, treatment was associated with more unbalanced tumour phylogenetic trees, suggesting the need of denser sampling of tumours at relapse.

  14. Communicating with foreign language-speaking patients: is access to professional interpreters enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Alexander; Hudelson, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The importance of trained interpreters for ensuring adequate communication with limited English proficiency patients is well-established. However, in many contexts, health professionals continue to rely on ad hoc interpreters, such as bilingual employees or patients' relatives to provide linguistic assistance. This is worrisome because these strategies have been shown to be associated with poor quality health care. Examine attitudes and practices related to healthcare interpreting. Mailed, self-administered questionnaire. Convenience sample of medical and nursing department and service heads at the Geneva University Hospitals. Adequacy of attitudes and practices related to interpreter use. Ninety-nine questionnaires were completed and returned (66% response rate). Between 43% and 86% of respondents relied mainly on patients' relatives and bilingual employees for linguistic assistance, depending on the language in question. Professional interpreter use varied according to language (from 5% to 39%) and seems to reflect the availability of bilingual staff members for the different languages. Professional interpreters appear to be used only in the absence of other available options, due to cost concerns and scheduling difficulties. This practice is further reinforced by the belief that ad hoc interpreters are "good enough" even while recognizing the quality differential between trained and untrained interpreters (91.2% of respondents rated bilingual staff as satisfactory or good, and 79.5% rated family/friends as satisfactory or good). Simply making professional interpreter services available to healthcare professionals does not appear to guarantee their use for limited French proficiency (LFP) patients. Future efforts should focus on developing procedures for systematically identifying patients needing linguistic assistance, linguistic assistance strategies that are responsive to provider and institutional contexts and constraints, and institutional directives to

  15. Generating Interpretable Fuzzy Systems for Classification Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Contreras-Montes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method to generate interpretable fuzzy systems from training data to deal with classification problems. The antecedent partition uses triangular sets with 0.5 interpolations avoiding the presence of complex overlapping that happens in another method. Singleton consequents are generated form the projection of the modal values of each triangular membership function into the output space. Least square method is used to adjust the consequents. The proposed method gets a higher average classification accuracy rate than the existing methods with a reduced number of rules andparameters and without sacrificing the fuzzy system interpretability. The proposed approach is applied to two classical classification problems: Iris data and the Wisconsin Breast Cancer classification problem.

  16. On Thermodynamic Interpretation of Transfer Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don C. Price

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose a thermodynamic interpretation of transfer entropy near equilibrium, using a specialised Boltzmann’s principle. The approach relates conditional probabilities to the probabilities of the corresponding state transitions. This in turn characterises transfer entropy as a difference of two entropy rates: the rate for a resultant transition and another rate for a possibly irreversible transition within the system affected by an additional source. We then show that this difference, the local transfer entropy, is proportional to the external entropy production, possibly due to irreversibility. Near equilibrium, transfer entropy is also interpreted as the difference in equilibrium stabilities with respect to two scenarios: a default case and the case with an additional source. Finally, we demonstrated that such a thermodynamic treatment is not applicable to information flow, a measure of causal effect.

  17. Pharmacy students' interpretation of academic integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, Lynne; Jiang, Hai; McKauge, Leigh

    2014-08-15

    To explore pharmacy students' recognition and interpretation of situations constituting breaches of academic integrity. A survey instrument comprising 10 hypothetical student(s) scenarios was completed by 852 students in the bachelor of pharmacy program at an Australian university. The scenarios were relevant to current modes of assessment and presented degrees of ambiguity around academic integrity. Identification of the hypothetical student(s) at fault, particularly in the deliberately ambiguous scenarios, was not related to the respondents' year of study or sex. Students with fewer years of postsecondary education were more definitive in their interpretation of contentious cases. Respondents from all 4 years of study reported witnessing many of these behaviors among their peers. This study provided novel insight into the ambiguity surrounding academic integrity and students' perceptions relating to the deliberate or inadvertent involvement of other parties.

  18. Pharmacy Students’ Interpretation of Academic Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai; McKauge, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To explore pharmacy students’ recognition and interpretation of situations constituting breaches of academic integrity. Methods. A survey instrument comprising 10 hypothetical student(s) scenarios was completed by 852 students in the bachelor of pharmacy program at an Australian university. The scenarios were relevant to current modes of assessment and presented degrees of ambiguity around academic integrity. Results. Identification of the hypothetical student(s) at fault, particularly in the deliberately ambiguous scenarios, was not related to the respondents’ year of study or sex. Students with fewer years of postsecondary education were more definitive in their interpretation of contentious cases. Respondents from all 4 years of study reported witnessing many of these behaviors among their peers. Conclusion. This study provided novel insight into the ambiguity surrounding academic integrity and students’ perceptions relating to the deliberate or inadvertent involvement of other parties. PMID:25147391

  19. Andries van Aarde’s Matthew Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurie H. le Roux

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focused on Andries van Aarde’s interpretation of the Gospel of Matthew. It argues that Van Aarde has changed his approach to Matthew in the course of time. At the beginning of his career he focused on structural analysis and even made a contribution to the Gattung problem from a structural perspective. Then his attention shifted to narrative criticism and social-scientific criticism. Van Aarde’s consistent narratological interpretation of Matthew enabled him to identify Matthew’s ideology and to determine the way in which it took shape on the surface structure. This narratological investigation also shed new light on, amongst others, the parables, the characters and the problem of direct and indirect discourse. To conclude the article, some critical statements with regard to the historical understanding of the Gospel of Matthew were formulated.

  20. Interpreting Quantum Logic as a Pragmatic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garola, Claudio

    2017-12-01

    Many scholars maintain that the language of quantum mechanics introduces a quantum notion of truth which is formalized by (standard, sharp) quantum logic and is incompatible with the classical (Tarskian) notion of truth. We show that quantum logic can be identified (up to an equivalence relation) with a fragment of a pragmatic language LGP of assertive formulas, that are justified or unjustified rather than trueor false. Quantum logic can then be interpreted as an algebraic structure that formalizes properties of the notion of empirical justification according to quantum mechanics rather than properties of a quantum notion of truth. This conclusion agrees with a general integrationist perspective that interprets nonstandard logics as theories of metalinguistic notions different from truth, thus avoiding incompatibility with classical notions and preserving the globality of logic.

  1. Interpreting Quantum Logic as a Pragmatic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garola, Claudio

    2017-02-01

    Many scholars maintain that the language of quantum mechanics introduces a quantum notion of truth which is formalized by (standard, sharp) quantum logic and is incompatible with the classical (Tarskian) notion of truth. We show that quantum logic can be identified (up to an equivalence relation) with a fragment of a pragmatic language LGP of assertive formulas, that are justified or unjustified rather than trueor false. Quantum logic can then be interpreted as an algebraic structure that formalizes properties of the notion of empirical justification according to quantum mechanics rather than properties of a quantum notion of truth. This conclusion agrees with a general integrationist perspective that interprets nonstandard logics as theories of metalinguistic notions different from truth, thus avoiding incompatibility with classical notions and preserving the globality of logic.

  2. Towards Abstract Interpretation of Epistemic Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajspur, Mai; Gallagher, John Patrick

    The model-checking problem is to decide, given a formula φ and an interpretation M, whether M satisfies φ, written M |= φ. Model-checking algorithms for temporal logics were initially developed with finite models (such as models of hardware) in mind so that M |= φ is decidable. As interest grew...... in model-checking infinite systems, other approaches were developed based on approximating the model-checking algorithm so that it still terminates with some useful output. In this work we present a model-checking algorithm for a multiagent epistemic logic contain- ing operators for common and distributed...... knowledge. The model-checker is developed as a function directly from the semantics of the logic, in a style that could be applied straight- forwardly to derive model-checkers for other logics. Secondly, we consider how to abstract the model-checker using abstract interpretation, yielding a procedure...

  3. Investigating deviations from norms in court interpreting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    , in some cases, all - professional users involved (judges, lawyers, prosecutors). As far as the non-Danish speaking users are concerned, it has, with one notable exception, unfortunately not been possible to obtain data from this group via questionnaires. As this type of data, however, is important...... deviations and sanctions in every case. By way of example: Several judges, who had given their consent to recordings of authentic data in connection with the research project, reported that they had experienced problems with insufficient language proficiency on the part of untrained interpreters speaking...... speaking these languages. This example does not immediately indicate that Translation Studies might be able to contribute to, for example, an improvement of the training situation for the group of court interpreters mentioned above. However, in our opinion, there is reason to believe that TS can make...

  4. Making the Implicit Explicit: Raising Pragmatic Awareness in Trainee Interpreters Using Semiauthentic Spontaneous Discourse Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachtleben, Annette; Denny, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Following the recent interest in the teaching of pragmatics and the recognition of its importance for both cross-cultural communication and new speakers of an additional language, the authors carried out an action research project to evaluate the effectiveness of a new approach to the teaching of pragmatics. This involved the use of semiauthentic…

  5. Drawing by ear: interpreting sonified line graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, L. M.; Brewster, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    The research presented here describes a pilot study into the interpretation of sonified line graphs containing two data series. The experiment aimed to discover the level of accuracy with which sighted people were able to draw sketches of the graphs after listening to them. In addition, it aimed to identify any differences in performance when the graphs were presented using different combinations of instruments?either with piano representing both data series (same-instruments condition), or w...

  6. USING VIDEO MATERIALS FOR TRAINING INTERPRETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Юрьевна Мощанская

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with using video materials for the development of combined ability to percept and understand auditory and visual components of the oral discourse at an early stage of training interpreters. The authors characterize the above-mentioned ability as a part of interpreter’s cultural and professional competences and describe the types of exercises and stages of using video materials.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-6-37

  7. From Copenhagen to neo-Copenhagen interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    de Muynck, Willem M.

    2007-01-01

    Positive and negative features of the Copenhagen interpretation are discussed. As positive features can be mentioned its pragmatism and its awareness of the crucial role of measurement. However, the main part of the contribution is devoted to the negative features, to wit, its pragmatism (once again), its confounding of preparation and measurement, its classical account of measurement, its completeness claims, the ambiguity of its notion of correspondence, its confused notion of complementari...

  8. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  9. 'A New Interpretation of Plato's Socratic Dialogues

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, Charles

    2013-01-01

    A study of the remainsof the other Socratic authors, and of Eschines in particular, makes clear that this dialogue form was essentially a genre of fictional "conversations with Socrates". freely invented even when the interlocutors were historical. Hence it is a mistake to regard Plato's earlier dialogues as a report of the philosophy of the historical Socrates. The present interpretation aims toreplace the notion of a "Socratic period" in Plato's philosophical development with a more unified...

  10. 'A New Interpretation of Plato's Socratic Dialogues

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Kahn

    2000-01-01

    A study of the remainsof the other Socratic authors, and of Eschines in particular, makes clear that this dialogue form was essentially a genre of fictional "conversations with Socrates". freely invented even when the interlocutors were historical. Hence it is a mistake to regard Plato's earlier dialogues as a report of the philosophy of the historical Socrates. The present interpretation aims toreplace the notion of a "Socratic period" in Plato's philosophical development with a more unified...

  11. Interpreting and Treating Autism in Javanese Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Anne Currier

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a complex developmental disorder affecting communication, social interaction, and behavior. There may be as many as one million people with autism in Indonesia, yet little information is available regarding the implications for affected individuals, families, and communities. My dissertation takes a sociocultural perspective in addressing how autism is recognized, interpreted, and treated in Javanese Indonesia. Based on 12 months of multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork in Yogykarta an...

  12. Regional interpretation of Kansas aeromagnetic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarger, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    The aeromagnetic mapping techniques used in a regional aeromagnetic survey of the state are documented and a qualitative regional interpretation of the magnetic basement is presented. Geothermal gradients measured and data from oil well records indicate that geothermal resources in Kansas are of a low-grade nature. However, considerable variation in the gradient is noted statewide within the upper 500 meters of the sedimentary section; this suggests the feasibility of using groundwater for space heating by means of heat pumps.

  13. THE EFFECTS OF CONTEXT ON UTTERANCE INTERPRETATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in this connection the following discourse.22. (12) (i) Oh, fish for breakfast. (ii) If I had known it was going to be fish, I would have put my contact lenses in. One possible interpretation of (12ii) is that the speaker would have liked to eat fish, but that she will not be able to since she cannot properly see the fishbones without her ...

  14. Interpreting the CMMI a process improvement approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kulpa, Margaret K

    2008-01-01

    Written by experienced process improvement professionals who have developed and implemented computer based systems in organizations around the world, Interpreting the CMMI®: A Process Improvement Approach, Second Edition provides you with specific techniques for performing process improvement. Employing everyday language and supported by real world examples, the authors describe the fundamental concepts of the CMMI model, covering goals, practices, architecture, and definitions, and provide a structured approach for implementing the concepts of the CMMI into any organization. They discuss gett

  15. How to work with an interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakieser, R A; McNamee, M

    1999-01-01

    A trip to China provided two nursing educators an opportunity to teach Chinese nurses and, in the process, to discover principles for using an interpreter to translate from English into the students' language. The authors present 16 tips for use by instructors who teach non-English-speaking learners. The principles apply for all situations of communicating with native speakers of another language using a translator.

  16. Heisenberg and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Kristian

    2011-09-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; Part I. The Emergence of Quantum Mechanics: 2. Quantum mechanics and the principle of observability; 3. The problem of interpretation; Part II. The Heisenberg-Bohr Dialogue: 4. The wave-particle duality; 5. Indeterminacy and the limits of classical concepts: the turning point in Heisenberg's thought; 6. Heisenberg and Bohr: divergent viewpoints of complementarity; Part III. Heisenberg's Epistemology and Ontology of Quantum Mechanics: 7. The transformation of Kantian philosophy; 8. The linguistic turn in Heisenberg's thought; Conclusion; References; Index.

  17. Towards a Quantum Mechanical Interpretation of Homeopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    1999-01-01

    A quantum interpretation of the homeopathic method is presented. It is shown that provided neither the medication itself, nor the patient is observed, a net effect is expected, even at homeopathic dilutions. The temporal dilution in homeopathic exercise is explained in terms of Heisenberg's theory of energy-time indeterminacy. The results are fully compatible with thought experiments of the eminent physicist and cat specialist Erwin Schrödinger.

  18. Computerized Interpretation of Dynamic Breast MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    is that theraphy , current interpretation schemes might not be sufficiently ro- Despite its well-recognized advantages, applications of bust. MRI in...postcontrast series For the manual delineation, a radiologist (U.B.), blinded were then taken with a time interval of 60 s. Each series to the histological...retrospectively collected under an IRB-approved protocol. 2.2. Tumor segmentation The mass lesions were manually delineated in each slice by an

  19. The interpretation and management of thyroid disorders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An overview of the management of common thyroid disorders is included. Less common conditions ... http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0. The interpretation and management of thyroid disorders ..... is 0.5-3.0 mIU/L.3,13 The target level for FT4, and FT3 if used in replacement therapy, is in the upper third of the ...

  20. Thermodynamic interpretation of soft glassy rheology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollich, Peter; Cates, Michael E

    2012-03-01

    Mesoscopic models play an important role in our understanding of the deformation and flow of amorphous materials. One such description, based on the shear transformation zone theory, has recently been reformulated within a nonequilibrium thermodynamics framework and found to be consistent with it. We show here that a similar interpretation can be made for the soft glassy rheology (SGR) model. Conceptually this means that the "noise temperature" x, proposed phenomenologically in the SGR model to control the dynamics of a set of slow mesoscopic degrees of freedom, can consistently be interpreted as their actual thermodynamic temperature. (Because such modes are slow to equilibrate, this generally does not coincide with the temperature of the fast degrees of freedom and/or heat bath.) If one chooses to make this interpretation, the thermodynamic framework significantly constrains extensions of the SGR approach to models in which x is a dynamical variable. We assess in this light some such extensions recently proposed in the context of shear banding.