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Sample records for samples specimens and test holes

  1. Chemical analysis of water samples and geophysical logs from cored test holes drilled in the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Funkhouser, Ron A.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water from eight test holes and geophysical logs for nine test holes drilled in the Central Oklahoma aquifer are presented. The test holes were drilled to investigate local occurrences of potentially toxic, naturally occurring trace substances in ground water. These trace substances include arsenic, chromium, selenium, residual alpha-particle activities, and uranium. Eight of the nine test holes were drilled near wells known to contain large concentrations of one or more of the naturally occurring trace substances. One test hole was drilled in an area known to have only small concentrations of any of the naturally occurring trace substances.Water samples were collected from one to eight individual sandstone layers within each test hole. A total of 28 water samples, including four duplicate samples, were collected. The temperature, pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured at the sample site. Laboratory determinations included major ions, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and trace elements (aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, strontium, vanadium and zinc). Radionuclide activities and stable isotope (5 values also were determined, including: gross-alpha-particle activity, gross-beta-particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, uranium-234, uranium-235, uranium-238, total uranium, carbon-13/carbon-12, deuterium/hydrogen-1, oxygen-18/oxygen-16, and sulfur-34/sulfur-32. Additional analyses of arsenic and selenium species are presented for selected samples as well as analyses of density and iodine for two samples, tritium for three samples, and carbon-14 for one sample.Geophysical logs for most test holes include caliper, neutron, gamma-gamma, natural-gamma logs, spontaneous potential, long- and short-normal resistivity, and single-point resistance

  2. Chemical analysis of water samples and geophysical logs from cored test holes drilled in the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Funkhouser, Ron A.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water from eight test holes and geophysical logs for nine test holes drilled in the Central Oklahoma aquifer are presented. The test holes were drilled to investigate local occurrences of potentially toxic, naturally occurring trace substances in ground water. These trace substances include arsenic, chromium, selenium, residual alpha-particle activities, and uranium. Eight of the nine test holes were drilled near wells known to contain large concentrations of one or more of the naturally occurring trace substances. One test hole was drilled in an area known to have only small concentrations of any of the naturally occurring trace substances. Water samples were collected from one to eight individual sandstone layers within each test hole. A total of 28 water samples, including four duplicate samples, were collected. The temperature, pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured at the sample site. Laboratory determinations included major ions, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and trace elements (aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, strontium, vanadium, and zinc). Radionuclide activities and stable isotope d values also were determined, including: gross-alpha-particle activity, gross-beta-particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, uranium-234, uranium-235, uranium-238, total uranium, carbon-13/carbon-12, deuterium/hydrogen-1, oxygen-18/oxygen-16, and sulfur-34/sulfur-32. Additional analyses of arsenic and selenium species are presented for selected samples as well as analyses of density and iodine for two samples, tritium for three samples, and carbon-14 for one sample. Geophysical logs for most test holes include caliper, neutron, gamma-gamma, natural-gamma logs, spontaneous potential, long- and short-normal resistivity, and single-point resistance

  3. Fabrication and testing of prestressed composite rotor blade spar specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleich, D.

    1974-01-01

    Prestressed composite spar specimens were fabricated and evaluated by crack propagation and ballistic penetration tests. The crack propagation tests on flawed specimens showed that the prestressed composite spar construction significantly suppresses crack growth. Damage from three high velocity 30 caliber projectile hits was confined to three small holes in the ballistic test specimen. No fragmentation or crack propagation was observed indicating good ballistic damage resistance. Rotor attachment approaches and improved structural performance configurations were identified. Design theory was verified by tests. The prestressed composite spar configuration consisted of a compressively prestressed high strength ARDEFORM 301 stainless steel liner overwrapped with pretensioned S-994 fiberglass.

  4. Slim hole drilling and testing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Dennis L.; Garg, Sabodh K.; Goranson, Colin

    2017-12-01

    The financial and geologic advantages of drilling slim holes instead of large production wells in the early stages of geothermal reservoir assessment has been understood for many years. However, the practice has not been fully embraced by geothermal developers. We believe that the reason for this is that there is a poor understanding of testing and reservoir analysis that can be conducted in slim holes. In addition to reservoir engineering information, coring through the cap rock and into the reservoir provides important data for designing subsequent production well drilling and completion. Core drilling requires significantly less mud volume than conventional rotary drilling, and it is typically not necessary to cure lost circulation zones (LCZ). LCZs should be tested by either production or injection methods as they are encountered. The testing methodologies are similar to those conducted on large-diameter wells; although produced and/or injected fluid volumes are much less. Pressure, temperature and spinner (PTS) surveys in slim holes under static conditions can used to characterize temperature and pressure distribution in the geothermal reservoir. In many cases it is possible to discharge slim holes and obtain fluid samples to delineate the geochemical properties of the reservoir fluid. Also in the latter case, drawdown and buildup data obtained using a downhole pressure tool can be employed to determine formation transmissivity and well properties. Even if it proves difficult to discharge a slim hole, an injection test can be performed to obtain formation transmissivity. Given the discharge (or injection) data from a slimhole, discharge properties of a large-diameter well can be inferred using wellbore modeling. Finally, slim hole data (pressure, temperature, transmissivity, fluid properties) together with reservoir simulation can help predict the ability of the geothermal reservoir to sustain power production.

  5. Specimen Sample Preservation for Cell and Tissue Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, Gabrielle; Ronzana, Karolyn; Schibner, Karen; Evans, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The era of the International Space Station with its longer duration missions will pose unique challenges to microgravity life sciences research. The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) is responsible for addressing these challenges and defining the science requirements necessary to conduct life science research on-board the International Space Station. Space Station will support a wide range of cell and tissue culture experiments for durations of 1 to 30 days. Space Shuttle flights to bring experimental samples back to Earth for analyses will only occur every 90 days. Therefore, samples may have to be retained for periods up to 60 days. This presents a new challenge in fresh specimen sample storage for cell biology. Fresh specimen samples are defined as samples that are preserved by means other than fixation and cryopreservation. The challenge of long-term storage of fresh specimen samples includes the need to suspend or inhibit proliferation and metabolism pending return to Earth-based laboratories. With this challenge being unique to space research, there have not been any ground based studies performed to address this issue. It was decided hy SSBRP that experiment support studies to address the following issues were needed: Fixative Solution Management; Media Storage Conditions; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Mammalian Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Plant Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Aquatic Cell/Tissue Cultures; and Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Microbial Cell/Tissue Cultures. The objective of these studies was to derive a set of conditions and recommendations that can be used in a long duration microgravity environment such as Space Station that will permit extended storage of cell and tissue culture specimens in a state consistent with zero or minimal growth, while at the same time maintaining their stability and viability.

  6. Strip specimen tests for pipeline materials and girth welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, William C. [Edison Welding Institute (EWI), Columbus, Ohio (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Strip specimen testing of pipeline materials has been widely applied as a method of getting data relevant to the performance of pipelines under axial direction loading. Comparisons of strip specimen against smaller standard tests (round tensile bar, fracture toughness specimens, polished round bars) and against full-scale or large-scale testing will be explored. Data from early-generation pipe welds from the 1920's to the 1940's to the most recent materials for offshore reeled pipe will be used for examples. Strip samples can provide full thickness information to take account of varying material properties or imperfection distribution through the thickness. Strip samples can also accommodate measurement of effects of the original surface finish or weld surface shape. Strip samples have more design flexibility than standard tests, but must be designed to limit stress concentrations and effects of local bending. (author)

  7. Fabrication and testing of composite ring specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, T.; Daniel, I. M.; Labedz, R.; Niiro, T.

    1979-01-01

    The tooling and techniques used in the fabrication of composite laminate tubes of any desired ply orientation and stacking sequence are described along with techniques for cutting ring specimens under internal pressure. The method consists of laying up the tube on a central circular mandrel, and by means of internal pressure, expanding the prepreg tube against the cavity wall of an external mold tool, which forms the geometric curing envelope for the tube. Tube quality is assessed by laminate wall thickness measurement, by hoop strength measurement on rings cut from the ends of the tube, and by ultrasonic inspection.

  8. Instrumented Impact Testing: Influence of Machine Variables and Specimen Position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; McCowan, C. N.; Santoyo, R. A.

    2008-09-15

    An investigation has been conducted on the influence of impact machine variables and specimen positioning on characteristic forces and absorbed energies from instrumented Charpy tests. Brittle and ductile fracture behavior has been investigated by testing NIST reference samples of low, high and super-high energy levels. Test machine variables included tightness of foundation, anvil and striker bolts, and the position of the center of percussion with respect to the center of strike. For specimen positioning, we tested samples which had been moved away or sideways with respect to the anvils. In order to assess the influence of the various factors, we compared mean values in the reference (unaltered) and altered conditions; for machine variables, t-test analyses were also performed in order to evaluate the statistical significance of the observed differences. Our results indicate that the only circumstance which resulted in variations larger than 5 percent for both brittle and ductile specimens is when the sample is not in contact with the anvils. These findings should be taken into account in future revisions of instrumented Charpy test standards.

  9. 16 CFR Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart... - Test Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test Specimens 3 Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart... REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Figs. 3, 4 Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart A of Part 1201—Test Specimens EC03OC91.006 ...

  10. A gene-tree test of the traditional taxonomy of American deer: the importance of voucher specimens, geographic data, and dense sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E.; Helgen, Kristofer M.; McDonough, Molly M.; Bauer, Franziska; Hawkins, Melissa T. R.; Escobedo-Morales, Luis A.; Patterson, Bruce D.; Maldonado, Jesús E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomy of American deer has been established almost entirely on the basis of morphological data and without the use of explicit phylogenetic methods; hence, phylogenetic analyses including data for all of the currently recognized species, even if based on a single gene, might improve current understanding of their taxonomy. We tested the monophyly of the morphology-defined genera and species of New World deer (Odocoileini) with phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences. This is the first such test conducted using extensive geographic and taxonomic sampling. Our results do not support the monophyly of Mazama, Odocoileus, Pudu, M. americana, M. nemorivaga, Od. hemionus, and Od. virginianus. Mazama contains species that belong to other genera. We found a novel sister-taxon relationship between “Mazama” pandora and a clade formed by Od. hemionus columbianus and Od. h. sitkensis, and transfer pandora to Odocoileus. The clade formed by Od. h. columbianus and Od. h. sitkensis may represent a valid species, whereas the remaining subspecies of Od. hemionus appear closer to Od. virginianus. Pudu (Pudu) puda was not found sister to Pudu (Pudella) mephistophiles. If confirmed, this result will prompt the recognition of the monotypic Pudella as a distinct genus. We provide evidence for the existence of an undescribed species now confused with Mazama americana, and identify other instances of cryptic, taxonomically unrecognized species-level diversity among populations here regarded as Mazama temama, “Mazama” nemorivaga, and Hippocamelus antisensis. Noteworthy records that substantially extend the known distributions of M. temama and “M.” gouazoubira are provided, and we unveil a surprising ambiguity regarding the distribution of “M.” nemorivaga, as it is described in the literature. The study of deer of the tribe Odocoileini has been hampered by the paucity of information regarding voucher specimens and the provenance of sequences

  11. A gene-tree test of the traditional taxonomy of American deer: the importance of voucher specimens, geographic data, and dense sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliécer E. Gutiérrez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of American deer has been established almost entirely on the basis of morphological data and without the use of explicit phylogenetic methods; hence, phylogenetic analyses including data for all of the currently recognized species, even if based on a single gene, might improve current understanding of their taxonomy. We tested the monophyly of the morphology-defined genera and species of New World deer (Odocoileini with phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences. This is the first such test conducted using extensive geographic and taxonomic sampling. Our results do not support the monophyly of Mazama, Odocoileus, Pudu, M. americana, M. nemorivaga, Od. hemionus, and Od. virginianus. Mazama contains species that belong to other genera. We found a novel sister-taxon relationship between “Mazama” pandora and a clade formed by Od. hemionus columbianus and Od. h. sitkensis, and transfer pandora to Odocoileus. The clade formed by Od. h. columbianus and Od. h. sitkensis may represent a valid species, whereas the remaining subspecies of Od. hemionus appear closer to Od. virginianus. Pudu (Pudu puda was not found sister to Pudu (Pudella mephistophiles. If confirmed, this result will prompt the recognition of the monotypic Pudella as a distinct genus. We provide evidence for the existence of an undescribed species now confused with Mazama americana, and identify other instances of cryptic, taxonomically unrecognized species-level diversity among populations here regarded as Mazama temama, “Mazama” nemorivaga, and Hippocamelus antisensis. Noteworthy records that substantially extend the known distributions of M. temama and “M.” gouazoubira are provided, and we unveil a surprising ambiguity regarding the distribution of “M.” nemorivaga, as it is described in the literature. The study of deer of the tribe Odocoileini has been hampered by the paucity of information regarding voucher specimens and the provenance of

  12. A gene-tree test of the traditional taxonomy of American deer: the importance of voucher specimens, geographic data, and dense sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E; Helgen, Kristofer M; McDonough, Molly M; Bauer, Franziska; Hawkins, Melissa T R; Escobedo-Morales, Luis A; Patterson, Bruce D; Maldonado, Jesús E

    2017-01-01

    The taxonomy of American deer has been established almost entirely on the basis of morphological data and without the use of explicit phylogenetic methods; hence, phylogenetic analyses including data for all of the currently recognized species, even if based on a single gene, might improve current understanding of their taxonomy. We tested the monophyly of the morphology-defined genera and species of New World deer (Odocoileini) with phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences. This is the first such test conducted using extensive geographic and taxonomic sampling. Our results do not support the monophyly of Mazama, Odocoileus, Pudu, M. americana, M. nemorivaga, Od. hemionus, and Od. virginianus. Mazama contains species that belong to other genera. We found a novel sister-taxon relationship between "Mazama" pandora and a clade formed by Od. hemionus columbianus and Od. h. sitkensis, and transfer pandora to Odocoileus. The clade formed by Od. h. columbianus and Od. h. sitkensis may represent a valid species, whereas the remaining subspecies of Od. hemionus appear closer to Od. virginianus. Pudu (Pudu) puda was not found sister to Pudu (Pudella) mephistophiles. If confirmed, this result will prompt the recognition of the monotypic Pudella as a distinct genus. We provide evidence for the existence of an undescribed species now confused with Mazama americana, and identify other instances of cryptic, taxonomically unrecognized species-level diversity among populations here regarded as Mazama temama, "Mazama" nemorivaga, and Hippocamelus antisensis. Noteworthy records that substantially extend the known distributions of M. temama and "M." gouazoubira are provided, and we unveil a surprising ambiguity regarding the distribution of "M." nemorivaga, as it is described in the literature. The study of deer of the tribe Odocoileini has been hampered by the paucity of information regarding voucher specimens and the provenance of sequences deposited in GenBank. We

  13. A gene-tree test of the traditional taxonomy of American deer: the importance of voucher specimens, geographic data, and dense sampling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eliécer E. Gutiérrez; Kristofer M. Helgen; Molly M. McDonough; Franziska Bauer; Melissa T.R. Hawkins; Luis A. Escobedo-Morales; Bruce D. Patterson; Jesus E. Maldonado

    2017-01-01

    .... This is the first such test conducted using extensive geographic and taxonomic sampling. Our results do not support the monophyly of Mazama, Odocoileus, Pudu, M. americana, M. nemorivaga, Od. hemionus, and Od. virginianus...

  14. Effects of Phase Difference and Mean Stress on the Fatigue Strength of Small-Hole-Containing Specimens Subjected to Combined Load

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ENDO, Masahiro; ISHIMOTO, Isao

    2007-01-01

    .... Combined axial and torsional fatigue tests were conducted using annealed JIS S35C steel and quenched/tempered JIS SCM435 steel specimens containing a small hole of either 100 μm or 500 μm in diameter...

  15. Edgeless composite laminate specimen for static and fatigue testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, T.; Daniel, I. M.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of edge effects on the tensile properties of angle-ply laminate composites can be eliminated by using edgeless (round tubular) specimens. However, uniaxial tests with such specimens, static and fatigue, have been generally unsuccessful because of the differential Poisson effect between the test section and the grips. An edgeless cylindrical specimen, developed to circumvent these difficulties, is examined in the present paper. It is a flattened tube consisting of two flat sides connected by curved sections. It can be handled much like the standard flat coupon. The flat ends of the specimen are provided with crossplied fiberglass gripping tabs, the same as used for flat test coupons. As part of the tabbing, the hollow ends must be plugged with inserts to prevent crushing of the ends. A special insert design was developed to minimize detrimental Poisson effects ordinarily introduced by inserts.

  16. Comparison tests and experimental compliance calibration of the proposed standard round compact plane strain fracture toughness specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D. M.; Buzzard, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Standard round specimen fracture test results compared satisfactorily with results from standard rectangular compact specimens machined from the same material. The location of the loading pin holes was found to provide adequate strength in the load bearing region for plane strain fracture toughness testing. Excellent agreement was found between the stress intensity coefficient values obtained from compliance measurements and the analytic solution proposed for inclusion in the standard test method. Load displacement measurements were made using long armed displacement gages and hollow loading cylinders. Gage points registered on the loading hole surfaces through small holes in the walls of the loading cylinders.

  17. Fatigue Lives of Specimens Representing Critical Locations in Mirage III Spars under Australian and Swiss Test Spectra,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    short life specimens (BJ tOlD and BJI 5JB) tested at a scaling factor ofŖ.2 where there were multiple initiation sites fron tlie bottom of the chamfer...specimens. the primary fatigue crack development was from multiple initiation along the bore of the bolt hole. leading to a final crack shape

  18. HER2 testing on core needle biopsy specimens from primary breast cancers: interobserver reproducibility and concordance with surgically resected specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Sohei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER2 status based on core needle biopsy (CNB specimens is mandatory for identification of patients with primary breast cancer who will benefit from primary systemic therapy with trastuzumab. The aim of the present study was to validate the application of HER2 testing with CNB specimens from primary breast cancers in terms of interobserver reproducibility and comparison with surgically resected specimens. Methods A total of 100 pairs of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded CNB and surgically resected specimens of invasive breast carcinomas were cut into sections. All 100 paired sections were subjected to HER2 testing by immunohistochemistry (IHC and 27 paired sections were subjected to that by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, the results being evaluated by three and two observers, respectively. Interobserver agreement levels in terms of judgment and the concordance of consensus scores between CNB samples and the corresponding surgically resected specimens were estimated as the percentage agreement and κ statistic. Results In CNB specimens, the percentage interobserver agreement of HER2 scoring by IHC was 76% (κ = 0.71 for 3 × 3 categories (0-1+ versus 2+ versus 3+ and 90% (κ = 0.80 for 2 × 2 categories (0-2+ versus 3+. These levels were close to the corresponding ones for the surgically resected specimens: 80% (κ = 0.77 for 3 × 3 categories and 92% (κ = 0.88 for 2 × 2 categories. Concordance of consensus for HER2 scores determined by IHC between CNB and the corresponding surgical specimens was 87% (κ = 0.77 for 3 × 3 categories, and 94% (κ = 0.83 for 2 × 2 categories. Among the 13 tumors showing discordance in the mean IHC scores between the CNB and surgical specimens, the results of consensus for FISH results were concordant in 11. The rate of successful FISH analysis and the FISH positivity rate in cases with a HER2 IHC score of

  19. Thick Concrete Specimen Construction, Testing, and Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoegh, Kyle [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Khazanovich, Lev [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations. A preliminary report detailed some of the challenges associated with thick reinforced concrete sections and prioritized conceptual designs of specimens that could be fabricated to represent NPP concrete structures for using in NDE evaluation comparisons. This led to the construction of the concrete specimen presented in this report, which has sufficient reinforcement density and cross-sectional size to represent an NPP containment wall. Details on how a suitably thick concrete specimen was constructed are presented, including the construction materials, final nominal design schematic, as well as formwork and rigging required to safely meet the desired dimensions of the concrete structure. The report also details the type and methods of forming the concrete specimen as well as information on how the rebar and simulated defects were embedded. Details on how the resulting specimen was transported, safely anchored, and marked to allow access for systematic comparative NDE testing of defects in a representative NPP containment wall concrete specimen are also given. Data collection using the MIRA Ultrasonic NDE equipment and

  20. A gene-tree test of the traditional taxonomy of American deer: the importance of voucher specimens, geographic data, and dense sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E.; Helgen, Kristofer M.; McDonough, Molly M.; Bauer, Franziska; Hawkins, Melissa T. R.; Escobedo-Morales, Luis A.; Patterson, Bruce D.; Maldonado, Jesús E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomy of American deer has been established almost entirely on the basis of morphological data and without the use of explicit phylogenetic methods; hence, phylogenetic analyses including data for all of the currently recognized species, even if based on a single gene, might improve current understanding of their taxonomy. We tested the monophyly of the morphology-defined genera and species of New World deer ( Odocoileini ) with phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA seque...

  1. Standard practice for preparing, cleaning, and evaluating corrosion test specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers suggested procedures for preparing bare, solid metal specimens for tests, for removing corrosion products after the test has been completed, and for evaluating the corrosion damage that has occurred. Emphasis is placed on procedures related to the evaluation of corrosion by mass loss and pitting measurements. (Warning—In many cases the corrosion product on the reactive metals titanium and zirconium is a hard and tightly bonded oxide that defies removal by chemical or ordinary mechanical means. In many such cases, corrosion rates are established by mass gain rather than mass loss.) 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see 1 and 7.2.

  2. Replicate PCR Testing and Probit Analysis for Detection and Quantitation of Chlamydia pneumoniae in Clinical Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieja, M.; Mahony, J. B.; Goldsmith, C. H.; Chong, S.; Petrich, A.; Chernesky, M.

    2001-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification of clinical specimens with low target concentration has variable sensitivity. We examined whether testing multiple aliquots of extracted DNA increased the sensitivity and reproducibility of Chlamydia pneumoniae detection by PCR. Nested and non-nested C. pneumoniae PCR assays were compared using 10 replicates of 16 serial dilutions of C. pneumoniae ATCC VR-1310. The proportion positive versus the C. pneumoniae concentration was modeled by probit regression analysis. To validate the model, 10 replicates of 26 previously positive patient specimens of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), sputum, or nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) were tested. The proportion of replicates that were positive varied with the concentration of C. pneumoniae in the sample. At concentrations above 5 infection-forming units (IFU)/ml, both nested and non-nested PCR assay sensitivities were 90% or greater. The nested PCR was more sensitive (median detection, 0.35 versus 0.61 IFU/ml; relative median detection, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.31 to 0.99; P = 0.04). In clinical specimens, replicate PCR detected 15 of 26 (nested) versus 1 of 26 (non-nested, P < 0.001). For PBMC specimens, testing 1, 3, or 5 replicates detected 3, 5, or 9 of 10 positive specimens, respectively. Median C. pneumoniae concentrations were estimated at 0.07 IFU/ml for PBMC and at <0.03 IFU/ml for NPS specimens. We conclude that performing 5 or 10 replicates considerably increased the sensitivity and reproducibility of C. pneumoniae PCR and enabled quantitation for clinical specimens. Due to sampling variability, PCR tests done without replication may miss a large proportion of positive specimens, particularly for specimens with small amounts of target C. pneumoniae DNA present. PMID:11325993

  3. Experimental setup and realization of thin film specimens for microtensile tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhaire, Christophe; Seguineau, Cédric; Ignat, Michel; Josserond, Charles; Debove, Laurent; Brida, Sebastiano; Desmarres, Jean-Michel; Lafontan, Xavier

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes a microtensile test system and the design as the realization of the samples dedicated to the tensile experiments. Two different technologies for the development of miniaturized specimens are detailed: self-standing tensile samples sustained by silicon frames and metal on polymer specimens obtained by laser cutting. The design of the samples has been optimized by means of finite element simulations. Aluminum beams with very large length on thickness ratio have been released from their silicon substrate using a standard etching process. Stress/strain curves are derived from experimental force/displacement values and discussed in terms of Young's modulus values and critical parameters (flow and rupture stresses).

  4. Effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in forensic drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    In forensic drug testing, it is important to immediately take biological specimens from suspects and victims to prove their drug intake. We evaluated the effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in terms of ease of sampling, drug detection sensitivity, and drug detection periods for each specimen type. After four commercially available pharmaceutical products were administered to healthy subjects, each in a single dose, their urine, blood, saliva, and fingerprints were taken at predetermined sampling times over approximately four weeks. Fourteen analytes (the administered drugs and their main metabolites) were extracted from each specimen using simple pretreatments, such as dilution and deproteinization, and were analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Most of the analytes were detected in saliva and fingerprints, as well as in urine and blood. The time-courses of drug concentrations were similar between urine and fingerprints, and between blood and saliva. Compared to the other compounds, the acidic compounds, for example ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid, were more difficult to detect in all specimens. Acetaminophen, dihydrocodeine, and methylephedrine were detected in fingerprints at later sampling times than in urine. However, a relationship between the drug structures and their detection periods in each specimen was not found. Saliva and fingerprints could be easily sampled on site without using special techniques or facilities. In addition, fingerprints could be immediately analyzed after simple and rapid treatment. In cases where it would be difficult to immediately obtain urine and blood, saliva and fingerprints could be effective alternative specimens for drug testing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. DNA damage in preserved specimens and tissue samples: a molecular assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantin Elizabeth

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The extraction of genetic information from preserved tissue samples or museum specimens is a fundamental component of many fields of research, including the Barcode of Life initiative, forensic investigations, biological studies using scat sample analysis, and cancer research utilizing formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Efforts to obtain genetic information from these sources are often hampered by an inability to amplify the desired DNA as a consequence of DNA damage. Previous studies have described techniques for improved DNA extraction from such samples or focused on the effect of damaging agents – such as light, oxygen or formaldehyde – on free nucleotides. We present ongoing work to characterize lesions in DNA samples extracted from preserved specimens. The extracted DNA is digested to single nucleosides with a combination of DNase I, Snake Venom Phosphodiesterase, and Antarctic Phosphatase and then analyzed by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. We present data for moth specimens that were preserved dried and pinned with no additional preservative and for frog tissue samples that were preserved in either ethanol, or formaldehyde, or fixed in formaldehyde and then preserved in ethanol. These preservation methods represent the most common methods of preserving animal specimens in museum collections. We observe changes in the nucleoside content of these samples over time, especially a loss of deoxyguanosine. We characterize the fragmentation state of the DNA and aim to identify abundant nucleoside lesions. Finally, simple models are introduced to describe the DNA fragmentation based on nicks and double-strand breaks.

  6. Small specimen test technology and methodology of IFMIF/EVEDA and the further subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, E.; Nogami, S.; Kasada, R.; Kimura, A.; Kurishita, H.; Saito, M.; Ito, Y.; Takada, F.; Nakamura, K.; Molla, J.; Garin, P.

    2011-10-01

    About one thousands of small size specimens will be irradiated in the High Flux Test Module (HFTM) with a limited irradiation volume of 0.5 l in the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). It is necessary to verify that the experimental data of these small specimens mechanical characterization can be safely extrapolated to standard specimen data, enabling a sound dimensioning of DEMO reactor. The program of small specimen test technique (SSTT) in IFMIF/EVEDA (Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activity) phase for fatigue, fracture toughness and crack growth measurement is summarized, and recent progress and some analysis of the experiments for small size specimens have been shown.

  7. Growth behavior of fatigue cracks in ultrafine grained Cu smooth specimens with a small hole

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Masahiro Goto; Kakeru Morita; Junichi Kitamura; Takaei Yamamoto; Masataka Baba; Seung-zeon Han; Sangshik Kim

    2015-01-01

      In order to study the growth mechanism of fatigue cracks in ultrafine grained copper, stresscontrolled fatigue tests of round-bar specimens with a small blind hole as a crack starter were conducted...

  8. TENSILE PROPERTIES OF JPCA AND JFMS IRRADIATED IN JMTR BY MEANS OF MINIATURIZED SPECIMEN TESTING

    OpenAIRE

    Akira, Kohyama; Kazushi, Hamada; Hideki, Matsui; Department of Materials Science, The University of Tokyo; Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University

    1991-01-01

    In the research and development of miniaturized specimen technology, consideration of specimen size effect is the key issue. In this work, tensile tests were studied with variations of specimen size around the standard mini-tensile specimen in the Japanese fusion materials program. The materials used were JPCA (modified 316 SS) and JFMS (modified 10Cr-2Mo dual phase steel). Microstructure has been controlled to clarify the effect of grain size for the former and the effect of ferrite/martensi...

  9. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) Seafloor Samples Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) Seafloor Samples Laboratory is a partner in the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS) database,...

  10. Evaluation of rapid immunochromatographic tests for norovirus in neonatal and infant faecal specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Nobumasa; Nojima, Ikuko; Araki, Tooru; Takasugi, Mizue; Sakane, Tomoko; Kodera, Aya; Ikeda, Masanori; Tsukahara, Hirokazu

    2015-10-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of two norovirus rapid immunochromatographic kits (QuickNavi(®)-Norovirus [QN] and QuickNavi®-Norovirus 2 [QN2]; Denka Seiken, Niigata, Japan) for neonatal and infant faecal specimens. Monthly faecal samples were collected from infants from birth to 12 months of age, and tested for norovirus using QN and QN2. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used as the gold standard for norovirus detection. The diagnostic performance of the kits was calculated. A total of 343 specimens from 81 infants were analysed. In all samples, the specificity of QN and QN2 was 80% (275/343) and 99% (339/343), respectively. In infants aged norovirus infection in the neonatal and infant period. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The olfactory hole-board test in rats: a new paradigm to study aversion and preferences to odors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin eWernecke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Odors of biological relevance (e.g. predator odors, sex odors are known to effectively influence basic survival needs of rodents such as anti-predatory defensiveness and mating behaviors. Research focused on the effects of these odors on rats’ behavior mostly includes multi-trial paradigms where animals experience single odor exposures in subsequent, separated experimental sessions. In the present study, we introduce a modification of the olfactory hole-board test that allows studying the effects of different odors on rats’ behavior within single trials. First, we demonstrated that the corner holes of the hole-board were preferentially visited by rats. The placement of different odors under the corner holes changed this hole preference. We showed that holes with carnivore urine samples were avoided, while corner holes with female rat urine samples were preferred. Furthermore, corner holes with urine samples from a carnivore, herbivore and omnivore were differentially visited indicating that rats can discriminate these odors. To test whether anxiolytic treatment specifically modulate the avoidance of carnivore urine holes, we treated rats with buspirone. Buspirone treatment completely abolished the avoidance of carnivore urine holes. Taken together, our findings indicate that the olfactory hole-board test is a valuable tool for measuring avoidance and preference responses to biologically-relevant odors.

  12. Comparison of Specimen Adequacy and Smear Quality in Conventional and Liquid-Based Pap Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Since the best method of cervical smear is a controversial subject, this study was designed to compare two methods of cervical sampling, consisting of conventional versus liquid base. Objectives Pap smear is a screening test used to detect pre malignant and malignant processes in the endocervical canal of the female reproductive system. There are two methods, consisting of conventional Pap, in which samples are smeared directly on a microscope slide after collection, and liquid based cytology, in which the smear sample is placed in a bottle of preservative for transport to the laboratory, where it is then smeared on the slide. In this study it was decided to compare these two methods of sampling. Methods This randomized trial was carried out at the Amir Hospital of Semnan, Iran on 240 females undergoing Pap smear screening from April to September 2012. Patients were divided to two groups including conventional (n = 120 and liquid base cytology smear (n = 120. The results of cytological reports of both groups were compared in regards to sufficiency of sample, presence of blood in the sample, presence of infection and premalignant or malignant condition. Results Specimen adequacy and smear quality were significantly better in liquid base sampling (P = 0.03; presence of benign cellular changes was not different between the two groups (P = 0.389. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis was significantly better with the conventional method (P = 0.007. Also, severe inflammation was more commonly reported in the conventional method than liquid base sampling test (P = 0.029. Conclusions Specimen adequacy and diagnosis of inflammatory reaction were better in liquid base smear and convention smear, respectively.

  13. Growth behavior of fatigue cracks in ultrafine grained Cu smooth specimens with a small hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Goto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the growth mechanism of fatigue cracks in ultrafine grained copper, stresscontrolled fatigue tests of round-bar specimens with a small blind hole as a crack starter were conducted. The hole was drilled on the surface where an intersection between the shear plane of the final ECAP processing and the specimen surface makes an angle of 45° or 90° with respect to the loading axis. At a low stress (  a = 90 MPa, the direction of crack paths was nearly perpendicular to the loading direction regardless of the location of the hole. Profile of crack face was examined, showing the aspect ratio (b/a of b/a = 0.82. At a high stress (  a = 240 MPa, although the growth directions inclined 45° and 90° to the loading-axis were observed depending on the location of the drilling hole, crack faces in these cracks were extended along one set of maximum shear stress planes, corresponding to the final ECAP shear plane. The value of aspect ratios was b/a = 0.38 and 1.10 for the cracks with 45° and 90° inclined path directions, respectively. The role of deformation mode at the crack tip areas on crack growth behavior were discussed in terms of the mixed-mode stress intensity factor. The crack path formation at high stress amplitudes was affected by the in-plane shear-mode deformation at the crack tip.

  14. Value of Routine Dengue Diagnostic Tests in Urine and Saliva Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andries, Anne-Claire; Duong, Veasna; Ly, Sowath; Cappelle, Julien; Kim, Kim Srorn; Lorn Try, Patrich; Ros, Sopheaktra; Ong, Sivuth; Huy, Rekol; Horwood, Paul; Flamand, Marie; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue laboratory diagnosis is essentially based on detection of the virus, its components or antibodies directed against the virus in blood samples. Blood, however, may be difficult to draw in some patients, especially in children, and sampling during outbreak investigations or epidemiological studies may face logistical challenges or limited compliance to invasive procedures from subjects. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using saliva and urine samples instead of blood for dengue diagnosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Serial plasma, urine and saliva samples were collected at several time-points between the day of admission to hospital until three months after the onset of fever in children with confirmed dengue disease. Quantitative RT-PCR, NS1 antigen capture and ELISA serology for anti-DENV antibody (IgG, IgM and IgA) detection were performed in parallel on the three body fluids. RT-PCR and NS1 tests demonstrated an overall sensitivity of 85.4%/63.4%, 41.6%/14.5% and 39%/28.3%, in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. When urine and saliva samples were collected at the same time-points and tested concurrently, the diagnostic sensitivity of RNA and NS1 detection assays was 69.1% and 34.4%, respectively. IgG/IgA detection assays had an overall sensitivity of 54.4%/37.4%, 38.5%/26.8% and 52.9%/28.6% in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. IgM were detected in 38.1% and 36% of the plasma and saliva samples but never in urine. Conclusions Although the performances of the different diagnostic methods were not as good in saliva and urine as in plasma specimens, the results obtained by qRT-PCR and by anti-DENV antibody ELISA could well justify the use of these two body fluids to detect dengue infection in situations when the collection of blood specimens is not possible. PMID:26406240

  15. Correlation between strength properties in standard test specimens and molded phenolic parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, P S; Thomason, R H

    1946-01-01

    This report describes an investigation of the tensile, flexural, and impact properties of 10 selected types of phenolic molding materials. The materials were studied to see in what ways and to what extent their properties satisfy some assumptions on which the theory of strength of materials is based: namely, (a) isotropy, (b) linear stress-strain relationship for small strains, and (c) homogeneity. The effect of changing the dimensions of tensile and flexural specimens and the span-depth ratio in flexural tests were studied. The strengths of molded boxes and flexural specimens cut from the boxes were compared with results of tests on standard test specimens molded from the respective materials. The nonuniformity of a material, which is indicated by the coefficient of variation, affects the results of tests made with specimens of different sizes and tests with different methods of loading. The strength values were found to depend on the relationship between size and shape of the molded specimen and size and shape of the fillers. The most significant variations observed within a diversified group of materials were found to depend on the orientation of fibrous fillers. Of secondary importance was the dependence of the variability of test results on the pieces of filler incorporated into the molding powder as well as on the size of the piece. Static breaking strength tests on boxes molded from six representative phenolic materials correlated well with falling-ball impact tests on specimens cut from molded flat sheets. Good correlation was obtained with Izod impact tests on standard test specimens prepared from the molding materials. The static breaking strengths of the boxes do not correlate with the results of tensile or flexural tests on standard specimens.

  16. Lithology and Stratigraphy of Holes Drilled in LANL-Use Areas of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance B. Prothro; Sigmund L. Drellack, Jr.; Brian M. Allen

    1999-07-01

    Geologic data for ten holes drilled in areas used by Los Alamos National Laboratory at the Nevada Test Site are presented in this report. The holes include emplacement holes, instrumentation holes, and Underground Test Area wells drilled during calendar years 1991 through 1995. For each hole a stratigraphic log, a detailed lithologic log, and one or two geologic cross sections are presented, along with a supplemental data sheet containing information about the drilling operations, geology, or references. For three of the holes, graphic data summary sheets with geologic and geophysical data are provided as plates.

  17. Minimally destructive sampling of type specimens of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) recovers complete plastid and mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughey, Jeffery R; Gabrielson, Paul W; Rohmer, Laurence; Tortolani, Jacquie; Silva, Mayra; Miller, Kathy Ann; Young, Joel D; Martell, Craig; Ruediger, Erik

    2014-06-04

    Plant species, including algae and fungi, are based on type specimens to which the name of a taxon is permanently attached. Applying a scientific name to any specimen therefore requires demonstrating correspondence between the type and that specimen. Traditionally, identifications are based on morpho-anatomical characters, but recently systematists are using DNA sequence data. These studies are flawed if the DNA is isolated from misidentified modern specimens. We propose a genome-based solution. Using 4 × 4 mm(2) of material from type specimens, we assembled 14 plastid and 15 mitochondrial genomes attributed to the red algae Pyropia perforata, Py. fucicola, and Py. kanakaensis. The chloroplast genomes were fairly conserved, but the mitochondrial genomes differed significantly among populations in content and length. Complete genomes are attainable from 19(th) and early 20(th) century type specimens; this validates the effort and cost of their curation as well as supports the practice of the type method.

  18. Validity of oral mucosal transudate specimens for HIV testing using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall sensitivity of OMT specimens for HIV testing in children using ELISA was low. Stratifying the analysis by sector showed that OMT samples are good specimens for HIV testing. It is important to note that factors such as the low HIV prevalence in our study population, quality of the OMT, diet and oral hygiene could ...

  19. Test methodology and technology of fracture toughness for small size specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakai, E.; Takada, F.; Ishii, T.; Ando, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Matsukawa, S. [JNE Techno-Research Co., Kanagawa-ken (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Small specimen test technology (SSTT) is required to investigate mechanical properties in the limited availability of effective irradiation volumes in test reactors and accelerator-based neutron and charged particle sources. The test methodology guideline and the manufacture processes for very small size specimens have not been established, and we would have to formulate it. The technology to control exactly the load and displacement is also required in the test technology under the environment of high dose radiation produced from the specimens. The objective of this study is to examine the test technology and methodology of fracture toughness for very small size specimens. A new bend test machine installed in hot cell has been manufactured to obtain fracture toughness and DBTT (ductile - brittle transition temperature) of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels for small bend specimens of t/2-1/3PCCVN (pre-cracked 1/3 size Charpy V-notch) with 20 mm length and DFMB (deformation and fracture mini bend specimen) with 9 mm length. The new machine can be performed at temperatures from -196 deg. C to 400 deg. C under unloading compliance method. Neutron irradiation was also performed at about 250 deg. C to about 2 dpa in JMTR. After the irradiation, fracture toughness and DBTT were examined by using the machine. Checking of displacement measurement between linear gauge of cross head's displacement and DVRT of the specimen displacement was performed exactly. Conditions of pre-crack due to fatigue in the specimen preparation were also examined and it depended on the shape and size of the specimens. Fracture toughness and DBTT of F82H steel for t/2-1/3PCCVN, DFMB and 0.18DCT specimens before irradiation were examined as a function of temperature. DBTT of smaller size specimens of DFMB was lower than that of larger size specimen of t/2-1/3PCCVN and 0.18DCT. The changes of fracture toughness and DBTT due to irradiation were also

  20. Use of Exfoliative Specimens and Fine-Needle Aspiration Smears for Mutation Testing in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Deepali; Ramachandrappa, Vijayakumar S; Singh, Varsha; Malik, Prabhat S; Madan, Karan; Faruq, Mohammed; Guleria, Randeep

    2017-01-01

    Cytology specimens are considered to be a promising alternative for detecting driver mutations in lung cancer patients. We aimed to explore the suitability and utility of various cytology samples of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients for mutation testing. In addition to mutation detection, the importance of preanalytic factors was discussed. A total of 116 cytology samples including 32 controls comprising pleural effusions, bronchial washings, and direct fine-needle aspiration (FNA) smears were included in the study for the detection of EGFR, KRAS, and Her-2/neu gene mutations. Tumor content was checked by microscopic evaluation. Tumor enrichment was done by scraping direct smears. DNA yield was assessed before selecting the method of mutation detection. Sanger sequencing and real-time PCR-based methods were used. Overall, 20.23% EGFR mutations and 2.74% KRAS mutations were observed in this study. Nondriver genetic polymorphisms were observed in EGFR exon 20 in 37% cases. The coexistence of the EGFR mutation and EGFR polymorphism was seen in 7 cases. DNA yield was better in pleural effusions and bronchial washings. Real-time PCR was used in specimens of low DNA yield. Cytology samples are useful in ascertaining molecular diagnostic information for treatment purposes if they are optimized judiciously in their preanalytic phase. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Standard practice for preparation and use of direct tension stress-corrosion test specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1985-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for designing, preparing, and using ASTM standard tension test specimens for investigating susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking. Axially loaded specimens may be stressed quantitatively with equipment for application of either a constant load, constant strain, or with a continuously increasing strain. 1.2 Tension test specimens are adaptable for testing a wide variety of product forms as well as parts joined by welding, riveting, or various other methods. 1.3 The exposure of specimens in a corrosive environment is treated only briefly because other standards are being prepared to deal with this aspect. Meanwhile, the investigator is referred to Practices G35, G36, G37, and G44, and to ASTM Special Technical Publication 425 (1).

  2. Predicting the residual strength of open-hole (OH) composite specimens subjected to cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceparano, Angelo; Dell'Aversano, Raffaella

    2016-05-01

    A procedure is reported that allows the prediction of the fatigue life and the residual strength of "open hole" composite specimens subjected to constant amplitude cyclic loadings. Based on a two-parameter phenomenological model explicitly accounting for the maximum applied stress, σmax, and the stress ratio, R, the procedure relies on a relatively small set of experimental fatigue life data. The approach reliability is checked in predicting the fatigue life and residual strength of AS4 carbon/epoxy 3k/E7K8 Plain Weave Fabric "open-hole" (OH) samples subjected to a very broad loading conditions from prevailing tension (R=0 and R=-0.2) to compression (R=5) to mixed tension/compression (R=-1) loadings.

  3. Standard Practice for Making and Using C-Ring Stress-Corrosion Test Specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the essential features of the design and machining, and procedures for stressing, exposing, and inspecting C-ring type of stress-corrosion test specimens. An analysis is given of the state and distribution of stress in the C-ring. 1.2 Specific considerations relating to the sampling process and to the selection of appropriate test environments are outside the scope of this practice. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard; The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Visualization of Surface Deformation on an Open-Hole Specimen Based on Grating Shearography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Ryul [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Seok [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Won Seok [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    This contribution contained the classical work of an open-hole tensile plate to demonstrate the performance of grating shearography and to compare with the results obtained by other full-field measurement techniques, The isotropic plate with an open-hole has often appeared in the previous contributions introducing novel full-field method and system. Grating shearography directly provided six quantitative measurements about the specimen's surface kinematics by using a single measurement set: three in-plane strains, in plane rotation, and two out-of-plane slopes. The quasi-plane wavefront of grating metrology led to high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and thus neither fitting nor filtering was applied, and the small shearing distance of 101{mu}m could be used. The small shearing distance provided the outstanding spatial resolution of 80{mu}m and sensitivity appropriate for experimental mechanics. Finally, the grating shearography enabled the visualization of the complex surface deformation around the hole and also detected parasitic flexions of the specimen in the micrometer regime during the tensile test

  5. Design, Fabrication and Test Report on Instrumented Capsule (08M-02K) for Irradiation Test of RPV Model Alloys in HANARO OR5 Test Hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Cho, M. S.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H.; Son, J. M.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J.; Oh, S. Y

    2009-09-15

    An instrumented capsule of 08M-02K was designed, fabricated and irradiated for an evaluation of the neutron irradiation properties of RPV model alloys. The basic structure of the 08M-02K capsule was based on the 07M-21K capsule which was successfully irradiated in the OR5 test hole of HANARO. 228 specimens such as PCVN, 1/2 PCVN, Charpy, small tensile and TEM specimens of SA508 RPV model alloys were placed in the capsule. The capsule was composed of 5 stages having many kinds of specimens and an independent electric heater at each stage. During the irradiation test, the temperature of the specimens and the fast neutron fluence were measured by 14 thermocouples and 5 sets of Ni-Ti-Fe neutron fluence monitors installed in the capsule. A friction welded tube between STS304 and AI1050 alloys was introduced in the capsule to prevent a coolant leakage into a capsule during capsule cutting process in HANARO. The capsule was irradiated in the OR5 test hole of HANARO of a 30MW thermal output at 269{approx}310 .deg. C up to a fast neutron fluence of 4.4x10{sup 19}(n/cm{sup 2}) (E>1.0 MeV). The obtained results will be very valuable for the evaluation on the 2nd extended operation of the KORI 1 Nuclear Power Reactor.

  6. Degassing and two-phase flow pilot hole test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, J.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jarsjoe, J. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Water Resource Engineering

    1995-03-01

    A pilot hole test was conducted to support the design of the Degassing of Groundwater and Two-Phase Flow experiments planned for the Hard Rock Laboratory, Aespoe, Sweden. The test consisted of a sequence of constant pressure borehole inflow tests (CPTs) and pressure recovery tests (PRTs) in borehole KA2512A. The test sequence was designed to detect degassing effects from the change in transmissivity, or hydraulic conductivity, and storativity when the borehole pressure is lowered below the groundwater bubble pressure. The entire 37.3m of the borehole section was tested without packers. Flow response to pressure changes in CPTs occurred rapidly. Flowrates fluctuated before attaining a steady trend, probably due to effective stress changes when borehole pressure was reduced for the first time. These factors decreased the sensitivity of type-curve fits to values of specific storage. The relationship between borehole pressure and steady-state flowrates was linear over borehole pressures of 1500 kPa (abs) down to 120 kPa (abs) during testing in December 1994, indicating that processes that may change hydraulic conductivity at low borehole pressures, such as degassing, calcite precipitation or turbulence, did not occur to a measurable degree. Test results during January and February of 1995 suggest that degassing may have occurred. The hydraulic conductivity measured at a borehole pressure equal to 120 kPa (abs) was 20% lower than the hydraulic conductivity measured at a borehole pressure of 1500 kPa (abs); the latter value was 10% lower than the hydraulic conductivity measured in December, 1994. The volumetric gas content measured during this time was 1% v/v. Pressures in monitoring well KA2511A responded to the testing in KA2512A. Step-changes in flowrates coincided with blasting at 3300-3400 m tunnel length. The magnitude of these changes was greater at the lower borehole pressures. Step increases in pressures in KA2511A also coincided with the blasts.

  7. Relationships between Loblolly Pine small clear specimens and Dimension Lumber Tested in Static Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Alexander Butler; Joseph Dahlen; Finto Antony; Michael Kane; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Huizhe Jin; Kim Love-Myers; John Paul McTague

    2016-01-01

    Prior to the 1980s, the allowable stresses for lumber in North America were derived from testing of small clear specimens. However, the procedures were changed because these models were found to be inaccurate. Nevertheless, small clear testing continues to be used around the world for allowable stress determinations and in studies that examine forest management impacts...

  8. Papanicolaou tests and molecular analyses using new fluid-based specimen collection technology in 3000 Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, N; Fujii, T; Ishikawa, M; Mukai, M; Saito, M; Iwata, T; Fukuchi, T; Kubushiro, K; Tsukazaki, K; Nozawa, S

    2003-06-16

    A fluid-based Papanicolaou test has been established to improve sample collection and preparation. This study was the first large-scale investigation in Japan to examine the feasibility of using fluid-based Papanicolaou specimens to detect human papillomavirus (HPV) using Hybrid Capture II and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Three thousand patients who visited Keio University Hospital between October 2000 and February 2001 were enrolled in the study. The results of the fluid-based Papanicolaou tests corresponded well with those of conventional Papanicolaou smears (96.8% concordance). The sensitivities of cervical neoplasia detection using the fluid-based Papanicolaou test (73.9%) and Hybrid Capture II (76.3%, P=0.55) were not significantly different. Among the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and squamous cell carcinoma specimens, HPV 16 and HPV 52 were predominantly detected using the PCR method. Although some DNA samples extracted from the fluid-based specimens were degradaded, PCR and direct sequencing could be performed without difficulty even after 1 year of specimen storage. We conclude that fluid-based Papanicolaou specimens can be applied to investigate HPV infection.

  9. Genesis Solar Wind Interstream, Coronal Hole and Coronal Mass Ejection Samples: Update on Availability and Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allums, K. K.

    2017-01-01

    Recent refinement of analysis of ACE/SWICS data (Advanced Composition Explorer/Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer) and of onboard data for Genesis Discovery Mission of 3 regimes of solar wind at Earth-Sun L1 make it an appropriate time to update the availability and condition of Genesis samples specifically collected in these three regimes and currently curated at Johnson Space Center. ACE/SWICS spacecraft data indicate that solar wind flow types emanating from the interstream regions, from coronal holes and from coronal mass ejections are elementally and isotopically fractionated in different ways from the solar photosphere, and that correction of solar wind values to photosphere values is non-trivial. Returned Genesis solar wind samples captured very different kinds of information about these three regimes than spacecraft data. Samples were collected from 11/30/2001 to 4/1/2004 on the declining phase of solar cycle 23. Meshik, et al is an example of precision attainable. Earlier high precision laboratory analyses of noble gases collected in the interstream, coronal hole and coronal mass ejection regimes speak to degree of fractionation in solar wind formation and models that laboratory data support. The current availability and condition of samples captured on collector plates during interstream slow solar wind, coronal hole high speed solar wind and coronal mass ejections are de-scribed here for potential users of these samples.

  10. Standard Practice for Making and Using U-Bend Stress-Corrosion Test Specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for making and using U-bend specimens for the evaluation of stress-corrosion cracking in metals. The U-bend specimen is generally a rectangular strip which is bent 180° around a predetermined radius and maintained in this constant strain condition during the stress-corrosion test. Bends slightly less than or greater than 180° are sometimes used. Typical U-bend configurations showing several different methods of maintaining the applied stress are shown in Fig. 1. 1.2 U-bend specimens usually contain both elastic and plastic strain. In some cases (for example, very thin sheet or small diameter wire) it is possible to form a U-bend and produce only elastic strain. However, bent-beam (Practice G 39 or direct tension (Practice G 49)) specimens are normally used to study stress-corrosion cracking of strip or sheet under elastic strain only. 1.3 This practice is concerned only with the test specimen and not the environmental aspects of stress-corrosion testing which are discus...

  11. 10 CFR 707.12 - Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall utilize a chain of custody procedure for maintaining control and accountability from point of... MRO and shall document the non-cooperation on the specimen chain of custody form. The MRO shall report... Sample Custody Document.” In this case, the collection site person will telephone the individual's...

  12. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of Direct Tension Test for Cylindrical Concrete Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung J. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete cracking strength can be defined as the tensile strength of concrete subjected to pure tension stress. However, as it is difficult to apply direct tension load to concrete specimens, concrete cracking is usually quantified by the modulus of rupture for flexural members. In this study, a new direct tension test setup for cylindrical specimens (101.6 mm in diameter and 203.2 mm in height similar to those used in compression test is developed. Double steel plates are used to obtain uniform stress distributions. Finite element analysis for the proposed test setup is conducted. The uniformity of the stress distribution along the cylindrical specimen is examined and compared with rectangular cross section. Fuzzy image pattern recognition method is used to assess stress uniformity along the specimen. Moreover, the probability of cracking at different locations along the specimen is evaluated using probabilistic finite element analysis. The experimental and numerical results of the cracking location showed that gravity effect on fresh concrete during setting time might affect the distribution of concrete cracking strength along the height of the structural elements.

  13. Slug-tests in PP- and PVP-holes at Olkiluoto in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tammisto, E.; Hellae, P. [JP-Fintact Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Lahdenperae, J. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    As part of the program for the final disposal of the nuclear fuel waste, Posiva Oy investigates the hydrological conditions at the Olkiluoto island. The hydraulic conductivity in the shallow holes PP2, PP38 and PP39 were measured in July 2004 and PVP4A, PVP4B and PVP14 in June 2004, PVP11, PVP12 and PVP13 in December 2004 and PVP2 in January 2005. The length of PP-holes varies between 13 and 24 m and the measured sections (1 m) are located in the bedrock. PVP-holes have a length up to 10 m and the measured sections (2 m) are located in the overburden. The measurements were conducted using the slug-test technique. In the slug-test the hydraulic head in the borehole is abruptly changed either by pouring water in the borehole or by lowering the pressure sensor. The conductivity is interpreted based on the recovery of the water level. This report presents the field measurements and their interpretation. The interpretation has been done using the Hvorslev's method, but for the control also Thiem's equation was applied. According to the results hydraulic conductivities in PP-holes range from 10{sup -9} m/s to 10{sup -4} m/s and in PVP-holes from 10{sup -6} m/s to 10{sup -4} m/s. The range is almost the same as in measurements of year 2002. Also the results from holes measured both 2002 and 2004 are very close to each other. The results agree also with hydraulic conductivity information available from the pre-pumping done in connection of the groundwater sampling. (orig.)

  14. Multiplex genomic test of mutation and fusion genes in small biopsy specimen of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Fumihiro; Kasajima, Rika; Miyagi, Yohei

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated multiple oncogenic mutations and fusion genes in small specimen obtained by bronchoscopy. Eight patients with lung cancer were recruited, 3 small cell lung cancer, 3 non-small cell lung cancer, 1 adenocarcinoma and 1 squamous cell carcinoma. A median value of extracted RNA and DNA amounts from specimen was 1573 ng (range 367.5 to 8900) and 6700 ng (range 550 to 68000 ng), respectively. We applied amplicon sequencing panels that cover exon regions of 41 genes related to lung tumorigenesis as well as total 61 major variants of ALK, ROS, RET or NTRK1 fusion transcripts. Nineteen of 41 gene mutations were detected in our isolated DNAs of 8 patients. We could detect four to eleven mutations in each specimen; however the mutation combination in each 8 patients were different. The most common genetic alterations were TP53, KMT2D, MET, NOTCH2 and SETD2, which were detected in 4 to 6 patients. We did not detect fusion transcripts of ALK, ROS, RET and NTRK1 in every specimen. In conclusion, multiplex genomic test was performed on small amounts specimen of bronchoscopy biopsy with a 100% success rate. Such testing is considered to be able to assist physicians in matching patients with approved or experimental targeted treatments. © 2016 Old City Publishing, Inc.

  15. Specimen Collection and Submission Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    local, approved medical treatment facility collection procedures. Superficial wounds and abscesses Sterile swab Follow local, approved medical...Tests May Include: West Nile virus (WNV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus... Wound Botulism Acceptable Specimens Required Volume/Comments Toxin Assay (T) or Culture (C) Performed Serum (priority sample type) 5 ml (less

  16. Specimen Validity Testing SVT) - Effects of Oxidizing Agents on Drugs in Urine and Procedures for Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, B D; Dunkley, C S

    2007-07-01

    Since the inception of the drug-testing program in the U.S. Armed Forces in 1982, urine adulteration with the intent to conceal drug use has been a serious problem to forensic scientists. Initially, drug users tried almost anything that was available at the collection sites. Soon they recognized that certain chemicals could be used to destroy some drugs and interfere with the testing procedures. Some drug analytes, in particular morphine and 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid, a metabolite of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, could not be detected in presence of some oxidizing agents. As the use of adulterants increased, specimen validity testing was introduced by the Department of Health and Human Services in 2004. While specific reagents could be used to test nitrite, chromate, and iodine, test procedures for many other oxidizing agents were not available. In an attempt to detect most oxidants, a different approach has been introduced to identify urines adulterated with oxidizing adulterants. In this approach, the oxidizing property of normal urine is compared with that of urine containing oxidizing agents. In the procedure, samples are allowed to interact with excess ferrous (Fe2+) ions and then with chromogenic compounds. In the presence of oxidants, Fe2+ ions with low reduction potential (E0 0.771 V) are immediately oxidized to ferric (Fe3+) ions, which then change the chromogenic compounds to colored chromogens. Specific spectral pattern and intensity are the keys in quantification of oxidants in urine (milliEquivalent/liter, mE/L). The method appeared to be promising in differentiating normal urine from urine adulterated with oxidizing agents. Some oxidizing adulterants in urine are unstable. If reduced, it could be reconverted to the oxidizing agents and tested by the general oxidant test. Copyright © 2007 Central Police University.

  17. Stress Wave Attenuation in Aluminum Alloy and Mild Steel Specimens Under SHPB Tensile Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothnis, J. R.; Ravikumar, G.; Arya, H.; Yerramalli, Chandra S.; Naik, N. K.

    2018-01-01

    Investigations on the effect of intensity of incident pressure wave applied through the striker bar on the specimen force histories and stress wave attenuation during split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tensile testing are presented. Details of the tensile SHPB along with Lagrangian x-t diagram of the setup are included. Studies were carried out on aluminum alloy 7075 T651 and IS 2062 mild steel. While testing specimens using the tensile SHPB setup, it was observed that the force calculated from the transmitter bar strain gauge was smaller than the force obtained from the incident bar strain gauge. This mismatch between the forces in the incident bar and the transmitter bar is explained on the basis of stress wave attenuation in the specimens. A methodology to obtain force histories using the strain gauges on the specimen during SHPB tensile testing is also presented. Further, scanning electron microscope images and photomicrographs are given. Correlation between the microstructure and mechanical properties is explained. Further, uncertainty analysis was conducted to ascertain the accuracy of the results.

  18. Optimization of Initial Prostate Biopsy in Clinical Practice: Sampling, Labeling, and Specimen Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjurlin, Marc A.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Schellhammer, Paul; Cookson, Michael S.; Gomella, Leonard G.; Troyer, Dean; Wheeler, Thomas M.; Schlossberg, Steven; Penson, David F.; Taneja, Samir S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose An optimal prostate biopsy in clinical practice is based on a balance between adequate detection of clinically significant prostate cancers (sensitivity), assuredness regarding the accuracy of negative sampling (negative predictive value [NPV]), limited detection of clinically insignificant cancers, and good concordance with whole-gland surgical pathology results to allow accurate risk stratification and disease localization for treatment selection. Inherent within this optimization is variation of the core number, location, labeling, and processing for pathologic evaluation. To date, there is no consensus in this regard. The purpose of this review is 3-fold: 1. To define the optimal number and location of biopsy cores during primary prostate biopsy among men with suspected prostate cancer, 2. To define the optimal method of labeling prostate biopsy cores for pathologic processing that will provide relevant and necessary clinical information for all potential clinical scenarios, and 3. To determine the maximal number of prostate biopsy cores allowable within a specimen jar that would not preclude accurate histologic evaluation of the tissue. Materials and Methods A bibliographic search covering the period up to July, 2012 was conducted using PubMed®. This search yielded approximately 550 articles. Articles were reviewed and categorized based on which of the three objectives of this review was addressed. Data was extracted, analyzed, and summarized. Recommendations based on this literature review and our clinical experience is provided. Results The use of 10–12-core extended-sampling protocols increases cancer detection rates (CDRs) compared to traditional sextant sampling methods and reduces the likelihood that patients will require a repeat biopsy by increasing NPV, ultimately allowing more accurate risk stratification without increasing the likelihood of detecting insignificant cancers. As the number of cores increases above 12 cores, the increase in

  19. Test results for composite specimens and elements containing joints and cutouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, P. T.; Madan, R. C.; Hawley, A. V.

    1988-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop the technology for joints and cutouts in a composite fuselage that meets all design requirements of a large transport aircraft for the 1990s. An advanced trijet derivative of the DC-10 was selected as the baseline aircraft. Design and analysis of a 30-foot-long composite fuselage barrel provided a realistic basis for the test effort. The primary composite material was Hexcel F584 resin on 12 K IM6 fiber, in tape and broadgoods form. Fiberglass broadgoods were used in E-glass and S-glass fiber form in the cutout region of some panels. Additionally, injection-molded chopped graphite fiber/PEEK was used for longeron-to-frame shear clips. The test effort included four groups of test specimens, beginning with coupon specimens of mono-layer and cross-piled laminates, progressing through increasingly larger and more complex specimens, and ending with two 4- by 5-foot curved fuselage side panels. One of the side panels incorporated a transverse skin splice, while the second included two cabin window cutouts.

  20. Looking ahead: a case for human papillomavirus testing of self-sampled vaginal specimens as a cervical cancer screening strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravitt, Patti E; Belinson, Jerome L; Salmeron, Jorge; Shah, Keerti V

    2011-08-01

    Even in the era of highly effective human papillomavirus (HPV) prophylactic vaccines, substantial reduction in worldwide cervical cancer mortality will only be realized if effective early detection and treatment of the millions of women already infected and the millions who may not receive vaccination in the next decade can be broadly implemented through sustainable cervical cancer screening programs. Effective programs must meet three targets: (i) at least 70% of the targeted population should be screened at least once in a lifetime, (ii) screening assays and diagnostic tests must be reproducible and sufficiently sensitive and specific for the detection of high-grade precursor lesions (i.e., CIN21), and (iii) effective treatment must be provided. We review the evidence that HPV DNA screening from swabs collected by the women in their home or village is sufficiently sound for consideration as a primary screening strategy in the developing world, with sensitivity and specificity for detection of CIN21 as good or better than Pap smear cytology and VIA. A key feature of a self-collected HPV testing strategy (SC-HPV) is the move of the primary screening activities from the clinic to the community. Efforts to increase the affordability and availability of HPV DNA tests, community education and awareness, development of strong partnerships between community advocacy groups, health care centers and regional or local laboratories, and resource appropriate strategies to identify and treat screen-positive women should now be prioritized to ensure successful public health translation of the technologic advancements in cervical cancer prevention.

  1. Atlantic coastal plain geothermal test holes, Virginia: hole completion reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, L.B.; Radford, L.; Glascock, M.

    1979-03-01

    A description of the Atlantic Coastal Plain Geothermal Drilling Program and data for the following geothermal test holes drilled in Virginia are summarized: Creeds, Norfolk Naval Base, Langley Air Force Base, Wattsville, Withams, and Atlantic.

  2. Standard practice for preparation and use of Bent-Beam stress-corrosion test specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for designing, preparing, and using bent-beam stress-corrosion specimens. 1.2 Different specimen configurations are given for use with different product forms, such as sheet or plate. This practice applicable to specimens of any metal that are stressed to levels less than the elastic limit of the material, and therefore, the applied stress can be accurately calculated or measured (see Note 1). Stress calculations by this practice are not applicable to plastically stressed specimens. Note 1—It is the nature of these practices that only the applied stress can be calculated. Since stress-corrosion cracking is a function of the total stress, for critical applications and proper interpretation of results, the residual stress (before applying external stress) or the total elastic stress (after applying external stress) should be determined by appropriate nondestructive methods, such as X-ray diffraction (1). 1.3 Test procedures are given for stress-corrosion testing by ex...

  3. FACTORS AFFECTING THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF COMPACT BONE AND MINIATURE SPECIMEN TEST TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Chittibabu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the review concerning mechanical properties of bone and the miniature specimen test techniques. For developing a realistic understanding of how factors such as moisture content, mineralization, age, species, location, gender, rate of deformation etc. affect the mechanical properties of bone, it is critical to understand the role of these factors. A general survey on existing research work is presented on this aspect. The essential features of miniature specimen test techniques are described, along with the application of small punch test method to evaluate the mechanical behavior of materials. The procedure for the determination of tensile and fracture properties, such as: yield strength, ultimate strength, ductility, fracture toughness etc. using small punch test technique have been described. The empirical equations proposed by various investigators for the prediction of tensile and fracture properties are presented and discussed. In some cases, the predictions of material properties have been essentially made through the finite element simulation. The finite element simulation of miniature specimen test technique is also covered in this review. The use of inverse finite element procedure for the prediction of uniaxial tensile constitutive behaviour of materials is also presented

  4. Genomics and museum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Michael W

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 25 years ago, Allan Wilson and colleagues isolated DNA sequences from museum specimens of kangaroo rats (Dipodomys panamintinus) and compared these sequences with those from freshly collected animals (Thomas et al. 1990). The museum specimens had been collected up to 78 years earlier, so the two samples provided a direct temporal comparison of patterns of genetic variation. This was not the first time DNA sequences had been isolated from preserved material, but it was the first time it had been carried out with a population sample. Population geneticists often try to make inferences about the influence of historical processes such as selection, drift, mutation and migration on patterns of genetic variation in the present. The work of Wilson and colleagues was important in part because it suggested a way in which population geneticists could actually study genetic change in natural populations through time, much the same way that experimentalists can do with artificial populations in the laboratory. Indeed, the work of Thomas et al. (1990) spawned dozens of studies in which museum specimens were used to compare historical and present-day genetic diversity (reviewed in Wandeler et al. 2007). All of these studies, however, were limited by the same fundamental problem: old DNA is degraded into short fragments. As a consequence, these studies mostly involved PCR amplification of short templates, usually short stretches of mitochondrial DNA or microsatellites. In this issue, Bi et al. (2013) report a breakthrough that should open the door to studies of genomic variation in museum specimens. They used target enrichment (exon capture) and next-generation (Illumina) sequencing to compare patterns of genetic variation in historic and present-day population samples of alpine chipmunks (Tamias alpinus) (Fig. 1). The historic samples came from specimens collected in 1915, so the temporal span of this comparison is nearly 100 years. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Efficient cross-species capture hybridization and next-generation sequencing of mitochondrial genomes from noninvasively sampled museum specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Victor C.; Li, Gang; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Murphy, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to uncover the phylogenetic history of recently extinct species and other species known only from archived museum material has rapidly improved due to the reduced cost and increased sequence capacity of next-generation sequencing technologies. One limitation of these approaches is the difficulty of isolating and sequencing large, orthologous DNA regions across multiple divergent species, which is exacerbated for museum specimens, where DNA quality varies greatly between samples and contamination levels are often high. Here we describe the use of cross-species DNA capture hybridization techniques and next-generation sequencing to selectively isolate and sequence partial to full-length mitochondrial DNA genomes from the degraded DNA of museum specimens, using probes generated from the DNA of a single extant species. We demonstrate our approach on specimens from an enigmatic gliding mammal, the Sunda colugo, which is widely distributed throughout Southeast Asia. We isolated DNA from 13 colugo specimens collected 47–170 years ago, and successfully captured and sequenced mitochondrial DNA from every specimen, frequently recovering fragments with 10%–13% sequence divergence from the capture probe sequence. Phylogenetic results reveal deep genetic divergence among colugos, both within and between the islands of Borneo and Java, as well as between the Malay Peninsula and different Sundaic islands. Our method is based on noninvasive sampling of minute amounts of soft tissue material from museum specimens, leaving the original specimen essentially undamaged. This approach represents a paradigm shift away from standard PCR-based approaches for accessing population genetic and phylogenomic information from poorly known and difficult-to-study species. PMID:21880778

  6. Method for independent strain and temperature measurement in polymeric tensile test specimen using embedded FBG sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Gilmar Ferreira; McGugan, Malcolm; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    A novel method to obtain independent strain and temperature measurements using embedded Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) in polymeric tensile test specimens is presented in this paper. The FBG strain and temperature cross-sensitivity was decoupled using two single mode FBG sensors, which were embedded...... in the specimen material with a certain angle between them. It is demonstrated that, during temperature variation, both FBG sensors show the same signal response. However, for any applied load the signal response is different, which is caused by the different levels of strain acting in each sensor. Equations...... calibration procedure (temperature and strain) was performed to this material-sensor pair, where a calibration error temperature test case, where multiple two loading/strain stages of ε = 0.30% and ε = 0.50% were applied during a continuous variation...

  7. Test and Analysis Correlation for a Y-Joint Specimen for a Composite Cryotank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brian H.; Sleight, David W.; Grenoble, Ray

    2015-01-01

    The Composite Cryotank Technology Demonstration (CCTD) project under NASA's Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) developed space technologies using advanced composite materials. Under CCTD, NASA funded the Boeing Company to design and test a number of element-level joint specimens as a precursor to a 2.4-m diameter composite cryotank. Preliminary analyses indicated that the y-joint in the cryotank had low margins of safety; hence the y-joint was considered to be a critical design region. The y-joint design includes a softening strip wedge to reduce localized shear stresses at the skirt/dome interface. In this paper, NASA-developed analytical models will be correlated with the experimental results of a series of positive-peel y-joint specimens from Boeing tests. Initial analytical models over-predicted the experimental strain gage readings in the far-field region by approximately 10%. The over-prediction was attributed to uncertainty in the elastic properties of the laminate and a mismatch between the thermal expansion of the strain gages and the laminate. The elastic properties of the analytical model were adjusted to account for the strain gage differences. The experimental strain gages also indicated a large non-linear effect in the softening strip region that was not predicted by the analytical model. This non-linear effect was attributed to delamination initiating in the softening strip region at below 20% of the failure load for the specimen. Because the specimen was contained in a thermally insulated box during cryogenic testing to failure, delamination initiation and progression was not visualized during the test. Several possible failure initiation locations were investigated, and a most likely failure scenario was determined that correlated well with the experimental data. The most likely failure scenario corresponded to damage initiating in the softening strip and delamination extending to the grips at final failure.

  8. The use of saliva specimens for detection of influenza A and B viruses by rapid influenza diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung; Yun, Seung Gyu; Nam, Jeonghun; Choi, Sung-Hyuk; Lim, Chae Seung

    2017-05-01

    Diagnostic tests for influenza infection commonly use nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) even though these are invasive to obtain. As an alternative specimen, we evaluated the diagnostic usefulness of saliva samples with rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs). Both NPS and saliva samples were collected from 385 influenza suspected patients and analyzed using Sofia Influenza A+B Fluorescence Immunoassay (Quidel Corporation, San Diego, CA, USA), ichroma TRIAS Influenza A+B (Boditech, Chuncheon, Korea), SD Bioline Influenza Ag (Standard Diagnostic, Yonggin, Korea), BinaxNOW Influenza A/B antigen kit (Alere Inc., Waltham, MA, USA), and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Of the 385 patients, 31.2% (120/385) were positive for influenza A, and 7.5% (29/385) were positive for influenza B virus with saliva or NPS by RT-PCR. The diagnostic sensitivity was slightly higher in NPS than in saliva samples for both influenza A and B by all of the four RIDTs. The diagnostic sensitivities of Sofia and ichroma TRIAS were significantly superior to those of the other conventional influenza RIDTs with both types of sample. The sensitivities of Sofia and ichroma TRIAS with saliva specimens were comparable to the sensitivities of the other two conventional RIDTs with NPS specimens. The simultaneous use of saliva and NPS samples exhibited improved sensitivity from 10.0% to 13.3% for influenza A and from 10.3% to 17.2% for influenza B compared to using NPS alone. This study demonstrates that saliva is a useful specimen for influenza detection, and that the combination of saliva and NPS could improve the sensitivities of influenza RIDTs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of T-tabs and large deflections in double cantilever beam specimen tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Rajiv A.; Crews, John H., Jr.; Shivakumar, Kunigal N.

    1991-01-01

    A simple strength of materials analysis was developed for a double-cantilever beam (DCB) specimen to account for geometric nonlinearity effects due to large deflections and T-tabs. A new DCB data analysis procedure was developed to include the effects of these nonlinearities. The results of the analysis were evaluated by DCB tests performed for materials having a wide range of toughnesses. The materials used in the present study were T300/5208, IM7/8551-7, and AS4/PEEK. Based on the present analysis, for a typical deflection/crack length ratio of 0.3 (for AS4/PEEK), T-tabs and large deflections cause a 15 and 3 percent error, respectively, in the computer Mode I strain energy release rate. Design guidelines for DCB specimen thickness and T-tab height were also developed in order to keep errors due to these nonlinearities within 2 percent. Based on the test results, for both hinged and tabbed specimens, the effects of large deflection on the Mode I fracture toughness (G sub Ic) were almost negligible (less than 1 percent) in the case of T300/5208 and IM7/8551-7; however, AS4/PEEK showed a 2 to 3 percent effect. The effects of T-tabs G sub Ic were more significant for all the materials with T300/5208 showing a 5 percent error, IM7/8551-7 a 15 percent error, and, AS4/PEEK a 20 percent error.

  10. Fracture Tests on Thin Sheet 2024-T3 Aluminum Alloy for Specimens with and Without Anti-Buckling Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William M.; Newman, James C., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A series of fracture test were conducted to determine the effects of specimen type specimen width and buckling on the fracture behavior of cracked thin sheet (0.063 inch thick) 2024-T3 aluminum alloy. A summary of the experimental measurements is presented for fracture tests conducted on two specimen types and various widths. Middle-crack tension M(T) and compact tension C(T) specimens were tested in the L-T and T-L orientation with duplicate tests for each condition. Four widths (W= 3, 12, 24, and 40 inch) were tested for the middle-crack tension specimens, and three widths (W=2, 4, and 6 inch) were tested for the compact tension specimens. The M(T) specimens were tested in either a constrained (out-of-plane displacements restrained with antibuckling guides) or unconstrained conditions were the specimen was free to buckle out of plane Measurements were made of load against crack extension for all specimens.

  11. Method for independent strain and temperature measurement in polymeric tensile test specimen using embedded FBG sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Gilmar Ferreira; McGugan, Malcolm; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    A novel method to obtain independent strain and temperature measurements using embedded Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) in polymeric tensile test specimens is presented in this paper. The FBG strain and temperature cross-sensitivity was decoupled using two single mode FBG sensors, which were embedded...... of temperature, from 40 C to -10 C. The consistency of the expected theoretical results with the calibration procedure and the experimental validation shows that this proposed method is applicable to measure accurate strain and temperature in polymers during static or fatigue tensile testing. Two different...

  12. The irradiation test plan and safety analysis of the creep capsule(03S-07K) equipped with double specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Man Soon; Kim, B. G.; Choo, K. N.; Sohn, J. M.; Choi, M. H.; Kim, Y

    2005-04-15

    The irradiation test plan and safety analysis of the creep capsule(03S-07K) equipped with double specimen. In this report, the reactivity effect was reviewed and an analysis for the structural and thermal integrity was performed to review the safety of the creep capsule 03S-07K, which will be irradiated at a temperature higher than 550 .deg. C. The irradiation test will be performed at the in-core IR2 hole for 23 days at the 30 MWth power of HANARO. In the irradiation test, the temperature of the inside parts in the capsule will be measured and compared with the design value for reviewing the design data, and also the integrity of the bellows and LVDT etc. will be confirmed. The reactivity worth by the insertion of the creep capsule is no more than +9.2 mk, and this indicates that the reactivity effect does not exceed +12.5mk as specified in 'the HANARO operation technical specification'. The temperatures of the specimen, LVDT and the center rods of the bellows are less than the melting temperatures of the corresponding materials, therefore, the integrity of the materials are maintained. The center rod is made as a hollow tube shape of {phi}13mm x 2.5mmt of Ti material instead of the STS304 rod to lower the temperature. Thus, the temperature of the center rod of the bellows reaches 332{approx}1,095 .deg. C according to the vacuum condition of the capsules inside. By the structural analysis considering this temperature, the combined stress(the primary membrane and the secondary thermal) on the outer tube is 96.06 MPa for the HANARO 30 MWth power. The results of this stress analysis satisfiy the allowable stress limits.

  13. Apparatus and method for fatigue testing of a material specimen in a high-pressure fluid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jy-An; Feng, Zhili; Anovitz, Lawrence M; Liu, Kenneth C

    2013-06-04

    The invention provides fatigue testing of a material specimen while the specimen is disposed in a high pressure fluid environment. A specimen is placed between receivers in an end cap of a vessel and a piston that is moveable within the vessel. Pressurized fluid is provided to compression and tension chambers defined between the piston and the vessel. When the pressure in the compression chamber is greater than the pressure in the tension chamber, the specimen is subjected to a compression force. When the pressure in the tension chamber is greater than the pressure in the compression chamber, the specimen is subjected to a tension force. While the specimen is subjected to either force, it is also surrounded by the pressurized fluid in the tension chamber. In some examples, the specimen is surrounded by hydrogen.

  14. Performance of ARCHITECT HCV core antigen test with specimens from US plasma donors and injecting drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixson-Hayden, Tonya; Dawson, George J; Teshale, Eyasu; Le, Thao; Cheng, Kevin; Drobeniuc, Jan; Ward, John; Kamili, Saleem

    2015-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen is a serological marker of current HCV infection. The aim of this study was mainly to evaluate the performance characteristics of the ARCHITECT HCV core antigen assay with specimens from US plasma donors and injecting drug users. A total of 551 serum and plasma samples with known anti-HCV and HCV RNA status were tested for HCV core antigen using the Abbott ARCHITECT HCV core antigen test. HCV core antigen was detectable in 100% of US plasma donor samples collected during the pre-seroconversion phase of infection (anti-HCV negative/HCV RNA positive). Overall sensitivity of the HCV core antigen assay was 88.9-94.3% in samples collected after seroconversion. The correlation between HCV core antigen and HCV RNA titers was 0.959. HCV core antigen testing may be reliably used to identify current HCV infection. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Slug-tests in PP- and PVP-holes at Olkiluoto in 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tammisto, E. [Poeyry Environment Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Lehtinen, A. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-11-15

    As part of the program for the final disposal of the nuclear fuel waste, Posiva Oy investigates the hydrological conditions at the Olkiluoto island. The hydraulic conductivity in the shallow holes OL-PP5, OL-PP9, OL-PP39, OL-PVP4A, OLPVP4B, OL-PVP13, OL-PVP14, OL-PVP17, OL-PVP18A, OL-PVP18B, OL-PVP19 and OL-PVP20 was measured in summer 2005. The length of PP-holes varies between 12 and 15 m, and the test sections (1 m) are located in the bedrock. PVP-tubes have a length up to 17 m, and the test sections (1 - 4 m) are located in the overburden. The measurements were done using the slug-test technique. In the slug-test, the hydraulic head in the borehole is abruptly changed either by pouring water into the borehole or by lowering the pressure sensor. The conductivity is interpreted based on the recovery of the water level. This report presents the field measurements and their interpretation. The interpretation has been done using the Hvorslev's method, and for reference conductivity has also been calculated according to Thiem's equation. According to the results, hydraulic conductivity in PP-holes ranges from 10{sup -9} m/s to 10{sup -5} m/s and in PVP-tubes from 10{sup -7} m/s to 10{sup -4} m/s. The range is similar as observed in measurements of years 2002 and 2004. Expect few test sections, the results from 2005 are close to ones measured in the same sections in 2002 and 2004. The results agree also with hydraulic conductivity interpreted from the pre-pumping done in connection with the groundwater sampling. (orig.)

  16. Studies and research on the crack testing for brazed aluminium alloys specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitescu, A.; Babiş, C.; Niţoi, D. F.; Radu, C.

    2017-08-01

    The scope of this paper is the identification of an optimum technological solution for brazing aluminum alloys using crack tested specimens. To obtain conclusive results, these tests are conducted on two sets of different specimens. Thus, we get two sets of data which we will compare. These tests are part of the standardized series of tests required by the ASME standards. These are called exfoliation tests. They are used to determine where the crack occurs: in the base material or in the filler material. Thus, we can determine whether the cracking is cohesive or adhesive.

  17. A universal test to determine the integrity of RNA, and its suitability for reverse transcription, in animal tissue laboratory specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakey, H Jane

    2007-09-01

    Degradation of RNA in diagnostic specimens can cause false-negative test results and potential misdiagnosis when tests rely on the detection of specific RNA sequence. Current molecular methods of checking RNA integrity tend to be host species or group specific, necessitating libraries of primers and reaction conditions. The objective here was to develop a universal (multi-species) quality assurance tool for determining the integrity of RNA in animal tissues submitted to a laboratory for analyses. Ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) transcribed from the mitochondrial 16S rDNA was used as template material for reverse transcription to cDNA and was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As mitochondrial DNA has a high level of conservation, the primers used were shown to reverse transcribe and amplify RNA from every animal species tested. Deliberate degradation of rRNA template through temperature abuse of samples resulted in no reverse transcription and amplification. Samples spiked with viruses showed that single-stranded viral RNA and rRNA in the same sample degraded at similar rates, hence reverse transcription and PCR amplification of 16S rRNA could be used as a test of sample integrity and suitability for analysis that required the sample's RNA, including viral RNA. This test will be an invaluable quality assurance tool for determination of RNA integrity from tissue samples, thus avoiding erroneous test results that might occur if degraded target RNA is used unknowingly as template material for reverse transcription and subsequent PCR amplification.

  18. Colado geothermal resource assessment: shallow-hole temperature survey; intermediate-depth holes IGH No. 1 and No. 2; depth test hole 44X-10. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, N.O.

    1982-09-01

    The Getty Oil Company began the field work on a government cost-sharing venture to assess the geothermal potential in the Colado area of Pershing County, Nevada. Eighteen shallow (500-foot) temperature gradient holes, two intermediate (1500-foot) temperature gradient holes and one deep (8000-foot) exploratory well were drilled. All field work was completed in May 1981. Maximum temperature achieved was 282/sup 0/F at 7064 feet. No fluid reservoir was encountered with this hole.

  19. New prior sampling methods for nested sampling - Development and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Barrie; Tuyl, Frank; Hudson, Irene

    2017-06-01

    Nested Sampling is a powerful algorithm for fitting models to data in the Bayesian setting, introduced by Skilling [1]. The nested sampling algorithm proceeds by carrying out a series of compressive steps, involving successively nested iso-likelihood boundaries, starting with the full prior distribution of the problem parameters. The "central problem" of nested sampling is to draw at each step a sample from the prior distribution whose likelihood is greater than the current likelihood threshold, i.e., a sample falling inside the current likelihood-restricted region. For both flat and informative priors this ultimately requires uniform sampling restricted to the likelihood-restricted region. We present two new methods of carrying out this sampling step, and illustrate their use with the lighthouse problem [2], a bivariate likelihood used by Gregory [3] and a trivariate Gaussian mixture likelihood. All the algorithm development and testing reported here has been done with Mathematica® [4].

  20. Physical and Hydraulic Properties of Rock Specimens from Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Takeda, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Grimsel Test Site (GTS) is located at an altitude of 1730 meters in the granite rock of Aar Massif in central Switzerland. It lies at a depth of around 450 meters beneath the surface and was established over 20 years ago by the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) as a center for underground Research and Development (R&D) supporting a wide range of related research projects. Among many of them, an international cooperative project defined as the Long Term Diffusion (LTD) has been performing to obtain quantitative information on matrix diffusion in rock strata under in-situ conditions. A set of laboratory experiments is also planed to determine the physical, hydraulic and diffusive transport properties of rock specimens taken from the same test site. In this poster, we present the preliminary results of both physical and hydraulic properties of the rock specimens being tested, including the bulk density, porosity, specific surface area and pore distribution, microstructure, P and S wave velocities, electrical resistivity, air and water permeabilities. The results obtained in this study indicate that: 1) The porosity and wave velocities of Grimsel granite are relatively low compared to the average values of igneous rocks indicating that micro-cracks can potentially exist within grain minerals. 2) The air and water permeabilities obtained from the air and water permeability tests are consistent that illustrates the accuracy of both experiments. 3) Permeability is not a simple function of effective confining pressure. It is very sensitive to confining pressure especially at low pressure levels. Besides, the permeability is hysteretic depending on confining pressure, pore pressure and stress history. 4) Similar to the hydraulic properties, diffusive transport properties of rock specimens can also be significantly affected by the confining pressure conditions. Laboratory diffusion tests considering the effects of stress conditions are

  1. Test report: effect of specimen orientation and location on the tensile properties of GTS forging 1472859

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melcher, Ryan J [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2008-02-12

    ASTM standardized tensile tests were performed on GTS WR-quality 1472859 forging (21-6- 9 material) to determine the dependence of tensile properties on specimen orientation (longitudinal vs. transverse) with respect to forging ‘grain flow’ and location within the forging. Statistical analyses of the results show that location has a statistically measurable effect on the longitudinal tensile properties (as compared to the error involved in tensile testing). However, this dependence of the properties with location, especially in the circumferential orientation, causes large variability in the results that clouds the statistical determination of any orientation effect. As a result, this forging is determined to be inhomogeneous along the forging length, with a significant range in properties observed (e.g. yield strengths from 85 to 117 ksi) and highest strength/lowest ductility in the spherical region. Additional specimens should be tested to acquire a higher resolution view of this inhomogeneity if the end use of the data is structural integrity analyses using spatially dependent properties; however, sufficient data is provided in this study to extract a statistical lower bound for conservative, homogeneous structural analysis.

  2. Examination of cadmium safety rod thermal test specimens and failure mechanism evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.K.; Peacock, H.B.; Iyer, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    The reactor safety rods may be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level has dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Accordingly, an experimental cadmium safety rod testing subtask was established as part of a task to address the response of reactor core components to this accident. Companion reports describe the experiments and a structural evaluation (finite element analysis) of the safety rod. This report deals primarily with the examination of the test specimens, evaluation of possible failure mechanisms, and confirmatory separate effects experiments. It is concluded that the failures observed in the cadmium safety rod thermal tests which occurred at low temperature (T < 600{degrees}C) with slow thermal ramp rates (slow cladding strain rates) resulted from localized dissolution of the stainless steel cladding by the cadmium/aluminum solution and subsequent ductility exhaustion and rupture. The slow thermal ramp rate is believed to be the root cause for the failures; specifically, the slow ramp rate led to localized cladding shear deformation which ruptured the protective oxide film on the cladding inner surface and allowed dissolution to initiate. The test results and proposed failure mechanism support the conclusion that the rods would not fail below 500{degrees}C even at slow ramp rates. The safety rod thermal test specimen failures which occurred at high temperature (T > 800{degrees}C) with fast thermal ramp rates are concluded to be mechanical in nature without significant environmental degradation. Based on these tests, tasks were initiated to design and manufacture B{sub 4}C safety rods to replace the cadmium safety rods. The B{sub 4}C safety rods have been manufactured at this time and it is currently planned to charge them to the reactor in the near future. 60 refs.

  3. Damage modeling in Small Punch Test specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Cuesta, I.I.; Peñuelas, I.

    2016-01-01

    Ductile damage modeling within the Small Punch Test (SPT) is extensively investigated. The capabilities ofthe SPT to reliably estimate fracture and damage properties are thoroughly discussed and emphasis isplaced on the use of notched specimens. First, different notch profiles are analyzed....... Furthermore,Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model predictions from a top-down approach are employed to gain insightinto the mechanisms governing crack initiation and subsequent propagation in small punch experiments.An accurate assessment of micromechanical toughness parameters from the SPT...

  4. Slug-tests in PP- and PVP-holes at Olkiluoto in 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tammisto, E. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2014-02-15

    As part of the program for the final disposal of the nuclear fuel waste, Posiva Oy investigates the hydrological conditions at the Olkiluoto Island. The hydraulic conductivity in the shallow investigation holes OL-PP36, -PP39, -PVP4A, -PVP4B, -PVP6A, -PVP6B, -PVP14, -PVP36, -PVP37A, -PVP37B, -PVP37C, -PVP38A, -PVP38B, -PVP38C, -PVP38D, -HP1, -HP2, -HP3 and -HP4 was measured in summer 2012. The length of PP-holes is between 12 m and 14 m, and the test sections (1 m) are located in the bedrock. PVP-tubes have an average length between 4 - 15 m, and the test sections (2 m) are located in the overburden. The length of HP-tubes is 3 m or 5 m and the test sections (1 m) are located in the overburden. The measurements were carried out using the slug-test technique with 2010 renewed equipment. In the slug-test, the hydraulic head in the borehole is abruptly changed either by pouring water into the hole or by lowering the pressure sensor. The hydraulic conductivity is interpreted from the recovery of the water level. This report presents the field measurements and their interpretation. The interpretation has been done using the Hvorslev's method, and for reference, conductivity has also been calculated according to the Thiem's equation. According to the results, hydraulic conductivity in the PP-holes ranges from 10{sup -8} m/s to 10{sup -6} m/s and in the PVP- and the HP-tubes from 10{sup -8} m/s to 10{sup -5} m/s. The observed range is quite similar as in the previous measurements in 2002 and 2004-2011. In general, the results are consistent with the results obtained in the earlier measurements. In OL-PP36, the results from 2012 agree very well with the earlier results except section 8.17 - 9.17 m, in which K-values from 2007, 2008 and 2009 differ from the other years. In OL-PP39, the results agree well. There is more difference in low K-values than in higher ones. In the PVP-tubes, the variations are small. In the HP-tubes, the K-values clearly differ from the

  5. Shadows of CPR black holes and tests of the Kerr metric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi-Nodehi, M.; Li, Zilong; Bambi, Cosimo [Fudan University, Department of Physics, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Shanghai (China)

    2015-07-15

    Ww study the shadow of the Cardoso-Pani-Rico black hole for different values of the black hole spin a{sub *}, the deformation parameters ε{sub 3}{sup t} and ε{sub 3}{sup r}, and the viewing angle i. We find that the main impact of the deformation parameter ε{sub 3}{sup t} is the change of the size of the shadow, while the deformation parameter ε{sub 3}{sup r} affects the shape of its boundary. In general, it is impossible to test the Kerr metric, because the shadow of a Kerr black hole can be reproduced quite well by a black hole with non-vanishing ε{sub 3}{sup t} or ε{sub 3}{sup r}. Deviations from the Kerr geometry could be constrained in the presence of high quality data and in the favorable case of a black hole with high values of a{sub *} and i. However, the shadows of some black holes with non-vanishing ε{sub 3}{sup r} present peculiar features and the possible detection of these shadows could unambiguously distinguish these objects from the standard Kerr black holes of general relativity. (orig.)

  6. Advantages and disadvantages of technologies for HER2 testing in breast cancer specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrer, Daniela; Sanschagrin, François; Jacob, Simon; Diorio, Caroline

    2015-11-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) plays a central role as a prognostic and predictive marker in breast cancer specimens. Reliable HER2 evaluation is central to determine the eligibility of patients with breast cancer to targeted anti-HER2 therapies such as trastuzumab and lapatinib. Presently, several methods exist for the determination of HER2 status at different levels (protein, RNA, and DNA level). In this review, we discuss the main advantages and disadvantages of the techniques developed so far for the evaluation of HER2 status in breast cancer specimens. Each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. It is therefore not surprising that no consensus has been reached so far on which technique is the best for the determination of HER2 status. Currently, emphasis must be put on standardization of procedures, internal and external quality control assessment, and competency evaluation of already existing methods to ensure accurate, reliable, and clinically meaningful test results. Development of new robust and accurate diagnostic assays should also be encouraged. In addition, large clinical trials are warranted to identify the technique that most reliably predicts a positive response to anti-HER2 drugs. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  7. Asphalt Mixture Fatigue Testing : Influence of Test Type and Specimen Size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, N.

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue characterization of an asphalt mixture is commonly estimated by laboratory fatigue tests. Based on the classical fatigue analysis, fatigue lives obtained from different test devices are not comparable even when they are performed at the same test conditions. It is believed that there are two

  8. AFCI Fuel Irradiation Test Plan, Test Specimens AFC-1Æ and AFC-1F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. C. Crawford; S. L. Hayes; B. A. Hilton; M. K. Meyer; R. G. Ambrosek; G. S. Chang; D. J. Utterbeck

    2003-11-01

    The U. S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products, thereby dramatically decreasing the volume of material requiring disposition and the long-term radiotoxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository (DOE, 2003). One important component of the technology development is actinide-bearing transmutation fuel forms containing plutonium, neptunium, americium (and possibly curium) isotopes. There are little irradiation performance data available on non-fertile fuel forms, which would maximize the destruction rate of plutonium, and low-fertile (i.e., uranium-bearing) fuel forms, which would support a sustainable nuclear energy option. Initial scoping level irradiation tests on a variety of candidate fuel forms are needed to establish a transmutation fuel form design and evaluate deployment of transmutation fuels.

  9. Histopathology Discrepancy of Preoperative Endometrial Sampling and Final Specimen: How Does This Influence Selective Lymph Node Dissection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Bradley R; Carrubba, Aakriti; Sheeder, Jeanelle; Cheng, Georgina; Guntupalli, Saketh R

    2017-02-01

    Preoperative histology is a major component in the perioperative selective lymph node (LN) dissection decision process. Discrepancy between preoperative endometrial sampling and final specimen histopathology is generally accepted. The goals of this project are to determine if discrepancy of histopathology is associated with alteration of adjuvant treatment or outcome. We performed a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of all patients undergoing surgery for endometrial cancer at a single institution from 2010 to 2014. All patients had preoperative endometrial sampling. Histopathology discrepancy was evaluated for potential in variation of perioperative LN dissection. Criteria for not performing LN dissection was defined as preoperative endometrioid histology, grade 1 or 2 lesion, myometrial invasion of 50% or less, and primary tumor diameter 2 cm or less. A total of 352 patients were identified; 44 were excluded because of no preoperative pathology or no residual disease on final pathology. Discrepancy of histopathology was noted in 64/308 (20.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 16.2%-25.3%) patients. Preoperative endometrioid histology was noted in 272 patients, and 17/272 (6.3%; 95% CI, 3.4%-9.1%) had preoperative sampling reviewed as a grade 1 or 2 endometrioid lesion and final specimen was upgraded to grade 3. Downstaging occurred in 3/272 (1.1%; 95% CI, 0%-2.3%) patients with preoperative grade 3 lesion and final specimen demonstrated grade 1 or 2 disease. All 3 patients' primary tumor diameter was greater than 2 cm and therefore received LN dissection. Histopathological discrepancy that would alter perioperative LN dissection decision based on the aforementioned criteria occurred in 2/272 (0.7%; 95% CI, 0%-1.8%). Despite a 20% discrepancy of preoperative and postoperative histopathology, discrepancy that would alter a perioperative decision for LN dissection occurs in only 0.7% of cases in this retrospective single-institutional experience. Myometrial

  10. Testing black hole candidates with electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2017-04-01

    Astrophysical black hole candidates are thought to be the Kerr black holes of general relativity, but there is not yet direct observational evidence that the spacetime geometry around these objects is described by the Kerr solution. The study of the properties of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by gas or stars orbiting these objects can potentially test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. This paper reviews the state of the art of this research field, describing the possible approaches to test the Kerr metric with current and future observational facilities and discussing current constraints.

  11. HPV self-sampling in CIN2+ detection: sensitivity and specificity of different RLU cut-off of HC2 in specimens from 786 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, F; Igidbashian, S; Boveri, S; Tricca, A; Gulmini, C; Sesia, M; Spolti, N; Sideri, M; Landoni, F; Sandri, M T

    2017-04-01

    Mortality for cervical cancer varies between the different regions of the world, with high rates in low-income countries where screening programmes are not present and organised. However, increasing screening coverage is still a priority in all countries: one way to do that is to base screening on self-sampled screening. The success of a self-sampling screening strategy depends on capacity to recruit unscreened women, on the performance and acceptability of the device and on the clinical performance of the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) test. This study based on 786 enrolled women investigates the best cut-off value of Hybrid Capture 2 HPV test (HC2) for self-sampled specimens in terms of sensitivity and specificity. In this population, we found that the sensitivity and the specificity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more detection of HC2 performed on self-sampled specimens were 82.5% and 82.8%, respectively considering the relative light units (RLU) cut-off value of 1. Increasing the cut-off value the sensitivity decreases and the specificity raises and the best area under the curve for the RLU cut-off value is 1. Our results confirm that the cut-off value of 1 suggested by Qiagen for PreservCyt specimen is the best cut-off value also for self-sampled specimens. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Testing quantum gravity through dumb holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourhassan, Behnam, E-mail: b.pourhassan@du.ac.ir [School of Physics, Damghan University, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: f2mir@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4 (Canada); Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia - Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Capozziello, Salvatore, E-mail: capozzie@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli ”Frederico II” Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), Via F. Crispi 7, I-67100 L’ Aquila (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    We propose a method to test the effects of quantum fluctuations on black holes by analyzing the effects of thermal fluctuations on dumb holes, the analogs for black holes. The proposal is based on the Jacobson formalism, where the Einstein field equations are viewed as thermodynamical relations, and so the quantum fluctuations are generated from the thermal fluctuations. It is well known that all approaches to quantum gravity generate logarithmic corrections to the entropy of a black hole and the coefficient of this term varies according to the different approaches to the quantum gravity. It is possible to demonstrate that such logarithmic terms are also generated from thermal fluctuations in dumb holes. In this paper, we claim that it is possible to experimentally test such corrections for dumb holes, and also obtain the correct coefficient for them. This fact can then be used to predict the effects of quantum fluctuations on realistic black holes, and so it can also be used, in principle, to experimentally test the different approaches to quantum gravity.

  13. New test for determining fundamental transverse, longitudinal and torsional frequencies of concrete specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaidis, J. M.

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available For twenty-five years The ASTM method used to determine reductions in concrete durability after freeze-thaw cycling has been C215-60. In this test the fundamental frequencies of a concrete specimen are compared. This test is time consuming, noisy and often inaccurate. In this paper a new method is proposed for measuring the fundamental frequencies of concrete to a single tap via a Fast Fourier Transform. The new test is faster, simpler and more accurate.

    El método usado por la ASTM desde hace 25 años para la determinación de la durabilidad del hormigón después de sufrir ciclos hielo/deshielo ha sido el C215-60. En este ensayo se comparan las frecuencias fundamentales de una probeta de hormigón. Este ensayo es ruidoso, lleva bastante tiempo y es bastante impreciso. En este trabajo se pone un nuevo método para medias frecuencias fundamentales en el hormigón por simple golpe mediante la TRANSFORMADA RÁPIDA de FOURIER. El nuevo método es más rápido, más simple y más preciso.

  14. Comparison of Fracture Characteristics of Open-Hole-Notch Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composites Subjected to Tensile and Compressive Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, M.-U.; Chen, Z. F.; Chen, Z. H.; Li, B. B.

    2017-01-01

    Open-hole tension (OHT) and open-hole compression (OHC) tests were carried out on hot-pressed carbon-fiberreinforced composite samples with a singular open hole. The fracture surfaces of the OHT- and OHC-tested specimens were examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM micrographs showed significant features on the surface of carbon fiber, matrix, and especially in the fiber/matrix interface. Interpretation of these micrographs revealed the possible failure mechanism of composite samples with an open hole under tensile and compressive loadings. Furthermore, a comparative study of these micrographs also pointed to certain specific differences between the fracture characteristics of open-hole composite samples failed under tension and compression. This information is useful in the post-failure analysis of a composite structure.

  15. Molecular tests for human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in liquid-based cytology specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sin Hang; Vigliotti, Veronica S; Pappu, Suri

    2009-04-09

    Laboratory detection of Human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology specimens is now based on identification of the DNA sequences unique to these infectious agents. However, current commercial test kits rely on nucleotide probe hybridization to determine DNA sequences, which may lead to diagnostic errors due to cross-reactivity. The aim of this study was to find a practical approach to perform automated Sanger DNA sequencing in clinical laboratories for validation of the DNA tests for these three infectious agents. A crude proteinase K digest of 5% of the cells collected in a liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology specimen was used for the detection of DNA molecules specific for HPV, C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae, and for preparation of materials suitable for direct automated DNA sequencing. Several sets of commercially available polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were used to prepare nested PCR amplicons for direct DNA sequencing. Some variants of HPV-16 and HPV-31 were found to share an at least 34-base long sequence homology downstream of the GP5+ binding site, and all HPV-6 and HPV-11 variants shared an upstream 34-base sequence including part of the GP5+ primer. Accurate HPV genotyping frequently required more than 34-bases for sequence alignments to distinguish some of the HPV genotype variants with closely related sequences in this L1 gene hypervariable region. Using the automated Sanger DNA sequencing method for parallel comparative studies on split samples and to retest the residues of samples previously tested positive for C trachomatis and/or for N gonorrhoeae, we also found false-negative and false-positive results as reported by two commercial nucleic acid test kits. Identification of a signature DNA sequence by the automated Sanger method is useful for validation of HPV genotyping and for molecular testing of C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae in liquid-based cervicovaginal

  16. Molecular tests for human papillomavirus (HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in liquid-based cytology specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigliotti Veronica S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laboratory detection of Human papillomavirus (HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology specimens is now based on identification of the DNA sequences unique to these infectious agents. However, current commercial test kits rely on nucleotide probe hybridization to determine DNA sequences, which may lead to diagnostic errors due to cross-reactivity. The aim of this study was to find a practical approach to perform automated Sanger DNA sequencing in clinical laboratories for validation of the DNA tests for these three infectious agents. Methods A crude proteinase K digestate of 5% of the cells collected in a liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology specimen was used for the detection of DNA molecules specific for HPV, C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae, and for preparation of materials suitable for direct automated DNA sequencing. Several sets of commercially available polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers were used to prepare nested PCR amplicons for direct DNA sequencing. Results Some variants of HPV-16 and HPV-31 were found to share an at least 34-base long sequence homology downstream of the GP5+ binding site, and all HPV-6 and HPV-11 variants shared an upstream 34-base sequence including part of the GP5+ primer. Accurate HPV genotyping frequently required more than 34-bases for sequence alignments to distinguish some of the HPV genotype variants with closely related sequences in this L1 gene hypervariable region. Using the automated Sanger DNA sequencing method for parallel comparative studies on split samples and to retest the residues of samples previously tested positive for C trachomatis and/or for N gonorrhoeae, we also found false-negative and false-positive results as reported by two commercial nucleic acid test kits. Conclusion Identification of a signature DNA sequence by the automated Sanger method is useful for validation of HPV genotyping and for molecular testing of

  17. Temperature buffer test. Installation of buffer, heaters and instruments in the deposition hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Sanden, Torbjoern; Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Barcena, Ignacio; Garcia-Sineriz, Jose Luis [Aitemin, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    During 2003 the Temperature Buffer Test was installed in Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Temperature, water pressure, relative humidity, total pressure and displacements etc. are measured in numerous points in the test. Most of the cables from the transducers are led in the deposition hole through slots in the rock surface of the deposition hole in watertight tubes to the data collection system in a container placed in the tunnel close to the deposition hole. This report describes the work with the installations of the buffer, heaters, and instruments and yields a description of the final location of all instruments. The report also contains a description of the materials that were installed and the densities yielded after placement.

  18. Gravitational wave astronomy, relativity tests, and massive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Peter L.; Bender

    2010-01-01

    The gravitational wave detectors that are operating now are looking for several kinds of gravitational wave signals at frequencies of tens of Hertz to kilohertz. One of these is mergers of roughly 10 M⊙ BH binaries. Sometime between now and about 8 years from now, it is likely that signals of this kind will be observed. The result will be strong tests of the dynamical predictions of general relativity in the high field regime. However, observations at frequencies below 1 Hz will have to wait until the launch of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), hopefully only a few years later. LISA will have 3 main objectives, all involving massive BHs. The first is observations of mergers of pairs of intermediate mass (100 to 105 M⊙) and higher mass BHs at redshifts out to roughly z=10. This will provide new information on the initial formation and growth of BHs such as those found in most galaxies, and the relation between BH growth and the evolution of galactic structure. The second objective is observations of roughly 10 M⊙ BHs, neutron stars, and white dwarfs spiraling into much more massive BHs in galactic nuclei. Such events will provide detailed information on the populations of such compact objects in the regions around galactic centers. And the third objective is the use of the first two types of observations for testing general relativity even more strongly than ground based detectors will. As an example, an extreme mass ratio event such as a 10 M⊙ BH spiraling into a galactic center BH can give roughly 105 observable cycles during about the last year before merger, with a mean relative velocity of 1/3 to 1/2 the speed of light, and the frequencies of periapsis precession and Lense-Thirring precession will be high. The LISA Pathfinder mission to prepare for LISA is scheduled for launch in 2011.

  19. HIV-1 serologic test results for one million newborn dried-blood specimens: assay performance and implications for screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, M; Redus, M A; Granade, T C; Hannon, W H; George, J R

    1992-01-01

    In a population-based national survey conducted in 1988-90, more than one million neonatal dried-blood specimens were tested for maternal antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Enzyme immunoassays (EIA) and Western blot tests were performed in 20 state laboratories following standardized procedures. The observed predictive value of a repeatedly reactive EIA results closely coincided with that expected on the basis of manufacturer's estimates of test sensitivity and specificity for dried-blood specimens. Of the 2,845 EIA-reactive specimens tested by Western blot, 1,323 (47%) were positive, 1,270 (45%) were negative, and 252 (9%) were indeterminate. False-positive EIA and indeterminate Western blot results occurred at rates independent of seroprevalence. These data help characterize the results to be expected from screening of similar low-seroprevalence populations and constitute a base line for the detection of systematic testing errors.

  20. Standard practice for verification of testing frame and specimen alignment under tensile and compressive axial force application

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2014-01-01

    1.1 Included in this practice are methods covering the determination of the amount of bending that occurs during the application of tensile and compressive forces to notched and unnotched test specimens in the elastic range and to plastic strains less than 0.002. These methods are particularly applicable to the force application rates normally used for tension testing, creep testing, and uniaxial fatigue testing.

  1. Standard practice for verification of testing frame and specimen alignment under tensile and compressive axial force application

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 Included in this practice are methods covering the determination of the amount of bending that occurs during the application of tensile and compressive forces to notched and unnotched test specimens in the elastic range and to plastic strains less than 0.002. These methods are particularly applicable to the force application rates normally used for tension testing, creep testing, and uniaxial fatigue testing.

  2. Model updating and prognosis of acoustic emission data in compact test specimens under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Boris A.; Caicedo, Juan M.; Yu, Jianguo; Ziehl, Paul

    2011-04-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) is generated when cracks develop and it is used as an indicator of the current state of damage in structural elements. Algorithms that use AE data to predict the state of a structural element are still in their research stages because the relationship between crack length and AE activity is not well understood. The process of trying to predict the future stage of a crack based on AE data is usually performed by an expert, and requires significant experience. This paper proposes a new strategy for the use of AE data for structural prognosis. A probabilistic model is used to predict AE data. An expert can analyze this data to draw conclusions about the health of the structural member. The goal is to aid the analyst by providing an estimation of the AE activity in the future. The methodology provides the cumulative signal strength at a future number of cycles, assuming the loading and boundary conditions hold. The methodology uses a relationship between the rate of change of the cumulative absolute energy of the AE with respect to the number of cycles and the stress intensity range. A third order polynomial equation that describes the stress intensity range as function of the AE data is proposed. The variables to be updated are treated as random and their joint probability distribution is computed using Bayesian inference. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is used to forecast the cumulative signal strength at some number of cycles in the future. The methodology is tested using a compact test specimen tested in structures lab at the University of South Carolina.

  3. Testing black hole superradiance with pulsar companions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João G. Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We show that the magnetic dipole and gravitational radiation emitted by a pulsar can undergo superradiant scattering off a spinning black hole companion. We find that the relative amount of superradiant modes in the radiation depends on the pulsar's angular position relative to the black hole's equatorial plane. In particular, when the pulsar and black hole spins are aligned, superradiant modes are dominant at large angles, leading to an amplification of the pulsar's luminosity, whereas for small angles the radiation is dominantly composed of non-superradiant modes and the signal is attenuated. This results in a characteristic orbital modulation of the pulsar's luminosity, up to the percent level within our approximations, which may potentially yield a signature of superradiant scattering in astrophysical black holes and hence an important test of general relativity.

  4. Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection: comparison of four methods on specimens collected in Cary-Blair transport medium and tcdB PCR on fresh versus frozen samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Noah A.; LeBar, William D.; Young, Carol L.; Hankerd, Rosemary E.; Newton, Duane W.

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) caused by toxigenic strains of C. difficile is primarily a nosocomial infection with increasing prevalence. Stool specimens are typically collected in Cary-Blair transport medium to maximize culture-based detection of common stool pathogens. The goal of this study was to establish an analytically accurate and efficient algorithm for the detection of CDI in our patient population using samples collected in Cary-Blair transport medium. In addition, we wished to determine whether the sensitivity and specificity of PCR was affected by freezing samples before testing. Using 357 specimens, we compared four methods: enzyme immunoassay for the antigen glutamate dehydrogenase (Wampole™ C. DIFF CHEK-60 Assay, GDH), toxin A and B enzyme immunoassay (Remel ProSpecT™ C. difficile Toxin A/B Microplate Assay, Toxin EIA), cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (Bartels™ Cytotoxicity Assay, CT), and real-time PCR targeting the toxin B gene (BD GeneOhm™ Cdiff Assay, PCR). The analytic sensitivity and specificity of each as determined using a combined gold standard were as follows: GDH, 100% and 93.2%; Toxin EIA, 82.9% and 82.9%; CT, 100% and 100%; PCR (performed on frozen specimens) 74.3% and 96.6%; respectively. However, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR improved to 100% when performed on 50 fresh stool samples collected in Cary-Blair. While CT remains a sensitive method for the detection of CDI, GDH offers an excellent initial screening method to rule out CDI. While the performance of each assay did not appear to be affected by collection in Cary-Blair medium, PCR performed better using fresh specimens. PMID:24470904

  5. Specimen Provenance Testing Identifies Contamination That Affects Molecular Prognostic Assay Results in Prostate Cancer Biopsy Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojno, Lathem; Minutella, Caitlyn; Moylan, Donald; Bush, Arla; Wojno, Kirk

    2018-02-21

    To determine if tissue contamination in histologic specimens can significantly affect the results of prognostic molecular markers that are routinely used as confirmatory tests to safely assign appropriate candidates to prostate cancer active surveillance protocols. This study evaluates 2,134 cases from a single, large urology practice that were successfully tested for DNA specimen provenance verification using short tandem repeat analysis for the presence of a significant level of contaminating DNA. After removal of the contamination, five of the samples were retested, and the results of the molecular diagnostic test were compared. 49 of the 2,134 cases (2.3%) sent for DNA provenance analysis were found to possess significant levels of contamination. Of these 49 cases, seven of them were resent for a repeat molecular diagnostic test after being decontaminated. Five of these prostate cancer specimens had sufficient tissue and RNA to give a more accurate cell cycle progression (CCP) score. The average absolute change in these patient's CCP scores was 0.48, with a low of a 0.1-unit and a high of a 1.0-unit difference. These changes in CCP scores are significant enough to cause meaningful alterations in a patient's calculated 10-year mortality rate, as defined by their combined risk score (CRS). DNA contamination in unstained tissue sections sent for prognostic prostate cancer molecular diagnostic testing occurs on 2.3% of cases, and can be of a magnitude that affects the results and subsequent clinical decision of appropriateness for active surveillance. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Biaxial Testing of 2195 Aluminum Lithium Alloy Using Cruciform Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, W. M.; Pollock, W. D.; Dawicke, D. S.; Wagner, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A cruciform biaxial test specimen was used to test the effect of biaxial load on the yield of aluminum-lithium alloy 2195. Fifteen cruciform specimens were tested from 2 thicknesses of 2195-T8 plate, 0.45 in. and 1.75 in. These results were compared to the results from uniaxial tensile tests of the same alloy, and cruciform biaxial tests of aluminum alloy 2219-T87.

  7. Hole expansion test of third generation steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirre, Julen; Mendiguren, Joseba; Galdos, Lander; de Argandoña, Eneko Sáenz

    2017-10-01

    The trend towards the implementation of new materials in the chassis of the automobiles is considerably making more complex the manufacturing of the components that built it up. In this scenario materials with higher strengths and lower formabilities are daily faced by tool makers and component producers what reduces the process windows and makes the forming processes to be in the limits of the materials. One of the concerns that tool makers must face during the definition of the tools is the expansion ratios that the holes in the sheet may reach before producing a breakage due to the stretching of the material (also known as edge cracks). For the characterization of such limits, a standard test, the hole expansion test, can be applied so that the limits of the material are known. At the present study, hole expansion tests of a third generation steel, Fortiform1050 with a thickness of 1.2 millimeters have been carried out and compared them to a mild steel, DX54D with a thickness of 0.6 millimeters. A comparison for each material in terms of technology used to punch the hole, mechanical punching vs laser cutting has also been conducted. In addition, the measurement technique (online measurement vs offline measurement) followed in the Hole Expansion Ratio (HER) identification has also been analyzed. Finally, differences between both materials and techniques are presented.

  8. Evaluation of composite flattened tubular specimen. [fatigue tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, T.; Daniel, I. M.

    1978-01-01

    Flattened tubular specimens of graphite/epoxy, S-glass/epoxy, Kevlar-49/epoxy, and graphite/S-glass/epoxy hybrid materials were evaluated under static and cyclic uniaxial tensile loading and compared directly with flat coupon data of the same materials generated under corresponding loading conditions. Additional development for the refinement of the flattened specimen configuration and fabrication was required. Statically tested graphite/epoxy, S-glass/epoxy, and Kevlar 49/epoxy flattened tube specimens exhibit somewhat higher average strengths than their corresponding flat coupons. Flattened tube specimens of the graphite/S-glass/epoxy hybrid and the graphite/epoxy flattened tube specimens failed in parasitic modes with consequential lower strength than the corresponding flat coupons. Fatigue tested flattened tube specimens failed in parasitic modes resulting in lower fatigue strengths than the corresponding flat coupons.

  9. Evaluation of Molecular Tools for Detection and Drug Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Stool Specimens from Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Cordova, Julianna; Shiloh, Ron; Gilman, Robert H.; Sheen, Patricia; Martin, Laura; Arenas, Fanny; Caviedes, Luz; Kawai, Vivian; Soto, Giselle; Williams, Diana L.; Zimic, Mirko; Escombe, A. Roderick; Evans, Carlton A.

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis is difficult when patients cannot produce sputum. Most sputum is swallowed, and tuberculosis DNA can survive intestinal transit. We therefore evaluated molecular testing of stool specimens for detecting tuberculosis originating from the lungs. Paired stool and sputum samples (n = 159) were collected from 89 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Control stool samples (n = 47) were collected from patients without tuberculosis symptoms. Two techniques for DNA ext...

  10. Comparison of urine specimen collection times and testing fractions for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus and high-grade cervical precancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkomago, V; Des Marais, A C; Rahangdale, L; Vibat, C R T; Erlander, M G; Smith, J S

    2016-01-01

    Urine testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) detection could provide a non-invasive, simple method for cervical cancer screening. We examined whether HR-HPV detection is affected by urine collection time, portion of urine stream, or urine fraction tested, and assessed the performance of HR-HPV testing in urine for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II or worse (CIN2+). A total of 37 female colposcopy clinic attendees, ≥ 30 years, provided three urine samples: "first void" urine collected at home, and "initial stream" and "mid-stream" urine samples collected at the clinic later in the day. Self- and physician-collected brush specimens were obtained at the same clinic visit. Colposcopy was performed and directed biopsies obtained if clinically indicated. For each urine sample, HR-HPV DNA testing was conducted for unfractionated, pellet, and supernatant fractions using the Trovagene test. HR-HPV mRNA testing was performed on brush specimens using the Aptima HPV assay. HR-HPV prevalence was similar in unfractionated and pellet fractions of all urine samples. For supernatant urine fractions, HR-HPV prevalence appeared lower in mid-stream urine (56.8%[40.8-72.7%]) than in initial stream urine (75.7%[61.9-89.5%]). Sensitivity of CIN2+ detection was identical for initial stream urine and physician-collected cervical specimen (89.9%[95%CI=62.7-99.6%]), and similar to self-collected vaginal specimen (79.1%[48.1-96.6%]). This is among the first studies to compare methodologies for collection and processing of urine for HR-HPV detection. HR-HPV prevalence was similar in first void and initial stream urine, and was highly sensitive for CIN2+ detection. Additional research in a larger and general screening population is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Post-deformation examination of specimens subjected to SCC testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Busby, Jeremy T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Leonard, Keith J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report details the results of post-radiation and post-deformation characterizations performed during FY 2015–FY 2016 on a subset of specimens that had previously been irradiated at high displacement per atom (dpa) damage doses. The specimens, made of commercial austenitic stainless steels and alloys, were subjected to stress-corrosion cracking tests (constant extension rate testing and crack growth testing) at the University of Michigan under conditions typical of nuclear power plants. After testing, the specimens were returned to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for further analysis and evaluation.

  12. Stabilizing specimens for routine ammonia testing in the clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Jessica L; Nguyen, William N T; de Koning, Lawrence; Seiden-Long, Isolde

    2017-12-16

    In vitro deamination generates ammonia in freshly collected blood specimens. To prevent this, samples for ammonia testing are usually collected on ice and run rapidly (e.g., within 1h). We developed a method to stabilize specimens for ammonia analysis. Following plasma separation, 500μmol/l cycloserine or a combination of 2mmol/l sodium borate with 5mmol/l l-serine were added to sample pools with normal or increased concentrations of ALT and/or GGT to inhibit deamination; and/or residual platelets were removed via centrifugation. Sample pools were then incubated at room temperature or 4°C. Untreated sample pools were also incubated at -80°C. Ammonia was measured at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24h. When incubated at 4°C without treatment, sample pools with enzymes within their reference limit had an increase of 0.5μmol/l/h, whereas sample pools with ALT and/or GGT activity above their upper reference limit had an increase of 3.6μmol/l/h (p12h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing the Kerr black hole hypothesis: Comparison between the gravitational wave and the iron line approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cárdenas-Avendaño, Alejandro [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China); Programa de Matemática, Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz, 110231 Bogotá (Colombia); Jiang, Jiachen [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China); Bambi, Cosimo, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China); Theoretical Astrophysics, Eberhard-Karls Universität Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2016-09-10

    The recent announcement of the detection of gravitational waves by the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration has opened a new window to test the nature of astrophysical black holes. Konoplya & Zhidenko have shown how the LIGO data of GW 150914 can constrain possible deviations from the Kerr metric. In this letter, we compare their constraints with those that can be obtained from accreting black holes by fitting their X-ray reflection spectrum, the so-called iron line method. We simulate observations with eXTP, a next generation X-ray mission, finding constraints much stronger than those obtained by Konoplya & Zhidenko. Our results can at least show that, contrary to what is quite commonly believed, it is not obvious that gravitational waves are the most powerful approach to test strong gravity. In the presence of high quality data and with the systematics under control, the iron line method may provide competitive constraints.

  14. Analysis of anisotropic damage in forged Al–Cu–Mg–Si alloy based on creep tests, micrographs of fractured specimen and digital image correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gariboldi, Elisabetta, E-mail: elisabetta.gariboldi@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via La Masa 34 20156 Milano (Italy); Naumenko, Konstantin, E-mail: konstantin.naumenko@ovgu.de [Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Institute of Mechanics, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Ozhoga-Maslovskaja, Oksana, E-mail: oksana.ozhogamaslovskaja@gmail.com [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via La Masa 34 20156 Milano (Italy); Zappa, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.zappa@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via La Masa 34 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this paper is to analyze anisotropic damage mechanisms in forged Al–Cu–Mg–Si alloy based on the results of creep tests. Smooth specimens are sampled in three forging directions. Creep strain vs. time curves as well as light optical microscope and scanning electron microscope observations illustrate basic features of damage growth. Flat notch specimens are sampled in different directions to analyze stress redistributions and damage in zones of stress concentration. The digital image correlation technique has been applied in situ in order to extract the strain values on the surface of the notched specimens. All observations demonstrate that the principal origins of anisotropic creep and damage are associated with elongated grains and second phase clustered particles located at grain boundaries. Longitudinal specimens possess nucleations of decohesion sites and growth of voids around second phase particles at grain boundaries. Damage evolution for radial and transverse specimens is due to the formation and growth of cracks in second phase particles orthogonal to the principal stress axis. Residual strains are confined to the notch root as well as to the flanges of advanced macrocrack, indicating the small scale yielding during the creep fracture process.

  15. Analysis of off-axis tension test of wood specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen Y. Liu

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a stress analysis of the off-axis tension test of clear wood specimens based on orthotropic elasticity theory. The effects of Poisson's ratio and shear coupling coefficient on stress distribution are analyzed in detail. The analysis also provides a theoretical foundation for the selection of a 10° grain angle in wood specimens for the...

  16. An analytical and experimental stress analysis of a practical mode II fracture-test specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, D. B.; Jones, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    A boundary collocation method has been employed to determine the Mode II stress intensity factors for a pair of through-the-thickness edge cracks in a finite isotropic plate. An elastostatic analysis has been carried out in terms of the complete Williams stress function employing both even and odd components. The results of the numerical analysis were verified by a two-step procedure whereby the symmetric and antisymmetric portions of the solution were independently compared with existing solutions. The complete solution was verified by comparison with a photoelastic analysis. A compact shear specimen (CSS) of Hysol epoxy resin was loaded in a photoelastic experiment designed to study the isochromatic fringe patterns resulting from the Mode II crack tip stress distribution. The experiment verified that a pure Mode II stress distribution existed in the neighborhood of the crack tips and confirmed the accuracy of the boundary collocation solution for the Mode II stress intensity factors.

  17. Evaluation and Comparison of Multiple Test Methods, Including Real-time PCR, for Legionella Detection in Clinical Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peci, Adriana; Winter, Anne-Luise; Gubbay, Jonathan B.

    2016-01-01

    Legionella is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause Pontiac fever, a mild upper respiratory infection and Legionnaire’s disease, a more severe illness. We aimed to compare the performance of urine antigen, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test methods and to determine if sputum is an acceptable alternative to the use of more invasive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Data for this study included specimens tested for Legionella at Public Health Ontario Laboratories from 1st January, 2010 to 30th April, 2014, as part of routine clinical testing. We found sensitivity of urinary antigen test (UAT) compared to culture to be 87%, specificity 94.7%, positive predictive value (PPV) 63.8%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 98.5%. Sensitivity of UAT compared to PCR was 74.7%, specificity 98.3%, PPV 77.7%, and NPV 98.1%. Out of 146 patients who had a Legionella-positive result by PCR, only 66 (45.2%) also had a positive result by culture. Sensitivity for culture was the same using either sputum or BAL (13.6%); sensitivity for PCR was 10.3% for sputum and 12.8% for BAL. Both sputum and BAL yield similar results regardless testing methods (Fisher Exact p-values = 1.0, for each test). In summary, all test methods have inherent weaknesses in identifying Legionella; therefore, more than one testing method should be used. Obtaining a single specimen type from patients with pneumonia limits the ability to diagnose Legionella, particularly when urine is the specimen type submitted. Given ease of collection and similar sensitivity to BAL, clinicians are encouraged to submit sputum in addition to urine when BAL submission is not practical from patients being tested for Legionella. PMID:27630979

  18. Hydrogen induced cracking tests of high strength steels and nickel-iron base alloys using the bolt-loaded specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigilante, G.N.; Underwood, J.H.; Crayon, D.; Tauscher, S.; Sage, T.; Troiano, E. [Army Armament RD and E Center, Watervliet, NY (United States). Benet Labs.

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen induced cracking tests were conducted on high strength steels and nickel-iron base alloys using the constant displacement bolt-loaded compact specimen. The bolt-loaded specimen was subjected to both acid and electrochemical cell environments in order to produce hydrogen. The materials tested were A723, Maraging 200, PH 13-8 Mo, Alloy 718, Alloy 706, and A286, and ranged in yield strength from 760--1400 MPa. The effects of chemical composition, refinement, heat treatment, and strength on hydrogen induced crack growth rates and thresholds were examined. In general, all high strength steels tested exhibited similar crack growth rates and thresholds were examined. In general, all high strength steels tested exhibited similar crack growth rates and threshold levels. In comparison, the nickel-iron base alloys tested exhibited up to three orders of magnitude lower crack growth rates than the high strength steels tested. It is widely known that high strength steels and nickel base alloys exhibit different crack growth rates, in part, because of their different crystal cell structure. In the high strength steels tested, refinement and heat treatment had some effect on hydrogen induced cracking, though strength was the predominant factor influencing susceptibility to cracking. When the yield strength of one of the high strength steels tested was increased moderately, from 1130 MPa to 1275 MPa, the incubation times decreased by over two orders of magnitude, the crack growth rates increased by an order of magnitude, and the threshold stress intensity was slightly lower.

  19. Evaluation and comparison of multiple test methods, including real-time PCR, for Legionella detection in clinical specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Peci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Legionella is a gram-negative bacterium that can cause Pontiac fever, a mild upper respiratory infection and Legionnaire’s disease, a more severe illness. We aimed to compare the performance of urine antigen, culture and PCR test methods and to determine if sputum is an alternative to the use of more invasive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. Data for this study included specimens tested for Legionella at PHOL from January 1, 2010 to April 30, 2014, as part of routine clinical testing. We found sensitivity of UAT compared to culture to be 87%, specificity 94.7%, positive predictive value (PPV 63.8% and negative predictive value (NPV 98.5%. Sensitivity of UAT compared to PCR was 74.7%, specificity 98.3%, PPV 77.7% and NPV 98.1%. Of 146 patients who had a Legionella positive result by PCR, only 66(45.2% also had a positive result by culture. Sensitivity for culture was the same using either sputum or BAL (13.6%; sensitivity for PCR was 10.3% for sputum and 12.8% for BAL. Both sputum and BAL yield similar results despite testing methods (Fisher Exact p-values=1.0, for each test. In summary, all test methods have inherent weaknesses in identifying Legionella; thereforemore than one testing method should be used. Obtaining a single specimen type from patients with pneumonia limits the ability to diagnose Legionella, particularly when urine is the specimen type submitted. Given ease of collection, and similar sensitivity to BAL, clinicians are encouraged to submit sputum in addition to urine when BAL submission is not practical, from patients being tested for Legionella.

  20. Limited Applicability of Direct Fluorescent-Antibody Testing for Bordetella sp. and Legionella sp. Specimens for the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory▿

    OpenAIRE

    She, Rosemary C.; Billetdeaux, Erick; Phansalkar, Amit R.; Petti, Cathy A.

    2007-01-01

    The rapid diagnosis of infections with Bordetella and Legionella species is important for patient management. With observed increases in direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) testing volumes, we retrospectively compared the performance characteristics of DFA testing to those of culture and PCR. For Bordetella sp., samples were classified as positive by DFA testing (184 [3%] of 6,195 samples) and culture (150 [2%] of 6,251 samples) significantly less often than by PCR (2,557 [10%] of 26,929 sample...

  1. Comparison of DRY and WET vaginal swabs with cervical specimens in Roche Cobas 4800 HPV and Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jae Kwan; Lim, Myong Cheol; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Shin, Hye Young; Hwang, Na Rae; Kim, Yeon-Jin; Yoo, Chong Woo; Lee, Dong Ock; Joo, Jungnam; Park, Sang-Yoon; Lee, Do-Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Self-collected vaginal swab samples have been proposed as an alternative specimen collection method for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA detection. Two vaginal swabs (a cone-shaped flocked swab (DRY) and a L-shape FLOQSwab with 2mL eNAT transport medium (WET)) were compared to standard cervical samples for HPV DNA testing. Additionally, they were also compared by using Roche Cobas 4800 HPV (Roche_HPV) and Abbott Real-time High Risk HPV (Abbott_HPV) tests. Ninety-six women were prospectively enrolled from the National Cancer Center in Korea between June and August 2015. WET and DRY vaginal swabs and cervical specimens were collected. Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV tests were performed. The Roche_HPV test on cervical specimens was used as reference. The observed agreements (kappa) of Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV between WET and DRY swabs were 89.6% (0.790, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.667-0.913) and 91.7% (0.833, 95%CI: 0.723-0.943), respectively. No statistical difference was observed between WET and DRY swabs (p>0.05 for all comparisons). For HPV16/18, the sensitivity/specificity of Roche_HPV on the DRY and WET samples presented 93.8%/96.3% and 87.5%/97.5%, respectively. For other High Risk HPV (hrHPV), the sensitivity/specificity of Roche_HPV on the DRY and WET swabs presented 91.9%/91.5% and 97.3%/98.3, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity of the Abbott_HPV on the DRY and WET swabs were 93.8%/98.8%, 87.5%/98.8% for HPV16/18, and 91.9%/93.2%, 100.0%/93.2% for other hrHPV, respectively. HPV tests performed similarly when using vaginal DRY and WET swab samples. Using DRY and WET swabs to collect vaginal specimens could be an alternative to collecting cervical samples for HPV DNA testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Notched Specimen Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurtrey, Michael David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Richard Neil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lillo, Thomas Martin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Creep behavior of Alloy 617 has been extensively characterized to support the development of a draft Code Case to qualify Alloy 617 in Section III division 5 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This will allow use of Alloy 617 in construction of nuclear reactor components at elevated temperatures and longer periods of time (up to 950°C and 100,000 hours). Prior to actual use, additional concerns not considered in the ASME code need to be addressed. Code Cases are based largely on uniaxial testing of smooth gage specimens. In service conditions, components will generally be under multi axial loading. There is also the concern of the behavior at discontinuities, such as threaded components. To address the concerns of multi axial creep behavior and at geometric discontinuities, notched specimens have been designed to create conditions representative of the states that service components experience. Two general notch geometries have been used for these series of tests: U notch and V notch specimens. The notches produce a tri axial stress state, though not uniform across the specimen. Characterization of the creep behavior of the U notch specimens and the creep rupture behavior of the V notch specimens provides a good approximation of the behavior expected of actual components. Preliminary testing and analysis have been completed and are reported in this document. This includes results from V notch specimens tested at 900°C and 800°C. Failure occurred in the smooth gage section of the specimen rather than at the root of the notch, though some damage was present at the root of the notch, where initial stress was highest. This indicates notch strengthening behavior in this material at these temperatures.

  3. Exploiting the hidden symmetry of spinning black holes: conservation laws and numerical tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzany, Vojtěch

    2018-01-01

    The Kerr black hole is stationary and axisymmetric, which leads to conservation of energy and azimuthal angular momentum along the orbits of free test particles in its vicinity, but also to conservation laws for the evolution of continuum matter fields. However, the Kerr space-time possesses an additional 'hidden symmetry', which exhibits itself in an unexpected conserved quantity along geodesics known as the Carter constant. We investigate the possibility of using this hidden symmetry to obtain conservation laws and other identities that could be used to test astrophysical simulations of the evolution of matter fields near spinning black holes. After deriving such identities, we set up a simple numerical toy model on which we demonstrate how they can detect the violations of evolution equations in a numerical simulation. Even though one of the expressions we derive is in the form of a conservation law, we end up recommending an equivalent but simpler expression that is not in the form of a conservation law for practical implementation.

  4. Slant hole completion test. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, R.L.

    1993-07-01

    One of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Strategies and Objectives in the Natural Gas Program is to conduct activities to transfer technology from R&D programs to potential users. The Slant Hole Completion Test has achieved exactly this objective. The Slant Hole site is essentially the same as the Multiwell site and is located in the southeastern portion of the Piceance Basin near Rifle, Colorado. The Piceance Basin is typical of the Western low permeability basins that contain thick sequences of sands, silts and coals deposited during the Cretaceous period. These sequences contain vast amounts of natural gas but have proven to be resistant to commercial production because of the low permeability of the host rocks. Using the knowledge gained from the DOE`s earlier Multiwell experiment, the SHCT-1 was drilled to demonstrate that by intersecting the natural fractures found in these ``tight rocks,`` commercial gas production can be obtained.

  5. Comparison of the Real-Time PCR Method and the Gen-Probe Amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis Direct Test for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Pulmonary and Nonpulmonary Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Lemaître, Nadine; Armand, Sylvie; Vachée, Anne; Capilliez, Odile; Dumoulin, Christine; Courcol, René J.

    2004-01-01

    Real-time PCR was compared to Amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis Direct Test (AMTDII) for 100 clinical specimens. The overall sensitivities of the real-time PCR method and AMTDII were similar for respiratory and nonrespiratory specimens. However, real-time PCR seemed to be less susceptible to amplification inhibitors than AMTDII.

  6. Testing gravity of a regular and slowly rotating phantom black hole by quasi-periodic oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Songbai; Jing, Jiliang

    2016-01-01

    We extend firstly the regular phantom black hole solution to a slowly rotating black hole case and find that the phantom field depresses the angular velocity of the event horizon and suppresses the super-radiation of black hole. We also probe the dependence of quasi-periodic oscillations frequencies in relativistic precession model on the phantom parameter. With the observation data of GRO J1655-40, we make a constraint on the parameters of the regular and slowly rotating phantom black hole. Our results show that although the best-fit value of the phantom parameter $b$ is small, the allowed value of $b$ in the $1\\sigma$ region is $b<0.619$, which means that the phantom theoretical model can not be excluded by the constraint from quasi-periodic oscillations with the observation data of GRO J1655-40.

  7. Friction Compensation in the Upsetting of Cylindrical Test Specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Martins, P. A. F.; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2016-01-01

    . The methodology is based on minimizing the errorbetween the average surface pressure obtained from the experimental measurements of the force and displacement and thatobtained from the slab method of analysis of metal plasticity.Three different friction models based on Coulomb friction, the constant friction......This manuscript presents a combined numerical andexperimental methodology for determining the stress-straincurve of metallic materials from the measurements of forceand displacement obtained in the axial compression of cylindrical test specimens with friction between the specimens and the platens...... model or combined friction models are utilized .Experimental results obtained from cylindrical and Rastegaev test specimens with different lubricants combined with the experimental determination of friction by means of ring compression tests allows compensating the effect of friction...

  8. Fatigue Property of Open-Hole Steel Plates Influenced by Bolted Clamp-up and Hole Fabrication Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yu Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Steel plates with open holes are commonly used in structural assemblies. The fatigue properties of such details are influenced by bolted clamp-up and hole fabrication methods. The fracture surface, stiffness degradation and fatigue life of test specimens are investigated in detail and compared with the contemporary test data. The analysis results show that the presence of draglines greatly influences the fatigue crack initiation at the open-hole cut by laser. The bolted clamp-up condition greatly enhances the stiffness and the fatigue life of the open-hole details. A discussion is also made from a comparison with the referred fatigue life of hole fabrication details, such as the influence of plate thickness and plasma cutting, drilling and oxy-fuel gas cutting, with the details studied herein. This work could enhance the understanding of the fatigue property and design of such details.

  9. Compilation and analyses of results from cross-hole tracer tests with conservative tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjerne, Calle; Nordqvist, Rune; Harrstroem, Johan (Geosigma AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Radionuclide transport in hydrogeological formations is one of the key factors for the safety analysis of a future repository of nuclear waste. Tracer tests have therefore been an important field method within the SKB investigation programmes at several sites since the late 1970's. This report presents a compilation and analyses of results from cross-hole tracer tests with conservative tracers performed within various SKB investigations. The objectives of the study are to facilitate, improve and reduce uncertainties in predictive tracer modelling and to provide supporting information for SKB's safety assessment of a final repository of nuclear waste. More specifically, the focus of the report is the relationship between the tracer mean residence time and fracture hydraulic parameters, i.e. the relationship between mass balance aperture and fracture transmissivity, hydraulic diffusivity and apparent storativity. For 74 different combinations of pumping and injection section at six different test sites (Studsvik, Stripa, Finnsjoen, Aespoe, Forsmark, Laxemar), estimates of mass balance aperture from cross-hole tracer tests as well as transmissivity were extracted from reports or in the SKB database Sicada. For 28 of these combinations of pumping and injection section, estimates of hydraulic diffusivity and apparent storativity from hydraulic interference tests were also found. An empirical relationship between mass balance aperture and transmissivity was estimated, although some uncertainties for individual data exist. The empirical relationship between mass balance aperture and transmissivity presented in this study deviates considerably from other previously suggested relationships, such as the cubic law and transport aperture as suggested by /Dershowitz and Klise 2002/, /Dershowitz et al. 2002/ and /Dershowitz et al. 2003/, which also is discussed in this report. No clear and direct empirical relationship between mass balance aperture and hydraulic

  10. Testing general relativity using gravitational wave signals from the inspiral, merger and ringdown of binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhirup; Johnson-McDaniel, Nathan K.; Ghosh, Archisman; Kant Mishra, Chandra; Ajith, Parameswaran; Del Pozzo, Walter; Berry, Christopher P. L.; Nielsen, Alex B.; London, Lionel

    2018-01-01

    Advanced LIGO’s recent observations of gravitational waves (GWs) from merging binary black holes have opened up a unique laboratory to test general relativity (GR) in the highly relativistic regime. One of the tests used to establish the consistency of the first LIGO event with a binary black hole merger predicted by GR was the inspiral-merger-ringdown consistency test. This involves inferring the mass and spin of the remnant black hole from the inspiral (low-frequency) part of the observed signal and checking for the consistency of the inferred parameters with the same estimated from the post-inspiral (high-frequency) part of the signal. Based on the observed rate of binary black hole mergers, we expect the advanced GW observatories to observe hundreds of binary black hole mergers every year when operating at their design sensitivities, most of them with modest signal to noise ratios (SNRs). Anticipating such observations, this paper shows how constraints from a large number of events with modest SNRs can be combined to produce strong constraints on deviations from GR. Using kludge modified GR waveforms, we demonstrate how this test could identify certain types of deviations from GR if such deviations are present in the signal waveforms. We also study the robustness of this test against reasonable variations of a variety of different analysis parameters.

  11. Sample Proficiency Test exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, A; Gregg, H; Koester, C

    2006-02-05

    The current format of the OPCW proficiency tests has multiple sets of 2 samples sent to an analysis laboratory. In each sample set, one is identified as a sample, the other as a blank. This method of conducting proficiency tests differs from how an OPCW designated laboratory would receive authentic samples (a set of three containers, each not identified, consisting of the authentic sample, a control sample, and a blank sample). This exercise was designed to test the reporting if the proficiency tests were to be conducted. As such, this is not an official OPCW proficiency test, and the attached report is one method by which LLNL might report their analyses under a more realistic testing scheme. Therefore, the title on the report ''Report of the Umpteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test'' is meaningless, and provides a bit of whimsy for the analyses and readers of the report.

  12. Wildlife specimen collection, preservation, and shipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. LeAnn; Dusek, Robert J.; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Specimens are used to provide supporting information leading to the determination of the cause of disease or death in wildlife and for disease monitoring or surveillance. Commonly used specimens for wildlife disease investigations include intact carcasses, tissues from carcasses, euthanized or moribund animals, parasites, ingested food, feces, or environmental samples. Samples from live animals or the environment (e.g., contaminated feed) in the same vicinity as a mortality event also may be helpful. The type of specimen collected is determined by availability of samples and biological objectives. Multiple fresh, intact carcasses from affected species are the most useful in establishing a cause for a mortality event. Submission of entire carcasses allows observation of gross lesions and abnormalities, as well as disease testing of multiple tissues. Samples from live animals may be more appropriate when sick animals cannot be euthanized (e.g., threatened or endangered species) or for research and monitoring projects examining disease or agents circulating in apparently healthy animals or those not exhibiting clinical signs. Samples from live animals may include collections of blood, hair, feathers, feces, or ectoparasites, or samples obtained by swabbing lesions or orifices. Photographs and videos are useful additions for recording field and clinical signs and conveying conditions at the site. Collection of environmental samples (e.g., feces, water, feed, or soil) may be appropriate when animals cannot be captured for sampling or the disease agent may persist in the environment. If lethal collection is considered necessary, biologists should refer to the policies, procedures, and permit requirements of their institution/facility and the agency responsible for species management (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or State natural resource agency) prior to use in the field. If threatened or endangered species are found dead, or there is evidence of illegal take, field

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SAMPLE OF INTERMEDIATE-TYPE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. HOST BULGE PROPERTIES AND BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Erika; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene; Martinez, Benoni; Jimenez-Bailon, Elena [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Mendez-Abreu, Jairo; Lopez-Martin, Luis [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (ESFM-IPN), U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico); Chavushyan, Vahram [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Leon-Tavares, Jonathan, E-mail: erika@astro.unam.mx [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Metsaehovintie 114, 02540 Kylmaelae (Finland)

    2013-02-15

    We present a study of the host bulge properties and their relations with the black hole mass for a sample of 10 intermediate-type active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our sample consists mainly of early-type spirals, four of them hosting a bar. For 70{sup +10} {sub -17}% of the galaxies, we have been able to determine the type of the bulge, and find that these objects probably harbor a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge, suggesting that pseudobulges might be frequent in intermediate-type AGNs. In our sample, 50% {+-} 14% of the objects show double-peaked emission lines. Therefore, narrow double-peaked emission lines seem to be frequent in galaxies harboring a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge. Depending on the bulge type, we estimated the black hole mass using the corresponding M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation and found them within a range of 5.69 {+-} 0.21 < log M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} < 8.09 {+-} 0.24. Comparing these M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} values with masses derived from the FWHM of H{beta} and the continuum luminosity at 5100 A from their SDSS-DR7 spectra (M {sub BH}), we find that 8 out of 10 (80{sup +7} {sub -17}%) galaxies have black hole masses that are compatible within a factor of 3. This result would support that M {sub BH} and M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} are the same for intermediate-type AGNs, as has been found for type 1 AGNs. However, when the type of the bulge is taken into account, only three out of the seven (43{sup +18} {sub -15}%) objects of the sample have their M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} and M {sub BH} compatible within 3{sigma} errors. We also find that estimations based on the M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation for pseudobulges are not compatible in 50% {+-} 20% of the objects.

  14. Apparatus for Testing Flat Specimens of Thermal Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stanislaw D.

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus has been developed to implement an improved method of testing flat-plate specimens of thermal-insulation materials for cryogenic application. The method includes testing under realistic use conditions that could include vacuum and mechanical loading at a pressure up to 70 psi (=0.48 MPa). The apparatus can accommodate a rigid or flexible specimen having thickness up to 1.25 in. (=3.2 cm) and diameters between 6 and 10 in. (about 15.2 and 25.4 cm, respectively). Typical test conditions include boundary temperatures between 77 K and 373 K and vacuum/interstitial gas filling at a pressure between 10(exp -6) torr (=1.3 x 10(exp -4) Pa) and 760 torr (atmospheric pressure =0.1 MPa). The interstitial gas could be N2, He, CO2, or any other suitable gas to which the insulation is expected to be exposed in use. Relative to prior apparatuses and testing methods, this apparatus and the testing method that it implements offer advantages of relative simplicity and ease of use. The basic principle of operation of the apparatus is that of boil-off calorimetry, using liquid nitrogen or any other suitable liquid that boils at a desired temperature below ambient temperature. Comparative rates of flow of heat through the thicknesses of the specimens (heat-leak rates) and apparent-thermal-conductivity values are obtained from tests of specimens. Absolute values of heat-leak rates and apparent thermal conductivities are computed from a combination of (1) the aforementioned comparative values and (2) calibration factors obtained by testing reference specimens of materials that have known thermal-insulation properties. The apparatus includes a full complement of temperature sensors, a vacuum pump and chamber, a monitoring and control system, and tools and fixtures that enable rapid and reliable installation and removal of specimens. A specimen is installed at the bottom of the vacuum chamber, and a cold-mass assembly that includes a tank is lowered into position above and

  15. Comparison of gross anatomy test scores using traditional specimens vs. QuickTime Virtual Reality animated specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a cadaver. Anatomy educators debate over the advantages versus the disadvantages of computer based resources for gross anatomy instruction. Many studies, case reports, and editorials argue for the increased use of computer based anatomy educational tools, while others discuss the necessity of dissection for various reasons important in learning anatomy, such as a three-dimensional physical view of the specimen, physical handling of tissues, interactions with fellow students during dissection, and differences between specific specimens. While many articles deal with gross anatomy education using computers, there seems to be a lack of studies investigating the use of computer based resources as an assessment tool for gross anatomy, specifically using the Apple application QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR). This study investigated the use of QTVR movie modules to assess if using computer based QTVR movie module assessments were equal in quality to actual physical specimen examinations. A gross anatomy course in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University was used as a source of anatomy students and gross anatomy examinations. Two groups were compared, one group taking gross anatomy examinations in a traditional manner, by viewing actual physical specimens and answering questions based on those specimens. The other group took the same examinations using the same specimens, but the specimens were viewed as simulated three-dimensional objects in a QTVR movie module. Sample group means for the assessments were compared. A survey was also administered asking students' perceptions of quality and user-friendliness of the QTVR

  16. Anisotropy and fracture modes I and III in a flange test specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Silva, Carlos M.A.; Alves, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    parallel planes. The analysis of the flange component was assisted by numerical simulation which will be presented in further details in this presentation. The combination of the relevant ductile damage criterion with an element removal technique allows crack opening in the flange component in agreement...... with experimental observations. The circumferential location of the crack initiation in the flange is determined by asymmetric deformation and material imperfections. The asymmetric deformation is triggered in the numerical simulation by anisotropy, which is implemented in the employed fiite element computer...

  17. Collection and Testing of Respiratory Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-03

    QIAGEN ResPlex II Advanced Panel; Influenza A; Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections; Infection Due to Human Parainfluenza Virus 1; Parainfluenza Type 2; Parainfluenza Type 3; Parainfluenza Type 4; Human Metapneumovirus A/B; Rhinovirus; Coxsackie Virus/Echovirus; Adenovirus Types B/C/E; Coronavirus Subtypes 229E; Coronavirus Subtype NL63; Coronavirus Subtype OC43; Coronavirus Subtype HKU1; Human Bocavirus; Artus Influenza A/B RT-PCR Test; Influenza B

  18. Spinning test body orbiting around a Kerr black hole: Circular dynamics and gravitational-wave fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes-Gerakopoulos, Georgios; Harms, Enno; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Nagar, Alessandro

    2017-09-01

    In a recent work [Phys. Rev. D 94, 104010 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.94.104010], hereafter Paper I, we numerically studied different prescriptions for the dynamics of a spinning body in circular motion around a Schwarzschild black hole. In the present work, we continue this line of investigation by studying the rotating Kerr black hole. We consider the Mathisson-Papapetrou formalism under three different spin-supplementary conditions (SSC), the Tulczyjew SSC, the Pirani SSC, and the Ohashi-Kyrian-Semerak SSC, and analyze the different circular dynamics in terms of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) shifts and the frequency parameter x ≡(M Ω )2 /3 , where Ω is the orbital frequency and M is the Kerr black hole mass. Then, we solve numerically the inhomogeneous (2 +1 )D Teukolsky equation to contrast the asymptotic gravitational wave fluxes for the three cases. Our central observation made in Paper I for the Schwarzschild limit is found to hold true for the Kerr background; the three SSCs reduce to the same circular dynamics and the same radiation fluxes for small frequency parameters, but differences arise as x grows close to the ISCO. For a positive Kerr parameter a =0.9 , the energy fluxes mutually agree with each other within a 0.2% uncertainty up to x circular orbit parameters and the fluxes, especially for the a =-0.9 case. Instead, in the study of ISCO, the negative Kerr parameter a =-0.9 results in fewer discrepancies in comparison with the positive Kerr parameter a =0.9 . As a side result, we mention that, apart from the Tulczyew SSC, ISCOs could not be found over the full range of spins; for a =0.9 , for the Ohashi-Kyrian-Semerak SSC, ISCOs could be found only for σ <0.25 (σ denotes the test body's spin), while for the Pirani SSC, ISCOs could be found only for -0.68 <σ <0.64 . For a =-0.9 , for the Ohashi-Kyrian-Semerak SSC, ISCOs could be found for σ <0.721 .

  19. Influence of gross specimen sampling on the incidence of incidental prostatic carcinoma in cystoprostatectomy specimens of patients with bladder carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Mlakar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reported prostate cancer incidence rates vary greatly among cystoprostatectomy samples. We investigated how the thoroughness of prostate sampling influences prostatic carcinoma incidence in bladder cancer patients. In a retrospective study, 313 cystoprostatectomy cases of urinary bladder carcinoma were analysed for the presence of concurrent prostatic carcinoma. Patients were divided into two groups: patients who had undergone the operation before and after 2007, when a policy of preferably complete prostate sampling in cystoprostatectomy specimens was introduced at our institution. Cases processed after the 2007 recommended sampling changes had a significantly higher rate of incidental prostatic carcinoma and clinically significant prostatic carcinoma than the pre-2007 group (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.003, respectively. Complete prostate processing in cystoprostatectomy specimens results in a higher incidence of incidental prostatic carcinoma than with partial processing. More patients with clinically significant prostate cancer are consequently discovered. In conclusion, we believe that complete prostate sampling should be mandatory.

  20. Testing the blazar sequence and black hole mass scaling with BL Lac objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plotkin, R.M.; Markoff, S.; Anderson, S.F.; Kelly, B.C.; Körding, E.; Trager, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Jets from accreting black holes appear remarkably similar over eight orders of magnitude in black hole mass, with more massive black holes generally launching more powerful jets. For example, there is an observed correlation, termed the fundamental plane of black hole accretion, between black hole

  1. Testing the blazar sequence and black hole mass scaling with BL Lac objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Markoff, Sera; Anderson, Scott F.; Kelly, Brandon C.; Körding, Elmar; Trager, Scott C.; Romero, Gustavo E.; Sunyaev, Rashid A.; Belloni, Tomaso

    Jets from accreting black holes appear remarkably similar over eight orders of magnitude in black hole mass, with more massive black holes generally launching more powerful jets. For example, there is an observed correlation, termed the fundamental plane of black hole accretion, between black hole

  2. Geohydrologic and water-quality characterization of a fractured-bedrock test hole in an area of Marcellus shale gas development, Tioga County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John H.; Risser, Dennis W.; Hand , K.L; Clifford H. Dodge,

    2013-01-01

    An integrated analysis of core, geophysical logs, gas isotopes, and specific-depth water-quality samples from the Cherry Flats test hole was used to characterize the stratigraphy, water-bearing zones, and groundwater quality at a site in southern Tioga County, Pennsylvania. The study was completed as a cooperative effort between the Pennsylvania Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey (BTGS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The multi-disciplinary characterization of the test hole provided information to aid the bedrock mapping of the Cherry Flats 7.5-minute quadrangle by BTGS, and to help quantify the depth and character of fresh and saline groundwater in an area of shale-gas exploration. The Cherry Flats test hole was cored to a depth of 1,513 feet (ft) below land surface (bls) and cased to 189 ft through the collapsed mine workings of the former Arnot No. 2 underground coal mine. The test hole penetrated

  3. The feasibility of small size specimens for testing of environmentally assisted cracking of irradiated materials and of materials under irradiation in reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivonen, A.; Moilanen, P.; Pyykkoenen, M.; Taehtinen, S.; Rintamaa, R.; Saario, T. [Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-11-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of core materials has become an increasingly important issue of downtime and maintenance costs in nuclear power plants. Small size specimens are necessary in stress corrosion testing of irradiated materials because of difficulties in handling high dose rate materials and because of restricted availability of the materials. The drawback of using small size specimens is that in some cases they do not fulfil the requirements of the relevant testing standards. Recently VTT has developed J-R testing with irradiated and non-irradiated sub size 3 PB specimens, both in inert and in LWR environments. Also, a new materials testing system which will enable simultaneous multiple specimen testing both in laboratory conditions and in operating reactor core is under development. The new testing system will utilize Charpy and sub size 3 PB specimens. The feasibility study of the system has been carried out using different materials. Fracture resistance curves of a Cu-Zr-Cr alloy are shown to be independent of the specimen geometry and size, to some extent. Results gained from tests in simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) water are presented for sensitized SIS 2333 stainless steel. The experimental results indicate that the size of the plastic zone or stress triaxiality must be further studied although no significant effect on the environmentally assisted crack growth rate was observed. (orig.)

  4. Methods of Processing Kenaf Chopped Strand Mats for Manufacturing Test Specimens and Composite Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Heil, Joshua W.

    2015-01-01

    Bio-composites are increasing in demand due to governmental incentives across the globe for both environmental and human health reasons. The ideal bio-composite is renewable, recyclable, available, and non-toxic. To properly engineer bio-composite products, the physical properties of the fiber as well as fiber/matrix interactions must be known. The problem lies in the fact that many suitable natural fibers are not currently available in a material form that may be easily worked with. This res...

  5. Investigation of PVC physical ageing in field test specimens using ultrasonic and dielectric measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demcenko, A.; Ravanan, M.; Visser, Roy; Loendersloot, Richard; Akkerman, Remko

    2013-01-01

    Physical ageing in PVC is studied using two techniques: a) non-linear ultrasonic measurements based on the non-collinear wave interaction theory and b) dielectric measurements. The ultrasonic measurement results are compared with dielectric measurement results. The comparison shows that the used

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 145: Wells and Storage Holes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Strand

    2004-09-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 145: Wells and Storage Holes. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental samples. Corrective Action Unit 145 is located in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 145 is comprised of the six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-20-01, Core Storage Holes; (2) 03-20-02, Decon Pad and Sump; (3) 03-20-04, Injection Wells; (4) 03-20-08, Injection Well; (5) 03-25-01, Oil Spills; and (6) 03-99-13, Drain and Injection Well. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) prior to evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. One conceptual site model with three release scenario components was developed for the six CASs to address all releases associated with the site. The sites will be investigated based on data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 24, 2004, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQOs process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 145.

  7. 9 CFR 93.404 - Import permits for ruminants and for ruminant test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... specimens to be imported; the purpose of the importation; individual ruminant identification, which includes a description of the ruminant, name, age, markings, if any, registration number, if any, and tattoo... animal diseases (including but not limited to procedures for animal identification, record keeping, and...

  8. Evaluation of molecular tools for detection and drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in stool specimens from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Julianna; Shiloh, Ron; Gilman, Robert H; Sheen, Patricia; Martin, Laura; Arenas, Fanny; Caviedes, Luz; Kawai, Vivian; Soto, Giselle; Williams, Diana L; Zimic, Mirko; Escombe, A Roderick; Evans, Carlton A

    2010-05-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis is difficult when patients cannot produce sputum. Most sputum is swallowed, and tuberculosis DNA can survive intestinal transit. We therefore evaluated molecular testing of stool specimens for detecting tuberculosis originating from the lungs. Paired stool and sputum samples (n=159) were collected from 89 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Control stool samples (n=47) were collected from patients without tuberculosis symptoms. Two techniques for DNA extraction from stool samples were compared, and the diagnostic accuracy of the PCR in stool was compared with the accuracy of sputum testing by PCR, microscopy, and culture. A heminested IS6110-PCR was used for tuberculosis detection, and IS6110-PCR-positive stool samples then underwent rifampin sensitivity testing by universal heteroduplex generator PCR (heteroduplex-PCR) assay. For newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients, stool IS6110-PCR had 86% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared with results obtained by sputum culture, and stool PCR had similar sensitivities for HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients (P=0.3). DNA extraction with commercially available spin columns yielded greater stool PCR sensitivity than DNA extraction with the in-house Chelex technique (P=0.007). Stool heteroduplex-PCR had 98% agreement with the sputum culture determinations of rifampin resistance and multidrug resistance. Tuberculosis detection and drug susceptibility testing by stool PCR took 1 to 2 days compared with an average of 9 weeks to obain those results by traditional culture-based testing. Stool PCR was more sensitive than sputum microscopy and remained positive for most patients for more than 1 week of treatment. In conclusion, stool PCR is a sensitive, specific, and rapid technique for the diagnosis and drug susceptibility testing of pulmonary tuberculosis and should be considered when sputum samples are unavailable.

  9. Analytic and clinical performance of cobas HPV testing in anal specimens from HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; Tokugawa, Diane; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Chen, Jie; Lorey, Thomas S; Gage, Julia C; Fetterman, Barbara; Boyle, Sean; Sadorra, Mark; Tang, Scott Dahai; Darragh, Teresa M; Castle, Philip E

    2014-08-01

    Anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are common, and the incidence of anal cancer is high in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). To evaluate the performance of HPV assays in anal samples, we compared the cobas HPV test (cobas) to the Roche Linear Array HPV genotyping assay (LA) and cytology in HIV-infected MSM. Cytology and cobas and LA HPV testing were conducted for 342 subjects. We calculated agreement between the HPV assays and the clinical performance of HPV testing and HPV genotyping alone and in combination with anal cytology. We observed high agreement between cobas and LA, with cobas more likely than LA to show positive results for HPV16, HPV18, and other carcinogenic types. Specimens testing positive in cobas but not in LA were more likely to be positive for other markers of HPV-related disease compared to those testing negative in both assays, suggesting that at least some of these were true positives for HPV. cobas and LA showed high sensitivities but low specificities for the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (AIN2/3) in this population (100% sensitivity and 26% specificity for cobas versus 98.4% sensitivity and 28.9% specificity for LA). A combination of anal cytology and HPV genotyping provided the highest accuracy for detecting anal precancer. A higher HPV load was associated with a higher risk of AIN2/3 with HPV16 (P(trend) < 0.001), HPV18 (P(trend) = 0.07), and other carcinogenic types (P(trend) < 0.001). We demonstrate that cobas can be used for HPV detection in anal cytology specimens. Additional tests are necessary to identify men at the highest risk of anal cancer among those infected with high-risk HPV. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. 49 CFR 199.111 - Retention of samples and additional testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the employee according to DOT Procedures, the split specimen must be tested. The employee may specify... laboratory must follow approved chain-of-custody procedures in transferring a portion of the sample. (d...

  11. Geologic and hydrologic records of observation wells, test holes, test wells, supply wells, springs, and surface water stations in the Los Alamos area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purtymun, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Hundreds of holes have been drilled into the Pajarito Plateau and surrounding test areas of the Los Alamos National Laboratory since the end of World War II. They range in depth from a few feet to more than 14,000 ft. The holes were drilled to provide geologic, hydrologic, and engineering information related to development of a water supply, to provide data on the likelihood or presence of subsurface contamination from hazardous and nuclear materials, and for engineering design for construction. The data contained in this report provide a basis for further investigations into the consequences of our past, present, and future interactions with the environment.

  12. [Future of gynecological exfoliative cytology specimen, the Pap test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Pekka; Timonen, Tuomo

    2014-01-01

    Screenings of cervical cancer in Finland by using the Pap test have decreased the incidence of the disease by approx. 80%. Automation-assisted cytology and liquid-based Pap test have improved the technical quality of cytological examination. The HPV test allows the prevention of more cancers and its negative predictive value is crucially better than that of the Pap test. Its problem is the modest specificity in young age groups. When the HPV-vaccinated age groups reach the screening age, the HPV test should be adopted as the first-line screening test in all age groups. The Pap test will continue to have an important role as a further investigation and diagnostic specimen.

  13. Cryopreservation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity inside red blood cells: developing a specimen repository in support of development and evaluation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Maria; LaRue, Nicole; Bansil, Pooja; Kalnoky, Michael; McGray, Sarah; Domingo, Gonzalo J

    2013-08-20

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common human enzyme deficiency. It is characterized by abnormally low levels of G6PD activity. Individuals with G6PD deficiency are at risk of undergoing acute haemolysis when exposed to 8‒aminoquinoline-based drugs, such as primaquine. For this reason it is imperative to identify individuals with G6PD deficiency prior to administering these anti-malarial drugs. There is a need for the development and evaluation of point-of-care G6PD deficiency screening tests suitable for areas of the developing world where malarial treatments are frequently administered. The development and evaluation of new G6PD tests will be greatly assisted with the availability of specimen repositories. Cryopreservation of erythrocytes was evaluated as a means to preserve G6PD activity. Blood specimens from 31 patients including ten specimens with normal G6PD activity, three with intermediate activity, and 18 with deficient activity were cryopreserved for up to six months. Good correlation in G6PD activity between fresh and cryopreserved specimens (R2 = 0.95). The cryopreserved specimens show an overall small drop in mean G6PD activity of 0.23 U/g Hb (P=0.23). Cytochemical staining showed that intracellular G6PD activity distribution within the red blood cell populations is preserved during cryopreservation. Furthermore, the mosaic composition of red blood cells in heterozygous women is also preserved for six months or more. The fluorescent spot and the BinaxNOW qualitative tests for G6PD deficiency also showed high concordance in G6PD status determination between cryopreserved specimens and fresh specimens. A methodology for establishing a specimen panel for evaluation of G6PD tests is described. The approach is similar to that used in several malaria research facilities for the cryopreservation of parasites in clinical specimens and axenic cultures. Specimens stored in this manner will aid both the development and evaluation of

  14. FEA-based development of a new tool for systematic experimental validation of nonlinear strain paths and design of test specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinschenk, Annika; Volk, Wolfram

    2017-10-01

    To achieve high accuracy in finite element simulation, it is beneficial to model forming limit curves (FLCs) for nonlinear strain paths, since FLCs based on linear strain paths inaccurately predict the failure of parts that undergo nonlinear strain paths. Standardized Nakajima or Marciniak tests are used to create a FLC for linear strain paths. For common strain paths, the shapes of the specimens are well-known. Only a limited set of nonlinear strain paths can be generated by using these tests. For example, a biaxial strain path can be generated, and then the test specimen can be cut to generate a uniaxial strain path. However, the other way around is not possible. Therefore, it is important to develop a new tool that can systematically investigate all kinds of nonlinear strain paths. This paper describes a newly developed deep drawing tool that exhibits these properties. Large specimens with homogeneous strain in the centre can be generated for any strain state. These specimens are sufficiently large that a second test specimen can be cut out to generate another strain path using Nakajima or Marciniak tests. The shape of blank for uniaxial, plane and biaxial strains are presented and analysed both numerically and experimentally. A nonlinear strain path consisting of a uniaxial strain path followed by a biaxial strain path is shown as an example.

  15. Effects of Specimen Size and Side-groove on the Results of J-R Fracture Toughness Test for LBB Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Weon; Choi, Myung Rak [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young Jin; Park, Heung Bae; Kim, Kyung Su [KEPCO E and C, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    In this study, the effects of specimen size and side-groove on the results of the J-R test for leak-before-break (LBB) evaluation were investigated. A series of J-R tests were conducted at both RT and 316℃, using three different sizes of compact tension (CT) specimens machined from SA508 Gr.1a piping material: 12.7 mm-thick 1T-CT, 25.4 mm-thick 1T-CT, and 25.4 mm-thick 2T-CT with and without side-groove. The results showed that side-grooving reduced the J-R curve for all specimens and the effect of side-grooving was more significant at 316℃ than at RT. As the thickness of the specimens decreased and the width of the specimens increased, the J-R curve slightly decreased at RT but it increased at 316℃. However, the variation in the J-R curve of SA508 Gr.1a with the thickness and width of CT specimen was insignificant.

  16. Improved PID control for triaxial testing liquefied specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Using a frictionless triaxial apparatus, sand specimens can be tested at relatively high axial strains, even while liquefying. However, liquefying specimens have extremely nonlinear stiffness, thus standard PID control does not perform well. To maintain control over applied loads, the PID...... controller was modified to adapt to disturbed soil states. The proposed methods expand the scope of testing towards options which are otherwise inaccessible by triaxial testing....

  17. Acceptance test report for core sample trucks 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1996-04-10

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Report is to provide documentation for the acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks 3 and 4, designated as HO-68K-4600 and HO-68K-4647, respectively. This report conforms to the guidelines established in WHC-IP-1026, ``Engineering Practice Guidelines,`` Appendix M, ``Acceptance Test Procedures and Reports.`` Rotary mode core sample trucks 3 and 4 were based upon the design of the second core sample truck (HO-68K-4345) which was constructed to implement rotary mode sampling of the waste tanks at Hanford. Successful completion of acceptance testing on June 30, 1995 verified that all design requirements were met. This report is divided into four sections, beginning with general information. Acceptance testing was performed on trucks 3 and 4 during the months of March through June, 1995. All testing was performed at the ``Rock Slinger`` test site in the 200 West area. The sequence of testing was determined by equipment availability, and the initial revision of the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) was used for both trucks. Testing was directed by ICF-KH, with the support of WHC Characterization Equipment Engineering and Characterization Project Operations. Testing was completed per the ATP without discrepancies or deviations, except as noted.

  18. An algebraic analysis of bore hole samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, D.R. [Southern California Univ., Dept. of Mathematics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Waid, C. [Waid Group, Inc., Gonzales, LA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Quadratic cylinders are considered as models for strata occurring along linear fault lines. The question as to whether the cylinder can be recovered from the curve of intersection with the surface of a bore sample is then addressed. Basic techniques from algebraic geometry are used to show that there are at most two irreducible quadratic cylinders having the same bounded but infinite intersection with the surface of a right circular cylinder and each of the two is uniquely determined from the other. (Author)

  19. USE OF ROUND BAR SPECIMEN IN FRACTURE TOUGHNESS TEST OF METALLIC MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    NEELAKANTHA V LONDE,; DR. T.JAYARAJU; DR. P.R.SADANANDA RAO

    2010-01-01

    The fracture toughness of high strength metallic materials is determined by standard test methods like ASTM E 399, ASTM E-1820 using standard specimen geometries such as Compact tension (CT) or Single edge notched bend (SENB) specimens. This paper explains a simple test methodology based on fracture mechanics approach usingcircumferentially cracked round bar (CCRB) specimen. Specimen preparation and fatigue precracking is quite simple, consuming less material and machining time. This CCRB, be...

  20. Black hole mass estimates and emission-line properties of a sample of redshift z > 6.5 quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rosa, Gisella; Peterson, Bradley M.; Frank, Stephan [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Venemans, Bram P.; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gennaro, Mario [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Simcoe, Robert A. [MIT-Kavli Center for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Dietrich, Matthias [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Clippinger Lab 251B, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); McMahon, Richard G.; Hewett, Paul C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Mortlock, Daniel J. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Simpson, Chris [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    We present the analysis of optical and near-infrared spectra of the only four z > 6.5 quasars known to date, discovered in the UKIDSS-LAS and VISTA-VIKING surveys. Our data set consists of new Very Large Telescope/X-Shooter and Magellan/FIRE observations. These are the best optical/NIR spectroscopic data that are likely to be obtained for the z > 6.5 sample using current 6-10 m facilities. We estimate the black hole (BH) mass, the Eddington ratio, and the Si IV/C IV, C III]/C IV, and Fe II/Mg II emission-line flux ratios. We perform spectral modeling using a procedure that allows us to derive a probability distribution for the continuum components and to obtain the quasar properties weighted upon the underlying distribution of continuum models. The z > 6.5 quasars show the same emission properties as their counterparts at lower redshifts. The z > 6.5 quasars host BHs with masses of ∼10{sup 9} M{sub ☉} that are accreting close to the Eddington luminosity ((log(L{sub Bol}/L{sub Edd})) = –0.4 ± 0.2), in agreement with what has been observed for a sample of 4.0 < z < 6.5 quasars. By comparing the Si IV/C IV and C III]/C IV flux ratios with the results obtained from luminosity-matched samples at z ∼ 6 and 2 ≤ z ≤ 4.5, we find no evidence of evolution of the line ratios with cosmic time. We compare the measured Fe II/Mg II flux ratios with those obtained for a sample of 4.0 < z < 6.4 sources. The two samples are analyzed using a consistent procedure. There is no evidence that the Fe II/Mg II flux ratio evolves between z = 7 and z = 4. Under the assumption that the Fe II/Mg II traces the Fe/Mg abundance ratio, this implies the presence of major episodes of chemical enrichment in the quasar hosts in the first ∼0.8 Gyr after the Big Bang.

  1. Selected geologic data for wells and test holes in and near the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This point dataset contains geologic information concerning regolith thickness and top-of-bedrock altitude at selected well and test-hole locations in and near the...

  2. Materials problems in fluidized-bed combustion systems. Appendix 2. Test specimen preparation, handling, and posttest evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, E.A.; Holder, J.C.; Minchener, A.J.; Page, A.J.; La Nauze, R.D.

    1980-05-01

    Appendix 2 presents the metallographic data compiled by the National Coal Board, Coal Research Establishment, on materials tested for the Electric Power Research Institute Contract R P 388-1 with Combustion Systems Ltd., UK. Two 1000 h tests were carried out to investigate the corrosion performance of boiler and gas turbine alloys exposed in and above a fluidised bed coal combustor. Details are given of the preparation, handling, and examination procedures. Results of metallographic examination and chemical analyses on the samples examined by CRE are provided. This appendix does not attempt to draw any conclusions from the data: such conclusions appear in the main report. Description of the tests and plant performance data are given in Appendix 1 of this report.

  3. Combined Testing for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Trichomonas by Use of the BD Max CT/GC/TV Assay with Genitourinary Specimen Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Pol, Barbara; Williams, James A; Fuller, DeAnna; Taylor, Stephanie N; Hook, Edward W

    2017-01-01

    The BD Max CT/GC/TV (MAX) assay is a true multiplex assay for simultaneous detection of chlamydia (CT), gonorrhea (GC), and trichomonas (TV). We evaluated assay performance for women using endocervical and vaginal swabs as well as urine specimens. A total of 1,143 women were tested for CT, GC, and TV and, subsequently, another 847 (1,990 total women) for CT and GC only, with positivity rates for CT, GC, and TV of 7.1%, 2.3%, and 13.5%, respectively. In men, the performance for CT and GC was determined using only urine specimens. TV performance was not assessed in male urine samples. Among men, 181/830 (21.8%) and 108/840 (12.9%) chlamydia and gonorrhea infections, respectively, were identified. Comparator assays included BD ProbeTec Chlamydia trachomatis Qx (CTQ)/Neisseria gonorrhoeae Qx (GCQ), Hologic Aptima Combo 2 (AC2) and Aptima TV (ATV), trichomonas microscopy, and culture. MAX CT sensitivity was 99.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 96.1% to 99.9%), 95.7% (90.8% to 98.0%), 91.5% (85.8% to 95.1%), and 96.1% (92.2% to 98.1%) for vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs, female urine samples, and male urine samples, respectively. MAX GC sensitivity was 95.5% (84.9% to 98.7%), 95.5% (84.9% to 98.7%), 95.7% (85.5% to 99.8%), and 99.1% (94.9% to 99.8%) in the same order. MAX TV sensitivity was 96.1% (91.7% to 98.2%) for vaginal swabs, 93.4% (88.3% to 96.4%) for endocervical swabs, and 92.9% (87.8% to 96.0%) for female urine samples. Specificity for all organisms across all sample types was ≥98.6%. Performance estimates for the MAX assays were consistent with estimates calculated for the comparator assays (all P values were >0.1). The availability of a CT/GC/TV multiplexed assay on a benchtop instrument with a broad menu has the potential to facilitate local sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing at smaller laboratories and may encourage expanded screening for these highly prevalent infections. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Small punch tensile/fracture test data and 3D specimen surface data on Grade 91 ferritic/martensitic steel from cryogenic to room temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Bruchhausen, Matthias; Lapetite, Jean-Marc; Ripplinger, Stefan; Austin, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Raw data from small punch tensile/fracture tests at two displacement rates in the temperature range from ?196??C to room temperature on Grade 91 ferritic/martensitic steel are presented. A number of specimens were analyzed after testing by means of X-ray computed tomography (CT). Based on the CT volume data detailed 3D surface maps of the specimens were established. All data are open access and available from Online Data Information Network (ODIN) https://odin.jrc.ec.europa.eu . The data pres...

  5. Experimental and Sampling Design for the INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-02-16

    This report describes the experimental and sampling design developed to assess sampling approaches and methods for detecting contamination in a building and clearing the building for use after decontamination. An Idaho National Laboratory (INL) building will be contaminated with BG (Bacillus globigii, renamed Bacillus atrophaeus), a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (BA). The contamination, sampling, decontamination, and re-sampling will occur per the experimental and sampling design. This INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test is being planned by the Validated Sampling Plan Working Group (VSPWG). The primary objectives are: 1) Evaluate judgmental and probabilistic sampling for characterization as well as probabilistic and combined (judgment and probabilistic) sampling approaches for clearance, 2) Conduct these evaluations for gradient contamination (from low or moderate down to absent or undetectable) for different initial concentrations of the contaminant, 3) Explore judgment composite sampling approaches to reduce sample numbers, 4) Collect baseline data to serve as an indication of the actual levels of contamination in the tests. A combined judgmental and random (CJR) approach uses Bayesian methodology to combine judgmental and probabilistic samples to make clearance statements of the form "X% confidence that at least Y% of an area does not contain detectable contamination” (X%/Y% clearance statements). The INL-2 experimental design has five test events, which 1) vary the floor of the INL building on which the contaminant will be released, 2) provide for varying the amount of contaminant released to obtain desired concentration gradients, and 3) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. Desirable contaminant gradients would have moderate to low concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations down to zero in other rooms. Such gradients would provide a range of contamination levels to challenge the sampling

  6. COMPARISON OF SHEAR STRENGTH OF CERAMIC JOINTS DETERMINED BY VARIOUS TEST METHODS WITH SMALL SPECIMENS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Kiggans Jr, James O [ORNL; Khalifa, Hesham [General Atomics, San Diego; Back, Christina A. [General Atomics, San Diego; Hinoki, Tatsuya [Kyoto University, Japan; Ferraris, Monica [Politecnico di Torino

    2015-01-01

    Four different shear test methods i.e. doubled notched shear test, asymmetrical four point bend test, Iosipescu test, and torsion test, were investigated for their ability to evaluate one standard SiC to SiC ceramic brittle joint while using small size specimens. Double notched shear test showed higher stress concentration at the notch base and a lower nominal shear strength. Both asymmetrical four point bend test and Iosipescu test utilized epoxy jointed metal extensors, which failed during test and caused misalignment and tensile type of failure. Torsion test can deliver true shear loading. However, base material failure was observed for the torsion joint samples in this study. None of the tests can successfully induce true shear failure of the joint because the joint is stronger and tougher than the SiC substrate. Torsion test appears to be promising because of the pure shear loading, less stress concentration, and easy alignment.

  7. Design and testing of a mesocosm-scale habitat for culturing the endangered Devils Hole Pupfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerbacher, Olin; Bonar, Scott A.; Barrett, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    aptive propagation of desert spring fishes, whether for conservation or research, is often difficult, given the unique and often challenging environments these fish utilize in nature. High temperatures, low dissolved oxygen, minimal water flow, and highly variable lighting are some conditions a researcher might need to recreate to simulate their natural environments. Here we describe a mesocosm-scale habitat created to maintain hybrid Devils Hole × Ash Meadows Amargosa Pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis × C. nevadensis mionectes) under conditions similar to those found in Devils Hole, Nevada. This 13,000-L system utilized flow control and natural processes to maintain these conditions rather than utilizing complex and expensive automation. We designed a rotating solar collector to control natural sunlight, a biological reactor to consume oxygen while buffering water quality, and a reverse-daylight photosynthesis sump system to stabilize nighttime pH and swings in dissolved oxygen levels. This system successfully controlled many desired parameters and helped inform development of a larger, more permanent desert fish conservation facility at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada. For others who need to raise fish from unique habitats, many components of the scalable and modular design of this system can be adapted at reasonable cost.

  8. Dimensioning of dog bone specimens and numerical analysis of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different fillet radii, clamp area dimensions, and pinhole loading through a hole located in the clamp area of a dog bone specimen were investigated using the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software Abaqus. Changes in the fillet radius were shown to have little effect on the distribution and magnitude of the von ...

  9. Residual stress state in pipe cut ring specimens for fracture toughness testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damjanovic, Darko [J.J. Strossmayer Univ. of Osijek, Slavonski Brod (Croatia). Mechanical Engineering Faculty; Kozak, Drazan [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. for Mechanical Design; Marsoner, Stefan [Materials Center, Leoben (Austria).; Gubeljak, Nenad [Maribor Univ. (Slovenia). Chair of Mechanics

    2017-07-01

    Thin-walled pipes are not suitable for measuring fracture toughness parameters of vital importance because longitudinal crack failure is the most common failure mode in pipes. This is due to the impossibility to manufacture standard specimens for measuring fracture toughness, such as SENB or CT specimens, from the thin wall of the pipe. Previous works noticed this problem, but until now, a good and convenient solution has not been found or developed. To overcome this problem, very good alternative solution was proposed, the so-called pipe ring notched bend specimen (PRNB) [1-5]. Until now, only the idealized geometry PRNB specimen is analyzed, i. e., a specimen which is not cut out from an actual pipe but produced from steel plate. Based on that, residual stresses are neglected along with the imperfections in geometry (elliptical and eccentricity). The aim of this research is to estimate the residual stress state(s) in real pipes used in the boiler industry produced by hot rolling technique. These types of pipes are delivered only in normalized condition, but not stress relieved. Therefore, there are residual stresses present due to the manufacturing technique, but also due to uneven cooling after the production process. Within this paper, residual stresses are estimated by three methods: the incremental hole drilling method (IHMD), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the splitting method (SM). Knowing the residual stress state in the ring specimen, it is possible to assess their impact on fracture toughness measured on the corresponding PRNB specimen(s).

  10. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  11. Black holes a laboratory for testing strong gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2017-01-01

    This textbook introduces the current astrophysical observations of black holes, and discusses the leading techniques to study the strong gravity region around these objects with electromagnetic radiation. More importantly, it provides the basic tools for writing an astrophysical code and testing the Kerr paradigm. Astrophysical black holes are an ideal laboratory for testing strong gravity. According to general relativity, the spacetime geometry around these objects should be well described by the Kerr solution. The electromagnetic radiation emitted by the gas in the inner part of the accretion disk can probe the metric of the strong gravity region and test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. With exercises and examples in each chapter, as well as calculations and analytical details in the appendix, the book is especially useful to the beginners or graduate students who are familiar with general relativity while they do not have any background in astronomy or astrophysics.

  12. Atlantic coastal plain geothermal test holes, New Jersey. Hole completion reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, L.B.; Radford, L.; Glascock, M.

    1979-03-01

    A description of the Atlantic Coastal Plains Geothermal Drilling Program and data for the following Geothermal test holes drilled in New Jersey are summarized: Site No. 40, Fort Monmouth; Site No. 41, Sea Girt; Site No. 39-A, Forked River; Site No. 38, Atlantic City; and Site No. 36, Cape May.

  13. Comet assay and micronucleus test in circulating erythrocytes of Cyprinus carpio specimens exposed in situ to lake waters treated with disinfectants for potabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschini, A; Martino, A; Gustavino, B; Monfrinotti, M; Poli, P; Rossi, C; Santoro, M; Dörr, A J M; Rizzoni, M

    2004-02-14

    The detection of a possible genotoxic effect of surface water treated with disinfectants for potabilization is the aim of the present work. The Comet assay and the micronucleus test were applied in circulating erythrocytes of Cyprinus carpio. Young specimens (20-30 g) were exposed in experimental basins, built within the potabilization plant of Castiglione del Lago (Perugia, Italy). In this plant the water of the Trasimeno Lake is treated and disinfected for potabilization before it is distributed to the people in the net of drinkable water. A continuous flow of water at a constant rate was supplied to basins; the water was continuously treated at a constant concentration with one of the three tested disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite, peracetic acid and chloride dioxide), one control basin being supplied with untreated water. Three sampling campaigns were performed: October 2000, February 2001 and June 2001. Repeated blood samplings through intracardiac punctures allowed to follow the same fish populations after different exposure times: before introduction of the disinfectant, and 10 or 20 days afterwards. An additional blood sampling was performed 3 h after addition of the disinfectant in other, simultaneously exposed, fish populations. Genotoxic damage was shown in fish exposed to water disinfected with sodium hypochlorite and chloride dioxide. The Comet assay showed an immediate response, i.e. DNA damage that was induced directly in circulating erythrocytes, whereas micronuclei reached their highest frequencies at later sampling times, when a genotoxic damage in stem cells of the cephalic kidney is expressed in circulating erythrocytes. The quality of the untreated surface water seems to be the most important parameter for the long-term DNA damage in circulating erythrocytes.

  14. SED_ARCHIVE - Database for the U.S. Geological Survey Woods Hole Science Center's marine sediment samples, including locations, sample data and collection information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) has been an active member of the Woods Hole research community for over 40 years. In that time...

  15. Entering markets and bodies: increasing levels of the novel plasticizer Hexamoll® DINCH® in 24 h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütze, André; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Apel, Petra; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2014-03-01

    DINCH (diisononylcyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate) was introduced into the world market in 2002 as a non-aromatic plasticizer and phthalate substitute. We analyzed 300 urine samples (24 h voids) of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB for Human tissues, ESB Hum) for specific DINCH metabolites by on-line HPLC-MS/MS with isotope dilution quantification. Urine samples of the ESB Hum were from the years 1999, 2003, 2006, 2009 and 2012, chosen to investigate the appearance and a possible trend of DINCH exposure since its market introduction. No DINCH metabolites were detected in the 1999 and 2003 samples. From 2006 on, the percentage of samples with DINCH metabolites above the LOQ increased significantly over the years (7% in 2006, 43% in 2009 and 98% in 2012). The cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid-mono(hydroxy-isononyl) ester (OH-MINCH) was the predominant metabolite. Median (and 95th percentile) concentrations (in μg/l) increased from 0.75, p<0.001). The median (95th percentile) DINCH intake in 2012 was calculated to be 0.14 (1.07)μg/kg body weight/day which is considerably below daily intakes currently deemed tolerable. DINCH is regarded to have a preferred toxicological profile over certain anti-androgenic phthalates. The continuation of DINCH measurements in the ESB Hum and other human biomonitoring studies like the German Environmental Survey (GerES) allows tracking the development of DINCH body burdens, the distribution of exposure levels and daily intakes, providing basic data for future toxicological assessment and further epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION AND ACTUAL WASTE TEST WITH TANK 5F SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M. S.; Crapse, K. P.; Fink, S. D.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2007-08-30

    The initial phase of bulk waste removal operations was recently completed in Tank 5F. Video inspection of the tank indicates several mounds of sludge still remain in the tank. Additionally, a mound of white solids was observed under Riser 5. In support of chemical cleaning and heel removal programs, samples of the sludge and the mound of white solids were obtained from the tank for characterization and testing. A core sample of the sludge and Super Snapper sample of the white solids were characterized. A supernate dip sample from Tank 7F was also characterized. A portion of the sludge was used in two tank cleaning tests using oxalic acid at 50 C and 75 C. The filtered oxalic acid from the tank cleaning tests was subsequently neutralized by addition to a simulated Tank 7F supernate. Solids and liquid samples from the tank cleaning test and neutralization test were characterized. A separate report documents the results of the gas generation from the tank cleaning test using oxalic acid and Tank 5F sludge. The characterization results for the Tank 5F sludge sample (FTF-05-06-55) appear quite good with respect to the tight precision of the sample replicates, good results for the glass standards, and minimal contamination found in the blanks and glass standards. The aqua regia and sodium peroxide fusion data also show good agreement between the two dissolution methods. Iron dominates the sludge composition with other major contributors being uranium, manganese, nickel, sodium, aluminum, and silicon. The low sodium value for the sludge reflects the absence of supernate present in the sample due to the core sampler employed for obtaining the sample. The XRD and CSEM results for the Super Snapper salt sample (i.e., white solids) from Tank 5F (FTF-05-07-1) indicate the material contains hydrated sodium carbonate and bicarbonate salts along with some aluminum hydroxide. These compounds likely precipitated from the supernate in the tank. A solubility test showed the material

  17. Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization and p16/Ki67 Dual Staining on Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Cervical Specimens: Correlation with HPV-DNA Test, E6/E7 mRNA Test, and Potential Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Zappacosta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although HPV-DNA test and E6/E7 mRNA analyses remain the current standard for the confirmation of human papillomavirus (HPV infections in cytological specimens, no universally adopted techniques exist for the detection of HPV in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Particularly, in routine laboratories, molecular assays are still time-consuming and would require a high level of expertise. In this study, we investigated the possible use of a novel HPV tyramide-based chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH technology to locate HPV on tissue specimens. Then, we evaluate the potential usefulness of p16INK4a/Ki-67 double stain on histological samples, to identify cervical cells expressing HPV E6/E7 oncogenes. In our series, CISH showed a clear signal in 95.2% of the specimens and reached a sensitivity of 86.5%. CISH positivity always matched with HPV-DNA positivity, while 100% of cases with punctated signal joined with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+. p16/Ki67 immunohistochemistry gave an interpretable result in 100% of the cases. The use of dual stain significantly increased the agreement between pathologists, which reached 100%. Concordance between dual stain and E6/E7 mRNA test was 89%. In our series, both CISH and p16INK4a/Ki67 dual stain demonstrated high grade of performances. In particular, CISH would help to distinguish episomal from integrated HPV, in order to allow conclusions regarding the prognosis of the lesion, while p16INK4a/Ki67 dual stain approach would confer a high level of standardization to the diagnostic procedure.

  18. Chromogenic in situ hybridization and p16/Ki67 dual staining on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical specimens: correlation with HPV-DNA test, E6/E7 mRNA test, and potential clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappacosta, Roberta; Colasante, Antonella; Viola, Patrizia; D'Antuono, Tommaso; Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Capanna, Serena; Gatta, Daniela Maria Pia; Rosini, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Although HPV-DNA test and E6/E7 mRNA analyses remain the current standard for the confirmation of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in cytological specimens, no universally adopted techniques exist for the detection of HPV in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Particularly, in routine laboratories, molecular assays are still time-consuming and would require a high level of expertise. In this study, we investigated the possible use of a novel HPV tyramide-based chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) technology to locate HPV on tissue specimens. Then, we evaluate the potential usefulness of p16(INK4a)/Ki-67 double stain on histological samples, to identify cervical cells expressing HPV E6/E7 oncogenes. In our series, CISH showed a clear signal in 95.2% of the specimens and reached a sensitivity of 86.5%. CISH positivity always matched with HPV-DNA positivity, while 100% of cases with punctated signal joined with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). p16/Ki67 immunohistochemistry gave an interpretable result in 100% of the cases. The use of dual stain significantly increased the agreement between pathologists, which reached 100%. Concordance between dual stain and E6/E7 mRNA test was 89%. In our series, both CISH and p16(INK4a)/Ki67 dual stain demonstrated high grade of performances. In particular, CISH would help to distinguish episomal from integrated HPV, in order to allow conclusions regarding the prognosis of the lesion, while p16(INK4a)/Ki67 dual stain approach would confer a high level of standardization to the diagnostic procedure.

  19. Systematic approaches for targeting an atom-probe tomography sample fabricated in a thin TEM specimen: Correlative structural, chemical and 3-D reconstruction analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Sung-Il; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N

    2018-01-01

    Atom-probe tomography (APT) is a unique analysis tool that enables true three-dimensional (3-D) analyses with sub-nano scale spatial resolution. Recent implementations of the local-electrode atom-probe (LEAP) tomograph with ultraviolet laser pulsing have significantly expanded the research applications of APT. The small field-of-view of a needle-shaped specimen with a less than 100 nm diam. is, however, a major limitation for analyzing materials. The systematic approaches for site-specific targeting of an APT nanotip in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) of a thin sample are introduced to solve the geometrical limitations of a sharpened APT nanotip. In addition to "coupling APT to TEM", the technique presented here allows for targeting the preparation of an APT tip based on TEM observation of a much larger area than what is captured in the APT tip. The correlative methods have synergies for not only high-resolution structural analyses but also for obtaining chemical information. Chemical analyses in a TEM, both energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), are performed and compared with the APT chemical analyses of a carbide phase (M 7 C 3 ) precipitate at a grain boundary in a Ni-based alloy. Additionally, a TEM image of a sharpened APT nanotip is utilized for calculation of the detection area ratio of an APT nanotip by comparison with a TEM image for precise tomographic reconstructions. A grain-boundary/carbide precipitate triple junction is used to attain precise positioning of an APT nanotip in an analyzed TEM specimen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Slant hole completion test (1991) sidetrack ``as built`` report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myal, F.R.

    1992-05-01

    During the summer of 1990, a slant hole test well, funded by the US Department of Energy, was drilled to 9,466 ft to evaluate the effectiveness of directional drilling in the tight, naturally fractured gas sands and coals of the Mesaverde Group. The surface location of the SHCT No. 1 is 700 ft south of the DOE Multiwell Experiment (MWX) site in Section 34, T6S, R94W, Garfield County, Colorado, approximately 7.5 miles west of Rifle. Mechanical problems following cementing of a production liner resulted in loss of the completion interval, and operations were suspended. In early 1991, DOE decided to sidetrack the hole to permit production testing of the lost interval. The sidetrack was designed to parallel the original wellbore, but to be drilled 1,000 ft to the east to minimize the chances of encountering formation damage from the original hole. The sidetrack, like the original hole, was to intersect the paludal lenticular sands and coals at 60{degrees} and to penetrate the underlying Cozzette sand horizonally. The sidetrack was spudded May 12, 1991. After re-entering the well in late 1991, early production testing of the Cozzette showed that the 300 ft of in-pay horizontal hole can produce at rate 5 to 10 times higher than vertical wells in the same area. This report contains the geological summary and sidetrack drilling operations summary.

  1. Selected data for wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes wells and test holes completed in the Deadwood Formation that were used to create the structure-contours for the top of the Deadwood...

  2. 46 CFR 4.06-40 - Specimen handling and shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... qualified to conduct tests on such specimens. A proper chain of custody must be maintained for each specimen... collection procedures of § 16.113 of this chapter and the chain of custody requirements of 49 CFR part 40...

  3. Assessment of body-powered upper limb prostheses by able-bodied subjects, using the Box and Blocks Test and the Nine-Hole Peg Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkate, Liz; Smit, Gerwin; Plettenburg, Dick H

    2016-02-01

    The functional performance of currently available body-powered prostheses is unknown. The goal of this study was to objectively assess and compare the functional performance of three commonly used body-powered upper limb terminal devices. Experimental trial. A total of 21 able-bodied subjects (n = 21, age = 22 ± 2) tested three different terminal devices: TRS voluntary closing Hook Grip 2S, Otto Bock voluntary opening hand and Hosmer Model 5XA hook, using a prosthesis simulator. All subjects used each terminal device nine times in two functional tests: the Nine-Hole Peg Test and the Box and Blocks Test. Significant differences were found between the different terminal devices and their scores on the Nine-Hole Peg Test and the Box and Blocks Test. The Hosmer hook scored best in both tests. The TRS Hook Grip 2S scored second best. The Otto Bock hand showed the lowest scores. This study is a first step in the comparison of functional performances of body-powered prostheses. The data can be used as a reference value, to assess the performance of a terminal device or an amputee. The measured scores enable the comparison of the performance of a prosthesis user and his or her terminal device relative to standard scores. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  4. Tensile-Creep Test Specimen Preparation Practices of Surface Support Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guner, Dogukan; Ozturk, Hasan

    2017-12-01

    Ground support has always been considered as a challenging issue in all underground operations. Many forms of support systems and supporting techniques are available in the mining/tunnelling industry. In the last two decades, a new polymer based material, Thin Spray–on Liner (TSL), has attained a place in the market as an alternative to the current areal ground support systems. Although TSL provides numerous merits and has different application purposes, the knowledge on mechanical properties and performance of this material is still limited. In laboratory studies, since tensile rupture is the most commonly observed failure mechanism in field applications, researchers have generally studied the tensile testing of TSLs with modification of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D-638 standards. For tensile creep testing, specimen preparation process also follows the ASTM standards. Two different specimen dimension types (Type I, Type IV) are widely preferred in TSL tensile testing that conform to the related standards. Moreover, molding and die cutting are commonly used specimen preparation techniques. In literature, there is a great variability of test results due to the difference in specimen preparation techniques and practices. In this study, a ductile TSL product was tested in order to investigate the effect of both specimen preparation techniques and specimen dimensions under 7-day curing time. As a result, ultimate tensile strength, tensile yield strength, tensile modulus, and elongation at break values were obtained for 4 different test series. It is concluded that Type IV specimens have higher strength values compared to Type I specimens and moulded specimens have lower results than that of prepared by using die cutter. Moreover, specimens prepared by molding techniques have scattered test results. Type IV specimens prepared by die cutter technique are suggested for preparation of tensile test and Type I specimens prepared by die cutter

  5. Designing and testing the representative samplers for sampling a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    establishing the optimum mesh of grind for the various ores, to achieve effective separation of the cobalt minerals from those of copper. This prompted the designing and testing of representative samplers for sampling the milling circuit at Nkana Concentrator. In the design of the samplers, use was made of the Gy's formula to ...

  6. Evaluation of analytical and preliminary clinical performance of Myconostica MycAssay Aspergillus when testing serum specimens for diagnosis of invasive Aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P Lewis; Perry, Michael D; Moody, Adrian; Follett, Sarah A; Morgan, Gillian; Barnes, Rosemary A

    2011-06-01

    Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis remains a significant problem. PCR testing may aid diagnosis but is not yet included in disease-defining criteria due to a lack of standardization of assays and methodologies. This study investigated the analytical performance and the clinical sensitivity and specificity of the Myconostica MycAssay Aspergillus PCR (MAP) assay compared to those of a validated in-house Aspergillus PCR (IHP) test when testing serum specimens. Serum specimens spiked with Aspergillus genomic DNA had a limit of detection equivalent to 5 genomes and a linear dynamic range of 5 to >5 × 10(4) genomes for both assays. When testing clinical specimens (n = 170), the MAP assay had a sensitivity of 60 to 70% and a specificity of 90.5 to 100%. The IHP assay had a sensitivity of 50 to 80% and a specificity of 100%. A commercially available Aspergillus PCR assay provides a methodology that is standardized and reagents that are quality controlled. This facilitates multicenter evaluation of the clinical utility of PCR diagnosis. The performance of the MAP assay is comparable to that of the IHP assay and to those in previously reported studies evaluating commercial tests (galactomannan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay).

  7. Evaluation of Analytical and Preliminary Clinical Performance of Myconostica MycAssay Aspergillus When Testing Serum Specimens for Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. Lewis; Perry, Michael D.; Moody, Adrian; Follett, Sarah A.; Morgan, Gillian; Barnes, Rosemary A.

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis remains a significant problem. PCR testing may aid diagnosis but is not yet included in disease-defining criteria due to a lack of standardization of assays and methodologies. This study investigated the analytical performance and the clinical sensitivity and specificity of the Myconostica MycAssay Aspergillus PCR (MAP) assay compared to those of a validated in-house Aspergillus PCR (IHP) test when testing serum specimens. Serum specimens spiked with Aspergillus genomic DNA had a limit of detection equivalent to 5 genomes and a linear dynamic range of 5 to >5 × 104 genomes for both assays. When testing clinical specimens (n = 170), the MAP assay had a sensitivity of 60 to 70% and a specificity of 90.5 to 100%. The IHP assay had a sensitivity of 50 to 80% and a specificity of 100%. A commercially available Aspergillus PCR assay provides a methodology that is standardized and reagents that are quality controlled. This facilitates multicenter evaluation of the clinical utility of PCR diagnosis. The performance of the MAP assay is comparable to that of the IHP assay and to those in previously reported studies evaluating commercial tests (galactomannan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). PMID:21450965

  8. Testing exclusion restrictions and additive separability in sample selection models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Mellace, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Standard sample selection models with non-randomly censored outcomes assume (i) an exclusion restriction (i.e., a variable affecting selection, but not the outcome) and (ii) additive separability of the errors in the selection process. This paper proposes tests for the joint satisfaction of these......Standard sample selection models with non-randomly censored outcomes assume (i) an exclusion restriction (i.e., a variable affecting selection, but not the outcome) and (ii) additive separability of the errors in the selection process. This paper proposes tests for the joint satisfaction...... of these assumptions by applying the approach of Huber and Mellace (Testing instrument validity for LATE identification based on inequality moment constraints, 2011) (for testing instrument validity under treatment endogeneity) to the sample selection framework. We show that the exclusion restriction and additive...... separability imply two testable inequality constraints that come from both point identifying and bounding the outcome distribution of the subpopulation that is always selected/observed. We apply the tests to two variables for which the exclusion restriction is frequently invoked in female wage regressions: non...

  9. Salt dissolution in oil and gas test holes in central Kansas. Part I. Salt beds in the subsurface in Russell, Lincoln, Ellsworth, Barton, and Rice Counties, central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, R.F.

    1975-06-01

    The Hutchinson Salt Member of the Permian Wellington Formation is described in a five-county study area of 4,000 square miles. Most of the 22,200 oil and gas test holes in the study area were drilled with fresh water, causing dissolution of the salt during drilling, commonly resulting in borehole enlargement to three times the diameter of the drill bit (some older rotary drilled holes have borehole enlargement up to 10 ft). After drilling ceases, no salt dissolution occurs in oil and gas test holes which have properly cemented surface casing protecting all aquifers above the salt. The conclusion is reached that extensive dissolution of the Hutchinson Salt in oil and gas test holes in central Kansas is a rare and unusual event in the 50-year history since the discovery of oil in Russell County in 1923. In only seven known instances (six of which are within the study area) did such dissolution lead to collapse and surface subsidence. With an estimated 72,000 holes drilled through the Hutchinson Salt Member within the State of Kansas, this is a ratio of approximately one occurrence for every 10,000 oil and gas test holes. (DLC)

  10. XFEM Modelling of Multi-holes Plate with Single-row and Staggered Holes Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supar Khairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint efficiency is the key to composite structures assembly design, good structures response is dependent upon multi-holes behavior as subjected to remote loading. Current benchmarking work were following experimental testing series taken from literature on multi-holes problem. Eleven multi-hole configurations were investigated with various pitch and gage distance of staggered holes and non-staggered holes (single-row holes. Various failure modes were exhibited, most staggered holes demonstrates staggered crack path but non-staggered holes series displayed crack path along net-section plane. Stress distribution were carried out and good agreement were exhibited in experimental observation as reported in the respective literature. Consequently, strength prediction work were carried out under quasi-static loading, most showed discrepancy between 8% -31%, better prediction were exhibited in thicker and non-staggered holes plate combinations.

  11. Massive Black Holes and Galaxies

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has been accumulating for several decades that many galaxies harbor central mass concentrations that may be in the form of black holes with masses between a few million to a few billion time the mass of the Sun. I will discuss measurements over the last two decades, employing adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy on large ground-based telescopes that prove the existence of such a massive black hole in the Center of our Milky Way, beyond any reasonable doubt. These data also provide key insights into its properties and environment. Most recently, a tidally disrupting cloud of gas has been discovered on an almost radial orbit that reached its peri-distance of ~2000 Schwarzschild radii in 2014, promising to be a valuable tool for exploring the innermost accretion zone. Future interferometric studies of the Galactic Center Black hole promise to be able to test gravity in its strong field limit.

  12. Small punch tensile/fracture test data and 3D specimen surface data on Grade 91 ferritic/martensitic steel from cryogenic to room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchhausen, Matthias; Lapetite, Jean-Marc; Ripplinger, Stefan; Austin, Tim

    2016-12-01

    Raw data from small punch tensile/fracture tests at two displacement rates in the temperature range from -196 °C to room temperature on Grade 91 ferritic/martensitic steel are presented. A number of specimens were analyzed after testing by means of X-ray computed tomography (CT). Based on the CT volume data detailed 3D surface maps of the specimens were established. All data are open access and available from Online Data Information Network (ODIN)https://odin.jrc.ec.europa.eu. The data presented in the current work has been analyzed in the research article "On the determination of the ductile to brittle transition temperature from small punch tests on Grade 91 ferritic-martensitic steel" (M. Bruchhausen, S. Holmström, J.-M. Lapetite, S. Ripplinger, 2015) [1].

  13. Small punch tensile/fracture test data and 3D specimen surface data on Grade 91 ferritic/martensitic steel from cryogenic to room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Bruchhausen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Raw data from small punch tensile/fracture tests at two displacement rates in the temperature range from −196 °C to room temperature on Grade 91 ferritic/martensitic steel are presented. A number of specimens were analyzed after testing by means of X-ray computed tomography (CT. Based on the CT volume data detailed 3D surface maps of the specimens were established. All data are open access and available from Online Data Information Network (ODIN https://odin.jrc.ec.europa.eu. The data presented in the current work has been analyzed in the research article “On the determination of the ductile to brittle transition temperature from small punch tests on Grade 91 ferritic-martensitic steel” (M. Bruchhausen, S. Holmström, J.-M. Lapetite, S. Ripplinger, 2015 [1].

  14. The Design of Cruciform Test Specimens for Planar Biaxial Testing of Fabrics for Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Cole K.

    2012-01-01

    A preliminary analytical study was conducted to investigate the effects of cruciform test specimen geometries on strain distribution uniformity in the central gage section under biaxial loads. Three distinct specimen geometries were considered while varying the applied displacements in the two orthogonal directions. Two sets of woven fabric material properties found in literature were used to quantify the influence of specimen geometries on the resulting strain distributions. The uniformity of the strain distribution is quantified by taking the ratio between the two orthogonal strain components and characterizing its gradient across the central area of the gage section. The analysis results show that increasing the specimen s length relative to its width promotes a more uniform strain distribution in the central section of the cruciform test specimen under equibiaxial enforced tensile displacements. However, for the two sets of material properties used in this study, this trend did not necessary hold, when the enforced tensile displacements in the two orthogonal directions were not equal. Therefore, based on the current study, a tail length that is 1.5 times that of the tail width is recommended to be the baseline/initial specimen design.

  15. Daily intake and hazard index of parabens based upon 24 h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank from 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rebecca K; Apel, Petra; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, exposure to parabens has become more of a concern because of evidence of ubiquitous exposure in the general population, combined with evidence of their potency as endocrine disruptors. New human metabolism data from oral exposure experiments enable us to back calculate daily paraben intakes from urinary paraben levels. We report daily intakes (DIs) for six parabens based on 660 24 h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank collected between 1995 and 2012. Median DI values ranged between 1.1 μg/kg bw/day for iso-butyl paraben and 47.5 μg/kg bw/day for methyl paraben. The calculated DIs were compared with acceptable levels of exposure to evaluate the hazard quotients (HQs) that indicate that acceptable exposure is exceeded for values of >1. Approximately 5% of our study population exceeded this threshold for individual paraben exposure. The hazard index (HI) that takes into account the cumulative risk of adverse estrogenic effects was 1.3 at the 95th percentile and 4.4 at maximum intakes, mainly driven by n-propyl paraben exposure. HI values of >1 indicate some level of concern. However, we have to point out that we applied most conservative assumptions in the HQ/HI calculations. Also, major exposure reduction measures were enacted in the European Union after 2012.

  16. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC) Samples Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC) Samples Repository is a partner in the...

  17. Condition For Strain-Hardening In Ecc Uniaxial Test Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Lars; Stang, Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the adequateness of the steady state flat crack criterion for crack propagation in Engineered Cementitious Composites. The investigation is performed by use of a semi-analytical model as well as a Finite Element Model. The simulations are for one crack propagating in finite...... and infinite sheets under uniaxial tension. The crack is assumed to be cohesive and the cohesive law applied takes into account fiber as well as mortar properties. It is shown that the maximum crack opening observed during crack propagation in various test specimen geometries is small, 20 m and also small...... compared to typical deformations at peak bridging stress. The requirement of a minimum complementary energy for the fiber bridging curve is found not to be relevant in the aim of controlling the crack opening during crack propagation....

  18. Maintaining Breast Cancer Specimen Integrity and Individual or Simultaneous Extraction of Quality DNA, RNA, and Proteins from Allprotect-Stabilized and Nonstabilized Tissue Samples

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mee, Blanaid C.

    2011-12-29

    The Saint James\\'s Hospital Biobank was established in 2008, to develop a high-quality breast tissue BioResource, as a part of the breast cancer clinical care pathway. The aims of this work were: (1) to ascertain the quality of RNA, DNA, and protein in biobanked carcinomas and normal breast tissues, (2) to assess the efficacy of AllPrep® (Qiagen) in isolating RNA, DNA, and protein simultaneously, (3) to compare AllPrep with RNEasy® and QIAamp® (both Qiagen), and (4) to examine the effectiveness of Allprotect® (Qiagen), a new tissue stabilization medium in preserving DNA, RNA, and proteins. One hundred eleven frozen samples of carcinoma and normal breast tissue were analyzed. Tumor and normal tissue morphology were confirmed by frozen sections. Tissue type, tissue treatment (Allprotect vs. no Allprotect), extraction kit, and nucleic acid quantification were analyzed by utilizing a 4 factorial design (SPSS PASW 18 Statistics Software®). QIAamp (DNA isolation), AllPrep (DNA, RNA, and Protein isolation), and RNeasy (RNA isolation) kits were assessed and compared. Mean DNA yield and A260\\/280 values using QIAamp were 33.2 ng\\/μL and 1.86, respectively, and using AllPrep were 23.2 ng\\/μL and 1.94. Mean RNA yield and RNA Integrity Number (RIN) values with RNeasy were 73.4 ng\\/μL and 8.16, respectively, and with AllPrep were 74.8 ng\\/μL and 7.92. Allprotect-treated tissues produced higher RIN values of borderline significance (P=0.055). No discernible loss of RNA stability was detected after 6 h incubation of stabilized or nonstabilized tissues at room temperature or 4°C or in 9 freeze-thaw cycles. Allprotect requires further detailed evaluation, but we consider AllPrep to be an excellent option for the simultaneous extraction of RNA, DNA, and protein from tumor and normal breast tissues. The essential presampling procedures that maintain the diagnostic integrity of pathology specimens do not appear to compromise the quality of molecular isolates.

  19. Application Anti Microbial Activity Test and Direct Inoculation of Urinary Specimen Test to Increase the Quality of Results and Decrease the Production Cost in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Sanglah General Hospital Hospital, Bali-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Sri-Budayanti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common bacterial infection in general practice and in hospitals. Fast and accurate urine culture and sensitivity test are needed for adequate therapy. Anti Microbial Activity test (AMA test that is used to detect the presence of antibiotics in urine specimens is not commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. Some laboratories are still using indirect inoculation technique using enriched media before inoculating onto the agar media. The aim of this research is to compare results of urinary examination of direct inoculation technique with AMA test with indirect inoculation technique without AMA test.Methods: A number of 210 urine specimens were collected in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory at Sanglah General Hospital within a time period between 16 June until 16 July 2009.Results: Antibiotics were detected in 40% of the urinary specimens; whereas 48.1% showed no evidence of UTI, that is negative AMA test and sterile urinary culture or colony growth < 105 CFU/ml. Only 11.9% of the specimens indicates urinary tract infections. The examination can be completed within 2-3 days which is shorter than indirect inoculation test which require 5-7 days. Direct inoculation technique can reduce the cost of production three-fold the costs require for an indirect inoculation test.Conclusions: Application of AMA test and direct inoculation technique can give results more rapidly, reliable and useful for clinicians. This also decrease the laboratory’s cost of production.

  20. The Assessment and Validation of Mini-Compact Tension Test Specimen Geometry and Progress in Establishing Technique for Fracture Toughness Master Curves for Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, Mikhail A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nanstad, Randy K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Small specimens are playing the key role in evaluating properties of irradiated materials. The use of small specimens provides several advantages. Typically, only a small volume of material can be irradiated in a reactor at desirable conditions in terms of temperature, neutron flux, and neutron dose. A small volume of irradiated material may also allow for easier handling of specimens. Smaller specimens reduce the amount of radioactive material, minimizing personnel exposures and waste disposal. However, use of small specimens imposes a variety of challenges as well. These challenges are associated with proper accounting for size effects and transferability of small specimen data to the real structures of interest. Any fracture toughness specimen that can be made out of the broken halves of standard Charpy specimens may have exceptional utility for evaluation of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) since it would allow one to determine and monitor directly actual fracture toughness instead of requiring indirect predictions using correlations established with impact data. The Charpy V-notch specimen is the most commonly used specimen geometry in surveillance programs. Assessment and validation of mini-CT specimen geometry has been performed on previously well characterized HSST Plate 13B, an A533B class 1 steel. It was shown that the fracture toughness transition temperature measured by these Mini-CT specimens is within the range of To values that were derived from various large fracture toughness specimens. Moreover, the scatter of the fracture toughness values measured by Mini-CT specimens perfectly follows the Weibull distribution function providing additional proof for validation of this geometry for the Master Curve evaluation of rector pressure vessel steels. Moreover, the International collaborative program has been developed to extend the assessment and validation efforts to irradiated weld metal. The program is underway and involves ORNL, CRIEPI, and EPRI.

  1. Proposed experimental test of the theory of hole superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, J. E.

    2016-06-01

    The theory of hole superconductivity predicts that in the reversible transition between normal and superconducting phases in the presence of a magnetic field there is charge flow in direction perpendicular to the normal-superconductor phase boundary. In contrast, the conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity predicts no such charge flow. Here we discuss an experiment to test these predictions.

  2. Evaluation of supplemental testing with the Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 Rapid Test and APTIMA HIV-1 RNA Qualitative Assay to resolve specimens with indeterminate or negative HIV-1 Western blots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, Laurie; Ethridge, Steven F; Oraka, Emeka; Owen, S Michele; Wesolowski, Laura G; Wroblewski, Kelly; Landgraf, Kenneth M; Parker, Monica M; Brinson, Myra; Branson, Bernard M

    2013-12-01

    The use of Western blot (WB) as a supplemental test after reactive sensitive initial assays can lead to inconclusive or misclassified HIV test results, delaying diagnosis. To determine the proportion of specimens reactive by immunoassay (IA) but indeterminate or negative by WB that could be resolved by alternative supplemental tests recommended under a new HIV diagnostic testing algorithm. Remnant HIV diagnostic specimens that were reactive on 3rd generation HIV-1/2 IA and either negative or indeterminate by HIV-1 WB from 11 health departments were tested with the Bio-Rad Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 Rapid Test (Multispot) and the Gen-Probe APTIMA HIV-1 RNA Qualitative Assay (APTIMA). According to the new testing algorithm, 512 (89.8%) specimens were HIV-negative, 55 (9.6%) were HIV-1 positive (including 19 [3.3%] that were acute HIV-1 and 9 [1.6%] that were positive for HIV-1 by Multispot but APTIMA-negative), 2 (0.4%) were HIV-2 positive, and 1 (0.2%) was HIV-positive, type undifferentiated. 47 (21.4%) of the 220 WB-indeterminate and 8 (2.3%) of the 350 WB-negative specimens were HIV-1 positive. Applying the new HIV diagnostic algorithm retrospectively to WB-negative and indeterminate specimens, the HIV infection status could be established for nearly all of the specimens. IA-reactive HIV-infected persons with WB-negative results had been previously misclassified as uninfected, and HIV diagnosis was delayed for those with WB-indeterminate specimens. These findings underscore the limitations of the WB to confirm HIV infection after reactive results from contemporary 3rd or 4th generation IAs that can detect HIV antibodies several weeks sooner than the WB. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Testing general relativity using golden black-hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Abhirup; Johnson-McDaniel, Nathan K; Mishra, Chandra Kant; Ajith, Parameswaran; Del Pozzo, Walter; Nichols, David A; Chen, Yanbei; Nielsen, Alex B; Berry, Christopher P L; London, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    The coalescences of stellar-mass black-hole binaries through their inspiral, merger, and ringdown are among the most promising sources for ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. If a GW signal is observed with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio, the masses and spins of the black holes can be estimated from just the inspiral part of the signal. Using these estimates of the initial parameters of the binary, the mass and spin of the final black hole can be uniquely predicted making use of general-relativistic numerical simulations. In addition, the mass and spin of the final black hole can be independently estimated from the merger-ringdown part of the signal. If the binary black hole dynamics is correctly described by general relativity, these independent estimates have to be consistent with each other. We present a Bayesian implementation of such a test of general relativity, and outline the expected constraints from upcoming GW observations using the second-generation of ground-based GW detectors.

  4. Improving Adequacy of Small Biopsy and Fine-Needle Aspiration Specimens for Molecular Testing by Next-Generation Sequencing in Patients With Lung Cancer: A Quality Improvement Study at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Vijayalakshmi; Steinmetz, Heather B; Rizzo, Elizabeth J; Erskine, Amber J; Fairbank, Tamara L; de Abreu, Francine B; Tsongalis, Gregory J; Tafe, Laura J

    2017-03-01

    - At our medical center, cytopathologists perform rapid on-site evaluation for specimen adequacy of fine-needle aspiration and touch imprint of needle core biopsy lung cancer samples. Two years ago the molecular diagnostics laboratory at our institution changed to next-generation sequencing using the Ion Torrent PGM and the 50-gene AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 for analyzing mutations in a 50-gene cancer hot spot panel. This was associated with a dramatic fall in adequacy rate (68%). - To improve the adequacy rate to at least 90% for molecular testing using next-generation sequencing for all specimens collected by rapid on-site evaluation by the cytology laboratory. - After baseline data on adequacy rate of cytology specimens with rapid on-site evaluation for molecular testing had been collected, 2 changes were implemented. Change 1 concentrated all the material in one block but did not produce desired results; change 2, in addition, faced the block only once with unstained slides cut up front for molecular testing. Data were collected in an Excel spreadsheet and adequacy rate was assessed. - Following process changes 1 and 2 we reached our goal of at least 90% adequacy rate for molecular testing by next-generation sequencing on samples collected by rapid on-site evaluation including computed tomography-guided needle core biopsies (94%; 17 of 18) and fine-needle aspiration samples (94%; 30 of 32). - This study focused on factors that are controllable in a pathology department and on maximizing use of scant tissue. Optimizing the adequacy of the specimen available for molecular tests avoids the need for a second procedure to obtain additional tissue.

  5. Ballistic penetration test results for Ductal and ultra-high performance concrete samples.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhart, William Dodd; Thornhill, Tom Finley, III (KTech)

    2010-03-01

    This document provides detailed test results of ballistic impact experiments performed on several types of high performance concrete. These tests were performed at the Sandia National Laboratories Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility using a 50 caliber powder gun to study penetration resistance of concrete samples. This document provides test results for ballistic impact experiments performed on two types of concrete samples, (1) Ductal{reg_sign} concrete is a fiber reinforced high performance concrete patented by Lafarge Group and (2) ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) produced in-house by DoD. These tests were performed as part of a research demonstration project overseen by USACE and ERDC, at the Sandia National Laboratories Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research (STAR) facility. Ballistic penetration tests were performed on a single stage research powder gun of 50 caliber bore using a full metal jacket M33 ball projectile with a nominal velocity of 914 m/s (3000 ft/s). Testing was observed by Beverly DiPaolo from ERDC-GSL. In all, 31 tests were performed to achieve the test objectives which were: (1) recovery of concrete test specimens for post mortem analysis and characterization at outside labs, (2) measurement of projectile impact velocity and post-penetration residual velocity from electronic and radiographic techniques and, (3) high-speed photography of the projectile prior to impact, impact and exit of the rear surface of the concrete construct, and (4) summarize the results.

  6. String physics and black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susskind, L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Uglum, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1996-02-01

    In these lectures we review the quantum physics of large Schwarzschild black holes. Hawking`s information paradox, the theory of the stretched horizon and the principle of black hole complementarity are covered. We then discuss how the ideas of black hole complementarity may be realized in string theory. Finally, arguments are given that the world may be a hologram. (orig.).

  7. Apparatus for testing skin samples or the like

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J.M.

    1982-08-31

    An apparatus for testing the permeability of living skin samples has a flat base with a plurality of sample-holding cavities formed in its upper surface, the samples being placed in counterbores in the cavities with the epidermis uppermost. O-rings of Teflon washers are respectively placed on the samples and a flat cover is connected to the base to press the rings against the upper surfaces of the samples. Media to maintain tissue viability and recovery of metabolites is introduced into the lower portion of the sample-holding cavities through passages in the base. Test materials are introduced through holes in the cover plate after assembly of the chamber.

  8. Standard test method for laboratory evaluation of magnesium sacrificial anode test specimens for underground applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a laboratory procedure that measures the two fundamental performance properties of magnesium sacrificial anode test specimens operating in a saturated calcium sulfate, saturated magnesium hydroxide environment. The two fundamental properties are electrode (oxidation potential) and ampere hours (Ah) obtained per unit mass of specimen consumed. Magnesium anodes installed underground are usually surrounded by a backfill material that typically consists of 75 % gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), 20 % bentonite clay, and 5 % sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The calcium sulfate, magnesium hydroxide test electrolyte simulates the long term environment around an anode installed in the gypsum-bentonite-sodium sulfate backfill. 1.2 This test method is intended to be used for quality assurance by anode manufacturers or anode users. However, long term field performance properties may not be identical to property measurements obtained using this laboratory test. Note 1—Refer to Terminology G 15 for terms used ...

  9. Distinguishing Kerr naked singularities and black holes using the spin precession of a test gyro in strong gravitational fields

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Chandrachur; Kocherlakota, Prashant; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Joshi, Pankaj S; Królak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    We consider here the precession of a test gyroscope in Kerr spacetimes to distinguish a naked singularity (NS) from black hole (BH). It is known that when the angular velocity of the gyro vanishes the spin precession frequency diverged at the ergo-surface. We show that it is possible to overcome this divergence by moving the gyro to the ergoregion with a non-zero angular velocity ($\\Omega_e$) in a definite range. Then the frequency is finite and regular on the boundary of the ergoregion and inside, for both the BH and NS. Specifically, if we move the gyro with a non-zero $\\Omega_e$ to an unknown astrophysical object, its precession diverges on the event horizon for a black hole, but finite and regular for NS. Therefore a genuine detection for the existence or otherwise of the event horizon becomes possible. We also show that for a near-extremal ($1 1.089$. For $1

  10. Fatigue damage observed non-destructively in fibre composite coupon test specimens by X-ray CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a method for monitoring the 3D fatigue damage progression on a micro-structural level in a glass fibre/polymer coupon test specimen by means of laboratory X-ray Computed Tomography (CT). A modified mount and holder made for the standard test samples to fit into the X-ray CT...... scanner along with a tension clamp solution is presented. Initially, the same location of the test specimen is inspected by ex-situ X-ray CT during the fatigue loading history, which shows the damage progression on a micro-structural level. The openings of individual uni-directional (UD) fibre fractures...

  11. Shear Punch Testing of BOR-60 Irradiated TEM Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Quintana, Matthew Estevan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Tobias J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-13

    As a part of the project “High Fidelity Ion Beam Simulation of High Dose Neutron Irradiation” an Integrated Research Program (IRP) project from the U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Energy University Programs (NEUP), TEM geometry samples of ferritic cladding alloys, Ni based super alloys and model alloys were irradiated in the BOR-60 reactor to ~16 dpa at ~370°C and ~400°C. Samples were sent to Los Alamos National Laboratory and subjected to shear punch testing. This report presents the results from this testing.

  12. Comparative evaluation of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test and INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra test for detecting and identifying human papillomaviruses in archival tissue specimens of head and neck cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocjan, Bostjan J; Maver, Polona J; Hosnjak, Lea; Zidar, Nina; Odar, Katarina; Gale, Nina; Poljak, Mario

    2012-12-01

    The Abbott RealTime is a novel real-time PCR assay designed for concurrent individual genotyping of HPV16 and HPV18 and pooled detection of 12 HPV genotypes: HPV31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68 in cervical swab specimens. In this study, the performance of RealTime for detecting HPV in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of head and neck cancers was compared to the Innogenetics INNO-LiPA assay, which allows identification of 28 HPVs, including all 14 covered by RealTime. A total of 60 FFPE tissue specimens obtained from the same number of patients with histologically confirmed cancer of the oral cavity or oropharynx were included in the study. Following DNA extraction using a Qiagen DNA Mini Kit, RealTime and INNO-LiPA were performed on all samples, as instructed by the manufacturers. A 136-bp fragment of human beta-globin serving as an internal control in RealTime was successfully amplified from all 60 tissue samples included in the study. RealTime and INNO-LiPA showed 100% agreement and detected HPV DNA in 5/60 (8.3%) of the cancer samples, which all contained genotype HPV16. RealTime assay is a reliable, sensitive, and specific diagnostic tool for the detection and partial genotyping of targeted HPV genotypes in FFPE tissue specimens of oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

  13. Measurements and Counts for Notacanthidae Specimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taxonomic data were collected for specimens of deep-sea spiny eels (Notacanthidae) from the Hawaiian Ridge by Bruce C. Mundy. Specimens were collected off the north...

  14. Connective tissue differences in the strength of cooked meat across the muscle fibre direction due to test specimen size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G J; Purslow, P P

    1990-01-01

    Systematic variations in the tensile strenght of cooked beef M. semitendinosus across the muscle fibre direction due to the cross-sectional size of specimens are demonstrated in specimens from (a) longitudinal and (b) transverse slices. The strength perpendicular to the fibre direction of longitudinal slices of thickness 0·25-5·75 mm varied by a factor of 2, thicker slices being stronger. This factor of 2 is in approximate agreement with the difference in strength of transverse versus longitudinal slices across the fibre direction. These variations of strength due to specimen geometry are explained on the basis of the increasing likelihood of including a ribbon of the perimysial connective tissue network which is continuous along the whole length of the test piece in larger samples. The breaking strength of small cross-sectional area specimens is likely to be dominated by the strength of the endomysial-perimysial junction. Larger cross-sectioned specimens, by including continuous strands of the perimysial network, have higher strengths resulting from the necessity to break these strands. These findings highlight the need to specify specimen dimensions in tensile test results. They also show that by manipulating specimen geometry, the relative magnitude of the two mechanisms of connective tissue fracture (endomysial-perimysial separation and perimysial strand fracture) may be assessed. Copyright © 1990. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Data for ground-water test hole near Zamora, Central Valley Aquifer Project, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J.J.; Page, R.W.; Bertoldi, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary data are presented for the first of seven test holes drilled as a part of the Central Valley Aquifer Project which is part of the National Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis Program. The test hole was drilled in the SW 1/4 SE 1/4 sec. 34, T. 12 N. , R. 1 E., Yolo County, California, about 3 miles northeast of the town of Zamora. Drilled to a depth of 2,500 feet below land surface, the hole is cased to a depth of 190 feet and equipped with three piezometer tubes to depths of 947, 1,401, and 2,125 feet. A 5-foot well screen is at the bottom of each piezometer. Eighteen cores and 68 sidewall cores were recovered. Laboratory tests were made for mineralogy, hydraulic conductivity, porosity , consolidation, grain-size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction, diatom identification, thermal conductivity, and chemical analysis of water. Geophysical and thermal gradient logs were made. The hole is sampled periodically for chemical analysis and measured for water level in the three tapped zones. This report presents methods used to obtain field samples, laboratory procedures, and the data obtained. (USGS)

  16. Field Evaluation of Xpert HPV Point-of-Care Test for Detection of Human Papillomavirus Infection by Use of Self-Collected Vaginal and Clinician-Collected Cervical Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toliman, P; Badman, S G; Gabuzzi, J; Silim, S; Forereme, L; Kumbia, A; Kombuk, B; Kombati, Z; Allan, J; Munnull, G; Ryan, C; Vallely, L M; Kelly-Hanku, A; Wand, H; Mola, G D L; Guy, R; Siba, P; Kaldor, J M; Tabrizi, S N; Vallely, A J

    2016-07-01

    The World Health Organization has recommended that testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) (hrHPV) infection be incorporated into cervical screening programs in all settings worldwide. In many high-burden, low-income countries, it will not be feasible to achieve high cervical screening coverage using hrHPV assays that require clinician-collected samples. We conducted the first evaluation of self-collected vaginal specimens compared with clinician-collected cervical specimens for the detection of hrHPV infection using the Xpert HPV test. Women aged 30 to 54 years attending two well-woman clinics in Papua New Guinea were invited to participate and provided self-collected vaginal and clinician-collected cervical cytobrush specimens. Both specimen types were tested at the point of care by using the Xpert HPV test. Women were given their cervical test result the same day. Those with a positive hrHPV test and positive examination upon visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid were offered same-day cervical cryotherapy. A total of 1,005 women were enrolled, with 124 (12.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.3%, 14.4%) being positive for any hrHPV infection. There was a 99.4% overall percent agreement (OPA) between vaginal and cervical tests for HPV-16 (95% CI, 98.9%, 99.9%), a 98.5% OPA for HPV-18/45 (95% CI, 97.7%, 99.3%), a 94.4% OPA for other hrHPV infections (95% CI, 92.9%, 95.9%), and a 93.4% OPA for all hrHPV types combined (95% CI, 91.8%, 95.0%). Self-collected vaginal specimens had excellent agreement with clinician-collected cervical specimens for the detection of hrHPV infection using the Xpert HPV test. This approach provides for the first time an opportunity to incorporate point-of-care hrHPV testing into clinical cervical screening algorithms in high-burden, low-income settings. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Statistical sampling and hypothesis testing in orthopaedic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Joseph; McGuire, Kevin; Freedman, Kevin B

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of the current article was to review the process of hypothesis testing and statistical sampling and empower readers to critically appraise the literature. When the p value of a study lies above the alpha threshold, the results are said to be not statistically significant. It is possible, however, that real differences do exist, but the study was insufficiently powerful to detect them. In that case, the conclusion that two groups are equivalent is wrong. The probability of this mistake, the Type II error, is given by the beta statistic. The complement of beta, or 1-beta, representing the chance of avoiding a Type II error, is termed the statistical power of the study. We previously examined the statistical power and sample size in all of the studies published in 1997 in the American and British volumes of the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, and in Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. In the journals examined, only 3% of studies had adequate statistical power to detect a small effect size in this sample. In addition, a study examining only randomized control trials in these journals showed that none of 25 randomized control trials had adequate statistical power to detect a small effect size. However, beta, or power, is less well understood. Because of this, researchers and readers should be aware of the need to address issues of statistical power before a study begins and be cautious of studies that conclude that no difference exists between groups.

  18. Study of cavities in a creep crack growth test specimen

    OpenAIRE

    Jazaeri, H; Bouchard, P. J.; Hutchings, M. T.; Mamun, A. A.; Heenan, R K

    2016-01-01

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) have been used to determine the degree of cavitation damage, of length scale 5-300 nm, associated with a creep crack grown in a compact tension specimen cut from a Type 316H stainless steel weldment. The specimen was supplied by EDF Energy as part of an extensive study of creep crack growth in the heat affected zone of reactor components. The creep crack propagates along a line 1.5 mm away from, and parallel to, the ...

  19. Testing of Vegetable-Based dutting Fluid by Hole Making Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2000-01-01

    The results of cutting fluid testing through subsequent hole making operations are presented. AISI 316L stainless steel specimens were machined with drilling, core drilling, reaming and tapping using HSS-E tools. The effect of different lubricants on cutting forces and power was investigated...... in connection with the development of vegetable based cutting oils. Results show that drilling and tapping qualify as operations in which cutting forces can be resolved within one test when they differ by less than 1 percent by taking 6 repetitions, and measurements could be repeated with relative standard...... deviation lower than 2 percent. Reaming produced larger experimental spreads, depending on the fluid and its effectiveness in reducing built up edge. Cutting force testing in different subsequent operations has provided results valid for a broad range of applications in a relatively short time, allowing...

  20. The 3DBiopsy Prostate Biopsy System: Preclinical Investigation of a Needle, Actuator, and Specimen Collection Device Allowing Sampling of Individualized Prostate Lengths Between 20 and 60 mm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nelson N; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Schechter, David; Lucia, M Scott; Smith, Elizabeth E; Arangua, Paul; Hoenemeyer, John; Rosa, Jim; Bawa, Rajan; Crawford, E David

    2017-09-01

    To increase the likelihood of detecting anterior cancers within the prostate and provide a specimen that spans the length of the gland. Newly designed 17- and 15-gauge (G) biopsy needles, a variable actuator, and an integrated pathology system intended for the longer cores were developed and tested for this purpose. Testing was performed comparing 2 common cannula tip grinds, a Vet-point (sharp tip) and a Menghini-point (atraumatic tip), and were tested against 18-G Bard Monopty in porcine kidney. A variable actuator was developed to fire the needle 20-60 mm and tested in cadaver prostates. The aggregate firings for 3 different shot lengths comparing the Vet- with the Menghini-tip cannulas demonstrated 91% vs 85.2% fill (length of specimen/length of core bed, P = .007). A 15-G trocar needle with the Vet-tip cannula also had the best performance, with an aggregate standard deviation of 6.4% across 3 firing ranges and a minimum to maximum specimen length of 81%-105% of potential fill. Cadaver testing with the Vet-tip needles in the actuator for the transrectal (17-G) and transperineal (15-G) biopsies demonstrated mean fills of 93.3% and 76.5%, respectively. The new transrectal ultrasound needle obtained a 2-fold increase in specimen length over the standard Bard device (P enhance focal therapy planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cross-sectional examination of the damage zone in impacted specimens of carbon/epoxy and carbon/PEEK composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Magold, N. J.

    1990-01-01

    Drop weight impact testing was utilized to inflict damage on eight-ply bidirectional and unidirectional samples of carbon/epoxy and carbon/PEEK (polyetheretherketone) test specimens with impact energies ranging from 0.80 J to 1.76 J. The impacting tip was of a smaller diameter (4.2-mm) than those used in most previous studies, and the specimens were placed with a diamond wheel wafering saw through the impacted area perpendicular to the outer fibers. Photographs at 12 x magnification were taken of these cross-sections and examined. The results on the bidirectional samples show little damage until 1.13 J, at which point delaminations were seen in the epoxy specimens. The PEEK specimens showed less delamination than the epoxy specimens for a given impact energy level. The unidirectional specimens displayed more damage than the bidirectional samples for a given impact energy, with the PEEK specimens showing much less damage than the epoxy material.

  2. Interference fit effect on holed single plates loaded with tension-tension stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Croccolo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of interference fit coupling on the fatigue strength of holed plates. The effect was investigated both experimentally and numerically. Axial fatigue tests have been carried out on holed specimens made of high performance steel (1075MPa of Ultimate strength and 990MPa of Yield strength with or without a pin, made of the same material, press fitted into their central hole. Three different conditions have been investigated: free hole specimens, specimens with 0.6% of nominal specific interference and specimens with 2% of nominal specific interference. The experimental stress-life (S–N curves pointed out an increased fatigue life of the interference fit specimens compared with the free hole ones. The numerical investigation was performed in order to analyse the stress fields by applying an elastic plastic 2D simulation with a commercial Finite Element software. The stress history and distribution along the contact interference of the fitted samples indicates a significant reduction of the local stress range due to the externally applied loading (remote stress since a residual and compressive stress field is generated by the pin insertion.

  3. Diagnostic Accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF for Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis Specimens: Establishing a Laboratory Testing Algorithm for South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylis, Natalie; Nicol, Mark; Nkuna, Gloria; Molapo, Sebaka; Berrie, Leigh; Duse, Adriano; Stevens, Wendy Susan

    2014-01-01

    South Africa implemented Xpert MTB/RIF as the initial diagnostic test for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Xpert MTB/RIF's accuracy for diagnosing extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) was investigated. EPTB specimens (n = 7,916) from hospitalized patients received over a 6-month period at a high-throughput TB referral laboratory in Johannesburg were investigated. Large-volume specimens were centrifuged, tissue biopsy specimens homogenized, and all specimens checked for growth of contaminating bacteria on blood agar. Contaminated samples received NALC-NaOH (N-acetyl-l-cysteine–sodium hydroxide) decontamination prior to liquid culture. Residual specimens (volumes > 1 ml) after inoculation of culture (n = 1,175) were tested using the Xpert MTB/RIF sputum protocol. Using culture as the reference, Xpert MTB/RIF's overall sensitivity was 59% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 53% to 65%) and specificity was 92% (CI, 90% to 94%), with the highest sensitivities of 91% (95% CI, 78% to 97%) for pus, 80% (95% CI, 56% to 94%) for lymph node aspirates, and 51% (95% CI, 44% to 58%) for fluids (ascitic, 59%; pleural, 47%). A difference in sensitivities was noticed between specimens classified as having a thick (87% [95% CI, 76% to 94%]) versus clear (watery) (48% [95% CI, 36% to 61%]) appearance. This was unchanged with traces of blood (52% [95% CI, 44% to 60%]) or precentrifugation (57% [95% CI, 28% to 82%]) among clear specimens. Xpert MTB/RIF generated an additional 124 specimen results that were contaminated by Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tubes (MGIT; 10.5%) and diagnosed rifampin (RIF) resistance earlier (9.6% [25/260]). Xpert MTB/RIF's performance on EPTB specimens provides very promising results and should be considered for incorporation into national TB guidelines. Xpert MTB/RIF is less affected by contaminating bacteria and reduces laboratory labor and diagnostic delay compared to traditional methods. PMID:24622091

  4. Comparative study of the claws of Pediculus humanus capitis between archaeological and modern specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Hipólito; Arriaza, Bernardo; Standen, Vivien; Aravena, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    Metric data of the claws of archaeological specimens of Pediculus humanus capitis (dating between 1500 B.C. and A.D. 1500) and modern lice specimens coming from school children were analyzed and compared. Both sets of samples come from Arica in northern Chile. The overall sample is comprised of 14 archaeological specimens (6 females and 8 males) of Pediculus humanus capitis and 22 modern specimens (13 females and 9 males). All specimens were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), uncoated, using variable pressure mode. The objective of this study was to metrically analyze the first couple of clutches of ancient and modern adult lice specimens (width and length of the tibio-tarsal claw and tarsus length) to test if morphological changes have taken place throughout time in these anatomical elements. We found that archaeological male and female specimens presented significant differences in the tibio-tarsal width (right and left). When comparing data between archaeological and modern male specimens, statistically significant differences were found in almost all the parameters studied, except for the right tarsal length. On the other hand, archaeological and modern female specimens showed no statistically significant change in the variables studied. In brief, our data suggest that modern male specimens have undergone a process of claw reduction, but females have maintained the same dimensions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of robotic system passive path repeatability during specimen removal and reinstallation for in vitro knee joint testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Mary T; Smith, Sean D; Jansson, Kyle S; LaPrade, Robert F; Wijdicks, Coen A

    2014-10-01

    Robotic testing systems are commonly utilized for the study of orthopaedic biomechanics. Quantification of system error is essential for reliable use of robotic systems. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify a 6-DOF robotic system's repeatability during knee biomechanical testing and characterize the error induced in passive path repeatability by removing and reinstalling the knee. We hypothesized removing and reinstalling the knee would substantially alter passive path repeatability. Testing was performed on four fresh-frozen cadaver knees. To determine repeatability and reproducibility, the passive path was collected three times per knee following the initial setup (intra-setup), and a single time following two subsequent re-setups (inter-setup). Repeatability was calculated as root mean square error. The intra-setup passive path had a position repeatability of 0.23 mm. In contrast, inter-setup passive paths had a position repeatability of 0.89 mm. When a previously collected passive path was replayed following re-setup of the knee, resultant total force repeatability across the passive path increased to 28.2N (6.4N medial-lateral, 25.4N proximal-distal, and 10.5 N anterior-posterior). This study demonstrated that removal and re-setup of a knee can have substantial, clinically significant changes on our system's repeatability and ultimately, accuracy of the reported results. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Introduction to General Relativity and Black Holes (3/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Conceptual foundations of General Relativity (GR). Uniqueness of GR. Mathematical framework: tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry, connection, 'spin' connection, curvature, Cartan's form calculus. Hilbert-Einstein action, Einstein equations. Weak gravitational fields. Post Newtonian Approximation. Gravitanional Waves. Exact solutions. Killing vectors. Experimental tests. Black Holes: extensions of the Schwarzschild solution; Kerr-Newman holes; no-hair theorems; energtics of black holes; the membrane approach; quantum mechanics of black holes; Bekenstein entropy; Hawking temperature; black holes and string theory.

  7. Introduction to General Relativity and Black Holes (1/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Conceptual foundations of General Relativity (GR). Uniqueness of GR. Mathematical framework: tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry, connection, 'spin' connection, curvature, Cartan's form calculus. Hilbert-Einstein action, Einstein equations. Weak gravitational fields. Post Newtonian Approximation. Gravitanional Waves. Exact solutions. Killing vectors. Experimental tests. Black Holes: extensions of the Schwarzschild solution; Kerr-Newman holes; no-hair theorems; energtics of black holes; the membrane approach; quantum mechanics of black holes; Bekenstein entropy; Hawking temperature; black holes and string theory.

  8. Introduction to General Relativity and Black Holes (5/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Conceptual foundations of General Relativity (GR). Uniqueness of GR. Mathematical framework: tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry, connection, 'spin' connection, curvature, Cartan's form calculus. Hilbert-Einstein action, Einstein equations. Weak gravitational fields. Post Newtonian Approximation. Gravitanional Waves. Exact solutions. Killing vectors. Experimental tests. Black Holes: extensions of the Schwarzschild solution; Kerr-Newman holes; no-hair theorems; energtics of black holes; the membrane approach; quantum mechanics of black holes; Bekenstein entropy; Hawking temperature; black holes and string theory.

  9. Introduction to General Relativity and Black Holes (2/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Conceptual foundations of General Relativity (GR). Uniqueness of GR. Mathematical framework: tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry, connection, 'spin' connection, curvature, Cartan's form calculus. Hilbert-Einstein action, Einstein equations. Weak gravitational fields. Post Newtonian Approximation. Gravitanional Waves. Exact solutions. Killing vectors. Experimental tests. Black Holes: extensions of the Schwarzschild solution; Kerr-Newman holes; no-hair theorems; energtics of black holes; the membrane approach; quantum mechanics of black holes; Bekenstein entropy; Hawking temperature; black holes and string theory.

  10. Introduction to General Relativity and Black Holes (4/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Conceptual foundations of General Relativity (GR). Uniqueness of GR. Mathematical framework: tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry, connection, 'spin' connection, curvature, Cartan's form calculus. Hilbert-Einstein action, Einstein equations. Weak gravitational fields. Post Newtonian Approximation. Gravitanional Waves. Exact solutions. Killing vectors. Experimental tests. Black Holes: extensions of the Schwarzschild solution; Kerr-Newman holes; no-hair theorems; energtics of black holes; the membrane approach; quantum mechanics of black holes; Bekenstein entropy; Hawking temperature; black holes and string theory.

  11. Technique for the residual life assessment of high temperature components based on creep-rupture testing on welded miniature specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzillo, A.; Guardamagna, C.; Moscotti, L.; Ranzani, L. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy)

    1995-06-01

    Following the present trend in the development of advanced methodologies for residual life assessment of high temperature components operating in power plants, particularly in non destructive methods, a testing technique has been set up at ENEL-CRAM based on creep-rupture testa in an argon on welded miniature specimens. Five experimental systems for creep-rupture tests in an argon atmosphere have been set up which include high accuracy systems, vacuum chambers and exrwnsometer devices. With the aim of establishing and validating the suitability of the experimental methodology, creep-rupture and interrupted creep testing programmes have been performed on miniature specimens (2 mm diameter and 10 mm gauge lenght). On the basis of experience gathered by various European research laboratories, a miniature specimen construction procedure has been developed using a laser welding technique for joining threaded heads to sample material. Low alloy ferritic steels, such as virgin 2.25CrlMo, 0.5Cr 0.5Mo 0.25V, and IN 738 superalloy miniature specimens have been investigated and the results, compared with those from standard specimens, show a regular trend in deformation vs time. Additional efforts to provide guidelines for material sampling from each plant component will be required in order to reduce uncertainties in residual life prediction.

  12. Comparison by multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis and antimicrobial resistance among atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from food samples and human and animal faecal specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Nakamura, H; Kage-Nakadai, E; Hara-Kudo, Y; Nishikawa, Y

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed whether multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing discriminated diarrhoeagenic atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) from aEPEC indigenous to domestic animals or healthy people. MLVA genotyping of 142 aEPEC strains isolated from foods and faecal samples of domestic animals and humans revealed 126 distinct MLVA profiles that distributed to four clusters, yielding a Simpson's index of diversity (D) of 99·8%. Cluster 2 included 87% of cattle isolates and 67% of patient isolates. The plurality (15/34, 44%) of strains from healthy humans mapped to Cluster 1, while half (18/41, 44%) of the swine strains belonged to Cluster 4. Testing for antimicrobial susceptibility revealed that 52 strains (37%) of aEPEC were resistant to one or more agents; only 10 strains (7%) exhibited resistance to more than three agents. Strains isolated from swine or food exhibited a wider variety of resistance phenotypes than bovine or human strains. MLVA assigned the aEPEC isolates from cattle and patients to Cluster 2, distinct from aEPEC from other sources. Hog yards may be a larger source of drug-resistant strains than are cattle ranches. MLVA suggests that human diarrhoeagenic aEPEC are derived from cattle and are distinct from strains carried by healthy people and other animals. Cattle appear to be reservoirs of human diarrhoeagenic aEPEC. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Collecting Samples for Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acidosis and Alkalosis Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison Disease Alcoholism Allergies Alzheimer Disease Anemia Angina Ankylosing Spondylitis Anthrax ... through Their Medical Tests Tips to Help the Elderly through Their Medical Tests Related Video View More × ...

  14. Stress-deformed state of cylindrical specimens during indirect tensile strength testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levan Japaridze

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the interaction between cylindrical specimen made of homogeneous, isotropic, and linearly elastic material and loading jaws of any curvature is considered in the Brazilian test. It is assumed that the specimen is diametrically compressed by elliptic normal contact stresses. The frictional contact stresses between the specimen and platens are neglected. The analytical solution starts from the contact problem of the loading jaws of any curvature and cylindrical specimen. The contact width, corresponding loading angle (2θ0, and elliptical stresses obtained through solution of the contact problems are used as boundary conditions for a cylindrical specimen. The problem of the theory of elasticity for a cylinder is solved using Muskhelishvili's method. In this method, the displacements and stresses are represented in terms of two analytical functions of a complex variable. In the main approaches, the nonlinear interaction between the loading bearing blocks and the specimen as well as the curvature of their surfaces and the elastic parameters of their materials are taken into account. Numerical examples are solved using MATLAB to demonstrate the influence of deformability, curvature of the specimen and platens on the distribution of the normal contact stresses as well as on the tensile and compressive stresses acting across the loaded diameter. Derived equations also allow calculating the modulus of elasticity, total deformation modulus and creep parameters of the specimen material based on the experimental data of radial contraction of the specimen.

  15. Assessment of the stability of DNA in specimens collected under conditions for drug testing-A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robert M; Mitchell, John M; Hart, E Dale; Evans, Amy; Meaders, Meredith; Norsworthy, Sarah E; Hayes, Eugene D; Flegel, Ron; Maha, George C; Shaffer, Megan D; Hall, Erin M; Rogers, Kelley

    2018-02-01

    For forensic biological sample collections, the specimen donor is linked solidly to his or her specimen through a chain of custody (CoC) sometimes referenced as a chain of evidence. Rarely, a donor may deny that a urine or oral fluid (OF) specimen is his or her specimen even with a patent CoC. The goal of this pilot study was to determine the potential effects of short-term storage on the quality and quantity of DNA in both types of specimen under conditions that may be encountered with employment-related drug testing specimens. Fresh urine and freshly collected oral fluid all produced complete STR profiles. For the "pad" type OF collectors, acceptable DNA was extractable both from the buffer/preservative and the pad. Although fresh urine and OF produced complete STR profiles, partial profiles were obtained after storage for most samples. An exception was the DNA in the Quantisal OF collector, from which a complete profile was obtained for both freshly collected OF and stored OF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Failure Behaviors Depending on the Notch Location of the Impact Test Specimens on the HAZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yun Chan; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Young Suk [Chungang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jae Keun; Park, Ji Hong [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Numerical studies were performed to examine the effects of notch location of impact specimens on the failure behavior of HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) when Charpy V-notch impact test were made at a low temperature (1 .deg. C). Carbon steel plate (SA-516 Gr. 70) with thickness of 25mm for pressure vessel was welded by SMAW (Shielded Metal-Arc Welding) and specimens were fabricated from the welded plate. Charpy tests were then performed with specimens having different notch positions of specimens varying from the fusion line through HAZ to base metal. A series of finite element analysis which simulates the Charpy test and crack propagation initiating at the tip of V-notch was carried out as well. The finite element analysis takes into account the irregular fusion line and non-homogenous material properties due to the notch location of the specimen in HAZ. Results reveals that the energies absorbed during impact test depend significantly on the notch location and direction of specimen. Finite element analysis also demonstrates that the notch location of specimens, to a great extent, influences the reliability and consistency of the test.

  17. Field evaluation of the InBios Chagas detect plus rapid test in serum and whole-blood specimens in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vishal; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; Gilman, Robert H; Ramirez, Margot; Saenza, Eliana; Malaga, Edith; Sanchez, Gerardo; Okamoto, Emi E; Sherbuck, Jacqueline E; Clark, Eva H; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Bozo, Ricardo; Flores-Franco, Jorge Luis; Colanzi, Rony; Verastegui, Manuela; Bern, Caryn

    2014-12-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, which affects an estimated 7 million to 8 million people. Chagas disease is endemic throughout Latin America, with the highest prevalence in Bolivia. Conventional diagnosis requires a well-equipped laboratory with experienced personnel. We evaluated the Chagas Detect Plus (CDP) (InBios, Seattle, WA), a rapid immunochromatographic assay for IgG antibodies to T. cruzi. CDP performance was compared to infection status based on results obtained by indirect hemagglutination assay, immunofluorescent-antibody test, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Confirmed infection required positive results by at least 2 conventional assays. We used specimens from adults of both sexes in a general hospital in the city of Santa Cruz and from pregnant women in a hospital and children in villages in the Bolivian Chaco, an area of hyperendemicity. CDP was performed in paired whole-blood and serum specimens from 385 individuals in the two hospital studies and in 200 serum specimens from the community study. CDP showed sensitivities/specificities of 96.2% (95% confidence interval, 92.7 to 98.4)/98.8% (95.9 to 99.9) in whole blood and 99.3% (97.5 to 99.9)/96.9% (94.2 to 98.6) in serum, with no differences by sex, age group, or study site. CDP showed excellent sensitivity and specificity in our study population, comparable to those of conventional serology. The test is reliable for field surveys, requires no laboratory equipment, and performed well in serum and whole blood. The CDP could also be used for accurate maternal screening to identify neonates at risk of congenital transmission. CDP performance data in diverse geographic areas are needed to strengthen the evidence base for its use. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Tests on standard concrete samples

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    Compression and tensile tests on standard concrete samples. The use of centrifugal force in tensile testing has been developed by the SB Division and the instruments were built in the Central workshops.

  19. Multicenter evaluation of the RAPIDEC® CARBA NP test for rapid screening of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative nonfermenters from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppi, Marco; Antonelli, Alberto; Giani, Tommaso; Spanu, Teresa; Liotti, Flora Marzia; Fontana, Carla; Mirandola, Walter; Gargiulo, Raffaele; Barozzi, Agostino; Mauri, Carola; Principe, Luigi; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2017-07-01

    The rapid diagnosis of carbapenemase-producing (CP) bacteria is essential for the management of therapy and infection control. In this study, RAPIDEC® CARBA NP (RCNP) was evaluated for the rapid screening of CP Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii complex, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from clinical specimens collected at five Italian hospitals. Firstly, each site tested 20 well-characterized strains in a blinded fashion. Secondly, each center prospectively tested 25 isolates from blood cultures processed with a rapid workflow (6h after subculture) and 25 isolates from other specimens processed after an overnight culture. The presence of carbapenemases was confirmed by multiplex real-timePCRs targeting carbapenemase genes. RCNP presented an overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 70%, 94%, 82%, and 89%, respectively, with a higher performance in detection of CP Enterobacteriaceae and a poorer performance in detection of CP A. baumannii complex. With isolates from blood cultures, RCNP could significantly reduce the time required for identification of CP Enterobacteriaceae (less than 9h since the positivization of blood cultures). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reverse-Transcriptase PCR Detection of Leptospira: Absence of Agreement with Single-Specimen Microscopic Agglutination Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jesse J; Balassiano, Ilana; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Vital-Brazil, Juliana Magalhães; Sahoo, Malaya K; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2015-01-01

    Reference diagnostic tests for leptospirosis include nucleic acid amplification tests, bacterial culture, and microscopic agglutination testing (MAT) of acute and convalescent serum. However, clinical laboratories often do not receive paired specimens. In the current study, we tested serum samples using a highly sensitive real-time nucleic acid amplification test for Leptospira and compared results to MAT performed on the same specimens. 478 serum samples from suspected leptospirosis cases in Rio de Janeiro were tested using a real-time RT-PCR for the diagnosis of leptospirosis, malaria and dengue (the Lepto-MD assay). The Lepto-MD assay detects all species of Leptospira (saprophytic, intermediate, and pathogenic), and in the current study, we demonstrate that this assay amplifies both Leptospira RNA and DNA. Dengue virus RNA was identified in 10 patients, and no cases of malaria were detected. A total of 65 samples (13.6%) were positive for Leptospira: 35 samples (7.3%) in the Lepto-MD assay, 33 samples (6.9%) by MAT, and 3 samples tested positive by both (kappa statistic 0.02). Poor agreement between methods was consistent regardless of the titer used to define positive MAT results or the day of disease at sample collection. Leptospira nucleic acids were detected in the Lepto-MD assay as late as day 22, and cycle threshold values did not differ based on the day of disease. When Lepto-MD assay results were added to the MAT results for all patients in 2008 (n=818), the number of detected leptospirosis cases increased by 30.4%, from 102 (12.5%) to 133 (16.3%). This study demonstrates a lack of agreement between nucleic acid detection of Leptospira and single-specimen MAT, which may result from the clearance of bacteremia coinciding with the appearance of agglutinating antibodies. A combined testing strategy for acute leptospirosis, including molecular and serologic testing, appears necessary to maximize case detection.

  1. Performance of the Chromogenic Medium CHROMagar Staph Aureus and the Staphychrom Coagulase Test in the Detection and Identification of Staphylococcus aureus in Clinical Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carricajo, Anne; Treny, Axel; Fonsale, Nathalie; Bes, Michele; Reverdy, Marie Elisabeth; Gille, Yves; Aubert, Gerald; Freydiere, Anne Marie

    2001-01-01

    CHROMagar Staph aureus (CSAM) (CHROMagar Microbiology, Paris, France) is a new chromogenic medium designed to enable detection of colonies of Staphylococcus aureus by their pink color. A total of 775 specimens were cultured in parallel on CHROMagar Staph aureus and conventional media. Among the 267 S. aureus strains recovered on at least one medium, 263 were isolated on CSAM medium (sensitivity, 98.5%), and 245 (sensitivity, 91.8%) were isolated on conventional media. The specificity of presumptive identification of S. aureus on the basis of pink colony color on CSAM medium was 97% (493 of 508). This specificity increased to 100% when coagulase detection with the Staphychrom coagulase test was added and to 98.8% when S. aureus surface components were detected by agglutination in the Pastorex Staph Plus test. Susceptibility testing of 67 S. aureus strains, performed in parallel on pink CSAM colonies and on colonies grown on blood agar, gave similar results. Thus, rapid and accurate recognition and identification of S. aureus isolates were achieved with CSAM as the primary isolation medium, followed by the staphylocoagulase Staphychrom test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (disk-diffusion method or ATB STAPH System) can be performed directly on pink CSAM colonies. PMID:11427572

  2. Black holes and the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Fisica Fonamental i Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, Barcelona, 08028 Spain (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: jun.zhang@tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Tufts University, 574 Boston Ave, Medford, MA, 02155 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.

  3. Digitally Available Interval-Specific Rock-Sample Data Compiled from Historical Records, Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye County, Nevada.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Wood

    2007-10-24

    Between 1951 and 1992, 828 underground tests were conducted on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to and following these nuclear tests, holes were drilled and mined to collect rock samples. These samples are organized and stored by depth of borehole or drift at the U.S. Geological Survey Core Library and Data Center at Mercury, Nevada, on the Nevada Test Site. From these rock samples, rock properties were analyzed and interpreted and compiled into project files and in published reports that are maintained at the Core Library and at the U.S. Geological Survey office in Henderson, Nevada. These rock-sample data include lithologic descriptions, physical and mechanical properties, and fracture characteristics. Hydraulic properties also were compiled from holes completed in the water table. Rock samples are irreplaceable because pre-test, in-place conditions cannot be recreated and samples cannot be recollected from the many holes destroyed by testing. Documenting these data in a published report will ensure availability for future investigators.

  4. Digitally Available Interval-Specific Rock-Sample Data Compiled from Historical Records, Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Wood

    2009-10-08

    Between 1951 and 1992, underground nuclear weapons testing was conducted at 828 sites on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to and following these nuclear tests, holes were drilled and mined to collect rock samples. These samples are organized and stored by depth of borehole or drift at the U.S. Geological Survey Core Library and Data Center at Mercury, Nevada, on the Nevada Test Site. From these rock samples, rock properties were analyzed and interpreted and compiled into project files and in published reports that are maintained at the Core Library and at the U.S. Geological Survey office in Henderson, Nevada. These rock-sample data include lithologic descriptions, physical and mechanical properties, and fracture characteristics. Hydraulic properties also were compiled from holes completed in the water table. Rock samples are irreplaceable because pre-test, in-place conditions cannot be recreated and samples cannot be recollected from the many holes destroyed by testing. Documenting these data in a published report will ensure availability for future investigators.

  5. A new inclinable shear apparatus for large sample testing: design and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickli, Ch.; Burger, S.; Herranhof, H.; Michel, T.; Moser, A.; Tröger, A.

    2012-04-01

    Soil bioengineering methods are commonly applied to protect slopes from erosion and shallow landslides. However, the precise effectiveness of vegetation regarding slope stability is difficult to determine. Root reinforcement can be evaluated directly in terms of the additional shear strength provided by roots in root-reinforced soils. In this context we designed a shearing device for large scale planted soil samples with the aim to provide information about the contribution of plant roots to soil shear strength. The apparatus allows investigations on soil block samples with roots of different plant species commonly used for remediation and habitat restoration purposes under almost natural conditions. Shear stress results of rooted soils can be compared to those of un-vegetated soils with similar soil types. New and different to conventionally applied concepts, shear tests can be performed at variable inclinations up to 45° , considering plant growth at the corresponding angle of slope. Furthermore, experiments can be conducted at variable depth of the shearing zone, with low normal stresses and low shearing rates of≥ 0.01 mm/min. The measurements involve shearing force, shearing displacement (up to 200 mm), normal stress, normal displacement (dilatancy/consolidation) all recorded with high accuracy. Saturated and partially saturated soil samples containing roots can be tested with the soil humidity measured near the shearing zone. An automatic data logging system was designed for real-time visualisation of the different parameters and recording all required data in conjunction with the described direct shear apparatus. The device for soil samples of up to 500 x 500 x 400 mm offers a unique possibility to span the gap between investigations concerning vegetation effects on small planted soil specimens (e.g. triaxial tests) and the calculation of slope stability on entire slopes with vegetation. In addition, it combines the advantages of laboratory tests under

  6. Biaxial fatigue tests of notched specimens for AISI 304L stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Beretta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High cycle fatigue tests were conducted for stainless steel AISI 304L. The geometry was a thin walled tube with a passing through hole. The tests were axial, torsional and in-phase axial-torsional, all of them under load control with R = −1. The S-N curves were constructed following the ASTM E739 standard and the fatigues limits were calculated following the method of maximum likelihood proposed by Bettinelli. The crack direction along the surface was analysed, with especial attention to the crack initiation zones. The notch fatigue limits for different hole diameters were compared with the predictions done with a microstructural fracture mechanics model.

  7. Numerical and analytical modeling of the end-loaded split (ELS) test specimens made of multi-directional coupled composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samborski, Sylwester; Valvo, Paolo S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper deals with the numerical and analytical modelling of the end-loaded split test for multi-directional laminates affected by the typical elastic couplings. Numerical analysis of three-dimensional finite element models was performed with the Abaqus software exploiting the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). The results show possible asymmetries in the widthwise deflections of the specimen, as well as in the strain energy release rate (SERR) distributions along the delamination front. Analytical modelling based on a beam-theory approach was also conducted in simpler cases, where only bending-extension coupling is present, but no out-of-plane effects. The analytical results matched the numerical ones, thus demonstrating that the analytical models are feasible for test design and experimental data reduction.

  8. A New Parameter to Assess Hydromechanical Effect in Single-hole Hydraulic Testing and Grouting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Fransson, A.; Tsang, C.-F.; Rutqvist, J.; Gustafson, G.

    2007-09-01

    Grouting or filling of the open voids in fractured rock is done by introducing a fluid, a grout, through boreholes under pressure. The grout may be either a Newtonian fluid or a Bingham fluid. The penetration of the grout and the resulting pressure profile may give rise to hydromechanical effects, which depends on factors such as the fracture aperture, pressure at the borehole and the rheological properties of the grout. In this paper, we postulate that a new parameter, {angstrom}, which is the integral of the fluid pressure change in the fracture plane, is an appropriate measure to describe the change in fracture aperture volume due to a change in effective stress. In many cases, analytic expressions are available to calculate pressure profiles for relevant input data and the {angstrom} parameter. The approach is verified against a fully coupled hydromechanical simulator for the case of a Newtonian fluid. Results of the verification exercise show that the new approach is reasonable and that the {angstrom}-parameter is a good measure for the fracture volume change: i.e., the larger the {angstrom}-parameter, the larger the fracture volume change, in an almost linear fashion. To demonstrate the application of the approach, short duration hydraulic tests and constant pressure grouting are studied. Concluded is that using analytic expressions for penetration lengths and pressure profiles to calculate the {angstrom} parameter provides a possibility to describe a complex situation and compare, discuss and weigh the impact of hydromechanical couplings for different alternatives. Further, the analyses identify an effect of high-pressure grouting, where uncontrolled grouting of larger fractures and insufficient (or less-than-expected) sealing of finer fractures is a potential result.

  9. Enhanced Sampling and Analysis, Selection of Technology for Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svoboda, John; Meikrantz, David

    2010-02-01

    The focus of this study includes the investigation of sampling technologies used in industry and their potential application to nuclear fuel processing. The goal is to identify innovative sampling methods using state of the art techniques that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements. This report details the progress made in the first half of FY 2010 and includes a further consideration of the research focus and goals for this year. Our sampling options and focus for the next generation sampling method are presented along with the criteria used for choosing our path forward. We have decided to pursue the option of evaluating the feasibility of microcapillary based chips to remotely collect, transfer, track and supply microliters of sample solutions to analytical equipment in support of aqueous processes for used nuclear fuel cycles. Microchip vendors have been screened and a choice made for the development of a suitable microchip design followed by production of samples for evaluation by ANL, LANL, and INL on an independent basis.

  10. On Wasserstein Two-Sample Testing and Related Families of Nonparametric Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaditya Ramdas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonparametric two-sample or homogeneity testing is a decision theoretic problem that involves identifying differences between two random variables without making parametric assumptions about their underlying distributions. The literature is old and rich, with a wide variety of statistics having being designed and analyzed, both for the unidimensional and the multivariate setting. Inthisshortsurvey,wefocusonteststatisticsthatinvolvetheWassersteindistance. Usingan entropic smoothing of the Wasserstein distance, we connect these to very different tests including multivariate methods involving energy statistics and kernel based maximum mean discrepancy and univariate methods like the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, probability or quantile (PP/QQ plots and receiver operating characteristic or ordinal dominance (ROC/ODC curves. Some observations are implicit in the literature, while others seem to have not been noticed thus far. Given nonparametric two-sample testing’s classical and continued importance, we aim to provide useful connections for theorists and practitioners familiar with one subset of methods but not others.

  11. Spinning test body orbiting around a Kerr black hole: Circular dynamics and gravitational-wave fluxes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukes-Gerakopoulos, Georgios; Harms, E.; Bernuzzi, S.; Nagar, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 6 (2017), 064051/1-064051/13 ISSN 2470-0010 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-06962Y Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : general-relativity * test particles * conserved quantities Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.568, year: 2016

  12. Testing the black hole "no-hair" hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Vitor

    2016-01-01

    Black holes in General Relativity are very simple objects. This property, that goes under the name of "no-hair," has been refined in the last few decades and admits several versions. The simplicity of black holes makes them ideal testbeds of fundamental physics and of General Relativity itself. Here we discuss the no-hair property of black holes, how it can be measured in the electromagnetic or gravitational window, and what it can possibly tell us about our universe.

  13. Application of multiple laboratory tests for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis detection in Crohn's disease patient specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banche, Giuliana; Allizond, Valeria; Sostegni, Raffaello; Lavagna, Alessandro; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Sidoti, Francesca; Daperno, Marco; Rocca, Rodolfo; Cuffini, Anna Maria

    2015-07-01

    The difficulties involved in detecting and enumerating Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) as a pathogen potentially involved in Crohn's disease (CD) are well known. This study aimed to improve this situation through the application of multiple laboratory diagnostic tests to detect and isolate this bacterium from different specimens collected from CD-patients and non-CD subjects as controls. A total of 120 samples (terminal ileum and colon biopsies, blood and stool) were obtained from 19 CD-patients and from 11 individuals who did not have a clinicopathological diagnosis of CD (non-CD controls) attending for ileocolonoscopy. All samples were processed by staining techniques, culture on both solid and liquid media, and Insertion Sequence 900/F57 real-time PCR. The MAP frequency in CD-patients was found in a significantly greater proportion than in non-CD subjects; the most positive samples were biopsies from CD-patients tested by real-time PCR. MAP detection in biopsies, and in the other samples, by applying multiple and validated laboratory diagnostic tests, could be a marker of active infection, supporting MAP involvement in CD.

  14. Comparison between Saliva and Nasopharyngeal Swab Specimens for Detection of Respiratory Viruses by Multiplex Reverse Transcription-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Gon; Yun, Seung Gyu; Kim, Min Young; Park, Kwisung; Cho, Chi Hyun; Yoon, Soo Young; Nam, Myung Hyun; Lee, Chang Kyu; Cho, Yun-Jung; Lim, Chae Seung

    2017-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) are being widely used as specimens for multiplex real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR for respiratory virus detection. However, it remains unclear whether NPS specimens are optimal for all viruses targeted by multiplex RT-PCR. In addition, the procedure to obtain NPS specimens causes coughing in most patients, which possibly increases the risk of nosocomial spread of viruses. In this study, paired NPS and saliva specimens were collected from 236 adult male patients with suspected acute respiratory illnesses. Specimens were tested for 16 respiratory viruses by multiplex real-time RT-PCR. Among the specimens collected from the 236 patients, at least 1 respiratory virus was detected in 183 NPS specimens (77.5%) and 180 saliva specimens (76.3%). The rates of detection of respiratory viruses were comparable for NPS and saliva specimens (P = 0.766). Nine virus species and 349 viruses were isolated, 256 from NPS specimens and 273 from saliva specimens (P = 0.1574). Adenovirus was detected more frequently in saliva samples (P saliva samples was excluded by direct sequencing. In conclusion, neither of the sampling methods was consistently more sensitive than the other. We suggest that these cost-effective methods for detecting respiratory viruses in mixed NPS-saliva specimens might be valuable for future studies. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Sample Size for the "Z" Test and Its Confidence Interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng Steven

    2012-01-01

    The statistical power of a significance test is closely related to the length of the confidence interval (i.e. estimate precision). In the case of a "Z" test, the length of the confidence interval can be expressed as a function of the statistical power. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  16. Acceptability of routine HIV counselling and testing among a sample ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Routine HIV counseling and testing (RCT) is a necessary first step in accessing health care for persons who may test HIV-positive. Despite the availability of RCT in many South African settings, uptake has often been low. We sought to determine whether the main components of the Health Belief Model (HBM), namely ...

  17. Standard practice for fracture testing with surface-crack tension specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the design, preparation, and testing of surface-crack tension (SCT) specimens. It relates specifically to testing under continuously increasing force and excludes cyclic and sustained loadings. The quantity determined is the residual strength of a specimen having a semielliptical or circular-segment fatigue crack in one surface. This value depends on the crack dimensions and the specimen thickness as well as the characteristics of the material. 1.2 Metallic materials that can be tested are not limited by strength, thickness, or toughness. However, tests of thick specimens of tough materials may require a tension test machine of extremely high capacity. The applicability of this practice to nonmetallic materials has not been determined. 1.3 This practice is limited to specimens having a uniform rectangular cross section in the test section. The test section width and length must be large with respect to the crack length. Crack depth and length should be chosen to suit the ultimate pu...

  18. Fatigue Specimens for Sheet and Plate Material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijve, J.

    1998-01-01

    The usefulness of simple sheet and plate specimens is discussed for various experimental research purposes. Specimens should be representative as much as possible for the conditions of fatigue problems in practice, which is more difficult to achieve for the fatigue crack initiation phase than for

  19. Quantitative urine confirmatory testing for synthetic cannabinoids in randomly collected urine specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneto, Marisol S; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Gandhi, Adarsh; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Klette, Kevin L; Martin, Thomas M; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic cannabinoid intake is an ongoing health issue worldwide, with new compounds continually emerging, making drug testing complex. Parent synthetic cannabinoids are rarely detected in urine, the most common matrix employed in workplace drug testing. Optimal identification of synthetic cannabinoid markers in authentic urine specimens and correlation of metabolite concentrations and toxicities would improve synthetic cannabinoid result interpretation. We screened 20 017 randomly collected US military urine specimens between July 2011 and June 2012 with a synthetic cannabinoid immunoassay yielding 1432 presumptive positive specimens. We analyzed all presumptive positive and 1069 negative specimens with our qualitative synthetic cannabinoid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, which confirmed 290 positive specimens. All 290 positive and 487 randomly selected negative specimens were quantified with the most comprehensive urine quantitative LC-MS/MS method published to date; 290 specimens confirmed positive for 22 metabolites from 11 parent synthetic cannabinoids. The five most predominant metabolites were JWH-018 pentanoic acid (93%), JWH-N-hydroxypentyl (84%), AM2201 N-hydroxypentyl (69%), JWH-073 butanoic acid (69%), and JWH-122 N-hydroxypentyl (45%) with 11.1 (0.1-2,434), 5.1 (0.1-1,239), 2.0 (0.1-321), 1.1 (0.1-48.6), and 1.1 (0.1-250) µg/L median (range) concentrations, respectively. Alkyl hydroxy and carboxy metabolites provided suitable biomarkers for 11 parent synthetic cannabinoids; although hydroxyindoles were also observed. This is by far the largest data set of synthetic cannabinoid metabolites urine concentrations from randomly collected workplace drug testing specimens rather than acute intoxications or driving under the influence of drugs. These data improve the interpretation of synthetic cannabinoid urine test results and suggest suitable urine markers of synthetic cannabinoid intake. This article is a U

  20. Use of a compact sandwich specimen to evaluate fracture toughness and interfacial bonding of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Lankford, J; Agrawal, C M

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a reliable and statistically valid test to measure the fracture toughness of small specimens of bone, and by extension, prosthetic materials, using a compact sandwich specimen. Samples of bone were sandwiched between holders of a different material and using this specimen configuration a new technique was developed to test the fracture toughness of the bone interlayer. The effects of different specimens sizes and holder materials were investigated empirically. Using finite element analysis a correction factor was determined to account for the finite thickness of the interlayer and the analytical solutions governing the test specimen were accordingly modified. Bulk compact tension specimens of bone were tested for comparison. Both wet and dry bone were evaluated and the fracture surface morphology characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate no statistically significant differences between the fracture toughness values obtained from the compact tension and sandwich specimens. The application of this technique to the testing of interfacial bonding between bone and biomaterials is discussed.

  1. Dimension Synthesis of a Spatial Parallel Kinematic Manipulator Based on S-shaped Test Specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yuzhe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the aerospace industry, the hybrid machine tool for machining the complicated curved surface is becoming a research hotspot. The S-shaped test specimen proposed by Chengdu Aircraft Industrial Company is an effective test method to verify the ability of machining the complicated curved surface for a machine tool. Considering the spatial parallel kinematic manipulator in a hybrid machine tool provides the complicated orientation motion and its design of structure dimension affects the accuracy of the machine tool, this paper investigates the issue about dimension synthesis of the manipulator based on S-shaped test specimen. By establishing models of the S-shaped test specimen and parallel kinematic manipulator, the motion trajectory of the parallel kinematic manipulator for machining S-shaped test specimen is obtained. According to the motion trajectory and expected performance indices, the result of dimension synthesis for the manipulator is plotted and a set of suitable dimensions is achieved. With the analysis result in this paper, it is helpful to improving the accuracy of machining the S-shaped test specimen.

  2. Mold Testing or Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most cases, if visible mold growth is present, sampling is unnecessary. Since no EPA or other federal limits have been set for mold or mold spores, sampling cannot be used to check a building's compliance with federal mold standards.

  3. Biomarker Testing in Lung Carcinoma Cytology Specimens: A Perspective From Members of the Pulmonary Pathology Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Aisner, Dara L; Allen, Timothy Craig; Beasley, Mary Beth; Borczuk, Alain; Cagle, Philip T; Capelozzi, Vera; Dacic, Sanja; da Cunha Santos, Gilda; Hariri, Lida P; Kerr, Keith M; Lantuejoul, Sylvie; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Moreira, Andre; Raparia, Kirtee; Rekhtman, Natasha; Sholl, Lynette; Thunnissen, Eric; Tsao, Ming Sound; Vivero, Marina; Yatabe, Yasushi

    2016-04-15

    The advent of targeted therapy in lung cancer has heralded a paradigm shift in the practice of cytopathology with the need for accurately subtyping lung carcinoma, as well as providing adequate material for molecular studies, to help guide clinical and therapeutic decisions. The variety and versatility of cytologic-specimen preparations offer significant advantages to molecular testing; however, they frequently remain underused. Therefore, evaluating the utility and adequacy of cytologic specimens is critical, not only from a lung cancer diagnosis standpoint but also for the myriad ancillary studies that are necessary to provide appropriate clinical management. A large fraction of lung cancers are diagnosed by aspiration or exfoliative cytology specimens, and thus, optimizing strategies to triage and best use the tissue for diagnosis and biomarker studies forms a critical component of lung cancer management. This review focuses on the opportunities and challenges of using cytologic specimens for molecular diagnosis of lung cancer and the role of cytopathology in the molecular era.

  4. Critically Loaded Hole Technology Pilot Collaborative Test Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    270 rpm Spindle Speed - 1450 rpm Feed Rate - Manual Feed Rate - Manual Cutting Fluid - Dry Cutting Fluid - Dry Tool Type - Cordia S-18 Tool Type... Cordia S-18 TABLE XI MANUFACTURING DETAILS FOR HIGH AND LOW QUALITY HOLES SELECTED BY THE UNITED KINGDOM HIGH QUALITY LOW QUALITY Pilot Hole: - 1/8 inch

  5. 10 CFR 26.153 - Using certified laboratories for testing urine specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-certified laboratories that agree to follow the same rigorous specimen testing, quality control, and chain-of-custody procedures when testing for more stringent cutoff levels as may be specified by licensees... Federal custody-and-control form, licensees and other entities shall provide a memorandum to the...

  6. Influence at Work Distance between the Sonotrode and Specimen to Cavitational Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relu-Costel Ciubotariu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of cavitation erosion tests performed on five samples from pure aluminum using the vibratory method with stationary specimen. The main purpose of this research is for determine which is the distance between the sonotrode and specimen favorable for an aggressive cavitational attack. For this, has been calculated the Mean Depth of Erosion (MDE and the cavitation erosion rate (Vec. After that the specific curve for Vec has been analytically processed.

  7. Small specimen technique for assessing mechanical properties of metallic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Raquel M.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Morcelli, Aparecido E., E-mail: rmlobo@ipen.br, E-mail: morcelliae@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Small Punch Test (SPT) is one of the most promising techniques of small specimen test, which was originally applied in testing of irradiated materials in nuclear engineering. Then it was introduced to other fields as an almost nondestructive method to measure the local mechanical properties that are difficult to be obtained using conventional mechanical tests. Most studies to date are focused on metallic materials, although SPT applications are recently spreading to other materials. The small punch test (SPT) employs small-sized specimens (for example, samples measuring 8 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick). The specimen is firmly clamped between two circular dies and is bi-axially strained until failure into a circular hole using a hemispherical punch. The 'load-punch displacement' record can be used to estimate the yield strength, the ultimate tensile strength, the tensile elongation, and the temperature of the ductile-to-brittle transition. Recently, some researchers are working on the use of miniature notched or pre-cracked specimens (denoted as p-SPT) to validate its geometry and dimensions for obtaining the fracture properties of metallic materials. In a first approach, the technique makes it possible to convert primary experimental data into conventional mechanical properties of a massive specimen. In this paper a comprehensive review of the different STP applications is presented with the aim of clarifying its usefulness. (author)

  8. Using open hole and cased-hole resistivity logs to monitor gas hydrate dissociation during a thermal test in the mallik 5L-38 research well, Mackenzie Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B.I.; Collett, T.S.; Lewis, R.E.; Dubourg, I.

    2008-01-01

    Gas hydrates, which are naturally occurring ice-like combinations of gas and water, have the potential to provide vast amounts of natural gas from the world's oceans and polar regions. However, producing gas economically from hydrates entails major technical challenges. Proposed recovery methods such as dissociating or melting gas hydrates by heating or depressurization are currently being tested. One such test was conducted in northern Canada by the partners in the Mallik 2002 Gas Hydrate Production Research Well Program. This paper describes how resistivity logs were used to determine the size of the annular region of gas hydrate dissociation that occurred around the wellbore during the thermal test in the Mallik 5L-38 well. An open-hole logging suite, run prior to the thermal test, included array induction, array laterolog, nuclear magnetic resonance and 1.1-GHz electromagnetic propagation logs. The reservoir saturation tool was run both before and after the thermal test to monitor formation changes. A cased-hole formation resistivity log was run after the test.Baseline resistivity values in each formation layer (Rt) were established from the deep laterolog data. The resistivity in the region of gas hydrate dissociation near the wellbore (Rxo) was determined from electromagnetic propagation and reservoir saturation tool measurements. The radius of hydrate dissociation as a function of depth was then determined by means of iterative forward modeling of cased-hole formation resistivity tool response. The solution was obtained by varying the modeled dissociation radius until the modeled log overlaid the field log. Pretest gas hydrate production computer simulations had predicted that dissociation would take place at a uniform radius over the 13-ft test interval. However, the post-test resistivity modeling showed that this was not the case. The resistivity-derived dissociation radius was greatest near the outlet of the pipe that circulated hot water in the wellbore

  9. Computer vision applied to herbarium specimens of German trees: testing the future utility of the millions of herbarium specimen images for automated identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jakob; Merhof, Dorit; Renner, Susanne

    2016-11-16

    Global Plants, a collaborative between JSTOR and some 300 herbaria, now contains about 2.48 million high-resolution images of plant specimens, a number that continues to grow, and collections that are digitizing their specimens at high resolution are allocating considerable recourses to the maintenance of computer hardware (e.g., servers) and to acquiring digital storage space. We here apply machine learning, specifically the training of a Support-Vector-Machine, to classify specimen images into categories, ideally at the species level, using the 26 most common tree species in Germany as a test case. We designed an analysis pipeline and classification system consisting of segmentation, normalization, feature extraction, and classification steps and evaluated the system in two test sets, one with 26 species, the other with 17, in each case using 10 images per species of plants collected between 1820 and 1995, which simulates the empirical situation that most named species are represented in herbaria and databases, such as JSTOR, by few specimens. We achieved 73.21% accuracy of species assignments in the larger test set, and 84.88% in the smaller test set. The results of this first application of a computer vision algorithm trained on images of herbarium specimens shows that despite the problem of overlapping leaves, leaf-architectural features can be used to categorize specimens to species with good accuracy. Computer vision is poised to play a significant role in future rapid identification at least for frequently collected genera or species in the European flora.

  10. The detection of tightly closed flaws by nondestructive testing (NDT) methods. [fatigue crack formation in aluminum alloy test specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, W. D.; Rathke, R. A.; Todd, P. H., Jr.; Mullen, S. J.

    1975-01-01

    Liquid penetrant, ultrasonic, eddy current and X-radiographic techniques were optimized and applied to the evaluation of 2219-T87 aluminum alloy test specimens in integrally stiffened panel, and weld panel configurations. Fatigue cracks in integrally stiffened panels, lack-of-fusion in weld panels, and fatigue cracks in weld panels were the flaw types used for evaluation. A 2319 aluminum alloy weld filler rod was used for all welding to produce the test specimens. Forty seven integrally stiffened panels containing a total of 146 fatigue cracks, ninety three lack-of-penetration (LOP) specimens containing a total of 239 LOP flaws, and one-hundred seventeen welded specimens containing a total of 293 fatigue cracks were evaluated. Nondestructive test detection reliability enhancement was evaluated during separate inspection sequences in the specimens in the 'as-machined or as-welded', post etched and post proof loaded conditions. Results of the nondestructive test evaluations were compared to the actual flaw size obtained by measurement of the fracture specimens after completing all inspection sequences. Inspection data were then analyzed to provide a statistical basis for determining the flaw detection reliability.

  11. Determination of a cohesive law for delamination modelling - Accounting for variation in crack opening and stress state across the test specimen width

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joki, R. K.; Grytten, F.; Hayman, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The cohesive law for Mode I delamination in glass fibre Non-Crimped Fabric reinforced vinylester is determined for use in finite element models. The cohesive law is derived from a delamination test based on DCB specimens loaded with pure bending moments taking into account the presence of large-s...... of numerical simulation using the cohesive law derived by the above method, with those of physical testing for the standard DCB Mode I delamination test (ASTM D 5528). (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. A general mixed mode fracture mechanics test specimen: The DCB-specimen loaded with uneven bending moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jørgensen, K.; Jacobsen, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    glass-fibre laminates was studied. The mixed mode fracture resistance increased with increasing crack length due to fibre bridging, eventually reaching asteady-state level (R-curve behaviour). The steady-state fracture toughness level increased with increasing tangential crack opening displacement.......A mixed mode specimen is proposed for fracture mechanics characterisation of adhesive joints, laminates and multilayers. The specimen is a double cantilever beam specimen loaded with uneven bending moments at the two free beams. By varying the ratiobetween the two applied moments, the full mode...

  13. Design of test specimens and procedures for generating material properties of Douglas fir/epoxy laminated wood composite material: With the generation of baseline data at two environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul E.

    1985-01-01

    In support of the design of wind turbine generator airfoils/blades utilizing Douglas Fir/West System Epoxy laminated composite material, a program was undertaken to define pertinent material properties utilizing small scale test specimens. Task 1 was the development of suitable monotonic tension, compression, short beam shear and full reversed cyclic specimen designs and the companion grips and testing procedures. Task 2 was the generation of the material properties at two environmental conditions utilizing the specimens and procedures developed in Task 1. The monotonic specimens and procedures generated results which compare favorably with other investigators while the cyclic results appear somewhat conservative. Adding moisture and heat or scarf joints degraded the monotonic performance but had a more nebulus effect with cyclic loading.

  14. A comparison of constant-load and constant-deflection stress-corrosion tests on precracked DCB specimens. [Double Cantilever Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorward, R. C.; Hasse, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison is made between measurements of stress-corrosion crack propagation made by a constant-load procedure and by a constant-deflection procedure. Precracked double cantilever beam specimens from 7075 aluminum alloy plate were used. The specimens were oriented in such a way that cracking would begin in the short-transverse plane and would propagate in the rolling direction. The specimens were subjected to a buffered salt-chromate solution and a 3.6% synthetic sea salt solution. The measurements were made optically with a binocular microscope. Stress intensities and crack lengths were calculated and crack velocities were obtained. Velocity was plotted against the average calculated stress intensity. Good agreement between the two methods was found for the salt-chromate solution, although some descrepancies were noted for the artificial sea salt solution.

  15. Contamination with HIV antibody may be responsible for false positive results in specimens tested on automated platforms running HIV 4th generation assays in a region of high HIV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, Diana Ruth; Korsman, Stephen N; Hsiao, Nei-Yuan; Morobadi, Molefi Daniel; Vawda, Sabeehah; Goedhals, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    In South Africa where the prevalence of HIV infection is very high, 4th generation HIV antibody/p24 antigen combo immunoassays are the tests of choice for laboratory based screening. Testing is usually performed in clinical pathology laboratories on automated analysers. To investigate the cause of false positive results on 4th generation HIV testing platforms in public sector laboratories, the performance of two automated platforms was compared in a clinical pathology setting, firstly on routine diagnostic specimens and secondly on known sero-negative samples. Firstly, 1181 routine diagnostic specimens were sequentially tested on Siemens and Roche automated 4th generation platforms. HIV viral load, western blot and follow up testing were used to determine the true status of inconclusive specimens. Subsequently, known HIV seronegative samples from a single donor were repeatedly tested on both platforms and an analyser was tested for surface contamination with HIV positive serum to identify how suspected specimen contamination could be occurring. Serial testing of diagnostic specimens yielded 163 weakly positive or discordant results. Only 3 of 163 were conclusively shown to indicate true HIV infection. Specimen contamination with HIV antibody was suspected, based on the following evidence: the proportion of positive specimens increased on repeated passage through the analysers; viral loads were low or undetectable and western blots negative or indeterminate on problem specimens; screen negative, 2nd test positive specimens tested positive when reanalysed on the screening assay; follow up specimens (where available) were negative. Similarly, an increasing number of known negative specimens became (repeatedly) sero-positive on serial passage through one of the analysers. Internal and external analyser surfaces were contaminated with HIV serum, evidence that sample splashes occur during testing. Due to the extreme sensitivity of these assays, contamination with minute

  16. Performance of an adult Brazilian sample on the Trail Making Test and Stroop Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia Repiso Campanholo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The Trail Making Test (TMT and Stroop Test (ST are attention tests widely used in clinical practice and research. The aim of this study was to provide normative data for the adult Brazilian population and to study the influence of gender, age and education on the TMT parts A and B, and ST cards A, B and C. Methods: We recruited 1447 healthy subjects aged ≥18 years with an educational level of 0-25 years who were native speakers of Portuguese (Brazilian. The subjects were evaluated by the Matrix Reasoning and Vocabulary subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III, along with the TMTA, TMTB and ST A, B and C. Results: Among the participants, mean intellectual efficiency was 103.20 (SD: 12.0, age 41.0 (SD: 16.4 years and education 11.9 (SD: 5.6 years. There were significant differences between genders on the TMTA (p=0.002, TMTB (p=0.017 and STC (p=0.024. Age showed a positive correlation with all attention tests, whereas education showed a negative correlation. Gender was not found to be significant on the multiple linear regression model, but age and education maintained their interference. Conclusion: Gender did not have the major impact on attentional tasks observed for age and education, both of which should be considered in the stratification of normative samples.

  17. Liquid-based cytology and HPV DNA testing using intra-anal specimens from HIV-negative women with and without genital HPV-induced lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleutério, José; Benício, Givanildo Carneiro; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine Silveira; Eleutério, Renata Mírian Nunes; Oliveira, Denise Nunes; Jacyntho, Cláudia

    2015-05-01

    Screening for anal cancer using cytology has not been considered in immunocompetent women. The aim of this study was to identify cytological atypia and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in intra-anal specimens from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative women with and without genital HPV lesions. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of 142 women who were negative for the HIV: 80 with genital lesions that were associated with HPV and 62 without HPV-induced lesions. The women were evaluated at the Federal University of Ceará from October 2011 to June 2012. The statistical analysis included the Fisher exact test and the odds ratio (CI 95%). Atypical anal cytology was observed in 24 (29.3%) patients in the study group and in 11 (17.8%) patients in the control group. In cases with at least two sites of HPV-associated lesions, 12 (41.4%) presented atypical cytology (P = 0.0220; OR = 2.7621, 1.1579-6.5889). When the practice of anal sex was evaluated, atypical cytology was observed in 22/43 (34%) [P = 0.0214; OR = 2.519, 1.146-5.534]. HPV DNA was detected in 17/27 (63%) cases with at least two sites of lesions (P = 0.0293, OR = 2.4855, 1.0960-5.6367). In the 33 cases who presented positive HPV DNA test results, the liquid-based cytology results were atypical (P = 0.0212, OR = 2.8, 1.1665-6.7208). Based on the results, liquid-based cytology may be used to detect intra-anal lesions, especially among women who have a history of anal intercourse or who have genital HPV-associated lesions at multiple sites. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Five commercial DNA extraction systems tested and compared on a stool sample collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Søren; de Boer, Richard F; Kooistra-Smid, Anna M D; Olsen, Katharina E P

    2011-03-01

    In this study, 5 different commercial DNA extraction systems were tested on a stool sample collection containing 81 clinical stool specimens that were culture-positive for diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica, or Clostridium difficile. The purified DNAs were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) directed toward the relevant organisms. The results showed that conventional PCR combined with the extraction systems BioRobot EZ1 (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany), Bugs'n Beads (Genpoint, Oslo, Norway), ChargeSwitch (Invitrogen, Paisley, UK), QIAamp Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen), and 2 protocols (generic and Specific A) for EasyMag (BioMérieux, Marcy I'Etoile, France) were able to identify 89%, 62%, 85%, 88%, 85%, and 91%, respectively, of the pathogens originally identified by conventional culture-based methods. When TaqMan PCR was combined with the EasyMag Specific A protocol, 99% of the samples were correctly identified. The results demonstrate that the extraction efficiencies can vary significantly among different extraction systems, careful optimization may have a significant positive effect, and the use of sensitive and specific detection methods like TaqMan PCR is an ideal choice for this type of analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-parametric sign test and paired samples test of effectiveness of official FX intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Srđan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an event study of the effectiveness of official foreign exchange interventions by the National Bank of Serbia (NBS in the RSD/EUR market. As the NBS does not have a formally modelled response function we assume that it intervenes as is expected according to its mandate, i.e., to prevent excess daily fluctuations. This paper tests two alternative goals of official intervention, marking as a success an event in which the NBS either breaks/reverses or smooths an ongoing exchange rate movement. According to a pre-defined time window for an intervention-clustering event, a nonparametric sign test supported the view that the NBS has failed to reverse the trend but is fairly effective in smoothing exchange rate return. However, even the smoothing effect is identified as short lasting. A paired samples test leads to similar findings, but because of weak support for the necessary conditions of sampling distribution it remains less conclusive. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179015: Challenges and prospects of structural changes in Serbia: Strategic directions for economic development and harmonization with EU requirements

  20. Influence Of The Gripping Fixture On The Modified Compact Tension Test Results: Evaluation Of The Experiments On Cylindrical Concrete Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holušová Táňa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The modified compact tension test (MCT might become in the future a stable test configuration for the evaluation of fracture-mechanics parameters or also for description of fatigue behavior of composites materials such as concrete. Core drilling is used for sampling of existing structures. These samples have cylindrical shape with the selected thickness to avoid the stress concentration. This contribution focuses on the evaluation of the fracture behavior during static and quasi static tests. Static tests are performed on standard specimen with diameter 150 mm and length 300 mm. The quasi-static tests are performed using two different gripping fixtures. The results for quasi-static tests are represented as L-COD diagrams (i.e. load vs. crack opening displacement measured on the loading axis. The comparison of results and discussion of advantages and disadvantages are introduced.

  1. Fracture characteristics of laboratory-tested soda lime glass specimens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yankelevsky, David Z; Seica, Michael V; Spiller, Kevin; Packer, Jeffrey A

    .... This paper provides data and insight into parameters influencing these failure characteristics through laboratory testing and analysis of soda lime glass, to find a rationale behind the observed...

  2. Sequence Capture and Phylogenetic Utility of Genomic Ultraconserved Elements Obtained from Pinned Insect Specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie B Blaimer

    Full Text Available Obtaining sequence data from historical museum specimens has been a growing research interest, invigorated by next-generation sequencing methods that allow inputs of highly degraded DNA. We applied a target enrichment and next-generation sequencing protocol to generate ultraconserved elements (UCEs from 51 large carpenter bee specimens (genus Xylocopa, representing 25 species with specimen ages ranging from 2-121 years. We measured the correlation between specimen age and DNA yield (pre- and post-library preparation DNA concentration and several UCE sequence capture statistics (raw read count, UCE reads on target, UCE mean contig length and UCE locus count with linear regression models. We performed piecewise regression to test for specific breakpoints in the relationship of specimen age and DNA yield and sequence capture variables. Additionally, we compared UCE data from newer and older specimens of the same species and reconstructed their phylogeny in order to confirm the validity of our data. We recovered 6-972 UCE loci from samples with pre-library DNA concentrations ranging from 0.06-9.8 ng/μL. All investigated DNA yield and sequence capture variables were significantly but only moderately negatively correlated with specimen age. Specimens of age 20 years or less had significantly higher pre- and post-library concentrations, UCE contig lengths, and locus counts compared to specimens older than 20 years. We found breakpoints in our data indicating a decrease of the initial detrimental effect of specimen age on pre- and post-library DNA concentration and UCE contig length starting around 21-39 years after preservation. Our phylogenetic results confirmed the integrity of our data, giving preliminary insights into relationships within Xylocopa. We consider the effect of additional factors not measured in this study on our age-related sequence capture results, such as DNA fragmentation and preservation method, and discuss the promise of the UCE

  3. Method and apparatus for processing a test sample to concentrate an analyte in the sample from a solvent in the sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Terry D.; Beller, Laurence S.; Clark, Michael L.; Klingler, Kerry M.

    1997-01-01

    A method of processing a test sample to concentrate an analyte in the sample from a solvent in the sample includes: a) boiling the test sample containing the analyte and solvent in a boiling chamber to a temperature greater than or equal to the solvent boiling temperature and less than the analyte boiling temperature to form a rising sample vapor mixture; b) passing the sample vapor mixture from the boiling chamber to an elongated primary separation tube, the separation tube having internal sidewalls and a longitudinal axis, the longitudinal axis being angled between vertical and horizontal and thus having an upper region and a lower region; c) collecting the physically transported liquid analyte on the internal sidewalls of the separation tube; and d) flowing the collected analyte along the angled internal sidewalls of the separation tube to and pass the separation tube lower region. The invention also includes passing a turbulence inducing wave through a vapor mixture to separate physically transported liquid second material from vaporized first material. Apparatus are also disclosed for effecting separations. Further disclosed is a fluidically powered liquid test sample withdrawal apparatus for withdrawing a liquid test sample from a test sample container and for cleaning the test sample container.

  4. Testing Mass Determinations of Supermassive Black Holes via Stellar Kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappellari, Michele; M. McDermid, Richard; Bacon, R.; L. Davies, Roger; T. de Zeeuw, P.; Emsellem, Eric; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Peletier, R.F.; Sarzi, Marc; C. E. van den Bosch, Remco; van de Ven, Glenn; Debattista, Victor P.; Popescu, Cristina C.

    We investigate the accuracy of mass determinations MBH of supermassive black holes in galaxies using dynamical models of the stellar kinematics. We compare 10 of our MBH measurements, using integral-field OASIS kinematics, to published values. For a sample of 25 galaxies we confront our new MBH

  5. Characterization of specimens obtained by different sampling methods for evaluation of periodontal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Ayako; Sogabe, Kaoru; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Okamoto, Masaaki; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2017-11-17

    Quantitative analysis of periodontal bacteria is considered useful for clinical diagnosis, evaluation and assessment of the risk of periodontal disease. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of sampling of saliva, supragingival and subgingival plaque for evaluation of periodontal bacteria. From each of 12 subjects, i) subgingival plaque was collected from the deepest pocket using a sterile paper point, ii) stimulated whole saliva was collected after chewing gum, and iii) supragingival plaque was collected using a tooth brush. These samples were sent to the medical examination laboratory for quantitative analysis of the counts of three periodontal bacterial species: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia. The proportions of these bacteria in subgingival plaque were higher than those in saliva or supragingival plaque, but lower in subgingival plaque than in saliva or supragingival plaque. In several cases, periodontal bacteria were below the levels of detection in subgingival plaque. We concluded that samples taken from subgingival plaque may be more useful for evaluating the proportion of periodontal bacteria in deep pockets than is the case for other samples. Therefore, for evaluation of periodontal bacteria, clinicians should consider the characteristics of the specimens obtained using different sampling methods.

  6. Detection of Pathogenic Protozoa in the Diagnostic Laboratory: Result Reproducibility, Specimen Pooling, and Competency Assessment▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, M. D.; Gyorkos, T. W.; Kokoskin, E.; MacLean, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Stool microscopy as performed in clinical parasitology laboratories is a complex procedure with subjective interpretation. Quality assurance (QA) programs often emphasize proficiency testing as an assessment tool. We describe a result reproducibility assessment tool, which can form part of a broader QA program, and which is based on the blinded resubmission of selected clinical samples, using concordance between the reports of the initial and resubmitted specimen as an indicator. Specimens preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin can be stored for several months for use in such a program. The presence of multiple protozoa in one specimen does not affect concordance. Some dilution of specimens occurs in this process, and this may explain poor concordance when specimens with low protozoal concentrations are resubmitted. Evaluation of this tool in a large parasitology laboratory revealed concordance rates for pathogenic protozoa (Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Dientamoeba fragilis) of about 80%, which may be considered for use as a benchmark value. We also used this tool to demonstrate that when pairs of specimens from one patient are pooled to create a single specimen, concordance between the results of the individual and pooled specimens is high. PMID:18448690

  7. Integrity Surveillance Test for HTGR Graphite Core Components by Small Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Sehwan; Sung, Jiyong; Kim, Minhwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    For a graphite moderate high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), a reliable monitoring of the mechanical property changes of graphite core components owing to a possible oxidation or neutron-irradiation is a critical issue for safe operation of a reactor. For safety, an increase in the failure probability of the components owing to the degradation of mechanical properties should be analysed and reflected during the operating condition renewal process. In monitoring the degradation of the mechanical properties of graphite core components, however, since the reactor environment has limits in the number, shape, and volume of the pre-installed specimens for integrity evaluation, small specimen test techniques are required. In the present study, specimen size effects on the flexural strength and fracture toughness were discussed based on the data obtained in KAERI for nuclear application. The present study on the specimen size effects on flexural strength and fracture toughness measurements of nuclear graphite grades for HTGR shows that the small graphite specimens examined in this study may be applied to an integrity surveillance test of HTGR graphite core components.

  8. Occult Specimen Contamination in Routine Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehn, Jennifer K; Spencer, David H; Pfeifer, John D; Bredemeyer, Andrew J; Cottrell, Catherine E; Abel, Haley J; Duncavage, Eric J

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the extent of human-to-human specimen contamination in clinical next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. Using haplotype analysis to detect specimen admixture, with orthogonal validation by short tandem repeat analysis, we determined the rate of clinically significant (>5%) DNA contamination in clinical NGS data from 296 consecutive cases. Haplotype analysis was performed using read haplotypes at common, closely spaced single-nucleotide polymorphisms in low linkage disequilibrium in the population, which were present in regions targeted by the clinical assay. Percent admixture was estimated based on frequencies of the read haplotypes at loci that showed evidence for contamination. We identified nine (3%) cases with at least 5% DNA admixture. Three cases were bone marrow transplant patients known to be chimeric. Six admixed cases were incidents of contamination, and the rate of contamination was strongly correlated with DNA yield from the tissue specimen. Human-human specimen contamination occurs in clinical NGS testing. Tools for detecting contamination in NGS sequence data should be integrated into clinical bioinformatics pipelines, especially as laboratories trend toward using smaller amounts of input DNA and reporting lower frequency variants. This study provides one estimate of the rate of clinically significant human-human specimen contamination in clinical NGS testing. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  9. 40 CFR 53.57 - Test for filter temperature control during sampling and post-sampling periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... are to be recorded with an analog recording device, the accuracy of the entire instrument-recorder... Class I and Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 § 53.57 Test for filter temperature... sampling is the ability of a sampler to maintain the temperature of the particulate matter sample filter...

  10. Jets, black holes and disks in blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghisellini Gabriele

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Fermi and Swift satellites, together with ground based Cherenkov telescopes, has greatly improved our knowledge of blazars, namely Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars and BL Lac objects, since all but the most powerful emit most of their electro–magnetic output at γ–ray energies, while the very powerful blazars emit mostly in the hard X–ray region of the spectrum. Often they show coordinated variability at different frequencies, suggesting that in these cases the same population of electrons is at work, in a single zone of the jet. The location of this region along the jet is a matter of debate. The jet power correlates with the mass accretion rate, with jets existing at all values of disk luminosities, measured in Eddington units, sampled so far. The most powerful blazars show clear evidence of the emission from their disks, and this has revived methods of finding the black hole mass and accretion rate by modelling a disk spectrum to the data. Being so luminous, blazars can be detected also at very high redshift, and therefore are a useful tool to explore the far universe. One interesting line of research concerns how heavy are their black holes at high redshifts. If we associate the presence of a relativistic jets with a fastly spinning black hole, then we naively expect that the accretion efficiency is larger than for non–spinning holes. As a consequence, the black hole mass in jetted systems should grow at a slower rate. In turn, this would imply that, at high redshifts, the heaviest black holes should be in radio–quiet quasars. We instead have evidences of the opposite, challenging our simple ideas of how a black hole grows.

  11. Modeling cross-hole slug tests in an unconfined aquifer

    CERN Document Server

    Malama, Bwalya; Brauchler, Ralf; Bayer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A modified version of a published slug test model for unconfined aquifers is applied to cross-hole slug test data collected in field tests conducted at the Widen site in Switzerland. The model accounts for water-table effects using the linearised kinematic condition. The model also accounts for inertial effects in source and observation wells. The primary objective of this work is to demonstrate applicability of this semi-analytical model to multi-well and multi-level pneumatic slug tests. The pneumatic perturbation was applied at discrete intervals in a source well and monitored at discrete vertical intervals in observation wells. The source and observation well pairs were separated by distances of up to 4 m. The analysis yielded vertical profiles of hydraulic conductivity, specific storage, and specific yield at observation well locations. The hydraulic parameter estimates are compared to results from prior pumping and single-well slug tests conducted at the site, as well as to estimates from particle size ...

  12. Selected wells and test holes used in structure-contour of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes wells and test holes completed in the Inyan Kara Group that were used to create the structure-contours for the top of the Inyan Kara Group.

  13. Selected wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes wells and test holes completed in the Madison Limestone that were used to create the structure-contours for the top of the Madison Limestone,...

  14. Selected wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes wells and test holes completed in the Minnekahta Limestone that were used to create the structure-contours for the top of the Minnekahta...

  15. Selected wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes wells and test holes completed in the Minnelusa Formation that were used to create the structure-contours for the top of the Minnelusa...

  16. Collecting Samples for Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eGFR) Estrogen/Progesterone Receptor Status Estrogens Ethanol Extractable Nuclear Antigen Antibodies (ENA) Panel Factor V Leiden Mutation ... and Acute Coronary Syndrome Heart Disease Hemochromatosis Hemoglobin Abnormalities Hepatitis HIV Infection and AIDS Huntington Disease Hypertension ...

  17. Evaluation of Aspergillus PCR Protocols for Testing Serum Specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, P.L.; Mengoli, C.; Bretagne, S.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Finnstrom, N.; Klingspor, L.; Melchers, W.J.G.; McCulloch, E.; Barnes, R.A.; Donnelly, J.P.; Loeffler, J.

    2011-01-01

    A panel of human serum samples spiked with various amounts of Aspergillus fumigatus genomic DNA was distributed to 23 centers within the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative to determine analytical performance of PCR. Information regarding specific methodological components and PCR performance was

  18. An Evaluation of the Cobas4800 HPV Test on Cervico-Vaginal Specimens in Liquid versus Solid Transport Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxue Luo

    Full Text Available Determine the ability of the Cobas 4800 assay to detect high-risk human papillomavirus (HrHPV and high-grade cervical lesions when using cervico-vaginal samples applied to liquid medium and solid media cards compared to a direct cervical sample.Two cervico-vaginal specimens (pseudo self-collected were obtained from 319 women. One was applied to an iFTA Card (FTA then the brush placed in liquid-based medium (LSELF; the other was applied to a new solid media: POI card (POI. The clinical performance of Cobas4800 assay using the three aforementioned specimens was compared to direct collected endocervical specimens in liquid media (LDOC.The overall agreements of HrHPV detection were 84.2% (LSELF vs. LDOC, 81.0% (FTA vs. LDOC, and 82.3% (POI vs. LDOC. LSELF, FTA and POI identified 98.0%, 79.6%, and 97.5% positive cases of LDOC. Sensitivity to identify CIN2+ were 98.4% (LSELF, 73.8% (FTA, 95.1% (POI, and 93.4% (LDOC respectively. FTA had 78.1% and 90.4% agreement with the LSELF samples for all HrHPV and HPV16/18 detection respectively, while POI had 91.6% for both.Cobas4800 HPV test combined with cervico-vaginal specimens applied to both liquid media and POI solid card are accurate to detect HrHPV infection and high-grade cervical lesions as compared with direct endocervical samples in liquid media.

  19. Newly developed liquid-based cytology. TACAS™: cytological appearance and HPV testing using liquid-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubushiro, Kaneyuki; Taoka, Hideki; Sakurai, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Kurasaki, Akiko; Asakawa, Yasuyuki; Iwahara, Minoru; Takahashi, Kei

    2011-09-01

    Cell profiles determined by the thin-layer advanced cytology assay system (TACAS™), a liquid-based cytology technique newly developed in Japan, were analyzed in this study. Hybrid capture 2 (HC-2) was also performed using the liquid-based samples prepared by TACAS to ascertain its ability to detect human papillomavirus (HPV). Cell collection samples from uterine cervix were obtained from 359 patients and examined cytologically. A HC-2 assay for HPV was carried out in the cell specimens. All specimens were found to show background factors such as leukocytes. After excluding the 5 unsatisfactory cases from the total 354 cases, 82 cases (23.2%) were positive and 272 cases (76.8%) were negative for HPV. Cell specimens from 30 HPV-positive cases and 166 HPV-negative cases were subjected to 4 weeks of preservation at room temperature. Then, when subsequently re-assayed, 28 cases (93.3%) in the former group were found to be HPV positive and 164 cases (98.8%) in the latter group were found to be HPV negative. These results supported the excellent reproducibility of TACAS for HPV testing. A reasonable inference from the foregoing analysis is that TACAS may be distinguished from other liquid-based cytological approaches, such as ThinPrep and SurePath, in that it can retain the cell backgrounds. Furthermore, this study raises the possibility that cell specimens prepared using TACAS could be preserved for at least 4 weeks prior to carrying out a HC-2 assay for HPV.

  20. Development of a preparation method to produce a single sample that can be applied to both LC-MS/MS and GC-MS for the screening of postmortem specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kenji; Waters, Brian; Ikematsu, Natsuki; Tokuyasu, Tomoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Takayama, Mio; Matsusue, Aya; Kashiwagi, Masayuki; Kubo, Shin-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    Simple and efficient extraction methods have been developed for the screening of a wide array of drugs in postmortem autopsy specimens. Acidic and basic compounds were targeted with two extraction methods that can be applied to both GC-MS and LC-MS/MS instrumentation. The extractions were achieved by utilizing lipid-removal and solid-phase extraction cartridges while carefully monitoring the pH of the samples to ensure the adequate removal of interfering substances like lipids and amino acid derivatives. These methods were applied to actual autopsy cases, with 94 and 124 compounds detected by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS, respectively. The developed methods could easily be incorporated into a forensic laboratory's daily routine for screening many different compounds from postmortem samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Parabens in 24 h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank from 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rebecca K; Koch, Holger M; Angerer, Jürgen; Apel, Petra; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Brüning, Thomas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2015-10-01

    Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care and consumer products, food and pharmaceuticals. Due to their ubiquity, humans are constantly exposed to these chemicals. We assessed exposure to nine parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, n- and iso-propyl-, n- and iso-butyl-, benzyl-, pentyl- and heptyl paraben) in the German population from 1995 to 2012 based on 660 24h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) using on-line HPLC coupled to isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.5 μg/L for all parabens. We detected methyl-, ethyl- and n-propyl paraben in 79-99% of samples, followed by n-butyl paraben in 40% of samples. We infrequently detected iso-butyl-, iso-propyl- and benzyl paraben in 24%, 4% and 1.4% of samples, respectively. Urinary concentrations were highest for methyl paraben (median 39.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 319 μg/L) followed by n-propyl paraben (4.8 μg/L; 95th percentile 74.0 μg/L) and ethyl paraben (2.1 μg/L; 95th percentile 39.1 μg/L). Women had significantly higher urinary levels for all parabens than men, except for benzyl paraben. Samples from the ESB revealed that over the investigation period of nearly 20 years urinary paraben levels remained surprisingly constant; only methyl paraben had a significant increase, for both men and women. We found strong correlations between methyl- and n-propyl paraben and between n- and iso-butyl paraben. These results indicate that parabens are used in combination and arise from common sources of exposure. Urinary excretion factors are needed to extrapolate from individual urinary concentrations to actual doses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Black holes and galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Propst, Raphael J

    2010-01-01

    Galaxies are the basic unit of cosmology. The study of galaxy formation is concerned with the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning. The physics of galaxy formation is complicated because it deals with the dynamics of stars, thermodynamics of gas and energy production of stars. A black hole is a massive object whose gravitational field is so intense that it prevents any form of matter or radiation to escape. It is hypothesized that the most massive galaxies in the universe- "elliptical galaxies"- grow simultaneously with the supermassive black holes at their centers, giving us much stronger evidence that black holes control galaxy formation. This book reviews new evidence in the field.

  3. Study on critical places for maximum temperature rise on unexposed surface of curtain wall test specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulik Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the main issues related to the fire resistance of glazed curtain walls including the tests methodology and way of classification of this type of building elements. Moreover, the paper presents an attempt to determine the weak points of aluminium glazed curtain wall test specimens regarding to the maximum temperature rise measurements, based on the fire resistance tests performed in recent years by Fire Research Department of Building Research Institute. The paper analyse the results of temperature rise on unexposed surface of 17 aluminium glazed curtain wall specimens tested for internal fire exposure in accordance with EN 1364-3:2006 [3] and EN 1364-3:2014 [4], which achieved the fire resistance class of min. EI 15.

  4. An inset CT specimen for evaluating fracture in small samples of material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyazadehfar, M; Nazari, A; Kruzic, J J; Quinn, G D; Arola, D

    2014-02-01

    In evaluations on the fracture behavior of hard tissues and many biomaterials, the volume of material available to study is not always sufficient to apply a standard method of practice. In the present study an inset Compact Tension (inset CT) specimen is described, which uses a small cube of material (approximately 2×2×2mm(3)) that is molded within a secondary material to form the compact tension geometry. A generalized equation describing the Mode I stress intensity was developed for the specimen using the solutions from a finite element model that was defined over permissible crack lengths, variations in specimen geometry, and a range in elastic properties of the inset and mold materials. A validation of the generalized equation was performed using estimates for the fracture toughness of a commercial dental composite via the "inset CT" specimen and the standard geometry defined by ASTM E399 (2006). Results showed that the average fracture toughness obtained from the new specimen (1.23±0.02MPam(0.5)) was within 2% of that from the standard. Applications of the inset CT specimen are presented for experimental evaluations on the crack growth resistance of dental enamel and root dentin, including their fracture resistance curves. Potential errors in adopting this specimen are then discussed, including the effects of debonding between the inset and molding material on the estimated stress intensity distribution. Results of the investigation show that the inset CT specimen offers a viable approach for studying the fracture behavior of small volumes of structural materials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Earthquake induced rock shear through a deposition hole. Modelling of three model tests scaled 1:10. Verification of the bentonite material model and the calculation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boergesson, Lennart (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Hernelind, Jan (5T Engineering AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    Three model shear tests of very high quality simulating a horizontal rock shear through a deposition hole in the centre of a canister were performed 1986. The tests and the results are described by /Boergesson 1986/. The tests simulated a deposition hole in the scale 1:10 with reference density of the buffer, very stiff confinement simulating the rock, and a solid bar of copper simulating the canister. The three tests were almost identical with exception of the rate of shear, which was varied between 0.031 and 160 mm/s, i.e. with a factor of more than 5,000 and the density of the bentonite, which differed slightly. The tests were very well documented. Shear force, shear rate, total stress in the bentonite, strain in the copper and the movement of the top of the simulated canister were measured continuously during the shear. After finished shear the equipment was dismantled and careful sampling of the bentonite with measurement of water ratio and density were made. The deformed copper 'canister' was also carefully measured after the test. The tests have been modelled with the finite element code Abaqus with the same models and techniques that were used for the full scale scenarios in SR-Site. The results have been compared with the measured results, which has yielded very valuable information about the relevancy of the material models and the modelling technique. An elastic-plastic material model was used for the bentonite where the stress-strain relations have been derived from laboratory tests. The material model is made a function of both the density and the strain rate at shear. Since the shear is fast and takes place under undrained conditions, the density is not changed during the tests. However, strain rate varies largely with both the location of the elements and time. This can be taken into account in Abaqus by making the material model a function of the strain rate for each element. A similar model, based on tensile tests on the copper used in

  6. Charge carrier holes and Majorana fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingcheng; Lyanda-Geller, Yuli

    2017-05-01

    Understanding Luttinger holes in low dimensions is crucial for numerous spin-dependent phenomena and nanotechnology. In particular, hole quantum wires that are proximity coupled to a superconductor is a promising system for the observation of Majorana fermions. Earlier treatments of confined Luttinger holes ignored a mutual transformation of heavy and light holes at the heteroboundaries. We derive the effective hole Hamiltonian in the ground state. The mutual transformation of holes is crucial for Zeeman and spin-orbit coupling, and results in several spin-orbit terms linear in momentum in hole quantum wires. We discuss the criterion for realizing Majorana modes in charge carrier hole systems. GaAs or InSb hole wires shall exhibit stronger topological superconducting pairing, and provide additional opportunities for its control compared to InSb electron systems.

  7. Comparison of Gross Anatomy Test Scores Using Traditional Specimens vs. Quicktime Virtual Reality Animated Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a…

  8. The Effect of Sample Preparation and Testing Procedure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Addis Ababa Institute of Technology,. 3. Murray Rix Geotechnical, UK. Corresponding ... road, and the earth fill dam in Gilgel-Gibe for hydroelectric power generation are projects that ... and suitability of TWR laterite soils for roads, earthworks and other purposes. TWR laterite.

  9. Analysis of Mandibular Test Specimens Used to Assess a Bone Fixation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccarin, Leandro Stocco; Casarin, Renato Correa Viana; Lopes-da-Silva, Jorge Vicente; Passeri, Luis Augusto

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess through biomechanical testing if different synthetic materials used to fabricate test specimens have a different biomechanical behavior in comparison with other materials when simulating in vitro load resistance of a fixation method established for sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO). Thirty synthetic and standardized human hemimandible replicas with SSRO were divided into three groups of 10 samples each. Group A-ABS plastic; Group B-polyamide; and Group C-polyurethane. These were fixated with three bicortical position screws (16 mm in length, 2.0-mm system) in an inverted l pattern using perforation guide and 5-mm advancement. Each sample was submitted to linear vertical load, and load strength values were recorded at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 mm of displacement. The means and standard deviation were compared using the analysis of variance (p < 0.05) and the Tukey test. A tendency for lower values was observed in Group B in comparison with Groups A and C. At 3 and 5 mm of displacement, a difference between Groups A and C was found in comparison with Group B (p < 0.05). At 7 and 10 mm of displacement, a difference was found among the three groups, in which Group C showed the highest values and Group B the lowest (p < 0.05). Taking into consideration the results obtained and the behavior of each material used as a substrate, significant differences occurred among the materials when compared among them.

  10. Undisturbed Sampling and Cyclic Load Testing of Sands,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    volume changes due to freezing. A number of theories has been advanced to explain the migration of moisture during freezing, mostly based on the premise...energy. However no integrated theory of moisture migration has yet been elaborated in general form; and reliance must, therefore, be placed on the...Sexton, A.C. Scordelis , E.L. Wilson. L.A. Wyllie, H.B. Seed and J. Penzien, Chairman -1170 (PR 201 455)A06 . . . .. .. .. , li . . .. , ,,w EERC 70-5

  11. Sample Canister Capture Mechanism for Mars Sample Return: Functional and environmental test of the elegant breadboard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, R.; Filippetto, D.; Lavagna, M.; Mailland, F.; Falkner, P.; Larranaga, J.

    2015-12-01

    The paper provides recent updates about the ESA study: Sample Canister Capture Mechanism Design and Breadboard developed under the Mars Robotic Exploration Preparation (MREP) program. The study is part of a set of feasibility studies aimed at identifying, analysing and developing technology concepts enabling the future international Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission. The MSR is a challenging mission with the purpose of sending a Lander to Mars, acquire samples from its surface/subsurface and bring them back to Earth for further, more in depth, analyses. In particular, the technology object of the Study is relevant to the Capture Mechanism that, mounted on the Orbiter, is in charge of capturing and securing the Sample Canister, or Orbiting Sample, accommodating the Martian soil samples, previously delivered in Martian orbit by the Mars Ascent Vehicle. An elegant breadboard of such a device was implemented and qualified under an ESA contract primed by OHB-CGS S.p.A. and supported by Politecnico di Milano, Department of Aerospace Science and Technology: in particular, functional tests were conducted at PoliMi-DAST and thermal and mechanical test campaigns occurred at Serms s.r.l. facility. The effectiveness of the breadboard design was demonstrated and the obtained results, together with the design challenges, issues and adopted solutions are critically presented in the paper. The breadboard was also tested on a parabolic flight to raise its Technology Readiness Level to 6; the microgravity experiment design, adopted solutions and results are presented as well in the paper.

  12. Synthesizing Information from Language Samples and Standardized Tests in School-Age Bilingual Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Pham, Giang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Although language samples and standardized tests are regularly used in assessment, few studies provide clinical guidance on how to synthesize information from these testing tools. This study extends previous work on the relations between tests and language samples to a new population--school-age bilingual speakers with primary language…

  13. Development and utilization of irradiational capsule - Mechanical and thermal performance analysis and development of design program on the cylindrical structures with multi-holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Shin; Choi, M. H.; Shin, D. S. [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Irradiation tests in the research reactor are used with the specially designed capsules for irradiation test and loop. Accordingly, suitable instrumented capsule for HANARO must be designed and manufactured. To satisfy the requirements of users and to conduct irradiation test effectively, the accurate informations on the thermal and mechanical characteristics of capsule should be understood. The structural analysis results show that stress characteristics of the cylinder with multi-holes is not significantly effected by the sizes of specimen hole, numbers of specimen and eccentric characteristics. The thermal and structural analysis of the capsule with multi-holes under thermal loading shows that the peak temperature in the circular cylinder is occurred in the specimens inserted in the center or specimen holes and is significantly effected by gap size between the holder and the external tube. In this study, CAPSYS program is developed by interfacing finite element analysis program, ANSYS with graphic user interface program, VISUAL C++. This program will be useful on the design and safety analysis of the capsule for material irradiation test. 20 refs., 37 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  14. Rotating black hole and quintessence

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sushant G

    2015-01-01

    We discuss spherically symmetric exact solutions of the Einstein equations for quintessential matter surrounding a black hole (BH), which has additional parameters ($\\alpha$ and $\\omega$) due to the quintessential matter, apart from the mass ($M$). In turn, we employ the Newman\\(-\\)Janis complex transformation to this spherical quintessence BH solution and present a rotating counterpart that is identified, for $\\alpha=-e^2 \

  15. 77 FR 72205 - Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification Regarding Representative Samples for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... design or manufacturing process, including the sourcing of component parts,'' and the ``testing of random... representative of the product for mechanical tests. For example, if a bicycle handlebar sample is manufactured... concerning untested units versus tested units may be met by a range of probability-based sampling designs...

  16. Statistical test of reproducibility and operator variance in thin-section modal analysis of textures and phenocrysts in the Topopah Spring member, drill hole USW VH-2, Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L.M.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Broxton, D.E.

    1989-06-01

    A thin-section operator-variance test was given to the 2 junior authors, petrographers, by the senior author, a statistician, using 16 thin sections cut from core plugs drilled by the US Geological Survey from drill hole USW VH-2 standard (HCQ) drill core. The thin sections are samples of Topopah Spring devitrified rhyolite tuff from four textural zones, in ascending order: (1) lower nonlithophysal, (2) lower lithopysal, (3) middle nonlithophysal, and (4) upper lithophysal. Drill hole USW-VH-2 is near the center of the Crater Flat, about 6 miles WSW of the Yucca Mountain in Exploration Block. The original thin-section labels were opaqued out with removable enamel and renumbered with alpha-numeric labels. The sliders were then given to the petrographer operators for quantitative thin-section modal (point-count) analysis of cryptocrystalline, spherulitic, granophyric, and void textures, as well as phenocryst minerals. Between operator variance was tested by giving the two petrographers the same slide, and within-operator variance was tested by the same operator the same slide to count in a second test set, administered at least three months after the first set. Both operators were unaware that they were receiving the same slide to recount. 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Testing cosmic censorship conjecture near extremal black holes with cosmological constants

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that extremal Kerr-Newman black holes can be overcharged or overspun by a test particle, indicating possible violation of the cosmic censorship. In this paper, we consider extremal charged and rotating black holes with cosmological constants. By studying the motion of test particles, we find the following results: An extremal Reissner-Nordstrom anti-de Sitter (RN-AdS) black hole can be overcharged by a test particle but an extremal Reissner-Nordstrom de Sitter (RN-dS) black hole cannot be overcharged. We also show that both Kerr-de-Sitter (Kerr-dS) and Kerr-anti-de-Sitter (Kerr-AdS) black holes can be overspun by a test particle, implying a possible breakdown of the cosmic censorship conjecture. For the Kerr-AdS case, the overspinning requires that the energy of the particle be negative, a reminiscent of the Penrose process. In contrast to the extremal RN and Kerr black holes, in which cases the cosmic censorship is upheld, our results suggest some subtle relations between the cosmol...

  18. Apparatus for pre-stress-straining rod-type specimens in tension for in-situ passive fracture testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John Jy-an [Oak Ridge, TN; Liu, Ken C [Oak Ridge, TN; Feng, Zhili [Knoxville, TN

    2013-07-31

    A stress-strain testing apparatus imposes a stress-strain on a specimen while disposed in a controlled environment. Each end of the specimen is fastened to an end cap and a strain gage is attached to the specimen. An adjusting mechanism and a compression element are disposed between the end caps forming a frame for applying forces to the end caps and thereby stress-straining the specimen. The adjusting mechanism may be extended or retracted to increase or decrease the imposed stress-strain on the specimen, and the stress-strain is measured by the strain gage on the specimen while the apparatus is exposed to an environment such as high pressure hydrogen. Strain gages may be placed on the frame to measure stress-strains in the frame that may be caused by the environment.

  19. Black Holes and Exotic Spinors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hoff da Silva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exotic spin structures are non-trivial liftings, of the orthogonal bundle to the spin bundle, on orientable manifolds that admit spin structures according to the celebrated Geroch theorem. Exotic spin structures play a role of paramount importance in different areas of physics, from quantum field theory, in particular at Planck length scales, to gravity, and in cosmological scales. Here, we introduce an in-depth panorama in this field, providing black hole physics as the fount of spacetime exoticness. Black holes are then studied as the generators of a non-trivial topology that also can correspond to some inequivalent spin structure. Moreover, we investigate exotic spinor fields in this context and the way exotic spinor fields branch new physics. We also calculate the tunneling probability of exotic fermions across a Kerr-Sen black hole, showing that the exotic term does affect the tunneling probability, altering the black hole evaporation rate. Finally we show that it complies with the Hawking temperature universal law.

  20. Effect of NaCl Solution Spraying on Fatigue Lives of Smooth and Slit Specimens of 0.37% Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makabe, Chobin; Ferdous, Md. Shafiul; Shimabukuro, Akimichi; Murdani, Anggit

    2017-07-01

    The fatigue crack initiation life and growth rate are affected by experimental conditions. A corrosive environment can be created in a laboratory by means of dropping salt water onto the specimen surface, spraying chloride mist into the experimental chamber, etc. In the case of smooth specimens of some metals, fatigue life is shortened and the fatigue limit disappears under such corrosive experimental conditions. In this study, the effects of intermittent spraying of 3% NaCl solution-mist on corrosion fatigue behavior were investigated. The material used was 0.37% carbon steel. This is called JIS S35C in Japan. Spraying of 3% NaCl solution-mist attacked the surface layer of the specimen. It is well known that the pitting, oxidation-reduction reaction, etc. affect the fatigue strength of metals in a corrosive environment. We carried out corrosion fatigue tests with smooth specimens, holed specimens and slit specimens. Then the effects of such specimen geometry on the fatigue strength were investigated when the NaCl solution-mist was sprayed onto the specimen surface. In the case of lower stress amplitude application in slit specimens, the fatigue life in a corrosive atmosphere was longer than that in the open air. It is discussed that the behavior is related to the crack closure which happens when the oxide builds up and clogs the crack or slit.

  1. 3D volume reconstruction from serial breast specimen radiographs for mapping between histology and 3D whole specimen imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertzanidou, Thomy; Hipwell, John H; Reis, Sara; Hawkes, David J; Ehteshami Bejnordi, Babak; Dalmis, Mehmet; Vreemann, Suzan; Platel, Bram; van der Laak, Jeroen; Karssemeijer, Nico; Hermsen, Meyke; Bult, Peter; Mann, Ritse

    2017-03-01

    In breast imaging, radiological in vivo images, such as x-ray mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are used for tumor detection, diagnosis, and size determination. After excision, the specimen is typically sliced into slabs and a small subset is sampled. Histopathological imaging of the stained samples is used as the gold standard for characterization of the tumor microenvironment. A 3D volume reconstruction of the whole specimen from the 2D slabs could facilitate bridging the gap between histology and in vivo radiological imaging. This task is challenging, however, due to the large deformation that the breast tissue undergoes after surgery and the significant undersampling of the specimen obtained in histology. In this work, we present a method to reconstruct a coherent 3D volume from 2D digital radiographs of the specimen slabs. To reconstruct a 3D breast specimen volume, we propose the use of multiple target neighboring slices, when deforming each 2D slab radiograph in the volume, rather than performing pairwise registrations. The algorithm combines neighborhood slice information with free-form deformations, which enables a flexible, nonlinear deformation to be computed subject to the constraint that a coherent 3D volume is obtained. The neighborhood information provides adequate constraints, without the need for any additional regularization terms. The volume reconstruction algorithm is validated on clinical mastectomy samples using a quantitative assessment of the volume reconstruction smoothness and a comparison with a whole specimen 3D image acquired for validation before slicing. Additionally, a target registration error of 5 mm (comparable to the specimen slab thickness of 4 mm) was obtained for five cases. The error was computed using manual annotations from four observers as gold standard, with interobserver variability of 3.4 mm. Finally, we illustrate how the reconstructed volumes can be used to map histology images to a 3D specimen

  2. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in Fecal Specimens From Adults Diagnosed With Pulmonary Tuberculosis Using the Xpert MTB/Rifampicin Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokuto, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Yuka; Yoshimatsu, Shoji; Mizuno, Kazue; Yi, Lina; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    Background.  The Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/rifampicin (RIF) is a fully automated diagnostic test that allows for the detection of MTB including its RIF resistance. Although the test is used for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in sputum samples worldwide, studies using fecal specimens are scarce. We therefore evaluated the efficacy of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for detection of MTB in fecal specimens obtained from adult pulmonary TB patients, confirmed by culture and/or molecular diagnostic methods. Methods.  We conducted a retrospective case-control study to provide proof-of-concept regarding the efficacy of the Xpert MTB/RIF test using fecal samples for diagnosing pulmonary TB via detection of MTB in adult patients (≥20 years) at the Fukujuji Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Results.  Fecal specimens were obtained from 56 active pulmonary TB patients (including 48 sputum smear-positive and 8 sputum smear-negative patients), 10 non-TB patients (including 4 Myocobacterium avium complex infections), and 27 healthy individuals who were exposed to active pulmonary TB patients. The sensitivity of the fecal Xpert MTB/RIF was 100% (81.7%-100%) for detection of MTB in specimens from sputum smear-positive (1+ to 3+) patients, 81.0% (58.1%-94.6%) in specimens from sputum smear scanty positive patients, and 50.0% (15.7%-84.3%) in specimens from sputum smear-negative patients. Meanwhile, each of the fecal specimens from the non-TB group was negative for MTB (specificity 100%; 95% confidence interval, 86.2-100). Conclusions.  The fecal Xpert MTB/RIF test could detect MTB in a large proportion of smear-positive pulmonary TB patients, without frequent false-positive results at a TB referral hospital in Japan.

  3. A typical proficiency testing programmes sample design for electrical and electronic product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T. T.; Zhang, H.; Xie, L. L.; Wang, Y. Y.

    2017-04-01

    Creepage distance and clearance testing are the basic testing items in the safety standards for almost all electrical and electronic products. A typical sample group is designed in this paper for the purpose of proficiency testing programmes. The sample group is composed of two kinds of circuit board. The length of the creepage distance of the two circuit boards in pollution degree 2 and 3 are the same but with different paths. This sample group includes three testing points. This sample group is designed beneficial for numerical statistics and avoiding the data complicity in the laboratory. It can be used for effective laboratory monitoring.

  4. Small specimen test technology of fracture toughness in structural material F82H steel for fusion nuclear reactors

    OpenAIRE

    若井 栄一; 大塚 英男; 松川 真吾; 安堂 正己; 實川 資朗

    2006-01-01

    Small specimen test technology (SSTT) has been developed to investigate mechanical properties of nuclear materials. SSTT has been driven by limited availability of effective irradiation volumes in test reactors and accelerator-based neutron and charged particle sources, and it is very useful for the reduction of waste materials produced in nuclear engineering. In this study new bend test machines have been developed to obtain fracture behaviors of F82H steel for very small bend specimens of p...

  5. Finite-Layer Method: Exact Numerical and Analytical Calculations of the Energy Release Rate for Unidirectional Composite Specimens in Double-Cantilever Beam and End-Notched Flexure Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonin, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Based on the finite-layer method, a method for evaluating the stress-strain state and energy release rate for specimens with delaminations in double-cantilever beam and end-notched flexure tests is proposed. Exact numerical solutions of boundary-value problems for the "stiff" systems of differential equations describing deformations of test specimens are obtained. The distributions of forces, moments, displacements, and rotations in the specimens and the distributions of normal and tangential stresses on their midline are presented. New closed-form expressions for these functions and for compliance of the specimens are developed. Calculation results for the energy release rate obtained by a numerical differentiation and from analytical relations are presented. Two new techniques for estimating the energy release rate are proposed: (1) using the calculated values of peak stress and jumps of displacements at the tip of delamination; (2) by evaluation of indeterminacy at the tip of delamination with the use of stresses and derivatives of stresses and displacements. The effect of the transverse shear and Poisson ratio on the results is estimated. A comparison of the numerical and analytical solutions obtained with known results and the ASTM standard is presented.

  6. Specimen aspect ratio and light transmission in photoactive dental resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadis, Mohammed A; Shortall, Adrian C; Palin, William M

    2012-11-01

    To test the influence of specimen dimensions on light transmission and shrinkage strain properties of curing dental resins. Photocurable resin specimens (Bis-GMA/TEGDMA) with aspect ratios (AR) of 2 (4mm×2mm); 4 (4mm×1mm and 8mm×2mm); 8 (8mm×1mm); 12 (AR: 12mm×1mm); and 24 (12mm×0.5mm) were light cured. Light transmission and shrinkage-strain data were recorded throughout, and upper and lower surface hardness measurements were performed following cure. Light transmission was significantly affected by the specimen aspect ratio even at similar thicknesses (presin without photoinitiator, the lowest AR specimens showed a relative increase in transmission above 100% throughout curing, which was caused by specimen constraint. The extent of lower surface cure (as assessed by increasing hardness) was principally affected by cavity height and decreased for thicker specimens (presin-based restorations through depth. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of post-sampling analysis time, type of blood samples and collection tubes on values of blood gas testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajić, Jasmina; Kadić, Damira; Hasić, Sabaheta; Serdarević, Nafija

    2015-08-01

    To investigate effects of post-sampling analysis time, a type of blood samples and collection tubes on blood gas testing. This study included 100 patients at the Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases, Clinical Centre Sarajevo. The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and carbon dioxide (pCO2), and the oxygen saturation level of hemoglobin (sO2) were analyzed in the arterial blood samples (ABS) and capillary blood samples (CBS) by a potentiometric method using a blood gas analyzer ABL 555 (Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark). Paired measurements of ABS were performed within 15 minutes and after 60 minutes from sampling and compared. The results of CBS obtained within 15 minutes were compared with matching ABS results, as well as the results obtained from CBS within 15 minutes taken into glass and plastic tubes. pO2 and sO2 values were significantly lower after 60 minutes compared to those within 15 minutes in ABS (9.20±1.89 vs. 9.51±1.95 and 91.25±5.03 vs. 92.40±4.5; pblood values were not influenced significantly (p>0.05). The length of post-sampling analysis time, a type of blood samples and collection tubes have significant impact on blood oxygen parameters. Analysis within 15 minutes after blood sampling is considered as appropriate. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  8. Testing of Small Graphite Samples for Nuclear Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Chapman

    2010-11-01

    Accurately determining the mechanical properties of small irradiated samples is crucial to predicting the behavior of the overal irradiated graphite components within a Very High Temperature Reactor. The sample size allowed in a material test reactor, however, is limited, and this poses some difficulties with respect to mechanical testing. In the case of graphite with a larger grain size, a small sample may exhibit characteristics not representative of the bulk material, leading to inaccuracies in the data. A study to determine a potential size effect on the tensile strength was pursued under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant program. It focuses first on optimizing the tensile testing procedure identified in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard C 781-08. Once the testing procedure was verified, a size effect was assessed by gradually reducing the diameter of the specimens. By monitoring the material response, a size effect was successfully identified.

  9. Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-20

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

  10. Genomic treasure troves: complete genome sequencing of herbarium and insect museum specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Staats

    Full Text Available Unlocking the vast genomic diversity stored in natural history collections would create unprecedented opportunities for genome-scale evolutionary, phylogenetic, domestication and population genomic studies. Many researchers have been discouraged from using historical specimens in molecular studies because of both generally limited success of DNA extraction and the challenges associated with PCR-amplifying highly degraded DNA. In today's next-generation sequencing (NGS world, opportunities and prospects for historical DNA have changed dramatically, as most NGS methods are actually designed for taking short fragmented DNA molecules as templates. Here we show that using a standard multiplex and paired-end Illumina sequencing approach, genome-scale sequence data can be generated reliably from dry-preserved plant, fungal and insect specimens collected up to 115 years ago, and with minimal destructive sampling. Using a reference-based assembly approach, we were able to produce the entire nuclear genome of a 43-year-old Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae herbarium specimen with high and uniform sequence coverage. Nuclear genome sequences of three fungal specimens of 22-82 years of age (Agaricus bisporus, Laccaria bicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus were generated with 81.4-97.9% exome coverage. Complete organellar genome sequences were assembled for all specimens. Using de novo assembly we retrieved between 16.2-71.0% of coding sequence regions, and hence remain somewhat cautious about prospects for de novo genome assembly from historical specimens. Non-target sequence contaminations were observed in 2 of our insect museum specimens. We anticipate that future museum genomics projects will perhaps not generate entire genome sequences in all cases (our specimens contained relatively small and low-complexity genomes, but at least generating vital comparative genomic data for testing (phylogenetic, demographic and genetic hypotheses, that become increasingly more

  11. Testing to evaluate synergistic effects from LOCA environments. Test IX. Simultaneous mode; cables, splice assemblies, and electrical insulation samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thome, F.V.

    1978-04-01

    This test was conducted to complement Test VIII which was a sequential test of cables, cable splices, and insulation samples. In this test, the generic LOCA environments (radiation, temperature, pressure, chemical spray) were simulated and simultaneously applied to the test items. There were no failures of any assemblies and all were able to function at rated current and voltage throughout the entire test. An additional parameter, dissipation factor, was monitored in this test and when used in conjunction with capacitance, provided a better indication of insulation degradation.

  12. Evaluation of the NanoCHIP® Gastrointestinal Panel (GIP Test for Simultaneous Detection of Parasitic and Bacterial Enteric Pathogens in Fecal Specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifra Ken Dror

    Full Text Available Infectious gastroenteritis is a global health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Rapid and accurate diagnosis is crucial to allow appropriate and timely treatment. Current laboratory stool testing has a long turnaround time (TAT and demands highly qualified personnel and multiple techniques. The need for high throughput and the number of possible enteric pathogens compels the implementation of a molecular approach which uses multiplex technology, without compromising performance requirements. In this work we evaluated the feasibility of the NanoCHIP® Gastrointestinal Panel (GIP (Savyon Diagnostics, Ashdod, IL, a molecular microarray-based screening test, to be used in the routine workflow of our laboratory, a big outpatient microbiology laboratory. The NanoCHIP® GIP test provides simultaneous detection of nine major enteric bacteria and parasites: Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Dientamoeba fragilis, and Blastocystis spp. The required high-throughput was obtained by the NanoCHIP® detection system together with the MagNA Pure 96 DNA purification system (Roche Diagnostics Ltd., Switzerland. This combined system has demonstrated a higher sensitivity and detection yield compared to the conventional methods in both, retrospective and prospective samples. The identification of multiple parasites and bacteria in a single test also enabled increased efficiency of detecting mixed infections, as well as reduced hands-on time and work load. In conclusion, the combination of these two automated systems is a proper response to the laboratory needs in terms of improving laboratory workflow, turn-around-time, minimizing human errors and can be efficiently integrated in the routine work of the laboratory.

  13. Evaluation of the NanoCHIP® Gastrointestinal Panel (GIP) Test for Simultaneous Detection of Parasitic and Bacterial Enteric Pathogens in Fecal Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken Dror, Shifra; Pavlotzky, Elsa; Barak, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Infectious gastroenteritis is a global health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Rapid and accurate diagnosis is crucial to allow appropriate and timely treatment. Current laboratory stool testing has a long turnaround time (TAT) and demands highly qualified personnel and multiple techniques. The need for high throughput and the number of possible enteric pathogens compels the implementation of a molecular approach which uses multiplex technology, without compromising performance requirements. In this work we evaluated the feasibility of the NanoCHIP® Gastrointestinal Panel (GIP) (Savyon Diagnostics, Ashdod, IL), a molecular microarray-based screening test, to be used in the routine workflow of our laboratory, a big outpatient microbiology laboratory. The NanoCHIP® GIP test provides simultaneous detection of nine major enteric bacteria and parasites: Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Dientamoeba fragilis, and Blastocystis spp. The required high-throughput was obtained by the NanoCHIP® detection system together with the MagNA Pure 96 DNA purification system (Roche Diagnostics Ltd., Switzerland). This combined system has demonstrated a higher sensitivity and detection yield compared to the conventional methods in both, retrospective and prospective samples. The identification of multiple parasites and bacteria in a single test also enabled increased efficiency of detecting mixed infections, as well as reduced hands-on time and work load. In conclusion, the combination of these two automated systems is a proper response to the laboratory needs in terms of improving laboratory workflow, turn-around-time, minimizing human errors and can be efficiently integrated in the routine work of the laboratory. PMID:27447173

  14. Performance of Dengue Diagnostic Tests in a Single-Specimen Diagnostic Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsperger, Elizabeth A; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge; Beltran, Manuela; Colón, Candimar; Carrión, Jessica; Vazquez, Jesus; Acosta, Luz Nereida; Medina-Izquierdo, Juan F; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Margolis, Harold S

    2016-09-15

    Anti-dengue virus (DENV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) seroconversion has been the reference standard for dengue diagnosis. However, paired specimens are rarely obtained, and the interval for this testing negates its usefulness in guiding clinical case management. The presence of DENV viremia and appearance of IgM during the febrile phase of dengue provides the framework for dengue laboratory diagnosis by using a single serum specimen. Archived paired serum specimens (n = 1234) from patients with laboratory-confirmed dengue from 2005 through 2011 were used to determine the diagnostic performance of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), for detection of DENV serotypes 1-4, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), for detection of DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen and anti-DENV IgM. During 1-3 days after illness onset, real-time RT-PCR and NS1 antigen testing detected 82%-69% and 90%-84% of cases, respectively, as viremia levels declined, while anti-DENV IgM ELISA detected 5%-41% of cases as antibody appeared. Over the 10-day period of the febrile phase of dengue, the cumulative effect of using these 3 types of tests in a diagnostic algorithm confirmed ≥90% of dengue cases. The use of molecular or NS1 antigen tests to detect DENV and one to detect anti-DENV IgM in a single serum specimen collected during the first 10 days of illness accurately identified ≥90% of dengue primary and secondary cases. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Supersymmetric black holes and Freudenthal duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrani, Alessio; Mandal, Taniya; Tripathy, Prasanta K.

    2017-07-01

    We study the effect of Freudenthal duality on supersymmetric extremal black hole attractors in 𝒩 = 2, D = 4 ungauged supergravity. Freudenthal duality acts on the dyonic black hole charges as an anti-involution which keeps the black hole entropy and the critical points of the effective black hole potential invariant. We analyze its effect on the recently discovered distinct, mutually exclusive phases of axionic supersymmetric black holes, related to the existence of nontrivial involutory constant matrices. In particular, we consider a supersymmetric D0 - D4 - D6 black hole and we explicitly Freudenthal-map it to a supersymmetric D0 - D2 - D4 - D6 black hole. We thus show that the charge representation space of a supersymmetric D0 - D2 - D4 - D6 black hole also contains mutually exclusive domains.

  16. Parametrized tests of the strong-field dynamics of general relativity using gravitational wave signals from coalescing binary black holes: Fast likelihood calculations and sensitivity of the method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidam, Jeroen; Tsang, Ka Wa; Goldstein, Janna; Agathos, Michalis; Ghosh, Archisman; Haster, Carl-Johan; Raymond, Vivien; Samajdar, Anuradha; Schmidt, Patricia; Smith, Rory; Blackburn, Kent; Del Pozzo, Walter; Field, Scott E.; Li, Tjonnie; Pürrer, Michael; Van Den Broeck, Chris; Veitch, John; Vitale, Salvatore

    2018-02-01

    Thanks to the recent discoveries of gravitational wave signals from binary black hole mergers by Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory and Advanced Virgo, the genuinely strong-field dynamics of spacetime can now be probed, allowing for stringent tests of general relativity (GR). One set of tests consists of allowing for parametrized deformations away from GR in the template waveform models and then constraining the size of the deviations, as was done for the detected signals in previous work. In this paper, we construct reduced-order quadratures so as to speed up likelihood calculations for parameter estimation on future events. Next, we explicitly demonstrate the robustness of the parametrized tests by showing that they will correctly indicate consistency with GR if the theory is valid. We also check to what extent deviations from GR can be constrained as information from an increasing number of detections is combined. Finally, we evaluate the sensitivity of the method to possible violations of GR.

  17. Comparative evaluation of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test and INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra test for detecting and identifying human papillomaviruses in archival tissue specimens of head and neck cancers:

    OpenAIRE

    Kocjan, Boštjan; Poljak, Mario; Gale, Nina; Zidar, Nina; Maver Vodičar, Polona; Hošnjak, Lea; Odar, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The Abbott RealTime is a novel real-time PCR assay designed for concurrent individual genotyping of HPV16 and HPV18 and pooled detection of 12 HPV genotypes: HPV31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68 in cervical swab specimens. In this study, the performance of RealTime for detecting HPV in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of head and neck cancers was compared to the Innogenetics INNO-LiPA assay, which allows identification of 28 HPVs, including all...

  18. On black holes and gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Loinger, Angelo

    2002-01-01

    Black holes and gravitational waves are theoretical entities of today astrophysics. Various observed phenomena have been associated with the concept of black hole ; until now, nobody has detected gravitational waves. The essays contained in this book aim at showing that the concept of black holes arises from a misinterpretation of general relativity and that gravitational waves cannot exist.

  19. Performances on Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Color Trails Test, and modified Stroop test in a healthy, elderly Danish sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Jørgensen, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    for different age groups. For SDMT and CTT1, Danish Adult Reading Test (DART) score also had a significant impact on test performances. The incongruent version of the modified Stroop test was significantly correlated to education. Moderate and significant correlations were found between the three tests. Even...

  20. A comprehensive literature review reflecting fifteen years of debate regarding the representativity of reverse circulation vs blast hole drill sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Blast hole sampling is widely used for grade control by the mining industry all over the world, both in precious and base metal open pit mining. Blast hole (BH) samples are often regarded as inferior in comparison to “proper drill sampling” like reverse circulation (RC) and diamond (core) drilling...... economic, logistical or other (local) factors are allowed to intervene. What is the objective to analyse and to make decisions in the mining industry, based on samples that can be documented not to be representative?...

  1. Freeze-bond strength experiments,: radially confined compression tests on saline and fresh water samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Bueide, Ida Mari

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents and analyses the method and results from strength experiments on freeze- bonds conducted on radially confined cylindrical samples (tri-axial tests). In total sixty samples were tested successfully, divided on twenty configurations. The variables consisted of confinement, submersion time, initial temperature and salinity (8 configurations with fresh water ice and 12 with 2-3ppt saline ice). The test set-up was similar to that of Møllegaard [2012] and Shafrova and Høyland [...

  2. Black Hole Monodromy and Conformal Field Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, A.; Lapan, J.M.; Maloney, A.; Rodriguez, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The analytic structure of solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation in a black hole background, as represented by monodromy data, is intimately related to black hole thermodynamics. It encodes the "hidden conformal symmetry" of a nonextremal black hole, and it explains why features of the inner event

  3. Test Anxiety Prevalence and Gender Differences in a Sample of English Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, Dave; Daly, Anthony L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of students who report themselves as highly test anxious in a sample of English secondary schools and whether this proportion differed by gender. Self-report test anxiety data were collected from 2435 secondary school students in 11 schools. Results showed that 16.4% of the sample reported…

  4. Development and Validation of an Admission Test Designed to Assess Samples of Performance on Academic Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanilon, Jenny; Segers, Mien; Vedder, Paul; Tillema, Harm

    2009-01-01

    This study illustrates the development and validation of an admission test, labeled as Performance Samples on Academic Tasks in Educational Sciences (PSAT-Ed), designed to assess samples of performance on academic tasks characteristic of those that would eventually be encountered by examinees in an Educational Sciences program. The test was based…

  5. Shapes and Positions of Black Hole Shadows in Accretion Disks and Spin Parameters of Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Rohta

    2004-01-01

    Can we determine a spin parameter of a black hole by observation of a black hole shadow in an accretion disk? In order to answer this question, we make a qualitative analysis and a quantitative analysis of a shape and a position of a black hole shadow casted by a rotating black hole on an optically thick accretion disk and its dependence on an angular momentum of a black hole. We have found black hole shadows with a quite similar size and a shape for largely different black hole spin paramete...

  6. Differentiation of amphetamine/methamphetamine and other cross-immunoreactive sympathomimetic amines in urine samples by serial dilution testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Alison; Saunders, Al N; Koenig, John W; Moyer, Thomas P; Turk, John; Dietzen, Dennis J

    2006-04-01

    Immunoassay-based screening for amphetamines has a variable positive predictive value (PPV) for detecting amphetamine abuse. The lack of immunoassay specificity necessitates confirmatory testing by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), but the technical complexity and expense of GC/MS limit its availability. Physicians may make decisions regarding patient disposition based on unverified results. In this study we assessed the utility of using dose-response properties to distinguish urine samples containing amphetamines from samples containing cross-immunoreactive species. Urine was supplemented with known concentrations of amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), or pseudoephedrine. Using a series of dilutions, we determined the maximum change in rate over the fractional change in concentration for each compound in the Emit II amphetamine/methamphetamine immunoassay. Patient urine samples that screened positive for amphetamines were diluted 1:1, 1:10, and 1:20, and maximum slope estimates within the dynamic assay range were determined. An optimal slope cutoff that differentiated samples containing (meth)amphetamine from those containing cross-reacting species was determined by ROC analysis. The slope of the dose response was largest for amphetamine and methamphetamine, followed by MDMA and pseudoephedrine. The optimum slope cutoff for identifying patient specimens containing (meth)amphetamine was 320 (sensitivity, 96%; specificity, 90%; PPV, 92%). High concentrations of less reactive compounds may mask low concentrations of amphetamines. Use of the slope of the dose-response relationship in patient urine specimens can enhance the PPV of presumptive positive immunoassay results but does not exclude the presence of low amphetamine concentrations in samples containing high concentrations of cross-reactive species.

  7. Electrofracturing test system and method of determining material characteristics of electrofractured material samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Glover, Steven F.; Pfeifle, Tom; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Broome, Scott Thomas; Gardner, William Payton

    2017-08-01

    A device for electrofracturing a material sample and analyzing the material sample is disclosed. The device simulates an in situ electrofracturing environment so as to obtain electrofractured material characteristics representative of field applications while allowing permeability testing of the fractured sample under in situ conditions.

  8. The Present SP Tests for Determining the Transition Temperature TSP on "U" Notch Disc Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matocha, Karel; Dorazil, Ondrej; Hurst, Roger

    2017-05-03

    The principal difference between the small punch (SP) testing technique and standardized impact testing lies in the fact that the SP tests carried out in accordance with CWA 15627 Small Punch Test Method for Metallic Materials use disc-shaped test specimens without a notch. Especially in tough materials, the temperature dependence of SP fracture energy ESP in the transition area is very steep and lies close to the temperature of liquid nitrogen. In this case, the determination of SP transition temperature TSP can lead to significant errors in its determination. Efforts to move the transition area of penetration testing closer to the transition area of standardized impact tests led to the proposal of the notched disc specimen 8 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm in thickness with a "U" shaped notch 0.2 mm deep in the axis plane of the disc. The paper summarizes the results obtained to date when determining the transition temperature of SP tests TSP, determined according to CWA 15627 for material of pipes made of P92, P22, and a heat treated 14MoV6-3 steel in the as delivered state. Although the results obtained confirmed the results of other works in that the presence of a notch in a SP disc is insufficient to increase the transition temperature significantly and certainly not to the values obtained by Charpy testing, comparison of the different behaviors of the alloys tested reveals some evidence that the notch reduces the energy for initiation. This implies that the test on a notched disc is more a test of crack growth and would be a useful instrument if included in the forthcoming EU standard for SP testing.

  9. Toxicity Tests of Whole Sediment Samples Using the Hyallella (H. azteca) Survival and Growth Tests (ASTM E 1283-93)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — 10-day toxicity tests using Hyalella azteca were conducted with sediment samples collected by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Bloomington, Indiana facility to...

  10. Service-cycle component-feature specimen TMF testing of steam turbine rotor steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radosavljevic, M.; Holdsworth, S.R. [Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Forschungsanstalt, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Mazza, E. [Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Forschungsanstalt, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland); Grossmann, P.; Ripamonti, L. [ALSTOM Power (Switzerland) Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews the methodology adopted in a Swiss Research Collaboration to devise a component-feature representative specimen geometry and the TMF cycle parameters necessary to closely simulate arduous steam turbine operating duty. Implementation of these service-like experimental conditions provides a practical indication of the effectiveness of deformation and crack initiation endurance predictions. Comprehensive post test inspection provides evidence to demonstrate the physical realism of the laboratory simulations in terms of the creep-fatigue damage generated during the benchmark tests. Mechanical response results and physical damage observations are presented and their practical implications discussed for the example of a 2%CrMoNiWV rotor service cycle. (orig.)

  11. The effect of specimen and flaw dimensions on fracture toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevalainen, M.J. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-06-01

    The effect of the specimen size and geometry on fracture toughness has been investigated both by experimental tests and computational analyses. The methods for constraint description, namely T-stress, Q-parameter and Small-Scale Yielding Correction (SSYC) have been compared and applied for various geometries. A statistical treatment for the specimen thickness effect on cleavage fracture toughness has been investigated. Elliptical surface cracks were compared with straight-thickness cracks and a method for crack shape correction was presented. Based on the results, the differences in apparent fracture toughness values obtained from various specimen configurations can be better understood and taken into account. 64 refs. The thesis includes also four previous publications by author.

  12. 40 CFR 146.66 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to new well operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Logging, sampling, and testing prior... STANDARDS Criteria and Standards Applicable to Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 146.66 Logging... pump test; or (2) Injectivity tests. (f) The Director shall have the opportunity to witness all logging...

  13. Presentism and black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengers, G. (Geurt)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn a recent publication in the European Journal for Philosophy of Science (Romero and Pérez, European Journal for Philosophy of Science, 4, 293–308, 2014), Romero and Pérez claim to reveal new trouble for the already difficult life of presentism in relativistic spacetimes. Their argument

  14. Asymptotic description of a test particle around a Schwarzschild black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Vera, Marco

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the movement of a test particle around a Schwarzschild black hole is revisited. Using matched asymptotic expansions, approximate analytical expressions for the orbit of the test particle in the case of large eccentricity are found. The asymptotic solutions are compared with numerical and analytical results.

  15. A miniature specimen mechanical testing technique scaled to articulating surface of polyethylene components for total joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, S M; Jewett, C W; Foulds, J R; Edidin, A A

    1999-01-01

    The small punch test was developed to investigate the mechanical behavior of polyethylene using miniature specimens (small punch test when applied to clinically relevant polyethylenes. Mechanical behavior was characterized during 66 tests performed on GUR4150HP and GUR4120 specimens following alternate sterilization methods and 4 weeks of accelerated aging at 80 degrees C. The small punch test was found to be highly reproducible with regard to characterizing the ductility, ultimate strength, and fracture resistance of sterilized and aged polyethylene. In the future, the small punch test can be used to directly measure mechanical properties near the articulating surface of retrieved components.

  16. 46 CFR 160.010-7 - Methods of sampling, inspections and tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manufacturer— (1) Uses the same plastic buoyancy foam used in previous production lots, (2) Determines that the... plastic buoyancy foam controls permitted as an alternative to the buoyancy test in paragraph (e) of this... Vessels § 160.010-7 Methods of sampling, inspections and tests. (a) General. Production tests must be...

  17. Comparison of Mannitol Salt Agar and Blood Agar Plates for Identification and Susceptibility Testing of Staphylococcus aureus in Specimens from Cystic Fibrosis Patients▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, Susan E.; Searcy, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Staphylococcus aureus strains can be determined accurately by using isolates from mannitol salt agar, and yellow isolates on mannitol salt agar at quantities of >1+ can be reported as S. aureus. These methods decrease the time to identification/antimicrobial susceptibility testing of S. aureus and decrease costs through eliminating additional testing.

  18. The Effect of Load Magnitude on Fatigue Life and Thermal Behavior of Notched Fatigue Specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith Hussain Al Najar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue failure is an important phenomenon that occurred in the mechanical and structural systems. Furthermore, the failure due to fatigue load causes losing in that system. So many researches studying the fatigue behavior and improving the design of mechanical and structural systems in order to increase the fatigue resistance of these systems.  In this work, the effects of notch position and load magnitude on fatigue behavior were studied. In order to study the fatigue life of the test specimens due to make V- notched, the rotating cantilever beam samples were used. Also, the temperature distribution along testing specimens was monitoring of IR camera during the fatigue tests. Numerical model has been done by using ANSYS Workbench 15.0.  The comparison between experimental and numerical results was made, also the hardness of the fractured surfaces was measured. The results show that, the fatigue life of the test specimens can be increased by making a notch in the appropriate position. Also, there is a similarity between experimental and numerical results. IR camera gave a good expectance to the fracture position from changing in temperature distribution along the test specimens. Finally, the area of sudden fracture of the fractured surfaces reduced directly with load magnitude and inversely with notch shifting away from edge region.

  19. Optimizing human semen cryopreservation by reducing test vial volume and repetitive test vial sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian F S; Ohl, Dana A; Parker, Walter R

    2015-01-01

    : Prospective clinical laboratory study. SETTING: University assisted reproductive technology (ART) laboratory. PATIENT(S): A total of 594 patients undergoing semen analysis and cryopreservation. INTERVENTION(S): Semen analysis, cryopreservation with different intermediate steps and in different volumes (50......-1,000 μL), and long-term storage in LN2 or VN2. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Optimal TV volume, prediction of cryosurvival (CS) in ART procedure vials (ARTVs) with pre-freeze semen parameters and TV CS, post-thaw motility after two- or three-step semen cryopreservation and cryostorage in VN2 and LN2. RESULT......(S): Test vial volume of 50 μL yielded lower CS than other volumes tested. Cryosurvival of 100 μL was similar to that of larger volumes tested. An intermediate temperature exposure (-88°C to -93°C for 20 minutes) during cryopreservation did not affect post-thaw motility. Cryosurvival of TVs and ARTVs from...

  20. Noninvasive buccal swab antigen sample and molecular testing provides extended antigen typing for patients with hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersad, Angeli; Hampton, Kisha; Duncan, Natalie; Roberson, Chris; Slayten, Jayanna; Davisson, Suzanne; Aronowitz, Jessica; Shapiro, Amy

    2014-11-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of performing a noninvasive, molecular-based red blood cell (RBC) antigen test on infants and very young children with sickle cell disease as part of a statewide newborn screening follow-up program. A prospective pilot project was conducted using a noninvasive buccal swab and test kit to perform DNA-based, extended RBC phenotyping in 92 children participating in a newborn hemoglobinopathy screening follow-up program. Reported data include the extended panel of antigens detected by molecular analysis compared with unaffected population estimates. Molecular-based RBC antigen testing was successful, with extended RBC typing generated for all subjects. Molecular testing detected several rare negative or rare positive phenotypes, demonstrating the utility of obtaining an extended antigen panel. This study demonstrates the feasibility of performing antigen testing on buccal swab specimens from children with sickle cell disease as part of a newborn screening follow-up program with the aim of allowing specific unit matching to prevent alloimmunization with RBC transfusions. The general applicability of testing may be limited by a lack of uniform insurance coverage for buccal swab testing, however. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Processing and Quality Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing Monolayer Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Wendt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although its importance has increased significantly, Additive Manufacturing is not yet a fully accepted industrial manufacturing process for load-carrying parts. The future success of the process group depends on its standardization. This work proposes a methodology for the design, manufacturing, and quality evaluation of specimens manufactured by Fused Layer Modeling that are composed of only one layer (so-called monolayers. The processing methodology and properties of monolayers have not been studied systematically yet. A first systematic design of monolayers for mechanical testing is presented. Rectangular and circular monolayers adapted to the loads of tensile and compression testing are manufactured using different trajectory strategies. Frequently occurring macro- and microgeometrical defects are evaluated and categorized in order to optimize the part quality. This work also studies the effect of some manufacturing parameters such as the gap between print head and machine bed, trajectory strategy, bed leveling, and temperatures on part quality. The most suitable specimens are tested mechanically in tensile or compression tests. In the case of study, tensile strength values are only 8.6% lower than the values for reference tests on the unextruded filament. However, the properties deviate more strongly for compression tests which may be due to the selected specimen geometry.

  2. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Specimen Data (includes physical specimens, collection information, status, storage locations, and laboratory results associated with individual specimens)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes physical specimens, paper logs and Freezerworks database of all logged information on specimens collected from Hawaiian monk seals since 1975....

  3. Synthesizing Information From Language Samples and Standardized Tests in School-Age Bilingual Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Although language samples and standardized tests are regularly used in assessment, few studies provide clinical guidance on how to synthesize information from these testing tools. This study extends previous work on the relations between tests and language samples to a new population—school-age bilingual speakers with primary language impairment—and considers the clinical implications for bilingual assessment. Method Fifty-one bilingual children with primary language impairment completed narrative language samples and standardized language tests in English and Spanish. Children were separated into younger (ages 5;6 [years;months]–8;11) and older (ages 9;0–11;2) groups. Analysis included correlations with age and partial correlations between language sample measures and test scores in each language. Results Within the younger group, positive correlations with large effect sizes indicated convergence between test scores and microstructural language sample measures in both Spanish and English. There were minimal correlations in the older group for either language. Age related to English but not Spanish measures. Conclusions Tests and language samples complement each other in assessment. Wordless picture-book narratives may be more appropriate for ages 5–8 than for older children. We discuss clinical implications, including a case example of a bilingual child with primary language impairment, to illustrate how to synthesize information from these tools in assessment. PMID:28055056

  4. Synthesizing Information From Language Samples and Standardized Tests in School-Age Bilingual Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Pham, Giang

    2017-01-01

    Although language samples and standardized tests are regularly used in assessment, few studies provide clinical guidance on how to synthesize information from these testing tools. This study extends previous work on the relations between tests and language samples to a new population-school-age bilingual speakers with primary language impairment-and considers the clinical implications for bilingual assessment. Fifty-one bilingual children with primary language impairment completed narrative language samples and standardized language tests in English and Spanish. Children were separated into younger (ages 5;6 [years;months]-8;11) and older (ages 9;0-11;2) groups. Analysis included correlations with age and partial correlations between language sample measures and test scores in each language. Within the younger group, positive correlations with large effect sizes indicated convergence between test scores and microstructural language sample measures in both Spanish and English. There were minimal correlations in the older group for either language. Age related to English but not Spanish measures. Tests and language samples complement each other in assessment. Wordless picture-book narratives may be more appropriate for ages 5-8 than for older children. We discuss clinical implications, including a case example of a bilingual child with primary language impairment, to illustrate how to synthesize information from these tools in assessment.

  5. Slant hole completion test (1991) sidetrack as built'' report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myal, F.R.

    1992-05-01

    During the summer of 1990, a slant hole test well, funded by the US Department of Energy, was drilled to 9,466 ft to evaluate the effectiveness of directional drilling in the tight, naturally fractured gas sands and coals of the Mesaverde Group. The surface location of the SHCT No. 1 is 700 ft south of the DOE Multiwell Experiment (MWX) site in Section 34, T6S, R94W, Garfield County, Colorado, approximately 7.5 miles west of Rifle. Mechanical problems following cementing of a production liner resulted in loss of the completion interval, and operations were suspended. In early 1991, DOE decided to sidetrack the hole to permit production testing of the lost interval. The sidetrack was designed to parallel the original wellbore, but to be drilled 1,000 ft to the east to minimize the chances of encountering formation damage from the original hole. The sidetrack, like the original hole, was to intersect the paludal lenticular sands and coals at 60{degrees} and to penetrate the underlying Cozzette sand horizonally. The sidetrack was spudded May 12, 1991. After re-entering the well in late 1991, early production testing of the Cozzette showed that the 300 ft of in-pay horizontal hole can produce at rate 5 to 10 times higher than vertical wells in the same area. This report contains the geological summary and sidetrack drilling operations summary.

  6. Comparative infectious serology testing of pre- and post-mortem blood samples from cornea donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkemeyer, I; Pruss, A; Kalus, U; Schroeter, J

    2012-08-01

    Defined serological blood tests of deceased cornea donors are required to minimize the risk of viral infections of a transplant recipient as much as possible. Haemolysis, autolysis and bacterial contamination, may produce significant changes of post-mortem blood samples, which may lead to false serological test results. Pre- and post-mortem findings from the same cornea donors of the University Tissue Bank of the Charité in the years 2004-2009 (n = 487) were retrospectively analyzed and compared. The test results from pre-mortem blood samples were defined as the reference for the post-mortem blood test. Of 487 cornea donors, there were a total of 21 cases (4.3%) with discrepancies between serological test results from pre- and post-mortem blood samples. Of these, 7 values referred to the HBsAg-testing, 3 to the anti-HBs-, 1 to the anti-HBcIgG + IgM-, 1 to the anti-HCV-, 4 to the anti-HIV 1/2- and 5 to the TPLA-findings. False negative results within post-mortem serology occurred in 4 of 487 cases (0.8%). False positive results within the post-mortem blood samples occurred at a much more frequent rate, with 17 of 487 cases (3.5%). Discrepancies between serological pre- and post-mortem blood tests occur mainly due to the use of non-validated test systems. Therefore, it seems reasonable to test pre- and post-mortem blood samples serologically, whenever possible, at the same time, regardless of the sample age. Positive results, regardless of the sample type, should always be retested with validated confirmation tests (e.g. NAT), in order to differentiate between false and true positive results.

  7. 19 CFR 151.68 - Merchandise to be sampled and tested by Customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wool or hair subject to duty at a rate per clean kilogram, except importations entered directly for....S.C. 1562) and dutiable after manipulation as wool or hair at a rate per clean kilogram; and (c... Hair § 151.68 Merchandise to be sampled and tested by Customs. The following shall be weighed, sampled...

  8. Fatigue damage observed non-destructively in fibre composite coupon test specimens by X-ray CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, K. M.; Mikkelsen, L. P.

    2016-07-01

    This study presents a method for monitoring the 3D fatigue damage progression on a micro-structural level in a glass fibre/polymer coupon test specimen by means of laboratory X-ray Computed Tomography (CT). A modified mount and holder made for the standard test samples to fit into the X-ray CT scanner along with a tension clamp solution is presented. Initially, the same location of the test specimen is inspected by ex-situ X-ray CT during the fatigue loading history, which shows the damage progression on a micro-structural level. The openings of individual uni-directional (UD) fibre fractures are seen to generally increase with the number of cycles, and new regions of UD fibre fractures also appear. There are some UD fibre fractures that are difficult to detect since their opening is small. Therefore, the effect of tension on the crack visibility is examined afterwards using a tension clamp solution. With applied tension some additional cracks become visible and the openings of fibre fractures increases, which shows the importance of applied tension during the scan.

  9. Helicobacter pylori: Interrelationship between the urea test in dental plaque samples and gastric biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    De la Cruz Valle, Daniel; Cirujano Dentista, Práctica privada. Egresado de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.; Moromi Nakata, Hilda; Profesor principal del Departamento de Ciencias Básicas de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.

    2014-01-01

    With the purpose of establishing interrelationship between the urea test in dental plaque and gastric biopsy samples to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori, this study was performed in 50 patients from the National Police Central Hospital. Simultaneously, samples from the dental plaque and gastric biopsies were taken from patients of the Gastroenterology Department, the same that were submitted to endoscopies by their medical attendant. Samples of their stomachs were obtained by a p...

  10. Study of Mechanical Characterization of Ceramic Specimens from a Brazilian Test Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias, I.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Test is easy to perform and its result is the tensile strength of the material provided certain ratios are fulfilled between the diameter of the sample, the load bearing width and the characteristic length of the material. In this paper we present experimental results obtained from 8 mm-thick ceramic cylinders whose diameter was 40 mm in length. The cylinders were obtained from a standard type of clay by pressing and subsequent baking at 900 ºC. We made a complete mechanical characterization of the material, which included obtaining fracture properties, and a numerical simulation of the Brazilian test based on the cohesive crack model. Numerical results confirm that the size and boundary conditions chosen for the test are adequate to get the actual tensile strength of construction ceramics, which prove that this type of test is useful to compare the strength of several types of construction ceramics in a simple and convenient way. Besides, it requires a very small amount of material to prepare the specimen

    El ensayo de compresión diametral (ensayo Brasileño es un ensayo fácil de realizar que da como resultado la resistencia a tracción del material siempre que se cumplan una serie de proporciones entre el diámetro de la probeta, el ancho de reparto de la carga y la longitud característica del material. En este artículo presentamos unos resultados sobre probetas cerámicas cilíndricas de 40 mm de diámetro y 8 mm de espesor, elaboradas por prensado a partir de arcillas comunes y cocidas a 900 ºC. Se ha realizado una caracterización mecánica de dichas probetas, que incluye sus propiedades en fractura, y una simulación numérica del ensayo brasileño basada en el modelo de fisura cohesiva. Los resultados numéricos confirman que el tamaño y condiciones de contorno elegidos para el ensayo son apropiados para obtener la resistencia a tracción de este tipo de material cerámico con lo que este ensayo se convierte en

  11. Characterization and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2008-07-10

    This report describes processing and analysis results of boehmite waste type (Group 5) and insoluble high Cr waste type (Group 6). The sample selection, compositing, subdivision, physical and chemical characterization are described. Extensive batch leach testing was conducted to define kinetics and leach factors of selected analytes as functions of NaOH concentration and temperature. Testing supports issue M-12 resolution for the Waste Treatment Plant.

  12. Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-02

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form

  13. Power and Sample Size Calculations for Logistic Regression Tests for Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhushan

    2014-01-01

    Logistic regression is a popular method for detecting uniform and nonuniform differential item functioning (DIF) effects. Theoretical formulas for the power and sample size calculations are derived for likelihood ratio tests and Wald tests based on the asymptotic distribution of the maximum likelihood estimators for the logistic regression model.…

  14. Effect of the specimen length on ultrasonic P-wave velocity in some volcanic rocks and limestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Kadir; Kaya, Ayberk; Kesimal, Ayhan

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasonic P-wave velocity (UPV) is commonly used in different fields such as civil, mining, geotechnical, and rock engineering. One of the significant parameters which affect the UPV of rock materials is likely to be the length of test cores although it is not mentioned in the literature. In this study, in order to explore the influence of the specimen length on the UPV, rock samples were collected from eight different locations in Turkey. The NX-sized core specimens having different length of 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 mm were prepared. Before the analyses, rocks were divided into two groups in terms of their geological origins such as volcanic and chemical sedimentary (limestone) rocks. The UPV tests were carried out under dry and saturated conditions for each 200 core specimens. By evaluating the test results, it was shown that the length of the specimens significantly affects the UPV values. Based on the regression analyses, a method was developed to determine the threshold specimen length of studied rocks. Fluctuations in UPVdry and UPVsat values were generally observed for cores smaller than the threshold specimen length. In this study, the threshold specimen length was determined as 79 mm for volcanic rocks and 109 mm for limestones.

  15. Sourcebook of locations of geophysical surveys in tunnels and horizontal holes, including results of seismic refraction surveys, Rainier Mesa, Aqueduct Mesa, and Area 16, Nevada Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, R.D.; Kibler, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic refraction surveys have been obtained sporadically in tunnels in zeolitized tuff at the Nevada Test Site since the late 1950's. Commencing in 1967 and continuing to date (1982), .extensive measurements of shear- and compressional-wave velocities have been made in five tunnel complexes in Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas and in one tunnel complex in Shoshone Mountain. The results of these surveys to 1980 are compiled in this report. In addition, extensive horizontal drilling was initiated in 1967 in connection with geologic exploration in these tunnel complexes for sites for nuclear weapons tests. Seismic and electrical surveys were conducted in the majority of these holes. The type and location of these tunnel and borehole surveys are indexed in this report. Synthesis of the seismic refraction data indicates a mean compressional-wave velocity near the nuclear device point (WP) of 23 tunnel events of 2,430 m/s (7,970 f/s) with a range of 1,846-2,753 m/s (6,060-9,030 f/s). The mean shear-wave velocity of 17 tunnel events is 1,276 m/s (4,190 f/s) with a range of 1,140-1,392 m/s (3,740-4,570 f/s). Experience indicates that these velocity variations are due chiefly to the extent of fracturing and (or) the presence of partially saturated rock in the region of the survey.

  16. Methylation marker analysis and HPV16/18 genotyping in high-risk HPV positive self-sampled specimens to identify women with high grade CIN or cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, V.M.; Heideman, D.A.; Kemenade, F.J. van; Rozendaal, L.; Bosgraaf, R.P.; Hesselink, A.T.; Bekkers, R.L.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Steenbergen, R.D.; Snijders, P.J.L.M.; Berkhof, J.; Meijer, C.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Methylation marker analysis using bi-marker panel MAL/miR-124-2 is a promising triage test for identifying cervical (pre)cancer in high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) positive women. Bi-marker panel MAL/miR-124-2 can be applied directly on self-sampled cervico-vaginal material and its

  17. CHLOROPHYLL A ice hole sampling data collected in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean on the NATHANIEL B. PALMER cruise NBP0204 as part of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC project from 2002-08-06 to 2002-09-11 (NODC Accession 0112325)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112325 includes biological and ice hole sampling data collected aboard the NATHANIEL B. PALMER during cruise NBP0204 in the South Atlantic Ocean and...

  18. Proposed mixed-mode dynamic fracture toughness testing method using a new specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, H.; Hinoshita, A. [Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Calder, C.A.; Kennedy, T.C. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-12-31

    To find a simple and highly accurate testing method for determining the mixed-mode dynamic fracture toughness in a wide range of ratio of opening and sliding modes, the authors applied a combination technique using an electrical resistance strain gage method and a dynamic finite element method (FEM) to determine the mixed-mode dynamic fracture toughness. They used measuring and recording devices associated with an impact fracture apparatus based on an air gun. The impact fracture test was conducted to assess the mixed-mode dynamic fracture toughness testing method under single-point bending for three specimens of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The ratio of the opening mode deformation to the sliding mode can be changed by adjusting the hitting point. To measure a dynamic stress intensity factors (SIF) K{sub 1}(t) and a crack initiation time, a single axis strain gage was mounted in the vicinity of the crack tip.

  19. Evaluation of miniature tensile specimen fabrication techniques and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, M.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Blotter, M.A.; Edwards, D.J. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The confident application of miniature tensile specimens requires adequate control over their fabrication and is facilitated by automated test and analysis techniques. Three fabrication processes -- punching, chemical, milling, and electrical discharge machining (EDM) -- were recently evaluated, leading to the replacement of the previously used punching technique with a wire EDM technique. The automated data acquisition system was upgraded, and an interactive data analysis program was developed.

  20. Influence of Hole Cold Expansion on Microstructure and Fatigue Life of 2124 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YI Linna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The change of fatigue life and microstructure of 2124-T851 thick plate after cold expanded with different deformation was studied by fatigue test, TEM, SEM and X-ray diffraction apparatus. The results show that the fatigue life increases with the increase of expanded deformation until the maximum value is reached, and then decreased rapidly with the increase of expanded deformation. At 0.4 mm expanded deformation, fatigue life reach peak value, which is 12.66 times of the non-cold-worked specimens. The microstructure research results show that the residual compressive stress and dislocation cell structure form around the cold-worked holes during the cold expansion, and increase quickly with the expanded deformation. The strengthened layer retarded the fatigue crack growth rate. The appropriate cold expanded deformation can improve the surface roughness of hole, and retard the initiation of fatigue crack, consequently improving the whole fatigue life.

  1. Superluminality, black holes and EFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Garrett; Hinterbichler, Kurt

    2017-02-01

    Under the assumption that a UV theory does not display superluminal behavior, we ask what constraints on superluminality are satisfied in the effective field theory (EFT). We study two examples of effective theories: quantum electrodynamics (QED) coupled to gravity after the electron is integrated out, and the flat-space galileon. The first is realized in nature, the second is more speculative, but they both exhibit apparent superluminality around non-trivial backgrounds. In the QED case, we attempt, and fail, to find backgrounds for which the superluminal signal advance can be made larger than the putative resolving power of the EFT. In contrast, in the galileon case it is easy to find such backgrounds, indicating that if the UV completion of the galileon is (sub)luminal, quantum corrections must become important at distance scales of order the Vainshtein radius of the background configuration, much larger than the naive EFT strong coupling distance scale. Such corrections would be reminiscent of the non-perturbative Schwarzschild scale quantum effects that are expected to resolve the black hole information problem. Finally, a byproduct of our analysis is a calculation of how perturbative quantum effects alter charged Reissner-Nordstrom black holes.

  2. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in an STI population: performances of the Presto CT-NG assay, the Lightmix Kit 480 HT CT/NG and the COBAS Amplicor with urine specimens and urethral/cervicovaginal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurs, T A; Verweij, S P; Weel, J F L; Ouburg, S; Morré, S A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed the performances of the Presto CT-NG assay, the Lightmix Kit 480 HT CT/NG and the COBAS Amplicor for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae detection. Design A cross-sectional study design. Setting Izore, Centre for Diagnosing Infectious Diseases in Friesland, the Netherlands, tested samples sent from regional sexually transmitted infection (STI) outpatient clinics and regional hospitals from the province Friesland, the Netherlands. Participants Samples were collected from 292 men and 835 women. These samples included 560 urine samples and 567 urethral/cervicovaginal samples. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measure is C trachomatis infection. No secondary outcome measures are available. Results The sensitivity, specificity, positive predicative value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for C trachomatis detection in urine samples using the Presto CT-NG assay were 100%, 99.8%, 98.1% and 100%, respectively; for the Lightmix Kit 480 HT CT/NG: 94.2%, 99.8%, 96.1% and 99.4%, respectively; for the COBAS Amplicor: 92.3%, 99.6%, 96% and 99.2%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for C trachomatis detection in urethral/cervicovaginal swabs using the Presto CT-NG assay and the COBAS Amplicor were 100%, 99.8%, 97.7% and 100%, respectively; for the Lightmix Kit 480 HT CT/NG: 100%, 99.6%, 97.7% and 100%, respectively. Calculations for N gonorrhoeae could not be made due to a low prevalence. Conclusions All three assays had a high sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for C trachomatis, with best performance for the Presto CT-NG assay. PMID:24381252

  3. Computational Complexity and Black Hole Horizons

    OpenAIRE

    Susskind, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Computational complexity is essential to understanding the properties of black hole horizons. The problem of Alice creating a firewall behind the horizon of Bob's black hole is a problem of computational complexity. In general we find that while creating firewalls is possible, it is extremely difficult and probably impossible for black holes that form in sudden collapse, and then evaporate. On the other hand if the radiation is bottled up then after an exponentially long period of time firewa...

  4. Localization and characterization of fatigue cracks around fastener holes using spherically focused ultrasonic probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Deborah; Datuin, Marvin; Aldrin, John; Warchol, Mark; Warchol, Lyudmila; Forsyth, David

    2017-02-01

    Results are presented from laboratory experiments and simulations that demonstrate the ability to localize fatigue cracks around fastener holes using spherically focused ultrasonic probes for shear-wave inspections. For the experiments, fatigue cracks were created in aluminum plates in a testing frame under cyclic loading. With the exceptions of one specimen with a mid-bore crack and another with a "through" crack, the remaining specimens contain surface-breaking cracks. All of the specimens were inspected for the cracks intersecting the back wall, and some were flipped over and re-inspected with the crack intersecting the front surface. Parameter and variable sensitivity studies were performed using CIVA Simulation Software. In contrast to C-scans where detection and localization of small cracks can be very difficult, modeling and initial experimental results demonstrate that cracks can be accurately located in "True" B-scans (B-scans projected in the part along the beam path). Initial results show that small-amplitude diffracted/scattered signals from the crack tips and edges are essential in obtaining clear crack traces in the True B-scans. It is important therefore that experimental data be acquired with sufficient gain to capture the diffracted/scattered signals. In all of the cases studied here, saturating the high-amplitude specular reflections from the fastener hole and crack enhanced the crack trace in the True B-scans.

  5. Analysis and simulation of BGK electron holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Muschietti

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations from satellites crossing regions of magnetic-field-aligned electron streams reveal solitary potential structures that move at speeds much greater than the ion acoustic/thermal velocity. The structures appear as positive potential pulses rapidly drifting along the magnetic field, and are electrostatic in their rest frame. We interpret them as BGK electron holes supported by a drifting population of trapped electrons. Using Laplace transforms, we analyse the behavior of one phase-space electron hole. The resulting potential shapes and electron distribution functions are self-consistent and compatible with the field and particle data associated with the observed pulses. In particular, the spatial width increases with increasing amplitude. The stability of the analytic solution is tested by means of a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation code with open boundaries. We consider a strongly magnetized parameter regime in which the bounce frequency of the trapped electrons is much less than their gyrofrequency. Our investigation includes the influence of the ions, which in the frame of the hole appear as an incident beam, and impinge on the BGK potential with considerable energy. The nonlinear structure is remarkably resilient

  6. Fatigue limit by thermal analysis of specimen surface in mono axial traction test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risitano, A.; Giacomo, R.; Clienti, C.

    2010-06-01

    In this work is indicated how it could be possible to evaluate the limit stress of the thermo-elastic phase of deformation by thermo-analysing the surface of the specimen during a static traction test. Adding the temperature curve measured on a small area of the surface (the hottest) to the classic stress-strain curve, it is possible to evaluate a limit temperature T0 coincident with the beginning of the non linear trend of the curve. The corresponding stress value is coincident with the fatigue limit of the analyzed component. As an example, the results of traction tests performed on two notched specimens, where the change of linearity in the temperature curve during static traction test was evident, are reported. The corresponding value of stress was a good approximation of the fatigue limit for R = - 1, determined by the conventional method. The aim of the reported examples in this paper must be interpreted as support to the basic principle of the method and not as the results of a complete experimental planning of which we will comment in an another occasion.

  7. Fatigue limit by thermal analysis of specimen surface in mono axial traction test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clienti C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work is indicated how it could be possible to evaluate the limit stress of the thermo-elastic phase of deformation by thermo-analysing the surface of the specimen during a static traction test. Adding the temperature curve measured on a small area of the surface (the hottest to the classic stress-strain curve, it is possible to evaluate a limit temperature T0 coincident with the beginning of the non linear trend of the curve. The corresponding stress value is coincident with the fatigue limit of the analyzed component. As an example, the results of traction tests performed on two notched specimens, where the change of linearity in the temperature curve during static traction test was evident, are reported. The corresponding value of stress was a good approximation of the fatigue limit for R = - 1, determined by the conventional method. The aim of the reported examples in this paper must be interpreted as support to the basic principle of the method and not as the results of a complete experimental planning of which we will comment in an another occasion.

  8. Postimpact heat conduction and compaction-driven fluid flow in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure based on downhole vitrinite reflectance data, ICDP-USGS Eyreville deep core holes and Cape Charles test holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinconico, M.L.; Sanford, W.E.; Wright, Horton W.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance data from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP)-U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Eyreville deep cores in the centralcrater moat of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure and the Cape Charles test holes on the central uplift show patterns of postimpact maximum-temperature distribution that result from a combination of conductive and advective heat flow. Within the crater-fill sediment-clast breccia sequence at Eyreville, an isoreflectance (-0.44% Ro) section (525-1096 m depth) is higher than modeled background coastal-plain maturity and shows a pattern typical of advective fluid flow. Below an intervening granite slab, a short interval of sediment-clast breccia (1371-1397 m) shows a sharp increase in reflectance (0.47%-0.91% Ro) caused by conductive heat from the underlying suevite (1397-1474 m). Refl ectance data in the uppermost suevite range from 1.2% to 2.1% Ro. However, heat conduction alone is not sufficient to affect the temperature of sediments more than 100 m above the suevite. Thermal modeling of the Eyreville suevite as a 390 ??C cooling sill-like hot rock layer supplemented by compaction- driven vertical fluid flow (0.046 m/a) of cooling suevitic fluids and deeper basement brines (120 ??C) upward through the sediment breccias closely reproduces the measured reflectance data. This scenario would also replace any marine water trapped in the crater fill with more saline brine, similar to that currently in the crater, and it would produce temperatures sufficient to kill microbes in sediment breccias within 450 m above the synimsuevite. A similar downhole maturity pattern is present in the sediment-clast breccia over the central uplift. High-reflectance (5%-9%) black shale and siltstone clasts in the suevite and sediment-clast breccia record a pre-impact (Paleozoic?) metamorphic event. Previously published maturity data in the annular trough indicate no thermal effect there from impact-related processes. ?? 2009 The

  9. Reveal Salmonella 2.0 test for detection of Salmonella spp. in foods and environmental samples. Performance Tested Method 960801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerner, Rebecca; Feldpausch, Jill; Gray, R Lucas; Curry, Stephanie; Islam, Zahidul; Goldy, Tim; Klein, Frank; Tadese, Theodros; Rice, Jennifer; Mozola, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Reveal Salmonella 2.0 is an improved version of the original Reveal Salmonella lateral flow immunoassay and is applicable to the detection of Salmonella enterica serogroups A-E in a variety of food and environmental samples. A Performance Tested Method validation study was conducted to compare performance of the Reveal 2.0 method with that of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service or U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference culture methods for detection of Salmonella spp. in chicken carcass rinse, raw ground turkey, raw ground beef, hot dogs, raw shrimp, a ready-to-eat meal product, dry pet food, ice cream, spinach, cantaloupe, peanut butter, stainless steel surface, and sprout irrigation water. In a total of 17 trials performed internally and four trials performed in an independent laboratory, there were no statistically significant differences in performance of the Reveal 2.0 and reference culture procedures as determined by Chi-square analysis, with the exception of one trial with stainless steel surface and one trial with sprout irrigation water where there were significantly more positive results by the Reveal 2.0 method. Considering all data generated in testing food samples using enrichment procedures specifically designed for the Reveal method, overall sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to the reference culture methods was 99%. In testing environmental samples, sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to the reference culture method was 164%. For select foods, use of the Reveal test in conjunction with reference method enrichment resulted in overall sensitivity of 92%. There were no unconfirmed positive results on uninoculated control samples in any trials for specificity of 100%. In inclusivity testing, 102 different Salmonella serovars belonging to serogroups A-E were tested and 99 were consistently positive in the Reveal test. In exclusivity testing of 33 strains of non

  10. A simple nomogram for sample size for estimating sensitivity and specificity of medical tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra Rajeev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity and specificity measure inherent validity of a diagnostic test against a gold standard. Researchers develop new diagnostic methods to reduce the cost, risk, invasiveness, and time. Adequate sample size is a must to precisely estimate the validity of a diagnostic test. In practice, researchers generally decide about the sample size arbitrarily either at their convenience, or from the previous literature. We have devised a simple nomogram that yields statistically valid sample size for anticipated sensitivity or anticipated specificity. MS Excel version 2007 was used to derive the values required to plot the nomogram using varying absolute precision, known prevalence of disease, and 95% confidence level using the formula already available in the literature. The nomogram plot was obtained by suitably arranging the lines and distances to conform to this formula. This nomogram could be easily used to determine the sample size for estimating the sensitivity or specificity of a diagnostic test with required precision and 95% confidence level. Sample size at 90% and 99% confidence level, respectively, can also be obtained by just multiplying 0.70 and 1.75 with the number obtained for the 95% confidence level. A nomogram instantly provides the required number of subjects by just moving the ruler and can be repeatedly used without redoing the calculations. This can also be applied for reverse calculations. This nomogram is not applicable for testing of the hypothesis set-up and is applicable only when both diagnostic test and gold standard results have a dichotomous category.

  11. Rotating black holes and Coriolis effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chia-Jui, E-mail: agoodmanjerry.ep02g@nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Xiaoning, E-mail: wuxn@amss.ac.cn [Institute of Mathematics, Academy of Mathematics and System Science, CAS, Beijing, 100190 (China); Yang, Yi, E-mail: yiyang@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yuan, Pei-Hung, E-mail: phyuan.py00g@nctu.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-10-10

    In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the suitable boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.

  12. Rotating black holes and Coriolis effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jui Chou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the suitable boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Validity of oral mucosal transudate specimens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    samples, with DBS as the gold-standard specimen. Results. Paired DBS and OMT specimens were .... within 24 hours signified complete elution. Positive and negative control specimens provided by the ... Using the DBS as the gold standard test, HIV prevalence was 3.2% overall. Prevalence was highest in the 6 - 8-year ...

  14. Molecular testing guidelines for lung adenocarcinoma: Utility of cell blocks and concordance between fine-needle aspiration cytology and histology samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Jonas J.; Bulman, William A.; Maxfield, Roger A.; Powell, Charles A.; Halmos, Balazs; Sonett, Joshua; Beaubier, Nike T.; Crapanzano, John P.; Mansukhani, Mahesh M.; Saqi, Anjali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is a leading cause of mortality, and patients often present at a late stage. More recently, advances in screening, diagnosing, and treating lung cancer have been made. For instance, greater numbers of minimally invasive procedures are being performed, and identification of lung adenocarcinoma driver mutations has led to the implementation of targeted therapies. Advances in molecular techniques enable use of scant tissue, including cytology specimens. In addition, per recently published consensus guidelines, cytology-derived cell blocks (CBs) are preferred over direct smears. Yet, limited comparison of molecular testing of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) CBs and corresponding histology specimens has been performed. This study aimed to establish concordance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS) virus homolog testing between FNA CBs and histology samples from the same patients. Materials and Methods: Patients for whom molecular testing for EGFR or KRAS was performed on both FNA CBs and histology samples containing lung adenocarcinoma were identified retrospectively. Following microdissection, when necessary, concordance of EGFR and KRAS molecular testing results between FNA CBs and histology samples was evaluated. Results: EGFR and/or KRAS testing was performed on samples obtained from 26 patients. Concordant results were obtained for all EGFR (22/22) and KRAS (17/17) mutation analyses performed. Conclusions: Identification of mutations in lung adenocarcinomas affects clinical decision-making, and it is important that results from small samples be accurate. This study demonstrates that molecular testing on cytology CBs is as sensitive and specific as that on histology. PMID:24987443

  15. Note on the Cardoso-Pani-Rico parametrization to test the Kerr black hole hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2014-08-01

    The construction of a generic parametrization to describe the spacetime geometry around astrophysical black hole candidates is an important step to test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. In the last few years, the Johannsen-Psaltis metric has been the most common framework to study possible deviations from the Kerr solution with present and near-future observations. Recently, Cardoso, Pani, and Rico have proposed a more general parametrization. The aim of the present paper is to study this new metric in a specific context, namely, the thermal spectrum of geometrically thin and optically thick accretion disks. The most relevant finding is that the spacetime geometry around objects that look like very-fast-rotating Kerr black holes may still have large deviations from the Kerr solution. This is not the case with the Johannsen-Psaltis metric, which means the latter is missing an important class of non-Kerr spacetimes.

  16. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L. [Radiation Safety Engineering, Inc., Chandler, AZ (United States)

    1996-02-01

    A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS{reg_sign}) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Profiles developed for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills.

  17. Understanding and comparisons of different sampling approaches for the Fourier Amplitudes Sensitivity Test (FAST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chonggang; Gertner, George

    2011-01-01

    Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) is one of the most popular uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques. It uses a periodic sampling approach and a Fourier transformation to decompose the variance of a model output into partial variances contributed by different model parameters. Until now, the FAST analysis is mainly confined to the estimation of partial variances contributed by the main effects of model parameters, but does not allow for those contributed by specific interactions among parameters. In this paper, we theoretically show that FAST analysis can be used to estimate partial variances contributed by both main effects and interaction effects of model parameters using different sampling approaches (i.e., traditional search-curve based sampling, simple random sampling and random balance design sampling). We also analytically calculate the potential errors and biases in the estimation of partial variances. Hypothesis tests are constructed to reduce the effect of sampling errors on the estimation of partial variances. Our results show that compared to simple random sampling and random balance design sampling, sensitivity indices (ratios of partial variances to variance of a specific model output) estimated by search-curve based sampling generally have higher precision but larger underestimations. Compared to simple random sampling, random balance design sampling generally provides higher estimation precision for partial variances contributed by the main effects of parameters. The theoretical derivation of partial variances contributed by higher-order interactions and the calculation of their corresponding estimation errors in different sampling schemes can help us better understand the FAST method and provide a fundamental basis for FAST applications and further improvements.

  18. General relativistic x ray (UV) polarization rotations as a quantitative test for black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Richard F.

    1989-01-01

    It is now 11 years since a potentially easily observable and quantitative test for black holes using general relativistic polarization rotations was proposed (Stark and Connors 1977, and Connors and Stark 1977). General relativistic rotations of the x ray polarization plane of 10 to 100 degrees with x ray energy (between 1 and 100 keV) are predicted for black hole x ray binaries. (Classically, by symmetry, there is no rotation.) Unfortunately, x ray polarimetry has not been taken sufficiently seriously during this period, and this test has not yet been performed. A similar (though probably less clean) effect is expected in the UV for supermassive black holes in some quasars active galactic nuclei. Summarizing: (1) a quantitative test (proposed in 1977) for black holes exists; (2) x ray polarimetry of galactic x ray binaries sensitive to at least 1/2 percent between 1 keV and 100 keV is needed (polarimetry in the UV of quasars and AGN will also be of interest); and (3) proportional counters using timerise discrimination were shown in laboratory experiments able to perform x ray polarimetry and this and other methods need to be developed.

  19. An Inset CT Specimen for Evaluating Fracture in Small Samples of Material

    OpenAIRE

    Yahyazadehfar, M.; Nazari, A.; Kruzic, J. J.; Quinn, G. D.; Arola, D.

    2013-01-01

    In evaluations on the fracture behavior of hard tissues and many biomaterials, the volume of material available to study is not always sufficient to apply a standard method of practice. In the present study an inset Compact Tension (inset CT) specimen is described, which uses a small cube of material (approximately 2×2×2 mm3) that is molded within a secondary material to form the compact tension geometry. A generalized equation describing the Mode I stress intensity was developed for the spec...

  20. Stool-specimen testing practices adopted by clinical microbiology laboratories in the Veneto Region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Spolaore

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to correctly analyze data of laboratory diagnoses of infectious gastroenteritis for epidemiological purposes, a survey on analytical methods applied by hospital-based clinical microbiology laboratories has been conducted in the Veneto Region (Italy. The survey has been carried out in 2005 through a questionnaire collecting data on laboratory protocols and materials used for faecal specimens analysis. Laboratories from all the Local Health Units and University Hospitals of the Region returned the questionnaire. Almost all the laboratories routinely tested for the main foodborne pathogens: 23/23 for Salmonella, 22/23 for Shigella and 19/23 for Campylobacter jejuni. A great variety of analytical methods was applied for pathogen isolation; among these is worth of notice the inappropriate use of selenite broth for Shigella enrichment.Among noncultural methods, immunoassays were largely adopted. The survey allowed to appraise stool-specimen testing practices among laboratories of the Veneto Region; overall the compliance with guidelines proposed by the main national and international scientific societies resulted rather good.

  1. Comparison of different anticoagulant associations on haemostasis and biochemical analyses in feline blood specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granat, Fanny; Monzali, Céline; Jeunesse, Elisabeth; Guerlin, Maud; Trumel, Catherine; Geffré, Anne; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    Objectives Universal anticoagulant could be an alternative to the multiple blood sampling required for clinical pathology investigations in cats. An association of citrate, theophylline, adenosine and dipyridamole (CTAD) has been reported to be a good substitute for EDTA for haematology analysis in cats, limiting platelet clumping, and has also been shown to be valid for haematology, secondary haemostasis and some biochemical variables in humans. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate the effects of CTAD on in vitro platelet aggregation and compare results of secondary haemostasis and biochemistry tests, excluding a priori those variables not reliably measured in CTAD, such as sodium, chloride and divalent cations, in feline blood specimens collected in CTAD and paired citrate and heparin tubes. Methods Thirty blood specimens sampled in citrate and CTAD were analysed for in vitro platelet aggregation, and 60 blood specimens sampled in citrate or heparin and CTAD were analysed for plasma coagulation and a biochemistry panel. Results In vitro platelet aggregation was inhibited in CTAD compared with citrate specimens. Prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, antithrombin and fibrinogen results were similar, despite some significant differences. Measurements of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, urea, creatinine, phosphate, total proteins and alanine aminotransferase activity were similar and well correlated in CTAD and heparin plasmas, despite some significant differences and moderate biases. Albumin showed a marked positive proportional bias, and creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase activities a moderate and marked negative mixed bias, respectively, but could be measured in CTAD if new reference intervals were calculated. Aspartate aminotransferase activity showed a marked negative proportional bias, along with a poor correlation and some clinical misclassifications just like the potassium concentration, and thus cannot be recommended

  2. Comparison between dog-bone and Gaussian specimens for size effect evaluation in gigacycle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tridello

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gigacycle fatigue properties of materials are strongly affected by the specimen risk volume (volume of material subjected to a stress amplitude larger than the 90% of the maximum stress. Gigacycle fatigue tests, performed with ultrasonic fatigue testing machines, are commonly carried out by using hourglass shaped specimens with a small risk volume. The adoption of traditional dog-bone specimens allows for increasing the risk volume, even if the increment is quite limited. In order to obtain larger risk volumes, a new specimen shape is proposed (Gaussian specimen. The dog-bone and the Gaussian specimens are compared through Finite Element Analyses and the numerical results are validated experimentally by means of strain gages measurements. The range of applicability of the two different specimens in terms of available risk volume and stress concentration effects due to the cross section variation is determined.

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 145: Wells and Storage Holes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0, with ROTC No. 1 and Addendum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Strand

    2006-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 145, Wells and Storage Holes in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 145 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 03-20-01, Core Storage Holes; (2) 03-20-02, Decon Pad and Sump; (3) 03-20-04, Injection Wells; (4) 03-20-08, Injection Well; (5) 03-25-01, Oil Spills; and (6) 03-99-13, Drain and Injection Well. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for the six CASs within CAU 145. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from August 1, 2005, through November 8, 2005, as set forth in the CAU 145 Corrective Action Investigation Plan and Record of Technical Change No. 1. Analytes detected during the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) were evaluated against appropriate final action levels to identify the contaminants of concern for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified contaminants of concern at one of the six CASs in CAU 145 and required the evaluation of corrective action alternatives. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 145 revealed the following: CASs 03-20-01, 03-20-02, 03-20-04, 03-20-08, and 03-99-13 do not contain contamination; and CAS 03-25-01 has pentachlorophenol and arsenic contamination in the subsurface soils. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations at the six CASs, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential corrective action alternatives, the following corrective actions are recommended for CAU 145. No further action is the preferred corrective action for CASs 03-20-01, 03-20-02, 03-20-04, 03-20-08, and 03-99-13. Close in place is the preferred corrective action

  4. Vacuum sealing and cooling as methods to preserve surgical specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Engvad, Birte; Nielsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Recently, vacuum-based preservation of surgical specimens has been proposed as a safe alternative to formalin fixation at the surgical theater. The method seems feasible from a practical point of view, but no systematic study has examined the effect of vacuum sealing alone with respect to tissue...... preservation. In this study, we therefore subjected tissue samples from 5 different organs to treatments with and without vacuum sealing and cooling at 4°C to study the effect of vacuum sealing of surgical specimens with respect to tissue preservation and compare it with the effect of cooling. No preserving...... effect of vacuum sealing was observed with respect to cellular morphology, detection of immunohistochemical epitopes, or RNA integrity. In contrast, storage at 4°C was shown to preserve tissue to a higher degree than storage at room temperature for all included endpoints, independently of whether...

  5. Dairy cows with metritis: Coxiella burnetii test results in uterine, blood and bulk milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskens, J; van Maanen, C; Mars, M H

    2011-01-10

    In cattle, Coxiella burnetii infections are generally asymptomatic but can also be associated with reproductive disorders. Metritis is considered as one of the symptoms of C. burnetii infections, but reliable information is lacking. Therefore, information on the presence of C. burnetii in the uterine content of cows with metritis is important to increase our knowledge on this pathogen. In this study, the uterine content of 45 dairy cows with metritis belonging to 12 herds was tested for C. burnetii with a real-time PCR assay. Only one uterine sample tested PCR (highly) positive, all other samples were PCR negative. The PCR positive cow tested also positive for antibodies. Three other cows from other herds tested antibody positive. The bulk milk (BM) samples of these 12 herds were tested by real-time PCR assay and antibody-ELISA. Six BM samples (50%) were positive in PCR and 10 (83%) were positive in ELISA. Culturing the uterus samples by bacteriology, the most frequently cultured bacteria were arcanobacterium (n=24), E. coli (n=16), other streptococci (n=10), Streptococcus uberis (n=8) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n=5). This study indicates that C. burnetii is not an important cause for metritis in dairy herds, although apparently C. burnetii was or had been present in most of these herds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Testing Short Samples of ITER Conductors and Projection of Their Performance in ITER Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N N

    2007-08-20

    Qualification of the ITER conductor is absolutely necessary. Testing large scale conductors is expensive and time consuming. To test straight 3-4m long samples in a bore of a split solenoid is a relatively economical way in comparison with fabrication of a coil to be tested in a bore of a background field solenoid. However, testing short sample may give ambiguous results due to different constraints in current redistribution in the cable or other end effects which are not present in the large magnet. This paper discusses processes taking place in the ITER conductor, conditions when conductor performance could be distorted and possible signal processing to deduce behavior of ITER conductors in ITER magnets from the test data.

  7. Apparatus and method for magnetically processing a specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludtka, Gerard M; Ludtka, Gail M; Wilgen, John B; Kisner, Roger A; Jaramillo, Roger A

    2013-09-03

    An apparatus for magnetically processing a specimen that couples high field strength magnetic fields with the magnetocaloric effect includes a high field strength magnet capable of generating a magnetic field of at least 1 Tesla and a magnetocaloric insert disposed within a bore of the high field strength magnet. A method for magnetically processing a specimen includes positioning a specimen adjacent to a magnetocaloric insert within a bore of a magnet and applying a high field strength magnetic field of at least 1 Tesla to the specimen and to the magnetocaloric insert. The temperature of the specimen changes during the application of the high field strength magnetic field due to the magnetocaloric effect.

  8. First detection and genotyping of Giardia intestinalis in stool samples collected from children in Ghazni Province, eastern Afghanistan and evaluation of the PCR assay in formalin-fixed specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Anna; Karanis, Panagiotis; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    It is estimated that faecal-orally transmitted diseases are common in Afghanistan, as a consequence of poor hygienic standards of life and widespread contamination of water and food with both human and animal faeces. However, there is little information in the literature concerning infections caused by intestinal parasites in the Afghan population. In this study, we report the occurrence of Giardia intestinalis assemblages (A and B) in formalin-fixed stool samples collected from 245 Afghan schoolchildren living in Ghazni Province in eastern Afghanistan. Detection of the parasite's DNA and genotyping was performed using real-time PCR, specific to the β-giardin gene of G. intestinalis. Positive results were recorded in 52 (21.2%) samples. Genotyping was successful in 39 faecal samples and showed the predominance of assemblage B of G. intestinalis in this population (15 assemblage A and 24 assemblage B). Co-infection with both genotypes A and B was detected in four samples. Additionally, we evaluated the effect of 10% buffered formalin fixative on the detection of G. intestinalis DNA using real-time PCR and nested PCR characterised by different lengths of PCR products (74 and 479 bp, respectively). The human faeces containing the Giardia cysts were tested for 16 weeks. Amplification of G. intestinalis DNA with real-time PCR was possible up to 6 weeks of preservation of stool sample in formalin, compared to only 2 weeks with nested PCR. This suggests that real-time PCR is a more suitable tool in cases where stool samples have to be kept in formalin for longer periods of time.

  9. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  10. Black holes and Higgs stability

    CERN Document Server

    Tetradis, Nikolaos

    2016-09-20

    We study the effect of primordial black holes on the classical rate of nucleation of AdS regions within the standard electroweak vacuum. We find that the energy barrier for transitions to the new vacuum, which characterizes the exponential suppression of the nucleation rate, can be reduced significantly in the black-hole background. A precise analysis is required in order to determine whether the the existence of primordial black holes is compatible with the form of the Higgs potential at high temperature or density in the Standard Model or its extensions.

  11. Development of European creep crack growth testing code of practice for industrial specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, B.; Nikbin, K. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Petrovski, B. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (DE). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde (IFW)

    2004-07-01

    The integrity and residual life assessment of high temperature components require defects, detected or assumed to exist, through minimum allowable limits of detectable flaws using nondestructive testing methods. It relies on information obtained from the material's mechanical, uniaxial creep, creep crack initiation and growth properties. The information derived from experiments needs to be validated and harmonised following a Code of Practice that data variability between different institutions can be reduced to a minimum. The present paper reports on a Code of Practice (CoP) being prepared within the framework of the partially European Commission funded project CRETE. The novel aspect of the presented CoP is the inclusion of component relevant industrial specimen geometries. It covers testing and analysis of Creep Crack growth (CCG) in metallic materials at elevated temperature using six different cracked geometries that have been validated in. It aims to give advice on testing, measurements and analysis of creep crack growth data for a range of creep brittle to creep ductile materials using component service relevant specimen geometries and sizes. The CoP may be used for material selection criteria and inspection requirements for damage tolerant applications. In quantitative terms, these types of tests can be used to assess the individual and combined effects of metallurgical, fabrication, operating temperature, and loading conditions on creep crack growth life. Further issues will be addressed including material properties, damage and crack growth related constraint effect, stress relaxation and stress-strain fields, residual stresses, partitioning displacement, analysis of elasticcreep, elastic compliance measurements.

  12. Testing for HPV as an objective measure for quality assurance in gynecologic cytology: positive rates in equivocal and abnormal specimens and comparison with the ASCUS to SIL ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Vincent; Nanji, Shabin; Tambouret, Rosemary H; Wilbur, David C

    2007-04-25

    Inappropriate use of the category of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) can result in overtreatment or undertreatment of patients, which may decrease the cost effectiveness of screening. Quality assurance tools, such as the ASCUS to squamous intraepithelial lesion ratio (ASCUS:SIL) and case review, are imperfect. High-risk HPV (hrHPV) testing is an objective test for a known viral carcinogen, and hrHPV may be more useful in monitoring the quality of ASCUS interpretations. hrHPV rates for cytologic diagnoses and patient age groups were calculated for a 2-year period. All hrHPV results for ASCUS and SIL over a 17-month period were analyzed by patient age group, over time, and by individual cytopathologist to compare hrHPV rates with the corresponding ASCUS:SIL. The hrHPV positive rate for SIL was >90%, and it was 32.6% for ASCUS. Stratification by patient age showed that approximately 50% of patients younger than 30 years and older than 70 years of age were hrHPV positive, whereas other patients had a lower rate ranging from 14% to 34%. The overall ASCUS:SIL was 1.42, and the overall hrHPV positive rate was 39.9%. Over time and by individual cytopathologist, the hrHPV rate performed similarly to the ASCUS:SIL. The analysis by patient age showed a high statistical correlation (R(2) = 0.9772) between the 2 methods. Despite differences between these techniques, the hrHPV rate closely recapitulates the ASCUS:SIL. When used together, the 2 methods can complement each other. The desirable hrHPV-positive range appears to be 40% to 50%; however, this may vary based on the patient population. The hrHPV rate is as quick and cost effective as determining the ASCUS:SIL. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.

  13. Acceptance sampling for attributes via hypothesis testing and the hypergeometric distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samohyl, Robert Wayne

    2017-10-01

    This paper questions some aspects of attribute acceptance sampling in light of the original concepts of hypothesis testing from Neyman and Pearson (NP). Attribute acceptance sampling in industry, as developed by Dodge and Romig (DR), generally follows the international standards of ISO 2859, and similarly the Brazilian standards NBR 5425 to NBR 5427 and the United States Standards ANSI/ASQC Z1.4. The paper evaluates and extends the area of acceptance sampling in two directions. First, by suggesting the use of the hypergeometric distribution to calculate the parameters of sampling plans avoiding the unnecessary use of approximations such as the binomial or Poisson distributions. We show that, under usual conditions, discrepancies can be large. The conclusion is that the hypergeometric distribution, ubiquitously available in commonly used software, is more appropriate than other distributions for acceptance sampling. Second, and more importantly, we elaborate the theory of acceptance sampling in terms of hypothesis testing rigorously following the original concepts of NP. By offering a common theoretical structure, hypothesis testing from NP can produce a better understanding of applications even beyond the usual areas of industry and commerce such as public health and political polling. With the new procedures, both sample size and sample error can be reduced. What is unclear in traditional acceptance sampling is the necessity of linking the acceptable quality limit (AQL) exclusively to the producer and the lot quality percent defective (LTPD) exclusively to the consumer. In reality, the consumer should also be preoccupied with a value of AQL, as should the producer with LTPD. Furthermore, we can also question why type I error is always uniquely associated with the producer as producer risk, and likewise, the same question arises with consumer risk which is necessarily associated with type II error. The resolution of these questions is new to the literature. The

  14. Determining sample size and a passing criterion for respirator fit-test panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsittel, D; Zhuang, Z; Newcomb, W; Berry Ann, R

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have proposed methods for sample size determination and specification of passing criterion (e.g., number needed to pass from a given size panel) for respirator fit-tests. One approach is to account for between- and within- subject variability, and thus take full advantage of the multiple donning measurements within subject, using a random effects model. The corresponding sample size calculation, however, may be difficult to implement in practice, as it depends on the model-specific and test panel-specific variance estimates, and thus does not yield a single sample size or specific cutoff for number needed to pass. A simple binomial approach is therefore proposed to simultaneously determine both the required sample size and the optimal cutoff for the number of subjects needed to achieve a passing result. The method essentially conducts a global search of the type I and type II errors under different null and alternative hypotheses, across the range of possible sample sizes, to find the lowest sample size which yields at least one cutoff satisfying, or approximately satisfying all pre-determined limits for the different error rates. Benchmark testing of 98 respirators (conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) is used to illustrate the binomial approach and show how sample size estimates from the random effects model can vary substantially depending on estimated variance components. For the binomial approach, probability calculations show that a sample size of 35 to 40 yields acceptable error rates under different null and alternative hypotheses. For the random effects model, the required sample sizes are generally smaller, but can vary substantially based on the estimate variance components. Overall, despite some limitations, the binomial approach represents a highly practical approach with reasonable statistical properties.

  15. Life inside black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, V. I.

    2012-01-01

    We consider test planet and photon orbits of the third kind inside a black hole, which are stable, periodic and neither come out of the black hole nor terminate at the singularity. Interiors of supermassive black holes may be inhabited by advanced civilizations living on planets with the third-kind orbits. In principle, one can get information from the interiors of black holes by observing their white hole counterparts.

  16. Nonlinear interactions between black holes and Proca fields

    CERN Document Server

    Zilhão, Miguel; Cardoso, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    Physics beyond the Standard Model is an important candidate for dark matter, and an interesting testing ground for strong-field gravity: the equivalence principle "forces" all forms of matter to fall in the same way, and it is therefore natural to look for imprints of these fields in regions with strong gravitational fields, such as compact stars or black holes. Here we study General Relativity minimally coupled to a massive vector field, and how black holes in this theory lose "hair". Our results indicate that black holes can sustain Proca field condensates for extremely long time-scales.

  17. Parametric and nonparametric two-sample tests for feature screening in class comparison: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Landoni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The identification of a location-, scale- and shape-sensitive test to detect differentially expressed features between two comparison groups represents a key point in high dimensional studies. The most commonly used tests refer to differences in location, but general distributional discrepancies might be important to reveal differential biological processes.                                                         Methods. A simulation study was conducted to compare the performance of a set of two-sample tests, i.e. Student's t, Welch's t, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney, Podgor-Gastwirth PG2, Cucconi, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS, Cramer-von Mises (CvM, Anderson-Darling (AD and Zhang tests (ZK, ZC and ZA which were investigated under different distributional patterns. We applied the same tests to a real data example.                   Results. AD, CvM, ZA and ZC tests proved to be the most sensitive tests in mixture distribution patterns, while still maintaining a high power in normal distribution patterns. At best, the AD test showed a loss in power of ~ 2% in the comparison of two normal distributions, but a gain of ~ 32% with mixture distributions respect to the parametric tests. Accordingly, the AD test detected the greatest number of differentially expressed features in the real data application.   Conclusion. The tests for the general two-sample problem introduce a more general concept of 'differential expression', thus overcoming the limitations of the other tests restricted to specific moments of the feature distributions. In particular, the AD test should be considered as a powerful alternative to the parametric tests for feature screening in order to keep as many discriminative features as possible for the class prediction analysis.

  18. Effective testing for pulmonary tuberculosis using Xpert MTB/RIF assay for stool specimens in immunocompetent Pakistani children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Zahra; Arif, Fehmina; Shakoor, Sadia; Mehnaz, Aisha; Akber, Alnoor; Kanji, Akbar; Ashraf, Mussarat; Hasan, Rumina

    2016-12-01

    Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is largely a paucibacillary disease and difficult to diagnose. It is difficult to obtain a sputum or gastric aspirate (GA) sample, and patients are often undiagnosed and treated empirically. Stool is a noninvasive specimen not usually used for TB testing in Pakistan. We investigated the value of Xpert MTB/RIF to diagnose Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in children with pulmonary TB cases, by performing comparative testing of GA and stool samples. We recruited 60 children aged 1-15years, suspected of TB, from the Department of Pediatrics, Civil Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan and The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. All were immunocompetent. Patients had a Kenneth Jones TB score of ⩾5. Paired GA/sputum and stool samples were collected for testing. All GA samples were tested by Xpert MTB/RIF assay and MTB culture, while stool was tested by Xpert MTB/RIF. The study participants included 27 males and 23 females with a mean age of 6years and a mean TB (Kenneth Jones) score of 7. Stool was received in the laboratory within 1-2days of the GA sample for all but one participant, who expired. The rates of MTB detection were as follows: 22% (11 cases) based on Xpert MTB testing of GA, 21% (10 cases) based on MTB culture of GA, and 21% (10 cases) based on Xpert MTB testing of stool. No rifampicin resistance was detected. Overall, there was concordance between testing of GA and stool. One case had GA with low positive Xpert and positive MTB culture, but negative stool Xpert result. In another case, there was low positive GA Xpert, positive GA MTB culture, and positive stool Xpert. A positive Xpert MTB stool test was associated with a higher TB score (>5) and a greater bacillary load. All 11 cases of TB diagnosed were put on antituberculous therapy and responded well to treatment. Use of Xpert MTB/RIF assay for stool-based diagnosis of pulmonary TB in immunocompetent children is useful in a resource poor setting. This is a valuable and

  19. 5D Black Holes and Matrix Strings

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkgraaf, R; Verlinde, E.; Verlinde, H.

    1997-01-01

    We derive the world-volume theory, the (non)-extremal entropy and background geometry of black holes and black strings constructed out of the NS IIA fivebrane within the framework of matrix theory. The CFT description of strings propagating in the black hole geometry arises as an effective field theory.

  20. Cavitation Erosion Tests Performed by Indirect Vibratory Method on Stainless Steel Welded Samples with Hardened Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian-Dumitru Nedeloni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of cavitation erosion tests performed on two types of samples. The materials of the samples are frequently used for manufacturing and repairs of the hydro turbines components submitted to cavitation. The first sample was made by welding of an austenitic stainless steel on austenito-feritic base material. The second sample was made similarly with the first but with a martensitic base material. After the welding processes, on both samples was applied a hardening treatment by surface peening. The cavitation erosion tests were performed on vibratory equipment using the indirect method with stationary specimen. The results show a good cavitation erosion resistance on both samples.

  1. Magnetized black holes and nonlinear electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglov, S. I.

    2017-08-01

    A new model of nonlinear electrodynamics with two parameters is proposed. We study the phenomenon of vacuum birefringence, the causality and unitarity in this model. There is no singularity of the electric field in the center of pointlike charges and the total electrostatic energy is finite. We obtain corrections to the Coulomb law at r →∞. The weak, dominant and strong energy conditions are investigated. Magnetized charged black hole is considered and we evaluate the mass, metric function and their asymptotic at r →∞ and r → 0. The magnetic mass of the black hole is calculated. The thermodynamic properties and thermal stability of regular black holes are discussed. We calculate the Hawking temperature of black holes and show that there are first-order and second-order phase transitions. The parameters of the model when the black hole is stable are found.

  2. Metacognitive Strategies and Test Performance: An Experience Sampling Analysis of Students' Learning Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike E. Nett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore students’ learning-related cognitions prior to an in-class achievement test, with a focus on metacognitive strategy use. A sample of 70 students in grade 11 (58.6% female, Mage=17.09 years completed a series of structured, state-based measures over a two-week period via the experience sampling method until the day before a class test. Results illustrated students’ self-regulatory ability to preserve their motivational and cognitive resources, with test-related cognitions evidenced significantly more often in learning-related as opposed leisure settings. Metacognitive strategy use was also found to significantly increase as the test date approached underscoring the goal-oriented nature of situated learning behaviors. Higher intercepts and increases in frequency of test-related cognitions over time positively corresponded to test performance. Of the three metacognitive strategies assessed, monitoring was found to positively correspond with test performance. Implications for future practice as well as implications for future research employing the experience sampling method are discussed.

  3. Rutting analysis of 100 mm diameter polypropylene modified asphalt specimens using gyratory and Marshall compactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Tapkın

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Compaction technique used in Marshall design does not model the process of actual rolling procedures on site exactly. Carrying out laboratory compaction of dense bituminous mixtures with Superpave gyratory compactors is a more realistic way of simulating actual compaction. In this study, mechanical differences of reference and polypropylene modified asphalt mixtures were compared using Superpave gyratory and Marshall compaction methods by carrying out repeated creep tests utilising universal testing machine. In addition, there is no standard Superpave design procedure for 100 mm diameter samples till date. The other purpose of this study is to propose new standards for the compaction and testing procedures of these 100 mm specimens. Indeed, extensive studies have shown that the design gyration number should be 40 for reference and 33 for polypropylene modified specimens under medium traffic conditions for the similar and specific type of aggregate sources, bitumen, aggregate gradation, mix proportioning, modification technique and laboratory conditions. Moreover, it was shown that, the asphalt samples produced by Superpave gyratory compactor were much resistant to destructive rutting effects than the asphalt specimens prepared by Marshall design.

  4. Comparison of Human Papillomavirus Detection in Urine and Cervical Samples Using High-Risk HPV DNA Testing in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Surapan Khunamornpong; Jongkolnee Settakorn; Kornkanok Sukpan; Suree Lekawanvijit; Narisara Katruang; Sumalee Siriaunkgul

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the performance of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing in urine samples compared to that of cervical sample testing in Northern Thailand. Methods. Paired urine and cervical samples were collected during the follow-up of women with a previous positive HPV test. HPV testing was performed using the Cobas 4800 HPV Test. Linear Array assay was used for genotyping in selected cases. Results. Paired urine and cervical samples were obtained from 168 women. Of 123 p...

  5. 10 CFR 26.129 - Assuring specimen security, chain of custody, and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assuring specimen security, chain of custody, and... Testing Facilities § 26.129 Assuring specimen security, chain of custody, and preservation. (a) Each... custody-and-control forms. Licensee testing facility personnel shall attempt to resolve any discrepancies...

  6. Mars Sample Return and Flight Test of a Small Bimodal Nuclear Rocket and ISRU Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.; Wolinsky, Jason J.; Bilyeu, Michael B.; Scott, John H.

    2014-01-01

    A combined Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) flight test and Mars Sample Return mission (MSR) is explored as a means of "jump-starting" NTR development. Development of a small-scale engine with relevant fuel and performance could more affordably and quickly "pathfind" the way to larger scale engines. A flight test with subsequent inflight postirradiation evaluation may also be more affordable and expedient compared to ground testing and associated facilities and approvals. Mission trades and a reference scenario based upon a single expendable launch vehicle (ELV) are discussed. A novel "single stack" spacecraft/lander/ascent vehicle concept is described configured around a "top-mounted" downward firing NTR, reusable common tank, and "bottom-mount" bus, payload and landing gear. Requirements for a hypothetical NTR engine are described that would be capable of direct thermal propulsion with either hydrogen or methane propellant, and modest electrical power generation during cruise and Mars surface insitu resource utilization (ISRU) propellant production.

  7. A Comparative Study on the Role of Xpert MTB/RIF in Testing Different Types of Spinal Tuberculosis Tissue Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Feng, Shiqing; Gao, Ruixiao; Han, Chenfu; Sun, Xiaochen; Bao, Yucheng; Zhang, Wenlong

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of the commercial Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampin (MTB/RIF) test for evaluating different types of spinal tuberculosis (TB) tissue specimens. Pus, granulation tissue, and caseous necrotic tissue specimens from 223 patients who were diagnosed with spinal TB and who underwent curettage were collected for bacterial culture and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay to calculate the positive rate. Bacterial culture and phenotypic drug sensitivity testing (pDST) were adopted as the gold standards to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert bacterial detection and drug resistance (DR) test. The positive rate (68.61% ± 7.35%) from the Xpert MTB/RIF assays of spinal TB patients' tissue specimens was higher compared with bacterial culture (44.39% ± 6.51%, Z = 5.1642, p MTB/RIF assays on the three types of specimens were all higher than those of bacterial culture, with statistically significant results for pus and granulation tissue specimens. The positive rates for pus using the two bacteriological tests were higher than those for granulation tissue but were not statistically significant. However, the positive rates obtained from granulation tissue were statistically significantly higher than those obtained from caseous necrotic tissue. With bacterial culture and pDST as the gold standards, the sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF assays for MTB was 96.97%, while the sensitivity and specificity of the DR test also remained relatively high. For efficient and accurate diagnosis of spinal TB and DR and timely provision of effective treatment, multiple specimens, especially the pus of spinal TB patients, should be collected for Xpert MTB/RIF assays.

  8. Testing General Relativity with the Reflection Spectrum of the Supermassive Black Hole in 1H0707-495

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zheng; Nampalliwar, Sourabh; Bambi, Cosimo; Dauser, Thomas; García, Javier A.

    2018-02-01

    Recently, we have extended the x-ray reflection model relxill to test the spacetime metric in the strong gravitational field of astrophysical black holes. In the present Letter, we employ this extended model to analyze XMM-Newton, NuSTAR, and Swift data of the supermassive black hole in 1H0707-495 and test deviations from a Kerr metric parametrized by the Johannsen deformation parameter α13. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the spacetime metric around the black hole in 1H0707-495 is described by the Kerr solution.

  9. Particles and fields near black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Valeri

    Taking now the existence of black holes for granted, the motion of particles is studied in black hole spacetimes, first in the Schwarzschild and then in the Kerr background. Subsequently, the propagation of fields in the same backgrounds is reviewed, taking a massless scalar field as a "guinea pig". Thereafter, more complicated spin-carrying fields are shortly discussed. Some physical effects, such as superradiance, are briefly mentioned. Finally, black hole electrodynamics is dealt with. A 3+1 decomposition of Maxwell's equations is carried out. The so-called membrane paradigm is introduced which treats the black hole as a black box with classical electrodynamic behavior. In this way, a black hole can serve as a kind of a dynamo. This mechanism may explain the activity of the nuclei of galaxies and quasars.

  10. Comparison of Various Methods in the Diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica in Stool and Serum Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Hakan; Aktas, Osman; Uyanik, Muhammet Hamidullah

    2016-06-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is indistinguishable from Entamoeba dispar in direct microscopic examination. A definitive diagnosis of E. histolytica is important in terms of the treatment of the patient and to avoid unnecessary costs. This study's aim is to determine the prevalence of E. histolytica and to make a comparison of the different diagnostic tests in the patients specimens defined as E. histolytica/E. dispar infection. Faecal and serum specimens of 90 patients defined as E. histolytica/E. dispar with microscopy (wet mount examination with 0.85% saline and Lugol's iodine) were examined. Stool samples were examined by trichrome staining for trophozoites and cysts and by immunoassay methods for specific adhesin antigens (Wampole (®) E. histolytica II antigen testing) and for specific serine-rich 30 kD membrane protein (Serazym(®) E. histolytica antigen testing). Anti-E. histolytica antibodies were investigated using a latex slide test and indirect hemagglutination methods in serum specimens. Presence of E. histolytica was not confirmed in 31.1% cases with trichrome staining, 62.2% of the Wampole antigen test, 64.4%, of the Serazym antigen test, 73.3% of the indirect hemagglutination test and 75.6%. of the latex agglutination. Considering the common results from Wampole and Serazym antigen testing as a reference standard, the specificity/sensitivity is 100/53.85% for trichrome staining, 75.00/98.11% for the latex agglutination test and 78.57/96.77% for the indirect hemagglutination test. It has been shown that investigation of E. histolytica in stools by direct wet-smear microscopy alone can cause significant false positive results. To obtain a reliable diagnosis for E. histolytica and to avoid unnecessary treatment for this parasite, at least one more specific assay, particularly an antigen testing and microscopy, is required.

  11. Early effects of water inflow into a deposition hole. Laboratory tests results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanden, Torbjoern; Boergesson, Lennart (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    During the installation of buffer and canister in a deposition hole a number of different problems can arise. The problems are mainly connected to water flow from fractures in the rock into the deposition hole. At some conditions it probably will be necessary to protect the installed buffer blocks with a special sheet made of rubber or plastic. This report deals with two processes that can occur and are possible to strongly influence the buffer during installation: 1. Erosion. Erosion of bentonite from the deposition hole up to the voids in the tunnel backfill. This process will continue until a tunnel plug have been built and the voids in the backfill are filled with water. 2. Heave. Early wetting of the pellets filling may cause a heave of the buffer blocks that will decrease the density of the buffer. An erosion model has been suggested /Sanden et al. 2008b/ which makes it possible to estimate the amount of eroded material for a certain water flow rate during a certain time. In order to verify the model and investigate how the buffer in a deposition hole behaves when exposed to a water flow, a number of different tests have been performed: - Test type 1. Simulation of water flow out from a deposition hole. The deposition hole was made of steel and had a radial scale of 1:4 and a height of 0.6 meter. The pellets slot was scaled 1:1. After filling the deposition hole with buffer blocks and pellets, a constant water flow was applied in a point at the bottom. The discharged water at the top was collected and the amount of eroded material determined. The displacement of the blocks and pellets surfaces was also measured during the test. - Test type 2. The influence of test length on the erosion rate was investigated by performing tests with Plexiglas tubes of different lengths (0.4 and 4 meter). The tubes were positioned vertically, filled with pellets and a point inflow was applied in the bottom. The discharged water was collected at the top and the amount of eroded

  12. Testing the Binary Black Hole Nature of a Compact Binary Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnendu, N. V.; Arun, K. G.; Mishra, Chandra Kant

    2017-09-01

    We propose a novel method to test the binary black hole nature of compact binaries detectable by gravitational wave (GW) interferometers and, hence, constrain the parameter space of other exotic compact objects. The spirit of the test lies in the "no-hair" conjecture for black holes where all properties of a Kerr black hole are characterized by its mass and spin. The method relies on observationally measuring the quadrupole moments of the compact binary constituents induced due to their spins. If the compact object is a Kerr black hole (BH), its quadrupole moment is expressible solely in terms of its mass and spin. Otherwise, the quadrupole moment can depend on additional parameters (such as the equation of state of the object). The higher order spin effects in phase and amplitude of a gravitational waveform, which explicitly contains the spin-induced quadrupole moments of compact objects, hence, uniquely encode the nature of the compact binary. Thus, we argue that an independent measurement of the spin-induced quadrupole moment of the compact binaries from GW observations can provide a unique way to distinguish binary BH systems from binaries consisting of exotic compact objects.

  13. Testing the Binary Black Hole Nature of a Compact Binary Coalescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnendu, N V; Arun, K G; Mishra, Chandra Kant

    2017-09-01

    We propose a novel method to test the binary black hole nature of compact binaries detectable by gravitational wave (GW) interferometers and, hence, constrain the parameter space of other exotic compact objects. The spirit of the test lies in the "no-hair" conjecture for black holes where all properties of a Kerr black hole are characterized by its mass and spin. The method relies on observationally measuring the quadrupole moments of the compact binary constituents induced due to their spins. If the compact object is a Kerr black hole (BH), its quadrupole moment is expressible solely in terms of its mass and spin. Otherwise, the quadrupole moment can depend on additional parameters (such as the equation of state of the object). The higher order spin effects in phase and amplitude of a gravitational waveform, which explicitly contains the spin-induced quadrupole moments of compact objects, hence, uniquely encode the nature of the compact binary. Thus, we argue that an independent measurement of the spin-induced quadrupole moment of the compact binaries from GW observations can provide a unique way to distinguish binary BH systems from binaries consisting of exotic compact objects.

  14. An elastic solution for a new notched residual stess specimen subjected to an anti-clastic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny; Lyckegaard, Anders

    A new test specimen has been proposed to explore the mechanical properties of thermoset resin exposed to residual stresses induced by curing and thermal expansion. The test principle is based on anti-clastic bending of a plate with a hole. An elastic solution to the bending problem is derived in ...... in this paper based on Reissner plate theory.......A new test specimen has been proposed to explore the mechanical properties of thermoset resin exposed to residual stresses induced by curing and thermal expansion. The test principle is based on anti-clastic bending of a plate with a hole. An elastic solution to the bending problem is derived...

  15. TEST FUSION IN ADULT FORAMINIFERA: A REVIEW WITH NEW OBSERVATIONS OF AN EARLY EOCENE NUMMULITES SPECIMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferràndez-Cañadell, Carles; Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann; Wöger, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In foraminifera, so-called “double tests” usually arise due to abnormal growth originating mainly from twinning, but may also be caused by irregularities in the early chambers and by regeneration after test injury that modifies the direction of growth. A fourth cause of double tests has only rarely been reported: the fusion of the tests of two adult individuals. We studied an early Eocene Nummulites double test consisting of two adult individuals that fused after an extended period of independent growth. The specimen was studied using computed tomography with micrometric resolution (micro-CT) that allowed bi- and three-dimensional visualization of the internal structure. Before fusion each individual test had 30–36 chambers, which, by comparison with growth rates in recent nummulitids, implies at least three months of independent growth. After fusion, the compound test grew in two spirals that fused after about one whorl and then continued in a single spiral. To fuse their tests, either adult individuals have to be forced to do so or the allorecognition (ability to distinguish between self and another individual) mechanisms must fail. A possible explanation for the merged Nummulites tests in this study is forced fusion in attached individuals after surviving ingestion and digestion by a metazoan. Alternatively, environmental stress could lead to a failure of allorecognition mechanisms and/or foraminiferal motility. Once fused, subsequent growth seems to be determined mainly by the relative orientation of individual tests. In any case, the frequency in which adult fusion occurs remains unknown. PMID:26166916

  16. Real-Time Detection and Identification of Chlamydophila Species in Veterinary Specimens by Using SYBR Green-Based PCR Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Kabell, Susanne; Pedersen, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Infections caused by members of the Chlamydiaceae family have long been underestimated due to the requirement of special laboratory facilities for the detection of this group of intracellular pathogens. Furthermore, new studies of this group of intracellular pathogens have revealed that host...... or tissue specimens from heart, liver, and spleen without further purification. The assays were evaluated on veterinary specimens where all samples were screened using a family-specific PCR, and positive samples were further tested using species-specific PCRs. Cp. psittaci was detected in 47 birds, Cp...... with a highly sensitive family-specific PCR, we were able to screen for Chlamydiaceae in veterinary specimens and confirm the species in positive samples with additional PCR assays....

  17. Standard practice for making and using precracked double beam stress corrosion specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for fabricating, preparing, and using precracked double beam stress corrosion test specimens. This specimen configuration was formerly designated the double cantilever beam (DCB) specimen. Guidelines are given for methods of exposure and inspection. 1.2 The precracked double beam specimen, as described in this practice, is applicable for evaluation of a wide variety of metals exposed to corrosive environments. It is particularly suited to evaluation of products having a highly directional grain structure, such as rolled plate, forgings, and extrusions, when stressed in the short transverse direction. 1.3 The precracked double beam specimen may be stressed in constant displacement by bolt or wedge loading or in constant load by use of proof rings or dead weight loading. The precracked double beam specimen is amenable to exposure to aqueous or other liquid solutions by specimen immersion or by periodic dropwise addition of solution to the crack tip, or exposure to the atmos...

  18. Logging of post-test and CCH record core samples for the Spent Fuel Test-Climax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorpe, R.; Qualheim, B.

    1985-02-01

    Over 1300 ft of core obtained from 50 boreholes are described, with emphasis on the nature and orientations of geologic discontinuities in the Climax Stock. Although most of the core was not oriented with respect to global coordinates, approximate orientations of planar features, such as joints, veins, and sheer fractures, were obtained by taking core measurements relative to a set of low-angle joints found throughout the rock mass. The method for determining the approximate core orientation is described in detail, and the associated uncertainty is discussed. A graphic fracture log for each hole is provided, along with the computer code used to generate it.

  19. Small punch test: stamping test on small specimen; Small punch test: essai d`emboutissage sur petits echantillons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, D. [Service Reacteurs Nucleaires et Echangeurs, Departement Etude des Materiaux, Direction des Etudes et Recherches, Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France)

    1996-12-31

    In nuclear or fossil-fired power plants, service conditions may induce an increase of the ductile-brittle transition temperature of the used ferritic steels. In order to warrant a good running of the plants, it can be necessary to estimate the order of magnitude of this phenomenon. It is difficult to take Charpy size sampling off the concerned components. The size of such a sampling would indeed need important repairs that can be critical in terms of costs or component integrity. That is why several foreign laboratories propose to use the `punch test`, to estimate the transition temperature of ferritic steels of in-service components. It is a swaging test of thin plates, less than one millimeter thick. Such thin plates can be removed from components without requiring any repair. We have also developed a punch test to confirm its capabilities. A first application consisted of steels from drums aged during service in fossil-fired power plants. Main conclusions of this work are listed below: 1) the punch test can determine a transition curve similar to the resilience curve. In the same way, transition results from a change in the rupture mechanism: cleavage below the transition, ductile rupture above; 2) punch test transition curves are strongly shifted to low temperature compared to resilience curve; 3) for the 15 MDV 4-05 steel used for the drums of fossil-fired power plants, punch test transition temperature (DBTT SP) and resilience transition temperature are correlated. From this relation and the punch test, it should be possible to estimate the resilience transition temperature near the external surface of running drum (bulk resilience transition temperature is about 20 deg. higher than that of external surface). To apply this method on-site, still remains to decide the sampling procedure for these thin plates to be taken from external surface of components (thickness, tools,...). (author) 3 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Can we trust ex vivo mechanical testing of fresh--frozen cadaveric specimens? The effect of postfreezing delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartner, Jacob L; Hartsell, Zane M; Ricci, William M; Tornetta, Paul

    2011-08-01

    Because embalming has been demonstrated to decrease the mechanical integrity of bone, most investigators favor fresh-frozen specimens for biomechanical evaluation. However, little is known about how the integrity of fresh--frozen specimens may change during biomechanical testing or may be affected by standard practices in testing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the time after removal from a freezer may affect the mechanical properties of fresh--frozen diaphyseal bone. Matched pairs of nonosteoporotic fresh--frozen human cadaveric femora were thawed before instrumentation with bicortical screws. Matched femora were reserved for either control or delayed use. Each specimen received standard diaphyseal bicortical screws (six or more in each group). At specified time points, screws were axially pulled out following the guidelines of ASTM F543-07. Test groups were stored in air (21 ± 0.5°C) for 16, 50, or 90 hours. In the control group, screws were pulled out at 16 hours, which corresponds to the minimum elapsed time for specimen thawing, instrumentation, potting, and biomechanical test initiation. This represents the baseline mechanical properties of the fresh--frozen bone at the inception of any biomechanical test. The 90-hour group corresponds to the time needed to cycle a construct 300,000 times at a physiological test frequency of 1 Hz. This corresponds approximately to 2 to 4 months of in vivo loading. A midpoint of 50 hours was also tested, representing approximately 180,000 cycles. Failure for all specimens occurred as a result of bone failure at the screw-to-bone interface. There was a decrease in screw pullout strength as exposure time in air increased. The 50-hour test group showed a 9% decrease in screw pullout strength as compared with the 16-hour control group (P = 0.81). However, the 90-hour test group showed a 30% decrease in screw pullout strength as compared with the 16-hour control group (P = 0.04). This study indicates that when

  1. A novel ELISA test for laboratory diagnosis of Blastocystis spp. in human stool specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogruman-Al, Funda; Turk, Songul; Adiyaman-Korkmaz, Gulcan; Hananel, Amit; Levi, Lital; Kopelowitz, June; Babai, Oded; Gross, Shimon; Greenberg, Zvi; Herschkovitz, Yoav; Mumcuoglu, Ipek

    2015-02-01

    Detection of Blastocystis is routinely performed by microscopy, culture, and formyl-ether (ethyl acetate) concentration technique (FECT). Yet, these methods require special skilled personnel, are time consuming, and often involve processing that may cause misdiagnosis. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the usefulness of a newly introduced ELISA test for the detection of Blastocystis antigens in stool samples (CoproELISA(TM) Blastocystis, Savyon Diagnostics) as a proper alternative to currently used methods, especially microscopy. A cohort of 179 fresh/frozen clinical stool samples was tested by the ELISA test, and results were compared to consensus methods comprised of microscopic examination of Lugol's iodine staining, culture, and immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The new ELISA test was able to detect fewer than 10(3) cells, recognized subtypes 1, 2, 3, and 5 (comprising >95 % of human Blastocystis infections), and exhibited similar reactivity when comparing formalin-preserved samples to fresh/frozen samples. The test demonstrated 92 % sensitivity, 87 % specificity, and 89 % accuracy when culture, and IFA or microscopy consensus results were taken as reference. When the consensus was comprised of culture and IFA, the test demonstrated sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 82, 86, and 84 %, respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity of Lugol staining microscopy was only 18 %. This work presents a unique ELISA test that provides an alternative to the use of microscopy, currently most widely used method. The test enables high-throughput screening and diagnosis of Blastocystis, adaptation to automatic procedures.

  2. Standard test method for determining residual stresses by the hole-drilling strain-gage method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 Residual Stress Determination: 1.1.1 This test method specifies a hole-drilling procedure for determining residual stress profiles near the surface of an isotropic linearly elastic material. The test method is applicable to residual stress profile determinations where in-plane stress gradients are small. The stresses may remain approximately constant with depth (“uniform” stresses) or they may vary significantly with depth (“non-uniform” stresses). The measured workpiece may be “thin” with thickness much less than the diameter of the drilled hole or “thick” with thickness much greater than the diameter of the drilled hole. Only uniform stress measurements are specified for thin workpieces, while both uniform and non-uniform stress measurements are specified for thick workpieces. 1.2 Stress Measurement Range: 1.2.1 The hole-drilling method can identify in-plane residual stresses near the measured surface of the workpiece material. The method gives localized measurements that indicate the...

  3. Airflow Test of Acoustic Board Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Jensen, Lise Mellergaard

    In the laboratory of Indoor Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University an airflow test on 2x10 samples of acoustic board were carried out the 2nd of June 2012. The tests were carried out for Rambøll and STO AG. The test includes connected values of volume flow...

  4. A Catalog Sample of Low-mass Galaxies Observed in X-Rays with Central Candidate Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucita, A. A.; Manni, L.; De Paolis, F.; Giordano, M.; Ingrosso, G.

    2017-03-01

    We present a sample of X-ray-selected candidate black holes in 51 low-mass galaxies with z ≤ 0.055 and masses up to 1010 M ⊙ obtained by cross-correlating the NASA-SLOAN Atlas with the 3XMM catalog. We have also searched in the available catalogs for radio counterparts of the black hole candidates and find that 19 of the previously selected sources also have a radio counterpart. Our results show that about 37% of the galaxies of our sample host an X-ray source (associated with a radio counterpart) spatially coincident with the galaxy center, in agreement with other recent works. For these nuclear sources, the X-ray/radio fundamental plane relation allows one to estimate the mass of the (central) candidate black holes, which are in the range of 104-2 × 108 M ⊙ (with a median value of ≃3 × 107 M ⊙ and eight candidates having masses below 107 M ⊙). This result, while suggesting that X-ray emitting black holes in low-mass galaxies may have had a key role in the evolution of such systems, makes it even more urgent to explain how such massive objects formed in galaxies. Of course, dedicated follow-up observations both in the X-ray and radio bands, as well as in the optical, are necessary in order to confirm our results.

  5. Maternal screening for hypothyroidism and thyroiditis using filter paper specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, T P; Henry, J J; Hofman, L F; Thomas, R D; Sanfilippo, J S; Naylor, E W

    2013-11-01

    Hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis are more prevalent than previously considered in women during pregnancy and the postpartum, and are associated with adverse effects on the mother and her fetus. We determined the efficacy and accuracy of screening women for primary hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis by testing TSH and two thyroid antibodies (TAb): thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb), in eluates of filter paper specimens collected during early pregnancy and the postpartum. We enrolled 494 first-trimester pregnant women with no exclusion criteria into a prospective study to detect primary hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis. Finger stick blood was applied to filter paper, dried in room air, eluted, and promptly tested for TSH and TAb. A total of 178 of the pregnant women (36%) were tested in the early postpartum. Women with abnormal results had confirmatory serum tests. It was found that 91 pregnant women (18.4%) and 43 postpartum women (24.2%) had abnormal TSH values (>4.0 mU/L) and/or positive TAb; 140 pregnant women (28.3%) had TSH values >2.5 mU/L. All subjects with TSH values >4.0 mU/L tested positive for TAb. Eighteen women (3.6%) who tested normal during pregnancy tested abnormal in the postpartum. This study confirms that TSH and TPOAb measured in eluates of blood-spotted filter paper specimens are excellent screening tests to detect primary hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis in pregnant and postpartum women. Results are very comparable to serum data in this population published in the literature.

  6. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; sample plans and test method for leakage defects; adulteration. 800.20 Section 800.20 Food and Drugs FOOD... from the test method and sample plans in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. (2) For a description... Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.20 Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample...

  7. Comparison of FilmArray and Quantitative Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR for Detection of Zaire Ebolavirus from Contrived and Clinical Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Timothy R; Racsa, Lori D; Albariño, César G; Fey, Paul D; Hinrichs, Steven H; Murphy, Caitlin N; Herrera, Vicki L; Sambol, Anthony R; Hill, Charles E; Ryan, Emily L; Kraft, Colleen S; Campbell, Shelley; Sealy, Tara K; Schuh, Amy; Ritchie, James C; Lyon, G Marshall; Mehta, Aneesh K; Varkey, Jay B; Ribner, Bruce S; Brantly, Kent P; Ströher, Ute; Iwen, Peter C; Burd, Eileen M

    2015-09-01

    Rapid, reliable, and easy-to-use diagnostic assays for detection of Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) are urgently needed. The goal of this study was to examine the agreement among emergency use authorization (EUA) tests for the detection of ZEBOV nucleic acids, including the BioFire FilmArray BioThreat (BT) panel, the FilmArray BT-E panel, and the NP2 and VP40 quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase (qRT) PCR assays from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Specimens used in this study included whole blood spiked with inactivated ZEBOV at known titers and whole-blood, plasma, and urine clinical specimens collected from persons diagnosed with Ebola virus disease (EVD). The agreement for FilmArray and qRT-PCR results using contrived whole-blood specimens was 100% (6/6 specimens) for each ZEBOV dilution from 4 × 10(7) to 4 × 10(2) 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50)/ml, as well as the no-virus negative-control sample. The limit of detection for FilmArray and qRT-PCR assays with inactivated ZEBOV, based on duplicate positive results, was determined to be 4 × 10(2) TCID50/ml. Rates of agreement between FilmArray and qRT-PCR results for clinical specimens from patients with EVD were 85% (23/27 specimens) for whole-blood specimens, 90% (18/20 specimens) for whole-blood specimens tested by FilmArray testing and matched plasma specimens tested by qRT-PCR testing, and 85% (11/13 specimens) for urine specimens. Among 60 specimens, eight discordant results were noted, with ZEBOV nucleic acids being detected only by FilmArray testing in four specimens and only by qRT-PCR testing in the remaining four specimens. These findings demonstrate that the rapid and easy-to-use FilmArray panels are effective tests for evaluating patients with EVD. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Evaluation of tantalum-alloy-clad uranium mononitride fuel specimens from 7500-hour, 1040 C pumped-lithium-loop test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, G. K.

    1974-01-01

    Simulated nuclear fuel element specimens, consisting of uranium mononitride (UN) fuel cylinders clad with tungsten-lined T-111, were exposed for up to 7500 hr at 1040 C (1900 F) in a pumped-lithium loop. The lithium flow velocity was 1.5 m/sec (5 ft/sec) in the specimen test section. No evidence of any compatibility problems between the specimens and the flowing lithium was found based on appearance, weight change, chemistry, and metallography. Direct exposure of the UN to the lithium through a simulated cladding crack resulted in some erosion of the UN in the area of the defect. The T-111 cladding was ductile after lithium exposure, but it was sensitive to hydrogen embrittlement during post-test handling.

  9. Tensile tests of specimens made of selected group of the filament materials manufactured with FDM method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabowik Cezary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of tensile tests carried out for specimens made of the selected group of the filament materials. As a manufacturing technology FDM 3D printing method was chosen. The selected group of the filament materials involved the group of wood, PLA, ABS, PET, PMMA and ASA. Herein, it should be noticed, that technical data sheets that are delivered by filament materials producers include data that are valid for only one specific printing direction. This printing direction is deliberately selected, in such way that ensures the best material characteristics. Therefore, received during the research results allow to make comparison between a catalogue data and data obtained in the printing process. It aids both mechanical designer and product manufacturer at the stage of the printed product mechanical properties shaping.

  10. Black holes and random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, Jordan S.; Gur-Ari, Guy; Hanada, Masanori; Polchinski, Joseph; Saad, Phil; Shenker, Stephen H.; Stanford, Douglas; Streicher, Alexandre; Tezuka, Masaki

    2017-05-01

    We argue that the late time behavior of horizon fluctuations in large anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes is governed by the random matrix dynamics characteristic of quantum chaotic systems. Our main tool is the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model, which we use as a simple model of a black hole. We use an analytically continued partition function | Z( β + it)|2 as well as correlation functions as diagnostics. Using numerical techniques we establish random matrix behavior at late times. We determine the early time behavior exactly in a double scaling limit, giving us a plausible estimate for the crossover time to random matrix behavior. We use these ideas to formulate a conjecture about general large AdS black holes, like those dual to 4D super-Yang-Mills theory, giving a provisional estimate of the crossover time. We make some preliminary comments about challenges to understanding the late time dynamics from a bulk point of view.

  11. Inspection considerations for holes 0. 040 inch and smaller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The accurate inspection of hole size and location for holes smaller than 0.040 inch necessitates several considerations beyond those normally encountered for larger holes. The technical aspects are described herein.

  12. Rotating embedded black holes: Entropy and Hawking's radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Ibohal, Ng.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we derive a class of rotating embedded black holes. Then we study Hawking's radiation effects on these embedded black holes. The surface gravity, entropy and angular velocity are given for each of these black holes.

  13. Improving Laboratory Efficiency by Automation of Preanalytic Processing of ThinPrep Specimens for Real-Time PCR High-Risk HPV Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Daniela; Venturoli, Simona; Costa, Silvano; Landini, Maria Paola

    2016-06-01

    Cervical specimens collected in liquid-based cytology (LBC) media are the most common sample type used for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Since preanalytic steps such as vortexing and decapping vials, liquid transfer to a sample input tube with matching unique identifier, and recapping the original vials are required for processing LBC samples prior to running the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay (Abbott, Wiesbaden, Germany), a full manual execution can be complicated, especially in high-throughput diagnostic contexts. Here, a custom-configured worktable setup for the Tecan Freedom EVO (Tecan, Männedorf, Switzerland) designed to automate and control preanalytic steps for ThinPrep (Hologic, Marlborough, MA) samples was used to evaluate the impact of automated versus manual preanalytics. Archival results for manual processing of 226 samples were compared with those obtained with the Tecan protocol, observing a very good overall concordance for final assay interpretation (95.6%). High overall agreement (100%) resulted also from retesting 99 samples by both the preanalytical protocols. High reproducibility was observed analyzing 23 randomly selected samples by automated preprocessing in triplicate. Hence, the new configuration of the Tecan platform translates the manual steps required to process ThinPrep specimens into automated operations, controls sample identification, and allows for saving hands-on time, while maintaining assay reproducibility and ensuring reliability of results, making it suitable for screening settings. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  14. Whole-mount pathology of breast lumpectomy specimens improves detection of tumour margins and focality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Gina M; Holloway, Claire M B; Zubovits, Judit T; Nofech-Mozes, Sharon; Liu, Kela; Murray, Mayan; Wang, Dan; Yaffe, Martin J

    2016-07-01

    Technical limitations in conventional pathological evaluation of breast lumpectomy specimens may reduce diagnostic accuracy in the assessment of margin and focality. A novel technique based on whole-mount serial sections enhances sampling while preserving specimen conformation and orientation. The aim of this study was to investigate assessment of focality and margin status by the use of whole-mount serial sections versus simulated conventional sections in lumpectomies. Two pathologists interpreted whole-mount serial sections and simulated conventional sections for 58 lumpectomy specimens by reporting the closest margin and focality. Measurements were compared by the use of McNemar's chi-squared test. Statistically significant differences were observed in the assignment of both margin positivity (P = 0.014) and multifocality (P = 0.021). A positive margin or multifocal disease was identified by the use of whole-mount serial sections but missed in the simulated conventional assessment in 10.3% and 17.2% of all cases, respectively. There was no case in which a positive margin was detected only in the simulated conventional assessment. The whole-mount technique is more sensitive than conventional assessment for identifying a positive margin or multifocal disease in breast lumpectomy specimens. Undersampling in conventional sections was implicated in almost all cases of discordance. The majority of positive margins or secondary foci identified only in whole-mount serial sections concerned in-situ disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Jamming of fingers: an experimental study to determine force and deflection in participants and human cadaver specimens for development of a new bionic test device for validation of power-operated motor vehicle side door windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohendorff, Bernd; Weidermann, Christian; Pollinger, Philipp; Burkhart, Klaus J; Müller, Lars Peter

    2013-02-01

    The deformability of human fingers is central to addressing the real-life hazard of finger jamming between the window and seal entry of a power-operated motor vehicle side door window. The index and little fingers of the left hand of 109 participants and of 20 cadaver specimens were placed in a measurement setup. Participants progressively jammed their fingers at five different dorsal-palmar jam positions up to the maximum tolerable pain threshold, whereas the cadaver specimens were jammed up to the maximum possible deflection. Force-deflection curves were calculated corresponding to increasing deflection of the compressed tissue layers of the fingers. The average maximum force applied by the participants was 42 N to the index finger and 35 N to the little finger. In the cadaver fingers, the average of the maximum force applied was 1886 N for the index finger and 1833 N for the little finger. In 200 jam positions, 25 fractures were observed on radiographs; fractures occurred at an average force of 1485 N. These data assisted the development of a prototype of a bionic test device for more realistic validation of power-operated motor vehicle windows.

  16. A minimal molecular toolkit for mineral deposition? Biochemistry and proteomics of the test matrix of adult specimens of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakostis, Konstantinos; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Immel, Françoise; Guichard, Nathalie; Dru, Philippe; Lepage, Thierry; Plasseraud, Laurent; Matranga, Valeria; Marin, Frédéric

    2016-03-16

    The sea urchin endoskeleton consists of a magnesium-rich biocalcite comprising a small amount of occluded organic macromolecules. This structure constitutes a key-model for understanding the mineral--organics interplay, and for conceiving in vitro bio-inspired materials with tailored properties. Here we employed a deep-clean technique to purify the occluded proteins from adult Paracentrotus lividus tests. We characterized them by 1- and 2D-electrophoreses, ELISA and immunoblotting, and using liquid chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS), we identified two metalloenzymes (carbonic anhydrase and MMP), a set of MSP130 family members, several C-type lectins (SM29, SM41, PM27) and cytoskeletal proteins. We demonstrate the effect of the protein extract on the crystals, with an in vitro crystallization assay. We suggest that this small set of biomineralization proteins may represent a 'minimal molecular crystallization toolkit'. Biominerals often exhibit superior chemical properties, when compared to their inorganic counterparts. This is due pro parte to the proteins that are occluded in the mineral. However, the limited available studies on biomineralization have not yet succeeded in identifying a minimal set of proteins directly involved in the formation of the biomineral in vivo and sufficiently required for in vitro precipitation. Indeed, the high number of proteins identified by high-throughput screening in the recent years does not encourage the possibility of recreating or tailoring the mineral in vitro. Thus, the identification of biomineralization proteins involved in protein-mineral interactions is highly awaited. In the present study, we used the sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus (P. lividus), to identify the native proteins directly taking part in protein-mineral interactions. We employed an improved deep-clean technique to extract and purify the native occluded skeletal matrix proteins from the test and identified them by the highly

  17. An electronic specimen collection protocol schema (eSCPS). Document architecture for specimen management and the exchange of specimen collection protocols between biobanking information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminaga, O; Semjonow, A; Oezguer, E; Herden, J; Akbarov, I; Tok, A; Engelmann, U; Wille, S

    2014-01-01

    The integrity of collection protocols in biobanking is essential for a high-quality sample preparation process. However, there is not currently a well-defined universal method for integrating collection protocols in the biobanking information system (BIMS). Therefore, an electronic schema of the collection protocol that is based on Extensible Markup Language (XML) is required to maintain the integrity and enable the exchange of collection protocols. The development and implementation of an electronic specimen collection protocol schema (eSCPS) was performed at two institutions (Muenster and Cologne) in three stages. First, we analyzed the infrastructure that was already established at both the biorepository and the hospital information systems of these institutions and determined the requirements for the sufficient preparation of specimens and documentation. Second, we designed an eSCPS according to these requirements. Finally, a prospective study was conducted to implement and evaluate the novel schema in the current BIMS. We designed an eSCPS that provides all of the relevant information about collection protocols. Ten electronic collection protocols were generated using the supplementary Protocol Editor tool, and these protocols were successfully implemented in the existing BIMS. Moreover, an electronic list of collection protocols for the current studies being performed at each institution was included, new collection protocols were added, and the existing protocols were redesigned to be modifiable. The documentation time was significantly reduced after implementing the eSCPS (5 ± 2 min vs. 7 ± 3 min; p = 0.0002). The eSCPS improves the integrity and facilitates the exchange of specimen collection protocols in the existing open-source BIMS.

  18. Rotating charged hairy black hole in (2+1) dimensions and particle acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi, J.; Pourhassan, B.; H Farahani

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we construct rotating charged hairy black hole in (2+1) dimensions for infinitesimal black hole charge and rotation parameters. Then we consider this black hole as particle accelerator and calculate the center-of-mass energy of two colliding test particles near the rotating charged hairy black hole in (2+1) dimensions. As we expected, the center-of-mass energy has infinite value.

  19. Black Holes and Gravitational Properties of Antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    Hajdukovic, D

    2006-01-01

    We speculate about impact of antigravity (i.e. gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter) on the creation and emission of particles by a black hole. If antigravity is present a black hole made of matter may radiate particles as a black body, but this shouldn't be true for antiparticles. It may lead to radical change of radiation process predicted by Hawking and should be taken into account in preparation of the attempt to create and study mini black holes at CERN. Gravity, including antigravity is more than ever similar to electrodynamics and such similarity with a successfully quantized interaction may help in qua