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Sample records for sample producing conditions

  1. Effect of sample producing conditions on the thermoluminescence properties of ZnS thin films developed by spray pyrolysis method

    CERN Document Server

    Yazici, A N; Bedir, M

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the effect of thin film production conditions (substrate temperature and ratio of starting material) was studied on the intensity of thermoluminescence (TL) signal and TL emission spectrum of ZnS samples that were grown by spray pyrolysis method. It was observed that the intensity of TL signal increases with increasing the substrate temperature (T sub s) and reaches a maximum point at the substrate temperature of 500 deg. C with a high ratio of ZnCl sub 2 salt solutions. Secondly, it was observed that the energy level of trap present in ZnS samples is not single-level but instead has a distribution of energy levels. The type of the trap distribution is probably an exponential distribution. However, the distribution of energy levels approaches to single energy level with increasing substrate temperature.

  2. Coordination of Conditional Poisson Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grafström Anton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sample coordination seeks to maximize or to minimize the overlap of two or more samples. The former is known as positive coordination, and the latter as negative coordination. Positive coordination is mainly used for estimation purposes and to reduce data collection costs. Negative coordination is mainly performed to diminish the response burden of the sampled units. Poisson sampling design with permanent random numbers provides an optimum coordination degree of two or more samples. The size of a Poisson sample is, however, random. Conditional Poisson (CP sampling is a modification of the classical Poisson sampling that produces a fixed-size πps sample. We introduce two methods to coordinate Conditional Poisson samples over time or simultaneously. The first one uses permanent random numbers and the list-sequential implementation of CP sampling. The second method uses a CP sample in the first selection and provides an approximate one in the second selection because the prescribed inclusion probabilities are not respected exactly. The methods are evaluated using the size of the expected sample overlap, and are compared with their competitors using Monte Carlo simulation. The new methods provide a good coordination degree of two samples, close to the performance of Poisson sampling with permanent random numbers.

  3. Bayesian Sampling using Condition Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2002-01-01

    The problem of control quality of components is considered for the special case where the acceptable failure rate is low, the test costs are high and where it may be difficult or impossible to test the condition of interest directly. Based on the classical control theory and the concept...... of condition indicators introduced by Benjamin and Cornell (1970) a Bayesian approach to quality control is formulated. The formulation is then extended to the case where the quality control is based on sampling of indirect information about the condition of the components, i.e. condition indicators...

  4. Exact and Efficient Sampling of Conditioned Walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorisio, Matteo; Pezzotta, Alberto; de Mulatier, Clélia; Micheletti, Cristian; Celani, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    A computationally challenging and open problem is how to efficiently generate equilibrated samples of conditioned walks. We present here a general stochastic approach that allows one to produce these samples with their correct statistical weight and without rejections. The method is illustrated for a jump process conditioned to evolve within a cylindrical channel and forced to reach one of its ends. We obtain analytically the exact probability density function of the jumps and offer a direct method for gathering equilibrated samples of a random walk conditioned to stay in a channel with suitable boundary conditions. Unbiased walks of arbitrary length can thus be generated with linear computational complexity—even when the channel width is much smaller than the typical bond length of the unconditioned walk. By profiling the metric properties of the generated walks for various bond lengths we characterize the crossover between weak and strong confinement regimes with great detail.

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Gari Samples Produced from Fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gari was produced from fresh cassava roots and dried cassava chips from four cassava cultivars; (TMS 98/2101, TMS 97/4779, TMS 91/02324 and NR87184). The gari samples were analyzed for chemical properties and sensory qualities. Results showed that gari obtained from the chips compared favourably with gari ...

  6. Engineered microorganisms capable of producing target compounds under anaerobic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelter, Thomas [Denver, CO; Meinhold, Peter [Denver, CO; Feldman, Reid M. Renny [San Francisco, CA; Hawkins, Andrew C [Parker, CO; Urano, Jun [Irvine, CA; Bastian, Sabine [Pasadena, CA; Arnold, Frances [La Canada, CA

    2012-01-17

    The present invention is generally provides recombinant microorganisms comprising engineered metabolic pathways capable of producing C3-C5 alcohols under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The invention further provides ketol-acid reductoisomerase enzymes which have been mutated or modified to increase their NADH-dependent activity or to switch the cofactor preference from NADPH to NADH and are expressed in the modified microorganisms. In addition, the invention provides isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes expressed in modified microorganisms. Also provided are methods of producing beneficial metabolites under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by contacting a suitable substrate with the modified microorganisms of the present invention.

  7. THE OCCURRENCE OF MICROMYCETES IN THE BREAD SAMPLES AND THEIR POTENTIAL ABILITY PRODUCE MYCOTOXINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Císarová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate microscopic fungi that can cause occurrence of mould in bread. We used breads from experimental baking with different addition of walnuts (0 - 15% as model samples. Bread samples were stored in the fridge, in plastic bags and in the bread box. After three days of storage 25% of samples were moldy. The middle parts of breads (4 pieces, that were not moldy, were stored on DRBC and cultured at 25±1oC for three days. All the colonies of micromycets were inserted on identification agar. Molding of bread samples was caused by species of genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium and Rhizopus. 28 strains of potentially toxigenic species of genera Aspergillus and Penicillium were tested by TLC method for the ability to produce chosen mycotoxins in conditions in vitro. We discovered the production of cyclopiazonic acid, penitrem A and roquefortin C using mentioned method.

  8. Sampling and Features: A Commentary on Condit-Schultz (2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Ohriner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this commentary, I highlight some of the novel contributions of Nathaniel Condit-Schultz's "MCFlow: A Digital Corpus of Rap Transcriptions" and discuss issues of rhyme definition, sampling and corpus construction, feature representation, and historical narratives.

  9. Comparing Effects of Feedstock and Run Conditions on Pyrolysis Products Produced at Pilot-Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, Timothy C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gaston, Katherine R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilcox, Esther [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-19

    Fast pyrolysis is a promising pathway for mass production of liquid transportable biofuels. The Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) pilot plant at NREL is conducting research to support the Bioenergy Technologies Office's 2017 goal of a $3 per gallon biofuel. In preparation for down select of feedstock and run conditions, four different feedstocks were run at three different run conditions. The products produced were characterized extensively. Hot pyrolysis vapors and light gasses were analyzed on a slip stream, and oil and char samples were characterized post run.

  10. Optimization of biomass-producing conditions of Micrococcus sp. S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATC) into L-cysteine. The optimal carbon and nitrogen source for its biomass production were glucose and urea. The optimal culture conditions for biomass production were investigated through statistical ...

  11. Optimization of mechanical extraction conditions for producing grape seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States, over 150 thousand metric tons of dried grape seeds containing 13-19% of oil are produced every year, as a byproduct from processing of about 5.8 million metric tons of grapes. The health promoting properties of grape seed oil is due to the presence of many bioactive components ...

  12. Statistical conditional sampling for variable-resolution video compression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wong

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate a variable-resolution approach to video compression based on Conditional Random Field and statistical conditional sampling in order to further improve compression rate while maintaining high-quality video. In the proposed approach, representative key-frames within a video shot are identified and stored at full resolution. The remaining frames within the video shot are stored and compressed at a reduced resolution. At the decompression stage, a region-based dictionary is constructed from the key-frames and used to restore the reduced resolution frames to the original resolution via statistical conditional sampling. The sampling approach is based on the conditional probability of the CRF modeling by use of the constructed dictionary. Experimental results show that the proposed variable-resolution approach via statistical conditional sampling has potential for improving compression rates when compared to compressing the video at full resolution, while achieving higher video quality when compared to compressing the video at reduced resolution.

  13. Optimization of enzyme-producing conditions of Micrococcus sp. S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-24

    Jan 24, 2011 ... Thermomucor indicae-seudaticae using statistical methods. Bioresour. Technol. 98: 1252-1259. Lee WH, Azizan MNM, Sudesh K (2004). Effects of culture conditions on the composition of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) synthesized by Comamonas acidovorans. Polym.Deg. Stab. 84: 129-.

  14. Optimization of biomass-producing conditions of Micrococcus sp. S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... Micrococcus. The nutritional and physical conditions of cultivation have strong influence on the productivity of the bioprocess. Optimization of fermentation or biotransfor- mation process has always been paid much attention due to its crucial role in both biomass and enzyme production. But the conventional ...

  15. Stool sample storage conditions for the preservation of Giardia intestinalis DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Salih Kuk; Suleyman Yazar; Ulfet Cetinkaya

    2012-01-01

    Stool is chemically complex and the extraction of DNA from stool samples is extremely difficult. Haemoglobin breakdown products, such as bilirubin, bile acids and mineral ions, that are present in the stool samples, can inhibit DNA amplification and cause molecular assays to produce false-negative results. Therefore, stool storage conditions are highly important for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites and other microorganisms through molecular approaches. In the current study, stool samples...

  16. Tracking forest resource condition through Permanent sample plots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents efforts by Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI) to establish Permanent Sample Plots (PSPs) as a means of setting baseline information on forest resources condition and eventual assessment of the impact of decentralization policy for Bukombe- Mbogwe Local Authority Forest Reserve ...

  17. Tem holder for sample transfer under reaction conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    and temperature, which usually are far from the operando conditions of e.g. heterogeneous catalysis. Our efforts focus on bridging these gaps by establishing in situ sample transfer between complementary measurement techniques. To fully exploit the capabilities of ETEM complementary experiments...... and characterization techniques are beneficial. Normally, the complementary measurements are done in parallel with experiments separated in time and space [3] or by mimicking a reactor bed by changing the feed gas composition according to reactivity and conversion measured in dedicated catalyst set-ups [4......]. Furthermore, dedicated transfer holders have been used to transfer catalyst samples between reactor set-ups and TEM at room temperature in inert atmosphere [5]. To take the full advantage of complementary in situ techniques, transfer under reactions conditions is essential. This study introduces the in situ...

  18. Sample storage conditions significantly influence faecal microbiome profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jocelyn M; Leong, Lex E X; Rogers, Geraint B

    2015-11-17

    Sequencing-based studies of the human faecal microbiota are increasingly common. Appropriate storage of sample material is essential to avoid the introduction of post-collection bias in microbial community composition. Rapid freezing to -80 °C is commonly considered to be best-practice. However, this is not feasible in many studies, particularly those involving sample collection in participants' homes. We determined the extent to which a range of stabilisation and storage strategies maintained the composition of faecal microbial community structure relative to freezing to -80 °C. Refrigeration at 4 °C, storage at ambient temperature, and the use of several common preservative buffers (RNAlater, OMNIgene.GUT, Tris-EDTA) were assessed relative to freezing. Following 72 hours of storage, faecal microbial composition was assessed by 16 S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Refrigeration was associated with no significant alteration in faecal microbiota diversity or composition. However, samples stored using other conditions showed substantial divergence compared to -80 °C control samples. Aside from refrigeration, the use of OMNIgene.GUT resulted in the least alteration, while the greatest change was seen in samples stored in Tris-EDTA buffer. The commercially available OMNIgene.GUT kit may provide an important alternative where refrigeration and cold chain transportation is not available.

  19. Secondary School Students' Reasoning about Conditional Probability, Samples, and Sampling Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodromou, Theodosia

    2016-01-01

    In the Australian mathematics curriculum, Year 12 students (aged 16-17) are asked to solve conditional probability problems that involve the representation of the problem situation with two-way tables or three-dimensional diagrams and consider sampling procedures that result in different correct answers. In a small exploratory study, we…

  20. Stool sample storage conditions for the preservation of Giardia intestinalis DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Salih; Yazar, Suleyman; Cetinkaya, Ulfet

    2012-12-01

    Stool is chemically complex and the extraction of DNA from stool samples is extremely difficult. Haemoglobin breakdown products, such as bilirubin, bile acids and mineral ions, that are present in the stool samples, can inhibit DNA amplification and cause molecular assays to produce false-negative results. Therefore, stool storage conditions are highly important for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites and other microorganisms through molecular approaches. In the current study, stool samples that were positive for Giardia intestinalis were collected from five different patients. Each sample was stored using one out of six different storage conditions [room temperature (RT), +4ºC, -20ºC, 70% alcohol, 10% formaldehyde or 2.5% potassium dichromate] for DNA extraction procedures at one, two, three and four weeks. A modified QIAamp Stool Mini Kit procedure was used to isolate the DNA from stored samples. After DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed using primers that target the β-giardin gene. A G. intestinalis-specific 384 bp band was obtained from all of the cyst-containing stool samples that were stored at RT, +4ºC and -20ºC and in 70% alcohol and 2.5% potassium dichromate; however, this band was not produced by samples that had been stored in 10% formaldehyde. Moreover, for the stool samples containing trophozoites, the same G. intestinalis-specific band was only obtained from the samples that were stored in 2.5% potassium dichromate for up to one month. As a result, it appears evident that the most suitable storage condition for stool samples to permit the isolation of G. intestinalis DNA is in 2.5% potassium dichromate; under these conditions, stool samples may be stored for one month.

  1. Stool sample storage conditions for the preservation of Giardia intestinalis DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Kuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stool is chemically complex and the extraction of DNA from stool samples is extremely difficult. Haemoglobin breakdown products, such as bilirubin, bile acids and mineral ions, that are present in the stool samples, can inhibit DNA amplification and cause molecular assays to produce false-negative results. Therefore, stool storage conditions are highly important for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites and other microorganisms through molecular approaches. In the current study, stool samples that were positive for Giardia intestinalis were collected from five different patients. Each sample was stored using one out of six different storage conditions [room temperature (RT, +4ºC, -20ºC, 70% alcohol, 10% formaldehyde or 2.5% potassium dichromate] for DNA extraction procedures at one, two, three and four weeks. A modified QIAamp Stool Mini Kit procedure was used to isolate the DNA from stored samples. After DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification was performed using primers that target the β-giardin gene. A G. intestinalis-specific 384 bp band was obtained from all of the cyst-containing stool samples that were stored at RT, +4ºC and -20ºC and in 70% alcohol and 2.5% potassium dichromate; however, this band was not produced by samples that had been stored in 10% formaldehyde. Moreover, for the stool samples containing trophozoites, the same G. intestinalis-specific band was only obtained from the samples that were stored in 2.5% potassium dichromate for up to one month. As a result, it appears evident that the most suitable storage condition for stool samples to permit the isolation of G. intestinalis DNA is in 2.5% potassium dichromate; under these conditions, stool samples may be stored for one month.

  2. Ab initio sampling of transition paths by conditioned Langevin dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delarue, Marc; Koehl, Patrice; Orland, Henri

    2017-10-01

    We propose a novel stochastic method to generate Brownian paths conditioned to start at an initial point and end at a given final point during a fixed time tf under a given potential U(x). These paths are sampled with a probability given by the overdamped Langevin dynamics. We show that these paths can be exactly generated by a local stochastic partial differential equation. This equation cannot be solved in general but we present several approximations that are valid either in the low temperature regime or in the presence of barrier crossing. We show that this method warrants the generation of statistically independent transition paths. It is computationally very efficient. We illustrate the method first on two simple potentials, the two-dimensional Mueller potential and the Mexican hat potential, and then on the multi-dimensional problem of conformational transitions in proteins using the "Mixed Elastic Network Model" as a benchmark.

  3. Somatic Coliphage Profiles of Produce and Environmental Samples from Farms in Northern México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Faith E; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Heredia, Norma; de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Solís, Luisa; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Garcia, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2016-09-01

    Somatic coliphages were quantified in 459 produce and environmental samples from 11 farms in Northern Mexico to compare amounts of somatic coliphages among different types of fresh produce and environmental samples across the production steps on farms. Rinsates from cantaloupe melons, jalapeño peppers, tomatoes, and the hands of workers, soil, and water were collected during 2011-2012 at four successive steps on each farm, from the field before harvest through the packing facility, and assayed by FastPhage MPN Quanti-tray method. Cantaloupe farm samples contained more coliphages than jalapeño or tomato (p range food safety during fruit and vegetable production.

  4. The effectiveness of cooling conditions on temperature of canine EDTA whole blood samples

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    Karen M. Tobias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Preanalytic factors such as time and temperature can have significant effects on laboratory test results. For example, ammonium concentration will increase 31% in blood samples stored at room temperature for 30 min before centrifugation. To reduce preanalytic error, blood samples may be placed in precooled tubes and chilled on ice or in ice water baths; however, the effectiveness of these modalities in cooling blood samples has not been formally evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various cooling modalities on reducing temperature of EDTA whole blood samples. Methods Pooled samples of canine EDTA whole blood were divided into two aliquots. Saline was added to one aliquot to produce a packed cell volume (PCV of 40% and to the second aliquot to produce a PCV of 20% (simulated anemia. Thirty samples from each aliquot were warmed to 37.7 °C and cooled in 2 ml allotments under one of three conditions: in ice, in ice after transfer to a precooled tube, or in an ice water bath. Temperature of each sample was recorded at one minute intervals for 15 min. Results Within treatment conditions, sample PCV had no significant effect on cooling. Cooling in ice water was significantly faster than cooling in ice only or transferring the sample to a precooled tube and cooling it on ice. Mean temperature of samples cooled in ice water was significantly lower at 15 min than mean temperatures of those cooled in ice, whether or not the tube was precooled. By 4 min, samples cooled in an ice water bath had reached mean temperatures less than 4 °C (refrigeration temperature, while samples cooled in other conditions remained above 4.0 °C for at least 11 min. For samples with a PCV of 40%, precooling the tube had no significant effect on rate of cooling on ice. For samples with a PCV of 20%, transfer to a precooled tube resulted in a significantly faster rate of cooling than direct placement of the warmed tube onto ice

  5. Comparison of Sample and Detection Quantification Methods for Salmonella Enterica from Produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummerick, M. P.; Khodadad, C.; Richards, J. T.; Dixit, A.; Spencer, L. M.; Larson, B.; Parrish, C., II; Birmele, M.; Wheeler, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and optimize fast and reliable sampling and detection methods for the identification of pathogens that may be present on produce grown in small vegetable production units on the International Space Station (ISS), thus a field setting. Microbiological testing is necessary before astronauts are allowed to consume produce grown on ISS where currently there are two vegetable production units deployed, Lada and Veggie.

  6. Towards a sampling strategy for the assessment of forest condition at European level: combining country estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaglini, Davide; Fattorini, Lorenzo; Barbati, Anna; Bottalico, Francesca; Corona, Piermaria; Ferretti, Marco; Chirici, Gherardo

    2013-04-01

    A correct characterization of the status and trend of forest condition is essential to support reporting processes at national and international level. An international forest condition monitoring has been implemented in Europe since 1987 under the auspices of the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests). The monitoring is based on harmonized methodologies, with individual countries being responsible for its implementation. Due to inconsistencies and problems in sampling design, however, the ICP Forests network is not able to produce reliable quantitative estimates of forest condition at European and sometimes at country level. This paper proposes (1) a set of requirements for status and change assessment and (2) a harmonized sampling strategy able to provide unbiased and consistent estimators of forest condition parameters and of their changes at both country and European level. Under the assumption that a common definition of forest holds among European countries, monitoring objectives, parameters of concern and accuracy indexes are stated. On the basis of fixed-area plot sampling performed independently in each country, an unbiased and consistent estimator of forest defoliation indexes is obtained at both country and European level, together with conservative estimators of their sampling variance and power in the detection of changes. The strategy adopts a probabilistic sampling scheme based on fixed-area plots selected by means of systematic or stratified schemes. Operative guidelines for its application are provided.

  7. Physicochemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Some Samples of Honey Produced by Beekeepers In Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjlane Noureddine

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological quality of 11 samples of locally produced honey harvested from bee colonies across different regions of Algeria. Honeys analyzed are characterized by their different floral origins. Want germs are total aerobic mesophilic flora, total coliforms, anaerobic bacteria Sulfito-Drive (clostridium, yeasts and moulds. Water content, pH, the concentration of hydroxymethylfurfural and sucrose content were also measured. For the physicochemical properties, most of the samples meet the requirements of Codex Alimentarius. Microbiological results showed that there is heterogeneity in the load of microorganisms sampled. Honeys have a low microbial profile. Total coliforms and clostridium were not detected in any sample. For counting the total aerobic mesophilic flora (TAMF, two local and imported samples have a concentration greater than the standard TAMF. Yeasts and moulds were also present but at low levels, and figures in all but three samples were below the norm.

  8. Multiplex PCR for detection of botulinum neurotoxin-producing clostridia in clinical, food, and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Medici, Dario; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Wyatt, Gary M; Lindström, Miia; Messelhäusser, Ute; Aldus, Clare F; Delibato, Elisabetta; Korkeala, Hannu; Peck, Michael W; Fenicia, Lucia

    2009-10-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), the most toxic substance known, is produced by the spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum and, in rare cases, also by some strains of Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium baratii. The standard procedure for definitive detection of BoNT-producing clostridia is a culture method combined with neurotoxin detection using a standard mouse bioassay (SMB). The SMB is highly sensitive and specific, but it is expensive and time-consuming and there are ethical concerns due to use of laboratory animals. PCR provides a rapid alternative for initial screening for BoNT-producing clostridia. In this study, a previously described multiplex PCR assay was modified to detect all type A, B, E, and F neurotoxin genes in isolated strains and in clinical, food, environmental samples. This assay includes an internal amplification control. The effectiveness of the multiplex PCR method for detecting clostridia possessing type A, B, E, and F neurotoxin genes was evaluated by direct comparison with the SMB. This method showed 100% inclusivity and 100% exclusivity when 182 BoNT-producing clostridia and 21 other bacterial strains were used. The relative accuracy of the multiplex PCR and SMB was evaluated using 532 clinical, food, and environmental samples and was estimated to be 99.2%. The multiplex PCR was also used to investigate 110 freshly collected food and environmental samples, and 4 of the 110 samples (3.6%) were positive for BoNT-encoding genes.

  9. Experimental Evaluation of the Surface Alteration of Gasket Samples under Operative Conditions

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    M.C. Bignozzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the surface alteration of gasket samples commercialized by two alternative producers. These gaskets, in polymeric materials, are installed in process plants used for cleaning tires molds by a pioneering ultrasonic process. They are exposed to a combination of ultrasonic waves, temperature, humidity and acid attack causing several erosion phenomena. Their surface degradation under ordinary operative conditions was investigated using mechanical and tribological tests. The experimental characterization was performed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermograms, differential scanning calorimetry curves and infrared spectra aiming at defining the specific mechanics of wearing. As a conclusion, it was possible to state that even if samples exhibit similar chemical structures, their thermal and mechanical properties as well as their geometric dimensions are different. Such differences in the materials might cause various unexpected wear behaviors when gaskets are employed in the same working conditions.


  10. Cracks and nanodroplets produced on tungsten surface samples by dense plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticoş, C. M.; Galaţanu, M.; Galaţanu, A.; Luculescu, C.; Scurtu, A.; Udrea, N.; Ticoş, D.; Dumitru, M.

    2018-03-01

    Small samples of 12.5 mm in diameter made from pure tungsten were exposed to a dense plasma jet produced by a coaxial plasma gun operated at 2 kJ. The surface of the samples was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after applying consecutive plasma shots. Cracks and craters were produced in the surface due to surface tensions during plasma heating. Nanodroplets and micron size droplets could be observed on the samples surface. An energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that the composition of these droplets coincided with that of the gun electrode material. Four types of samples were prepared by spark plasma sintering from powders with the average particle size ranging from 70 nanometers up to 80 μm. The plasma power load to the sample surface was estimated to be ≈4.7 MJ m-2 s-1/2 per shot. The electron temperature and density in the plasma jet had peak values 17 eV and 1.6 × 1022 m-3, respectively.

  11. Fluid Sampling under Adverse Conditions Echantillonnage des fluides en conditions difficiles

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    Williams J. M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Valid samples are essential to the proper description of reservoir fluids; if the samples are not representative, all measurements on them will be invalid. This paper discusses the principal challenges facing fluid sampling including gas condensate reservoirs, compositional gradients, water content of hydrocarbon fluids, asphaltene deposition, wax formation, oil base mud contamination, and reactive components. It also reports the major technological advances recently made in this field. It reviews developments in sampling techniques such as MDT-type tools, new DST sampling tools, coiled tubing sampling, and isokinetic techniques, and it highlights common limitations. The value of making proper use of existing technology is emphasized, both with traditional techniques and new developments, with reference to correct well conditioning, interpretation of field data, and especially to optimum handling of samples. The paper emphasizes the need for better exchange of sampling knowledge between organizations, and highlights the lack of up-to-date industry standards with respect to fluid sampling. A solution is proposed in the form of a joint industry project to identify and document best practices. Des échantillons valables sont essentiels pour bien caractériser les fluides de gisements. Si les échantillons ne sont pas représentatifs, toutes les mesures ultérieures seront entachées d'erreurs. Cet article discute les principaux défis en matière d'échantillonnage, en particulier les réservoirs de gaz à condensats, les gradients compositionnels, la teneur en eau des fluides hydrocarbonés, les dépôts d'asphaltènes, les dépôts de paraffines, la contamination par les boues à base d'huile, et les constituants réactifs. Il relate également les principaux progrès technologiques récemment réalisés dans ce domaine et passe en revue les développements des techniques d'échantillonnage telles que les outils de type MDT, les nouveaux outils d

  12. Effect of pyrolysis conditions on reactivity of clean coals produced from poor quality coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodras, G.; Natas, P.; Basinas, P.; Sakellaropoulos, G.P. [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Ptolemais (Greece)

    2005-07-01

    A preventive fuels pre-treatment technique, based on low temperature carbonization has been tested. Clean coals were produced from two Greek poor quality coals (Ptolemais and Megalopolis) and an Australian coal sample, in a lab-scale fixed bed reactor, under helium atmosphere and ambient pressure. The effects of carbonisation temperature (200-900{sup o}C) and residence time (5-120 min) on the properties of the obtained chars were investigated. Special attention was paid to the polluting compounds (S,N,Hg and Cl) removal. To account for possible mineral matter effects, mainly on sulphur removal, tests were also performed with demineralised coal. The reactivity under combustion conditions of the chars produced was also investigated. It was observed that low temperature carbonisation could contribute to clean coal production by effectively removing the major part of the existing polluting compounds in the coals. Thus, depending on coal type, nitrogen, mercury and chlorine conversion continuously increase with temperature, while sulphur removal seems to reach a plateau above 500-600{sup o}C. Furthermore, the prolongation of carbonisation time above 20 min does not affect the elements conversion of the pollutants. Therefore carbonization at 500-600{sup o}C for about 20 min could be considered sufficient for clean coal production for poor quality coals. The reactivity of the prepared clean coals was evaluated by performing non-isothermal combustion tests in a TA Q600 thermobalance at ambient pressure and 20{sup o}C/min heating rate. At increased pyrolysis temperatures higher initial combustion temperatures were observed, due to the volatile reduction in char production stage. Mineral matter removal leads to increased char reactivity by increasing both the initial combustion temperature and the combustion rate. 13 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Determination of optimal condition to obtain the bromelain from pineapple plants produced by micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadjma Souza Leite

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to obtain the condition of maximum bromalein activity in different parts of pineapple plants produced in vitro, by micropropagation. The sStems and leaves of Pérola and Imperial cultivar plants were evaluated after three and eight months of in vitro cultivation in Murashige and Skoog medium without growth phytoregulator, macerated in potassium phosphate buffer at different pH values (5.7, 6.7 and 7.7. Total protein and proteolytic activity were determined in the samples after three- and eight-month cultivation periods. For both the cultivars, the best results were obtained at pH 5.7 in extraction media. Pérola cultivar, showed higher bromelain activity in the leaves cultivated in vitro for three months (0.0194U/mL while in the Imperial cultivar, it was higher in the stem after eight months (0.0179 U/mL. Imperial cultivar showed higher bromelain activity than the Pérola's.

  14. Method for producing a thin sample band in a microchannel device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stewart K [Livermore, CA; Nilson, Robert H [Cardiff, CA

    2004-08-03

    The present invention improves the performance of microchannel systems for chemical and biological synthesis and analysis by providing a method and apparatus for producing a thin band of a species sample. Thin sample bands improve the resolution of microchannel separation processes, as well as many other processes requiring precise control of sample size and volume. The new method comprises a series of steps in which a species sample is manipulated by controlled transport through a junction formed at the intersection of four or more channels. A sample is first inserted into the end of one of these channels in the vicinity of the junction. Next, this sample is thinned by transport across the junction one or more times. During these thinning steps, flow enters the junction through one of the channels and exists through those remaining, providing a divergent flow field that progressively stretches and thins the band with each traverse of the junction. The thickness of the resulting sample band may be smaller than the channel width. Moreover, the thickness of the band may be varied and controlled by altering the method alone, without modification to the channel or junction geometries. The invention is applicable to both electroosmotic and electrophoretic transport, to combined electrokinetic transport, and to some special cases in which bulk fluid transport is driven by pressure gradients. It is further applicable to channels that are open, filled with a gel or filled with a porous or granular material.

  15. Parallel importance sampling in conditional linear Gaussian networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmerón, Antonio; Ramos-López, Darío; Borchani, Hanen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the problem of probabilistic inference in CLG networks when evidence comes in streams. In such situations, fast and scalable algorithms, able to provide accurate responses in a short time are required. We consider the instantiation of variational inference and importance...... sampling, two well known tools for probabilistic inference, to the CLG case. The experimental results over synthetic networks show how a parallel version importance sampling, and more precisely evidence weighting, is a promising scheme, as it is accurate and scales up with respect to available computing...

  16. Pairings of a distinctive chamber with the aftereffect of wheel running produce conditioned place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, B T; Grant, V L; Byrne, M J; Koh, M T

    2000-02-01

    Wheel running reinforces behavior that precedes it. Also, wheel running can produce activity anorexia, a marked suppression of feeding in food-restricted rats. Some authors propose that the activity anorexia effect is produced by activation of the same reward system that mediates the reinforcing effect. One hypothesis is that such activation persists after wheel running stops and results in a rewarding aftereffect that suppresses feeding. Alternatively, such activation may give rise to an opponent process, an aversive aftereffect that suppresses feeding. The method of place conditioning was used to test whether the aftereffect of wheel running is rewarding or aversive. Food-deprived rats received pairings of a distinctive chamber with the aftereffect of wheel running. In Experiment 1, 2 h in a running wheel followed by 30 min in a distinctive chamber produced conditioned place preference. In Experiment 2, 22-22.5 h in a running wheel was followed by 30 min in the chamber and then a 60-min feeding test. Wheel running suppressed feeding and produced conditioned place preference. The conditioned place preference indicates that the aftereffect of wheel running is reinforcing rather than aversive. This finding supports the idea that the activation of the reward system persists after wheel running stops, thereby suppressing food intake. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Concentrations of some heavy metals in underground water samples from a Nigerian crude oil producing community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejike, Chukwunonso E C C; Eferibe, Chinedu O; Okonkwo, Francis O

    2017-03-01

    Pollution due to oil exploration activities in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria and government under-investments in potable water infrastructure has led to the dependence of the population on personal boreholes. Yet, there are little quality or surveillance reports on such waters. The concentrations of heavy metals in underground water samples from an oil producing area, Umuebulu, in the Niger Delta were therefore investigated. Water samples were collected from three test points, each approximately 300 m from (1) wellhead area (WHA), (2) flare area (FA) and (3) effluent discharge area (EDA), and one control point located 10 km away from any oil-related activity. The concentrations of lead, arsenic and cadmium were determined in the samples using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All three heavy metals were present in the test, and control water samples at concentrations significantly (P water samples showed that their consumption constituted significant health risks in the order EDA > FA > WHA > Control. Appropriate water treatment and surveillance is warranted and therefore recommended for underground water resources of the studied community.

  18. Pollen analysis in honey samples from the two main producing regions in the Brazilian northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodré, Geni da S; Marchini, Luís C; Carvalho, Carlos A L de; Moreti, Augusta C de C C

    2007-09-01

    Knowledge about the botanical source of honey is very important for the beekeeper while it indicates adequate and abundant supply sources of nectar and pollen for the bees, thus contributing toward improved yield. The present study means to identify the pollen types occurring in 58 samples of honey produced in two states of the northeastern region of Brazil, Piauí (38 samples) and Ceará (20 samples), and to verify the potential of the honey plants during the months of February to August. The samples were obtained directly from beekeepers in each state and analyzed at the Apiculture Laboratory of the Entomology Section of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The pollen analysis was performed using the acetolysis method. The samples were submitted to both a qualitative and a quantitative analysis. The dominant pollen in the State of Ceará is from Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Borreria verticillata, Serjania sp., and a Fabaceae pollen type, while in the State of Piauí it is from Piptadenia sp., M. caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Croton urucurana and Tibouchina sp.

  19. [Culture-filtrate producing condition and biological activity of Fusarium solani].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenjiao; Li, Jinhua; Chai, Zhaoxiang

    2009-10-01

    To study the culture-filtrate producing condition of Fusarium Solani isolated from Astragalus root and explore the mechanism Astragalus root rot disease caused by, in order to find theoretical support for screening resistant germ plasma via mycotoxin. The method of germinating seeds in petri dish with filter paper and inhibition method for embryo growth were used to study the biological activity and the specialty of cultural filtrate of 10 F. solani isolates. The toxin produced by F. solani had strong inhibition effect in the different nutrient media, at different temperatures and under different light conditions. With extension of culturing time, embryo inhibition rate went up gradually with the strongest inhibition at the 12th day and the inhibition ratio between 92.0% -52.0%. The toxin produced at 5 degrees C to 35 degrees C inhibited embryo germination of Astragalus differently with the strongest at 25 degrees C, and next to it at 20,30 degrees C. The impact of light on bioactive substances of the toxin was not statistically distinctive, but the 24-hour darkness was benefit to toxin production. PSC had a stronger inhibition rate than the other nutrient media, next to it was PDB. After autoclaving, the toxin still kept toxic to embryo of Astragalus, which indicated that the toxin was tolerant to high temperatures. The toxin produced by F. solani at different growing condition had strong biological activity, was tolerant to high temperature. The best condition for F. solani to produce toxin was that it was cultured in PSC liquid medium, in dark, at 25 degrees C for 12 d. The toxin produced by isolate HQM40 was non-host specific toxin.

  20. Human cell-conditioned media produced under embryonic-like conditions result in improved healing time after laser resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimber, M P; Mansbridge, J N; Taylor, M; Stockton, T; Hubka, M; Baumgartner, M; Rheins, L; Hubka, K; Brandt, E N; Kellar, R; Naughton, G K

    2012-04-01

    Laser resurfacing procedures are continuing to grow in popularity as patients select less invasive procedures for rejuvenation of photo-damaged and aging skin. However, although physicians have begun exploring options to aid in postlaser healing, currently available treatments have little clinical evidence to support their use for wounded skin. When grown under conditions of very low oxygen and suspension, a simulation of the embryonic environment, neonatal cells have been found to produce proteins and growth factors in types and quantities similar to those of fetal cells. The human cell-conditioned media (hCCM) produced by the cells was extracted and formulated into a gel to evaluate its efficacy in the healing of postlaser wounds. A split-face clinical evaluation of the material was performed, with 42 subjects undergoing combination ablative and nonablative laser procedures. Three concentrations of the hCCM were tested (× 0.1, × 1.0, × 10.0), and a dose-response trend was seen in the blinded physician evaluation, particularly in the assessment of crusting. In addition, transepidermal water loss readings showed a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05), indicating a more rapid return to normal skin barrier function with the active treatment. Histopathologic evaluation of subject biopsies showed reduced inflammation and a more normal epidermal appearance in the active treatment sites. The results of this clinical evaluation support the use of the soluble hCCM produced under embryonic-like conditions to accelerate wound healing after laser resurfacing procedures. The utility of the × 10 concentration appears to promote more rapid, scarless wound healing after resurfacing procedures and more normal skin recovery.

  1. Classifying machinery condition using oil samples and binary logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J.; Cripps, E.; Lau, John W.; Hodkiewicz, M. R.

    2015-08-01

    The era of big data has resulted in an explosion of condition monitoring information. The result is an increasing motivation to automate the costly and time consuming human elements involved in the classification of machine health. When working with industry it is important to build an understanding and hence some trust in the classification scheme for those who use the analysis to initiate maintenance tasks. Typically "black box" approaches such as artificial neural networks (ANN) and support vector machines (SVM) can be difficult to provide ease of interpretability. In contrast, this paper argues that logistic regression offers easy interpretability to industry experts, providing insight to the drivers of the human classification process and to the ramifications of potential misclassification. Of course, accuracy is of foremost importance in any automated classification scheme, so we also provide a comparative study based on predictive performance of logistic regression, ANN and SVM. A real world oil analysis data set from engines on mining trucks is presented and using cross-validation we demonstrate that logistic regression out-performs the ANN and SVM approaches in terms of prediction for healthy/not healthy engines.

  2. Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, a halophilic bacterium producing acetone, butanol, and ethanol under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Hamid; Azarbaijani, Reza; Parsa Yeganeh, Laleh; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Abolhassan; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2016-01-04

    The moderately halophilic bacterium Nesterenkonia sp. strain F, which was isolated from Aran-Bidgol Lake (Iran), has the ability to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) as well as acetic and butyric acids under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This result is the first report of ABE production with a wild microorganism from a family other than Clostridia and also the first halophilic species shown to produce butanol under aerobic cultivation. The cultivation of Nesterenkonia sp. strain F under anaerobic conditions with 50 g/l of glucose for 72 h resulted in the production of 105 mg/l of butanol, 122 mg/l of acetone, 0.2 g/l of acetic acid, and 2.5 g/l of butyric acid. Furthermore, the strain was cultivated on media with different glucose concentrations (20, 50, and 80 g/l) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Through fermentation with a 50 g/l initial glucose concentration under aerobic conditions, 66 mg/l of butanol, 125 mg/l of acetone, 291 mg/l of ethanol, 5.9 g/l of acetic acid, and 1.2 g/l of butyric acid were produced. The enzymes pertaining to the fermentation pathway in the strain were compared with the enzymes of Clostridium spp., and the metabolic pathway of fermentation used by Nesterenkonia sp. strain F was investigated.

  3. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of cassava flower honey samples produced by africanized honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Peres de Moura Pontara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cassava producers in the region of Marília-São Paulo are integrating their farming activity with beekeeping to diversify their income. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological quality of honey samples produced by Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera from cassava flower in 2008. Analysis were carried out for pH, total soluble solids (TSS, acidity, moisture, reducing and total sugars, apparent sucrose, hydroxymethylfurfural, color, ash, proteins, water insoluble solids, diastasic activity, mineral content, microbiological evaluations, and mineral and hydrocyanic acid (HCN content. The honey samples showed physicochemical and microbiological characteristics favorable to commercialization, with the exception of apparent sucrose and acidity, which show the need for a narrow focus of attention to the honey maturation degree at the harvest time and more careful monitoring during production and processing. The commercialization of Brazilian cassava honey, still little explored, can be widely spread in the market since the levels of hydrocyanic acid (HCN showed no consumption risk; in addition the simultaneous production of honey and cassava provides an alternative to family income increase.

  4. Investigation of concrete produced using recycled aluminium dross for hot weather concreting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gireesh Mailar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium dross is a by-product obtained from the aluminium smelting process. Currently, this dross is processed in rotary kilns to recover the residual aluminium, and the resultant salt cake is sent to landfills. The present study investigates the utilization of recycled aluminium dross in producing concrete, which is suitable for hot weather concreting condition. The primary objectives of the experimental study are to examine the feasibility of using concrete blended with recycled aluminium dross under hot weather concreting situations and then to evaluate the strength and durability aspects of the produced concrete. From the experimental results it is observed that the initial setting time of the recycled aluminium dross concrete extended by about 30 minutes at 20% replacement level. This property of recycled aluminium dross concrete renders it to be suitable for hot weather concreting conditions. Based on the results obtained, the replacement of cement with 20% of Al dross yields superior mechanical and durability characteristics.

  5. Investigation of concrete produced using recycled aluminium dross for hot weather concreting conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mailar, Gireesh; N, Sujay Raghavendra; B.M, Sreedhara; D.S, Manu; Hiremath, Parameshwar; K., Jayakesh

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium dross is a by-product obtained from the aluminium smelting process. Currently, this dross is processed in rotary kilns to recover the residual aluminium, and the resultant salt cake is sent to landfills. The present study investigates the utilization of recycled aluminium dross in producing concrete, which is suitable for hot weather concreting condition. The primary objectives of the experimental study are to examine the feasibility of using concrete blended with recycled aluminium...

  6. Pollen analysis in honey samples from the two main producing regions in the Brazilian northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni da S. Sodré

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the botanical source of honey is very important for the beekeeper while it indicates adequate and abundant supply sources of nectar and pollen for the bees, thus contributing toward improved yield. The present study means to identify the pollen types occurring in 58 samples of honey produced in two states of the northeastern region of Brazil, Piauí (38 samples and Ceará (20 samples, and to verify the potential of the honey plants during the months of February to August. The samples were obtained directly from beekeepers in each state and analyzed at the Apiculture Laboratory of the Entomology Section of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The pollen analysis was performed using the acetolysis method. The samples were submitted to both a qualitative and a quantitative analysis. The dominant pollen in the State of Ceará is from Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Borreria verticillata, Serjania sp., and a Fabaceae pollen type, while in the State of Piauí it is from Piptadenia sp., M. caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Croton urucurana and Tibouchina sp.O conhecimento da origem botânica do mel é de grande importância para o apicultor por indicar fontes adequadas e de abundante suprimento de néctar e pólen para as abelhas, contribuindo, desta forma, para uma melhor produção. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar os tipos polínicos em 58 amostras de méis produzidos em dois estados da região nordeste do Brasil, Piauí (38 amostras e Ceará (20 amostras, verificando o potencial das plantas apícolas durante os meses de fevereiro a agosto. As amostras foram obtidas diretamente de apicultores de cada Estado e analisadas no Laboratório de Apicultura do Setor de Entomologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo. A análise polínica foi realizada utilizando-se o método da acetólise. As amostras foram

  7. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria are not detected in supragingival plaque samples from human fecal carriers of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Søraas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of infections caused by Cefotaximase-Munich (CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E has rapidly increased during the past 15 years. Enterobacteriaceae are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract and long-term intestinal carriage is considered important for the spread of ESBL and as a source of clinical infections. Oral biofilm such as supragingival plaque is known to contain numerous antibiotic resistance determinants and may also represent a poorly investigated site for ESBL carriage and further spread. Objective: To investigate possible carriage of ESBL-producing bacteria in supragingival plaque of known fecal carriers of these bacteria. Design: We screened for the presence of aerobic and anaerobic ESBL-producing bacteria and blaCTX-M in supragingival plaque samples from healthy human adults with culture-verified fecal carriage of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli. The presence or absence of Enterobacteriaceae and ESBL-producing bacteria in plaque samples was evaluated using culture-based methods and consensus CTX-M PCR. Results: Oral samples were obtained from 17 participants with known previous carriage of ESBL-producing E. coli. No ESBL-producing bacteria or ESBL genes were detected using culture-based and molecular methods. One colony of Rahnella aquatilis harboring the class A ESBL gene bla RAHN-1/2 was identified in an oral sample from one of the participants. Conclusion: This pilot study supports the notion that the presence of CTX-M-producing bacteria is uncommon in oral plaque of healthy human adult fecal carriers. Due to the limited number of persons tested, a low prevalence of oral ESBL-carriage in healthy adults or carriage in selected groups of patients cannot be excluded. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an R. aquatilis with the RAHN-1/2 gene in the oral cavity.

  8. Coenzyme B12 can be produced by engineered Escherichia coli under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yeounjoo; Ashok, Somasundar; Ainala, Satish Kumar; Sankaranarayanan, Mugesh; Chun, Ah Yeong; Jung, Gyoo Yeol; Park, Sunghoon

    2014-12-01

    Coenzyme B12 (Vitamin B12 ) is one of the most complex biomolecules and an essential cofactor required for the catalytic activity of many enzymes. Pseudomonas denitrificans synthesizes coenzyme B12 in an oxygen-dependent manner using a pathway encoded by more than 25 genes that are located in six different operons. Escherichia coli, a robust and suitable host for metabolic engineering was used to produce coenzyme B12 . These genes were cloned into three compatible plasmids and expressed heterologously in E. coli BL21 (DE3). Real-time PCR, SDS-PAGE analysis and bioassay showed that the recombinant E. coli expressed the coenzyme B12 synthetic genes and successfully produced coenzyme B12 . However, according to the quantitative determination by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, the amount of coenzyme B12 produced by the recombinant E. coli (0.21 ± 0.02 μg/g cdw) was approximately 13-fold lower than that by P. denitrificans (2.75 ± 0.22 μg/g cdw). Optimization of the culture conditions to improve the production of coenzyme B12 by the recombinant E. coli was successful, and the highest titer (0.65 ± 0.03 μg/g cdw) of coenzyme B12 was obtained. Interestingly, although the synthesis of coenzyme B12 in P. denitrificans is strictly oxygen-dependent, the recombinant E. coli could produce coenzyme B12 under anaerobic conditions. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Investigation by pXRF of Caltagirone Pottery Samples Produced in Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gueli Anna M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the study of archaeological ceramics, it is important to have compositional data to identify their origin and source. The fabric also provides useful information on the production technology, especially with regard to the firing steps. The work presented here is connected to this field and focuses on the main parameters related to the terracotta artefacts preparation. Thus, one can consider the effects in terracotta characteristics of different raw materials and firing parameters, in particular for pottery of Caltagirone, which is one of most important centres of pottery production in Italy, active since the Neolithic. To this end, terracotta samples have been reproduced in a laboratory setting according to the ancient procedure of Caltagirone manufacture, starting from clay and degreaser extraction in local historical sites. The analysis was conducted using a portable X-Ray Fluorescence (pXRF spectrometer for elemental characterization of sand degreaser and of clays during each step of the realization process and in different firing conditions. SEM-ED techniques were also employed to verify the method and results for some of the samples after firing process. Framing the technological context of manufacture production, known in the specific case, it is also possible to identify potential outcomes and limits in the study of potsherds using pXRF technology, in applying the methodology to historic artefacts.

  10. Molecular characterization of metallo β-lactamase producing multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa from various clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Kalaivani; Rajagopalan, Saranathan; Nair, Shashikala; Kenchappa, Prashanth; Chandrakesan, Sheela Devi

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a potent opportunistic nosocomial human pathogen among Gram-negative bacteria causing various life-threatening infections in patients from Intensive Care Units. This bacterium has become resistant to almost all commonly available antibiotics with limited treatment options. Multi drug resistant P. aeruginosa (MDRPA) is a major cause of concern among hospital acquired infections. It uses distinctive resistant mechanisms virtually to all the available antibiotics such as Metallo β-lactamases (MBL) production, extended spectrum β-lactamase production (ESBL), up regulation of efflux systems related genes and decreased outer membrane permeability. This study was carried out to find one the predominant resistance mechanisms among MDRPA and the prevalence of corresponding resistance genes. MDRPA isolates collected from various clinical samples for a period of 1-year (November 2009-Octo ber 2010) were included to detect the predominant mechanism of resistance using phenotypic and molecular methods. Molecular characterization of all these isolates was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of blaVIM-₂, blaIMP-₁, blaOXA-₂₃, and blaNDM-₁ genes with specific primers. Among 75 MDRPA isolates 84% (63) were MBL producers. Molecular characterization studied by PCR showed the presence of blaVIM-₂ gene in 13% of MBL producers. The prevalence of MBLs has been increasing worldwide, particularly among P. aeruginosa, leading to severe limitations in the therapeutic options for the management. Thus, proper resistance screening measures and appropriate antibiotic policy can be strictly adopted by all the healthcare facility providers to overcome these superbugs.

  11. Skeleton growth under uniformly distributed force conditions: producing spherical sea urchins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Polly; Kambli, Ankita; Stone, Johnny

    2017-10-01

    Sea urchin skeletons, or tests, comprise rigid calcareous plates, interlocked and sutured together with collagen fibres. The tests are malleable due to mutability in the collagen fibres that loosen during active feeding, yielding interplate gaps. We designed an extraterrestrial simulation experiment wherein we subjected actively growing sea urchins to one factor associated with zero-gravity environments, by growing them under conditions in which reactionary gravitational forces were balanced, and observed how their tests responded. Preventing tests from adhering to surfaces during active growth produced more-spherical bodies, realized as increased height-to-diameter ratios. Sea urchin tests constitute ideal systems for obtaining data that could be useful in extraterrestrial biology research, particularly in how skeletons grow under altered-gravity conditions.

  12. Optimization of Postharvest Conditions To Produce Chocolate Aroma from Jackfruit Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Fernanda Papa; Zerbeto, Lais Masson; Ragazi, Gabriel Bernardes Cabreira; Gutierrez, Érika Maria Roel; Souza, Miriam Coelho; Parker, Jane K; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2017-02-15

    Jackfruit seeds are an underutilized waste in many tropical countries. This work demonstrates the potential of roasted jackfruit seeds to develop chocolate aroma. Twenty-seven different roasted jackfruit seed flours were produced from local jackfruit by acidifying or fermenting the seeds prior to drying and then roasting under different time/temperature combinations. The chocolate aroma of groups of four flours were ranked by a sensory panel (n = 162), and response surface methodology was used to identify optimum conditions. The results indicated a significant and positive influence of fermentation and acidification on the production of chocolate aroma. SPME/GC-MS of the flours showed that important aroma compounds such as 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine and 2-phenylethyl acetate were substantially higher in the fermented product and that the more severe roasting conditions produced 2-3 times more 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, but less 3-methylbutanal. Moisture, aw, pH, luminosity, and color were also monitored to ensure that these properties were similar to those of cocoa powder or cocoa substitutes.

  13. Characteristics and culture conditions of a bioflocculant produced by Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Fan; Cheng, Wen

    2010-06-01

    To study the characteristics of a bioflocculant named MBF7 produced by Penicillum strain HHE-P7 and the effects of cultivation conditions on bioflocculant production. The chemical group in the bioflocculant molecules was shown by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and the average molecular weight of MBF7 was estimated by gel permeation chromatography. The effects of medium components on bioflocculant production and flocculating activity were studied. Phospho-, amino-, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups were the major fractions of MBF7, and the molecule weight was about 3.0x10(5) Da. In addition, the carbon and nitrogen sources favorable for the bioflocculant production were glucose and yeast extract respectively. When the initial pH of the medium was adjusted to 5.0, high flocculant efficiency could be achieved. The bioflocculant MBF7 is a new macromolecule with high flocculating efficiency for Kaolin suspension, and could be produced under appropriate culture conditions. Copyright © 2010 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sonodynamic action of hypocrellin B on biofilm-producing Staphylococcus epidermidis in planktonic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinna; Leung, Albert Wingnang; Hua, Heyu; Xu, Chuanshan; Ip, Margaret

    2015-10-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen causing biofilm-associated infections. To investigate sonodynamic action of hypocrellin B on biofilm-producing Staphylococcus epidermidis in planktonic culture, a biofilm-producing strain Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 35984) was incubated with hypocrellin B and then exposed to ultrasound at intensity (ISATA) of 1.56 W/cm(2) with a frequency of 1 MHz in continuous mode for 5 min. After sonodynamic treatment of hypocrellin B, the bacterial growth was measured using the colony counting method. Bacterial membrane integrity was investigated using a flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was measured using a flow cytometry with DCFH-DA staining. The results showed that sonodynamic action of hypocrellin B significantly induced survival reduction of Staphylococcus epidermidis in a hypocrellin B dose-dependent manner, and a 4-log reduction was observed after the combined treatment of hypcorellin B (40 μM) and ultrasound sonication with the intensity of 1.56 W/cm(2) for 5 min. Bacterial membrane integrity was notably damaged and the level of intracellular ROS level was remarkably increased after sonodynamic treatment. The findings demonstrated that sonodynamic action of hypocrellin B had significant antibacterial activity on biofilm-producing Staphylococcus epidermidis in planktonic condition probably through increasing intracellular ROS level to cause damage to bacterial membrane integrity.

  15. Optimizing the triple-axis spectrometer PANDA at the MLZ for small samples and complex sample environment conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utschick, C.; Skoulatos, M.; Schneidewind, A.; Böni, P.

    2016-11-01

    The cold-neutron triple-axis spectrometer PANDA at the neutron source FRM II has been serving an international user community studying condensed matter physics problems. We report on a new setup, improving the signal-to-noise ratio for small samples and pressure cell setups. Analytical and numerical Monte Carlo methods are used for the optimization of elliptic and parabolic focusing guides. They are placed between the monochromator and sample positions, and the flux at the sample is compared to the one achieved by standard monochromator focusing techniques. A 25 times smaller spot size is achieved, associated with a factor of 2 increased intensity, within the same divergence limits, ± 2 ° . This optional neutron focusing guide shall establish a top-class spectrometer for studying novel exotic properties of matter in combination with more stringent sample environment conditions such as extreme pressures associated with small sample sizes.

  16. Screening of phenylpyruvic acid producers and optimization of culture conditions in bench scale bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Hasan B; Demirci, Ali; Patterson, Paul H; Elias, Ryan J

    2014-11-01

    Alpha keto acids are deaminated forms of amino acids that have received significant attention as feed and food additives in the agriculture and medical industries. To date, their production has been commonly performed at shake-flask scale with low product concentrations. In this study, production of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), which is the alpha keto acid of phenylalanine was investigated. First, various microorganisms were screened to select the most efficient producer. Thereafter, growth parameters (temperature, pH, and aeration) were optimized in bench scale bioreactors to maximize both PPA and biomass concentration in bench scale bioreactors, using response surface methodology. Among the four different microorganisms evaluated, Proteus vulgaris was the most productive strain for PPA production. Optimum temperature, pH, and aeration conditions were determined as 34.5 °C, 5.12, and 0.5 vvm for PPA production, whereas 36.9 °C, pH 6.87, and 0.96 vvm for the biomass production. Under these optimum conditions, PPA concentration was enhanced to 1,054 mg/L, which was almost three times higher than shake-flask fermentation concentrations. Moreover, P. vulgaris biomass was produced at 3.25 g/L under optimum conditions. Overall, this study demonstrated that optimization of growth parameters improved PPA production in 1-L working volume bench-scale bioreactors compared to previous studies in the literature and was a first step to scale up the production to industrial production.

  17. Mechanical Properties Distribution within Polypropylene Injection Molded Samples: Effect of Mold Temperature under Uneven Thermal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Liparoti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the polymer parts produced by injection molding is strongly affected by the processing conditions. Uncontrolled deviations from the proper process parameters could significantly affect both internal structure and final material properties. In this work, to mimic an uneven temperature field, a strong asymmetric heating is applied during the production of injection-molded polypropylene samples. The morphology of the samples is characterized by optical and atomic force microscopy (AFM, whereas the distribution of mechanical modulus at different scales is obtained by Indentation and HarmoniX AFM tests. Results clearly show that the temperature differences between the two mold surfaces significantly affect the morphology distributions of the molded parts. This is due to both the uneven temperature field evolutions and to the asymmetric flow field. The final mechanical property distributions are determined by competition between the local molecular stretch and the local structuring achieved during solidification. The cooling rate changes affect internal structures in terms of relaxation/reorganization levels and give rise to an asymmetric distribution of mechanical properties.

  18. Effect of pyrolysis conditions on the characteristics of biochar produced from a tobacco stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanhui; Yan, Wei; Sheng, Kuichuan

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the potential use of tobacco stems as feedstock for biochar production, a variety of pyrolysis conditions were studied to determine their effects on the distribution of pyrolysis products, as well as the physicochemical properties, energy yield and porosity characteristics of the biochar. The results showed that a moderate temperature of 400-450°C, a retention time of three hours and a slow heating rate of 5°C min(-1) was better to get high energy yield from biochar. In this study, the highest calorific value of biochar was 28.128 MJ kg(-1) The highest biochar yield occurred at a moderate retention time of three hours. The heating rate had an important influence on the characteristics of biochar, and the physiochemical properties of biochar produced at a heating rate of 10°C min(-1) were better than other levels. Also, the oil yield decreased and gas yield increased as retention time and heating rate increased. Biochar produced at a high temperature of 600°C, a retention time up to four hours and a heating rate of 10-15°C min(-1) had a larger BET surface area and cumulative pore volume than that of others. The highest change rate of pore volume of biochar almost occurred at the pore size of 2-5 nm. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Methane reacts with heteropolyacids chemisorbed on silica to produce acetic acid under soft conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Miao

    2013-01-16

    Selective functionalization of methane at moderate temperature is of crucial economic, environmental, and scientific importance. Here, we report that methane reacts with heteropolyacids (HPAs) chemisorbed on silica to produce acetic acid under soft conditions. Specially, when chemisorbed on silica, H 4SiW12O40, H3PW12O 40, H4SiMo12O40, and H 3PMo12O40 activate the primary C-H bond of methane at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. With these systems, acetic acid is produced directly from methane, in a single step, in the absence of Pd and without adding CO. Extensive surface characterization by solid-state NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests that C-H activation of methane is triggered by the protons in the HPA-silica interface with concerted reduction of the Keggin cage, leading to water formation and hydration of the interface. This is the simplest and mildest way reported to date to functionalize methane. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. Comparison of optical emission from nanosecond and femtosecond laser produced plasma in atmosphere and vacuum conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J. R.; Harilal, S. S.; Diwakar, P. K.; Verhoff, B.; Hassanein, A.

    2013-09-01

    In this study we examine the emission from brass plasma produced by ns and fs laser ablation under both vacuum and atmosphere environments using identical laser fluences in order to better understand the differences in emission features and plasma dynamics. Optical emission spectra show increased continuum and emission from lower-charged ions for ns laser-produced plasma (LPP), while fs plasma emission spectra show emission primarily from excited neutral species with negligible continuum. Plasma excitation temperature and electron density as a function of time show similar trends for both lasers, though fs LPP expansion appears to be approximately two times faster than ns LPP expansion for the conditions studied. Confinement by the ambient gas is shown to significantly enhance and maintain plasma temperature and density and hence, emission, at later times. ICCD images of plasma expansion showed a broader angular distribution for ns LPP, but narrower angular distribution for fs LPP. Images also confirm the significant effect that the ambient environment has in confining plume expansion.

  1. Comparison of optical emission from nanosecond and femtosecond laser produced plasma in atmosphere and vacuum conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.R., E-mail: freemaj@purdue.edu; Harilal, S.S., E-mail: sharilal@purdue.edu; Diwakar, P.K., E-mail: pdiwakar@purdue.edu; Verhoff, B., E-mail: bverhoff@purdue.edu; Hassanein, A., E-mail: hassanein@purdue.edu

    2013-09-01

    In this study we examine the emission from brass plasma produced by ns and fs laser ablation under both vacuum and atmosphere environments using identical laser fluences in order to better understand the differences in emission features and plasma dynamics. Optical emission spectra show increased continuum and emission from lower-charged ions for ns laser-produced plasma (LPP), while fs plasma emission spectra show emission primarily from excited neutral species with negligible continuum. Plasma excitation temperature and electron density as a function of time show similar trends for both lasers, though fs LPP expansion appears to be approximately two times faster than ns LPP expansion for the conditions studied. Confinement by the ambient gas is shown to significantly enhance and maintain plasma temperature and density and hence, emission, at later times. ICCD images of plasma expansion showed a broader angular distribution for ns LPP, but narrower angular distribution for fs LPP. Images also confirm the significant effect that the ambient environment has in confining plume expansion. - Highlights: • Emission from ns and fs LIBS plumes are compared under different pressure environments. • Ablation mechanisms for each laser are used to explain different emission features. • Ambient pressure plays a critical role in plume temperature and density evolution. • Visible emission from fs LIBS plume is almost entirely from neutral species. • Spectra collection time delay is shown to be very important in improving S/N and S/B.

  2. Microbial Indicator Profiling of Fresh Produce and Environmental Samples from Farms and Packing Facilities in Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Norma; Caballero, Cindy; Cárdenas, Carmen; Molina, Karina; García, Rafael; Solís, Luisa; Burrowes, Vanessa; Bartz, Faith E; de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; García, Santos; Leon, Juan

    2016-07-01

    To compare microbiological indicator and pathogen contamination among different types of fresh produce and environmental samples along the production chain, 636 samples of produce (rinsates from cantaloupe melons, jalapeño peppers, and tomatoes) and environmental samples (rinsates from hands of workers, soil, and water) were collected at four successive steps in the production process (from the field before harvest through the packing facility) on 11 farms in northern Mexico during 2011 and 2012. Samples were assayed for enteric pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, other Shiga toxigenic E. coli, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes) and microbial indicators (coliforms, other E. coli strains, and Enterococcus spp.). Salmonella was the only pathogen detected; it was found in one preharvest jalapeño sample (detection limits: 0.0033 CFU/ml in produce and hand samples, 0.0013 CFU/ml in water, and 0.04 CFU/g in soil). Microbial indicator profiles for produce, worker hands, and soil from jalapeño and tomato farms were similar, but cantaloupe farm samples had higher indicator levels (P coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively, and lower E. coli levels in soil (water from tomato farms, E. coli indicators were significantly more prevalent (70 to 89% of samples were positive; P = 0.01 to 0.02), and geometric mean levels were higher (0.3 to 0.6 log CFU/100 ml) than those in cantaloupe farm water (32 to 38% of samples were positive, geometric mean <1 CFU/100 ml). Microbial indicators were present during all production steps, but prevalence and levels were generally highest at the final on-farm production step (the packing facility) (P < 0.03 for significant comparisons). The finding that microbial contamination on produce farms is influenced by produce type and production step can inform the design of effective approaches to mitigate microbial contamination.

  3. Reproducibility of NMR Analysis of Urine Samples: Impact of Sample Preparation, Storage Conditions, and Animal Health Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Schreier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining 1H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. Methods. We treated rats with a solvent, a diuretic, or a nephrotoxicant and collected urine samples. Samples were titrated to pH 3 to 9, or salt concentrations increased up to 20-fold. The effects of storage conditions and freeze-thaw cycles were monitored. Selected metabolites and multivariate data analysis were evaluated after 1H NMR spectroscopy. Results. We showed that variation of pH from 3 to 9 and increases in osmolarity up to 6-fold had no effect on the quantification of the metabolites or on multivariate data analysis. Storage led to changes after 14 days at 4°C or after 12 months at −20°C, independent of sample composition. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles did not affect data analysis. Conclusion. Reproducibility of NMR measurements is not dependent on sample composition under physiological or pathological conditions.

  4. Reproducibility of NMR analysis of urine samples: impact of sample preparation, storage conditions, and animal health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Christina; Kremer, Werner; Huber, Fritz; Neumann, Sindy; Pagel, Philipp; Lienemann, Kai; Pestel, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining (1)H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing) and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. We treated rats with a solvent, a diuretic, or a nephrotoxicant and collected urine samples. Samples were titrated to pH 3 to 9, or salt concentrations increased up to 20-fold. The effects of storage conditions and freeze-thaw cycles were monitored. Selected metabolites and multivariate data analysis were evaluated after (1)H NMR spectroscopy. We showed that variation of pH from 3 to 9 and increases in osmolarity up to 6-fold had no effect on the quantification of the metabolites or on multivariate data analysis. Storage led to changes after 14 days at 4°C or after 12 months at -20°C, independent of sample composition. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles did not affect data analysis. Reproducibility of NMR measurements is not dependent on sample composition under physiological or pathological conditions.

  5. Evaluation of the oil Produced from lettuce crop cultivated under three irrigation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan El-Mallah, M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Three oil lettuce seed samples (lactuca Sativa LS10, LS20, LS30 were cultivated under three irrigation conditions (well, normal and water deficient conditions, after 10, 20 and 30 days respectively to evaluate their oils and to see to what extent the oil lettuce plant resists draught conditions. The oils extracted from the three seed samples were evaluated by determining eight lipid profiles using HPLC in conjunction with capillary GLC. Lettuce seed oils are characterized by high contents of linoleic and oleic acids. Of the triacyl glycerols determined, those containing linoleyl and oleyl acyles are the major ones. The whole sterol profiles include β-sitosterol (as major component followed by 7-stigmasterol, campesterol and 5-stigmasterol, which were found in all the lettuce seed oil samples but with slight differences. Furthermore, sterol patterns of the free and acylated sterols, free and acylated sterylglycosides were determined. It was found that LS30 oil has the highest tocopherol content and α-tocopherol is the only constituent in all the lettuce seed oil samples. On the other hand, the 2-position in the lettuce seed oil samples is mainly acylated by unsaturated fatty acids (98.6% namely, oleic and linoleic acids. According to these results, it can be concluded that irrigation conditions do not affect the lipid constituents of the oil and the oil lettuce plant resists draught and its lipid profiles are in agreement with those of conventional vegetable oils.

    Tres muestras de semillas de lechuga (Lactuca Sativa LS10, LS20, LS30 se cultivaron bajo tres condiciones de riego (bien regado, normal y con deficiencia de agua, después de 10, 20 y 30 días, respectivamente para evaluar sus aceites y ver hasta qué punto el aceite de la planta de lechuga resiste las condiciones de riego. Los aceites extraídos de las tres muestras de semillas se evaluó mediante la determinación de ocho perfiles de lípidos usando cromatograf

  6. Optimal conditions for producing bactericidal sodium hyaluronate-TiO2 bionanocomposite and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Mohsen; Taran, Mojtaba

    2017-11-01

    In this research, the creation of optimum conditions for the formation of sodium hyaluronate-TiO2 bionanocomposite and its antibacterial effect on gram positive and gram negative bacteria was evaluated. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra, scanning electron microscopy images and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy pattern confirmed the formation of the bionanocomposite. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis indicated that the thermal stability rate had significantly improved with formation of the bionanocomposite. Nine experiments were designed based on the Taguchi method by applying different proportions of sodium hyaluronate biopolymer and TiO2 nanoparticles at different stirring times. Bionanocomposite produced under conditions of experiment 5 (TiO2 4mg/ml, sodium hyaluronate 1mg/ml and stirring time of 90min) and experiment 9 (TiO2 8mg/ml, sodium hyaluronate 2mg/ml and stirring time of 60min) completely prevented the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. It can be concluded that sodium hyaluronate-TiO2 bionanocomposite can be used as an effective antimicrobial compound in food, pharmaceutical, medical and environmental sectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification and quantification of fumonisin-producing Fusarium species in grain and soil samples from Egypt and the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha HUSSIEN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisins are considered among the important mycotoxins associated with human esophageal cancer and livestock diseases. These mycotoxins are mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides in tropical and subtropical regions such as the Philippines and Egypt and humid temperate regions of the world. The classical taxonomy of fumonisin-producing fungi is challenging, and species-specific PCR reactions are commonly used to clearly identify species within these complexes. The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and quantify fumonisin-producing species in maize, wheat and soil samples from Egypt and the Philippines, and to test Eppendorf-Agar as a long term preservation method. We isolated 44 single spore isolates (39 from Egypt and five from the Philippines from the collected samples (25 isolates from maize, five from wheat and 14 from soil. In addition, we quantified the content of fumonisin-producing fungi DNA from 15 maize samples and six wheat samples from Egypt, and from six maize samples from the Philippines. morphological and microscopic identification indicated that 21 isolates from Egypt and five from the Philippines were F. verticillioides, one isolate was F. proliferatum and two isolates were F. nygamai. Molecular identification indicated that all these isolates belonged to F. verticillioides. Most were from maize, four were from soil and only one was from wheat. Other Fusarium species isolated included F. oxysporum and F. solani. No F. graminearum isolates were found. The quantitative PCR (qPCR results obtained using the Taqfum-2f, Vpgen-3R primer pair and the FUMp probe for quantification of fumonisin-producing Fusarium species showed that fumonisin-producing Fusarium isolates were present in four maize samples from the Philippines and eight maize samples from Egypt. The Fusarium DNA levels from fumonisin-producing isolates were in the range of 13 × 10-3 to 61 × 10-1 ng ng-1 total DNA in positive samples, except in one maize

  8. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Sean; Russell, Gareth J.; Butler, Matthew J.; Selinger, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling), it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS) data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos). Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion), and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km2 cells) and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture sessions, which

  9. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Harris

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling, it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos. Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion, and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km2 cells and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture

  10. Control of discharge conditions to reduce hydrogen content in low Z films produced with DC glow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsir, M.; Sagara, A.; Tsuzuki, K.; Tsuchiya, B.; Hasegawa, Y.; Motojima, O.

    1995-09-01

    Boronization at near room temperature has been performed in plasma processing teststand (PPT) by using a 5 % diborane gases B{sub 2}H{sub 6} in He on electrically floating or unfloating Al samples under various conditions on DC glow discharge power or total gas pressure. The hydrogen concentration was analyzed by using elastic recoil detection method (ERD) and a new modified normalizing technique with Rutherford back scattering (RBS). Results showed that a high growth rate of film formation and floating surface were effective in reducing hydrogen concentration in B films. This result was in good agreement with earlier measurements of H with flash filament (FF) desorption method. In particular the H/B ratio was reduced by decreasing ions but increasing radicals for B film formation. (author).

  11. Sampling conditions for gradient-magnitude sparsity based image reconstruction algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidky, Emil Y.; Jørgensen, Jakob Heide; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2012-01-01

    We seek to characterize the sampling conditions for iterative image reconstruction exploiting gradient-magnitude sparsity. We seek the number of views necessary for accurate image reconstruction by constrained, total variation (TV) minimization, which is the optimization problem suggested...

  12. Understanding the impact of operational conditions on performance of microbial peroxide producing cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michelle N.; Chowdhury, Nadrat; Garver, Emily; Evans, Patrick J.; Popat, Sudeep C.; Rittmann, Bruce E.; Torres, César I.

    2017-07-01

    Microbial peroxide producing cells (MPPCs) are microbial electrochemical cells used to synthesize hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the cathode chamber. Catholyte hydraulic retention time (HRT), different catholytes and their concentrations, and a ferrochelating stabilizer are varied in a continuous-flow cathode MPPC to evaluate their impacts on performance. Using NaCl catholytes, the MPPC produced as high as 3.1 ± 0.37 g H2O2 L-1 at a 4-h HRT with as little as 1.13 W-h g-1 H2O2 energy input and with up to 57 g Lcathode-1 d-1 at a 1-h HRT. For these conditions, the H2O2 production rate provides more than 3 times the H2O2 required for disinfection or micro-pollutant removal while using 5-25% of the power used in conventional H2O2 production processes. Attempts to improve H2O2-production by adding weak acid buffers or H2O2-stabilizing EDTA fail for different reasons. The addition of the ferrochelator EDTA to prevent H2O2 auto-decay deteriorates MPPC performance, because EDTA diffuses from the cathode to the anode, inhibiting iron utilization by anode-respiring bacteria. Weak acid buffers failed to reduce cathode concentration overpotentials. Buffering catholytes lowered the H2O2 yield due to large pH gradients at the cathode chamber entrance, causing the formation of H2O instead of H2O2 or O2 re-formation from H2O2 auto-decay.

  13. Quantitative Study on Exact Reconstruction Sampling Condition in Limited-view CT

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Bin; Li, Lei; Zhang, Hanming; Wang, Linyuan

    2016-01-01

    In limited-view computed tomography reconstruction, iterative image reconstruction with sparsity-exploiting methods, such as total variation (TV) minimization, inspired by compressive sensing, potentially claims large reductions in sampling requirements. However, a quantitative notion of this claim is non-trivial because of the ill-defined reduction in sampling achieved by the sparsity-exploiting method. In this paper, exact reconstruction sampling condition for limited-view problem is studied by verifying the uniqueness of solution in TV minimization model. Uniqueness is tested by solving a convex optimization problem derived from the sufficient and necessary condition of solution uniqueness. Through this method, the sufficient sampling number of exact reconstruction is quantified for any fixed phantom and settled geometrical parameter in the limited-view problem. This paper provides a reference to quantify the sampling condition. Using Shepp-Logan phantom as an example, the experiment results show the quant...

  14. Laboratory experiments on membrane filter sampling of airborne mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys atra corda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Nikulin, M.; Tuomainen, M.; Berg, S.; Parikka, P.; Hintikka, E.-L.

    A membrane filter method for sampling of airborne stachybotrystoxins was studied in the laboratory. Toxigenic strains of Stachybotrys atra on wallpaper, grain, hay and straw were used as toxin sources in the experiments. Air samples were collected on cellulose nitrate and polycarbonate membrane filters at air flow rates of 10-20 ℓ min -1. After the filter sampling, the air was passed through methanol. The results showed that stachybotrystoxins (trichothecenes) were concentrated in airborne fungal propagules, and thus can be collected on filters. Polycarbonate filters with a pore size of 0.2 μm collected the highest percentage of toxic samples. The laboratory experiments indicated that polycarbonate filter sampling for the collection of airborne mycotoxins is a promising method for extension to field measurements.

  15. Screening of phytase producers and optimization of culture conditions for submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Hasan B; Demirci, Ali

    2014-04-01

    Phytase (myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate phosphohydrolase) is an enzyme, which breaks down phytate to inositol and orthophosphoric acid. Phytase has been used as feed additive, and in some medical applications for years. To date, phytase production has been usually performed as a solid-state fermentation with small production volumes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to increase the phytase activity in submerged fermentations by screening several microorganism strains based on the literature to select the most productive phytase producer and optimizing growth parameters such as temperature, pH, and aeration level using response surface methodology (RSM). As a result, among the four different microorganisms evaluated, Aspergillus ficuum (NRRL 3135) was selected as the most productive strain. Optimum temperature, pH, and aeration values were determined as 33 °C, 4.5, and 0.9 vvm, respectively, for A. ficuum in 2-l batch submerged phytase productions. Under these conditions, phytase activity was measured as 2.27 U/ml. Therefore, this is a unique study showing the production of phytase with A. ficuum successfully in submerged fermentation as opposed to the traditional solid-state fermentation.

  16. Material conditions of kindergartens as producers of experiences: uses of diversity and unequal relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Petrelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents preliminary results of socio-anthropological research that took place in Early Education schools of the City of Buenos Aires. It focuses on the uses of sociocultural diversity and unequal relationships and their articulation with the materiality of everyday life conditions of the institutions in which fieldwork took place. It includes the analytical description of a social situation —the visit of an officer of the Ministry of Education to one of these Initial Schools in which research was carried on. This descriptions show the ways in which the different institutional subjects —teachers, parents, school directors, the staff member— refer to and produce the spaces in which their practices take place, and simultaneously, struggle for their places and put  under strain their diverse and unequal relationships. Afterwards, taking into account the Initial Education schools of a whole Educational District of the City, we analyze the features of the “educational offer” for Initial Schooling, the incorporation of devices  as cell phones  to everyday educational work of the kindergartens, as an aide to the teacher’s work, and the beginnings of the online school enrolment. These issues permit us to highlight the recent history of Argentina´s Initial Level teaching. The article accounts  that materiality, as the ethnographic descriptions evidence, permits to understand how, nowadays, relations of diversity and inequality come together.

  17. Improving the extraction conditions of endoglucanase produced by Aspergillus niger under solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. P. B. Pirota

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Production of cellulases under solid-state fermentation (SSF is a promising technique that can help to reduce costs. Besides optimizing the production process, it is also important to consider enzyme recovery during the extraction step. Here, an experimental design methodology was used to investigate the effects of the operational parameters solid to liquid ratio (1:3, 1:6 and 1:9, stirring rate (80, 120 and 160 rpm, and temperature (10, 22 and 35 °C on the recovery of endoglucanases produced by Aspergillus niger cultivated under SSF. Statistical analysis revealed that only the solid to liquid ratio had a significant influence on endoglucanase extraction. The highest endoglucanase recovery (35.7 U/g was achieved using 0.2 mol/L acetate buffer at pH 4.8, together with a solid to liquid ratio of 1:9 and an agitation time of 10 minutes. In sequential extraction experiments, it was shown that most of the enzyme was recovered during the first extraction. The procedure adopted increased the efficiency of endoglucanase extraction by 70%, emphasizing the importance of selection of suitable operational conditions during SSF processes.

  18. Conditioning and Robustness of RNA Boltzmann Sampling under Thermodynamic Parameter Perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Emily; Murrugarra, David; Heitsch, Christine

    2017-07-25

    Understanding how RNA secondary structure prediction methods depend on the underlying nearest-neighbor thermodynamic model remains a fundamental challenge in the field. Minimum free energy (MFE) predictions are known to be "ill conditioned" in that small changes to the thermodynamic model can result in significantly different optimal structures. Hence, the best practice is now to sample from the Boltzmann distribution, which generates a set of suboptimal structures. Although the structural signal of this Boltzmann sample is known to be robust to stochastic noise, the conditioning and robustness under thermodynamic perturbations have yet to be addressed. We present here a mathematically rigorous model for conditioning inspired by numerical analysis, and also a biologically inspired definition for robustness under thermodynamic perturbation. We demonstrate the strong correlation between conditioning and robustness and use its tight relationship to define quantitative thresholds for well versus ill conditioning. These resulting thresholds demonstrate that the majority of the sequences are at least sample robust, which verifies the assumption of sampling's improved conditioning over the MFE prediction. Furthermore, because we find no correlation between conditioning and MFE accuracy, the presence of both well- and ill-conditioned sequences indicates the continued need for both thermodynamic model refinements and alternate RNA structure prediction methods beyond the physics-based ones. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Environmental impacts of waste produced from processing of different uraniferous rock samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim E. El Aassy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Radon exhalation rates from five studied laboratory waste samples resulted from five different sedimentary rock types named sandy dolostone, siltstone –two samples-, marly claystone and black shale were measured using ‘‘Sealed Can technique”. These rates were found to vary between 0.005 and 0.015 Bq m−2 h−1. A positive correlation was found between the radon exhalation rates and the radium activities. The emanation coefficients were calculated for these laboratory waste samples which varied between 0.0004 and 0.0007 according to the physical and chemical characterize of the wastes. These results are partially in accordance with autonite acid leached tailings on laboratory scale (USA. These results led us to pay attention about the effect and impact of these wastes on the environment.

  20. Sounds produced by the mandibular joint in a sample of healthy workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöllmann, L

    1993-01-01

    A sample of 6718 healthy persons were asked, during an examination in connection with getting a job, whether they had noticed sounds emanating from their temporomandibular joints. A total of 20.1% of the job applicants reported hearing joint sounds. Crepitation or clicking was found in more than 12.2% of the sample on palpation. Auscultatory examination revealed sounds in almost 72.5% of the individuals. When examined with a phonocardiograph, 84% of a randomly selected subgroup demonstrated joint sounds. Considering the frequency with which this symptom occurred in healthy individuals, caution must be exercised in interpreting joint sounds as definite proof of arthropathy.

  1. Metabolic analysis of antibody producing Chinese hamster ovary cell culture under different stresses conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badsha, Md Bahadur; Kurata, Hiroyuki; Onitsuka, Masayoshi; Oga, Takushi; Omasa, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are commonly used as the host cell lines concerning their ability to produce therapeutic proteins with complex post-translational modifications. In this study, we have investigated the time course extra- and intracellular metabolome data of the CHO-K1 cell line, under a control and stress conditions. The addition of NaCl and trehalose greatly suppressed cell growth, where the maximum viable cell density of NaCl and trehalose cultures were 2.2-fold and 2.8-fold less than that of a control culture. Contrariwise, the antibody production of both the NaCl and trehalose cultures was sustained for a longer time to surpass that of the control culture. The NaCl and trehalose cultures showed relatively similar dynamics of cell growth, antibody production, and substrate/product concentrations, while they indicated different dynamics from the control culture. The principal component analysis of extra- and intracellular metabolome dynamics indicated that their dynamic behaviors were consistent with biological functions. The qualitative pattern matching classification and hierarchical clustering analyses for the intracellular metabolome identified the metabolite clusters whose dynamic behaviors depend on NaCl and trehalose. The volcano plot revealed several reporter metabolites whose dynamics greatly change between in the NaCl and trehalose cultures. The elastic net identified some critical, intracellular metabolites that are distinct between the NaCl and trehalose. While a relatively small number of intracellular metabolites related to the cell growth, glucose, glutamine, lactate and ammonium ion concentrations, the mechanism of antibody production was suggested to be very complicated or not to be explained by elastic net regression analysis. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The AlSi10Mg samples produced by selective laser melting: single track, densification, microstructure and mechanical behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pei; Wei, Zhengying; Chen, Zhen; Du, Jun; He, Yuyang; Li, Junfeng; Zhou, Yatong

    2017-06-01

    This densification behavior and attendant microstructural characteristics of the selective laser melting (SLM) processed AlSi10Mg alloy affected by the processing parameters were systematically investigated. The samples with a single track were produced by SLM to study the influences of laser power and scanning speed on the surface morphologies of scan tracks. Additionally, the bulk samples were produced to investigate the influence of the laser power, scanning speed, and hatch spacing on the densification level and the resultant microstructure. The experimental results showed that the level of porosity of the SLM-processed samples was significantly governed by energy density of laser beam and the hatch spacing. The tensile properties of SLM-processed samples and the attendant fracture surface can be enhanced by decreasing the level of porosity. The microstructure of SLM-processed samples consists of supersaturated Al-rich cellular structure along with eutectic Al/Si situated at the cellular boundaries. The Si content in the cellular boundaries increases with increasing the laser power and decreasing the scanning speed. The hardness of SLM-processed samples was significantly improved by this fine microstructure compared with the cast samples. Moreover, the hardness of SLM-processed samples at overlaps was lower than the hardness observed at track cores.

  3. Equol-producing status, isoflavone intake, and breast density in a sample of U.S. Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Marilyn; Byrne, Celia; Kurzer, Mindy S; Fang, Carolyn Y

    2013-11-01

    Differences in ability to metabolize daidzein to equol might help explain inconsistent findings about isoflavones and breast cancer. We examined equol-producing status in relation to breast density, a marker of breast cancer risk, and evaluated whether an association of isoflavone intake with breast density differs by equol-producing status in a sample of Chinese immigrant women. Participants were 224 women, ages 36 to 58 years, enrolled in a study on diet and breast density. All women completed dietary recall interviews, underwent a soy challenge to assess equol-producing status, and received a mammogram assessed for breast density using a computer-assisted method. In our sample, 30% were classified as equol producers. In adjusted linear regression models, equol producers had significantly lower mean dense tissue area (32.8 vs. 37.7 cm(2), P = 0.03) and lower mean percent breast density (32% vs. 35%, P = 0.03) than nonproducers. Significant inverse associations of isoflavone intake with dense area and percent density were apparent, but only in equol producers (interaction P = 0.05 for both). These results support the possibility that equol-producing status affects breast density and that effects of isoflavones on breast density depend on ability to metabolize daidzein to equol. Although these findings warrant confirmation in a larger sample, they offer a possible explanation for the inconsistent findings about soy intake and breast density and possibly breast cancer risk as well. The findings further suggest the importance of identifying factors that influence equol-producing status and exploring appropriate targeting of interventions. ©2013 AACR.

  4. Optimization of groundwater sampling approach under various hydrogeological conditions using a numerical simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shengqi; Hou, Deyi; Luo, Jian

    2017-09-01

    This study presents a numerical model based on field data to simulate groundwater flow in both the aquifer and the well-bore for the low-flow sampling method and the well-volume sampling method. The numerical model was calibrated to match well with field drawdown, and calculated flow regime in the well was used to predict the variation of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration during the purging period. The model was then used to analyze sampling representativeness and sampling time. Site characteristics, such as aquifer hydraulic conductivity, and sampling choices, such as purging rate and screen length, were found to be significant determinants of sampling representativeness and required sampling time. Results demonstrated that: (1) DO was the most useful water quality indicator in ensuring groundwater sampling representativeness in comparison with turbidity, pH, specific conductance, oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and temperature; (2) it is not necessary to maintain a drawdown of less than 0.1 m when conducting low flow purging. However, a high purging rate in a low permeability aquifer may result in a dramatic decrease in sampling representativeness after an initial peak; (3) the presence of a short screen length may result in greater drawdown and a longer sampling time for low-flow purging. Overall, the present study suggests that this new numerical model is suitable for describing groundwater flow during the sampling process, and can be used to optimize sampling strategies under various hydrogeological conditions.

  5. Sampling effort needed to estimate condition and species richness in the Ohio river, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksom, Karen; Emery, Erich; Thomas, Jeff

    2009-08-01

    The level of sampling effort required to characterize fish assemblage condition in a river for the purposes of bioassessment may be estimated via different approaches. However, the goal with any approach is to determine the minimum level of effort necessary to reach some specific level of confidence in the assessment. In the Ohio River, condition is estimated and reported primarily at the level of pools defined by lock and dam structures. The goal of this study was to determine the minimum level of sampling effort required to adequately characterize pools in the Ohio River for the purpose of bioassessment. We followed two approaches to estimating required sampling effort using fish assemblage data from a long-term intensive survey across a number of Ohio River pools. First, we estimated the number of samples beyond which variation in the multimetric Ohio River Fish Index (ORFIn) leveled off. Then, we determined the number of samples necessary to collect approximately 90% of the fish species observed across all samples collected within the pool. For both approaches, approximately 15 samples were adequate to reduce variation in IBI scores to acceptable levels and to capture 90% of observed species in a pool. The results of this evaluation provide a basis not only for the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO) but also states and other basin commissions to develop sampling designs for bioassessment that ensure adequate sampling of all assessment units.

  6. MECHANISMS OF MELATONIN EFFECTS UPON IMMUNE STATE IN EXPERIMENTAL DESYNCHRONOSES PRODUCED UNDER THE LED ILLUMINATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Osikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of immune state in desynchronosis may be associated with reduced concentrations of melatonin in blood, thus being a prerequisite for pharmacological correction of appropriate homeostatic changes. The purpose of this work was to explore some mechanisms of exogenous melatonin actions upon parameters of innate and adaptive immunity in experimental model of desynchronosis under the conditions of LED illumination. The study was performed with 196 adult guinea pigs. Light desynchronosis was produced by day-and-night illumination of the animals having been continued for 30 days. Melatonin was administered applied per os daily at the total dose of 30 mg/kg. A solution of melatonin in isotonic NaCl solution was prepared from the Melaxen drug (INN: melatonin, “Unipharm Inc.,” USA ex tempore. To study innate immunity of blood cells, we determined leukocyte numbers, WBC differential counts, and functional activity of phagocytes, as spontaneous and induced NBT test, as well as engulfment of polystyrene latex particles. Th1-specific immune response was studied according to degree of delayed type hypersensitivity reaction; Th2-dependent response was assessed as the numbers of antibody-forming cells in the spleen of the animals after immunization with allogeneic erythrocytes. Serum concentrations of interleukin 4 (IL-4, interferon-gamma (IFNγ, melatonin, and cortisol were measured by enzyme immunoassay, using the “Immulayt 2000” (USA with guinea pigspecific test systems. It was found that experimental desynchronosis was associated with leukocytosis, lymphoand monocytopenia, activation of oxygen-dependent metabolism of blood phagocytes, suppression of Th1-and Th2-dependent immune response. Desynchronosis was also accompanied by decreased concentrations of serum melatonin, IFNγ and IL-4, along with increased cortisol concentrations. Reduced IFNγ and IL-4 amounts was associated with decreased melatonin concentrations

  7. Aroma-active ester profile of ale beer produced under different fermentation and nutritional conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiralal, Lettisha; Olaniran, Ademola O; Pillay, Balakrishna

    2014-01-01

    A broad range of aroma-active esters produced during fermentation are vital for the complex flavour of beer. This study assessed the influence of fermentation temperature, pH, and wort nutritional supplements on the production of yeast-derived ester compounds and the overall fermentation performance. The best fermentation performance was achieved when wort was supplemented with 0.75 g/l l-leucine resulting in highest reducing sugar and FAN (free amino nitrogen) utilization and ethanol production. At optimum fermentation pH of 5, 38.27% reducing sugars and 35.28% FAN was utilized resulting in 4.07% (v/v) ethanol. Wort supplemented with zinc sulphate (0.12 g/l) resulted in 5.01% ethanol (v/v) production and 54.32% reducing sugar utilization. Increase in fermentation temperature from 18°C to room temperature (± 22.5°C) resulted in 17.03% increased ethanol production and 14.42% and 62.82% increase in total acetate ester concentration and total ethyl ester concentration, respectively. Supplementation of worth with 0.12 g/l ZnSO4 resulted in 2.46-fold increase in both isoamyl acetate and ethyl decanoate concentration, while a 7.05-fold and 1.96-fold increase in the concentration of isoamyl acetate and ethyl decanoate, respectively was obtained upon 0.75 g/l l-leucine supplementation. Wort supplemented with l-leucine (0.75 g/l) yielded the highest beer foam head stability with a rating of 2.67, while highest yeast viability was achieved when wort was supplemented with 0.12 g/l zinc sulphate. Results from this study suggest that supplementing wort with essential nutrients required for yeast growth and optimizing the fermentation conditions could be an effective way of improving fermentation performance and controlling aroma-active esters in beer. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bacterial Contamination of Blood DNA Samples is Associated with Donor's Health Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Eun; Hong, Eun-Jung; Shim, Sung-Mi; Kim, Jun-Woo; Bae, Geun-Ryang; Cho, Yoon Shin; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Han, Bok-Ghee

    2010-09-01

    Bacterial contamination often occurs in human blood DNA samples, possibly due to bacteremia or an inappropriate procedure during sample preparation. This study aimed at analyzing the clinical significance of bacterial DNA contamination in human blood DNA samples and to assess its influence on experimental data. DNA samples (N = 1359) were randomly selected from population-based cohort samples to determine bacterial DNA contamination by polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing. Bacterial DNA contaminated samples (N = 150) were then assessed for experimental quality of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip data, compared with uncontaminated DNA samples (N = 1209). DNA sequencing data showed that a major source of bacterial contaminants was derived from Alcaligenes species. The occurrence of bacterial DNA contaminations was significantly associated with some clinical variables including a postprandial glucose level at 60 min, % body fat, and waist-to-hip ratio. It was also found that there was no difference of SNP call rates between bacterial DNA contaminated samples and uncontaminated DNA samples. This study showed that bacterial DNA contamination in human blood samples was related to donor's health condition, suggesting that the occurrence of bacterial DNA contamination may provide useful health information of blood donors and a potential tool for human disease genomics.

  9. Identification of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in clinical samples in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fereshte sadat Hashemizadeh

    2013-05-01

    Results: In this study of 202 isolates of Klebsiella, 180 isolates (89.1% of K. pneumoniae and 22 isolates (10.9% of Klebsiella oxytoca were isolated from patients. More than 55% of isolates showed multiple-drug resistance and also above 40% resistance to imipeneme and meropeneme was recorded. The MIC of isolates which were resistant to carbapenemes was above 32µg/ml.The PCR results showed that 22 cases (11.9% of isolates had blakpc gene which most of them had been isolated from urine and blood samples of patients who were hospitalized in the ICU and pediatrics. Conclusion: Regarding the existence of blakpc gene in K. pneumoniae and possibility of transformation of these genes to the other bacteria, reconsideration in antibiotics consumption patterns and more attention to nosocomial infections control criteria are inevitable.

  10. Improving the extraction conditions of endoglucanase produced by Aspergillus niger under solid-state fermentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pirota, R. D. P. B; Miotto, L. S; Delabona, P. S; Farinas, C. S

    2013-01-01

    ...) on the recovery of endoglucanases produced by Aspergillus niger cultivated under SSF. Statistical analysis revealed that only the solid to liquid ratio had a significant influence on endoglucanase extraction...

  11. The AlSi10Mg samples produced by selective laser melting: single track, densification, microstructure and mechanical behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Pei; Wei, Zhengying, E-mail: zywei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Zhen; Du, Jun; He, Yuyang; Li, Junfeng; Zhou, Yatong

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • The thermal behavior of AlSi10Mg molten pool was analyzed. • The SLM-processed sample with a relatively low surface roughness was obtained. • Effects of parameters on surface topography of scan track were investigated. • Effects of parameters on microstructure of parts were investigated. • Optimum processing parameters for AlSi10Mg SLM was obtained. - Abstract: This densification behavior and attendant microstructural characteristics of the selective laser melting (SLM) processed AlSi10Mg alloy affected by the processing parameters were systematically investigated. The samples with a single track were produced by SLM to study the influences of laser power and scanning speed on the surface morphologies of scan tracks. Additionally, the bulk samples were produced to investigate the influence of the laser power, scanning speed, and hatch spacing on the densification level and the resultant microstructure. The experimental results showed that the level of porosity of the SLM-processed samples was significantly governed by energy density of laser beam and the hatch spacing. The tensile properties of SLM-processed samples and the attendant fracture surface can be enhanced by decreasing the level of porosity. The microstructure of SLM-processed samples consists of supersaturated Al-rich cellular structure along with eutectic Al/Si situated at the cellular boundaries. The Si content in the cellular boundaries increases with increasing the laser power and decreasing the scanning speed. The hardness of SLM-processed samples was significantly improved by this fine microstructure compared with the cast samples. Moreover, the hardness of SLM-processed samples at overlaps was lower than the hardness observed at track cores.

  12. Shiga Toxin-Producing Serogroup O91 Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Food and Environmental Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Peter C H; Delannoy, Sabine; Lacher, David W; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Fach, Patrick; Beutin, Lothar

    2017-09-15

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains of the O91:H21 serotype have caused severe infections, including hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Strains of the O91 serogroup have been isolated from food, animals, and the environment worldwide but are not well characterized. We used a microarray and other molecular assays to examine 49 serogroup O91 strains (environmental, food, and clinical strains) for their virulence potential and phylogenetic relationships. Most of the isolates were identified to be strains of the O91:H21 and O91:H14 serotypes, with a few O91:H10 strains and one O91:H9 strain being identified. None of the strains had the eae gene, which codes for the intimin adherence protein, and many did not have some of the genetic markers that are common in other STEC strains. The genetic profiles of the strains within each serotype were similar but differed greatly between strains of different serotypes. The genetic profiles of the O91:H21 strains that we tested were identical or nearly identical to those of the clinical O91:H21 strains that have caused severe diseases. Multilocus sequence typing and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat analyses showed that the O91:H21 strains clustered within the STEC 1 clonal group but the other O91 serotype strains were phylogenetically diverse. IMPORTANCE This study showed that food and environmental O91:H21 strains have similar genotypic profiles and Shiga toxin subtypes and are phylogenetically related to the O91:H21 strains that have caused hemolytic-uremic syndrome, suggesting that these strains may also have the potential to cause severe illness. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Sample-path stability conditions for multiserver input-output processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad El-Taha

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend our studies of sample-path stability to multiserver input-output processes with conditional output rates that may depend on the state of the system and other auxiliary processes. Our results include processes with countable as well as uncountable state spaces. We establish rate stability conditions for busy period durations as well as the input during busy periods. In addition, stability conditions for multiserver queues with possibly heterogeneous servers are given for the workload, attained service, and queue length processes. The stability conditions can be checked from parameters of primary processes, and thus can be verified a priori. Under the rate stability conditions, we provide stable versions of Little's formula for single server as well as multiserver queues. Our approach leads to extensions of previously known results. Since our results are valid pathwise, non-stationary as well as stationary processes are covered.

  14. THE LYMAN ALPHA REFERENCE SAMPLE: EXTENDED LYMAN ALPHA HALOS PRODUCED AT LOW DUST CONTENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Matthew [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Oestlin, Goeran; Duval, Florent; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Sandberg, Andreas [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Schaerer, Daniel [CNRS, IRAP, 14, avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Verhamme, Anne; Orlitova, Ivana [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Oti-Floranes, Hector [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofisica, POB 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada (Spain); Adamo, Angela [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Herenz, E. Christian [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Kunth, Daniel [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS and UPMC, 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Laursen, Peter, E-mail: matthew@astro.su.se [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-03-10

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Ly{alpha}), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028 < z < 0.18 in continuum-subtracted Ly{alpha}, H{alpha}, and the far ultraviolet continuum. We show that Ly{alpha} is emitted on scales that systematically exceed those of the massive stellar population and recombination nebulae: as measured by the Petrosian 20% radius, R{sub P20}, Ly{alpha} radii are larger than those of H{alpha} by factors ranging from 1 to 3.6, with an average of 2.4. The average ratio of Ly{alpha}-to-FUV radii is 2.9. This suggests that much of the Ly{alpha} light is pushed to large radii by resonance scattering. Defining the Relative Petrosian Extension of Ly{alpha} compared to H{alpha}, {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} = R {sup Ly{alpha}}{sub P20}/R {sup H{alpha}}{sub P20}, we find {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} to be uncorrelated with total Ly{alpha} luminosity. However, {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} is strongly correlated with quantities that scale with dust content, in the sense that a low dust abundance is a necessary requirement (although not the only one) in order to spread Ly{alpha} photons throughout the interstellar medium and drive a large extended Ly{alpha} halo.

  15. Fracture of metals samples under conditions of fast heating by intensive X-ray radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubev V.K.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Results on studying the fracture of metals samples in the form of thin disks under fast heating by the X-ray pulse with the complete spectrum are presented in the paper. The samples of such metals as iron, copper, AMg6 aluminum, VT14 titanium, molybdenum, tungsten, cadmium, lead and zinc were tested. The samples were fixed in the special cartridges equipped with the gauges of a mechanical recoil momentum. The cartridges with samples were placed at such distances from the X-ray irradiator where the energy fluxes were 1.38, 0.90 and 0.29kJ/cm2. The irradiating X-ray pulse was about 2 ns in duration. After testing, the depth of material ablation from a sample front surface and the degree and character of its spall damage were determined. The method of metallographic analysis was used for these purposes. Numerical calculations of loading conditions were made with the use of an equation of state taking into account the process of evaporation. The calculated value of maximum negative pressure in the sample at the coordinate corresponding to the formation of spallation zones or spall cracks was conventionally accepted as the material resistance to spall fracture. The comparison of obtained results with the data on the fracture of examined materials in the conditions of fast heating by the X-ray pulse with the hard spectrum and a high-current electron beam was conducted.

  16. Early aberrations in chromatin dynamics in embryos produced under In vitro conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Rahul Shahaji; Østrup, Olga; Strejcek, Frantisek

    2012-01-01

    decondensation and nucleolar development at the four-cell stage, and ultimately culminating in failure of proper first lineage segregation at the blastocyst stage, demonstrated by poorly defined inner cell mass. Interestingly, in vitro produced (IVP) embryos also lacked a heterochromatin halo around nucleolar...

  17. Spectrophotometric analysis of tomato plants produced from seeds exposed under space flight conditions for a long time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Yurov, S.; Cojocaru, A.; Revin, A.

    The analysis of the lycopene and other carotenoids in tomatoes produced from seeds exposed under space flight conditions at the orbital station MIR for six years is presented in this work. Our previous experiments with tomato plants showed the germination of seeds to be 32%Genetic investigations revealed 18%in the experiment and 8%experiments were conducted to study the capacity of various stimulating factors to increase germination of seeds exposed for a long time to the action of space flight factors. An increase of 20%achieved but at the same time mutants having no analogues in the control variants were detected. For the present investigations of the third generation of plants produced from seeds stored for a long time under space flight conditions 80 tomatoes from forty plants were selected. The concentration of lycopene in the experimental specimens was 2.5-3 times higher than in the control variants. The spectrophotometric analysis of ripe tomatoes revealed typical three-peaked carotenoid spectra with a high maximum of lycopene (a medium maximum at 474 nm), a moderate maximum of its predecessor, phytoin, (a medium maximum at 267 nm) and a low maximum of carotenes. In green tomatoes, on the contrary, a high maximum of phytoin, a moderate maximum of lycopene and a low maximum of carotenes were observed. The results of the spectral analysis point to the retardation of biosynthesis of carotenes while the production of lycopene is increased and to the synthesis of lycopene from phytoin. Electric conduction of tomato juice in the experimental samples is increased thus suggesting higher amounts of carotenoids, including lycopene and electrolytes. The higher is the value of electric conduction of a specimen, the higher are the spectral maxima of lycopene. The hydrogen ion exponent of the juice of ripe tomatoes increases due to which the efficiency of ATP biosynthesis in cell mitochondria is likely to increase, too. The results demonstrating an increase in the content

  18. Sampling Point Compliance Tests for 325 Building at Set-Back Flow Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Glissmeyer, John A.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2011-05-31

    The stack sampling system at the 325 Building (Radiochemical Processing Laboratory [RPL]) was constructed to comply with the American National Standards Institute’s (ANSI’s) Guide to Sampling Airborne Radioactive Materials in Nuclear Facilities (ANSI N13.1-1969). This standard provided prescriptive criteria for the location of radionuclide air-sampling systems. In 1999, the standard was revised (Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances From the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities [ANSI/Health Physics Society [HPS] 13.1-1999]) to provide performance-based criteria for the location of sampling systems. Testing was conducted for the 325 Building stack to determine whether the sampling system would meet the updated criteria for uniform air velocity and contaminant concentration in the revised ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 standard under normal operating conditions (Smith et al. 2010). Measurement results were within criteria for all tests. Additional testing and modeling was performed to determine whether the sampling system would meet criteria under set-back flow conditions. This included measurements taken from a scale model with one-third of the exhaust flow and computer modeling of the system with two-thirds of the exhaust flow. This report documents the results of the set-back flow condition measurements and modeling. Tests performed included flow angularity, uniformity of velocity, gas concentration, and particle concentration across the duct at the sampling location. Results are within ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests. These tests are applicable for the 325 Building stack under set-back exhaust flow operating conditions (980 - 45,400 cubic feet per minute [cfm]) with one fan running. The modeling results show that criteria are met for all tests using a two-fan configuration exhaust (flow modeled at 104,000 cfm). Combined with the results from the earlier normal operating conditions, the ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests

  19. SMALL SAMPLE SIZE IN 2X2 CROSS OVER DESIGNS: CONDITIONS OF DETERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B SOLEYMANI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Determination of small sample size in some clinical trials is a matter of importance. In cross-over studies which are one types of clinical trials, the matter is more significant. In this article, the conditions in which determination of small sample size in cross-over studies are possible were considered, and the effect of deviation from normality on the matter has been shown. Methods. The present study has been done on such 2x2 cross-over studies that variable of interest is quantitative one and is measurable by ratio or interval scale. The method of consideration is based on use of variable and sample mean"s distributions, central limit theorem, method of sample size determination in two groups, and cumulant or moment generating function. Results. In normal variables or transferable to normal variables, there is no restricting factors other than significant level and power of the test for determination of sample size, but in the case of non-normal variables, it should be determined such large that guarantee the normality of sample mean"s distribution. Discussion. In such cross over studies that because of existence of theoretical base, few samples can be computed, one should not do it without taking applied worth of results into consideration. While determining sample size, in addition to variance, it is necessary to consider distribution of variable, particularly through its skewness and kurtosis coefficients. the more deviation from normality, the more need of samples. Since in medical studies most of the continuous variables are closed to normal distribution, a few number of samples often seems to be adequate for convergence of sample mean to normal distribution.

  20. Pre-storage centrifugation conditions have significant impact on measured microRNA levels in biobanked EDTA plasma samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Helle Glud; Houlind, Kim; Madsen, Jonna Skov

    2016-01-01

    to be suitable for miRNA analysis. Materials and methods: Blood samples were collected from ten healthy volunteers and centrifuged to produce platelet-poor-plasma (PPP) and standard biobank plasma. After one week at -80 °C the biobanked EDTA plasma was re-centrifuged by different steps to remove residual...... was significantly higher in the re-centrifuged biobanked plasma compared to PPP, even when the platelet count was reduced to 0-1×109/L. Conclusion: We found, that pre-storage centrifugation conditions have a significant impact on the measured EDTA plasma level of miRNAs known to be present in platelets. Even...... for the miRNAs found to be less effected, we showed that a 1.5-3 fold change in plasma levels may possible be caused by or easily overseen due to sample preparation and/or storage....

  1. Stochastic approximation Monte Carlo importance sampling for approximating exact conditional probabilities

    KAUST Repository

    Cheon, Sooyoung

    2013-02-16

    Importance sampling and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods have been used in exact inference for contingency tables for a long time, however, their performances are not always very satisfactory. In this paper, we propose a stochastic approximation Monte Carlo importance sampling (SAMCIS) method for tackling this problem. SAMCIS is a combination of adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo and importance sampling, which employs the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm (Liang et al., J. Am. Stat. Assoc., 102(477):305-320, 2007) to draw samples from an enlarged reference set with a known Markov basis. Compared to the existing importance sampling and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, SAMCIS has a few advantages, such as fast convergence, ergodicity, and the ability to achieve a desired proportion of valid tables. The numerical results indicate that SAMCIS can outperform the existing importance sampling and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods: It can produce much more accurate estimates in much shorter CPU time than the existing methods, especially for the tables with high degrees of freedom. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  2. Genesis Solar Wind Interstream, Coronal Hole and Coronal Mass Ejection Samples: Update on Availability and Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allums, K. K.

    2017-01-01

    Recent refinement of analysis of ACE/SWICS data (Advanced Composition Explorer/Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer) and of onboard data for Genesis Discovery Mission of 3 regimes of solar wind at Earth-Sun L1 make it an appropriate time to update the availability and condition of Genesis samples specifically collected in these three regimes and currently curated at Johnson Space Center. ACE/SWICS spacecraft data indicate that solar wind flow types emanating from the interstream regions, from coronal holes and from coronal mass ejections are elementally and isotopically fractionated in different ways from the solar photosphere, and that correction of solar wind values to photosphere values is non-trivial. Returned Genesis solar wind samples captured very different kinds of information about these three regimes than spacecraft data. Samples were collected from 11/30/2001 to 4/1/2004 on the declining phase of solar cycle 23. Meshik, et al is an example of precision attainable. Earlier high precision laboratory analyses of noble gases collected in the interstream, coronal hole and coronal mass ejection regimes speak to degree of fractionation in solar wind formation and models that laboratory data support. The current availability and condition of samples captured on collector plates during interstream slow solar wind, coronal hole high speed solar wind and coronal mass ejections are de-scribed here for potential users of these samples.

  3. In Situ Visualization of the Phase Behavior of Oil Samples Under Refinery Process Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde-Boutet, Cedric; McCaffrey, William C

    2017-02-21

    To help address production issues in refineries caused by the fouling of process units and lines, we have developed a setup as well as a method to visualize the behavior of petroleum samples under process conditions. The experimental setup relies on a custom-built micro-reactor fitted with a sapphire window at the bottom, which is placed over the objective of an inverted microscope equipped with a cross-polarizer module. Using reflection microscopy enables the visualization of opaque samples, such as petroleum vacuum residues, or asphaltenes. The combination of the sapphire window from the micro-reactor with the cross-polarizer module of the microscope on the light path allows high-contrast imaging of isotropic and anisotropic media. While observations are carried out, the micro-reactor can be heated to the temperature range of cracking reactions (up to 450 °C), can be subjected to H2 pressure relevant to hydroconversion reactions (up to 16 MPa), and can stir the sample by magnetic coupling. Observations are typically carried out by taking snapshots of the sample under cross-polarized light at regular time intervals. Image analyses may not only provide information on the temperature, pressure, and reactive conditions yielding phase separation, but may also give an estimate of the evolution of the chemical (absorption/reflection spectra) and physical (refractive index) properties of the sample before the onset of phase separation.

  4. Migration of bisphenol A into canned tomatoes produced in Italy: dependence on temperature and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, Sonia; Bianco, Mariangela; Mita, Luigi; Migliaccio, Marina; Rossi, Sergio; Nicolucci, Carla; Menale, Ciro; Portaccio, Marianna; Gallo, Pasquale; Mita, Damiano G; Diano, Nadia

    2014-10-01

    A method based on solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography, coupled to UV-visible and fluorescence spectrophotometry, has been developed for determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in canned tomatoes. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the procedure used is 0.03 μM (0.26 μg BPA/kg tomato). For each of three different tomato based products (peeled, cherry and concentrated paste), 16 samples belonging to six commercial brands, retailed in Italian markets, were tested for migration of BPA epoxy-coating cans. All the tomato samples exhibited migration levels below 0.4 μg/kg, while samples subjected to heating process and/or can's damage by denting, exhibited a significant increase in the migration levels. In any case, no sample contained BPA exceeding the European Union limit for migration, set at 600 μg/kg of food. By comparing the results for each brand, no relevant difference in BPA concentration was found depending on the kind of tomato products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Institute procedures to assure that the identity of the treated animal or animals is carefully maintained... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals. 530.20 Section 530.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  6. Climatic conditions produce contrasting influences on demographic traits in a long-distance Arctic migrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleasby, Ian R; Bodey, Thomas W; Vigfusdottir, Freydis; McDonald, Jenni L; McElwaine, Graham; Mackie, Kerry; Colhoun, Kendrew; Bearhop, Stuart

    2017-03-01

    The manner in which patterns of variation and interactions among demographic rates contribute to population growth rate (λ) is key to understanding how animal populations will respond to changing climatic conditions. Migratory species are likely to be particularly sensitive to climatic conditions as they experience a range of different environments throughout their annual cycle. However, few studies have provided fully integrated demographic analyses of migratory populations in response to changing climatic conditions. Here, we employed integrated population models to demonstrate that the environmental conditions experienced during a short but critical period play a central role in the demography of a long-distance migrant, the light-bellied Brent goose (Branta bernicla hrota). Female survival was positively associated with June North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) values, whereas male survival was not. In contrast, breeding productivity was negatively associated with June NAO, suggesting a trade-off between female survival and reproductive success. Both adult female and adult male survival showed low temporal variation, whereas there was high temporal variation in recruitment and breeding productivity. In addition, while annual population growth was positively correlated with annual breeding productivity, a sensitivity analysis revealed that population growth was most sensitive to changes in adult survival. Our results demonstrate that the environmental conditions experienced during a relatively short-time window at the start of the breeding season play a critical role in shaping the demography of a long-distant Arctic migrant. Crucially, different demographic rates responded in opposing directions to climatic variation, emphasising the need for integrated analysis of multiple demographic traits when understanding population dynamics. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  7. Effects of Transport and Storage Conditions on Gene Expression in Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malentacchi, Francesca; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Wyrich, Ralf; Verderio, Paolo; Ciniselli, Chiara; Pazzagli, Mario; Gelmini, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Inappropriate handling of blood samples might induce or repress gene expression and/or lead to RNA degradation affecting downstream analysis. In particular, sample transport is a critical step for biobanking or multicenter studies because of uncontrolled variables (i.e., unstable temperature). We report the results of a pilot study implemented within the EC funded SPIDIA project, aimed to investigate the role of transport and storage of blood samples containing and not containing an RNA stabilizer. Blood was collected from a single donor both in EDTA and in PAXgene Blood RNA tubes. Half of the samples were sent to a second laboratory both at room temperature and at 4°C, whereas the remaining samples were stored at room temperature and at 4°C. Gene expression of selected genes (c-FOS, IL-1β, IL-8, and GAPDH) known to be induced or repressed by ex vivo blood handling and of blood-mRNA quality biomarkers identified and validated within the SPIDIA project, which allow for monitoring changes in unstabilized blood samples after collection and during transport and storage, were analyzed by RT-qPCR. If the shipment of blood in tubes not containing RNA stabilizer is not performed under a stable condition, gene profile studies can be affected by the effects of transport. Moreover, also controlled temperature shipment (4°C) can influence the expression of specific genes if blood is collected in tubes not containing a stabilizer. The use of dedicated biomarkers or time course experiments should be performed in order to verify potential bias on gene expression analysis due to sample shipment and storage conditions. Alternatively, the use of RNA stabilizer containing tubes can represent a reliable option to avoid ex vivo RNA changes.

  8. Detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates in faecal samples of Iberian lynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, A; Igrejas, G; Radhouani, H; Estepa, V; Alcaide, E; Zorrilla, I; Serra, R; Torres, C; Poeta, P

    2012-01-01

    To characterize the diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates recovered within the faecal microbiota of Iberian lynx. The identification of other associated resistance genes and the analysis of clonal relationship were also focused in this study. From 2008 to 2010, 128 faecal samples of Iberian lynx (wild and captive animals) were collected. Eleven tested samples contained cefotaxime-resistant E. coli isolates (all belonging to captive animals) and 10 ESBL-producing isolates were showed. CTX-M-14 and SHV-12 ESBL-types were detected and seven different patterns were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. The occurrence of unrelated multiresistant E. coli in faecal flora of captive specimens of Iberian lynx, including the presence of ESBLs, resistant genes in integrons and virulence determinants was showed in this study. The results obtained in this study highlight the environmental problem as future reintroductions of Iberian lynx could lead to a spread of resistant bacteria. Additionally, ESBL-producing bacteria can represent a health problem for this endangered species. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Stability of diazepam in blood samples at different storage conditions and in the presence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, V N; Stoykova, S; Runiov, A; Dimitrova, T; Aleksandrova, D; Tsakovski, S; Mitewa, M

    2012-02-10

    Diazepam is one of the mostly used benzodiazepines and it is frequently analyzed in different biological samples, especially blood samples. The diazepam stability in the sample matrices is an important factor regarding reliable data obtaining. The storage is the main factor determining the stability of diazepam in blood samples and it is the object of the study presented. Remaining diazepam amount in spiked whole blood and plasma samples were tested at different storage temperatures, in the absence or presence of sodium fluoride as stabilizer as well as the influence of ethanol on diazepam stability was evaluated. The results of the study indicated that the temperature is the main storage factor affecting diazepam stability. In the fluoride stabilized blood samples the amount of diazepam decreases up to 85% of initial level when stored at -20° C for the period of testing (12 weeks). The presence of low (0.5 g/L) or high (3g/L) ethanol concentrations influences the stability of diazepam at -20 °C. In whole blood samples, the combination of sodium fluoride and ethanol decreases additionally (15-25%) the concentration of the analyte. Freeze-thaw experiments of whole blood samples show about 5-9% decrease in diazepam concentration after the first cycle. The freeze-thaw experiments on plasma samples, containing ethanol and/or fluoride show insignificant decreases of analyte concentration. Further experiments on benzodiazepines stability at different storage conditions or in combination of different factors should be undertaken in forensic toxicology to ensure the data quality, their reliability and reproducibility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The finite sample performance of estimators for mediation analysis under sequential conditional independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Lechner, Michael; Mellace, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Using a comprehensive simulation study based on empirical data, this paper investigates the finite sample properties of different classes of parametric and semi-parametric estimators of (natural) direct and indirect causal effects used in mediation analysis under sequential conditional independence...... assumptions. The estimators are based on regression, inverse probability weighting, and combinations thereof. Our simulation design uses a large population of Swiss jobseekers and considers variations of several features of the data generating process and the implementation of the estimators...

  11. The finite sample performance of estimators for mediation analysis under sequential conditional independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Lechner, Michael; Mellace, Giovanni

    Using a comprehensive simulation study based on empirical data, this paper investigates the finite sample properties of different classes of parametric and semi-parametric estimators of (natural) direct and indirect causal effects used in mediation analysis under sequential conditional independence...... assumptions. The estimators are based on regression, inverse probability weighting, and combinations thereof. Our simulation design uses a large population of Swiss jobseekers and considers variations of several features of the data generating process and the implementation of the estimators...

  12. Bioluminescence-based identification of nisin producers - a rapid and simple screening method for nisinogenic bacteria in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virolainen, Nina; Guglielmetti, Simone; Arioli, Stefania; Karp, Matti

    2012-08-17

    We present a simple and rapid method for screening nisin producers that directly identifies nisinogenic bacteria by induction of bioluminescence within the Lactococcus lactis NZ9800lux biosensor strain (Immonen and Karp, 2007, Biosensors and Bioelectronics 22, 1982-7). An overlay of putative nisinogenic colonies with the biosensor strain gives identification results within 1h. Functionality and specificity of the method were verified by screening nisin producers among 144 raw milk colonies and a panel of 91 lactococcal strains. Studies performed on strains and colonies that did not induce bioluminescence but inhibited growth of the biosensor demonstrated that only nisinogenic bacteria can cause induction. Bacteria known to produce bacteriocins other than nisin failed to induce bioluminescence, further verifying the specificity of the assay. We discovered a non-inducing but inhibitory lactococcal strain harboring a modified nisin Z gene, and demonstrated that the source of the inhibitory action is not a non-inducing variant of nisin, but a bacteriocin of lower molecular weight. The concentration of nisin producers in a raw milk sample was 1.3 × 10(2)CFU/ml. We identified from raw milk a total of seven nisin Z producing L. lactis subsp. lactis colonies, which were shown by genetic fingerprinting to belong to three different groups. Among the panel of 91 lactococci, four strains were nisin A producers, and one strain harbored the modified nisin Z gene. The method presented here is robust, cost-effective and simple to perform, and avoids the pitfalls of traditional screening methods by directly specifying the identity of the inhibitory substance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Processing condition influence on the characteristics of gold nanoparticles produced by pulsed laser ablation in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikov, R.G., E-mail: rosen_nikov@abv.bg [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko Chaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Nikolov, A.S.; Nedyalkov, N.N.; Atanasov, P.A. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko Chaussee 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Alexandrov, M.T. [Institute of Experimental Pathology and Parasitology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, G. Bonchev Street, Building 25, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Karashanova, D.B. [Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, G. Bonchev Street, Building 109, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2013-06-01

    A study is presented of Au nanoparticles (NPs) created by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of a solid target in double distilled water. The influence was examined of the laser wavelength on the size, shape and optical properties of the resulting NPs. Three different wavelengths: the fundamental (λ = 1064 nm), second (λ{sub SHG} = 532) and third (λ{sub THG} = 355) harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser at the same fluence were utilized to produce various colloids. Ablation at the wavelength of 532 nm was investigated in more detail to reveal the influence of self-absorption by the already created NPs on their characteristics. The colloid produced was irradiated by λ{sub irrad} = 532 nm (laser energy 40 mJ) at different times up to 25 min after the end of ablation. The initial structure of welded NPs forming wires was modified. Transmission electron microscopy and optical transmission measurements were used to evaluate the shape and size distribution of the NPs.

  14. Viability of soybean seed produced under different agro-meteorological conditions in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaković Milka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At the time of soybean seed sowing in the field, a high soil moisture, low soil and air temperatures, and crasts formation may occur, which can lead to slow germination, poor seedling establishment, and in some cases to loss of seed vigor. Due to the importance and prevalence of soybean the aim of this study was to determine the quality and seed viability of different genotypes produced at three locations in Vojvodina during 2009 and 2010. Eight soybean varieties (Afrodita, Valjevka, Balkan, Novosadjanka, Ravnica, Ana, Vojvodjanka and Venera produced in Vrbas, Senta and Inđija during 2009 and 2010 were tested. Seed germination was determined using Standard laboratory test, and vigor tests (cold test, and accelerated aging test. Studied genotypes baheved differently in different years and at different localities. Genotype Venera achieved high germination values in all applied tests in 2009, while genotype Afrodita had high values of the tested parameter when conventional laboratory test was applied, and the lowest values were recorded when vigor tests were applied. Values obtained in 2010 when all tests were applied were above the prescribed minimum. Locality of Vrbas proved to be more favorable for seed production in relation to localities of Indjija and Senta due to better rainfall distribution.

  15. Source identification of N2O produced during simulated wastewater treatment under different oxygen conditions using stable isotopic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Azzaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O, a potent greenhouse gas which is important in climate change, is predicted to be the most dominant ozone depleting substance. It is mainly produced by oxidation of hydroxylamine (NH2OH or reduction of nitrite (NO2- during microbiological processes such as nitrification and denitrification. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP is one of the anthropogenic N2O sources because inorganic and organic nitrogen compounds are converted to nitrate (NO3-, in the case of standard system or N2 (in the case of advanced system by bacterial nitrification and denitrification in WWTP. We investigated the N2O production mechanisms during batch experiments that simulate wastewater treatment with activated sludge under various dissolved oxygen (DO concentrations by stable isotope analysis. About 125mL of water was sampled from 30L incubation chamber for several times during the incubation, and concentration and isotopomer ratios of N2O and N-containing species were measured using gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS. Ammonium (NH4+ consumption was accompanied by increment of nitrite (NO2-, and at the same time dissolved N2O concentration gradually increased to 4850 and 5650 nmol kg-1, respectively, during the four-hour incubation when DO concentrations were 0.2 and 0.5 mg L-1. Observed low SP values (0.2-8.9‰ at DO-0.2 mg L-1, -5.3-6.3‰ at DO-0.5 mg L-1, -1.0-8.3‰ at DO-0.8 mg L-1 in N2O and relationship of nitrogen isotope ratios between N2O and its potential substrates (NH4+, NO3- suggested that N2O produced under the aerobic condition derived mainly from NO2- reduction by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (nitrifier–denitrification.DOI: http://doi.dx.org/10.5564/mjc.v15i0.313Mongolian Journal of Chemistry  15 (41, 2014, p4-10  

  16. Effects of sampling conditions on DNA-based estimates of American black bear abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufenberg, Jared S.; Van Manen, Frank T.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    DNA-based capture-mark-recapture techniques are commonly used to estimate American black bear (Ursus americanus) population abundance (N). Although the technique is well established, many questions remain regarding study design. In particular, relationships among N, capture probability of heterogeneity mixtures A and B (pA and pB, respectively, or p, collectively), the proportion of each mixture (π), number of capture occasions (k), and probability of obtaining reliable estimates of N are not fully understood. We investigated these relationships using 1) an empirical dataset of DNA samples for which true N was unknown and 2) simulated datasets with known properties that represented a broader array of sampling conditions. For the empirical data analysis, we used the full closed population with heterogeneity data type in Program MARK to estimate N for a black bear population in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee. We systematically reduced the number of those samples used in the analysis to evaluate the effect that changes in capture probabilities may have on parameter estimates. Model-averaged N for females and males were 161 (95% CI = 114–272) and 100 (95% CI = 74–167), respectively (pooled N = 261, 95% CI = 192–419), and the average weekly p was 0.09 for females and 0.12 for males. When we reduced the number of samples of the empirical data, support for heterogeneity models decreased. For the simulation analysis, we generated capture data with individual heterogeneity covering a range of sampling conditions commonly encountered in DNA-based capture-mark-recapture studies and examined the relationships between those conditions and accuracy (i.e., probability of obtaining an estimated N that is within 20% of true N), coverage (i.e., probability that 95% confidence interval includes true N), and precision (i.e., probability of obtaining a coefficient of variation ≤20%) of estimates using logistic regression. The capture probability

  17. Optimization of culturing conditions of recombined Escherichia coli to produce umami octopeptide-containing protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Wei, Xiong; Lu, Zhou; Pan, Zhongli; Gou, Xinhua; Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar; Guo, Siya; Zhao, Liming

    2017-07-15

    Using synthesized peptides to verify the taste of natural peptides was probably the leading cause for tasting disputes regarding umami peptides. A novel method was developed to prepare the natural peptide which could be used to verify the taste of umami peptide. A controversial octopeptide was selected and gene engineering was used to structure its Escherichia coli. expressing vector. A response surface method was adopted to optimize the expression conditions of the recombinant protein. The results of SDS-PAGE for the recombinant protein indicated that the recombinant expression system was successfully structured. The fitting results of the response surface experiment showed that the OD 600 value was the key factor which influenced the expression of the recombinant protein. The optimal culturing process conditions predicted with the fitting model were an OD 600 value of 0.5, an IPTG concentration of 0.6mM, a culturing temperature of 28.75°C and a culturing time of 5h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Processing Conditions Affecting Grain Size and Mechanical Properties in Nanocomposites Produced via Cold Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, P.; Perrone, A.; Silvello, A.

    2014-10-01

    Cold spray is a coating technology based on aerodynamics and high-speed impact dynamics. In this process, spray particles (usually 1-50 μm in diameter) are accelerated to a high velocity (typically 300-1200 m/s) by a high-speed gas (pre-heated air, nitrogen, or helium) flow that is generated through a convergent-divergent de Laval-type nozzle. A coating is formed through the intensive plastic deformation of particles impacting on a substrate at a temperature below the melting point of the spray material. In the present paper the main processing parameters affecting the microstructural and mechanical behavior of metal-metal cold spray deposits are described. The effect of process parameters on grain refinement and mechanical properties were analyzed for composite particles of Al-Al2O3, Ni-BN, Cu-Al2O3, and Co-SiC. The properties of the formed nanocomposites were compared with those of the parent materials sprayed under the same conditions. The process conditions, leading to a strong grain refinement with an acceptable level of the deposit mechanical properties such as porosity and adhesion strength, are discussed.

  19. Occurrence of Cellulose-Producing Gluconacetobacter spp. in Fruit Samples and Kombucha Tea, and Production of the Biopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neera; Ramana, Karna Venkata; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2015-06-01

    Cellulose producing bacteria were isolated from fruit samples and kombucha tea (a fermented beverage) using CuSO4 solution in modified Watanabe and Yamanaka medium to inhibit yeasts and molds. Six bacterial strains showing cellulose production were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain DFBT, Ga. xylinus strain dfr-1, Gluconobacter oxydans strain dfr-2, G. oxydans strain dfr-3, Acetobacter orientalis strain dfr-4, and Gluconacetobacter intermedius strain dfr-5. All the cellulose-producing bacteria were checked for the cellulose yield. A potent cellulose-producing bacterium, i.e., Ga. xylinus strain DFBT based on yield (cellulose yield 5.6 g/L) was selected for further studies. Cellulose was also produced in non- conventional media such as pineapple juice medium and hydrolysed corn starch medium. A very high yield of 9.1 g/L cellulose was obtained in pineapple juice medium. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) analysis of the bacterial cellulose showed the characteristic peaks. Soft cellulose with a very high water holding capacity was produced using limited aeration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the surface characteristics of normal bacterial cellulose and soft cellulose. The structural analysis of the polymer was performed using (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). More interfibrillar space was observed in the case of soft cellulose as compared to normal cellulose. This soft cellulose can find potential applications in the food industry as it can be swallowed easily without chewing.

  20. Biofilm-induced bioclogging produces sharp interfaces in hyporheic flow, redox conditions, and microbial community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Alice; Boano, Fulvio; Ridolfi, Luca; Chopp, David L.; Packman, Aaron

    2017-05-01

    Riverbed sediments host important biogeochemical processes that play a key role in nutrient dynamics. Sedimentary nutrient transformations are mediated by bacteria in the form of attached biofilms. The influence of microbial metabolic activity on the hydrochemical conditions within the hyporheic zone is poorly understood. We present a hydrobiogeochemical model to assess how the growth of heterotrophic and autotrophic biomass affects the transport and transformation of dissolved nitrogen compounds in bed form-induced hyporheic zones. Coupling between hyporheic exchange, nitrogen metabolism, and biomass growth leads to an equilibrium between permeability reduction and microbial metabolism that yields shallow hyporheic flows in a region with low permeability and high rates of microbial metabolism near the stream-sediment interface. The results show that the bioclogging caused by microbial growth can constrain rates and patterns of hyporheic fluxes and microbial transformation rate in many streams.

  1. Effect of culture conditions on the growth of biomass Yarrowia lipolytica - producing protein feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Korneeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fodder yeast is highly valuable protein-vitamin products. Protein digestibility by yeast and amino acid content, superior proteins of animal origin. Fodder yeast protein digested in animals by 95 %. The biological value of yeast protein is determined by the presence of a significant amount of essential amino acids. Moreover, yeast cells contain many vitamins microelement and a significant amount of fat, in which the predominant unsaturated fatty acid. Currently, fodder yeast successfully used in livestock and poultry, so the demand for them is increasing every year. For the production of fodder yeast using a yeast having the necessary technological properties: the ability of rapid growth in aerobic conditions to form protein, amino acids and vitamins, resistant crop production, the development of resistance to foreign microorganisms. Intensive education yeast biomass contributes to a number of conditions, including pH, temperature and aeration of the culture occupy an important place. The main criterion for comparison and selection of a culture medium for this is the speed of its growth and ability to assimilate all of the nutrients with high economic factor. It depends on the performance of the enterprise, energy consumption and other technical - economic performance. The effect of pH of the medium on the biomass accumulation of yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Found that at pH 5,2 - 5,5 observed maximum growth rate of the yeast cells. The effect of temperature on the accumulation of yeast biomass. The temperature of the culture medium determines the intensity of metabolism in cells. It was found that the optimal growth temperature of the culture Yarrowia lipolytica is 33 0C. The effect of aeration on the growth rate of yeast cells. Tro-established that the maximum increase of biomass was obtained with the aeration of 70 cm3 /cm3hrs.

  2. Influence of reducing conditions on metallic elements released from various contaminated soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareuil, Priscilla; Pénilla, Sonia; Ozkan, Nursen; Bordas, François; Bollinger, Jean-Claude

    2008-10-15

    The redox conditions of soil may have significant consequences for the mobility of metallic elements (ME), but unlike pH, very few studies have investigated this parameter. A procedure was established to study the solubilization of ME from soil samples in various reducing conditions using a batch method and sodium ascorbate solutions. The change in redox potential from +410 to +10 mV was studied from four contaminated soil samples (designated A-D) of different origins and compositions. The results showed that ME mobilization greatly increased with decreasing redox potential within a limited and very sensitive range. Depending on the soil sample studied, various sensitive ranges of potentials were obtained (A, 220-345 mV; B, 280-365 mV; C, 260-360 mV; and D, 240-380 mV), and the induced percentages of ME mobilization varied (i.e., maximal values for Zn: A, 45%; B, 59%; C, 53%; and D, 58%). The results could be explained by the combined effect of potential and pH decrease on ME-carrying phases; in particular, Fe and Mn (oxy)hydroxides.

  3. Nanoscale Mineralogy and Composition of Experimental Regolith Agglutinates Produced under Asteroidal Impact Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Roy; Cintala, M. J.; Keller, L. P.; See, T. H.; Horz, F.

    2013-01-01

    On the Moon, the energetics of smaller impactors and the physical/chemical characteristics of the granular regolith target combine to form a key product of lunar space weathering: chemically reduced shock melts containing optically-active nanophase Fe metal grains (npFe0) [1]. In addition to forming the optically dark glassy matrix phase in lunar agglutinitic soil particles [1], these shock melts are becoming increasingly recognized for their contribution to optically active patina coatings on a wide range of exposed rock and grain surfaces in the lunar regolith [2]. In applying the lessons of lunar space weathering to asteroids, the potential similarities and differences in regolith-hosted shock melts on the Moon compared to those on asteroids has become a topic of increasing interest [3,4]. In a series of impact experiments performed at velocities applicable to the asteroid belt [5], Horz et al. [6] and See and Horz [7] have previously shown that repeated impacts into a gabbroic regolith analog target can produce melt-welded grain aggregates morphologically very similar to lunar agglutinates [6,7]. Although these agglutinate-like particles were extensively analyzed by electron microprobe and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as part of the original study [7], a microstructural and compositional comparison of these aggregates to lunar soil agglutinates at sub-micron scales has yet to be made. To close this gap, we characterized a representative set of these aggregates using a JEOL 7600 field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and JEOL 2500SE field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM) both optimized for energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) compositional spectrum imaging at respective analytical spatial resolutions of 0.5 to 1 micron, and 2 to 4 nm.

  4. [Influence of an observer in the haemolysis produced during the extraction of blood samples in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel-Peña, N; Mérida-de la Torre, F J

    2015-01-01

    To check whether an intervention based on direct observation and complementary information to nurses helps reduce haemolysis when drawing blood specimens. Random sampling study in primary care centres in the serrania de Málaga health management area, using a cross-sectional, longitudinal pre- and post-intervention design. The study period was from August 2012 to January 2015. The level of free haemoglobin was measured by direct spectrophotometry in the specimens extracted. It was then checked whether the intervention influenced the level of haemolysis, and if this was maintained over time. The mean haemolysis measured pre-intervention was 17%, and after intervention it was 6.1%. A year later and under the same conditions, the frequency of haemolysis was measured again the samples analysed, and the percentage was 9% These results are low when compared to the level obtained pre-intervention, but are higher when compared to the levels obtained immediately after the intervention. The transport and analysis conditions were the same. An intervention based on a direct and informative observation in the process of collecting blood samples contributes significantly to reduce the level of haemolysis. This effect is maintained in time. This intervention needs to be repeated to maintain its effectiveness. Audits and continuing education programs are useful for quality assurance procedures, and maintain the level of care needed for a good quality of care. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Degradation of carbon-based materials under ablative conditions produced by a high enthalpy plasma jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Petraconi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A stationary experiment was performed to study the degradation of carbon-based materials by immersion in a plasma jet. In the experiment, graphite and C/C composite were chosen as the target materials, and the reactive plasma jet was generated by an air plasma torch. For macroscopic study of the material degradation, the sample’s mass losses were measured as function of the exposure time under various temperatures on the sample surface. A microscopic analysis was then carried out for the study of microscopic aspects of the erosion of material surface. These experiments showed that the mass loss per unit area is approximately proportional to the exposure time and strongly depends on the temperature of the material surface. The mass erosion rate of graphite was appreciably higher than the C/C composite. The ablation rate in the carbon matrix region in C/C composite was also noticeably higher than that in the fiber region. In addition, the latter varied according to the orientation of fibers relatively to the flow direction. These tests indicated an excellent ablation resistance of the C/C composite, thus being a reliable material for rocket nozzles and heat shielding elements of the protection systems of hypersonic apparatuses from aerodynamic heating.

  6. Influence of Deposition Condition on Y2O3 Coatings Produced by Pulsed Electrophoretic Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Miyazaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Y2O3 nanoparticle suspension aqueous solution was prepared using citric acid. Then, Y2O3 film was deposited using this solution with pulsed electrophoretic deposition (EPD. A dense Y2O3 film of 25.7 μm thickness was obtained with deposition conditions of 0.5 wt% Y2O3 concentration, bias voltage of 0.5 V, and bias frequency of 1 kHz. The respective resistivities of the as-deposited film and films heat-treated at 200°C and 400°C were 2.84 × 103 Ω·cm, 5.36 × 104 Ω·cm, and 2.05 × 106 Ω·cm. A 59.8 μm thick dense Y2O3 film was obtained using two-step deposition with change of the bias voltage: a first step of 0.5 V and a second step of 2.0 V.

  7. Biomass and terpenoids produced by mutant strains of Arthrospira under low temperature and light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian; Shen, Songdong; Wu, Hao; Liu, Xin; Shen, Weijie; He, Yuan; Duan, R

    2017-02-01

    The filamentous Cyanobacterium Arthrospira is commercially produced and is a functional, high-value, health food. We identified 5 low temperature and low light intensity tolerant strains of Arthrospira sp. (GMPA1, GMPA7, GMPB1, GMPC1, and GMPC3) using ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis and low temperature screening. The 5 Arthrospira strains grew rapidly below 14 °C, 43.75 μmol photons m -2  s -1 and performed breed conservation at 2.5 °C, 8.75 μmol photons m -2  s -1 . We used morphological identification and molecular genetic analysis to identify GMPA1, GMPA7, GMPB1 and GMPC1 as Arthrospira platensis, while GMPC3 was identified as Arthrospira maxima. Growth at different culture temperatures was determined at regular intervals using dry biomass. At 16 °C and 43.75 μmol photons m -2  s -1 , the maximum dry biomass production and the mean dry biomass productivity of GMPA1, GMPB1, and GMPC1 were 2057 ± 80 mg l -1 , 68.7 ± 2.5 mg l -1  day -1 , 1839 ± 44 mg l -1 , 60.6 ± 1.8 mg l -1  day -1 , and 2113 ± 64 mg l -1 , 77.7 ± 2.5 mg l -1  day -1 respectively. GMPB1 was chosen for additional low temperature tolerance studies and growth temperature preference. In winter, GMPB1 grew well at mean temperatures terpenoids, and the methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway is the only terpenoid biosynthetic pathway in Cyanobacteria. The 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) gene from GMPB1 was cloned and phylogenetic analysis showed that GMPB1 is closest to the Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC711. Low temperature tolerant Arthrospira strains could broaden the areas suitable for cultivation, extend the seasonal cultivation time, and lower production costs.

  8. Comparison of core sampling and visual inspection for assessment of concrete sewer pipe condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanić, N; de Haan, C; Tirion, M; Langeveld, J G; Clemens, F H L R

    2013-01-01

    Sewer systems are costly to construct and even more costly to replace, requiring proper asset management. Sewer asset management relies to a large extent on available information. In sewer systems where pipe corrosion is the dominant failure mechanism, visual inspection by closed circuit television (CCTV) and core sampling are among the methods mostly applied to assess sewer pipe condition. This paper compares visual inspection and drill core analysis in order to enhance further understanding of the limitations and potentials of both methods. Both methods have been applied on a selected sewer reach in the city of The Hague, which was reportedly subject to pipe corrosion. Results show that both methods, visual inspection and core sampling, are associated with large uncertainties and that there is no obvious correlation between results of visual inspection and results of drill core analysis.

  9. Environmental and mental conditions predicting the experience of involuntary musical imagery: An experience sampling method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floridou, Georgia A; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    An experience sampling method (ESM) study on 40 volunteers was conducted to explore the environmental factors and psychological conditions related to involuntary musical imagery (INMI) in everyday life. Participants reported 6 times per day for one week on their INMI experiences, relevant contextual information and associated environmental conditions. The resulting data was modeled with Bayesian networks and led to insights into the interplay of factors related to INMI experiences. The activity that a person is engaged was found to play an important role in the experience of mind wandering, which in turn enables the experience of INMI. INMI occurrence is independent of the time of the day while the INMI trigger affects the subjective evaluation of the INMI experience. The results are compared to findings from earlier studies based on retrospective surveys and questionnaires and highlight the advantage of ESM techniques in research on spontaneous experiences like INMI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Childhood Exposure to Violence and Chronic Physical Conditions in a National Sample of US Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Basu, Archana; Walsh, Kate; Slopen, Natalie; Sumner, Jennifer A; Koenen, Karestan C; Keyes, Katherine M

    Exposure to violence is associated with chronic physical conditions in adults. Although violence exposure is common among youths, it is unknown whether violence is associated with chronic physical conditions in childhood and adolescence. We examined the associations of violence exposure with chronic physical conditions in a population-representative sample of US adolescents and determined whether associations were explained by co-occurring mental disorders. Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national cross-sectional survey of 6,483 adolescents (ages 13-17). Lifetime exposure to violence; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition mood, anxiety, and substance disorders; and self-reported arthritis, frequent headaches, back or neck problems, other chronic pain, asthma, and allergies were assessed. One in 4 (24.99%) adolescents reported exposure to violence. Violence exposure was associated with elevated odds of back/neck pain, headaches, chronic pain, allergies, and asthma (odds ratio [OR], 1.5-2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-3.5) after adjustment for sociodemographics, socioeconomic status, and lifetime mental disorders. Regarding new onsets, violence exposure was associated with greater hazard for subsequent first-onset only of back/neck pain (hazard ratio, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.0) and headaches (hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8), and these associations were explained by early-onset mental disorders. Childhood violence exposure is associated with chronic physical conditions that emerge early in the life course, although associations are stronger for prevalent than incident conditions. Violence exposure predicts incident pain conditions only, and these associations are explained by mental disorders that begin after violence exposure. Interventions and policies aimed at preventing violence and detecting and treating early-onset mental disorders have the potential to reduce

  11. Alternaria sp. MG1, a resveratrol-producing fungus: isolation, identification, and optimal cultivation conditions for resveratrol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junling; Zeng, Qin; Liu, Yanlin; Pan, Zhongli

    2012-07-01

    Due to its potential in preventing or slowing the occurrence of many diseases, resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) has attracted great research interest. The objective of this study was to identify microorganisms from selected plants that produce resveratrol and to optimize the conditions for resveratrol production. Endophytes from Merlot wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot), wild Vitis (Vitis quinquangularis Rehd.), and Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum Siebold & Zucc.) were isolated, and their abilities to produce resveratrol were evaluated. A total of 65 isolates were obtained and 21 produced resveratrol (6-123 μg/L) in liquid culture. The resveratrol-producing isolates belonged to seven genera, Botryosphaeria, Penicillium, Cephalosporium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Mucor, and Alternaria. The resveratrol-producing capability decreased or was completely lost in most isolates after three rounds of subculture. It was found that only the strain Alternaria sp. MG1 (isolated from cob of Merlot using GA1 medium) had stable and high resveratrol-producing capability in all subcultures. During liquid cultivation of Alternaria sp. MG1 in potato dextrose medium, the synthesis of resveratrol began on the first day, increased to peak levels on day 7, and then decreased sharply thereafter. Cell growth increased during cultivation and reached a stable and high level of biomass after 5 days. The best fermentation conditions for resveratrol production in liquid cultures of Alternaria sp. MG1 were an inoculum size of 6 %, a medium volume of 125 mL in a 250-mL flask, a rotation speed of 101 rpm, and a temperature of 27 °C.

  12. Effect of culture conditions on producing and uptake hydrogen flux of biohydrogen fermentation by metabolic flux analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kun; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Wen-Song; Zhu, Ming-Long

    2011-08-01

    In this work, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) method was used to estimate the effects of the culture conditions on both the producing and uptake hydrogen flux inside the cell of Klebsiella pneumoniae ECU-15. The results indicated that higher temperature could reduce the amount of the uptake hydrogen and enhance the hydrogen production from the NADH pathway. Moreover, both the producing hydrogen flux from formate and the uptake hydrogen flux were attained to the maximum at pH 7.0-7.5. The producing hydrogen flux was higher at 5g/L initial glucose than that of the other concentrations, and the uptake hydrogen flux showed the minimum value under the same condition. The apparent hydrogen generation was caused by the combined action of producing hydrogenase, uptake hydrogenase and bidirectional hydrogenase. These results were helpful to deeply understand the mechanism of the biohydrogen evolving process and establish the suitable molecular strategies for improving hydrogen production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Stability of alpha-tocopherol: pre-analytical conditions in its determination in blood samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezequel-Cuer, M; Le Moël, G; Covi, G; Lepage, S; Peynet, J; Gousson-Evstigneeff, T; Laureaux, C; Troupel, S

    1994-01-01

    Incomplete and controversial data exist concerning vitamin E or alpha-tocopherol stability in biological samples. Recent clinical interest in the protective function of alpha-tocopherol provided another reason for the setting-up of a multicenter study by the Sociéte Française de Biologie Clinique. Our purpose was to examine the effects on alpha-tocopherol stability, firstly, of collection and transportation of blood samples, and, secondly, of the temperature (-20 degrees C and -80 degrees C) and period of storage of serum or plasma. alpha-tocopherol was determined in serum or plasma by isocratic liquid chromatography with UV detection at 292 nm. Our results established that alpha-tocopherol was extremely stable in blood, serum or plasma over 8 hours without special handling conditions (light, temperature). Pools of serum or plasma were stable for at least 3 months at -20 degrees C and -80 degrees C. They are suitable for use in the quality control of alpha-tocopherol. On the other hand, in some samples, we observed great variability in the rate of alpha-tocopherol degradation. However, there was lesser degradation when these plasma samples were stored at -80 degrees C instead of -20 degrees C. We therefore do not advise storing serum or plasma for more than 1 month at -20 degrees C for more than 3 months at -80 degrees C. This latter temperature is recommended in epidemiological studies.

  14. An Investigation of the Prevalence of AmpC-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Clinical Samples in Zahedan City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Adabi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: AmpC beta-lactamases are among cephalosporinases encoded on the chromosomes of many Enterobacteriaceae. In many bacteria, induction of AmpC enzymes can be made at a very high level by numerous mutations. In this study, the prevalence of chromosomal AmpC genes, was investigated in the isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from teaching hospitals in Zahedan city in 2015. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 100 P. aeruginosa isolates were isolated from 391 clinical samples using biochemical and conventional methods. cefoxitin (30μg disk diffusion method was used to isolate AmpC-producing strains, and multiplex PCR was used to identify chromosomal AmpC genes. ESBL containing strains was assessed using ceftazidime (30μg and cefotaxime/clavulanic acid (30μg/10μg disk diffusion tests. Data analysis was performed using χ2 test. Results: In primary phenotypic screening, out of 100 P. aeruginosa isolated, 88 isolates were ESBL producers and 20 isolates (20% were AmpC beta-lactamase producers. Among 20 phenotypically identified AmpC producing isolates, 19 isolates (95% had FOX gene, 7 isolates (35% had EBC gene, 4 isolates (20% had ACC gene, and 15 isolates isolates (75% had DHA gene, which were detected by multiPlex PCR assay. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that the presence of AmpC leads to resistance of bacteria to many cephalosporins. Also, use of multiplex PCR yields the best results in the group identification of these genes.

  15. Validation of a novel rinse and filtration method for efficient processing of fresh produce samples for microbiological indicator enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Norma; Solís-Soto, Luisa; Venegas, Fabiola; Bartz, Faith E; de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Leon, Juan S; García, Santos

    2015-03-01

    Several methods have been described to prepare fresh produce samples for microbiological analysis, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a novel combined rinse and membrane filtration method to two alternative sample preparation methods for the quantification of indicator microorganisms from fresh produce. Decontaminated cantaloupe melons and jalapeño peppers were surface inoculated with a cocktail containing 10(6) CFU/ml Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Enterococcus faecalis. Samples were processed using a rinse and filtration method, homogenization by stomacher, or a sponge-rubbing method, followed by quantification of bacterial load using culture methods. Recovery efficiencies of the three methods were compared. On inoculated cantaloupes, the rinse and filtration method had higher recovery of coliforms (0.95 log CFU/ml higher recovery, P = 0.0193) than the sponge-rubbing method. Similarly, on inoculated jalapeños, the rinse and filtration method had higher recovery for coliforms (0.84 log CFU/ml higher, P = 0.0130) and E. coli (1.46 log CFU/ml higher, P filtration method outperformed the homogenization method for all three indicators (0.79 to 1.71 log CFU/ml higher, P values ranging from 0.0075 to 0.0002). The precision of the three methods was also compared. The precision of the rinse and filtration method was similar to that of the other methods for recovery of two of three indicators from cantaloupe (E. coli P = 0.7685, E. faecalis P = 0.1545) and was more precise for recovery of two of three indicators from jalapeño (coliforms P = 0.0026, E. coli P = 0.0243). Overall, the rinse and filtration method performed equivalent to, and sometimes better than, either of the compared methods. The rinse and filtration method may have logistical advantages when processing large numbers of samples, improving sampling efficiency and facilitating microbial detection.

  16. Simultaneous occurrence of MRSA and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae on pig farms and in nasal and stool samples from farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Julia; Hille, Katja; Ruddat, Inga; Mellmann, Alexander; Köck, Robin; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2017-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing enterobacteria (ESBL-E) have emerged in livestock. This study prospectively investigates the prevalence of MRSA and ESBL-E on pig farms and in nasal and stool samples from farmers and compares molecular characteristics of these ESBL-E isolates. In 2014, samples were derived at 51 pig farms in Germany. Per farm, five dust and five fecal samples were collected; one nasal and one stool sample were retrieved from farmers. ESBL-E isolates from humans and environmental isolates from the respective farms were characterized using whole genome sequencing for classical multilocus sequence typing (MLST), determination of ESBL-encoding genes and an ad hoc core genome MLST (cgMLST) analysis. MRSA and ESBL-E were detected on 49 (96%) and 31 (61%) of the farms, respectively; in most cases (59%) simultaneously. Nasal MRSA carriage was detected in 72 of 85 (84.7%) farmers and five of 84 (6.0%) farmers carried ESBL-E. ESBL-Escherichia coli isolates from farmers belonged to MLST STs/ESBL-genes ST10/CTX-M-1, ST196/TEM-52, ST278/TEM-52, ST410/CTX-M-15 and ST453/CTX-M-1. In one case, the human ESBL-E isolate was clonally identical to isolates from the farm environment; in the other four cases typing results indicated potential exchange of resistance determinants between human and environmental isolates, but, comparing the isolates within a minimum spanning tree indicated differences in cgMLST-patterns between the farms (p=0.076). This study demonstrated rectal ESBL-E carriage rates among farmers, which were similar to those in the general population. Molecular typing suggested that cross-transmission between the farmers and the farm environment is possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Neonatal ethanol produces cerebellar deep nuclear cell loss and correlated disruption of eyeblink conditioning in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, John T; Tran, Tuan; Steinmetz, Joseph E; Goodlett, Charles R

    2002-11-29

    Binge-like neonatal exposure to ethanol (EtOH) in rats, during the period of brain development comparable to that of the human third trimester, produces significant, dose-dependent Purkinje cell loss in the cerebellum and deficits in eyeblink classical conditioning. There are currently no published reports of whether neuronal loss in the cerebellar deep nuclei also results from binge-like neonatal exposure to EtOH and what the functional consequences of any cell loss might be. Since eyeblink conditioning requires cerebellar deep nuclear cells for normal learning to occur, we examined the effects of binge-like neonatal EtOH exposure on the total number of deep nuclear cells and eyeblink conditioning in adult rats. Group Ethanol (n=11) received EtOH doses of 5.25 g/kg/day on postnatal days 4-9, producing average peak blood alcohol concentrations of 363 mg/dl. Group Sham Intubated (n=11) underwent acute intragastric intubation on postnatal days 4-9 but did not receive any EtOH infusions. Group Unintubated Control (n=10) did not receive any intubations. When rats were at least 3 months old, they received either paired eyeblink conditioning or unpaired training. Following training, estimates of the total number of cerebellar deep nuclear cells were obtained using the optical fractionator, an unbiased stereological counting procedure. Rats in Group Ethanol had approximately 50% fewer deep nuclear cells compared to rats in Groups Sham Intubated and Unintubated Control, which did not differ. For 21 rats that received paired eyeblink conditioning, a highly significant correlation (+0.80) was found between the number of deep nuclear cells and learning rate in eyeblink conditioning. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  18. Diversity of bacteria producing pigmented colonies in aerosol, snow and soil samples from remote glacial areas (Antarctica, Alps and Andes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Toril, E.; Amils, R.; Delmas, R. J.; Petit, J.-R.; Komárek, J.; Elster, J.

    2008-04-01

    Four different communities and one culture of pigmented microbial assemblages were obtained by incubation in mineral medium of samples collected from high elevation snow in the Alps (Mt. Blanc area) and the Andes (Nevado Illimani summit, Bolivia), from Antarctic aerosol (French station Dumont d'Urville) and a maritime Antarctic soil (King George Island, South Shetlands, Uruguay Station Artigas). Molecular analysis of more than 200 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all cultured cells belong to the Bacteria domain. The phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rDNA database allowed the identification of sequences belonging to Proteobacteria (Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria), Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla. The Andes snow culture was the richest in bacterial diversity (eight microorganisms identified) and the maritime Antarctic soil the poorest (only one). Snow samples from Col du midi (Alps) and the Andes shared the highest number of identified microorganisms (Agrobacterium, Limnobacter, Aquiflexus and two uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clones). These two sampling sites also shared four sequences with the Antarctic aerosol sample (Limnobacter, Pseudonocardia and an uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clone). The only microorganism identified in the maritime Antarctica soil (Brevundimonas sp.) was also detected in the Antarctic aerosol. The two snow samples from the Alps only shared one common microorganism. Most of the identified microorganisms have been detected previously in cold environments (Dietzia kujamenisi, Pseudonocardia Antarctica, Hydrogenophaga palleronii and Brebundimonas sp.), marine sediments (Aquiflexus balticus, Pseudomonas pseudoalkaligenes, Pseudomonas sp. and one uncultured Alphaproteobacteria), and soils and rocks (Pseudonocardia sp., Agrobactrium sp., Limnobacter sp. and two uncultured Alphaproteobacetria clones). Air current dispersal is the best model to explain the presence of very specific microorganisms, like those

  19. The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and CTX-M-1 producing Escherichia coli in urine samples collected at Tabriz city Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltan Dallal MM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Numerous use of Beta Lactame in treatment of bacterial infections resulted in increments of drug resistance of such bacteria. One of difficulties in treatment of hospital infections is Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL among isolated clinical strains of E.coli. Since some of ESBL strains shows double reaction in drug sensitivity test at in vitro and in vivo condition, therefore it makes difficulties in selection of right treatment. In the last years, CTX-M enzymes have become the most prevalent ESBLs in worldwide. The prevalence of ESBL types largely remains unknown in many parts of the Iran. This study was made to find the prevalence of ESBL-producing E.coli and molecular detection of CTX-M-1 in Tabriz."n "nMethods: In the present study, 400 urine samples collected between November 2009 and April 2010, from Tabriz Hospitals were studied. Out of the 400 samples, 188 E.coli isolates were detected by standard biochemical tests. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was tested to 10 antibiotics by the disk agar diffusion (DAD method. ESBL production was screened by phenotypic test that included both separate and combined disk agar diffusion techniques. The screened isolates were investigated by PCR assay to detect CTX-M-1 gene."n "nResults: From the total 188 E.coli isolates, 82 (43.6% were shown to produce ESBLs by phenotypic test. During the PCR method on the 82 isolates, 69 (84.1% were confirmed as CTX-M-1 producing group."n "nConclusion: The present study showed that CTX-M-producing isolates were increasing among E.coli strains and indicated the need for adequate susceptibility tests in laboratories for choosing the appropriate antibiotics for treatment.

  20. Habitability Conditions Constrained by Martian Meteorites: Implications for Microbial Colonization and Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivak, J. N.; Banerjee, N.; Flemming, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    We report the results of a comparative study of the crustal environmental conditions recorded by several Martian meteorites (Nakhla, Los Angeles, and Zagami). Though no samples have yet been returned from Mars, numerous meteorites are known and these provide the only samples of the Martian crust currently available for study. Terrestrial basalts and other mafic igneous rocks are analogous in many ways to much of the Martian crust, as evidenced by the composition of known Martian meteorites and measurements from planetary missions [1]. Microorganisms are known to thrive in the terrestrial geosphere and make use of many different substrates within rock in the subsurface of the Earth [2]. The action of aqueous solutions in the Martian crust has been well established through the study of alteration mineral assemblages present in many Martian meteorites, such as the nakhlites [3]. Aqueous activity in terrestrial chemolithoautotrophic habitats provides numerous energy and nutrient sources for microbes [4], suggesting the potential for habitable endolithic environments in Martian rocks. Fayalite in Nakhla has experienced extensive aqueous alteration to reddish-brown 'iddingsite' material within a pervasive fracture system. Textural imaging shows the replacement of primary olivine with various alteration phases and infiltration of this alteration front into host grains. Geochemical analysis of the alteration material shows the addition of iron and silica and removal of magnesium during alteration. Novel In situ Micro-XRD and Raman Spectroscopy of this material reveals a new assemblage consisting of iron oxides, smectite clays, carbonates, and a minor serpentine component. The alteration mineral assemblage here differs from several that have been previously reported [4] [5], allowing for a reevaluation of the environmental conditions during fluid action. Los Angeles and Zagami show no evidence of aqueous activity, though their primary basaltic mineralogies show many

  1. A principled approach to deriving approximate conditional sampling distributions in population genetics models with recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Joshua S; Song, Yun S

    2010-09-01

    The multilocus conditional sampling distribution (CSD) describes the probability that an additionally sampled DNA sequence is of a certain type, given that a collection of sequences has already been observed. The CSD has a wide range of applications in both computational biology and population genomics analysis, including phasing genotype data into haplotype data, imputing missing data, estimating recombination rates, inferring local ancestry in admixed populations, and importance sampling of coalescent genealogies. Unfortunately, the true CSD under the coalescent with recombination is not known, so approximations, formulated as hidden Markov models, have been proposed in the past. These approximations have led to a number of useful statistical tools, but it is important to recognize that they were not derived from, though were certainly motivated by, principles underlying the coalescent process. The goal of this article is to develop a principled approach to derive improved CSDs directly from the underlying population genetics model. Our approach is based on the diffusion process approximation and the resulting mathematical expressions admit intuitive genealogical interpretations, which we utilize to introduce further approximations and make our method scalable in the number of loci. The general algorithm presented here applies to an arbitrary number of loci and an arbitrary finite-alleles recurrent mutation model. Empirical results are provided to demonstrate that our new CSDs are in general substantially more accurate than previously proposed approximations.

  2. Morphologies, microstructures, and mechanical properties of samples produced using laser metal deposition with 316 L stainless steel wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Mi, Gaoyang; Luo, Yuanqing; Jiang, Ping; Shao, Xinyu; Wang, Chunming

    2017-07-01

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) with a filler has been demonstrated to be an effective method for additive manufacturing because of its high material deposition efficiency, improved surface quality, reduced material wastage, and cleaner process environment without metal dust pollution. In this study, single beads and samples with ten layers were successfully deposited on a 316 L stainless steel surface under optimized conditions using a 4000 W continuous wave fibre laser and an arc welding machine. The results showed that satisfactory layered samples with a large deposition height and smooth side surface could be achieved under appropriate parameters. The uniform structures had fine cellular and network austenite grains with good metallurgical bonding between layers, showing an austenite solidification mode. Precipitated ferrite at the grain boundaries showed a subgrain structure with fine uniform grain size. A higher microhardness (205-226 HV) was detected in the middle of the deposition area, while the tensile strength of the 50 layer sample reached 669 MPa. In addition, ductile fracturing was proven by the emergence of obvious dimples at the fracture surface.

  3. Hybrid TiO2 -Ruthenium Nano-photosensitizer Synergistically Produces Reactive Oxygen Species in both Hypoxic and Normoxic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Rebecca C; Black, Kvar C L; Lane, Daniel D; Achilefu, Samuel

    2017-08-28

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is widely used to treat diverse diseases, but its dependence on oxygen to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) diminishes the therapeutic effect in a hypoxic environment, such as solid tumors. Herein, we developed a ROS-producing hybrid nanoparticle-based photosensitizer capable of maintaining high levels of ROS under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Conjugation of a ruthenium complex (N3) to a TiO2 nanoparticle afforded TiO2 -N3. Upon exposure of TiO2 -N3 to light, the N3 injected electrons into TiO2 to produce three- and four-fold more hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, than TiO2 at 160 mmHg. TiO2 -N3 maintained three-fold higher hydroxyl radicals than TiO2 under hypoxic conditions via N3-facilitated electron-hole reduction of adsorbed water molecules. The incorporation of N3 transformed TiO2 from a dual type I and II PDT agent to a predominantly type I photosensitizer, irrespective of the oxygen content. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection and Differentiation of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli from Clinical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eileen J.; Galanakis, Emmanouil; Thomas, Anita A.; Stapp, Jennifer R.; Rich, Shannon; Buccat, Anne Marie; Tarr, Phillip I.

    2015-01-01

    Timely accurate diagnosis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections is important. We evaluated a laboratory-developed real-time PCR (LD-PCR) assay targeting stx1, stx2, and rfbEO157 with 2,386 qualifying stool samples submitted to the microbiology laboratory of a tertiary care pediatric center between July 2011 and December 2013. Broth cultures of PCR-positive samples were tested for Shiga toxins by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (ImmunoCard STAT! enterohemorrhagic E. coli [EHEC]; Meridian Bioscience) and cultured in attempts to recover both O157 and non-O157 STEC. E. coli O157 and non-O157 STEC were detected in 35 and 18 cases, respectively. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) occurred in 12 patients (10 infected with STEC O157, one infected with STEC O125ac, and one with PCR evidence of STEC but no resulting isolate). Among the 59 PCR-positive STEC specimens from 53 patients, only 29 (54.7%) of the associated specimens were toxin positive by EIA. LD-PCR differentiated STEC O157 from non-O157 using rfbEO157, and LD-PCR results prompted successful recovery of E. coli O157 (n = 25) and non-O157 STEC (n = 8) isolates, although the primary cultures and toxin assays were frequently negative. A rapid “mega”-multiplex PCR (FilmArray gastrointestinal panel; BioFire Diagnostics) was used retrospectively, and results correlated with LD-PCR findings in 25 (89%) of the 28 sorbitol-MacConkey agar culture-negative STEC cases. These findings demonstrate that PCR is more sensitive than EIA and/or culture and distinguishes between O157 and non-O157 STEC in clinical samples and that E. coli O157:H7 remains the predominant cause of HUS in our institution. PCR is highly recommended for rapid diagnosis of pediatric STEC infections. PMID:25926491

  5. Influence of selective media on successful detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in food, fecal, and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Hussein S; Bollinger, Laurie M

    2008-06-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains have caused a large number of human illness outbreaks worldwide. In most cases, the infection was traced to consumption of meats or vegetables contaminated with cattle feces. To combat this public health problem, pre- and post-harvest control strategies are continuously implemented to assure food safety. Thus, rapid, reliable, and sensitive methods for STEC detection must be available to provide confidence not only in the meats or vegetables entering the food chain but also in testing humans with illnesses. As a result, enrichment for STEC has been a critical step in any successful protocol for their detection. The base media commonly used for STEC enrichment include sorbitol MacConkey agar, tryptic soy broth (TSB), E. coli broth, enterohemorrhagic E. coli broth, buffered peptone water (BPW), and brain heart infusion broth. In addition to bile salts, antibiotics (e.g., tellurite, cefixime, novobiocin, vancomycin, cefsulodin, and acriflavin) are used at different concentrations to enrich for STEC. In most published reports, however, the reasons for choosing the selective medium were not provided. Thus, this review was intended to evaluate the base media and antibiotics commonly used for STEC detection. The efficacy of a detection method will certainly depend on the choice of the base medium, selective agents, and their concentrations. The interactions among these factors are also expected to affect sensitivity of the detection method, especially when the test sample contains a small number of STEC cells. Because sensitivity of detection is expected to decline when testing for stressed or injured STEC cells, as is the case in environmental samples, a pre-enrichment step in TSB or BPW without antibiotics may be necessary. Future research should focus on identifying possible antibiotic combinations that effectively inhibit most background bacteria without affecting pathogenic STEC strains in the test sample.

  6. Does bone mineralization reflect economic conditions? An examination using a national US sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderdale, Diane S; Rathouz, Paul J

    2003-01-01

    Bone density is the most important determinant of osteoporotic fractures, which lead to significant morbidity, disability and mortality for older persons, particularly women. Sensitive periods for bone mineralization in infancy, childhood and adolescence overlap with those for height attainment. After peak density is reached in early adulthood, there is age-related decline. We ask whether bone density, as height, reflects economic conditions. Using the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a probability sample of the US population which over-sampled Blacks and Mexican Americans, we examine the associations between adult bone mineral content (BMC) adjusted for bone and body size and three economic indicators: education, height and the poverty income ratio (PIR). We compare four groups: US-born Whites, Blacks and Mexican Americans and Mexican-born Mexican Americans. Education is positively associated with BMC only for White women, although there are similar, non-significant associations for Black women and White and Black men. For women, BMC is more strongly associated with height for Mexican Americans, especially the Mexican-born, than for Whites. For men, the only significant association is a negative one with education for men born in Mexico. PIR is not significantly associated with BMC, although there is pattern of lower income being associated with lower BMC for Whites and Blacks and higher BMC for Mexican Americans. Bone density does not reflect economic conditions as strongly or consistently as does physical stature. However, for women there is evidence that lower economic status in childhood or adolescence is associated with lower bone density.

  7. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  8. The potential of tailoring the conditions of steam explosion to produce xylo-oligosaccharides from sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Flavia Azevedo; Marcondes, Wilian Fioreli; de Oliva Neto, Pedro; Pastore, Glaucia Maria; Saddler, Jack N; Arantes, Valdeir

    2017-11-15

    In this study, the potential of the steam explosion (SE) method to produce high levels XOS from sugarcane bagasse, a xylan-rich hemicellulosic feedstock, was assessed. The effect of different operating conditions on XOS production yield and selectivity were investigated using a mini-pilot scale SE unit. The results show that even under a non-optimized condition (190 °C, 5 min and 0.5% H2SO4 as catalyst), SE led to about 40% xylan recovery as XOS, which was comparable to the well-known, multi-step, enzymatic production of XOS from alkaline-extracted xylan, and other commonly employed chemical methods. In addition, the XOS-rich hydrolysate from SE constituted of greater diversity in the degree of polymerization, which has been shown to be desirable for prebiotic application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Clay catalyzed RNA synthesis under Martian conditions: Application for Mars return samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prakash C; Dubey, Krishna; Aldersley, Michael F; Sausville, Meaghen

    2015-06-26

    Catalysis by montmorillonites clay minerals is regarded as a feasible mechanism for the abiotic production and polymerization of key biomolecules on early Earth. We have investigated a montmorillonite-catalyzed reaction of the 5'-phosphorimidazolide of nucleosides as a model to probe prebiotic synthesis of RNA-type oligomers. Here we show that this model is specific for the generation of RNA oligomers despite deoxy-mononucleotides adsorbing equally well onto the montmorillonite catalytic surfaces. Optimum catalytic activity was observed over a range of pH (6-9) and salinity (1 ± 0.2 M NaCl). When the weathering steps of early Earth that generated catalytic montmorillonite were modified to meet Martian soil conditions, the catalytic activity remained intact without altering the surface layer charge. Additionally, the formation of oligomers up to tetramer was detected using as little as 0.1 mg of Na⁺-montmorillonite, suggesting that the catalytic activity of a Martian clay return sample can be investigated with sub-milligram scale samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Conditions Affecting the Accuracy of Classical Equating Methods for Small Samples under the NEAT Design: A Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnassee, Devdass

    2011-01-01

    Small sample equating remains a largely unexplored area of research. This study attempts to fill in some of the research gaps via a large-scale, IRT-based simulation study that evaluates the performance of seven small-sample equating methods under various test characteristic and sampling conditions. The equating methods considered are typically…

  11. Influence of gastrointestinal system conditions on adhesion of exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains to caco-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Onal Darilmaz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the transit tolerance of potential probiotic dairy Lactobacillus strains in human uppergastrointestinal tract in vitro, and to evaluate the effect of EPS production on the viability and adhesion of these strains. Survival and adhesion of two exopolysaccharide (EPS-producing L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains (B3 and B2 and E. coli ATCC11229 were assessed after the exposure of different pH (gastric juice and gastric plus pancreatic juice challenges. In the artificial gastric juice (pH 2, both the viability of the strain B3 and B2 was decreased. Artificial juice treatments significantly reduced the adhesion to caco-2 cells (P< 0.05. High EPS-producing B3 survived better in the adverse gastrointestinal conditions and showed better ability of adhesion to Caco-2 cells when assessed for competition with E. coli ATCC 11229 compared to low EPS-producing B2. This investigation showed that EPS production could be affected or be involved in the viability, adherence and competition of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains and support the potential of B3 strain for development of new probiotic products.

  12. Effects of different cryopreservation methods on post-thaw culture conditions of in vitro produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicacio, Alessandra Corallo; Simões, Renata; de Paula-Lopes, Fabiola Freitas; de Barros, Flavia Regina Oliveira; Peres, Maria Angelica; Assumpção, Mayra Elena Ortiz D'Avila; Visintin, Jose Antonio

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of cryopreservation protocols on subsequent development of in vitro produced bovine embryos under different culture conditions. Expanded in vitro produced blastocysts (n = 600) harvested on days 7-9 were submitted to controlled freezing [slow freezing group: 10% ethylene glycol (EG) for 10 min and 1.2°C/min cryopreservation]; quick-freezing [rapid freezing group: 10% EG for 10 min, 20% EG + 20% glycerol (Gly) for 30 s]; or vitrification [vitrification group: 10% EG for 10 min, 25% EG + 25% Gly for 30 s] protocols. Control group embryos were not exposed to cryoprotectant or cryopreservation protocols and the hatching rate was evaluated on day 12 post-insemination. In order to evaluate development, frozen-thawed embryos were subjected to granulosa cell co-culture in TCM199 or SOFaa for 4 days. Data were analyzed by PROC MIXED model using SAS Systems for Windows®. Values were significant at p embryos cultured in TCM199, slow freezing and vitrification group hatching rates were 44.65 ± 5.94% and 9.43 ± 6.77%, respectively. In embryos cultured in SOFaa, slow freezing and vitrification groups showed hatching rates of 11.65 ± 3.37 and 8.67 ± 4.47%, respectively. In contrast, the rapid freezing group embryos did not hatch, regardless of culture medium. The slow freezing group showed higher hatching rates than other cryopreservation groups. Under such conditions, controlled freezing (1.2°C/min) can be an alternative to cryopreservation of in vitro produced bovine embryos.

  13. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of beta-lactamase-producing Gram-negative isolates from outpatient clinical and environmental samples in the Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ibrahimagić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infections due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing isolates in patients are hard to treat and cause high morbidity and mortality. ESBL-producing bacteria have been increasingly detected in environmental samples in different countries since 2002, and have gained considerable attention worldwide.Methods: Antibiotic susceptibility of all isolates was determined using the disk diffusion method. The production of ESBLs was determined by the double-disk synergy test.Results: Among the outpatient clinical samples, out of 2857 Gram-negative bacteria, 184 (6.5% ESBL-producing bacteria were isolated. In this group, 143 (77.7% were from urine samples, 26 (14.1% from surgical wounds, 6 (3.3% from umbilical swabs, and 9 (4.9% from other patients sites (upper respiratory tract, cannula, eyes, genital swabs. Escherichia coli was isolated in 62 (33.7%, and Klebsiella spp. in 50 (27.8% cases. Among the environmental samples, out of 381 Gram-negative bacteria, 52 (13.6% were ESBL-producing isolates. In this group, 37 (71.2% were sampled from water, 7 (13.5% from food, and 8 (15.4% from environmental surfaces. The most prevalent ESBL-producing bacteria isolated from the environmental samples were E. coli (isolated from 26 samples, Klebsiella spp. (10, non-fermenters (9, and other bacteria isolated from 7 samples. The clinical outpatient ESBL-producing isolates showed resistance to all cephalosporins, ranging from 25% (cefepime to 100% (cefuroxime. The environmental ESBL-producing isolates showed resistance to cefuroxime, aztreonam, cefpodoxime, amoxicillin/clavulanate, and cefoxitin in the range of 65-100%.Conclusions: Prevalence of antibiotic resistance of ESBL-producing strains is high and requires routine detection of ESBL-producing isolates in the laboratories, designing of appropriate antibiotic prescribing policies and control of the risk factors.

  14. Biochemical diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma using plasma-free normetanephrine, metanephrine and methoxytyramine: importance of supine sampling under fasting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Därr, Roland; Pamporaki, Christina; Peitzsch, Mirko; Miehle, Konstanze; Prejbisz, Aleksander; Peczkowska, Mariola; Weismann, Dirk; Beuschlein, Felix; Sinnott, Richard; Bornstein, Stefan R; Neumann, Hartmut P; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Lenders, Jacques; Eisenhofer, Graeme

    2014-04-01

    To document the influences of blood sampling under supine fasting versus seated nonfasting conditions on diagnosis of phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGL) using plasma concentrations of normetanephrine, metanephrine and methoxytyramine. Biochemical testing for PPGL was performed on 762 patients at six centres, two of which complied with requirements for supine sampling after an overnight fast and four of which did not. Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas were found in 129 patients (67 noncompliant, 62 compliant) and not in 633 patients (195 noncompliant, 438 compliant). Plasma concentrations of normetanephrine and methoxytyramine did not differ between compliant and noncompliant sampling conditions in patients with PPGL but were 49-51% higher in patients without PPGL sampled under noncompliant compared with compliant conditions. The 97·5 percentiles of distributions were also higher under noncompliant compared with compliant conditions for normetanephrine (1·29 vs 0·79 nmol/l), metanephrine (0·49 vs 0·41 nmol/l) and methoxytyramine (0·42 vs 0·18 nmol/l). Use of upper cut-offs established from seated nonfasting sampling conditions resulted in substantially decreased diagnostic sensitivity (98% vs 85%). In contrast, use of upper cut-offs established from supine fasting conditions resulted in decreased diagnostic specificity for testing under noncompliant compared with compliant conditions (71% vs 95%). High diagnostic sensitivity of plasma normetanephrine, metanephrine and methoxytyramine for the detection of PPGL can only be guaranteed using upper cut-offs of reference intervals established with blood sampling under supine fasting conditions. With such cut-offs, sampling under seated nonfasting conditions can lead to a 5·7-fold increase in false-positive results necessitating repeat sampling under supine fasting conditions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Purification, Characterization, and Optimum Conditions of Fermencin SD11, a Bacteriocin Produced by Human Orally Lactobacillus fermentum SD11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannun, Phirawat; Piwat, Supatcharin; Teanpaisan, Rawee

    2016-06-01

    Fermencin SD11, a bacteriocin produced by human orally Lactobacillus fermentum SD11, was purified, characterized, and optimized in conditions for bacterial growth and bacteriocin production. Fermencin SD11 was purified using three steps of ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular weight was found to be 33,000 Da using SDS-PAGE and confirmed as 33,593.4 Da by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fermencin SD11 exhibited activity against a wide range of oral pathogens including cariogenic and periodontogenic pathogens and Candida. The active activity was stable between 60 - 80 °C in a pH range of 3.0 to 7.0. It was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes (proteinase K and trypsin), but it was not affected by α-amylase, catalase, lysozyme, and saliva. The optimum conditions for growth and bacteriocin production of L. fermentum SD11 were cultured at acidic with pH of 5.0-6.0 at 37 or 40 °C under aerobic or anaerobic conditions for 12 h. It is promising that L. fermentum SD11 and its bacteriocin may be an alternative approach for promoting oral health or prevention of oral diseases, e.g., dental caries and periodontitis, which would require further clinical trials.

  16. Identification of a New Marine Bacterial Strain SD8 and Optimization of Its Culture Conditions for Producing Alkaline Protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongxia; Yang, Muyang; Wang, Liping; Xian, Cory J

    2015-01-01

    While much attention has been given to marine microorganisms for production of enzymes, which in general are relatively more stable and active compared to those from plants and animals, studies on alkaline protease production from marine microorganisms have been very limited. In the present study, the alkaline protease producing marine bacterial strain SD8 isolated from sea muds in the Geziwo Qinhuangdao sea area of China was characterized and its optimal culture conditions were investigated. Strain SD8 was initially classified to belong to genus Pseudomonas by morphological, physiological and biochemical characterizations, and then through 16S rDNA sequence it was identified to be likely Pseudomonas hibiscicola. In addition, the culture mediums, carbon sources and culture conditions of strain SD8 were optimized for maximum production of alkaline protease. Optimum enzyme production (236U/mL when cultured bacteria being at 0.75 mg dry weight/mL fermentation broth) was obtained when the isolate at a 3% inoculum size was grown in LB medium at 20 mL medium/100mL Erlenmeyer flask for 48h culture at 30°C with an initial of pH 7.5. This was the first report of strain Pseudomonas hibiscicola secreting alkaline protease, and the data for its optimal cultural conditions for alkaline protease production has laid a foundation for future exploration for the potential use of SD8 strain for alkaline protease production.

  17. Oxygen produced by cyanobacteria in simulated Archaean conditions partly oxidizes ferrous iron but mostly escapes-conclusions about early evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantamäki, Susanne; Meriluoto, Jussi; Spoof, Lisa; Puputti, Eeva-Maija; Tyystjärvi, Taina; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2016-12-01

    The Earth has had a permanently oxic atmosphere only since the great oxygenation event (GOE) 2.3-2.4 billion years ago but recent geochemical research has revealed short periods of oxygen in the atmosphere up to a billion years earlier before the permanent oxygenation. If these "whiffs" of oxygen truly occurred, then oxygen-evolving (proto)cyanobacteria must have existed throughout the Archaean aeon. Trapping of oxygen by ferrous iron and other reduced substances present in Archaean oceans has often been suggested to explain why the oxygen content of the atmosphere remained negligible before the GOE although cyanobacteria produced oxygen. We tested this hypothesis by growing cyanobacteria in anaerobic high-CO2 atmosphere in a medium with a high concentration of ferrous iron. Microcystins are known to chelate iron, which prompted us also to test the effects of microcystins and nodularins on iron tolerance. The results show that all tested cyanobacteria, especially nitrogen-fixing species grown in the absence of nitrate, and irrespective of the ability to produce cyanotoxins, were iron sensitive in aerobic conditions but tolerated high concentrations of iron in anaerobicity. This result suggests that current cyanobacteria would have tolerated the high-iron content of Archaean oceans. However, only 1 % of the oxygen produced by the cyanobacterial culture was trapped by iron, suggesting that large-scale cyanobacterial photosynthesis would have oxygenated the atmosphere even if cyanobacteria grew in a reducing ocean. Recent genomic analysis suggesting that ability to colonize seawater is a secondary trait in cyanobacteria may offer a partial explanation for the sustained inefficiency of cyanobacterial photosynthesis during the Archaean aeon, as fresh water has always covered a very small fraction of the Earth's surface. If oxygenic photosynthesis originated in fresh water, then the GOE marks the adaptation of cyanobacteria to seawater, and the late-Proterozoic increase

  18. Biochemical diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma using plasma-free normetanephrine, metanephrine and methoxytyramine: importance of supine sampling under fasting conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darr, R.; Pamporaki, C.; Peitzsch, M.; Miehle, K.; Prejbisz, A.; Peczkowska, M.; Weismann, D.; Beuschlein, F.; Sinnott, R.; Bornstein, S.R.; Neumann, H.P.; Januszewicz, A.; Lenders, J.; Eisenhofer, G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document the influences of blood sampling under supine fasting versus seated nonfasting conditions on diagnosis of phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGL) using plasma concentrations of normetanephrine, metanephrine and methoxytyramine. DESIGN AND METHODS: Biochemical testing for

  19. PYROLIGNEOUS LIQUOR PRODUCED FROM ACACIA MEARNSII DE WILD WOOD UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS AS A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF CHEMICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina M. Furtado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mearnsii de Wild (black wattle is one of the most important trees planted in Southern Brazil for tannin extraction and charcoal production. The pyrolysis of the black wattle wood used for obtaining charcoal is performed in brick ovens, with the gas fraction being sent directly into the environment. The present study examines the condensable compounds present in the liquor produced from black wattle wood at different thermal degradation conditions, using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Branches of black wattle were thermally degraded at controlled ambient and temperature conditions. Overall, a higher variety of compounds were obtained under atmospheric air pressure than under synthetic air pressure. Most of the tentatively identified compounds, such as carboxylic acids, phenols, aldehydes, and low molecular mass lignin fragments, such as guayacol, syringol, and eugenol, were products of lignin thermoconversion. Substituted aromatic compounds, such as vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and 2-methoxy-4-propeny-phenol, were also identified. At temperatures above 200 ºC, furan, 2-acetylfuran, methyl-2-furoate, and furfural, amongst others, were identified as polysaccharide derivatives from cellulose and hemicellulose depolymerization. This study evidences the need for adequate management of the condensable by-products of charcoal production, both for economic reasons and for controlling their potential environmental impact.

  20. The occupational role of dental conditions among a consecutive sample of Spanish workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Javier; López-Valverde, Antonio; Clemot, Yolanda; Bravo, Manuel

    2011-11-01

    To assess the occupational impact of the mouth in terms of days of work loss in the last year and the perception of the working performance disturbance because of the oral conditions. A consecutive sample (n=269) of the Regional Government staff of the province of Granada (Spain) was recruited. Participants were asked about work loss related to health problems in the past 12 months, capturing the aetiological entities, the frequency of the work absent and the total days loss. Also subjects reported if they believed that mouth affects their occupational performance, and if they have perceived difficulties for carrying out work because of the mouth. Data on sociodemographic, behavioural and clinical factors were also gathered. Chi-squared test, Odds ratio (OR) and relative risk (RR) of perceived occupational role were used to quantify the effect of the modulating factors. Almost 40% of individuals were absent from work during the last year spending on average 5.4 days for recovering. Colds and musculoskeletal pathology were the major causes of sick leave. Dental disease caused short work absences (4 days on average) only in 2.8% of participants. However most of workers (62.5%) considered mouth to influence their occupational performance, mainly because of the pain-related events (61.7%), but only 4.1% of workers reported difficulties in carrying out their work in the past 12 months. Females (RR=1.3), participants attending regular dental visits (RR=1.4) and denture wearers (RR=2.5) were shown to have significantly higher risk of perceiving an occupational role of the mouth. Those workers reporting that mouth influences their work have significantly poorer oral health than counterparts. Most workers considered that mouth influences their occupational performance but dental disease has demonstrated to be a minor occupational cause of sick leave in terms of prevalence and magnitude of work loss.

  1. Microbial profiling of cpn60 universal target sequences in artificial mixtures of vaginal bacteria sampled by nylon swabs or self-sampling devices under different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, John J; Oh, Angela Yena; Hill, Janet E

    2017-05-01

    The vaginal microbiome is increasingly characterized by deep sequencing of universal genes. However, there are relatively few studies of how different specimen collection and sample storage and processing influence these molecular profiles. Here, we evaluate molecular microbial community profiles of samples collected using the HerSwab™ self-sampling device, compared to nylon swabs and under different storage conditions. In order to minimize technical variation, mixtures of 11 common vaginal bacteria in simulated vaginal fluid medium were sampled and DNA extracts prepared for massively parallel sequencing of the cpn60 universal target (UT). Three artificial mixtures imitating commonly observed vaginal microbiome profiles were easily distinguished and proportion of sequence reads correlated with the estimated proportion of the organism added to the artificial mixtures. Our results indicate that cpn60 UT amplicon sequencing quantifies the proportional abundance of member organisms in these artificial communities regardless of swab type or storage conditions, although some significant differences were observed between samples that were stored frozen and thawed prior to DNA extraction, compared to extractions from samples stored at room temperature for up to 7days. Our results indicate that an on-the-market device developed for infectious disease diagnostics may be appropriate for vaginal microbiome profiling, an approach that is increasingly facilitated by rapidly dropping deep sequencing costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Conditional Function of Autoaggregative Protein Cah and Common cah Mutations in Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michelle Qiu; Brandl, Maria T; Kudva, Indira T; Katani, Robab; Moreau, Matthew R; Kapur, Vivek

    2017-10-20

    Cah is a calcium-binding autotransporter protein involved in autoaggregation and biofilm formation. Although cah is widespread in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), we detected mutations in cah at a frequency of 31.3% in this pathogen. In STEC O157:H7 super-shedder strain SS17, a large deletion results in a smaller coding sequence, lacking the C-terminal 71 amino acids compared with Cah in STEC O157:H7 strain EDL933. We examined the function of Cah in biofilm formation and host colonization to better understand selective pressures for cah mutations. EDL933-Cah played a conditional role in biofilm formation in vitro: it enhanced E. coli DH5α biofilm formation on glass surfaces under agitated culture conditions that prevented autoaggregation, but inhibited biofilm formation under hydrostatic conditions that facilitated autoaggregation. This function appeared to be strain-dependent since Cah-mediated biofilm formation was diminished when an EDL933-cah was expressed in SS17. Deletion of cah in EDL933 enhanced bacterial attachment to spinach leaves and altered the adherence pattern of EDL933 to bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial (RSE) cells. In contrast, in trans-expression of EDL933-cah in SS17 increased its attachment to leaf surfaces, and in DH5α, enhanced its adherence to RSE cells. Hence the ecological function of Cah appears to be modulated by environmental conditions and other bacterial strain-specific properties. Considering the prevalence of cah in STEC and its role in attachment and biofilm formation, cah mutations might be selected in ecological niches where inactivation of Cah would result in an increased fitness in STEC during colonization of plants or animal hosts.ImportanceShiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) harbors genes encoding diverse adhesins and many of these are known to play an important role in bacterial attachment and host colonization. We demonstrated here that the autotransporter protein Cah confers E. coli

  3. Melatonin treatment at dry-off improves reproductive performance postpartum in high-producing dairy cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ispierto, I; Abdelfatah, A; López-Gatius, F

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of melatonin treatment during the early dry-off period on subsequent reproductive performance and milk production in high-producing dairy cows under heat stress conditions. In experiment I, addressing the pharmacokinetics of melatonin treatment in lactating dairy cows, doses of untreated, 3, 6, 9 or 12 implants/animal (18-mg melatonin each implant) were given as subcutaneous implants on gestation day 120-20 multiparous lactating dairy cows (four cows/dose group). Experiment II was performed during the warm season on 25 heifers and 114 high milk-producing Holstein-Friesian cows. Animals were randomly assigned to a control (C) or melatonin group (M). Animals in the M group received nine implants (heifers) or 12 (cows) of melatonin on day 220 of gestation. In experiment I, cows in the 12 implants group showed a higher maximum melatonin concentration (Cmax ) and area under the concentration curve from treatment day 0 to day 49 (AUC0-49d ) than those in the remaining groups, among which there were no significant differences in this variable. In experiment II, the likelihood of repeat breeding syndrome (treatment and recovered during the postpartum compared to control cows. No significant effects on milk production were observed in the subsequent lactation. Significant differences in days open between groups (means 123 ± 71.9 and 103 ± 43, respectively, for C and M; p = 0.02) were registered. In conclusion, melatonin treatment in the early dry-off period improves the reproductive performance of dairy cattle, reducing the number of days open, repeat breeding syndrome and pregnancy loss. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Methoxetamine, a ketamine derivative, produced conditioned place preference and was self-administered by rats: Evidence of its abuse potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanas, Chrislean Jun; de la Peña, June Bryan; Dela Peña, Irene Joy; Tampus, Reinholdgher; Yoon, Robin; Kim, Hee Jin; Lee, Yong Sup; Jang, Choon Gon; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2015-06-01

    Methoxetamine (MXE) is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that is chemically and pharmacologically similar to ketamine. Recently, there have been many reports regarding its use/misuse in humans which have resulted in serious or even fatal outcomes. Despite these reports, MXE is not controlled or regulated in many countries which may be partly due to the lack of scientific evidence regarding its abuse potential. Thus, in the present study we evaluated the abuse potential (rewarding and reinforcing effects) of MXE through the conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration (SA) tests in Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, locomotor activity during the conditioning phase of the CPP was also analyzed. Ketamine was used as a reference drug. MXE (2.5 and 5mg/kg) induced significant CPP in rats, an effect comparable to that of ketamine (5mg/kg). Interestingly, MXE did not produce any locomotor alterations while ketamine decreased the locomotor activity of rats. In the SA test, rats showed modest self-administration of MXE (0.25, 0.5, 1.0mg/kg/infusion), while ketamine (0.5mg/kg/infusion) was robustly self-administered. These results demonstrate that MXE, similar to ketamine, has rewarding and reinforcing effects in rats. The present study strongly suggests that MXE has a potential for human abuse. In addition, the discrepant effects of MXE and ketamine on locomotor activity and rate of self-administration propose that the psychopharmacological effects of these drugs may diverge in some aspects. More importantly, this study advocates the careful monitoring and prompt regulation of MXE and its related substances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pronounced Size Dependence in Structure and Morphology of Gas-Phase Produced, Partially Oxidized Cobalt Nanoparticles under Catalytic Reaction Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartling, Stephan; Yin, Chunrong; Barke, Ingo; Oldenburg, Kevin; Hartmann, Hannes; von Oeynhausen, Viola; Pohl, Marga-Martina; Houben, Kelly; Tyo, Eric C.; Seifert, Sönke; Lievens, Peter; Meiwes-Broer, Karl-Heinz; Vajda, Stefan

    2015-06-23

    It is generally accepted that optimal particle sizes are key for efficient nanocatalysis. Much less attention is paid to the role of morphology and atomic arrangement during catalytic reactions. Here we unravel the structural, stoichiometric, and morphological evolution of gas-phase produced cobalt nanoparticles in a broad size range. Particles with diameters between 1.4 nm and 22nm generated in cluster sources are size selected and deposited on amorphous alumina (Al2O3) and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films. A combination of different techniques is employed to monitor particle properties at the stages of production, exposure to ambient conditions, and catalytic reaction, in this case the oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclohexane at elevated temperatures. A pronounced size dependence is found, naturally classifying the particles into three size regimes. While small and intermediate clusters essentially retain their compact morphology, large particles transform into hollow spheres due to the nanoscale Kirkendall effect. Depending on the substrate an isotropic (Al2O3) or anisotropic (UNCD) Kirkendall effect is observed. The latter results in dramatic lateral size changes. Our results shed light on the interplay between chemical reactions and the catalyst's structure and provide an approach to tailor the cobalt oxide phase composition required for specific catalytic schemes.

  6. Clonal diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolates in fecal samples of wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóvão, Filipe; Alonso, Carla Andrea; Igrejas, Gilberto; Sousa, Margarida; Silva, Vanessa; Pereira, José Eduardo; Lozano, Carmen; Cortés-Cortés, Gerardo; Torres, Carmen; Poeta, Patrícia

    2017-03-01

    The clonal diversity of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from nine different species of wild animals from distinct regions of Portugal and Spain and their content in replicon plasmids were analyzed. Among the initial 53 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates that were studied (from previous studies), 28 were selected, corresponding to different animal origins with distinct ESBL types and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. These 28 isolates produced different ESBLs ascribed to the following families: CTX-M, SHV and TEM. The isolates were classified into three phylogenetic groups: B1 (n = 11), A (n = 10) and D (n = 7). The seven E. coli of phylogroup D were then typed by multilocus sequence typing and ascribed to four distinct sequence types: ST117, ST115, ST2001 and ST69. The clonal diversity and relationship between isolates was studied by PFGE. Lastly, the plasmids were analyzed according to their incompatibility group using the PCR-based-replicon-typing scheme. A great diversity of replicon types was identified, with up to five per isolate. Most of the CTX-M-1 and SHV-12 producing E. coli isolates carried IncI1 or IncN replicons. The diversity of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates in wild animals, which can be disseminated in the environment, emphasizes the environmental and health problems that we face nowadays. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Injection molding of iPP samples in controlled conditions and resulting morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessa, Nino, E-mail: ninosessa.ns@gmail.com; De Santis, Felice, E-mail: fedesantis@unisa.it; Pantani, Roberto, E-mail: rpantani@unisa.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    Injection molded parts are driven down in size and weight especially for electronic applications. In this work, an investigation was carried out on the process of injection molding of thin iPP samples and on the morphology of these parts. Melt flow in the mold cavity was analyzed and described with a mathematical model. Influence of mold temperature and injection pressure was analyzed. Samples orientation was studied using optical microscopy.

  8. Characteristics of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases-Producing Escherichia coli in Fecal Samples of Inpatients of Beijing Tongren Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Maoye; Fan, Yanyan; Wang, Mei; Lu, Xinxin

    2017-05-24

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in Beijing Tongren hospital and to identify a possible relation between colonization and infection. The clinical data on 650 inpatients between March 2012 and July 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli among the inpatients was 25.7% (167/650), with the highest level (50.0%) in the rheumatology ward and the lowest (10.0%) in intensive care units. Hospital stay more than 2 years prior to infection, the use of antibiotics within 3 months of infection, and the use of glucocorticoids or immunosuppressive drugs were found to be significantly associated with carriage of ESBL-producing E. coli (P coli was not high. The risk factors of carriage of ESBL-producing E. coli are hospitalization and use of antibiotics, glucocorticoids, or immunosuppressive drugs. ST38, ST10, ST131, and ST167 are the prominent genotypes, but almost 50.0% of STs were scarcely distributed.

  9. [Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl)-producing enterobacteriaceae in fecal samples at the National Institute of Child Health, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquechagua Aliaga, Fabiola; Sevilla Andrade, Carlos; Gonzales Escalante, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    To describe the frequency of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enterobacteriaceae in fecal samples at the National Institute of Child Health, Lima, Peru. Stool samples received between July 2012 and March 2013 with colonies suspected to be ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae that developed in Karmali agar were analyzed. Conventional methods were performed for biochemical identification and the confirmation of the ESBL phenotype. Genotypic analysis to detect the beta-lactamase gene CTX-M family was performed by PCR. Of the 235 fecal samples analyzed, 64.2% of ESBL-producing enterobacteria was isolated being 86.1% Escherichia coli, 7.9% Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2.6% Salmonella sp, 2.0% Enterobacter cloacae, and 1.3% Proteus mirabilis. 89.1% of the ESBL-producing enterobacteria presented the CTX-M gene. We found high resistance to nalidixic acid 84.8%, 74.2% ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 81.5%.The resistance to amikacin was 1.3% and all isolates were susceptible to imipenem and meropenem. A high frequency of ESBL-producing enterobacteria was found in fecal samples of outpatients seen in the outpatient and emergency departments of the National Institute of Child Health of Peru.

  10. Analysis of fingerprint samples, testing various conditions, for forensic DNA identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Lana; Wurmbach, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Fingerprints can be of tremendous value for forensic biology, since they can be collected from a wide variety of evident types, such as handles of weapons, tools collected in criminal cases, and objects with no apparent staining. DNA obtained from fingerprints varies greatly in quality and quantity, which ultimately affects the quality of the resulting STR profiles. Additional difficulties can arise when fingerprint samples show mixed STR profiles due to the handling of multiple persons. After applying a tested protocol for sample collection (swabbing with 5% Triton X-100), DNA extraction (using an enzyme that works at elevated temperatures), and PCR amplification (AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® using 31cycles) extensive analysis was performed to better understand the challenges inherent to fingerprint samples, with the ultimate goal of developing valuable profiles (≥50% complete). The impact of time on deposited fingerprints was investigated, revealing that while the quality of profiles deteriorated, full STR profiles could still be obtained from samples after 40days of storage at room temperature. By comparing the STR profiles from fingerprints of the dominant versus the non-dominant hand, we found a slightly better quality from the non-dominant hand, which was not always significant. Substrates seem to have greater effects on fingerprints. Tests on glass, plastic, paper and metal (US Quarter dollar, made of Cu and Ni), common substrates in offices and homes, showed best results for glass, followed by plastic and paper, while almost no profiles were obtained from a Quarter dollar. Important for forensic casework, we also assessed three-person mixtures of touched fingerprint samples. Unlike routinely used approaches for sampling evidence, the surface of an object (bottle) was sectioned into six equal parts and separate samples were taken from each section. The samples were processed separately for DNA extraction and STR amplification. The results included a few single

  11. Comparable dose estimates of blinded whole blood samples are obtained independently of culture conditions and analytical approaches. Second RENEB gene expression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Grainne; Macaeva, Ellina; Majewski, Matthaeus; Kriehuber, Ralf; Brzóska, Kamil; Abend, Michael; Doucha-Senf, Sven; Oskamp, Dominik; Strunz, Sonja; Quintens, Roel; Port, Matthias; Badie, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    This collaboration of five established European gene expression labs investigated the potential impact of culture conditions on the transcriptional response of peripheral blood to radiation exposure. Blood from one healthy donor was exposed ex vivo to a Cobalt 60 source to produce a calibration curve in addition to four unknown doses. After exposure, the blood samples were either diluted with RPMI medium or left untouched. After 24-h incubation at 37 °C the diluted blood samples were lysed, while the undiluted samples were mixed with the preservative RNALater and all samples were shipped frozen to the participating labs. Samples were processed by each lab using microarray (one lab) and QRT-PCR (four labs). We show that although culture conditions affect the total amount of RNA recovered (p analysis approaches provide comparable mean absolute difference of estimated doses relative to the true doses (p = .9) and number of out of range (>0.5 Gy) measurements (p = .6). This study confirms the robustness of gene expression as a method for biological dosimetry.

  12. Effects of packaging and storage conditions on the quality of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid – an analysis of Cambodian samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of substandard and degraded medicines is a major public health problem in developing countries such as Cambodia. A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the quality of amoxicillin–clavulanic acid preparations under tropical conditions in a developing country. Methods Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid tablets were obtained from outlets in Cambodia. Packaging condition, printed information, and other sources of information were examined. The samples were tested for quantity, content uniformity, and dissolution. Authenticity was verified with manufacturers and regulatory authorities. Results A total of 59 samples were collected from 48 medicine outlets. Most (93.2%) of the samples were of foreign origin. Using predetermined acceptance criteria, 12 samples (20.3%) were non-compliant. Eight (13.6%), 10 (16.9%), and 20 (33.9%) samples failed quantity, content uniformity, and dissolution tests, respectively. Samples that violated our observational acceptance criteria were significantly more likely to fail the quality tests (Fisher’s exact test, p packaging and storage conditions may reduce the quality of amoxicillin–clavulanic acid preparations at community pharmacies. Strict quality control measures are urgently needed to maintain the quality of amoxicillin–clavulanic acid in tropical countries. PMID:23773420

  13. Effects of packaging and storage conditions on the quality of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid - an analysis of Cambodian samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohiuddin Hussain; Hatanaka, Kirara; Sovannarith, Tey; Nivanna, Nam; Casas, Lidia Cecilia Cadena; Yoshida, Naoko; Tsuboi, Hirohito; Tanimoto, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Kazuko

    2013-06-18

    The use of substandard and degraded medicines is a major public health problem in developing countries such as Cambodia. A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the quality of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid preparations under tropical conditions in a developing country. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid tablets were obtained from outlets in Cambodia. Packaging condition, printed information, and other sources of information were examined. The samples were tested for quantity, content uniformity, and dissolution. Authenticity was verified with manufacturers and regulatory authorities. A total of 59 samples were collected from 48 medicine outlets. Most (93.2%) of the samples were of foreign origin. Using predetermined acceptance criteria, 12 samples (20.3%) were non-compliant. Eight (13.6%), 10 (16.9%), and 20 (33.9%) samples failed quantity, content uniformity, and dissolution tests, respectively. Samples that violated our observational acceptance criteria were significantly more likely to fail the quality tests (Fisher's exact test, p packaging and storage conditions may reduce the quality of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid preparations at community pharmacies. Strict quality control measures are urgently needed to maintain the quality of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in tropical countries.

  14. Comparison of core sampling and visual inspection for assessment of sewer pipe condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanic, N.; Haan, C.; Tirion, M.; Langeveld, J.G.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Sewer systems are costly to construct and even more costly to replace, requiring proper asset management Sewer asset management relies to a large extent on available information. In sewer systems where pipe corrosion is the dominant failure mechanism, visual inspection (CCTV) and core sampling are

  15. Can we rely on out-of-hospital blood samples? A prospective interventional study on the pre-analytical stability of blood samples under prehospital emergency medicine conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prottengeier, Johannes; Jess, Nicola; Harig, Frank; Gall, Christine; Schmidt, Joachim; Birkholz, Torsten

    2017-03-04

    Prehospital intravenous access provides the opportunity to sample blood from an emergency patient at the earliest possible moment in the course of acute illness and in a state prior to therapeutic interventions. Our study investigates the pre-analytical stability of biomarkers in prehospital emergency medicine and will answer the question whether an approach of blood sampling out in the field will deliver valid laboratory results. We prepared pairs of blood samples from healthy volunteers and volunteering patients post cardio-thoracic surgery. While one sample set was analysed immediately, the other one was subjected to a worse-than-reality treatment of 60 min time-lapse and standardized mechanical forces outside of the hospital through actual ambulance transport. We investigated 21 parameters comprising blood cells, coagulation tests, electrolytes, markers of haemolysis and markers of cardiac ischemia. Bland-Altman analysis was used to investigate differences between test groups. Differences between test groups were set against the official margins of test accuracy as given by the German Requirements for Quality Assurance of Medical Laboratory Examinations. Agreement between immediate analysis and our prehospital treatment is high as demonstrated by Bland-Altman plotting. Mechanical stress and time delay do not produce a systematic bias but only random inaccuracy. The limits of agreement for the tested parameters are generally within clinically acceptable ranges of variation and within the official margins as set by the German Requirements for Quality Assurance of Medical Laboratory Examinations. We subjected blood samples to a standardized treatment marking a worse-than-reality scenario of prehospital time delay and transport. Biomarkers including indicators of myocardial ischemia showed high pre-analytical stability. We conclude the validity of blood samples from a prehospital environment.

  16. Insights on Antioxidant Assays for Biological Samples Based on the Reduction of Copper Complexes—The Importance of Analytical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Sara S.; Magalhães, Luís M.; Tóth, Ildikó V.; Segundo, Marcela A.

    2014-01-01

    Total antioxidant capacity assays are recognized as instrumental to establish antioxidant status of biological samples, however the varying experimental conditions result in conclusions that may not be transposable to other settings. After selection of the complexing agent, reagent addition order, buffer type and concentration, copper reducing assays were adapted to a high-throughput scheme and validated using model biological antioxidant compounds of ascorbic acid, Trolox (a soluble analogue of vitamin E), uric acid and glutathione. A critical comparison was made based on real samples including NIST-909c human serum certified sample, and five study samples. The validated method provided linear range up to 100 µM Trolox, (limit of detection 2.3 µM; limit of quantification 7.7 µM) with recovery results above 85% and precision <5%. The validated developed method with an increased sensitivity is a sound choice for assessment of TAC in serum samples. PMID:24968275

  17. New purchasing conditions for the electricity produced by cogeneration; Nouvelles conditions d`achat de l`electricite produite par cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, Ch.

    1998-12-31

    This short note summarizes the new conditions of electricity purchase as stipulated in the contracts passed between Electricite de France (EdF) and the independent companies exploiting cogeneration units. These new conditions should allow the continuation of the development of cogeneration units in a power market progressively opened to competition. (J.S.)

  18. Development and Use of a Real-Time Quantitative PCR Method for Detecting and Quantifying Equol-Producing Bacteria in Human Faecal Samples and Slurry Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Vázquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces a novel real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR protocol for detecting and quantifying equol-producing bacteria. To this end, two sets of primers targeting the dihydrodaidzein reductase (ddr and tetrahydrodaidzein reductase (tdr genes, which are involved in the synthesis of equol, were designed. The primers showed high specificity and sensitivity when used to examine DNA from control bacteria, such as Slackia isoflavoniconvertens, Slackia equolifaciens, Asaccharobacter celatus, Adlercreutzia equolifaciens, and Enterorhabdus mucosicola. To demonstrate the validity and reliability of the protocol, it was used to detect and quantify equol-producing bacteria in human faecal samples and their derived slurry cultures. These samples were provided by 18 menopausal women under treatment of menopause symptoms with a soy isoflavone concentrate, among whom three were known to be equol-producers given the prior detection of the molecule in their urine. The tdr gene was detected in the faeces of all these equol-producing women at about 4–5 log10 copies per gram of faeces. In contrast, the ddr gene was only amplified in the faecal samples of two of these three women, suggesting the presence in the non-amplified sample of reductase genes unrelated to those known to be involved in equol formation and used for primer design in this study. When tdr and ddr were present in the same sample, similar copy numbers of the two genes were recorded. However, no significant increase in the copy number of equol-related genes along isoflavone treatment was observed. Surprisingly, positive amplification for both tdr and ddr genes was obtained in faecal samples and derived slurry cultures from two non-equol producing women, suggesting the genes could be non-functional or the daidzein metabolized to other compounds in samples from these two women. This novel qPCR tool provides a technique for monitoring gut microbes that produce equol in humans. Monitoring equol-producing

  19. Impact of cultivation conditions on N-glycosylation of influenza virus a hemagglutinin produced in MDCK cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödig, Jana Verena; Rapp, Erdmann; Bohne, Jana; Kampe, Michael; Kaffka, Helene; Bock, Andreas; Genzel, Yvonne; Reichl, Udo

    2013-06-01

    Manufacturers worldwide produce influenza vaccines in different host systems. So far, either fertilized chicken eggs or mammalian cell lines are used. In all these vaccines, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase are the major components. Both are highly abundant glycoproteins in the viral envelope, and particularly HA is able to induce a strong and protective immune response. The quality characteristics of glycoproteins, such as specific activity, antigenicity, immunogenicity, binding avidity, and receptor-binding specificity can strongly depend on changes or differences in their glycosylation pattern (potential N-glycosylation occupancy as well as glycan composition). In this study, capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CGE-LIF) based glycoanalysis (N-glycan fingerprinting) was used to determine the impact of cultivation conditions on the HA N-glycosylation pattern of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell-derived influenza virus A PR/8/34 (H1N1). We found that adaptation of adherent cells to serum-free growth has only a minor impact on the HA N-glycosylation pattern. Only relative abundances of N-glycan structures are affected. In contrast, host cell adaptation to serum-free suspension growth resulted in significant changes in the HA N-glycosylation pattern regarding the presence of specific N-glycans as well as their abundance. Further controls such as different suppliers for influenza virus A PR/8/34 (H1N1) seed strains, different cultivation scales and vessels in standard or high cell density mode, different virus production media varying in either composition or trypsin activity, different temperatures during virus replication and finally, the impact of β-propiolactone inactivation resulted-at best-only in minor changes in the relative N-glycan structure abundances of the HA N-glycosylation pattern. Surprisingly, these results demonstrate a rather stable HA N-glycosylation pattern despite various (significant) changes in

  20. Tactile conditioning and movement analysis of antennal sampling strategies in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujagić, Samir; Würth, Simon Michael; Hellbach, Sven; Dürr, Volker

    2012-12-12

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are eusocial insects and well known for their complex division of labor and associative learning capability(1, 2). The worker bees spend the first half of their life inside the dark hive, where they are nursing the larvae or building the regular hexagonal combs for food (e.g. pollen or nectar) and brood(3). The antennae are extraordinary multisensory feelers and play a pivotal role in various tactile mediated tasks(4), including hive building(5) and pattern recognition(6). Later in life, each single bee leaves the hive to forage for food. Then a bee has to learn to discriminate profitable food sources, memorize their location, and communicate it to its nest mates(7). Bees use different floral signals like colors or odors(7, 8), but also tactile cues from the petal surface(9) to form multisensory memories of the food source. Under laboratory conditions, bees can be trained in an appetitive learning paradigm to discriminate tactile object features, such as edges or grooves with their antennae(10, 11, 12, 13). This learning paradigm is closely related to the classical olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) in harnessed bees(14). The advantage of the tactile learning paradigm in the laboratory is the possibility of combining behavioral experiments on learning with various physiological measurements, including the analysis of the antennal movement pattern.

  1. Regional differences in infection control conditions in a sample of primary health care services in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de Abreu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available International guidelines have pointed out the importance of the physical environment of health care facilities in preventing and controlling infection. We aimed to describe the physical environment of dental care facilities in Brazil in 2014, focusing on characteristics designed to control infections. Exactly 16,202 dental offices in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS participated in this survey. Trained researchers extracted information about the infection control characteristics of health facilities by using a structured instrument. We used data from 12 dichotomous questions that evaluated the wall, floor, sink and tap conditions, and the presence and condition of sterilization equipment. We calculated a score by summing the number of characteristics handled appropriately for infection control, which could range from 0 to 12. Hierarchical cluster analyses were developed. None of the 12 criteria were met by all the oral health teams. Only 208 (1.3% dental offices correctly performed all 12-infection control practices. Two clusters, with different frequencies of structure for infection control in dental offices, were identified. South and Southeast regions had the highest frequencies for Cluster 1, with better structure of infection control in dental offices. Dental care facilities of oral health teams were not typically meeting the infection control guidelines regarding clinic design and equipment. Adherence to the guidelines varied among the Brazilian geographic regions.

  2. Measurements of Elastic and Inelastic Properties of Polycrystalline Samples under Simulated Earth's Mantle Conditions in Large Volume Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Hans J.

    2017-04-01

    The interpretation of highly resolved seismic data from Earth=s deep interior require measurements of the physical properties of Earth's materials under experimental simulated mantle conditions. More than a decade ago seismic tomography clearly showed subduction of crustal material can reach the core mantle boundary under specific circumstances. Considering this geophysical high pressure research is faced the challenge to increase pressure and sample volume at the same time to be able to perform in situ experiments with geophysical representative complex samples. Recent large volume presses at synchrotrons provide sample volumes 3 to 7 orders of magnitude bigger than in diamond anvil cells far beyond transition zone conditions. The sample size of several cubic millimeters allows elastic wave frequencies in the low to medium MHz range. Together with the small and even adjustable temperature gradients over the whole sample this technique makes anisotropy and grain boundary effects in complex systems accessible for elastic and inelastic properties measurements in principle. The real elastic wave propagation have also no limits for opaque and encapsulated samples. Using triple-mode transducers and the data transfer function technique for ultrasonic interferometry makes transient measurements in complex systems under non-equilibrium conditions possible. Ultrasonic interferometry necessarily requires in situ sample deformation measurement by X-radiography. In situ falling sphere viscosimetry require time-resolved X-radiography. Using a D-DIA even the measurement of elastic and inelastic properties in the seismic frequency range is achievable. The paper presents techniques and results of recent experimental high pressure geophysics in LVPs.

  3. The association between number and type of traumatic life experiences and physical conditions in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husarewycz, M Natalie; El-Gabalawy, Renée; Logsetty, Sarvesh; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is significantly and positively associated with several physical conditions. We aimed to examine whether the nature and number of trauma(s) experienced may be related to physical conditions using a population-based sample. Data came from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N=34,653; age 20 years and older). Participants indicated lifetime trauma experiences and physical conditions experienced over the past year. Multiple logistic regressions examined the association between type and number of trauma(s) and physical conditions. After adjusting for sociodemographics, Axis I and II mental disorders, and all other trauma, injurious and witnessing trauma were significantly associated with all the assessed physical conditions. Psychological trauma was associated with cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, diabetes and arthritis. Natural disaster/terrorism was associated with cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease and arthritis only. Finally, combat-related trauma and other trauma were not positively associated with any physical condition. Our results also suggested a dose-response relationship between number of traumatic events and physical conditions. These data suggest that the impact of certain types and number of traumas may differ with respect to their relationship with physical health problems independent of PTSD. © 2013.

  4. Investigation of the levels of some element in edible oil samples produced in Turkey by atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendil, Durali, E-mail: dmendil@gop.edu.tr [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Uluoezlue, Ozguer Dogan; Tuezen, Mustafa [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Chemistry, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-06-15

    The element contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, Cd, Na, K, Ca and Mg) in edible oils (olive oil, hazelnut oil, sunflower oil, margarine, butter and corn oil) from Turkey were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The concentrations of trace element in the samples were found to be 291.0-52.0, 1.64-0.04, 3.08-1.03, 0.71-0.05, 0.03-0.01, 1.30-0.50, 84.0-0.90, 50.1-1.30, 174.2-20.8 and 20.8-0.60 {mu}g/g for iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead, cobalt, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, respectively. Cadmium was found to be 4.57-0.09 {mu}g/kg. The high heavy metal and minerals accumulation levels in the samples were found in olive oil for Cu, Pb, Co, margarine for Fe, K, corn oil for Zn, Mn, butter for Na, Mg, sunflower oil for Ca and hazelnut oil for Cd, respectively.

  5. The effect of some cultivation conditions on properties of leaves of the container-produced species Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn

    OpenAIRE

    Aleš Jezdinský; Vojtěch Řezníček

    2011-01-01

    Plants differ in their reactions to unfavourable environmental conditions and the effect of the acting factors directly and indirectly results in changes in a number of plants organs. The leaves are vegetative organs and as such they are completely exposed to external conditions. Most markedly these conditions affect the assimilative organs. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of four substrates and two sites differing in light intensity on the leaf morphology of the...

  6. Improved extraction procedures for polychlorinated biphenyls in solid samples with aqueous sodium hydroxide under autoclave conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Y; Inouye, Y

    2000-03-01

    The efficacy of the extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from varnish-infiltrated insulating papers as a model of solid materials with an aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) by autoclaving at 121 degrees C for 30 min was compared with those for the conventional procedures, i.e., saponification with 1 N ethanolic NaOH in a boiling water bath for 60 min and extraction with benzene in a Soxhlet apparatus. The newly invented autoclaving method was found to be superior to the conventional ones, yielding approximately 5- to 6-fold cumulative PCB congeners without being accompanied by extended decomposition. Therefore, the autoclave-based sample treatment is recommended for more accurate determination of PCBs in the case of PCB-impregnated solid materials such as hardened oils and resin-coated or -infiltrated papers instead of being treated conventionally.

  7. Ideological conditionings of the social protest criminalization and the support to democracy in a Lima sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rottenbacher de Rojas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of right-wing political conservatism on support for democracy and the criminalization of social protest is analyzed in a sample of university students from the city of Lima (N = 201. As indicators of the right-wing political conservatism, measures of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA, social dominance orientation (SDO and right-wing political orientation were used. Two path diagrams were proposed: the second diagram showed a proper degree of fit and proposes a positive covariance between RWA, SDO and right-wing political orientation. The diagram also suggests that RWA, SDO and right-wing political orientation exert a direct influence on the criminalization of social protest, while SDO and RWA exert an indirect influence on support for democracy. Finally, support for democracy present an inverse correlation with the criminalization of social protest.

  8. Realistic sampling of anisotropic correlogram parameters for conditional simulation of daily rainfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyasi-Agyei, Yeboah

    2018-01-01

    This paper has established a link between the spatial structure of radar rainfall, which more robustly describes the spatial structure, and gauge rainfall for improved daily rainfield simulation conditioned on the limited gauged data for regions with or without radar records. A two-dimensional anisotropic exponential function that has parameters of major and minor axes lengths, and direction, is used to describe the correlogram (spatial structure) of daily rainfall in the Gaussian domain. The link is a copula-based joint distribution of the radar-derived correlogram parameters that uses the gauge-derived correlogram parameters and maximum daily temperature as covariates of the Box-Cox power exponential margins and Gumbel copula. While the gauge-derived, radar-derived and the copula-derived correlogram parameters reproduced the mean estimates similarly using leave-one-out cross-validation of ordinary kriging, the gauge-derived parameters yielded higher standard deviation (SD) of the Gaussian quantile which reflects uncertainty in over 90% of cases. However, the distribution of the SD generated by the radar-derived and the copula-derived parameters could not be distinguished. For the validation case, the percentage of cases of higher SD by the gauge-derived parameter sets decreased to 81.2% and 86.6% for the non-calibration and the calibration periods, respectively. It has been observed that 1% reduction in the Gaussian quantile SD can cause over 39% reduction in the SD of the median rainfall estimate, actual reduction being dependent on the distribution of rainfall of the day. Hence the main advantage of using the most correct radar correlogram parameters is to reduce the uncertainty associated with conditional simulations that rely on SD through kriging.

  9. Characterization of citrus pectin samples extracted under different conditions: influence of acid type and pH of extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaya, Merve; Sousa, Antonio G.; Crepeau, Marie-Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    on fruit peel, a waste product from the juicing industry, in which thousands of tons of citrus are processed worldwide every year. This study examines how pectin components vary in relation to the plant source (orange, lemon, lime, grapefruit) and considers the influence of extraction conditions...... on the chemical and macromolecular characteristics of pectin samples. Methods Citrus peel (orange, lemon, lime and grapefruit) from a commercial supplier was used as raw material. Pectin samples were obtained on a bulk plant scale (kilograms; harsh nitric acid, mild nitric acid and harsh oxalic acid extraction...... to have short side chains compared with orange, lime and lemon. Orange and grapefruit pectin samples were both particularly rich in rhamnogalacturonan I backbones. Conclusions Structural, and hence macromolecular, variations within the different citrus pectin samples were mainly related...

  10. A New Cytotoxic Sesquiterpene Quinone Produced by Penicillium sp. F00120 Isolated from a Deep Sea Sediment Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Ren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fungal strain, displaying strong toxic activity against brine shrimp larvae, was isolated from a deep sea sediment sample collected at a depth of 1300 m. The strain, designated as F00120, was identified as a member of the genus Penicillium on the basis of morphology and ITS sequence analysis. One new sesquiterpene quinone, named penicilliumin A (1, along with two known compounds ergosterol (2 and ergosterol peroxide (3, were isolated and purified from the cultures of F00120 by silica gel column, Sephadex LH-20 column, and preparative thin layer chromatography. Their structures were elucidated by detailed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and mass spectroscopic (MS analysis as well as comparison with literature data. The new compound penicilliumin A inhibited in vitro proliferation of mouse melanoma (B16, human melanoma (A375, and human cervical carcinoma (Hela cell lines moderately.

  11. The price of electricity from private power producers: Stage 2, Expansion of sample and preliminary statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comnes, G.A.; Belden, T.N.; Kahn, E.P.

    1995-02-01

    The market for long-term bulk power is becoming increasingly competitive and mature. Given that many privately developed power projects have been or are being developed in the US, it is possible to begin to evaluate the performance of the market by analyzing its revealed prices. Using a consistent method, this paper presents levelized contract prices for a sample of privately developed US generation properties. The sample includes 26 projects with a total capacity of 6,354 MW. Contracts are described in terms of their choice of technology, choice of fuel, treatment of fuel price risk, geographic location, dispatchability, expected dispatch niche, and size. The contract price analysis shows that gas technologies clearly stand out as the most attractive. At an 80% capacity factor, coal projects have an average 20-year levelized price of $0.092/kWh, whereas natural gas combined cycle and/or cogeneration projects have an average price of $0.069/kWh. Within each technology type subsample, however, there is considerable variation. Prices for natural gas combustion turbines and one wind project are also presented. A preliminary statistical analysis is conducted to understand the relationship between price and four categories of explanatory factors including product heterogeneity, geographic heterogeneity, economic and technological change, and other buyer attributes (including avoided costs). Because of residual price variation, we are unable to accept the hypothesis that electricity is a homogeneous product. Instead, the analysis indicates that buyer value still plays an important role in the determination of price for competitively-acquired electricity.

  12. Space charge dynamics Of CF4 fluorinated LDPE samples from different fluorination conditions and their DC conductivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Li, Ziyun; Chen, George; Chen, Qiang; Li, Shengtao

    2017-07-01

    Taking advantage of plasma technology using mixing gas CF4/H2, a fluorination process was performed on LDPE samples in the present paper. Different exposure times and discharge voltage levels were applied to produce four different types of samples. It has been found that after fluorination, space charge injection is obviously suppressed. And with longer fluorination times and higher discharge voltage, injected homocharges are reduced. By employing x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, new chemical groups of C-F bindings are confirmed to be introduced by fluorination process of the plasma treatment. The charge suppression effect can be explained as: surface traps introduced by fluorination will reduce the interface field at both electrodes. Moreover, for fluorinated samples, heterocharge emerges obviously under 30 kV \\text{m}{{\\text{m}}-1} , which are considered as charges ionized from degradation products of etching and/or lower weight molecular specifies. Through the conductivity measurements also performed at 30 kV \\text{m}{{\\text{m}}-1} , it is found that, for the fluorinated samples with the better charge blocking effect, the conductivity is lowered. However, the conductivity of the fluorinated sample with the lightest degree of fluorination is found to be higher than that of normal samples.

  13. Failure of Serial Taste-Taste Compound Presentations to Produce Overshadowing of Extinction of Conditioned Taste Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineno, Oskar

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study overshadowing of extinction in a conditioned taste aversion preparation. In both experiments, aversive conditioning with sucrose was followed by extinction treatment with either sucrose alone or in compound with another taste, citric acid. Experiment 1 employed a simultaneous compound extinction treatment…

  14. [Assessment of the hygienic and sanitary conditions of housing in a sample in Chieti (central Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, L; Savino, A

    2012-01-01

    The study describes the housing conditions of 106 dwellings in the town of Chieti (Abruzzo region, central Italy), inspected by Local Health Authority, in the period between the 1st of January 2009 and the 28th of February 2011. In 59.4% of them lived Italians, while in the remaining 40.6% lived foreigners. 35.8% of the houses met minimum law requirements, 24.5% were anti-hygienic, 24.5% anti-hygienic and overcrowded, 13.2% overcrowded, 1.9% uninhabitable. The main issues were moisture and molds (52.8%). The second one was the inadequacy of floor area in relation with inhabitants (37.7%). Other problems were bedrooms (9.4%), baths (8.5%) and kitchens not complying minimum law requirements, but also not sufficient both ceiling hights (3.7%) and windows (2.8%) of rooms. Considering that human population in richest countries spend up to 90% of their lives in indoor environment, especially at home, the links between housing and health are really strong, and more must be done to improve general consideration of these themes both in general population and involved professionists (i.e. physicians, other health professionists, social workers, architects and engineers).

  15. Integrating legacy soil information in a Digital Soil Mapping approach based on a modified conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Felix; Schmidt, Karsten; Behrens, Thorsten; Schoenbrodt-Stitt, Sarah; Scholten, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    One crucial component of a Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) framework is outlined by geo-referenced soil observations. Nevertheless, highly informative legacy soil information, acquired by traditional soil surveys, is often neglected due to lacking accordance with specific statistical DSM designs. The focus of this study is to integrate legacy data into a state-of-the-art DSM approach, based on a modified conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS) design and Random Forest. Furthermore, by means of the cLHS modification the scope of actually unique cLHS sampling locations is widened in order to compensate limited accessability in the field. As well, the maximally stratified cLHS design is not diluted by the modification. Exemplarily the target variables of the modelling are represented by sand and clay fractions. The study site is a small mountainous hydrological catchment of 4.2 km² in the reservoir of the Three Gorges Dam in Central China. The modification is accomplished by demarcating the histogram borders of each cLHS stratum, which are based on the multivariate cLHS feature space. Thereby, all potential sample locations per stratum are identified. This provides a possibility to integrate legacy data samples that match one of the newly created sample locations, and flexibility with respect to field accessibility. Consequently, six legacy data samples, taken from a total sample size of n = 30 were integrated into the sampling design and for all strata several potential sample locations are identified. The comparability of the modified and standard cLHS data sets is approved by (i) identifying their feature space coverage with respect to the cLHS stratifying variables, and (ii) by assessing the Random Forest accuracy estimates.

  16. Alternaria sp. MG1, a resveratrol-producing fungus: isolation, identification, and optimal cultivation conditions for resveratrol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to its potential in preventing or slowing the occurrence of many diseases, resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene) has attracted great research interest. The objective of this study was to identify the microorganisms that possess resveratrol producing capability from selected plants and optimize ...

  17. Conditional function of autoaggregative protien cah and common cah mutations in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cah is a calcium-binding autotransporter protein involved in autoaggregation and biofilm formation. Although cah is widespread in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), we detected mutations in cah at a frequency of 31.3% in this pathogen. In STEC O157:H7 super-shedder strain SS17, a large d...

  18. Insights into the subsurface transport of As(V) and Se(VI) in produced water from hydraulic fracturing using soil samples from Qingshankou Formation, Songliao Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Season S; Sun, Yuqing; Tsang, Daniel C W; Graham, Nigel J D; Ok, Yong Sik; Feng, Yujie; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-04-01

    Produced water is a type of wastewater generated from hydraulic fracturing, which may pose a risk to the environment and humans due to its high ionic strength and the presence of elevated concentrations of metals/metalloids that exceed maximum contamination levels. The mobilization of As(V) and Se(VI) in produced water and selected soils from Qingshankou Formation in the Songliao Basin in China were investigated using column experiments and synthetic produced water whose quality was representative of waters arising at different times after well creation. Temporal effects of produced water on metal/metalloid transport and sorption/desorption were investigated by using HYDRUS-1D transport modelling. Rapid breakthrough and long tailings of As(V) and Se(VI) transport were observed in Day 1 and Day 14 solutions, but were reduced in Day 90 solution probably due to the elevated ionic strength. The influence of produced water on the hydrogeological conditions (i.e., change between equilibrium and non-equilibrium transport) was evidenced by the change of tracer breakthrough curves before and after the leaching of produced water. This possibly resulted from the sorption of polyacrylamide (PAM (-CH2CHCONH2-)n) onto soil surfaces, through its use as a friction reducer in fracturing solutions. The sorption was found to be reversible in this study. Minimal amounts of sorbed As(V) were desorbed whereas the majority of sorbed Se(VI) was readily leached out, to an extent which varied with the composition of the produced water. These results showed that the mobilization of As(V) and Se(VI) in soil largely depended on the solution pH and ionic strength. Understanding the differences in metal/metalloid transport in produced water is important for proper risk management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fluorescence-Based Comparative Evaluation of Bactericidal Potency and Food Application Potential of Anti-listerial Bacteriocin Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Indigenous Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Atul Kumar; Mukherjee, Sandipan; Adhikari, Manab Deb; Ramesh, Aiyagari

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to ascertain the potency of anti-listerial bacteriocin produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from indigenous samples of dahi, dried fish, and salt-fermented cucumber. A total of 231 LAB isolates were obtained from the samples, of which 51 isolates displayed anti-listerial activity. The anti-listerial LAB were identified by PCR as Lactobacillus sp., Pediococcus sp., Enterococcus sp., and Lactococcus sp. PCR also enabled the detection of Class IIa bacteriocin-encoding genes such as enterocin A, pediocin, and plantaricin A in some of the LAB isolates. The culture filtrate from anti-listerial LAB isolates demonstrated bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) against common Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacillus cereus, and partial characterization of BLIS confirmed the production of bacteriocin by the LAB isolates. Sensitive fluorescence-based assays employing specific probes indicated the comparative potencies of the bacteriocin and clearly revealed the membrane-targeted anti-listerial activity of the purified bacteriocin produced by selected LAB isolates. The food application potential of plantaricin A produced by a native isolate Lactobacillus plantarum CRA52 was evidenced as the bacteriocin suppressed the growth of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A inoculated in paneer samples that were stored at 8 °C for 5 days.

  20. High oxygen condition facilitates the differentiation of mouse and human pluripotent stem cells into pancreatic progenitors and insulin-producing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Farzana; Kaitsuka, Taku; Raeed, Jamiruddin Mohd; Wei, Fan-Yan; Shiraki, Nobuaki; Akagi, Tadayuki; Yokota, Takashi; Kume, Shoen; Tomizawa, Kazuhito

    2014-04-04

    Pluripotent stem cells have potential applications in regenerative medicine for diabetes. Differentiation of stem cells into insulin-producing cells has been achieved using various protocols. However, both the efficiency of the method and potency of differentiated cells are insufficient. Oxygen tension, the partial pressure of oxygen, has been shown to regulate the embryonic development of several organs, including pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we tried to establish an effective method for the differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into insulin-producing cells by culturing under high oxygen (O2) conditions. Treatment with a high O2 condition in the early stage of differentiation increased insulin-positive cells at the terminus of differentiation. We found that a high O2 condition repressed Notch-dependent gene Hes1 expression and increased Ngn3 expression at the stage of pancreatic progenitors. This effect was caused by inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α protein level. Moreover, a high O2 condition activated Wnt signaling. Optimal stage-specific treatment with a high O2 condition resulted in a significant increase in insulin production in both mouse embryonic stem cells and human iPSCs and yielded populations containing up to 10% C-peptide-positive cells in human iPSCs. These results suggest that culturing in a high O2 condition at a specific stage is useful for the efficient generation of insulin-producing cells.

  1. High Oxygen Condition Facilitates the Differentiation of Mouse and Human Pluripotent Stem Cells into Pancreatic Progenitors and Insulin-producing Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Farzana; Kaitsuka, Taku; Raeed, Jamiruddin Mohd.; Wei, Fan-Yan; Shiraki, Nobuaki; Akagi, Tadayuki; Yokota, Takashi; Kume, Shoen; Tomizawa, Kazuhito

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells have potential applications in regenerative medicine for diabetes. Differentiation of stem cells into insulin-producing cells has been achieved using various protocols. However, both the efficiency of the method and potency of differentiated cells are insufficient. Oxygen tension, the partial pressure of oxygen, has been shown to regulate the embryonic development of several organs, including pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we tried to establish an effective method for the differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into insulin-producing cells by culturing under high oxygen (O2) conditions. Treatment with a high O2 condition in the early stage of differentiation increased insulin-positive cells at the terminus of differentiation. We found that a high O2 condition repressed Notch-dependent gene Hes1 expression and increased Ngn3 expression at the stage of pancreatic progenitors. This effect was caused by inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α protein level. Moreover, a high O2 condition activated Wnt signaling. Optimal stage-specific treatment with a high O2 condition resulted in a significant increase in insulin production in both mouse embryonic stem cells and human iPSCs and yielded populations containing up to 10% C-peptide-positive cells in human iPSCs. These results suggest that culturing in a high O2 condition at a specific stage is useful for the efficient generation of insulin-producing cells. PMID:24554704

  2. Present condition of the pair outside release policy of oil-producing countries; Sanyukoku no taigai kaiho seisaku no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Masumi [Japan National oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Brazil, Venezuela and Iran made the way to the pair outside release policy one after another between this several years. chauvinism in the flow of a period of big competition has ever come to a deadlock in this. Brazilian oil deposits are 7,300 million bbl in 1997, and it can be never said that it is big in rising oil-producing countries. As for the Venezuelan oil deposits, it is the oil-producing country of a world the 6th prize with 72,600 million bbl, the amount of production is a world the 6th prize with 3.2 million BPD in 1998. As for the Iranian oil deposits, with 89,700 million bbl in a world the 5th prize. The amount of petroleum production is a world the 4th prize with 3.6 million PD in 1998. (NEDO)

  3. Erosion Modeling in Central China - Soil Data Acquisition by Conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling and Incorporation of Legacy Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Felix; Schönbrodt-Stitt, Sarah; Schmidt, Karsten; Behrens, Thorsten; Scholten, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The Three Gorges Dam at the Yangtze River in Central China outlines a prominent example of human-induced environmental impacts. Throughout one year the water table at the main river fluctuates about 30m due to impoundment and drainage activities. The dynamic water table implicates a range of georisks such as soil erosion, mass movements, sediment transport and diffuse matter inputs into the reservoir. Within the framework of the joint Sino-German project YANGTZE GEO, the subproject "Soil Erosion" deals with soil erosion risks and sediment transport pathways into the reservoir. The study site is a small catchment (4.8 km²) in Badong, approximately 100 km upstream the dam. It is characterized by scattered plots of agricultural landuse and resettlements in a largely wooded, steep sloping and mountainous area. Our research is focused on data acquisition and processing to develop a process-oriented erosion model. Hereby, area-covering knowledge of specific soil properties in the catchment is an intrinsic input parameter. This will be acquired by means of digital soil mapping (DSM). Thereby, soil properties are estimated by covariates. The functions are calibrated by soil property samples. The DSM approach is based on an appropriate sample design, which reflects the heterogeneity of the catchment, regarding the covariates with influence on the relevant soil properties. In this approach the covariates, processed by a digital terrain analysis, are outlined by the slope, altitude, profile curvature, plane curvature, and the aspect. For the development of the sample design, we chose the Conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS) procedure (Minasny and McBratney, 2006). It provides an efficient method of sampling variables from their multivariate distribution. Thereby, a sample size n from multiple variables is drawn such that for each variable the sample is marginally maximally stratified. The method ensures the maximal stratification by two features: First, number of

  4. Monitoring of the infrastructure and services used to handle and automatically produce Alignment and Calibration conditions at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Sipos, Roland; Franzoni, Giovanni; Di Guida, Salvatore; Pfeiffer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment makes a vast use of alignment and calibration measurements in several crucial workflows in the event selection at the High Level Trigger (HLT), in the processing of the recorded collisions and in the production of simulated events.A suite of services addresses the key requirements for the handling of the alignment and calibration conditions such as recording the status of the experiment and of the ongoing data taking, accepting conditions data updates provided by the detector experts, aggregating and navigating the calibration scenarios, and distributing conditions for consumption by the collaborators. Since a large fraction of such services is critical for the data taking and event filtering in the HLT, a comprehensive monitoring and alarm generating system had to be developed. Such monitoring system has been developed based on the open source industry standard for monitoring and alerting services (Nagios) to monitor the database back-end, the hosting nodes and k...

  5. Assessment of plankton community and environmental conditions in São Sebastião Channel prior to the construction of a produced water outfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Flores Gianesella

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Plankton community and hydrological conditions were assessed as a part of ao environmental diagnosis in São Sebastião Channel, before the building of a submarine outfall of produced water from the oil maritime terminal of PETR08RÁS. Samples were collected in twenty oceanographic stations located in the oil terminal neighboring area, during the springtime of 1991. Oissolved inorganic nutrients and chlorophyll-a concentrations observed indicate an oligo-mesotrophic environment. Phenols and sulfides were absent, 800 values, except for three sampling points, were characteristic of unpolluted environments, although oil and grease were found in half of the sampled stations. Phytoplankton and zooplankton communities presented high diversity and evenness indices for the entire area. Phytoplankton was dominated by phytoflagel1àtes and zooplankton was dominated by copepods, mostly Paracalanus quasimodo. Plankton community composition was similar to that from adjacent regions under low anthropogenic influence.A comunidade planctônica e condições hidrológicas foram avaliadas como parte de um diagnóstico ambiental no Canal de São Sebastião, previamente à construção de um emissário submarino de água de produção, oriunda do terminal marítimo da PETROBRÁS. As amostras foram coletadas em vinte estações oceanográficas situadas na área adjacente ao terminal petrolífero, durante a primavera de 1991. As concentrações de nutrientes inorgânicos dissolvidos e de cIorofila-a obtidas, indicam um ambiente oligo-mesotrófico. Fenóis e sulfetos não foram detectados e os valores de 080, com exceção de três pontos, foram característicos de ambientes não poluídos, apesar da contaminação por óleos e graxas ter sido observada em metade das estações amostradas. O fito e o zooplâncton apresentaram altos índices de diversidade e equitatividade para toda área estudada. O fitoplâncton foi dominado por fitoflagelados, enquanto que o zoopl

  6. Organic produce from the Republic of South Africa. Exploring the conditions for enhancing trade in organic vegetables, fruit and wine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waarts, Y.R.; Bakker, J.H.; Snels, J.C.M.A.; Danse, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Conditions for enhancing the trade in organic products between the Netherlands and the Republic of South Africa were assessed by means of a SWOT analysis, based on information acquired through interviews and desk research. There is a large potential to enhance the trade in organic products between

  7. Comparative metagenomics of biogas-producing microbial communities from production-scale biogas plants operating under wet or dry fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolze, Yvonne; Zakrzewski, Martha; Maus, Irena; Eikmeyer, Felix; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Rottmann, Nils; Siebner, Clemens; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Decomposition of biomass for biogas production can be practiced under wet and dry fermentation conditions. In contrast to the dry fermentation technology, wet fermentation is characterized by a high liquid content and a relatively low total solid content. In this study, the composition and functional potential of a biogas-producing microbial community in an agricultural biogas reactor operating under wet fermentation conditions was analyzed by a metagenomic approach applying 454-pyrosequencing. The obtained metagenomic dataset and corresponding 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences were compared to the previously sequenced comparable metagenome from a dry fermentation process, meeting explicitly identical boundary conditions regarding sample and community DNA preparation, sequencing technology, processing of sequence reads and data analyses by bioinformatics tools. High-throughput metagenome sequencing of community DNA from the wet fermentation process applying the pyrosequencing approach resulted in 1,532,780 reads, with an average read length of 397 bp, accounting for approximately 594 million bases of sequence information in total. Taxonomic comparison of the communities from wet and dry fermentation revealed similar microbial profiles with Bacteria being the predominant superkingdom, while the superkingdom Archaea was less abundant. In both biogas plants, the bacterial phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes and Proteobacteria were identified with descending frequencies. Within the archaeal superkingdom, the phylum Euryarchaeota was most abundant with the dominant class Methanomicrobia. Functional profiles of the communities revealed that environmental gene tags representing methanogenesis enzymes were present in both biogas plants in comparable frequencies. 16S rRNA gene amplicon high-throughput sequencing disclosed differences in the sub-communities comprising methanogenic Archaea between both processes. Fragment recruitments of metagenomic reads to the

  8. Multiplexing of ChIP-Seq Samples in an Optimized Experimental Condition Has Minimal Impact on Peak Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadeous J Kacmarczyk

    Full Text Available Multiplexing samples in sequencing experiments is a common approach to maximize information yield while minimizing cost. In most cases the number of samples that are multiplexed is determined by financial consideration or experimental convenience, with limited understanding on the effects on the experimental results. Here we set to examine the impact of multiplexing ChIP-seq experiments on the ability to identify a specific epigenetic modification. We performed peak detection analyses to determine the effects of multiplexing. These include false discovery rates, size, position and statistical significance of peak detection, and changes in gene annotation. We found that, for histone marker H3K4me3, one can multiplex up to 8 samples (7 IP + 1 input at ~21 million single-end reads each and still detect over 90% of all peaks found when using a full lane for sample (~181 million reads. Furthermore, there are no variations introduced by indexing or lane batch effects and importantly there is no significant reduction in the number of genes with neighboring H3K4me3 peaks. We conclude that, for a well characterized antibody and, therefore, model IP condition, multiplexing 8 samples per lane is sufficient to capture most of the biological signal.

  9. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  10. Depressive symptoms in people with chronic physical conditions: prevalence and risk factors in a Hong Kong community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Hairong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is predicted to become one of the two most burdensome diseases worldwide by 2020 and is common in people with chronic physical conditions. However, depression is relatively uncommon in Asia. Family support is an important Asian cultural value that we hypothesized could protect people with chronic physical conditions from developing depression. We investigated depressive symptom prevalence and risk factors in a Chinese sample with chronic medical conditions, focusing on the possible protective role of family relationships. Methods Data were obtained from the Hong Kong Jockey Club FAMILY Project cohort study in 2009–2011, which included 6,195 participants (age ≥15 with self-reported chronic conditions. Depressive symptoms were recorded using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Demographic and lifestyle variables, stressful life events, perceived family support and neighborhood cohesion were assessed. Factors associated with a non-somatic (PHQ-6 depression score were also examined. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥5 was 17% in those with one or more chronic conditions, and was more prevalent in women than in men (19.7% vs. 13.9%; p p p  Conclusions Acute life stress and the number of chronic conditions, together with socio-demographic factors, explain most variance in depressive symptoms among chronically ill Chinese individuals. Somatic items in the PHQ-9 increased the depression scores but they did not alter the pattern of predictors. Family support appears to be an important protective factor in Chinese cultures for individuals with chronic conditions.

  11. The influence of fermentation condition on production and molecular mass of EPS produced by Streptococcus thermophilus 05-34 in milk-based medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Li, Jiaxi; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Guohong; Qin, Qianqian; Hao, Yanling

    2016-04-15

    The yield of exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Streptococcus thermophilus 05-34 reached up to 250 mg/L under the optimal fermentation condition, which was 4.2-fold higher than that produced under the non-optimal fermentation condition. Structure analysis showed that EPS produced under the optimal fermentation condition was composed of galactose and glucose in a molar ratio of 1.0:0.8. This EPS was with a molecular mass of 4.7×10(5) Da, which was increased by 9 times compared with that in the non-optimal fermentation condition, while monosaccharide composition did not change. Furthermore, real-time quantitative PCR showed that the transcription level of epsC, which is responsible for chain-length determination, was up-regulated by 2.7-fold, suggesting that the increased molecular mass of EPS was resulted from improving polymerization degree of monosaccharide. These findings demonstrated that the optimized fermentation condition can improve EPS molecular mass, and may consequently modify the rheological properties of EPS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. From producer to consumer: greenhouse tomato quality as affected by variety, maturity stage at harvest, transport conditions, and supermarket storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, Michèl J; Slimestad, Rune; Tjøstheim, Irene Holta

    2015-05-27

    Possible causes for differences in quality traits at the time of buying were studied in two widely different red tomato types. Three maturity stages were harvested from commercial greenhouses and transferred immediately to controlled environments simulating different storage, transport, and supermarket conditions. Results show significant differences in development of color, fruit firmness, contents of soluble solids (SSC), titratable acids (TTA), phenolics, and carotenoids from harvest to sale, as related to postharvest conditions. Fruit firmness, SSC, and TTA of vine-ripened red cherry tomatoes was 30, 55 and 11% higher than for those harvested at breakers and ripened to red. Temperature, light, UVC radiation, or ethylene during 4 days transport affected tomato quality traits, and differences persisted during 3 weeks of supermarket storage. Ethylene exposure gave a 3.7-fold increase in lycopene content in cherry tomatoes, whereas UVC hormesis revealed a 6-fold increase compared with the control. Results can be used to update recommendations concerning optimal handling.

  13. Occurrence and molecular characteristics of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in faecal samples from horses in an equine clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolakos, Ilias; Franz, Eelco; van Hoek, Angela H A M; Florijn, Alice; Veenman, Christiaan; Sloet-van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M; Dierikx, Cindy; van Duijkeren, Engeline

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the occurrence and characteristics of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in faecal samples from horses at one equine clinic in the Netherlands. A total of 91 horses, including residents and patients, were sampled. ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli were identified by a combination disc diffusion test. Phylogenetic groups and MLST were determined. ESBL/AmpC genes were analysed using PCR and sequencing. Plasmids were characterized by transformation and PCR-based replicon typing. Subtyping of plasmids was done by plasmid MLST. At least one E. coli isolate with a confirmed ESBL/AmpC gene was found in samples from 76 horses (84%). Although phylogenetic group B1 E. coli bla CTX-M-1 predominated, a diverse E. coli population was found, indicating that clonal nosocomial spread was not the only reason for the high occurrence found. MLST analysis revealed the presence of 47 E. coli STs, organized in four clusters of genetically related strains. ST10, ST641, ST1079 and ST1250 were most commonly found. With regard to the genes, bla CTX-M-1 was most prevalent ( n  =   91), followed by bla CTX-M-2 ( n  =   26). The most frequently found plasmid type was IncHI1, but plasmids belonging to the IncF, IncI1 and IncN groups were also identified. A high occurrence of ESBL-producing E. coli in faecal samples was found among horses in an equine clinic and the variety of STs, ESBL genes and plasmid types suggests nosocomial transmission. ESBL E. coli can cause difficult-to-treat infections in horses and prudent use of antimicrobials is warranted. A further assessment of the risks of transmission to persons in close contact with horses, such as caretakers or veterinarians, is crucial.

  14. The effect of some cultivation conditions on properties of leaves of the container-produced species Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Jezdinský

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants differ in their reactions to unfavourable environmental conditions and the effect of the acting factors directly and indirectly results in changes in a number of plants organs. The leaves are vegetative organs and as such they are completely exposed to external conditions. Most markedly these conditions affect the assimilative organs. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of four substrates and two sites differing in light intensity on the leaf morphology of the model plant species Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn. The used substrates were the commercial peat-bark substrate (RKS II, sand and bark substrate. With these substrates the soil conditioner TerraCottem was applied at a rate of 5 g per one litre of the substrate. The experimental plants were grown in 2-litre containers. The focus of evaluations of the individual treatments was on some leaf properties. TerraCottem showed that it had a positive effect also on the leaf area ratio and on leaf efficiency. The number of leaves varied. The effect of the substrate and of the light intensity was identical; the latter parameter was strongly correlated with leaf weight. The shape of the leaves (leaf length/width ratio and the SLA index responded to the different light intensities. Other parameters were calculated from the results of the measured values which specified in greater detail the effect of the year, media, hydro absorbent and light. Treatments A3 (1 697.60 mm2 and a conrol (1 708.10 mm2 had the smallest leave area. These two treatmens significantly statistically differed frome those in the shade location. In the 2005 year the highest values were measured at the treatment B1 (41.22 m2.kg−1. Next year the values of the SLA were similar.

  15. Determination of Ergot Alkaloids: Purity and Stability Assessment of Standards and Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Cereal Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krska, R.; Berthiller, F.; Schuhmacher, R.

    2008-01-01

    Results obtained from a purity study on standards of the 6 major ergot alkaloids ergometrine, ergotamine, ergosine, ergocristine, ergocryptine, and ergocornine and their corresponding epimers are discussed. The 6 ergot alkaloids studied have been defined by the European Food Safety Authority...... considerably above 98% apart from ergocristinine (94%), ergosine (96%), and ergosinine (95%). Also discussed is the optimization of extraction conditions presented in a recently published method for the quantitation of ergot alkaloids in food samples using solid-phase extraction with primary secondary amine...... (PSA) before LC/MS/MS. Based on the results obtained from these optimization studies, a mixture of acetonitrile with ammonium carbonate buffer was used as extraction solvent, as recoveries for all analyzed ergot alkaloids were significantly higher than those with the other solvents. Different sample...

  16. STUDIES OF ACOUSTIC EMISSION SIGNATURES FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE OF SS 316L WELDED SAMPLES UNDER DYNAMIC LOAD CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. RANGANAYAKULU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic Emission (AE signatures of various weld defects of stainless steel 316L nuclear grade weld material are investigated. The samples are fabricated by Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG Welding Method have final dimension of 140 mm x 15 mm x 10 mm. AE signals from weld defects such as Pinhole, Porosity, Lack of Penetration, Lack of Side Fusion and Slag are recorded under dynamic load conditions by specially designed mechanical jig. AE features of the weld defects were attained using Linear Location Technique (LLT. The results from this study concluded that, stress release and structure deformation between the sections in welding area are load conditions major part of Acoustic Emission activity during loading.

  17. Multiplex real-time PCR assays for detection of eight Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in food samples by melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant; Mustapha, Azlin

    2015-12-23

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are pathogenic strains of E. coli that can cause bloody diarrhea and kidney failure. Seven STEC serogroups, O157, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145 are responsible for more than 71% of the total infections caused by this group of pathogens. All seven serogroups are currently considered as adulterants in non-intact beef products in the U.S. In this study, two multiplex melt curve real-time PCR assays with internal amplification controls (IACs) were standardized for the detection of eight STEC serogroups. The first multiplex assay targeted E. coli serogroups O145, O121, O104, and O157; while the second set detected E. coli serogroups O26, O45, O103 and O111. The applicability of the assays was tested using 11 different meat and produce samples. For food samples spiked with a cocktail of four STEC serogroups with a combined count of 10 CFU/25 g food, all targets of the multiplex assays were detected after an enrichment period of 6h. The assays also worked efficiently when 325 g of food samples were spiked with 10 CFU of STECs. The assays are not dependent on fluorescent-labeled probes or immunomagnetic beads, and can be used for the detection of eight STEC serogroups in less than 11h. Routine preliminary screening of STECs in food samples is performed by testing for the presence of STEC virulence genes. The assays developed in this study can be useful as a first- or second-tier test for the identification of the eight O serogroup-specific genes in suspected food samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Determination of protein carbonyls in plasma, cell extracts, tissue homogenates, isolated proteins: Focus on sample preparation and derivatization conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Weber

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein oxidation is involved in regulatory physiological events as well as in damage to tissues and is thought to play a key role in the pathophysiology of diseases and in the aging process. Protein-bound carbonyls represent a marker of global protein oxidation, as they are generated by multiple different reactive oxygen species in blood, tissues and cells. Sample preparation and stabilization are key steps in the accurate quantification of oxidation-related products and examination of physiological/pathological processes. This review therefore focuses on the sample preparation processes used in the most relevant methods to detect protein carbonyls after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine with an emphasis on measurement in plasma, cells, organ homogenates, isolated proteins and organelles. Sample preparation, derivatization conditions and protein handling are presented for the spectrophotometric and HPLC method as well as for immunoblotting and ELISA. An extensive overview covering these methods in previously published articles is given for researchers who plan to measure protein carbonyls in different samples.

  19. Determination of protein carbonyls in plasma, cell extracts, tissue homogenates, isolated proteins: Focus on sample preparation and derivatization conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniela; Davies, Michael J; Grune, Tilman

    2015-08-01

    Protein oxidation is involved in regulatory physiological events as well as in damage to tissues and is thought to play a key role in the pathophysiology of diseases and in the aging process. Protein-bound carbonyls represent a marker of global protein oxidation, as they are generated by multiple different reactive oxygen species in blood, tissues and cells. Sample preparation and stabilization are key steps in the accurate quantification of oxidation-related products and examination of physiological/pathological processes. This review therefore focuses on the sample preparation processes used in the most relevant methods to detect protein carbonyls after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine with an emphasis on measurement in plasma, cells, organ homogenates, isolated proteins and organelles. Sample preparation, derivatization conditions and protein handling are presented for the spectrophotometric and HPLC method as well as for immunoblotting and ELISA. An extensive overview covering these methods in previously published articles is given for researchers who plan to measure protein carbonyls in different samples. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. [Immunogenicity of influenza virus H5N2 vaccine strain samples produced by roller cultivation in media with plant derived components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurkova, N A; Desheva, Iu A; Shishkina, L N; Stavskiĭ, E A; Rudenko, L G

    2011-01-01

    Study in CBA line mice of immunogenicity of cold adapted reassortant influenza virus H5N2 vaccine strain samples produced in rollers in MDCK and Vero cell cultures by using plant derived components. Antibody levels in blood sera and nasal swabs, lungs and small intestine of experimental vaccine strain sample immunized mice were evaluated by using HI reaction in accordance with WHO recommendations. Reassortant vaccine strain A/17/duck/Potsdam/86/92 (H5N2) produced in MDCK and Vero cells by using plant derived components (rice and soy flour hydrolyzate and plant protease based nutrient medium) after intranasal immunization of mice induced local and humoral antibodies, and the latter not only against homologous virus, but also against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strains A/ Chicken/Suzdalka/Nov-11/2005 and A/Chicken/Kurgan/05/2005. Immunogenicity studies of reassortant influenza virus A/17/duck/Potsdam/86/92 (H5N2) vaccine strain samples cultivated in MDCK and Vero cells by using media with plant derived components in mice show high levels of humoral and secretory immunity.

  1. Purification of inclusion bodies using PEG precipitation under denaturing conditions to produce recombinant therapeutic proteins from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huanhuan; Li, Ninghuan; Xie, Yueqing; Jiang, Hua; Yang, Xiaoyi; Cagliero, Cedric; Shi, Siwei; Zhu, Chencen; Luo, Han; Chen, Junsheng; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Menglin; Feng, Lei; Lu, Huili; Zhu, Jianwei

    2017-07-01

    It has been documented that the purification of inclusion bodies from Escherichia coli by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) may benefit subsequent refolding and recovery of recombinant proteins. However, loading volume and the high cost of the column limits its application in large-scale manufacturing of biopharmaceutical proteins. We report a novel process using polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation under denaturing conditions to replace SEC for rapid purification of inclusion bodies containing recombinant therapeutic proteins. Using recombinant human interleukin 15 (rhIL-15) as an example, inclusion bodies of rhIL-15 were solubilized in 7 M guanidine hydrochloride, and rhIL-15 was precipitated by the addition of PEG 6000. A final concentration of 5% (w/v) PEG 6000 was found to be optimal to precipitate target proteins and enhance recovery and purity. Compared to the previously reported S-200 size exclusion purification method, PEG precipitation was easier to scale up and achieved the same protein yields and quality of the product. PEG precipitation also reduced manufacturing time by about 50 and 95% of material costs. After refolding and further purification, the rhIL-15 product was highly pure and demonstrated a comparable bioactivity with a rhIL-15 reference standard. Our studies demonstrated that PEG precipitation of inclusion bodies under denaturing conditions holds significant potential as a manufacturing process for biopharmaceuticals from E. coli protein expression systems.

  2. Emergence of Multi-drug Resistant ESBL Producing Strains among Enterobacteriaceae Members Isolated from Patients Blood Samples in South of Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Mardaneh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs have emerged as important mechanism of resistance among enterobacteriaceae family. These ESBL positive strains are major problem in hospitalized patients. The goal of this study was the survey emergence of multi-drug resistant ESBL producing strains among enterobacteriaceae members isolated from patients blood samples using BACTEC 9240 automatic system in south of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 4825 blood samples were collected from hospitalized patients, and positive samples were detected by BACTEC automatic system. Positive blood cultures removed from BACTEC and subculture was performed on microbiological media including blood agar, chocolate agar and MacConkey agar. The isolates were identified based on biochemical tests embedded in the API-20E system. Susceptibility testing (disc diffusion was performed according clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI, 2013 guidelines. Phenotypic detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing isolates was performed by double disk synergy test (DDST. Results: Total 1145 (24% blood cultures were positive that among them 248 (21.5% belonged to the enterobacteriaceae family. The most common isolates in this family were Escherichia coli (46.5%, Klebsiella spp. (28%, Enterobacter spp. (13.5%. Among enterobacteriaceae family, ampicillin was most effective drug against Salmonella isolates. Escherichia coli was the most common ESBL-producing isolate (58% of isolates were ESBL positive. Respectively, polymyxin B, colistin, imipenem were the most effective drugs against ESBL-positive Klebsiella strains. The ESBL-positive Enterobacter strains showed lowest resistance to imipenem (7.7%. All ESBL positive Serratia isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole and imipenem. Conclusion: Results showed unfortunately betalactam antibiotics are not effective against more than 40% of bacteremia caused by Escherichia

  3. Characterization of multi-drug resistant ESBL producing nonfermenter bacteria isolated from patients blood samples using phenotypic methods in Shiraz (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneli Amin Shahidi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The emergence of  nonfermenter bacteria that are resistant to multidrug resistant ESBL  are  nowadays a principal problem  for hospitalized patients. The present study aimed at surveying the emergence of nonfermenter bacteria resistant to multi-drug ESBL producing isolated from patients blood samples using BACTEC 9240 automatic system in Shiraz. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 4825 blood specimens were collected from hospitalized patients in Shiraz (Iran, and positive samples were detected by means of  BACTEC 9240 automatic system. The isolates  containing nonfermenter bacteria were identified based on biochemical tests embedded in the API-20E system. Antibiotic sensitivity  test was performed  and identification of  ESBL producing strains were done  using phenotypic detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing isolates(DDST according to CLSI(2013 guidelines.   Results: Out of 4825 blood samples, 1145 (24% specimen were gram-positive using BACTEC system. Among all isolated microorganisms, 206 isolates were non-fermenting gram- negative bacteria. The most common non-fermenter isolates were Pseudomonas spp. (48%, Acinetobacter spp. (41.7% ,and Stenotrophomonas spp. (8.2%. Seventy of them (81.4% were  Acinetobacter spp. which were ESBL positive. Among &beta-lactam antibiotics, Pseudomonas spp. showed  the best sensitivity to piperacillin-tazobactam (46.5%.  Conclusion: It was found that  &beta-lactam antibiotics are not effective against more than 40% of Pseudomonas spp. infections and 78% Acinetobacter infections. Emergence of multi-drug resistant strains that are resistant to most antibiotic classes is a major public health problem in Iran. To resolve this problem using of practical guidelines is critical.

  4. Hydraulic Properties of Fractured Rock Samples at In-Situ Conditions - Insights from Lab Experiments Using X-Ray Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehler, Mathias; Stöckhert, Ferdinand; Duda, Mandy; Renner, Jörg; Bracke, Rolf

    2017-04-01

    The hydraulic properties of low-porosity rock formations are controlled by the geometry of open fractures, joints and faults. Aperture, surface roughness, accessible length, and thus, the volume available for fluids associated of such interfaces are strongly affected by their state of stress. Moreover, these properties may evolve with time in particular due to processes involving chemically active fluids. Understanding the physico-chemical interactions of rocks with fluids at reservoir conditions will help to predict the long-term reservoir development and to increase the efficiency of geothermal power plants. We designed an x-ray transparent flow-through cell. Confining pressure can be up to 50 MPa and pore fluid can currently be circulated through the sample with pressures of up to 25 MPa. All wetted parts are made of PEEK to avoid corrosion when using highly saline fluids. Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate hydraulic properties of fractured low-porosity samples under reservoir conditions while x-rays transmit the sample. The cell is placed inside a µCT scanner with a 225 kV multifocal x-ray tube for high resolution x-ray tomography. Samples measure 10 mm in diameter and 25 mm in length resulting in a voxel resolution of approximately 10 µm. Samples with single natural as well as artificial fractures were subjected to various confining pressures ranging from 2.5 MPa to 25 MPa. At each pressure level, effective permeability was determined from steady-state flow relying on Darcy's law. In addition, a full 3D image was recorded by the µCT scanner to gain information on the fracture aperture and geometry. Subvolumes (400x400x400 voxels) of the images were analyzed to reduce computational cost. The subvolumes were filtered in 3D with an edge preserving non-local means filter. Further quantification algorithms were implemented in Matlab. Segmentation into pore space and minerals was done automatically for all datasets by a peak finder algorithm

  5. Monitoring of the infrastructure and services used to handle and automatically produce Alignment and Calibration conditions at CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, Roland; Govi, Giacomo; Franzoni, Giovanni; Di Guida, Salvatore; Pfeiffer, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    The CMS experiment at CERN LHC has a dedicated infrastructure to handle the alignment and calibration data. This infrastructure is composed of several services, which take on various data management tasks required for the consumption of the non-event data (also called as condition data) in the experiment activities. The criticality of these tasks imposes tights requirements for the availability and the reliability of the services executing them. In this scope, a comprehensive monitoring and alarm generating system has been developed. The system has been implemented based on the Nagios open source industry standard for monitoring and alerting services, and monitors the database back-end, the hosting nodes and key heart-beat functionalities for all the services involved. This paper describes the design, implementation and operational experience with the monitoring system developed and deployed at CMS in 2016.

  6. Influence of process conditions on the physicochemical properties of jussara pulp (Euterpe edulis powder produced by spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audirene Amorim Santana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to optimize the spray drying of jussara pulp using mixtures of modified starch (MS with whey protein concentrate (WPC or soy protein isolate (SPI as the carrier agents. Two central composite rotatable designs were used to evaluate the effect of the independent variables of inlet air temperature (140 °C to 200 °C, carrier agent concentration - CAC (0.5 to 2 g carrier agent/g jussara pulp solids and the proportions of MS:WPC or MS:SPI (5 to 30 g WPC or SPI/100 g carrier agent on the following responses for powders formulated with MS:WPC and MS:SPI, respectively: moisture content (0.3% to 1.4% and 0.6% to 1.2%, solubility (78.0% to 92.9% and 78.9% to 83.8%, retention of total anthocyanins (49.2% to 82.9% and 34.1% to 96.9%, encapsulation efficiency (98.5% to 99.7% and 98.5% to 99.5%, hue angle (9.1 to 44.0 and 3.7 to 42.6, chroma (10.0 to 15.3 and 9.2 to 14.3 and process yield (33.2% to 55.5% and 49.9% to 78.5%. The inlet air temperature 170 °C, CAC of 1.25 and 2 g/g jussara pulp solids and proportion of MS:WPC or MS:SPI of 17.5 and 30 g/100 g were recommended as the selected conditions.

  7. Production of Secondary Metabolites in Extreme Environments: Food- and Airborne Wallemia spp. Produce Toxic Metabolites at Hypersaline Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jančič, Sašo; Frisvad, Jens C; Kocev, Dragi; Gostinčar, Cene; Džeroski, Sašo; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The food- and airborne fungal genus Wallemia comprises seven xerophilic and halophilic species: W. sebi, W. mellicola, W. canadensis, W. tropicalis, W. muriae, W. hederae and W. ichthyophaga. All listed species are adapted to low water activity and can contaminate food preserved with high amounts of salt or sugar. In relation to food safety, the effect of high salt and sugar concentrations on the production of secondary metabolites by this toxigenic fungus was investigated. The secondary metabolite profiles of 30 strains of the listed species were examined using general growth media, known to support the production of secondary metabolites, supplemented with different concentrations of NaCl, glucose and MgCl2. In more than two hundred extracts approximately one hundred different compounds were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Although the genome data analysis of W. mellicola (previously W. sebi sensu lato) and W. ichthyophaga revealed a low number of secondary metabolites clusters, a substantial number of secondary metabolites were detected at different conditions. Machine learning analysis of the obtained dataset showed that NaCl has higher influence on the production of secondary metabolites than other tested solutes. Mass spectrometric analysis of selected extracts revealed that NaCl in the medium affects the production of some compounds with substantial biological activities (wallimidione, walleminol, walleminone, UCA 1064-A and UCA 1064-B). In particular an increase in NaCl concentration from 5% to 15% in the growth media increased the production of the toxic metabolites wallimidione, walleminol and walleminone.

  8. Generation of IL-8 and IL-9 Producing CD4+ T Cells Is Affected by Th17 Polarizing Conditions and AHR Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Gasch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The T helper cell subsets Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg play an important role in immune cell homeostasis, in host defense, and in immunological disorders. Recently, much attention has been paid to Th17 cells which seem to play an important role in the early phase of the adoptive immune response and autoimmune disease. When generating Th17 cells under in vitro conditions the amount of IL-17A producing cells hardly exceeds 20% while the nature of the remaining T cells is poorly characterized. As engagement of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR has also been postulated to modulate the differentiation of T helper cells into Th17 cells with regard to the IL-17A expression we ask how far do Th17 polarizing conditions in combination with ligand induced AHR activation have an effect on the production of other T helper cell cytokines. We found that a high proportion of T helper cells cultured under Th17 polarizing conditions are IL-8 and IL-9 single producing cells and that AHR activation results in an upregulation of IL-8 and a downregulation of IL-9 production. Thus, we have identified IL-8 and IL-9 producing T helper cells which are subject to regulation by the engagement of the AHR.

  9. Occurrence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamases producing Escherichia coli in foods of animal origin and human clinical samples in Chhattisgarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhoomika

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL (blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M genes in Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat, chevon meat, raw milk, and human urine and stool samples collected from tribal districts of Chhattisgarh, viz., Jagdalpur, Dantewada, Kondagaon, and Kanker. Materials and Methods: A total of 330 samples, comprising 98 chicken meat, 82 chevon meat, 90 raw milk, and 60 human urine and stool samples, were processed for isolation of E. coli. Isolates were confirmed biochemically and further tested against commonly used antibiotics to know their resistant pattern. The resistant isolates were tested for ESBL production by phenotypic method followed by characterization with molecular method using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction technique. Results: Overall 57.87% (191/330 samples were found positive for E. coli, which include 66.32% (65/98 chicken meat, 46.34% (38/82 chevon meat, 81.11% (73/90 raw milk, and 25% (15/60 human urine and stool samples. Isolates showed the highest resistance against cefotaxime (41.36% followed by oxytetracycline (34.03%, ampicillin (29.31%, cephalexin (24.60%, cefixime (16.75%, and ceftazidime (13.08%. Phenotypic method detected 10.99% (21/191 isolates as presumptive ESBL producers, however, molecular method detected 3.66% (7/191, 2.09% (4/191, and 0.00% (0/191 prevalence of blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV, respectively. Conclusion: The present study indicates a high prevalence of E. coli in raw chicken meat, chevon meat, and milk due to poor hygienic practices. The antibiotic susceptibility test detected the presence of the resistance pattern against ESBL in E. coli isolated from raw chicken meat, chevon meat, milk, and also in human clinical samples is of great concern. The appearance of E. coli in the human food chain is alarming and requires adaptation of hygienic practices and stipulate use of antibiotics.

  10. Heat shock transcriptional responses in an MC-Producing Cyanobacterium (Planktothrix agardhii) and its MC-deficient mutant under high light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Du Chi; Bernard, Cecile; Ammar, Myriam; Chaouch, Soraya; Comte, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are the most commonly-reported hepatotoxins produced by various cyanobacterial taxa in fresh waters to constitute a potential threat to human and animal health. The biological role of MCs in the producer organisms is not known, and it would be very useful to understand the driving force behind the toxin production. Recent studies have suggested that MCs may have a protective function in cells facing environmental stress. Following this starting premise, we speculate that under adverse conditions the expression of stress-related genes coding for Heat Shock Proteins (Hsp) might be different in an MC-producing strain and its MC-deficient mutant. We therefore used RT-qPCR to compare the expression of 13 hsp genes of an MC-producing strain of Planktothrix agardhii (CYA126/8) and its MC-deficient ΔmcyD mutant over different periods of exposure to high light stress (HL). Three reference genes (RGs) were selected from six candidates to normalize the RT-qPCR data. Of these three RGs (rsh, rpoD, and gltA), gltA is used here for the first time as an RG in prokaryotes. Under HL stress, five genes were found to be strongly up-regulated in both strains (htpG, dnaK, hspA, groES, and groEL). Unexpectedly, we found that the MC-producing wild type strain accumulated higher levels of htpG and dnaK transcripts in response to HL stress than the MC-deficient mutant. In addition, a significant increase in the mcyE transcript was detected in the mutant, suggesting that MCs are required under HL conditions. We discuss several possible roles of MCs in the response to HL stress through their possible involvement in the protective mechanisms of the cells.

  11. Chiral liquid chromatography-circular dichroism-NMR for estimating separation conditions of chiral HPLC without authentic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Takashi; Okamoto, Masahiko; Tanaka, Kozo; Tode, Chisato; Sugiura, Makiko

    2010-05-15

    Chiral separation by high performance liquid chromatography (Chiral HPLC) is one of the most powerful methods for estimating optical and chemical purity of chiral compounds. However, it has a weakness in that much time and effort are required to prepare authentic samples. A novel chiral liquid chromatography-circular dichroism-NMR (LC-CD-NMR) technique, on the other hand, requires only crude chiral compounds that include enantiomers as minor impurities. In this study, chiral LC-CD-NMR was constructed by connecting a conventional LC-NMR system with a CD detector. A pyridylalanine derivative mixture was prepared to mimic technical grade material in an early phase of development. By chiral LC-CD-NMR, the enantiomer peak is identified by an opposite sign of the CD Cotton effect curve and an identical (1)H NMR spectrum to that of the main component. Using NMR as a detector, this method is superior in ability to discriminate enantiomers from other isomers indistinguishable by MS. Furthermore, this method is also applicable for selecting the best separation conditions of chiral HPLC. The degrees of separation (Rs) between the main component and its enantiomer in several chiral columns were compared. Even with modern chromatographic methods, establishing the best chiral HPLC conditions in an early phase of development is difficult: chiral LC-CD-NMR is a suitable solution.

  12. Potentially traumatic events and the risk of six physical health conditions in a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M; McLaughlin, Katie A; Demmer, Ryan T; Cerdá, Magdalena; Koenen, Karestan C; Uddin, Monica; Galea, Sandro

    2013-05-01

    Potentially traumatic events (PTEs) are common in the population, yet, the impact of total burden and specific types of PTEs on physical health has not been systematically investigated. Data were drawn from the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study, a community sample of predominately African Americans living in Detroit, Michigan, interviewed in 2008-2009 (N = 1,547) and in 2009-2010 (N = 1,054). Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used. Respondents with the highest levels of PTE exposure (8+ events) had an average age of adverse physical health condition diagnosis that was 15 years earlier than respondents with no exposure. There was a monotonic relation between number of PTEs and arthritis risk. Compared to those who reported no lifetime events, respondents with 1-2, 3-4, 5-7, and 8+ traumatic events had 1.06, 1.12, 1.73, and 2.44 times the hazard of arthritis. Assaultive violence (HR = 1.7; 95% CI 1.2-2.3) and other threats to physical integrity (HR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1) were particularly strong risk factors for arthritis. These results provide novel evidence linking PTEs, particularly those involving violence and threat to life, to elevated risk for arthritic conditions. Efforts to prevent or mitigate traumatic event exposures may have a broad range of benefits for health. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Development of 11-Plex MOL-PCR Assay for the Rapid Screening of Samples for Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

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    Travis A Woods

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are a serious threat to the public health, with approximately half of the STEC related food-borne illnesses attributable to contaminated beef. We developed an assay that was able to screen samples for several important STEC associated serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, O145, O157 and three major virulence factors (eae, stx1, stx2 in a rapid and multiplexed format using the Multiplex oligonucleotide ligation-PCR (MOL-PCR assay chemistry. This assay detected unique STEC DNA signatures and was meant to be used on samples from various sources related to beef production, providing a multiplex and high-throughput complement to the multiplex PCR assays currently in use. Multiplex oligonucleotide ligation-PCR (MOL-PCR is a nucleic acid-based assay chemistry that relies on flow cytometry/image cytometry and multiplex microsphere arrays for the detection of nucleic acid-based signatures present in target agents. The STEC MOL-PCR assay provided greater than 90% analytical specificity across all sequence markers designed when tested against panels of DNA samples that represent different STEC serogroups and toxin gene profiles. This paper describes the development of the 11-plex assay and the results of its validation. This highly multiplexed, but more importantly dynamic and adaptable screening assay allows inclusion of additional signatures as they are identified in relation to public health. As the impact of STEC associated illness on public health is explored additional information on classification will be needed on single samples; thus, this assay can serve as the backbone for a complex screening system.

  14. Morphological and ultrastructural characterization of the acidophilic and lipid-producer strain Chlamydomonas acidophila LAFIC-004 (Chlorophyta) under different culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Luana Dos S; Simioni, Carmen; Bouzon, Zenilda L; Schneider, Rosana de Cassia da S; Gressler, Pablo; Miotto, Maria Cecília; Rossi, Marcio J; Rörig, Leonardo R

    2017-05-01

    Chlamydomonas acidophila LAFIC-004 is an acidophilic strain of green microalgae isolated from coal mining drainage. In the present work, this strain was cultivated in acidic medium (pH 3.6) under phototrophic, mixotrophic, and heterotrophic regimes to determine the best condition for growth and lipid production, simultaneously assessing possible morphological and ultrastructural alterations in the cells. For heterotrophic and mixotrophic treatments, two organic carbon sources were tested: 1 % glucose and 1 % sodium acetate. Lipid content and fatty acid profiles were only determined in phototrophic condition. The higher growth rates were achieved in phototrophic conditions, varying from 0.18 to 0.82 day-1. Glucose did not result in significant growth increase in either mixotrophic or heterotrophic conditions, and acetate proved to be toxic to the strain in both conditions. Oil content under phototrophic condition was 15.9 % at exponential growth phase and increased to 54.63 % at stationary phase. Based on cell morphology (flow cytometry and light microscopy) and ultrastructure (transmission electron microscopy), similar characteristics were observed between phototrophic and mixotrophic conditions with glucose evidencing many lipid bodies, starch granules, and intense fluorescence. Under the tested conditions, mixotrophic and heterotrophic modes did not result in increased neutral lipid fluorescence. It can be concluded that the strain is a promising lipid producer when grown until stationary phase in acidic medium and under a phototrophic regime, presenting a fatty acid profile suitable for biodiesel production. The ability to grow this strain in acidic mining residues suggests a potential for bioremediation with production of useful biomass.

  15. Optimization of the production conditions of the lipase produced by Bacillus cereus from rice flour through Plackett-Burman Design (PBD) and response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiee, Alireza; Behbahani, Behrooz Alizadeh; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Moradi, Samira

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the screening of lipase positive bacteria from rice flour was carried out by Rhodamin B agar plate method. Bacillus cereus was identified by 16S rDNA method. Screening of the appropriate variables and optimization of the lipase production was performed using Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and response surface methodology (RSM). Among the isolated bacteria, an aerobic Bacillus cereus strain was recognized as the best lipase-producing bacteria (177.3 ± 20 U/ml). Given the results, the optimal enzyme production conditions were achieved with coriander seed extract (CSE)/yeast extract ratio of 16.9 w/w, olive oil (OO) and MgCl2 concentration of 2.37 g/L and 24.23 mM, respectively. In these conditions, the lipase activity (LA) was predicted 343 U/mL that was approximately close to the predicted value (324 U/mL), which was increased 1.83 fold LA compared with the non-optimized lipase. The kinetic parameters of Vmax and Km for the lipase were measured 0.367 μM/min.mL and 5.3 mM, respectively. The lipase producing Bacillus cereus was isolated and RSM was used for the optimization of enzyme production. The CSE/yeast extract ratio of 16.9 w/w, OO concentration of 2.37 g/L and MgCl2 concentration of 24.23 mM, were found to be the optimal conditions of the enzyme production process. LA at optimal enzyme production conditions was observed 1.83 times more than the non-optimal conditions. Ultimately, it can be concluded that the isolated B. cereus from rice flour is a proper source of lipase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Engineered strains of Streptococcus macedonicus towards an osmotic stress resistant phenotype retain their ability to produce the bacteriocin macedocin under hyperosmotic conditions.

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    Anastasiou, Rania; Driessche, Gonzalez Van; Boutou, Effrossyni; Kazou, Maria; Alexandraki, Voula; Vorgias, Constantinos E; Devreese, Bart; Tsakalidou, Effie; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos

    2015-10-20

    Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 produces the bacteriocin macedocin in milk only under low NaCl concentrations (<1.0%w/v). The thermosensitive plasmid pGh9:ISS1 was employed to generate osmotic stress resistant (osmr) mutants of S. macedonicus. Three osmr mutants showing integration of the vector in unique chromosomal sites were identified and the disrupted loci were characterized. Interestingly, the mutants were able to grow and to produce macedocin at considerably higher concentrations of NaCl compared to the wild-type (up to 4.0%w/v). The production of macedocin under hyperosmotic conditions solely by the osmr mutants was validated by the well diffusion assay and by mass spectrometry analysis. RT-PCR experiments demonstrated that the macedocin biosynthetic regulon was transcribed at high salt concentrations only in the mutants. Mutant osmr3, the most robust mutant, was converted in its markerless derivative (osmr3f). Co-culture of S. macedonicus with spores of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in milk demonstrated that only the osmr3f mutant and not the wild-type inhibited the growth of the spores under hyperosmotic conditions (i.e., 2.5%w/v NaCl) due to the production of macedocin. Our study shows how genetic manipulation of a strain towards a stress resistant phenotype could improve bacteriocin production under conditions of the same stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Individual differences in behavioral consistency are related to sequential access to resources and body condition in a producer-scrounger game

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    Morgan eDavid

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the evolution of consistent between-individual behavioral differences necessitates to explain the emergence of within-individual consistency. Relying on a recent mathematical model, we here test the prediction that the emergence of differences in within-individual consistency is related to the sequential access to resources in a frequency-dependent foraging game. To this end we used flocks of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata engaged in a producer-scrounger foraging game. Tactic investment (i.e. the proportion of hops with the head down significantly predicted successful tactic use (i.e. the proportion of seeds produced. In support of predictions, we found that individuals that arrived first at a foraging area were more consistent in both their investment into and their use of the producer tactic. Also, birds in higher body condition were less consistent in their producer tactic use. These results provide the first evidence that variation in behavioral consistency can emerge through the sequential access to resources in a frequency-dependent game. They also highlight a potential physiological cost of behavioral flexibility. Our findings suggest an explanation for the link between personality traits and social information use.

  18. Characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter obtained in environmental samples of a Tunisian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziri, Raoudha; Klibi, Naouel; Alonso, Carla Andrea; Said, Leila Ben; Bellaaj, Ridha; Slama, Karim Ben; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Torres, Carmen

    2016-10-01

    The assessment of the hospital environment as a reservoir of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Tunisian hospitals is scarcely analyzed, except for Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of ESBL-producing non-E. coli Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-EbNoEc) in 300 samples of abiotic surfaces and the hands of patients and staff of a Tunisian Hospital, and to characterize the ESBL genes of the recovered isolates. ESBL-EbNoEc were recovered in 28 of 300 (9.3%) analyzed samples and were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n= 11), Enterobacter cloacae (n=11), Citrobacter freundii (n=4) and Klebsiella oxytoca (n=2). The bla genes identified by PCR and sequencing among the strains were as follows: 11 K.pneumoniae strains [blaCTX-M-15+ blaTEM-1+ blaSHV-11 (n=6); blaCTX-M-15+ blaTEM-1+ blaSHV-28 (n=3); blaCTX-M-15+ blaTEM-1+ blaSHV-1 (n=2)], 11 E. cloacae strains [blaCTX-M-15 (n=6); blaCTX-M-15+ blaTEM-1b (n=2); blaCTX-M-15+ blaTEM-1b+ blaOXA-1 (n=1);blaCTX-M-15+ blaOXA-1 (n=1);blaSHV-12 (n=1)], 4 C. freundii strains [blaCTX-M-15] and 2 K. oxytoca strains [blaCTX-M-15 (n=1); blaSHV-12 (n=1)]. The ISEcp1 and orf477 sequences were identified upstream and downstream of the blaCTX-M-15 gene, respectively, in 3 K. pneumoniae and 3 E. cloacae isolates. The PFGE analysis demonstrated three unrelated pulsotypes in K. pneumoniae strains and five pulsotypes in E. cloacae. The uncontrolled dissemination of ESBL-producing bacteria, even in the hospital environment, has become a real problem and new strategies and hygienic rules are needed to stop this bacterial dissemination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterisation of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Obtained from Animal Fecal Samples in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria

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    Olugbenga Adekunle Olowe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs producing E. coli in animals and different methods of identifications from Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, were investigated. Three hundred and fifty fecal samples, collected from apparently healthy cattle and pigs, were cultured and identified following standard procedures. ESBL phenotypic detection was carried out using combination disc test, double disc synergism test, and ESBL brilliance agar screening. Molecular detection of TEM, SHV, and CTX-M genes was carried out using standard molecular method. One hundred and fourteen E. coli isolates were recovered from the 350 samples processed, out of which 72 (63.2% isolates were positive for ESBLs with multiple resistance to the antibiotics used. Eighty-one (71% isolates were positive for ESBL by combination disc test, 90 (78.9% were positive for double disc synergism test, and 93 (81.6% were positive for ESBL brilliance agar. TEM and CTX-M genes were detected in 48 (42.1% and 51 (44.7% isolates, respectively. SHV gene was not detected in any of the isolates while TEM and CTX-M were detected in 33 (28.9% isolates. This study showed high resistance of E. coli to antibiotics, particularly to the third generation cephalosporins. Regular monitoring and regulated use of antibiotics in livestock should be encouraged.

  20. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterisation of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Obtained from Animal Fecal Samples in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Adewumi, Olufunmilayo; Odewale, Gbolabo; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Adefioye, Olusolabomi Jose

    2015-01-01

    Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producing E. coli in animals and different methods of identifications from Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, were investigated. Three hundred and fifty fecal samples, collected from apparently healthy cattle and pigs, were cultured and identified following standard procedures. ESBL phenotypic detection was carried out using combination disc test, double disc synergism test, and ESBL brilliance agar screening. Molecular detection of TEM, SHV, and CTX-M genes was carried out using standard molecular method. One hundred and fourteen E. coli isolates were recovered from the 350 samples processed, out of which 72 (63.2%) isolates were positive for ESBLs with multiple resistance to the antibiotics used. Eighty-one (71%) isolates were positive for ESBL by combination disc test, 90 (78.9%) were positive for double disc synergism test, and 93 (81.6%) were positive for ESBL brilliance agar. TEM and CTX-M genes were detected in 48 (42.1%) and 51 (44.7%) isolates, respectively. SHV gene was not detected in any of the isolates while TEM and CTX-M were detected in 33 (28.9%) isolates. This study showed high resistance of E. coli to antibiotics, particularly to the third generation cephalosporins. Regular monitoring and regulated use of antibiotics in livestock should be encouraged.

  1. Determination of ethyl glucuronide in human hair samples: A multivariate analysis of the impact of extraction conditions on quantitative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Alexander; Jungen, Hilke; Iwersen-Bergmann, Stefanie; Raduenz, Lars; Lezius, Susanne; Andresen-Streichert, Hilke

    2017-02-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of ethanol, is used as a direct alcohol biomarker for the prolonged detection of ethanol consumption. Hair testing for EtG offers retrospective, long-term detection of ethanol exposition for several months and has gained practical importance in forensic and clinical toxicology. Since quantitative results of EtG hair testings are included in interpretations, a rugged quantitation of EtG in hair matrix is important. As generally known, sample preparation is critical in hair testing, and the scope of this study was on extraction of EtG from hair matrix. The influence of extraction solvent, ultrasonication, incubation temperature, incubation time, solvent amount and hair particle size on quantitative results was investigated by a multifactorial experimental design using a validated analytical method and twelve different batches of authentic human hair material. Eight series of extraction experiments in a Plackett-Burman setup were carried out on each hair material with the studied factors at high or low levels. The effect of pulverization was further studied by two additional experimental series. Five independent samplings were performed for each run, resulting in a total number of 600 determinations. Considerable differences in quantitative EtG results were observed, concentrations above and below interpretative cut-offs were obtained from the same hair materials using different extraction conditions. Statistical analysis revealed extraction solvent and temperature as the most important experimental factors with significant influence on quantitative results. The impact of pulverization depended on other experimental factors and the different hair matrices themselves proved to be important predictors of extraction efficiency. A standardization of extraction procedures should be discussed, since it will probably reduce interlaboratory variabilities and improve the quality and acceptance of hair EtG analysis. Copyright © 2016

  2. Lower urinary tract symptoms associated with neurological conditions: Observations on a clinical sample of outpatients neurorehabilitation service

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    Fabrizio Torelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The overall aims of this study were to investigate the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS associated with neurological conditions and their prevalence and impact on a clinical sample of outpatients of a neurorehabilitation service. Materials and methods: We reviewed the files of 132 patients treated in our neurorehabilitation service from December 2012 to December 2013. Patients were divided into several subgroups based on the neurological diagnosis: Multiple Sclerosis (MS, other demyelinating diseases, Peripheral Neuropathy, neurovascular disorders (ND, neoplastic disease, traumatic brain injury (TBI, Parkinson and Parkinsonism, spinal cord injuries (SCI. Urinary status was based on medical evaluations of history of LUTS, type, degree, onset and duration of symptoms. We tried to analyze prevalence, kind of disorder, timing of presentation (if before or after the neurological onset and eventual persistence of urological disorders (in the main group and in all subgroups. Results: At the time of admission to our rehabilitation service, LUTS were observed in 14 out of 132 cases (11%. A high proportion of these outpatients (64.2% presented bothersome urinary symptoms such as incontinence, frequency and urgency (storage LUTS. The most frequent symptom was urinary urge incontinence (42.8%. This symptom was found to be prevalent in the multiple sclerosis and neurovascular disorders. In 93% the urinary symptoms arose as a result of neurologic conditions and 78.5% did not present a complete recovery of urological symptoms in spite of improved selfreported functional activity limitations. None of these patients performed urological rehabilitation. Conclusions: Neurological disorders are a significant issue in rehabilitation services and it can lead to lower tract dysfunction, which causes LUTS. Storage symptoms are more common, especially urge incontinence. Current literature reports that a further optimization of the rehabilitation potential

  3. Memory enhancement produced by post-training exposure to sucrose-conditioned cues [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/ur

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    Matthew R Holahan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of aversive and appetitive unconditioned stimuli (such as shock and food are known to produce memory enhancement when they occur during the post-training period. Post-training exposure to conditioned aversive stimuli has also been shown to enhance memory consolidation processes. The present study shows for the first time that post-training exposure to conditioned stimuli previously paired with consumption of a sucrose solution also enhances memory consolidation. Male Long Evans rats were trained on a one-session conditioned cue preference (CCP task on a radial arm maze. Immediately or 2 hours after training, rats consumed a sucrose solution or were exposed to cues previously paired with consumption of sucrose or cues previously paired with water. Twenty-four hours later, the rats were tested for a CCP. Immediate, but not delayed, post-training consumption of sucrose enhanced memory for the CCP. Immediate, but not delayed, post-training exposure to cues previously paired with sucrose, but not with water, also enhanced CCP memory. The possibility that rewarding and aversive conditioned stimuli affect memory by a common physiological process is discussed.

  4. Conditional and Unconditional Tests (and Sample Size Based on Multiple Comparisons for Stratified 2 × 2 Tables

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    A. Martín Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mantel-Haenszel test is the most frequent asymptotic test used for analyzing stratified 2 × 2 tables. Its exact alternative is the test of Birch, which has recently been reconsidered by Jung. Both tests have a conditional origin: Pearson’s chi-squared test and Fisher’s exact test, respectively. But both tests have the same drawback that the result of global test (the stratified test may not be compatible with the result of individual tests (the test for each stratum. In this paper, we propose to carry out the global test using a multiple comparisons method (MC method which does not have this disadvantage. By refining the method (MCB method an alternative to the Mantel-Haenszel and Birch tests may be obtained. The new MC and MCB methods have the advantage that they may be applied from an unconditional view, a methodology which until now has not been applied to this problem. We also propose some sample size calculation methods.

  5. Rapid and simple method by combining FTA™ card DNA extraction with two set multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains and virulence genes in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S A; Park, S H; Lee, S I; Ricke, S C

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this research was to optimize two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays that could simultaneously detect six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) as well as the three virulence genes. We also investigated the potential of combining the FTA™ card-based DNA extraction with the multiplex PCR assays. Two multiplex PCR assays were optimized using six primer pairs for each non-O157 STEC serogroup and three primer pairs for virulence genes respectively. Each STEC strain specific primer pair only amplified 155, 238, 321, 438, 587 and 750 bp product for O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145 respectively. Three virulence genes were successfully multiplexed: 375 bp for eae, 655 bp for stx1 and 477 bp for stx2. When two multiplex PCR assays were validated with ground beef samples, distinctive bands were also successfully produced. Since the two multiplex PCR examined here can be conducted under the same PCR conditions, the six non-O157 STEC and their virulence genes could be concurrently detected with one run on the thermocycler. In addition, all bands clearly appeared to be amplified by FTA card DNA extraction in the multiplex PCR assay from the ground beef sample, suggesting that an FTA card could be a viable sampling approach for rapid and simple DNA extraction to reduce time and labour and therefore may have practical use for the food industry. Two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were optimized for discrimination of six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and identification of their major virulence genes within a single reaction, simultaneously. This study also determined the successful ability of the FTA™ card as an alternative to commercial DNA extraction method for conducting multiplex STEC PCR assays. The FTA™ card combined with multiplex PCR holds promise for the food industry by offering a simple and rapid DNA sample method for reducing time, cost and labour for detection of STEC in

  6. A proficiency test system to improve performance of milk analysis methods and produce reference values for component calibration samples for infrared milk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Melilli, Caterina; Barbano, David M

    2016-08-01

    Our goal was to determine the feasibility of combining proficiency testing, analytical method quality-assurance system, and production of reference samples for calibration of infrared milk analyzers to achieve a more efficient use of resources and reduce costs while maximizing analytical accuracy within and among milk payment-testing laboratories. To achieve this, we developed and demonstrated a multilaboratory combined proficiency testing and analytical method quality-assurance system as an approach to evaluate and improve the analytical performance of methods. A set of modified milks was developed and optimized to serve multiple purposes (i.e., proficiency testing, quality-assurance and method improvement, and to provide reference materials for calibration of secondary testing methods). Over a period of years, the approach has enabled the group of laboratories to document improved analytical performance (i.e., reduced within- and between-laboratory variation) of chemical reference methods used as the primary reference for calibration of high-speed electronic milk-testing equipment. An annual meeting of the laboratory technicians allows for review of results and discussion of each method and provides a forum for communication of experience and techniques that are of value to new analysts in the group. The monthly proficiency testing sample exchanges have the added benefit of producing all-laboratory mean reference values for a set of 14 milks that can be used for calibration, evaluation, and troubleshooting of calibration adjustment issues on infrared milk analyzers. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A simple method to recover Norovirus from fresh produce with large sample size by using histo-blood group antigen-conjugated to magnetic beads in a recirculating affinity magnetic separation system (RCAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Peng; Yang, David; Mandrell, Robert

    2011-06-30

    Human norovirus (NoV) outbreaks are major food safety concerns. The virus has to be concentrated from food samples in order to be detected. PEG precipitation is the most common method to recover the virus. Recently, histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) have been recognized as receptors for human NoV, and have been utilized as an alternative method to concentrate human NoV for samples up to 40 mL in volume. However, to wash off the virus from contaminated fresh food samples, at least 250 mL of wash volume is required. Recirculating affinity magnetic separation system (RCAMS) has been tried by others to concentrate human NoV from large-volume samples and failed to yield consistent results with the standard procedure of 30 min of recirculation at the default flow rate. Our work here demonstrates that proper recirculation time and flow rate are key factors for success in using the RCAMS. The bead recovery rate was increased from 28% to 47%, 67% and 90% when recirculation times were extended from 30 min to 60 min, 120 min and 180 min, respectively. The kinetics study suggests that at least 120 min recirculation is required to obtain a good recovery of NoV. In addition, different binding and elution conditions were compared for releasing NoV from inoculated lettuce. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and water results in similar efficacy for virus release, but the released virus does not bind to RCAMS effectively unless pH was adjusted to acidic. Either citrate-buffered saline (CBS) wash, or water wash followed by CBS adjustment, resulted in an enhanced recovery of virus. We also demonstrated that the standard curve generated from viral RNA extracted from serially-diluted virus samples is more accurate for quantitative analysis than standard curves generated from serially-diluted plasmid DNA or transcribed-RNA templates, both of which tend to overestimate the concentration power. The efficacy of recovery of NoV from produce using RCAMS was directly compared with that of the

  8. The National Ecological Observatory Network Aquatic Sampling: Dissolved Gas Concentrations, Stratification Conditions in Lakes, and Reaeration Rates in Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, K.; Goodman, K. J.

    2016-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is deploying instrumentation and collecting samples on a continental spatial scale planned to operate for 30 years starting in 2018. There are five components of NEON: Airborne Observation Platform (AOP), Terrestrial Instrument System (TIS), Terrestrial Observation System (TOS), Aquatic Instrument System (AIS), and Aquatic Observation System (AOS). Collocation of measurements associated with each of these components will allow for linkage and comparison of data related to physical, chemical, and biological parameters. The NEON Aquatic subsystem, comprised of AOS and AIS, will quantify the impacts of climate change, land use, and biological invasions on freshwater populations and processes. Observations including organismal community composition, surface and groundwater chemistry, and habitat structure will be made in addition to deploying instrumentation in and around water bodies. Additionally, data processing is standardized, and quality-controlled data products derived from NEON measurements are freely available through the data portal. Some of the data that will be collected, processed, and published by NEON are particularly relevant to discovering connections between air, land and associated freshwaters, which drive the dynamics of carbon in inland waters. As part of the AOS sub-system, samples will be collected bi-weekly from 24 streams and monthly from 7 lakes for analysis of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations (CO2, N2O, and CH4). At the same time, depth profiles for temperature, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen will be collected in the lake sites. From these depth profiles, lake stratification conditions can be discerned. At stream sites, reaeration tracer experiments (simultaneous conservative and gas tracer injection) will be performed about 8 times per year. The stream reaeration rates will be related to discharge values to develop a rating curve from which temporally interpolated reaeration rates can

  9. Efficiency and limitation of periodic sample multiplication to reduce computational load in Monte Carlo simulations of electron swarms in gas under attachment-dominated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Hirotake

    2018-03-01

    In Monte Carlo simulations of electron swarms, sample electrons were copied periodically so that a sufficient number of samples are obtained in equilibrium after relaxation even under a severe attachment-dominated condition where most electrons vanish during the relaxation. The final sampling results were equivalent to those sampled by a conventional method, and the computational time conventionally wasted for the tracking of vanishing electrons was reduced drastically. The time saved can be utilized for tracking more samples to reduce statistical fluctuation. The efficiency of this technique and its limitation are discussed quantitatively together with details on its implementation.

  10. US habituation, like CS extinction, produces a decrement in conditioned fear responding that is NMDA dependent and subject to renewal and reinstatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storsve, Andreas Berg; McNally, Gavan P; Richardson, Rick

    2010-05-01

    Just as fear can be learned, it can also be inhibited. The most common way of reducing learned fear is through extinction, where the conditioned stimulus (CS) previously paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) is repeatedly presented on its own. Another, much less commonly studied, way to inhibit learned fear is by habituating, or devaluing, the US. In this procedure, fear responding to a CS is reduced by repeatedly presenting the US in the absence of the CS following the conditioning phase. The purpose of the present study was to directly compare the effects of US habituation and CS extinction on a learned fear response (freezing). Experiment 1 demonstrated that US habituation given either after (Experiment 1A) or before (Experiment 1B) fear conditioning reduced freezing to the CS at test. We then showed that the reduction in freezing resulting from either US habituation or CS extinction was context-specific (i.e., a change in context led to a renewal of the learned fear response; Experiment 2) and, furthermore, was attenuated when a pre-test shock was given (i.e., reinstatement of fear was observed in both cases; Experiment 3). Finally, Experiment 4 demonstrated that an injection of the NMDA antagonist MK-801 prior to US habituation impaired long-term retention of the learning that takes place during this procedure. Together, these results suggest that the decrement in conditioned fear responses produced by US habituation and CS extinction could rely on overlapping processes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of pyruvate kinase gene deletion on the physiology of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032 under biotin-sufficient non-glutamate-producing conditions: Enhanced biomass production

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    Kazunori Sawada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pyruvate kinase gene (pyk deletion on the physiology of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032 was investigated under biotin-sufficient, non-glutamate-producing conditions. In a complex medium containing 100 g/L glucose, a defined pyk deletion mutant, strain D1, exhibited 35% enhancement in glucose consumption rate, 37% increased growth and a 57% reduction in respiration rate compared to the wild-type parent. Significant upregulation of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP carboxylase and downregulation of PEP carboxykinase activities were observed in the D1 mutant, which may have prevented over-accumulation of PEP caused by the pyk deletion. Moreover, we found a dramatic 63% reduction in the activity of malate:quinone oxidoreductase (MQO in the D1 mutant. MQO, a TCA cycle enzyme that converts malate to oxaloacetate (OAA, constitutes a major primary gate to the respiratory chain in C. glutamicum, thus explaining the reduced respiration rate in the mutant. Additionally, pyruvate carboxylase gene expression was downregulated in the mutant. These changes seemed to prevent OAA over-accumulation caused by the activity changes of PEP carboxylase/PEP carboxykinase. Intrinsically the same alterations were observed in the cultures conducted in a minimal medium containing 20 g/L glucose. Despite these responses in the mutant, metabolic distortion caused by pyk deletion under non-glutamate-producing conditions required amelioration by increased biomass production, as metabolome analysis revealed increased intracellular concentrations of several precursor metabolites for building block formation associated with pyk deletion. These fermentation profiles and metabolic alterations observed in the mutant reverted completely to the wild-type phenotypes in the pyk-complemented strain, suggesting the observed metabolic changes were caused by the pyk deletion. These results demonstrated multilateral strategies to overcome metabolic disturbance caused by pyk

  12. Isolation, Identification, and Optimization of Culture Conditions of a Bioflocculant-Producing Bacterium Bacillus megaterium SP1 and Its Application in Aquaculture Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Liang; Zhao, Zhigang; Huang, Xiaoli; Du, Xue; Wang, Chang'an; Li, Jinnan; Wang, Liansheng; Xu, Qiyou

    2016-01-01

    A bioflocculant-producing bacterium, Bacillus megaterium SP1, was isolated from biofloc in pond water and identified by using both 16S rDNA sequencing analysis and a Biolog GEN III MicroStation System. The optimal carbon and nitrogen sources for Bacillus megaterium SP1 were 20 g L-1 of glucose and 0.5 g L-1 of beef extract at 30°C and pH 7. The bioflocculant produced by strain SP1 under optimal culture conditions was applied into aquaculture wastewater treatment. The removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), and suspended solids (SS) in aquaculture wastewater reached 64, 63.61, and 83.8%, respectively. The volume of biofloc (FV) increased from 4.93 to 25.97 mL L-1. The addition of Bacillus megaterium SP1 in aquaculture wastewater could effectively improve aquaculture water quality, promote the formation of biofloc, and then form an efficient and healthy aquaculture model based on biofloc technology.

  13. Efficient conversion of brown grease produced by municipal wastewater treatment plant into biofuel using aluminium chloride hexahydrate under very mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Carlo; Lopez, Antonio; Mascolo, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Wastes produced by oil/water separation at the wastewater treatment plant of Bari West (Southern Italy) were taken, characterized and converted. About 12% of this material was composed of greases, mainly made of free fatty acids (50%) and soaps (34%), and was easily separable by the aqueous phase through a hot centrifugation. After chemical activation of this fatty fraction, a direct esterification was carried out under very mild conditions (320K and atmospheric pressure), converting more than 90% of the original free fatty acids into the respective methyl esters in less than 4h, by using AlCl3·6H2O. The activation energy correlated to the use of this catalyst was also calculated (Eaest=43.9kJmol(-1)). The very low cost of the biodiesel produced (0.45€L(-1)) and the associated relevant specific energy (5.02MJ kgFAMEs(-1)) make such a process a really sustainable and effective example of valorization of a waste. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Isolation, Identification, and Optimization of Culture Conditions of a Bioflocculant-Producing Bacterium Bacillus megaterium SP1 and Its Application in Aquaculture Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A bioflocculant-producing bacterium, Bacillus megaterium SP1, was isolated from biofloc in pond water and identified by using both 16S rDNA sequencing analysis and a Biolog GEN III MicroStation System. The optimal carbon and nitrogen sources for Bacillus megaterium SP1 were 20 g L−1 of glucose and 0.5 g L−1 of beef extract at 30°C and pH 7. The bioflocculant produced by strain SP1 under optimal culture conditions was applied into aquaculture wastewater treatment. The removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN, and suspended solids (SS in aquaculture wastewater reached 64, 63.61, and 83.8%, respectively. The volume of biofloc (FV increased from 4.93 to 25.97 mL L−1. The addition of Bacillus megaterium SP1 in aquaculture wastewater could effectively improve aquaculture water quality, promote the formation of biofloc, and then form an efficient and healthy aquaculture model based on biofloc technology.

  15. Extended spectrum and metalo beta-lactamase producing airborne Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumanii in restricted settings of a referral hospital: a neglected condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fithamlak Bisetegen Solomon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frequently encountered multidrug-resistant bacterial isolates of P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii are common and prevalent in a hospital environment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of antibiotic resistance, extended spectrum and metallo beta-lactamase producing P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates from restricted settings of indoor air hospital environment. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolaita Sodo University Teaching and referral Hospital, Ethiopia from December 1/2015 to April 30/2015. The Air samples were collected from delivery room, intensive care unit and operation theatre of the hospital by active, Anderson six slate sampler technique during the first week of the months, twice a week during Monday’s and Friday’s. Standard microbiological procedures were followed to isolate P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. Susceptibility testing was performed on isolates using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique. Extended spectrum beta lactamase production was detected by double disc synergy test and Imipenem-resistant isolates were screened for producing Metallo-beta lactamase. Results A total number of 216 indoor air samples were collected from the delivery room, intensive care unit, and operation room. Correspondingly, 43 A. baumannii isolates were identified (13 from delivery room, 21 from intensive care unit and 9 from operation room. Likewise 24 P. aeruginosa isolates were obtained (4 from delivery room, 13 from intensive care unit and 7 from operation room. Extended spectrum beta lactamase and metalo-beta lactamase production were observed in 24 (55.8% and 13 (30.2% isolates of A. baumannii respectively, whereas P. aeruginosa showed 15 (62.5% extended spectrum beta lactamase and 9 (37.5% metallo-beta lactamase production. Conclusions Extended spectrum beta lactamase and metallo-beta lactamase producing bacteria in hospital air is a new dimension for

  16. Detection and Characterization of Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Yersinia Strains from Human, Animal, and Food Samples in San Luis, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Isabel Favier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC, Salmonella spp., and Yersinia species was investigated in humans, animals, and foods in San Luis, Argentina. A total of 453 samples were analyzed by culture and PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibility of all the strains was studied, the genomic relationships among isolates of the same species were determined by PFGE, and the potencial virulence of Y. enterocolitica strains was analyzed. Yersinia species showed higher prevalence (9/453, 2.0%, 95% CI, 0.7–3.3% than STEC (4/453, 0.9%, 95% CI, 0–1.8% and Salmonella spp. (3/453, 0.7%, 95% CI, 0–1.5%. Y. enterocolitica and Y. intermedia were isolated from chicken carcasses (6/80, 7.5%, 95% CI, 1.5–13.5% and porcine skin and bones (3/10, 30%, 95% CI, 0–65%. One STEC strain was recovered from human feces (1/70, 1.4%, 95% CI, 0–4.2% and STEC stx1/stx2 genes were detected in bovine stools (3/129, 2.3%, 95% CI, 0–5.0%. S. Typhimurium was isolated from human feces (1/70, 1.4%, 95% CI, 0–4.2% while one S. Newport and two S. Gaminara strains were recovered from one wild boar (1/3, 33%, 95% CI, 0–99%. The knowledge of prevalence and characteristics of these enteropathogens in our region would allow public health services to take adequate preventive measures.

  17. Extended-spectrum and CMY-type beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in clinical samples and retail meat from Pittsburgh, USA and Seville, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Y; Paterson, D L; Egea, P; Pascual, A; López-Cerero, L; Navarro, M D; Adams-Haduch, J M; Qureshi, Z A; Sidjabat, H E; Rodríguez-Baño, J

    2010-01-01

    Infections due to Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) or CMY-type beta-lactamase (CMY) are increasingly observed in non-hospitalized patients. The origin of these organisms is uncertain, but retail meat contaminated with E. coli may be a source. In the present study, clinical information and strains collected from patients infected or colonized with ESBL-producing and CMY-producing E. coli at hospitals in Pittsburgh, USA and Seville, Spain were investigated. Retail meat purchased in these cities was also studied for the presence of these organisms. Twenty-five and 79 clinical cases with ESBL-producing E. coli and 22 cases and one case with CMY-producing E. coli were identified in Pittsburgh and Seville, respectively. Among them all, community-acquired and healthcare-associated cases together constituted 60% of the cases in Pittsburgh and 73% in Seville. Community-acquired cases were more common in Seville than in Pittsburgh (49% vs. 13%; p Pittsburgh contained ESBL-producing and CMY-producing E. coli isolates, respectively. Among the ESBL-producing isolates, CTX-M and SHV were the most common ESBL types in both clinical and meat isolates. Approximately half of the ESBL-producing and CMY-producing E. coli isolates from meat belonged to phylogenetic groups associated with virulent extra-intestinal infections in humans. Community and healthcare environments are now significant reservoirs of ESBL-producing and CMY-producing E. coli. Retail meat is a potential source of these organisms.

  18. Evaluation of different conditions and culture media for the recovery of Aeromonas spp. from water and shellfish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif-Eugenín, F; Beaz-Hidalgo, R; Figueras, M J

    2016-09-01

    To perform a comparative study for determining the optimum culture method (direct plating or enrichment) and medium (ampicillin dextrin agar (ADA), starch ampicillin agar (SAA), bile salts irgasan brilliant green modified (BIBG-m)) for recovering Aeromonas species from water and shellfish samples. By direct culture, Aeromonas was detected in 65% (13/20) of the water samples and in 54·5% (6/11) of the shellfish samples. However, when a pre-enrichment step was included, the number of positive water samples increased to 75% (15/20) and the ones of shellfish to 90·1% (10/11). The enriched culture significantly favoured (P culture medium for detecting Aeromonas from water was ADA. However, no differences were observed in the case of shellfish samples (P > 0·05). Isolation of Aeromonas media from water was favoured (P culture method and medium used influenced the recovery of some Aeromonas species from water and shellfish samples. This fact should be considered in future prevalence studies to avoid overestimating the above mentioned Aeromonas species. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Assessing the antimicrobial potential of aerosolised electrochemically activated solutions (ECAS) for reducing the microbial bio-burden on fresh food produce held under cooled or cold storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, R M S; Pendred, J; Reynolds, D M

    2017-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of electrochemically activated fog (ECAF) for reducing the microbial bio-burden on artificially inoculated fresh produce held under cooled (cucumber and vine tomatoes) or cold (rocket and broccoli) storage conditions. The ECAF treatment (1100 ± 5 mV ORP; 50 ± 5 mg L -1 free chlorine; 2.7 ± 0.1 pH) resulted in a significant log reduction in the potential pathogen E. coli recovered from rocket (2.644 Log 10  CFU g -1 ), broccoli (4.204 Log 10  CFU g -1 ), cucumber (3.951 Log 10  CFU g -1 ) and tomatoes (2.535 Log10 CFU g-1) after 5 days. ECAF treatment also resulted in a significant log reduction in potential spoilage organisms, whereby a 3.533 Log 10  CFU g -1 , 2.174 Log 10  CFU g -1 and 1.430 Log 10  CFU g -1 reduction in presumptive Pseudomonads was observed for rocket, broccoli and cucumber respectively, and a 3.527 Log 10  CFU g -1 reduction in presumptive Penicillium spp. was observed for tomatoes (after 5 days). No adverse visual effects on produce were recorded. The results of this study will inform industrial scale-up trials within commercial facilities (assessing shelf-life, microbial quality and organoleptic assessment) to assess the developed ECAF technology platform within a real food processing environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing and other diarrheagenic Escherichia coli by the BioFire FilmArray® Gastrointestinal Panel in human fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rauw, K; Detemmerman, L; Breynaert, J; Piérard, D

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was the evaluation of the performance of the BioFire FilmArray® Gastrointestinal (FA-GI) Panel, a multiplexed molecular stool screening assay, for the detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC), with emphasis on Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). A dilution series of 12 STEC reference strains was tested with the FA-GI Panel to assess the analytical sensitivity. A total of 389 patient samples were analyzed with the FA-GI Panel and confirmation of the detected DEC was attempted with an in-house culture-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. All Shiga toxin genes, except the one encoding Stx2f, were detected in bacterial dilutions ranging from 10(4) to 10(2) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. eae + stx2f + STEC was misclassified as enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). Different sensitivities for various gene targets present in one isolate led to differing identifications depending on the concentration. Using the in-house method as a reference, the FA-GI Panel had a sensitivity of 90.6 % [confidence interval (CI) 75.0 %-98.0 %] and a specificity of 97.2 % (CI 94.9 %-98.6 %) for STEC detection in feces. At least one DEC was reported in 35.5 % (171/389) of the patient specimens, with EPEC being the most prevalent (n = 71). Only 59.7 % of the detected DEC could be confirmed, presumably because the comparator method was not applied directly on feces. The FA-GI Panel could not detect the stx2f subtype, misclassified certain pathogens, and the high detection rate of EPEC needs further investigation. Nevertheless, we believe that this sensitive and convenient system will prove to be an invaluable tool for the rapid diagnosis of most DEC infections, but culturing of the detected microorganisms should always be attempted.

  1. Access to medical care among persons with musculoskeletal conditions. A study using a random sample of households in San Mateo County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelin, E; Bernhard, G; Pflugrad, D

    1995-08-01

    To study access to medical care services, including subspecialty care, among persons with musculoskeletal conditions. In early 1993, a random sample of households in San Mateo County, California, was screened for the presence of household members with musculoskeletal conditions, and a member of each household so identified was administered a structured survey about access to medical care and other related subjects. Eighty-six percent of all persons with a musculoskeletal condition had ever seen at least one physician for the condition, but only 6.5% had ever seen a rheumatologist. Those without health insurance were only 82% as likely as those with health insurance to have ever seen a physician. Most persons with a musculoskeletal condition have seen a physician for the condition, but lack of health insurance significantly reduces the proportion who have done so.

  2. Development and application of a high-temperature sampling probe for burning chamber conditions of fluidized-bed combustion; Korkean laempoetilan naeytteenottosondin kehittaeminen ja soveltaminen leijukerrospolton tulipesaeolosuhteisiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larjava, K.; Paerkkae, M.; Jormanainen, P.; Roine, J.; Paakkinen, K. [VTT Chemistry, Espoo (Finland); Linna, V. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    A sampling probe for the burning chamber conditions of fluidized-bed combustion will be developed in this project. The probe will be suitable for sampling vaporous heavy and alkali metals and other condensing compounds (e.g. chlorides) as well combustion gases and alternatively also flue gas particles at high temperatures. The knowledge gained with the probe will help understanding, developing and modeling combustion processes and will thus aid the manufacturers of the boilers. (author)

  3. A surface science compatible epifluorescence microscope for inspection of samples under ultra high vacuum and cryogenic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Christian; Paulheim, Alexander; Rohbohm, Nils; Merkel, Rudolf; Sokolowski, Moritz

    2017-08-01

    We modified an epi-illumination light microscope and mounted it on an ultra high vacuum chamber for investigating samples used in a surface science experiment. For easy access and bake out, all optical components are placed outside the vacuum and the sample is imaged through a glass window. The microscope can be operated in reflection brightfield or epifluorescence mode to image the sample surface or fluorescent dye molecules adsorbed on it. The homemade sample mounting was made compatible for the use under the microscope; sample temperatures as low as 6 K can be achieved. The performance of the microscope is demonstrated on two model samples: Brightfield-images of a well-prepared Ag(100) surface show a macroscopic corrugation of the surface, although low energy electron diffraction data indicate a highly ordered crystalline surface. The surface shows macroscopic protrusions with flat regions, about 20-200 μm in diameter, in between. Fluorescence images of diluted 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylicacid dianhydride (PTCDA) molecules adsorbed on an ultrathin epitaxial KCl film on the Ag(100) surface show a shading effect at surface protrusions due to an inclined angle of incidence of the PTCDA beam during deposition. For some preparations, the distribution of the fluorescence intensity is inhomogeneous and shows a dense network of bright patches about 5 μm in diameter related to the macroscopic corrugation of the surface. We propose that such a light microscope can aid many surface science experiments, especially those dealing with epitaxial growth or fluorescent materials.

  4. Atmospheric pressure plasma produced inside a closed package by a dielectric barrier discharge in Ar/CO2 for bacterial inactivation of biological samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiper, Alina Silvia; Chen, Weifeng; Mejlholm, Ole

    2011-01-01

    The generation and evaluation of a dielectric barrier discharge produced inside a closed package made of a commercially available packaging film and filled with gas mixtures of Ar/CO2 at atmospheric pressure is reported. The discharge parameters were analysed by electrical measurements and optica...... times higher in the Ar/CO2 plasma compared with an Ar plasma. The efficiency of the produced plasma for the inactivation of bacteria on food inside the closed package was investigated....

  5. The fluidodynamics of potentially neoplastic plumes produced by medical lasers: first quantitative non-tissue-specific measurements using PMMA samples (phase I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canestri, F

    1999-10-01

    This study has two goals: (1) to identify and discuss key factors that contribute to the spread of potentially dangerous plumes chaotically in the vicinity of patients following surgery with medical lasers and (2) to recommend safety procedures for surgical staff members based on the measurements, analysis of results, and conclusions. In the past years, only a few studies have attempted to quantify the risks associated with routine exposure to plumes generated by medical lasers used to treat malignant tissue. The invasive thermodynamic sublimation processes following beam-tissue interaction generate plumes, which also contain particles of tumoral tissue not completely burned by the laser beam itself. These fumes can also be chemical by-products produced by normal tissue combustion. In both cases they retain a certain degree of malignancy (mainly depending on the type of tumor and by-product), which could result in spreading metastasis in the respiratory system of the surgical staff members and of the patient following inhalation. Only a few studies in the literature discuss this phenomenon, but all of them demonstrate clearly that current fume evacuator systems based on fixed air suctioning probes near the tip of the laser's focal head do not guarantee sufficient aspiration of the total dangerous gas volume (mixture of air and fumes) generated during complete surgical intervention. The author has made several measurements of the size, shape, dimension, and speed of the plumes associated with crater development in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) blocks exposed to a pulsed CO2 laser beam. The laser device has been optimized for visualization via the thermocamera and each smoke burst was measured as follows: 2.5 and 5 inch focal lengths, peak energy of 33 mJ, TEM00 mode, 4 Hz, pulse width tp = 10 msec, and total exposure time te = 10 sec have been used to irradiate 3 x 2 x 3 cm3 PMMA blocks. From a pure thermochemical point of view, PMMA has been used as the gross first

  6. Evaluating the Different Levels of Diaminozied on the Five Mini-Tuber Potato Cultivars produced by Tissue Culture under Greenhouse Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Soleimani Agdam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different levels of diaminozied on the potato cultivars mini-tubers produced by tissue culture under greenhouse condition a factorial an experiment on the base of completely randomized design in three replications was performed at the Ardabil Villkige Company Greenhouse in 2010. The first factor consisted of four levels of diaminozied, as plant growth regulator, (0, 40, 80 and 120 mg.L-1 and the second factor of five cultivars of virus-free potato (Satina, Savalan, Marfona, Agria and Cesear. Virus-free plantlets were transferred to isolated greenhouse and planted in 20×20×15 cm in plastic pots beds made by 1:1 volume of Biolan peat moss and perlite. During growth period traits like plant height, leaf and stem number per plant, mini-tuber weight and number per plant and square meter, and mini-tuber size were average measured. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among different levels of diaminozied for leaf number per plant, mini-tuber weight and its number per square meter, tuber average size in all cultivars under study. The interaction of diaminozied by cultivars showed significant difference as to leaf number per plant, mini-tuber weight, its number per square meter and average tuber size. Cesear and Marfona cultivars produced higher mini-tuber weight and tuber number per square meter by applying 40 mg.L-1 diaminozied. The correlation was significant and positive between mini-tuber number per square meter with mini-tuber weight per square meter and root length. It was also significant and positive between mini-tuber weight per square meter with plant height and average mini-tuber size. The results of multi regression analysis indicated that mini-tuber weight per square meter, average tuber size, plant height and root length were effective on changes of the mini-tuber number. The highest positive direct effect on number of mini-tuber per square meter was due to the plant height and the less

  7. Effect of Different Elicitors and Preharvest Day Application on the Content of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Butterhead Lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata) Produced under Hydroponic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Escamilla, Jesús Omar; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; de la Rosa, Laura A; Núñez-Gastélum, José Alberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Rodrigo-García, Joaquín

    2017-07-05

    The effect of four elicitors on phytochemical content in two varieties of lettuce was evaluated. The best preharvest day for application of each elicitor was chosen. Solutions of arachidonic acid (AA), salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MJ), and Harpin protein (HP) were applied by foliar aspersion on lettuce leaves while cultivating under hydroponic conditions. Application of elicitors was done at 15, 7, 5, 3, or 1 day before harvest. Green lettuce showed the highest increase in phytochemical content when elicitors (AA, SA, and HP) were applied on day 7 before harvest. Similarly, antioxidant activity rose in all treatments on day 7. In red lettuce, the highest content of bioactive molecules occurred in samples treated on day 15. AA, SA, and HP were the elicitors with the highest effect on phytochemical content for both varieties, mainly on polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity also increased in response to elicitation. HPLC-MS showed an increase in the content of phenolic acids in green and red lettuce, especially after elicitation with SA, suggesting activation of the caffeic acid pathway due to elicitation.

  8. Effects of cumulative stressful and acute variation episodes of farm climate conditions on late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria, Pilar; López-Gatius, Fernando; García-Ispierto, Irina; Bech-Sàbat, Gregori; Angulo, Eduardo; Carretero, Teresa; Sánchez-Nadal, Jóse Antonio; Yániz, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible relationships between farm climate conditions, recorded from day 0 to day 40 post-artificial insemination (AI), and late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows. Pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal ultrasonography between 28 and 34 days post-AI. Fetal loss was registered when a further 80- to 86-day diagnosis proved negative. Climate variables such as air temperature and relative humidity (RH) were monitored in the cubicles area for each 30-min period. Temperature-humidity indices (THI); cumulative stressful values and episodes of acute change (defined as the mean daily value 1.2 times higher or lower than the mean daily values of the 10 previous days) of the climate variables were calculated. The data were derived from 759 cows in one herd. A total of 692 pregnancies (91.2%) carried singletons and 67 (8.8%) carried twins. No triplets were recorded. Pregnancy loss was recorded in 6.7% (51/759) of pregnancies: 5.6% (39/692) in single and 17.9% (12/67) in twin pregnancies. Using logistic regression procedures, a one-unit increase in the daily cumulative number of hours for the THI values higher than 85 during days 11-20 of gestation caused a 1.57-fold increase in the pregnancy loss, whereas the likelihood of fetal loss increased by a factor of 1.16 for each additional episode of acute variation for the maximum THI values during gestation days 0-40. THI values higher than 85 and episodes of acute variation for the maximum THI values were only recorded during the warm and cool periods, respectively. The presence of twins led to a 3.98-fold increase in pregnancy loss. In conclusion, our findings show that cumulative stressful and episodes of acute variation of climatic conditions can compromise the success of gestation during both the cool and warm periods of the year. Twin pregnancy was confirmed as a main factor associated with pregnancy loss.

  9. The effect of intranasal oxytocin treatment on conditioned fear extinction and recall in a healthy human sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Dean T.; Feifel, David; de Wilde, Sofieke; Mckinney, Rebecca; Lohr, James B.; Risbrough, Victoria B.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale To improve outcomes for patients undergoing extinction-based therapies (e.g. exposure therapy) for anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder, there has been interest in identifying pharmaceutical compounds which might facilitate fear extinction learning and recall. Oxytocin (OT) is a mammalian neuropeptide that modulates activation of fear extinction-based neural circuits and fear responses. Little is known however about the effects of OT treatment on conditioned fear responding and extinction in humans. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of OT in a fear-potentiated startle task of fear conditioning and extinction. Methods A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 44 healthy human participants was conducted. Participants underwent a conditioned fear acquisition procedure, after which they were randomized to treatment group and delivered OT (24 IU) or placebo via intranasal spray. Forty-five min after treatment, participants underwent extinction training. Twenty-four hrs later subjects were tested for extinction recall. Results Relative to placebo, the OT group showed increased fear potentiated startle responding during the earliest stage of extinction training relative to placebo, however all treatment groups showed the same level of reduced responding by the end of extinction training. Twenty-four hours later the OT group showed significantly higher recall of extinction relative to placebo. Conclusions The current study provides preliminary evidence that OT may facilitate fear extinction recall in humans. These results support further study of OT as a potential adjunctive treatment for extinction-based therapies in fear-related disorders. PMID:23644911

  10. Influence of Nitrided Layer on The Properties of Carbon Coatings Produced on X105CrMo17 Steel Under DC Glow-Discharge Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz BOROWSKI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In most cases, machine components, which come in contact with each other, are made of steel. Common steel types include 100Cr6 and X105CrMo17 are widely used in rolling bearings, which are subjected to high static loads. However, more and more sophisticated structural applications require increasingly better performance from steel. The most popular methods for improving the properties of steel is carburisation or nitriding. Unfortunately, when very high surface properties of steel are required, this treatment may be insufficient. Improvement of tribological properties can be achieved by increasing the hardness of the surface, reducing roughness or reducing the coefficient of friction. The formation of composite layers on steel, consisting of a hard nitride diffusion layer and an external carbon coating with a low coefficient of friction, seems to be a prospect with significant potential. The article describes composite layers produced on X105CrMo17 steel and defines their morphology, surface roughness and their functional properties such as: resistance to friction-induced wear, coefficient of friction and corrosion resistance. The layers have been formed at a temperature of 370°C in successive processes of: nitriding in low-temperature plasma followed by deposition of a carbon coating under DC glow-discharge conditions. An evaluation was also made of the impact of the nitrided layers on the properties and morphology of the carbon coatings formed by comparing them to coatings formed on non-nitrided X105CrMo17 steel substrates. A study of the surface topography, adhesion, resistance to friction-induced wear and corrosion shows the significant importance of the substrate type the carbon coatings are formed on.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.7532

  11. Health-related productivity losses increase when the health condition is co-morbid with psychological distress: findings from a large cross-sectional sample of working Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The health condition of workers is known to impact on productivity outcomes. The relationship between health and productivity is of increasing interest amid the need to increase productivity to meet global financial challenges. Prevalence of psychological distress is also of growing concern in Australia with a two-fold increase in the prevalence of psychological distress in Australia from 1997-2005. Methods We used the cross-sectional data set from the Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC) study to explore the impacts of health conditions with and without co-morbid psychological distress, compared to those with neither condition, in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. The World Health Organisation Health and Performance Questionnaire was used which provided data on demographic characteristics, health condition and working conditions. Data were analysed using negative binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models for absenteeism and presenteeism respectively. Results For both absenteeism and presenteeism productivity measures there was a greater risk of productivity loss associated when health conditions were co-morbid with psychological distress. For some conditions this risk was much greater for those with co-morbid psychological distress compared to those without. Conclusions Co-morbid psychological distress demonstrates an increased risk of productivity loss for a range of health conditions. These findings highlight the need for further research to determine whether co-morbid psychological distress potentially exacerbates lost productivity. PMID:21627840

  12. Health-related productivity losses increase when the health condition is co-morbid with psychological distress: findings from a large cross-sectional sample of working Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecchio Nerina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health condition of workers is known to impact on productivity outcomes. The relationship between health and productivity is of increasing interest amid the need to increase productivity to meet global financial challenges. Prevalence of psychological distress is also of growing concern in Australia with a two-fold increase in the prevalence of psychological distress in Australia from 1997-2005. Methods We used the cross-sectional data set from the Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC study to explore the impacts of health conditions with and without co-morbid psychological distress, compared to those with neither condition, in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. The World Health Organisation Health and Performance Questionnaire was used which provided data on demographic characteristics, health condition and working conditions. Data were analysed using negative binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models for absenteeism and presenteeism respectively. Results For both absenteeism and presenteeism productivity measures there was a greater risk of productivity loss associated when health conditions were co-morbid with psychological distress. For some conditions this risk was much greater for those with co-morbid psychological distress compared to those without. Conclusions Co-morbid psychological distress demonstrates an increased risk of productivity loss for a range of health conditions. These findings highlight the need for further research to determine whether co-morbid psychological distress potentially exacerbates lost productivity.

  13. A Study on Living Conditions of the Seasonal Agricultural Workers: Hilvan County (Şanlıurfa Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Benek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is carried out to identify living standards of seasonal agricultural workers in Hilvan County of Şanlıurfa that largely rely on agriculture and have sufficient or little cultivable lands. Study sample is composed of families of the students who attend schools affiliated to Hilvan County Directorate of National Education and are involved in temporary migration before the school term ends in a year. “Face to face” interviews were held with and questionnaires were applied to heads of 523 families which live on seasonal agricultural labor. The results were assessed by using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science through various statistical techniques required for the study purpose. Majority of the children of families who

  14. Monitoring progress in vocal development in young cochlear implant recipients: relationships between speech samples and scores from the Conditioned Assessment of Speech Production (CASP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertmer, David J; Jung, Jongmin

    2012-11-01

    To determine the concurrent validity of the Conditioned Assessment of Speech Production (CASP; Ertmer & Stoel-Gammon, 2008) and data obtained from speech samples recorded at the same intervals. Nineteen children who are deaf who received cochlear implants before their 3rd birthdays participated in the study. Speech samples and CASP scores were gathered at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postactivation. Correlation analyses were conducted to assess the concurrent validity of CASP scores and data from samples. CASP scores showed strong concurrent validity with scores from speech samples gathered across all recording sessions (6-24 months). The CASP was found to be a valid, reliable, and time-efficient tool for assessing progress in vocal development during young cochlear implant recipients' first 2 years of device experience.

  15. Development of a DNA-extraction method from cereal samples for PCR-detection and identification of potentially thricothecene-producing Fusarium species.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammar, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Unwanted fungal growth is one of the most common causes of food spoilage throughout the world, and is causing health risks for both humans and animals and economical losses for the food- and agricultural industries. In Europe the mycotoxin producing Fusarium species F. sporotrichioides, F. culmorum, F. poae and F. graminearum is of greatest importance, due to their production of the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) among other mycotoxins. Today’s conventional determination methods of these ...

  16. Using mid-Infrared External Reflectance Spectroscopy to Distinguish Between Different Commercially Produced Poly[Methyl MethAcrylate] (PMMA) Samples - A Null Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Mario; Neel, Christopher; Lacina, David

    2017-06-01

    We report (null) results of experiments testing the hypothesis that mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy can be used to distinguish samples of poly[methyl methacrylate] (PMMA) obtained from different commercial suppliers. This work was motivated by the desire for a simple non-destructive and non-invasive test for pre-sorting PMMA samples prior to use in shock and high-strain-rate experiments, where PMMA is commonly used as a standard material. We discuss: our choice of mid-IR external reflectance spectroscopy, our approach to recording reflectance spectra at near-normal (θ = 0 + / - 5 degree) incidence and for extracting the wavelength-weighted absorption spectrum from the raw reflectance data via a Kramers-Krönig analysis. We employ extensive signal, which necessitates adopting a special experimental protocol to mitigate the effects of instrumental drift. Finally, we report spectra of three PMMA samples with different commercial pedigrees, and show that they are virtually identical (+ / - 1 % error, 95% confidence); obviating the use of mid-IR reflectance spectroscopy to tell the samples apart.

  17. Improved detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in input and output samples of German biogas plants by a selective pre-enrichment procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schauss

    Full Text Available The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%, few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%. Sixty-four blaCTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85% and 9 (13%, and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71% and B1 (27%, only one to group D (2%. Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E

  18. Improved Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Escherichia coli in Input and Output Samples of German Biogas Plants by a Selective Pre-Enrichment Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauss, Thorsten; Glaeser, Stefanie P.; Gütschow, Alexandra; Dott, Wolfgang; Kämpfer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli was investigated in input (manure from livestock husbandry) and output samples of six German biogas plants in 2012 (one sampling per biogas plant) and two German biogas plants investigated in an annual cycle four times in 2013/2014. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were cultured by direct plating on CHROMagar ESBL from input samples in the range of 100 to 104 colony forming units (CFU) per g dry weight but not from output sample. This initially indicated a complete elimination of ESBL-producing E. coli by the biogas plant process. Detected non target bacteria were assigned to the genera Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Achromobacter, Castellaniella, and Ochrobactrum. A selective pre-enrichment procedure increased the detection efficiency of ESBL-producing E. coli in input samples and enabled the detection in five of eight analyzed output samples. In total 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from input and 46 from output samples. Most of the E. coli isolates carried CTX-M-type and/or TEM-type beta lactamases (94%), few SHV-type beta lactamase (6%). Sixty-four blaCTX-M genes were characterized more detailed and assigned mainly to CTX-M-groups 1 (85%) and 9 (13%), and one to group 2. Phylogenetic grouping of 80 E. coli isolates showed that most were assigned to group A (71%) and B1 (27%), only one to group D (2%). Genomic fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed a high clonal diversity with 41 BOX-types and 19 ST-types. The two most common ST-types were ST410 and ST1210. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 46 selected ESBL-producing E. coli revealed that several isolates were additionally resistant to other veterinary relevant antibiotics and some grew on CHROMagar STEC but shiga-like toxine (SLT) genes were not detected. Resistance to carbapenems was not detected. In summary the study showed for the first time the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in

  19. Conditions of Thermal Reclamation Process Realization on a Sample of Spent Moulding Sand from an Aluminum Alloy Foundry Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucarz M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of thermal reclamation of spent moulding sands originating from an aluminum alloy foundry plant are presented in this paper. Spent sands were crushed by using two methods. Mechanical fragmentation of spent sand chunks was realized in the vibratory reclaimer REGMAS. The crushing process in the mechanical device was performed either with or without additional crushing-grinding elements. The reclaimed material obtained in this way was subjected to thermal reclamations at two different temperatures. It was found that a significant binder gathering on grain surfaces favors its spontaneous burning, even in the case when a temperature lower than required for the efficient thermal reclamation of furan binders is applied in the thermal reclaimer. The burning process, initiated by gas burners in the reclaimer chamber, generates favorable conditions for self-burning (at a determined amount of organic binders on grain surfaces. This process is spontaneously sustained and decreases the demand for gas. However, due to the significant amount of binder, this process is longer than in the case of reclaiming moulding sand prepared with fresh components.

  20. Quantitative Prediction of Beef Quality Using Visible and NIR Spectroscopy with Large Data Samples Under Industry Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, T.; Ren, J.; Craigie, C.; Zabalza, J.; Maltin, Ch.; Marshall, S.

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that the eating quality of beef has a significant influence on the repurchase behavior of consumers. There are several key factors that affect the perception of quality, including color, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. To support consumer repurchase choices, there is a need for an objective measurement of quality that could be applied to meat prior to its sale. Objective approaches such as offered by spectral technologies may be useful, but the analytical algorithms used remain to be optimized. For visible and near infrared (VISNIR) spectroscopy, Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) is a widely used technique for meat related quality modeling and prediction. In this paper, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based machine learning approach is presented to predict beef eating quality traits. Although SVM has been successfully used in various disciplines, it has not been applied extensively to the analysis of meat quality parameters. To this end, the performance of PLSR and SVM as tools for the analysis of meat tenderness is evaluated, using a large dataset acquired under industrial conditions. The spectral dataset was collected using VISNIR spectroscopy with the wavelength ranging from 350 to 1800 nm on 234 beef M. longissimus thoracis steaks from heifers, steers, and young bulls. As the dimensionality with the VISNIR data is very high (over 1600 spectral bands), the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique was applied for feature extraction and data reduction. The extracted principal components (less than 100) were then used for data modeling and prediction. The prediction results showed that SVM has a greater potential to predict beef eating quality than PLSR, especially for the prediction of tenderness. The infl uence of animal gender on beef quality prediction was also investigated, and it was found that beef quality traits were predicted most accurately in beef from young bulls.

  1. Validation of the German fear of pain questionnaire in a sample of children with mixed chronic pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, F; Gerlach, A L; Simons, L E; Zernikow, B; Hechler, T

    2017-08-01

    To date, no German instrument exists to measure pain-related fear in paediatric pain populations. The objective of the current study was to determine the construct validity of the translated German fear of pain questionnaire for children (GFOPQ-C) in a sample of children with mixed chronic pain disorders by testing the underlying factor structure, and its psychometric properties. N = 241 children with mixed chronic pain disorders (aged 8-19 years) presenting to a specialized pain clinic completed the GFOPQ-C and several other pain, fear and disability measures. The two-factor structure of the FOPQ-C (fear, avoidance) was replicated. Internal consistency for the shortened German version was good for both subscales (Fear subscale: α = 0.89; avoidance subscale: α = 0.76). As expected, the fear subscale correlated highly with anxiety sensitivity (r = 0.63), pain catastrophizing (r = 0.62) and general anxiety (r = 0.54), while the avoidance subscale was more closely related to disability (r = 0.24) and school functioning (r = 0.28). Pain-related fear differed in children with chronic pain depending on their pain location with higher fear ratings in children with abdominal pain and musculoskeletal pain. The GFOPQ-C is a valid instrument that assesses two distinct dimensions of pain-related fear in children: fear and avoidance. Future research is needed to evaluate the impact of increased pain-related fear on outcomes over time as well as to examine pain-related fear among healthy children. This will enhance our knowledge of who might be particularly vulnerable to potentially dysfunctional trajectories, such as ongoing pain or anxiety symptoms. The current study validates the first tool to assess pain-related fear in German-speaking children with chronic pain. Findings support two distinct domains: fear and activity avoidance. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  2. Standardization and optimization of core sampling procedure for carbon isotope analysis in eucalyptus and variation in carbon isotope ratios across species and growth conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raju, M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available and optimization of core sampling procedure for carbon isotope analysis in eucalyptus and variation in carbon isotope ratios across species and growth conditions Mohan Raju, B#; Nuveshen Naidoo*; Sheshshaayee, M. S; Verryn, S. D*; Kamalkannan, R^; Bindumadhava... isotope analysis in Eucalyptus. Methods Expt 1: * Cores were taken from periphery to pith in 5 year old trees of Eucalyptus * Five half sib families of Eucalyptus grandis & E. urophylla were used ? Cores were further subdivided into 5 fragments...

  3. Effects of lighting and air-conditioning systems on growth weight and functional composition of frill-lettuce produced in plant factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Atsumasa; Okamura, Nobuya; Furukawa, Hajime; Myojin, Chiho; Moriuchi, Koji; Kinoshita, Shinichi

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop optimal air-conditioning systems for plant factories. To verify the effect of particular air-conditioning and lighting systems, cultivation experiments were performed with frill-lettuce for two weeks. In the present study, the relationship between the cultivation condition, the yield (i.e., increase in edible portion weight), and the functional components were discussed. Based on the measured data, increased photosynthetic photon flux density increased antioxidative activity and edible portion weight, possibly because high light intensities are stressful for frill lettuce. Antioxidative activity also increased under conditions of low CO2 concentration, weak and strong winds, and high air temperature because these conditions became stresses for the plants. However, a decrease in edible portion weight was observed under these conditions, implying there is a negative correlation between antioxidative activity and edible portion weight.

  4. The role of passive sampling in monitoring the environmental impacts of produced water discharges from the Norwegian oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Sarah E; Oen, Amy M P; Cornelissen, Gerard; Jonker, Michiel T O; Waarum, Ivar-Kristian; Eek, Espen

    2016-10-15

    Stringent and periodic iteration of regulations related to the monitoring of chemical releases from the offshore oil and gas industry requires the use of ever changing, rapidly developing and technologically advancing techniques. Passive samplers play an important role in water column monitoring of produced water (PW) discharge to seawater under Norwegian regulation, where they are used to; i) measure aqueous concentrations of pollutants, ii) quantify the exposure of caged organisms and investigate PW dispersal, and iii) validate dispersal models. This article summarises current Norwegian water column monitoring practice and identifies research and methodological gaps for the use of passive samplers in monitoring. The main gaps are; i) the range of passive samplers used should be extended, ii) differences observed in absolute concentrations accumulated by passive samplers and organisms should be understood, and iii) the link between PW discharge concentrations and observed acute and sub-lethal ecotoxicological end points in organisms should be investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of urinary volatile organic metabolites: Optimization of the HS-SPME procedure and sample storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković Semren, Tanja; Brčić Karačonji, Irena; Safner, Toni; Brajenović, Nataša; Tariba Lovaković, Blanka; Pizent, Alica

    2018-01-01

    Non-targeted metabolomics research of human volatile urinary metabolome can be used to identify potential biomarkers associated with the changes in metabolism related to various health disorders. To ensure reliable analysis of urinary volatile organic metabolites (VOMs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), parameters affecting the headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure have been evaluated and optimized. The influence of incubation and extraction temperatures and times, coating fibre material and salt addition on SPME efficiency was investigated by multivariate optimization methods using reduced factorial and Doehlert matrix designs. The results showed optimum values for temperature to be 60°C, extraction time 50min, and incubation time 35min. The proposed conditions were applied to investigate urine samples' stability regarding different storage conditions and freeze-thaw processes. The sum of peak areas of urine samples stored at 4°C, -20°C, and -80°C up to six months showed a time dependent decrease over time although storage at -80°C resulted in a slight non-significant reduction comparing to the fresh sample. However, due to the volatile nature of the analysed compounds, more than two cycles of freezing/thawing of the sample stored for six months at -80°C should be avoided whenever possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An HPLC-MALDI MS method for N-glycan analyses using smaller size samples: application to monitor glycan modulation by medium conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmeister, Michael P; Tomiya, Noboru; Jacobia, Scott J; Lee, Yuan C; Gorfien, Stephen F; Betenbaugh, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    Existing HPLC methods can provide detailed structure and isomeric information, but are often slow and require large initial sample sizes. In this study, a previously established two-dimensional HPLC technique was adapted to a two-step identification method for smaller sample sizes. After cleavage from proteins, purification, and fluorescent labeling, glycans were analyzed on a 2-mm reverse phase HPLC column on a conventional HPLC and spotted onto a MALDI-TOF MS plate using an automated plate spotter to determine molecular weights. A direct correlation was found for 25 neutral oligosaccharides between the 2-mm Shim-Pack VP-ODS HPLC column (Shimadzu) and the 6-mm CLC-ODS column (Shimadzu) of the standard two- and three-dimensional methods. The increased throughput adaptations allowed a 100-fold reduction in required amounts of starting protein. The entire process can be carried out in 2-3 days for a large number of samples as compared to 1-2 weeks per sample for previous two-dimensional HPLC methods. The modified method was verified by identifying N-glycan structures, including specifying two different galactosylated positional isomers, of an IgG antibody from human sera samples. Analysis of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) from CHO cell cultures under varying culture conditions illustrated how the method can identify changes in oligosaccharide structure in the presence of different media environments. Raising glutamine concentrations or adding ammonia directly to the culture led to decreased galactosylation, while substituting GlutaMAX-I, a dipeptide of L-alanine and L-glutamine, resulted in structures with more galactosylation. This modified system will enable glycoprofiling of smaller glycoprotein samples in a shorter time period and allow a more rapid evaluation of the effects of culture conditions on expressed protein glycosylation.

  7. Enterotoxigenic profiling of emetic toxin- and enterotoxin-producing Bacillus cereus, Isolated from food, environmental, and clinical samples by multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghani, Fereidoun; Kim, Jung-Beom; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2014-11-01

    Bacillus cereus comprises the largest group of endospore-forming bacteria and can cause emetic and diarrheal food poisoning. A total of 496 B. cereus strains isolated from various sources (food, environmental, clinical) were assessed by a multiplex PCR for the presence of enterotoxin genes. The detection rate of nheA, entFM, hblC, and cytK enterotoxin genes among all B. cereus strains was 92.33%, 77.21%, 59.47%, and 47.58%, respectively. Enterotoxigenic profiles were determined in emetic toxin- (8 patterns) and enterotoxin-producing strains (12 patterns). The results provide important information on toxin prevalence and toxigenic profiles of B. cereus from various sources. Our findings revealed that B. cereus must be considered a serious health hazard and Bacillus thuringiensis should be considered of a greater potential concern to food safety among all B. cereus group members. Also, there is need for intensive and continuous monitoring of products embracing both emetic toxin and enterotoxin genes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Development and application of a high-temperature sampling probe for burning chamber conditions in fluidized-bed combustion; Korkean laempoetilan naeytteenottosondin kehittaeminen ja soveltaminen leijukerrospolton tulipesaeolosuhteisiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larjava, K.; Paerkkae, M. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Linna, V. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Environmental Technology

    1997-10-01

    Determination of heavy and alkali metals and other condensing compounds (e.g. chlorides) in combustion chamber conditions is limited by the poor suitability of traditional methods for sampling at high temperatures. IFRF has developed a high-temperature sampling probe for sampling HCN and NH{sub 3}, which has been tested for sampling of NH{sub 3} by Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. VTT Chemical Technology and Chalmers University of Technology have in their preliminary experiments determined contents of vaporous heavy metals in the combustion chamber of a 12 MW circulating fluidized-bed boiler using this probe. According to the results, the modified probe is suitable for heavy metal determination in combustion chamber. Based on this series of experiments, modification of the probe has been started on the own financing of VTT Chemical Technology and a field measurement was performed in November 1994 to test the present version of the probe. Based on the results of that measurement, the probe has been modified further on as a part of this LIEKKI 2 project. Similar kind of a principle has been applied in the probe which has been developed by VTT Energy during 1994. The probe is built for determination of gas composition of fluidized bed in full-scale boilers. The purpose of this project is to develop and test a sampling probe for fluidized bed combustion. The main advantage of the probe is that condensation losses in sampling due to high temperature gradients can be avoided. Thus, the probe is very suitable for sampling vaporous heavy and alkali metals and other condensing species as well as burning gases and alternatively also solids at high temperatures

  9. Clenbuterol Residues in Plasma and Urine Samples of Food-Producing Pigs During and After Subchronic Exposure to a Growth-Promoting Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomira Gojmerac

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate the suitability of plasma and urine as matrices for clenbuterol residue determination during and after its subchronic administration at a growth-promoting dose to male pigs, using previously validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA as a screening method and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS as a confirmation method. A high correlation coefficient between these analytical methods was obtained for both urine (R=0.9800 and plasma (R=0.9970 concentrations. Study results show the plasma and urine concentration to vary greatly during oral treatment with clenbuterol for 28 days. The peak urine concentration ((88.54±50.54 ng/mL recorded on day 21 was 40-fold peak plasma concentration ((2.25±1.54 ng/mL. After withdrawal period, the peak urine clenbuterol concentration ((42.93±10.52 ng/mL recorded on day 0 was 24-fold plasma concentration ((1.79±0.97 ng/mL. The maximum allowed concentration of 0.5 ng/g in the liver as a regulated matrix for control of clenbuterol abuse was achieved in plasma on day 3 ((0.52±0.26 ng/mL and in urine on day 7 of treatment withdrawal ((0.45±0.11 ng/mL. Study results indicate that urine and plasma may be suitable matrices for the control of clenbuterol abuse during fattening of food-producing pigs but have a limited value because of the rapidly decreasing concentration upon treatment withdrawal, in plasma in particular.

  10. Form, formation, and deformation : the influence of material properties and process conditions on the shape of granules produced by high shear granulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Anneke Margriet

    2005-01-01

    High shear granulation The introduction of this thesis describes the high shear granulation process. High shear granulation is a commonly used unit operation to produce larger granules of primary particles. The granulation process has been described to consist of different stages. The initial growth

  11. Vibration and acoustic frequency spectra for industrial process modeling using selective fusion multi-condition samples and multi-source features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Qiao, Junfei; Wu, ZhiWei; Chai, Tianyou; Zhang, Jian; Yu, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Frequency spectral data of mechanical vibration and acoustic signals relate to difficult-to-measure production quality and quantity parameters of complex industrial processes. A selective ensemble (SEN) algorithm can be used to build a soft sensor model of these process parameters by fusing valued information selectively from different perspectives. However, a combination of several optimized ensemble sub-models with SEN cannot guarantee the best prediction model. In this study, we use several techniques to construct mechanical vibration and acoustic frequency spectra of a data-driven industrial process parameter model based on selective fusion multi-condition samples and multi-source features. Multi-layer SEN (MLSEN) strategy is used to simulate the domain expert cognitive process. Genetic algorithm and kernel partial least squares are used to construct the inside-layer SEN sub-model based on each mechanical vibration and acoustic frequency spectral feature subset. Branch-and-bound and adaptive weighted fusion algorithms are integrated to select and combine outputs of the inside-layer SEN sub-models. Then, the outside-layer SEN is constructed. Thus, ;sub-sampling training examples;-based and ;manipulating input features;-based ensemble construction methods are integrated, thereby realizing the selective information fusion process based on multi-condition history samples and multi-source input features. This novel approach is applied to a laboratory-scale ball mill grinding process. A comparison with other methods indicates that the proposed MLSEN approach effectively models mechanical vibration and acoustic signals.

  12. Methodological Comparison between a Novel Automatic Sampling System for Gas Chromatography versus Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Measuring Greenhouse Gas Emissions under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Schmithausen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Trace gases such as nitrous oxide (N2O, methane (CH4, and carbon dioxide (CO2 are climate-related gases, and their emissions from agricultural livestock barns are not negligible. Conventional measurement systems in the field (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR; photoacoustic system (PAS are not sufficiently sensitive to N2O. Laser-based measurement systems are highly accurate, but they are very expensive to purchase and maintain. One cost-effective alternative is gas chromatography (GC with electron capture detection (ECD, but this is not suitable for field applications due to radiation. Measuring samples collected automatically under field conditions in the laboratory at a subsequent time presents many challenges. This study presents a sampling designed to promote laboratory analysis of N2O concentrations sampled under field conditions. Analyses were carried out using PAS in the field (online system and GC in the laboratory (offline system. Both measurement systems showed a good correlation for CH4 and CO2 concentrations. Measured N2O concentrations were near the detection limit for PAS. GC achieved more reliable results for N2O in very low concentration ranges.

  13. Methodological Comparison between a Novel Automatic Sampling System for Gas Chromatography versus Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Measuring Greenhouse Gas Emissions under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmithausen, Alexander J; Trimborn, Manfred; Büscher, Wolfgang

    2016-10-03

    Trace gases such as nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2) are climate-related gases, and their emissions from agricultural livestock barns are not negligible. Conventional measurement systems in the field (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR); photoacoustic system (PAS)) are not sufficiently sensitive to N2O. Laser-based measurement systems are highly accurate, but they are very expensive to purchase and maintain. One cost-effective alternative is gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD), but this is not suitable for field applications due to radiation. Measuring samples collected automatically under field conditions in the laboratory at a subsequent time presents many challenges. This study presents a sampling designed to promote laboratory analysis of N2O concentrations sampled under field conditions. Analyses were carried out using PAS in the field (online system) and GC in the laboratory (offline system). Both measurement systems showed a good correlation for CH4 and CO2 concentrations. Measured N2O concentrations were near the detection limit for PAS. GC achieved more reliable results for N2O in very low concentration ranges.

  14. Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 produces a novel type of acyl-homoserine lactone with a double unsaturated side chain under methylotrophic growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto Penalver, Carlos G; Morin, Danièle; Cantet, Franck; Saurel, Olivier; Milon, Alain; Vorholt, Julia A

    2006-01-23

    Acyl-homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) have emerged as important regulatory molecules for many gram-negative bacteria. We have found that Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, a member of the pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs commonly present on plant surfaces, produces several acyl-HSLs depending upon the carbon source. A novel HSL was discovered with a double unsaturated carbon chain (N-(tetradecenoyl)) (C14:2) and characterized by MS and proton NMR. This long-chain acyl-HSL is synthesized by MlaI that also directs synthesis of C14:1-HSL. The Alphaproteobacterium also produces N-hexanoyl-HSL (C6-HSL) and N-octanoyl-HSL (C8-HSL) via MsaI.

  15. Effect of Process and Post-Process Conditions on the Mechanical Properties of an A357 Alloy Produced via Laser Powder Bed Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta Aversa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A357 samples were realized by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF on building platforms heated up to different temperatures. The effect of the preheating temperature and of the post processing heat treatment on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the samples was studied. It was demonstrated that building platform heating can act as an in situ ageing heat treatment following the fast cooling that arises during laser scanning. A 17% higher ultimate tensile strength was achieved by the selection of the optimum building platform temperature. Moreover, the possibility to further increase the mechanical properties by means of a direct ageing heat treatment was investigated.

  16. Effect of a disinfectant powder on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs, bedding and air samples under simulated farm conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Damborg, Peter Panduro; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2013-01-01

    controlled conditions. Treatment and control group were both composed by pigs naturally colonized with LA-MRSA. The animals were housed for 37 days in two separate farm-style chambers (Danbox Danmark ApS) designed for evaluation of farm decontamination technologies. The treatment group received seven...... applications of the disinfectant. MRSA load was measured in samples from pigs, bedding material and air and analysed statistically. While pigs remained positive with variable MRSA counts, the amount of MRSA in the air and bedding material increased significantly during the first week and then was gradually...

  17. Living conditions, including life style, in primary-care patients with nonacute, nonspecific spinal pain compared with a population-based sample: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd Lindell

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Odd Lindell, Sven-Erik Johansson, Lars-Erik Strender1Center for Family and Community Medicine, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, SwedenBackground: Nonspecific spinal pain (NSP, comprising back and/or neck pain, is one of the leading disorders behind long-term sick-listing, including disability pensions. Early interventions to prevent long-term sick-listing require the identification of patients at risk. The aim of this study was to compare living conditions associated with long-term sick-listing for NSP in patients with nonacute NSP, with a nonpatient population-based sample. Nonacute NSP is pain that leads to full-time sick-listing>3 weeks.Methods: One hundred and twenty-five patients with nonacute NSP, 2000–2004, were included in a randomized controlled trial in Stockholm County with the objective of comparing cognitive–behavioral rehabilitation with traditional primary care. For these patients, a cross-sectional study was carried out with baseline data. Living conditions were compared between the patients and 338 nonpatients by logistic regression. The conditions from univariate analyses were included in a multivariate analysis. The nonsignificant variables were excluded sequentially to yield a model comprising only the significant factors (P <0.05. The results are shown as odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals.Results: In the univariate analyses, 13 of the 18 living conditions had higher odds for the patients with a dominance of physical work strains and Indication of alcohol over-consumption, odds ratio (OR 14.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2–67.6. Five conditions qualified for the multivariate model: High physical workload, OR 13.7 (CI 5.9–32.2; Hectic work tempo, OR 8.4 (CI 2.5–28.3; Blue-collar job, OR 4.5 (CI 1.8–11.4; Obesity, OR 3.5 (CI 1.2–10.2; and Low education, OR 2.7 (CI 1.1–6.8.Conclusions: As most of the living conditions have previously been

  18. Towards the harmonization between National Forest Inventory and Forest Condition Monitoring. Consistency of plot allocation and effect of tree selection methods on sample statistics in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Patrizia; Di Cosmo, Lucio; Cenni, Enrico; Pompei, Enrico; Ferretti, Marco

    2013-07-01

    In the frame of a process aiming at harmonizing National Forest Inventory (NFI) and ICP Forests Level I Forest Condition Monitoring (FCM) in Italy, we investigated (a) the long-term consistency between FCM sample points (a subsample of the first NFI, 1985, NFI_1) and recent forest area estimates (after the second NFI, 2005, NFI_2) and (b) the effect of tree selection method (tree-based or plot-based) on sample composition and defoliation statistics. The two investigations were carried out on 261 and 252 FCM sites, respectively. Results show that some individual forest categories (larch and stone pine, Norway spruce, other coniferous, beech, temperate oaks and cork oak forests) are over-represented and others (hornbeam and hophornbeam, other deciduous broadleaved and holm oak forests) are under-represented in the FCM sample. This is probably due to a change in forest cover, which has increased by 1,559,200 ha from 1985 to 2005. In case of shift from a tree-based to a plot-based selection method, 3,130 (46.7%) of the original 6,703 sample trees will be abandoned, and 1,473 new trees will be selected. The balance between exclusion of former sample trees and inclusion of new ones will be particularly unfavourable for conifers (with only 16.4% of excluded trees replaced by new ones) and less for deciduous broadleaves (with 63.5% of excluded trees replaced). The total number of tree species surveyed will not be impacted, while the number of trees per species will, and the resulting (plot-based) sample composition will have a much larger frequency of deciduous broadleaved trees. The newly selected trees have-in general-smaller diameter at breast height (DBH) and defoliation scores. Given the larger rate of turnover, the deciduous broadleaved part of the sample will be more impacted. Our results suggest that both a revision of FCM network to account for forest area change and a plot-based approach to permit statistical inference and avoid bias in the tree sample

  19. Distinguishing HIV-1 drug resistance, accessory, and viral fitness mutations using conditional selection pressure analysis of treated versus untreated patient samples

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    Lee Christopher

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV can evolve drug resistance rapidly in response to new drug treatments, often through a combination of multiple mutations 123. It would be useful to develop automated analyses of HIV sequence polymorphism that are able to predict drug resistance mutations, and to distinguish different types of functional roles among such mutations, for example, those that directly cause drug resistance, versus those that play an accessory role. Detecting functional interactions between mutations is essential for this classification. We have adapted a well-known measure of evolutionary selection pressure (Ka/Ks and developed a conditional Ka/Ks approach to detect important interactions. Results We have applied this analysis to four independent HIV protease sequencing datasets: 50,000 clinical samples sequenced by Specialty Laboratories, Inc.; 1800 samples from patients treated with protease inhibitors; 2600 samples from untreated patients; 400 samples from untreated African patients. We have identified 428 mutation interactions in Specialty dataset with statistical significance and we were able to distinguish primary vs. accessory mutations for many well-studied examples. Amino acid interactions identified by conditional Ka/Ks matched 80 of 92 pair wise interactions found by a completely independent study of HIV protease (p-value for this match is significant: 10-70. Furthermore, Ka/Ks selection pressure results were highly reproducible among these independent datasets, both qualitatively and quantitatively, suggesting that they are detecting real drug-resistance and viral fitness mutations in the wild HIV-1 population. Conclusion Conditional Ka/Ks analysis can detect mutation interactions and distinguish primary vs. accessory mutations in HIV-1. Ka/Ks analysis of treated vs. untreated patient data can distinguish drug-resistance vs. viral fitness mutations. Verification of these results would require longitudinal studies. The result

  20. Flow injection of liquid samples to a mass spectrometer with ionization under vacuum conditions: a combined ion source for single-photon and electron impact ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepler, Claudia; Sklorz, Martin; Passig, Johannes; Famiglini, Giorgio; Cappiello, Achille; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2013-09-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and atmospheric pressure photo-ionization (APPI) are the most important techniques for the ionization of liquid samples. However, working under atmospheric pressure conditions, all these techniques involve some chemical rather than purely physical processes, and therefore, side reactions often yield to matrix-dependent ionization efficiencies. Here, a system is presented that combines both soft single-photon ionization (SPI) and hard 70 eV electron impact ionization (EI) of dissolved compounds under vacuum conditions. A quadrupole mass spectrometer was modified to enable direct EI, a technique developed by Cappiello et al. to obtain library-searchable EI mass spectra as well as soft SPI mass spectra of sample solutions. An electron beam-pumped rare gas excimer lamp working at 126 nm was used as well as a focusable vacuum UV light source for single-photon ionization. Both techniques, EI and SPI, were applied successfully for flow injection experiments providing library-matchable EI fragment mass spectra and soft SPI mass spectra, showing dominant signals for the molecular ion. Four model compounds were analyzed: hexadecane, propofol, chlorpropham, and eugenol, with detection limits in the picomolar range. This novel combination of EI and SPI promises great analytical benefits, thanks to the possibility of combining database alignment for EI data and molecular mass information provided by SPI. Possible applications for the presented ionization technology system are a matrix-effect-free detection and a rapid screening of different complex mixtures without time-consuming sample preparation or separation techniques (e.g., for analysis of reaction solutions in combinatorial chemistry) or a switchable hard (EI) and soft (SPI) MS method as detection step for liquid chromatography.

  1. Optimization of culture conditions to produce high yields of active Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 cells for anti-Prelog reduction of prochiral ketones

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    Chen Xiao-Hong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chiral alcohols are widely used in the synthesis of chiral pharmaceuticals, flavors and functional materials and appropriate whole-cell biocatalysts offer a highly enantioselective, minimally polluting route to these valuable compounds. The recently isolated strain Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 showed exclusive anti-Prelog stereoselectivity for the reduction of prochiral ketones, but the low biomass has limited its commercialization and industrial applications. To tackle this problem, the effects of medium components and culture conditions on the strain's growth and reduction activity were explored. Results By using a one-at-a-time method and a central composite rotatable design (CCRD, the optimal medium and culture conditions were found to be as follows: glucose 8.26 g/L, fructose 2.50 g/L, soy peptone 83.92 g/L, MnSO4·H2O 0.088 g/L, pH 5.70, 30°C and 10% (v/v inoculum. Under the above-mentioned conditions, the biomass after 30 h cultivation reached 1.10 ± 0.03 g/L, which was 9.5-fold higher than that obtained with basic medium. Also, the reduction activity towards 4'-chloroacetophenone was markedly enhanced to 39.49 ± 0.96 μmol/min/g from 29.34 ± 0.65 μmol/min/g, with the product e.e. being above 99%. Comparable improvements were also seen with the enantioselective bioreduction of 4-(trimethylsilyl-3-butyn-2-one to the key pharmaceutical precursor (R - 4-(trimethylsilyl-3-butyn-2-ol. Conclusions The biomass and reduction activity of Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 can be greatly enhanced through the optimization strategy. This facilitates use of the strain in the anti-Prelog stereoselective reduction of prochiral ketones to enantiopure chiral alcohols as building blocks for many industries.

  2. Culture Condition Optimization and Pilot Scale Production of the M12 Metalloprotease Myroilysin Produced by the Deep-Sea Bacterium Myroides profundi D25

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    Xuan Shao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The protease myroilysin is the most abundant protease secreted by marine sedimental bacterium Myroides profundi D25. As a novel elastase of the M12 family, myroilysin has high elastin-degrading activity and strong collagen-swelling ability, suggesting its promising biotechnological potential. Because myroilysin cannot be maturely expressed in Escherichia coli, it is important to be able to improve the production of myroilysin in the wild strain D25. We optimized the culture conditions of strain D25 for protease production by using single factor experiments. Under the optimized conditions, the protease activity of strain D25 reached 1137 ± 53.29 U/mL, i.e., 174% of that before optimization (652 ± 23.78 U/mL. We then conducted small scale fermentations of D25 in a 7.5 L fermentor. The protease activity of strain D25 in small scale fermentations reached 1546.4 ± 82.65 U/mL after parameter optimization. Based on the small scale fermentation results, we further conducted pilot scale fermentations of D25 in a 200 L fermentor, in which the protease production of D25 reached approximately 1100 U/mL. These results indicate that we successfully set up the small and pilot scale fermentation processes of strain D25 for myroilysin production, which should be helpful for the industrial production of myroilysin and the development of its biotechnological potential.

  3. Ethylene emission and PR protein synthesis in ACC deaminase producing Methylobacterium spp. inoculated tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) challenged with Ralstonia solanacearum under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Woojong; Seshadri, Sundaram; Kim, Kiyoon; Lee, Gillseung; Sa, Tongmin

    2013-06-01

    Bacteria of genus Methylobacterium have been found to promote plant growth and regulate the level of ethylene in crop plants. This work is aimed to test the induction of defense responses in tomato against bacterial wilt by stress ethylene level reduction mediated by the ACC deaminase activity of Methylobacterium strains. Under greenhouse conditions, the disease index value in Methylobacterium sp. inoculated tomato plants was lower than control plants. Plants treated with Methylobacterium sp. challenge inoculated with Ralstonia solanacearum (RS) showed significantly reduced disease symptoms and lowered ethylene emission under greenhouse condition. The ACC and ACO (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase) accumulation in tomato leaves were significantly reduced with Methylobacterium strains inoculation. While ACC oxidase gene expression was found higher in plants treated with R. solanacearum than Methylobacterium sp. treatment, PR proteins related to induced systemic resistance like β-1,3-glucanase, PAL, PO and PPO were increased in Methylobacterium sp. inoculated plants. A significant increase in β-1,3-glucanase and PAL gene expression was found in all the Methylobacterium spp. treatments compared to the R. solanacearum treatment. This study confirms the activity of Methylobacterium sp. in increasing the defense enzymes by modulating the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and suggests the use of methylotrophic bacteria as potential biocontrol agents in tomato cultivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Development and analysis of a mathematical model for antibody-producing GS-NS0 cells under normal and hyperosmotic culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yingswan; Varley, Julie; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2006-01-01

    The GS-NS0 cell line is industrially important and is currently used for the large-scale production of several therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. A novel hybrid model, consisting of both unstructured and structured elements, has been developed to describe cell growth and death, metabolism, and antibody production in the GS-NS0 system under normal culture conditions. A comparison between the hybrid model and a large-scale single-cell model (SCM) describing detailed metabolic processes verified the predictive ability of the hybrid model (when compared with experimental data) and highlighted the practical difficulties involved in utilizing complex models. Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) on the hybrid model identified the specific transcription and translation rates of heavy and light immunoglobulin chains as parameters with the largest impact on the antibody production process. This information, together with the addition of a 24-h lag phase, resulted in the successful extension of the hybrid model to represent GS-NS0 system behavior under hyperosmotic culture conditions.

  5. Selection of an Effective Indicator for Rapid Detection of Microorganisms Producing γ-Polyglutamic Acid and Its Biosynthesis Under Submerged Fermentation Conditions Using Bacillus methylotrophicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Poonam Mishra; Datta, Silpi; Tiwari, Deepika Pandey; Raval, Ritu; Dubey, Ashok Kumar

    2017-11-13

    γ-Polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a biosynthetic outcome of glutamic acid polymerization by microbes. In the current study, we have isolated Bacillus methylotrophicus on solid differential media containing methylene blue. This is the first report mentioning the use of methylene blue to distinguish the monomeric and polymeric form of glutamic acid in the liquid medium using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Our method can simplify the analytical process of γ-PGA confirmation using the aforementioned studies. This screening protocol is sensitive to the detection of γ-PGA quantities as low as 3 μg/mL; thus, the potent producers can be effectively screened. Furthermore, we have carried out process optimization of the present strain for γ-PGA production wherein we could obtain 1.4-fold improvement in the yield with respect to utilization of carbon source and 2.6-fold increase with respect to nitrogen source under submerged fermentation at a shake flask level. We have shown an increase in γ-PGA titer from 1.5 to 36 g/L using mannitol, monosodium glutamate, peptone, and tween 20.

  6. Towards an international standard for detection and typing botulinum neurotoxin-producing Clostridia types A, B, E and F in food, feed and environmental samples: a European ring trial study to evaluate a real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenicia, Lucia; Fach, Patrick; van Rotterdam, Bart J; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Segerman, Bo; Auricchio, Bruna; Delibato, Elisabetta; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; Wielinga, Peter R; Woudstra, Cedric; Agren, Joakim; De Medici, Dario; Knutsson, Rickard

    2011-03-01

    A real-time PCR method for detection and typing of BoNT-producing Clostridia types A, B, E, and F was developed on the framework of the European Research Project "Biotracer". A primary evaluation was carried out using 104 strains and 17 clinical and food samples linked to botulism cases. Results showed 100% relative accuracy, 100% relative sensitivity, 100% relative specificity, and 100% selectivity (inclusivity on 73 strains and exclusivity on 31 strains) of the real-time PCR against the reference cultural method combined with the standard mouse bioassay. Furthermore, a ring trial study performed at four different European laboratories in Italy, France, the Netherlands, and Sweden was carried out using 47 strains, and 30 clinical and food samples linked to botulism cases. Results showed a concordance of 95.7% among the four laboratories. The reproducibility generated a relative standard deviation in the range of 2.18% to 13.61%. Considering the high level of agreement achieved between the laboratories, this real-time PCR is a suitable method for rapid detection and typing of BoNT-producing Clostridia in clinical, food and environmental samples and thus support the use of it as an international standard method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of antibiotic residues and association of cefquinome residues with the occurrence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in waste milk samples from dairy farms in England and Wales in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Luke; Heinrich, Katharina; Horton, Robert; Brunton, Lucy; Sharman, Matthew; Bailey-Horne, Victoria; Sharma, Meenaxi; McLaren, Ian; Coldham, Nick; Teale, Chris; Jones, Jeff

    2014-02-01

    Waste milk samples from 103 farms in England and Wales were examined for the presence of β-lactam antibiotics and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Approximately 10 months after the initial sampling, further waste milk, environmental and faecal samples from farms shown to be positive for CTX-M Escherichia coli were investigated further. Isolates with an ESBL phenotype were tested by PCR for the presence of blaCTX-M, blaOXA, blaSHV and blaTEM genes. Isolates positive for blaCTX-M were sequenced to determine CTX-M type. Representative isolates were further examined by PFGE, plasmid replicon typing and serotyping. Of particular interest, 21.4% of waste milk samples contained residues of the cephalosporin cefquinome, which was significantly associated with CTX-M bacteria. Such bacteria occurred in 5.8% of the waste milk samples (including 3.9% CTX-M E. coli). CTX-M types identified were 1, 14, 14b and 15, but none of the E. coli were serotype O25, the serotype of the human pandemic strain. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation conditions on 137 Cs concentrations in cultivated mushrooms produced after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Ishii, Nobuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Radiocesium (134 Cs and 137 Cs) in mushrooms has been a matter of public concern after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. To minimize the internal dose by ingestion of cultivated mushrooms, the Japanese government set a guideline level with respect to the radiocesium concentration in bed-logs and mushroom beds; however, the effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation methods on radiocesium concentrations in cultivated mushrooms were not clear. The effects of indoor and outdoor cultivation on the radiocesium concentrations in mushroom were examined using published food monitoring data. 137 Cs concentration data in Lentinula edodes from the Aizu area in Fukushima Prefecture and seven prefectures outside Fukushima were used for the analysis. No statistically significant 137 Cs concentration differences were found between these two cultivation methods. Using detected 137 Cs data in shiitake, the geometric means from each prefecture were less than one-quarter of the standard limit (100 Bq kg-1 ) for total radiocesium under both cultivation conditions. It was suspected that re-suspended radiocesium might have been taken up by mushrooms or that radiocesium might have been absorbed into the mushrooms from the soil in the outdoor cultures. However, neither effect was significant for cultivated mushrooms in the areas examined. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Experiments with Plasmas Produced by Potassium-Seeded Cyanogen Oxygen Flames for Study of Radio Transmission at Simulated Reentry Vehicle Plasma Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Paul W.; Gooderum, Paul B.

    1961-01-01

    A method for the chemical production of an ionized gas stream for application to radio transmission studies is described. Involved is the combustion of gaseous cyanogen and oxygen with the addition of vaporized potassium in some cases to further increase the ionization. Experiments are described in which a 3-inch-diameter subsonic free jet at atmospheric pressure is used, and the results are presented. The plasma obtained by using this method is sufficient to simulate plasma conditions expected for reentering hypersonic vehicles. The unseeded plasma stream temperature is indicated to be about 4,200 K, with the degree of ionization indicated to be that expected from thermal equilibrium considerations. Measurements of radio-signal loss due to the unseeded flame plasma are presented for microwaves of 8 to 20 kmc transmitted through the stream and for a dipole transmitting model of 219.5 mc immersed in the stream. Favorable comparison of these results with the simple plane-wave signal-attenuation theory was obtained. In the case of a 9.4-kmc microwave signal of 30-kw peak power, the preliminary indication is that the plasma characteristics were not changed due to this strong signal. Comparison of a simplified concept of radio-signal attenuation due to plasmas is made with some hypersonic reentry vehicle signal-loss data. Other areas of plasma research using this method for the transmission problem are indicated.

  10. Absence of metallothionein-3 produces changes on MT-1/2 regulation in basal conditions and alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Natalia; Quintana, Albert; Carrasco, Javier; Giralt, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Juan; Molinero, Amalia

    2014-07-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are multipurpose proteins with clear antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and metal homeostasis properties. The roles of brain MT-1 and MT-2 are similar to those described in the periphery, and are inducible by metals, inflammatory and stress stimuli. MT-3, originally named growth inhibitory factor, exists mainly in the central nervous system, is hardly ever inducible and its functional role and regulation are poorly understood and controversial. In the present study we examined how absence of MT-3 affects phenotypic characteristics and its effects on MT1/2 expression in basal situation and after induction. Hyperactive behavior was found only in young male Mt-3 KO mice and disappeared in the older ones. Absence of MT-3 was associated with a significant increase of MT-1/2 protein levels in several brain areas but decreased MT-1 mRNA levels, which might be related to lower corticosterone levels. The response to stress or inflammation on corticosterone plasma levels was similar in wild type and Mt-3 KO mice, suggesting that the relevant MT-3 role as MT-1/2 regulator in basal conditions is lost when other important regulatory factors such as glucocorticoids or cytokines appear. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Laboratory Test Setup for in Situ Measurements of the Dielectric Properties of Catalyst Powder Samples under Reaction Conditions by Microwave Cavity Perturbation: Set up and Initial Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Dietrich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic behavior of zeolite catalysts for the ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR of nitrogen oxides (NOX depends strongly on the type of zeolite material. An essential precondition for SCR is a previous ammonia gas adsorption that occurs on acidic sites of the zeolite. In order to understand and develop SCR active materials, it is crucial to know the amount of sorbed ammonia under reaction conditions. To support classical temperature-programmed desorption (TPD experiments, a correlation of the dielectric properties with the catalytic properties and the ammonia sorption under reaction conditions appears promising. In this work, a laboratory test setup, which enables direct measurements of the dielectric properties of catalytic powder samples under a defined gas atmosphere and temperature by microwave cavity perturbation, has been developed. Based on previous investigations and computational simulations, a resonator cavity and a heating system were designed, installed and characterized. The resonator cavity is designed to operate in its TM010 mode at 1.2 GHz. The first measurement of the ammonia loading of an H-ZSM-5 zeolite confirmed the operating performance of the test setup at constant temperatures of up to 300 °C. It showed how both real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity are strongly correlated with the mass of stored ammonia.

  12. Generalizability of clinical trial results for bipolar disorder to community samples: findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoertel, Nicolas; Le Strat, Yann; Lavaud, Pierre; Dubertret, Caroline; Limosin, Frédéric

    2013-03-01

    Research on the generalizability of clinical trial results for bipolar disorder is limited. The present post hoc study sought to quantify the generalizability of clinical trial results in individuals with DSM-IV bipolar disorder to a large representative community sample. Data were derived from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a large, nationally representative sample of 43,093 adults from the United States population. We applied a standard set of eligibility criteria representative of clinical trials to all adults with DSM-IV bipolar depression (n = 785) or mania (n = 724) in the past 12 months and then to a subsample of participants seeking treatment for bipolar depression (n = 276). Our aim was to determine the proportion of participants with bipolar depression or acute mania who would have been excluded from a clinical trial by typical eligibility criteria. We found that more than 5 of 10 participants with bipolar depression (58.17%) or mania (55.75%) would have been excluded by at least 1 eligibility criterion. In the subgroup of participants with bipolar depression who sought treatment, the exclusion rate by at least 1 criterion was higher (63.87%). Having a significant risk of suicide was the criterion excluding the highest percentage of participants in the bipolar depression samples, while having a current DSM-IV diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence was the one leading to the greatest exclusion rate in clinical trials for participants with acute mania. Exclusion rates were higher for participants with bipolar I depression compared with those with bipolar II depression. Traditional clinical trials tend to exclude a majority of individuals with bipolar disorder. Clinical trials should carefully consider the impact of eligibility criteria on the generalizability of their results and explain the rationale for their use. Future trials should weigh the trade-offs between internal validity and the

  13. Heterogeneous results of serum testosterone obtained in multiple blood samples from women with idiopathic hirsutism in both basal and post-dexamethasone conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglia, H E; Aquilano, D; Zylbersztein, C; Spinedi, E; Colombani, M; Simon, J; Encabo, J

    1981-01-01

    Serum radioimmunoassayable testosterone (T), cortisol and luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined before and after dexamethasone (DXM) administration in 35 patients with idiopathic hirsutism (IH). Blood samples were taken at 15-min intervals during 1 hour in both basal and post-DXM conditions. Testosterone values obtained in 5 normal women in the same conditions during the early follicular phase were (mean +/- SD): baseline, 2.26 +/- 0.49 nmol/l; post-DXM, 0.80 +/- 0.35 nmol/l. Serum T levels in the whole group of patients with IH were significantly higher than those in the control group (mean +/- SD): baseline, 3.30 +/- 1.80nmol/l; post-DXM, 1.67 +/- 1.49nmol/l. Patients with IH were divided into 4 groups according to T results in the DXM test (mean +/- SD in both basal and post-DXM conditions, respectively): group 1 (n = 13) 1.67 +/- 0.66 and 0.62 +/- 0.35nmol/l; group 2 (n = 11) 3.89 +/- 1.63 and 3.09 +/- 1.49nmol/l; group 3 (n = 6) 3.96 +/- 1.46 and 0.87 +/- 0.73nmol/l; and group 4 (n = 5) 5.45 +/- 1.25 and 2.05 +/- 0.38nmol/l. In all cases, maximal adrenal inhibition, as judged by serum cortisol, was obtained. No LH modifications after DXM were obtained in any of the cases. Our results demonstrate that there is no common androgenic abnormality in IH. It is possible to obtain normal or high circulating T levels. The findings of this study also suggest that the adrenals, to ovary or both may be the sources of high T levels.

  14. Attenuation of Diabetic Conditions by Sida rhombifolia in Moderately Diabetic Rats and Inability to Produce Similar Effects in Severely Diabetic in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Padmaja; Kwape, Tebogo Elvis

    2015-12-01

    This study was done out to evaluate the effects of Sida rhombifolia methanol extract (SRM) on diabetes in moderately diabetic (MD) and severely diabetic (SD) Sprague-Dawley rats. SRM was prepared by soaking the powdered plant material in 70% methanol and rota evaporating the methanol from the extract. Effective hypoglycemic doses were established by performing oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in normal rats. Hourly effects of SRM on glucose were observed in the MD and the SD rats. Rats were grouped, five rats to a group, into normal control 1 (NC1), MD control 1 (MDC1), MD experimental 1 (MDE1), SD control 1 (SDC1), and SD experimental 1 (SDE1) groups. All rats in the control groups were administered 1 mL of distilled water (DW). The rats in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups were administered SRM orally at 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight (BW), respectively, dissolved in 1 mL of DW. Blood was collected initially and at intervals of 1 hour for 6 hours to measure blood glucose. A similar experimental design was followed for the 30-day long-term trial. Finally, rats were sacrificed, and blood was collected to measure blood glucose, lipid profiles, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH). OGTTs indicated that two doses (200 and 300 mg/kg BW) were effective hypoglycemic doses in normal rats. Both doses reduced glucose levels after 1 hour in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups. A long-term trial of SRM in the MD group showed a reduced glucose level, a normal lipid profile, and normal GSH and TBARS levels. In SD rats, SRM had no statistically significant effects on these parameters. Normal weight was achieved in the MD rats, but the SD rats showed reduced BW. The study demonstrates that SRM has potential to alleviate the conditions of moderate diabetic, but not severe diabetes.

  15. Optimization of conditions to produce nitrous gases by electrochemical reduction of nitric acid; Optimisation des conditions operatoires de production de vapeurs nitreuses par reduction electrochimique d`acide nitrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaire, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 -Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[CEA Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 -Marcoule (France). Direction du Cycle du Combustible

    1996-11-22

    Gaseous nitrogen oxides (NO and NO{sub 2}) involved as oxidizing agents in nuclear fuel reprocessing can be an produced by electrochemical reduction of nitric acid. This could be an interesting alternative to the usual process because no wastes are generated. Voltammetric studies on a platinum electrode show that two reduction potential regions are observed in concentrated nitric acid solutions, between 0.05 V{sub S}HE and 0.3 V{sub S}HE and O.5 V{sub S}HE and 1 V{sub S}HE. The highest potential region reduction mechanism was studies by: classical micro-electrolysis methods; macro-electrolysis methods; infra-red spectroscopy couplet to electrochemistry. It was determined that the origin of nitric acid reduction is the electrochemical reduction of nitrous acid in nitric oxide which chemically reduces nitric acid. This reaction produces nitrous acid back which indicate an auto-catalytic behaviour of nitric acid reduction mechanism. Nitrogen dioxide evolution during nitric acid reduction can also be explained by an other chemical reaction. In the potential value of platinum electrode is above 0.8 V{sub S}HE, products of the indirect nitric acid reduction are nitrous acid, nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide. Below this value nitric oxide can be reduced in nitrous oxide. Thus the potential value is the most important parameter for the nitrogen oxides production selectivity. However, owing to the auto-catalytic character of the reduction mechanism, potential value can be controlled during intentiostatic industrial electrolysis. (author). 91 refs.

  16. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance and quinolone resistance factors in high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates obtained from fresh produce and fecal samples of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Chan; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2017-07-01

    The emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococci is worldwide. Antimicrobial resistance was characterized and the effect of quinolone-resistance factors was analyzed in high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant (HLCR) Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from fresh produce and fecal samples of patients. Among the 81 ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterococcus isolates, 46 showed high levels of ciprofloxacin resistance, resistance to other quinolone antibiotics, and multidrug resistance profiles. The virulence factors esp and hyl were identified in 27 (58.7%) and 25 (54.3%) of isolates, respectively. Sequence type analysis showed that 35 strains of HLCR E. faecium were clonal complex 17. Eleven strains of HLCR E. faecalis were confirmed as sequence type (ST) 28, ST 64 and ST 125. Quinolone resistance-determining region mutation was identified in HLCR Enterococcus isolates; with serine being changed in gyrA83, gyrA87 and parC80. This result shows that gyrA and parC mutations could be important factors for high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones. No significant differences were observed in antimicrobial resistance patterns and genetic characteristics among the isolates from fresh produce and fecal samples. Therefore, good agricultural practices in farming and continuous monitoring of patients, food and the environment for Enterococcus spp. should be performed to prevent antimicrobial resistance and enable reduction of resistance rates. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Prevalence of the mcr-1 colistin resistance gene in extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli from human faecal samples collected in 2012 in rural villages in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zhenwang; Berglund, Björn; Sun, Qiang; Nilsson, Maud; Chen, Baoli; Tärnberg, Maria; Ding, Lilu; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Bi, Zhenqiang; Tomson, Göran; Yao, Jingjing; Gu, Zhanying; Yin, Xiao; Kou, Zengqiang; Nilsson, Lennart E

    2017-04-01

    Since its initial discovery in China in 2015, the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has been reported in Escherichia coli isolated from clinical samples, animals and meat worldwide. In this study, 706 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli from 411 persons were detected in a collection of faecal samples from 1000 rural residents in three counties in Shandong Province, China. These isolates were screened for mcr-1 and phenotypic colistin resistance. The gene was found in 3.5% of the isolates (from 4.9% of persons) from all three counties. All isolates with phenotypic colistin resistance carried mcr-1. These data indicate that commensal carriage of ESBL-producing E. coli with mcr-1 among persons in rural China was already present in 2012 and that mcr-1 was the most important colistin resistance mechanism. Interventions are necessary to minimise further dissemination of mcr-1, which would limit the future usefulness of colistin as a last-resort antibiotic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  18. On effects produced by tidal power plants upon environmental conditions in adjacent sea areas; Les effets produits par les usines maremotrices sur les conditions environnementales dans les zones bordant la mer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekrasov, A.V.; Romanenkov, D.A. [State Hydrometeorological Institute (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Consideration is given to the change in natural (oceanographic) environmental conditions due to the transformation of the tidal oscillations structure resulting from erection and operation of tidal power plants (TPP). The relevant transformation of tidal movements encompasses practically all its main characteristics: amplitudes, phases and spectral composition of sea level oscillations, as well as the similar parameters of tidal currents and also the intensity and positioning of extremes zones. The changes in positioning and width of the inter-tidal zone, the inter-tidal zone regime, mutual arrangement of mixed, stratified and transient frontal zones, transportation of suspended matter and bottom sedimentation, owing to residual tidal currents, sea ice characteristics, air these changes can be estimated on the basis of mathematical predictive modelling of tidal characteristics transformed by a contemplated tidal power plant. Some results are presented for the Russian large-scale TPP projects in the White and Okhotsk seas. (author). 14 refs.

  19. Sample conditioning system for quality assurance in waste combustion and waste recycling; Probenaufbereitungssystem zur Qualitaetssicherung fuer Abfaelle zur energetischen (stofflichen) Verwertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spuziak-Salzenberg, D.; Riemer, S.; Bayley-Blackwedel, B.; Baer, G.

    1998-10-01

    Effective quality assurance is an indispensable element of waste recycling and waste utilization in order to make a recycling-based economy efficient and sustainable. Quality criteria and target or limiting values for waste to be recycled or disposed of have already been defined in different guidelines or drafts by LAGA and corresponding regulations (for instance, waste combustion in cements works, combustion of used wood; ordinance on biocompost, RAL quality criteria for used wood, LAGA guidelines). Whereas there exist methods of analysis and conditioning for samples for mineral, or mainly mineral, wastes in analogy to those for the bulk material used in road building, no such methods exist for mainly non-mineral material and, especially, heterogeneous mixtures of waste. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen einer effizienten und nachhaltigen Kreislaufwirtschaft ist eine effektive Qualitaetssicherung fuer die stoffliche und energetische Verwertung von Abfaellen unerlaesslich. Zur Verwertung bzw. Beseitigung der Abfaelle sind bereits in verschiedenen Richtlinien/Entwuerfen der LAGA und entsprechenden Verwertungsvorschriften Guetekriterien und Richt- bzw. Grenzwerte definiert (u.a. energetische Verwertung in Zementwerken, Altholz-Verwertung, Biokompost-VO, RAL-Guetekriterien-Gebrauchtholz, LAGA-Richtlinien). Liegen fuer mineralische bzw. ueberwiegend mineralische Abfaelle entsprechende Probenaufbereitungs- und Analysemethoden in Analogie zum Bereich der Boden-Schuettgut-Untersuchung vor, so muss dies fuer ueberwiegend nichtmineralische Stoffe und besonders fuer heterogene Abfallgemische verneint werden. (orig.)

  20. Quantification of trace arsenic in soils by field-portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry: considerations for sample preparation and measurement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Chris; Margui Grabulosa, Eva; Pili, Eric; Floor, Geerke H; Roman-Ross, Gabriela; Charlet, Laurent

    2013-11-15

    Recent technological improvements have led to the widespread adoption of field portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) by governmental agencies, environmental consultancies and research institutions. FP-XRF units often include analysis modes specifically designed for the quantification of trace elements in soils. Using these modes, X-ray tube based FP-XRF units can offer almost "point and shoot" ease of use and results comparable to those of laboratory based instruments. Nevertheless, FP-XRF analysis is sensitive to spectral interferences as well as physical and chemical matrix effects which can result in decreased precision and accuracy. In this study, an X-ray tube-based FP-XRF analyser was used to determine trace (low ppm) concentrations of As in a floodplain soil. The effect of different sample preparation and analysis conditions on precision and accuracy were systematically evaluated. We propose strategies to minimise sources of error and maximise data precision and accuracy, achieving in situ limits of detection and precision of 6.8 ppm and 14.4%RSD, respectively for arsenic. We demonstrate that soil moisture, even in relatively dry soils, dramatically affects analytical performance with a signal loss of 37% recorded for arsenic at 20 wt% soil moisture relative to dry soil. We also highlight the importance of the use of certified reference materials and independent measurement methods to ensure accurate correction of field values. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations associated with dog body condition score; effect of recommended fasting duration on sample concentrations in Japanese private clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Shiho; Yasuda, Hidemi; Koketsu, Yuzo

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to survey clinics' guidance about recommended fasting duration (FD) prior to lipoprotein analysis, and to characterize lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in obese and overweight dogs categorized on the basis of the 5-point body condition score (BCS) scale. A dataset was created from lipoprotein analysis medical records of 1,538 dogs from 75 breeds in 354 clinics from 2012 to 2013. A phone survey was conducted to obtain the clinics' FD. Two-level linear mixed-effects models were applied to the data. Over 50% of the clinics said they recommended fasting for 12 hr or more. Dogs in clinics with FD 12 hr or more had lower chylomicron triglyceride concentrations than those in clinics with FD less than 8 hr (P=0.05). Mean (± SEM) BCS at sampling was 3.7 ± 0.02. Obese and overweight dogs had higher very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations than ideal dogs (Pcholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P≥0.07). Across all BCS, as dog age rose from 0 to 8 years old, HDL cholesterol concentrations decreased by 13.5 mg/dl, whereas VLDL triglyceride concentrations increased by 81.7 mg/dl (Pcholesterol and triglyceride concentrations.

  2. Characterization of the photosynthetic conditions and pigment profiles of the colour strains of Hypnea musciformis from field-collected and in vitro cultured samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela R. P. Fernandes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen JV Lamour. is a species of great economic interest as it produces Κ-carrageenan and has shown biological activities against HIV and HSV viruses. This species displays different colour strains in its natural habitat, which may have implications for the biotechnological potential of the species. The aim of this study was to characterize the photosynthetic apparatus and pigment profile of three colour strains of H. musciformis (green, brown and red in their natural habitat and in culture. Chlorophyll a fluorescence of photosystem II was measured with a pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometer and pigments were quantified by spectrofluorimetry (chlorophyll a and spectrophotometry (phycobiliproteins. In the natural habitat, we detected significant differences between the colour strains for the following photochemical parameters: the green strain had a higher effective quantum yield (ΦPSII than the red strain and a higher maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax than the brown and red strains. Saturation irradiances were 1000 µE.m-2.s-1 (green and 500 µE.m-2.s-1 (brown and red. Concerning in vitro culture, the green strain presented the lowest ΦPSII, rETRmax, and α rETR, while the brown strain presented the highest values for these same parameters. The chlorophyll a content of the cultured green strain was the lowest. The phycoerythrin contents of the three colour strains were unchanged by either natural of in vitro conditions: lower in green, intermediate in brown and higher in the red strain, ensuring the chromatic identity of the strains. Our results suggest that the green strain has a better performance when exposed to high irradiance, but a lower efficiency under low irradiance compared to the brown and red strains.

  3. Characterization of the photosynthetic conditions and pigment profiles of the colour strains of Hypnea musciformis from field-collected and in vitro cultured samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela R. P. Fernandes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen JV Lamour. is a species of great economic interest as it produces Κ-carrageenan and has shown biological activities against HIV and HSV viruses. This species displays different colour strains in its natural habitat, which may have implications for the biotechnological potential of the species. The aim of this study was to characterize the photosynthetic apparatus and pigment profile of three colour strains of H. musciformis (green, brown and red in their natural habitat and in culture. Chlorophyll a fluorescence of photosystem II was measured with a pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometer and pigments were quantified by spectrofluorimetry (chlorophyll a and spectrophotometry (phycobiliproteins. In the natural habitat, we detected significant differences between the colour strains for the following photochemical parameters: the green strain had a higher effective quantum yield (ΦPSII than the red strain and a higher maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax than the brown and red strains. Saturation irradiances were 1000 µE.m-2.s-1 (green and 500 µE.m-2.s-1 (brown and red. Concerning in vitro culture, the green strain presented the lowest ΦPSII, rETRmax, and α rETR, while the brown strain presented the highest values for these same parameters. The chlorophyll a content of the cultured green strain was the lowest. The phycoerythrin contents of the three colour strains were unchanged by either natural of in vitro conditions: lower in green, intermediate in brown and higher in the red strain, ensuring the chromatic identity of the strains. Our results suggest that the green strain has a better performance when exposed to high irradiance, but a lower efficiency under low irradiance compared to the brown and red strains.

  4. Wet gas sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, T.F.

    1997-07-01

    The quality of gas has changed drastically in the past few years. Most gas is wet with hydrocarbons, water, and heavier contaminants that tend to condense if not handled properly. If a gas stream is contaminated with condensables, the sampling of that stream must be done in a manner that will ensure all of the components in the stream are introduced into the sample container as the composite. The sampling and handling of wet gas is extremely difficult under ideal conditions. There are no ideal conditions in the real world. The problems related to offshore operations and other wet gas systems, as well as the transportation of the sample, are additional problems that must be overcome if the analysis is to mean anything to the producer and gatherer. The sampling of wet gas systems is decidedly more difficult than sampling conventional dry gas systems. Wet gas systems were generally going to result in the measurement of one heating value at the inlet of the pipe and a drastic reduction in the heating value of the gas at the outlet end of the system. This is caused by the fallout or accumulation of the heavier products that, at the inlet, may be in the vapor state in the pipeline; hence, the high gravity and high BTU. But, in fact, because of pressure and temperature variances, these liquids condense and form a liquid that is actually running down the pipe as a stream or is accumulated in drips to be blown from the system. (author)

  5. The curing agent sodium nitrite, used in the production of fermented sausages, is less inhibiting to the bacteriocin-producing meat starter culture Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174 under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

    2003-07-01

    Curvacin A is a listericidal bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a strain isolated from fermented sausage. The response of this strain to an added curing agent (sodium nitrite) in terms of cell growth and bacteriocin production was investigated in vitro by laboratory fermentations with modified MRS broth. The strain was highly sensitive to nitrite; even a concentration of 10 ppm of curing agent inhibited its growth and both volumetric and specific bacteriocin production. A meat simulation medium containing 5 ppm of sodium nitrite was tested to investigate the influence of the gas phase on the growth and bacteriocin production of L. curvatus LTH 1174. Aerating the culture during growth had no effect on biomass formation, but the oxidative stress caused a higher level of specific bacteriocin production and led to a metabolic shift toward acetic acid production. Anaerobic conditions, on the other hand, led to an increased biomass concentration and less growth inhibition. Also, higher maximum volumetric bacteriocin activities and a higher level of specific bacteriocin production were obtained in the presence of sodium nitrite than in fermentations under aerobic conditions or standard conditions of air supply. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of the curing agent is at least partially masked under anaerobic conditions.

  6. Confiabilidade das transcrições fonológicas de crianças com alteração específica de linguagem Reliability of phonological transcriptions of speech samples produced by language-impared children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Maria Befi-Lopes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar a confiabilidade das transcrições fonológicas de crianças com Alteração Específica de Linguagem (AEL, e verificar se há diferença entre a confiabilidade das tarefas das crianças que eram capazes de realizar discurso na época da coleta da fonologia e daquelas que ainda não possuíam essa habilidade. MÉTODOS: Tarefas de nomeação de figuras e imitação de vocábulos de 37 crianças com AEL, de três a cinco anos, previamente coletadas e analisadas, foram transcritas pela segunda vez. Posteriormente, as pesquisadoras tiveram acesso às primeiras transcrições para realizar o cálculo de confiabilidade. Para as tarefas cujo índice de discordância foi superior a 20%, foi realizada uma terceira transcrição. Verificamos também que crianças eram capazes de realizar discurso na época da coleta da prova de fonologia. RESULTADOS: Para ambas as tarefas, houve predomínio de índice de concordância inferior a 80% (pPURPOSE: To analyze the reliability level of phonological transcriptions of speech samples produced by children with Language Impairment (LI, and to verify whether there was significant disagreement between the transcriptions, by comparing subjects who were able to produce discourse and those who were not. METHODS: Speech samples of 37 three- to five-year-old subjects with LI, previously collected and analyzed using two tasks (picture naming and repetition of words, were re-transcribed. Subsequently, the researchers accessed the first transcriptions, in order to calculate the agreement level. Transcriptions whose disagreement index was higher than 20% were transcribed for the third time. The ability to produce discourse at the time of data collection was also considered in the analysis. RESULTS: For both tasks, there was a predominance of agreement lower than 80% (p<0.001 when the first two transcriptions were taken into account. Meanwhile, the agreement between the first, the second and the third

  7. A Sensitive Multiplex, Real-Time PCR Assay for Prospective Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli from Stool Samples Reveals Similar Incidences but Variable Severities of Non-O157 and O157 Infections in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefterova, Martina I.; Slater, Kathleen A.; Budvytiene, Indre; Dadone, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and accurate detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of all serotypes from patients with diarrhea is critical for medical management and for the prevention of ongoing transmission. In this prospective study, we assessed the performance of a multiplex, real-time PCR assay targeting stx1 and stx2 for the detection of O157 and non-O157 STEC in diarrheal stool samples enriched in Gram-negative broth. We show that the assay is 100% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.1% to 100%) and 98.5% specific (95% CI, 90.6% to 99.9%) based on a panel of 40 known STEC-positive specimens and 65 known negative specimens. During a 2-year postvalidation period, the assay detected more positive samples from patients in northern California than did culture and PCR testing performed at a public health reference laboratory, with a positive predictive value of 95.6% (95% CI, 87.6% to 99.1%). Serotyping data showed an incidence rate of 51.2% for non-O157 STEC strains, with 5.8% of patients (1/17) with non-O157 strains and 42.9% (6/14) with O157 strains (P = 0.03) developing hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The findings from this study underscore the recommendations of the CDC for laboratories to test all diarrheal stool samples from patients with acute community-acquired diarrhea for non-O157 STEC in addition to the O157 serotype by using a sensitive assay. Additionally, a survey of 17 clinical laboratories in northern California demonstrated that nearly 50% did not screen all stool specimens for the presence of Shiga toxins, indicating that many clinical microbiology laboratories still do not routinely screen all stool specimens for the presence of Shiga toxins as recommended in the 2009 CDC guidelines. PMID:23843484

  8. Efficacy of Neutral pH Electrolyzed Water in Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 on Fresh Produce Items using an Automated Washer at Simulated Food Service Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afari, George K; Hung, Yen-Con; King, Christopher H

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of neutral pH electrolyzed (NEO) water (155 mg/L free chlorine, pH 7.5) in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 on romaine lettuce, iceberg lettuce, and tomatoes washed in an automated produce washer for different times and washing speeds. Tomatoes and lettuce leaves were spot inoculated with 100 μL of a 5 strain cocktail mixture of either pathogen and washed with 10 or 8 L of NEO water, respectively. Washing lettuce for 30 min at 65 rpm led to the greatest reductions, with 4.2 and 5.9 log CFU/g reductions achieved for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium respectively on romaine, whereas iceberg lettuce reductions were 3.2 and 4.6 log CFU/g for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium respectively. Washing tomatoes for 10 min at 65 rpm achieved reductions greater than 8 and 6 log CFU/tomato on S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 respectively. All pathogens were completely inactivated in NEO water wash solutions. No detrimental effects on the visual quality of the produce studied were observed under all treatment conditions. Results show the adoption of this washing procedure in food service operations could be useful in ensuring produce safety. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Conditional Hybrid Nonclassicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, E.; Sperling, J.; Costanzo, L. S.; Bellini, M.; Zavatta, A.; Vogel, W.

    2017-09-01

    We derive and implement a general method to characterize the nonclassicality in compound discrete- and continuous-variable systems. For this purpose, we introduce the operational notion of conditional hybrid nonclassicality which relates to the ability to produce a nonclassical continuous-variable state by projecting onto a general superposition of discrete-variable subsystem. We discuss the importance of this form of quantumness in connection with interfaces for quantum communication. To verify the conditional hybrid nonclassicality, a matrix version of a nonclassicality quasiprobability is derived and its sampling approach is formulated. We experimentally generate an entangled, hybrid Schrödinger cat state, using a coherent photon-addition process acting on two temporal modes, and we directly sample its nonclassicality quasiprobability matrix. The introduced conditional quantum effects are certified with high statistical significance.

  10. Virus isolation vs RT-PCR: which method is more successful in detecting VHSV and IHNV in fish tissue sampled under field conditions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüsel, R.; Bergmann, S. M.; Einer-Jensen, Katja

    2007-01-01

    (total of 859 fish) originating from a field survey on the occurrence of VHSV and IHNV in farmed and wild salmonids in Switzerland. These samples represented all sites with fish that were either identified as virus-positive by means of virus isolation (three sites, four positive tissue sample pools) and...

  11. Lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations associated with dog body condition score; effect of recommended fasting duration on sample concentrations in Japanese private clinics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    USUI, Shiho; YASUDA, Hidemi; KOKETSU, Yuzo

    2015-01-01

    ...) prior to lipoprotein analysis, and to characterize lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in obese and overweight dogs categorized on the basis of the 5-point body condition score (BCS) scale...

  12. Superoxide generated by pyrogallol reduces highly water-soluble tetrazolium salt to produce a soluble formazan: a simple assay for measuring superoxide anion radical scavenging activities of biological and abiological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Liu, Shu; Liu, Zhiqiang; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Shuying

    2013-09-02

    Superoxide anion radical (O2(˙-)) plays an important role in several human diseases. The xanthine/xanthine oxidase system is frequently utilized to produce O2(˙-). However, false positive results are easily got by using this system. The common spectrophotometric probes for O2(˙-) are nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and cytochrome c. Nevertheless, the application of NBT method is limited because of the water-insolubility of NBT formazan and the assay using cytochrome c lacks sensitivity and is not suitable for microplate measurement. We overcome these problems by using 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene (pyrogallol) as O2(˙-)-generating system and a highly water-soluble tetrazolium salt, 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium sodium salt (WST-1) which can be reduced by superoxide anion radical to a stable water-soluble formazan with a high absorbance at 450 nm. The method is simple, rapid and sensitive. Moreover, it can be adapted to microplate format. In this study, the O2(˙-) scavenging activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), L-ascorbic acid, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), albumin from human serum, flavonoids and herbal extracts were assessed by using this method. Meanwhile, the activities of tissue homogenates and serum were determined by using this validated method. This method, applicable to tissue homogenates, serum and herbal extracts, proved to be efficient for measuring O2(˙-) scavenging activities of biological and abiological samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reliability of a Cryoscopic Micro-Osmometer Using 15-µL Plasma Samples to Measure Hydration Status in Varied Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron T.; Richter-Stretton, Gina L.; Madueno, Maria C.; Borges, Nattai R.; Fenning, Andrew S.

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of plasma osmolality (P[subscript osm]) remains popular for assessing hydration status in exercise science. However, a controlled reliability assessment of micro-osmometry using small sample volumes to measure Posm remains to be performed. This study aimed to examine the reliability of a cryoscopic micro-osmometer requiring 15-µL…

  14. Using X-ray imaging for monitoring the development of the macropore network in a soil sample exposed to natural boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, John

    2015-04-01

    Soil macrostructure is not static but continuously modified by climatic and biological factors. Knowledge of how a macropore network evolves in an individual soil sample is however scarce because it is difficult to collect respective time-lapse data in the field. In this study I investigated whether it is reasonable to use X-ray imaging to monitor the macropore network development in a small topsoil column (10 cm high, 6.8 cm diameter) that is periodically removed from the field, X-rayed and subsequently installed back in the field. Apart from quantifying the structural changes of the macropore network in this soil sample, I investigated whether earthworms entered the soil column and whether roots grew beyond the lower bottom of the column into the subsoil. The soil was sampled from a freshly hand-ploughed allotment near Uppsala (Sweden) in the beginning of June 2013. Rucola (eruca vesicaria) was sown on the top of the column and in its vicinity. When the soil column was for the first time removed from the field and scanned in October 2013, it contained four new earthworm burrows. Root growth into the subsoil was largely absent. Over winter, in May 2014, no further earthworm burrows had formed. Instead, the macrostructure had started to disintegrate somewhat. No crop was sown in the 2014 vegetation period and the soil sample was left unploughed. In October 2014, the column contained again new earthworm burrows. Furthermore, a dandelion had established on the soil column together with some grasses. Several roots had now connected the soil column with the subsoil. The study shows that X-ray tomography offers a promising opportunity for investigating soil structure evolution, even though it cannot be directly installed in the field.

  15. Evaluation of reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression for real time-quantitative PCR in Pyrus pyrifolia using different tissue samples and seasonal conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Imai

    Full Text Available We have evaluated suitable reference genes for real time (RT-quantitative PCR (qPCR analysis in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia. We tested most frequently used genes in the literature such as β-Tubulin, Histone H3, Actin, Elongation factor-1α, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, together with newly added genes Annexin, SAND and TIP41. A total of 17 primer combinations for these eight genes were evaluated using cDNAs synthesized from 16 tissue samples from four groups, namely: flower bud, flower organ, fruit flesh and fruit skin. Gene expression stabilities were analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder software packages or by ΔCt method. geNorm analysis indicated three best performing genes as being sufficient for reliable normalization of RT-qPCR data. Suitable reference genes were different among sample groups, suggesting the importance of validation of gene expression stability of reference genes in the samples of interest. Ranking of stability was basically similar between geNorm and NormFinder, suggesting usefulness of these programs based on different algorithms. ΔCt method suggested somewhat different results in some groups such as flower organ or fruit skin; though the overall results were in good correlation with geNorm or NormFinder. Gene expression of two cold-inducible genes PpCBF2 and PpCBF4 were quantified using the three most and the three least stable reference genes suggested by geNorm. Although normalized quantities were different between them, the relative quantities within a group of samples were similar even when the least stable reference genes were used. Our data suggested that using the geometric mean value of three reference genes for normalization is quite a reliable approach to evaluating gene expression by RT-qPCR. We propose that the initial evaluation of gene expression stability by ΔCt method, and subsequent evaluation by geNorm or NormFinder for limited number of superior gene candidates will be a practical

  16. Samples 9 (2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Arbeitskreis Studium Populärer Musik e.V. (ASPM)

    2010-01-01

    SCHWERPUNKTTHEMA. SAMPLING IM HIPHOP Gastherausgeber: Oliver Kautny und Adam Krims. Oliver Kautny: Talkin´ All That Jazz - Ein Plädoyer für die Analyse des Sampling im HipHop (Editorial). Adam Krims: Sampling in Scholarship (english editorial). Mark Katz: Sampling before Sampling. The Link Between DJ and Producer. Sascha Klammt aka Quasi Modo: Das Sample - eine einzigartige Momentaufnahme als Basis für eine neue Komposition. Detlev Rick aka DJ Rick Ski: Die Entstehung des A...

  17. Culture conditions and sample preparation methods affect spectrum quality and reproducibility during profiling of Staphylococcus aureus with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, J E; Zhang, L; Borror, C M; Rago, J V; Sandrin, T R

    2013-08-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a promising tool to rapidly characterize Staphylococcus aureus. Different protocols have been employed, but effects of experimental factors, such as culture condition and sample preparation, on spectrum quality and reproducibility have not been rigorously examined. We applied MALDI-TOF MS to characterize a model system consisting of five methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and five methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates (MRSA) under two culture conditions (agar and broth) and using two sample preparation methods [intact cell method and protein extraction method (PEM)]. The effects of these treatments on spectrum quality and reproducibility were quantified. PEM facilitated increases in the number of peaks and mass range width. Broth cultures further improved spectrum quality in terms of increasing the number of peaks. In addition, PEM increased reproducibility in samples prepared using identical culture conditions. MALDI imaging data suggested that the improvement in reproducibility may result from a more homogeneous distribution of sample associated with the broth/PEM treatment. Broth/PEM treatment also yielded the highest rate (96%) of correct classification for MRSA. Taken together, these results suggest that broth/PEM maximizes the performance of MALDI-TOF MS to characterize S. aureus. Two culture conditions (agar or broth) and two sample preparation methods (intact cell or protein extraction) were evaluated for their effects on profiling of Staphylococcus aureus using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Results indicated that MALDI-enabled profiling of S. aureus is most effective when cultures are grown in broth and processed using a protein extraction-based approach. These findings should enhance future efforts to maximize the performance of this approach to characterize strains of S. aureus. © 2013

  18. Sampling the Denatured State of Polypeptides in Water, Urea, and Guanidine Chloride to Strict Equilibrium Conditions with the Help of Massively Parallel Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Roberto; Camilloni, Carlo; Tiana, Guido

    2014-02-11

    The denatured state of polypeptides and proteins, stabilized by chemical denaturants like urea and guanidine chloride, displays residual secondary structure when studied by nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy. However, these experimental techniques are weakly sensitive, and thus molecular-dynamics simulations can be useful to complement the experimental findings. To sample the denatured state, we made use of massively-parallel computers and of a variant of the replica exchange algorithm, in which the different branches, connected with unbiased replicas, favor the formation and disruption of local secondary structure. The algorithm is applied to the second hairpin of GB1 in water, in urea, and in guanidine chloride. We show with the help of different criteria that the simulations converge to equilibrium. It results that urea and guanidine chloride, besides inducing some polyproline-II structure, have different effect on the hairpin. Urea disrupts completely the native region and stabilizes a state which resembles a random coil, while guanidine chloride has a milder effect.

  19. A cross-sectional assessment of the prevalence of multiple chronic conditions and medication use in a sample of community-dwelling adults with fibromyalgia in Olmsted County, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Ann; Whipple, Mary O; McAllister, Samantha J; Aleman, Katherine M; St Sauver, Jennifer L

    2015-03-03

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the problem of multiple chronic conditions and polypharmacy in patients with fibromyalgia. Retrospective medical record review. Olmsted County, Minnesota. 1111 adults with fibromyalgia. Number and type of chronic medical and psychiatric conditions, medication use. Medical record review demonstrated that greater than 50% of the sample had seven or more chronic conditions. Chronic joint pain/degenerative arthritis was the most frequent comorbidity (88.7%), followed by depression (75.1%), migraines/chronic headaches (62.4%) and anxiety (56.5%). Approximately, 40% of patients were taking three or more medications for symptoms of fibromyalgia. Sleep aids were the most commonly prescribed medications in our sample (33.3%) followed by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (28.7%), opioids (22.4%) and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (21.0%). The results of our study highlight the problem of multiple chronic conditions and high prevalence of polypharmacy in fibromyalgia. Clinicians who care for patients with fibromyalgia should take into consideration the presence of multiple chronic conditions when recommending medications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Design and construction of a new temperature-controlled chamber for light and confocal microscopy under monitored conditions: biological application for plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, O; Lütz, C; Holzinger, A

    2007-02-01

    A new light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber (LM-TCC) has been constructed. The special feature of the light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber is the Peltier-element temperature control of a specimen holder for biological samples, with a volume capacity of 1 mL. This system has marked advantages when compared to other approaches for temperature-controlled microscopy. It works in a temperature range of -10 degrees C to +95 degrees C with an accuracy of +/-0.1 degrees C in the stationary phase. The light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber allows rapid temperature shift rates. A maximum heating rate of 12.9 degrees C min(-1) and a maximum cooling rate of 6.0 degrees C min(-1) are achieved with minimized overshoots (Ficaria verna exposed to 4500 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1) in a standard microscopic preparation show a temperature increase (deltaT) of 18.0 degrees C, whereas in the light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber this is reduced to 4 degrees C. The kinetics of microscope-light induced deltaT are described and infrared thermography demonstrates the dissipation of the temperature. Chloroplasts of the cold adapted plant Ranunculus glacialis show the tendency to form stroma-filled protrusions in relation to the exposure temperature. The relative number of chloroplasts with protrusions is reduced at 5 degrees C when compared to 25 degrees C. This effect is reversible. The new light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber will be useful in a wide range of biological applications where a rapid change of temperature during microscopic observations is necessary or has to be avoided allowing a simulation of ecologically relevant temperature scenarios.

  1. Minimal thermodynamic conditions in the reservoir to produce steam at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Condiciones termodinamicas minimas del yacimiento para producir vapor en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez; Marco Helio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: marco.rodriguez01@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-01-15

    Minimal thermodynamic conditions in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir for steam production are defined, taking into account the minimal acceptable steam production at the surface, considering a rank of mixed-enthalpies for different well-depths, and allowing proper assessments for the impacts of the changes in fluid reservoir pressure and enthalpy. Factors able to influence steam production are discussed. They have to be considered when deciding whether or not to drill or repair a well in a particular area of the reservoir. These evaluations become much more relevant by considering the huge thermodynamic changes that have occurred at the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir from its development, starting in 1973, which has lead to abandoning some steam producing areas in the field. [Spanish] Las condiciones termodinamicas minimas del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, para producir vapor se determinan tomando en cuenta la minima produccion de vapor aceptable en superficie, considerando un rango de entalpias de la mezcla y para diferentes profundidades de pozos, lo que permite valorar adecuadamente el impacto de la evolucion de la presion y entalpia del fluido en el yacimiento. Se discuten los factores que pueden afectar la produccion de vapor, los cuales se deben tomar en cuenta para determinar la conveniencia o no de perforar o reparar un pozo en determinada zona del yacimiento. Estas evaluaciones adquieren gran relevancia al considerar los enormes cambios termodinamicos que ha presentado el yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, como resultado de su explotacion iniciada en 1973, lo que ha llevado a abandonar algunas zonas del campo para la produccion de vapor. Palabras Clave: Cerro Prieto, entalpia, evaluacion de yacimientos, politicas de explotacion, presion, produccion de vapor.

  2. Dataset of producing and curing concrete using domestic treated wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Asadollahfardi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We tested the setting time of cement, slump and compressive and tensile strength of 54 triplicate cubic samples and 9 cylindrical samples of concrete with and without a Super plasticizer admixture. We produced concrete samples made with drinking water and treated domestic wastewater containing 300, 400 kg/m3 of cement before chlorination and then cured concrete samples made with drinking water and treated wastewater. Second, concrete samples made with 350 kg/m3 of cement with a Superplasticizer admixture made with drinking water and treated wastewater and then cured with treated wastewater. The compressive strength of all the concrete samples made with treated wastewater had a high coefficient of determination with the control concrete samples. A 28-day tensile strength of all the samples was 96–100% of the tensile strength of the control samples and the setting time was reduced by 30 min which was consistent with a ASTMC191 standard. All samples produced and cured with treated waste water did not have a significant effect on water absorption, slump and surface electrical resistivity tests. However, compressive strength at 21 days of concrete samples using 300 kg/m3 of cement in rapid freezing and thawing conditions was about 11% lower than concrete samples made with drinking water.

  3. Sampling on Quasicrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Grepstad, Sigrid

    2011-01-01

    We prove that quasicrystals are universal sets of stable sampling in any dimension. Necessary and sufficient density conditions for stable sampling and interpolation sets in one dimension are studied in detail.

  4. GRAFTING METHODS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS FOR PRODUCING PEACH-TREE CV. ‘DIAMANTE’ SEEDLINGS MÉTODOS DE ENXERTIA E AMBIENTES NA PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE PESSEGUEIRO CV. ‘DIAMANTE’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida Reis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Seedling quality is essential for producing quality fruits and keeping the producer revenue. The main goal of this research was to investigate the effect of different environmental conditions and three grafting methods in the production of peach-tree seedlings (Prunus persica (L. Batsch. The experiment took place at the Universidade Federal de Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 3x3 factorial scheme (three environments: plastic greenhouse, mesh of 50% of shading, and open field; and three grafting methods: shield budding, patch budding, and cleft grafting, with four replications and 12 plants per plot. ‘Okinawa’ was the rootstocks used, and buddings and grafts originated from the ‘Diamante’ peach-tree cultivar. The features evaluated were graft-take (% and time to reach the first formation pruning (days. It was concluded that the mean average graft-take percentage for all three grafting methods was 91.94%, independently of the environment. For all three environmental conditions studied, seedlings grafted according to the cleft grafting method were the fastest ones to reach the first formation pruning, while the patch budding method allowed less time for the first formation pruning, for the open field and mesh environments, when compared with the shield budding method.

  5. Hygienic quality of goat's milk cheese produced in rural household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Cvrtila

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of small-scale goat breeders produce goat's milk cheese that is sold on markets. In this study we determined the chemical composition and microbiological quality of goat's milk cheese samples. It has been found that the chemical composition of the samples were not standardised. Water content varied from 42,20 to 51,20 %, milk fat content in dry matter from 32,85 to 50,28%, while acidity varied from 15,08 to 39,36 ºSH. Only two samples (20% met the microbiological standards. In 2 samples Escherichia coli in the quantities larger than 102/g was found, whereas in all 8 samples yeasts and moulds were found in quantities larger than 102/g. The results of our study have shown that the hygienic conditions of goat's milk cheese production are often inadequate. Also, the hygienic conditions of goat keeping and milking hygiene are questionable.

  6. Conditional Sampling of Oceanic Temperature and Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-29

    for surface waves will decrease with increased depth. This bottom pressure attenuation is plotted in figure 5 for a 200m shelf and a 5000m open ocean...77778 into the program counter and halts the CPU. Then a run pulse, which starts the CPU, is issued. Also on the CPU card are logic gates for the

  7. Development of a preparation method to produce a single sample that can be applied to both LC-MS/MS and GC-MS for the screening of postmortem specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kenji; Waters, Brian; Ikematsu, Natsuki; Tokuyasu, Tomoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Takayama, Mio; Matsusue, Aya; Kashiwagi, Masayuki; Kubo, Shin-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    Simple and efficient extraction methods have been developed for the screening of a wide array of drugs in postmortem autopsy specimens. Acidic and basic compounds were targeted with two extraction methods that can be applied to both GC-MS and LC-MS/MS instrumentation. The extractions were achieved by utilizing lipid-removal and solid-phase extraction cartridges while carefully monitoring the pH of the samples to ensure the adequate removal of interfering substances like lipids and amino acid derivatives. These methods were applied to actual autopsy cases, with 94 and 124 compounds detected by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS, respectively. The developed methods could easily be incorporated into a forensic laboratory's daily routine for screening many different compounds from postmortem samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  9. Information sampling behavior with explicit sampling costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, Mordechai Z.; Gureckis, Todd M.; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2015-01-01

    The decision to gather information should take into account both the value of information and its accrual costs in time, energy and money. Here we explore how people balance the monetary costs and benefits of gathering additional information in a perceptual-motor estimation task. Participants were rewarded for touching a hidden circular target on a touch-screen display. The target’s center coincided with the mean of a circular Gaussian distribution from which participants could sample repeatedly. Each “cue” — sampled one at a time — was plotted as a dot on the display. Participants had to repeatedly decide, after sampling each cue, whether to stop sampling and attempt to touch the hidden target or continue sampling. Each additional cue increased the participants’ probability of successfully touching the hidden target but reduced their potential reward. Two experimental conditions differed in the initial reward associated with touching the hidden target and the fixed cost per cue. For each condition we computed the optimal number of cues that participants should sample, before taking action, to maximize expected gain. Contrary to recent claims that people gather less information than they objectively should before taking action, we found that participants over-sampled in one experimental condition, and did not significantly under- or over-sample in the other. Additionally, while the ideal observer model ignores the current sample dispersion, we found that participants used it to decide whether to stop sampling and take action or continue sampling, a possible consequence of imperfect learning of the underlying population dispersion across trials. PMID:27429991

  10. amylase producing thermophile Bacillus sphaericus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the -amylase-producing thermophilic bacterium isolated and identified from a hot spring in Jordan and designated as Bacillus sphaericus were carried out in a laboratory scale fermenter. The growth and enzyme production optimum conditions were pH 7 and 50oC. The kinetic study of cellular growth indicates ...

  11. Conservação de rúcula minimamente processada produzida em campo aberto e cultivo protegido com agrotêxtil Conservation of minimally processed rocket produced under open field conditions and non woven polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela F Gonzalez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de rúcula produzidas em campo aberto e sob cultivo protegido com agrotêxtil foram minimamente processadas, embaladas inteiras ou picadas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido e cobertas com filme de PVC de 14 micras. O delineamento adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2x2x2 (ambiente de cultivo, forma de preparo e refrigeração a 0(0C e 10(0C, com quatro repetições por tratamento, totalizando 32 bandejas. Os tratamentos foram armazenados a 0ºC e 10ºC por 10 dias, quando foram avaliadas as variáveis perda de massa (%; pH; sólidos solúveis; acidez titulável; cor e aparência. A conservação a 0ºC promoveu uma diminuição da perda de peso da rúcula minimamente processada. A utilização de folhas inteiras ou minimamente processadas foi significativa para sólidos solúveis sendo os maiores valores encontrados para as folhas inteiras. Para folhas picadas observou-se valores de acidez significativamente maiores para as produzidas sob ambiente natural. Independente da forma de preparo, a rúcula produzida em ambiente natural apresentou menor valor de pH. A cor e aparência da rúcula não foram influenciadas pelos tratamentos.Leaves of rocket salad produced under open field and non woven polypropylene were minimally processed and packed entire or pricked in polyestyrene trays covered with PVC film of 14 micras. The treatments were stored at 0(0C and 10(0C per 10 days, when the variables weight loss (%; pH; soluble solids; titratable acidity; colour and appearance were evaluated. The conservation under 0(0C promoted a reduction of weight loss on rocket salad minimally processed. Using entire or minimally processed leaves were significant for soluble solids the biggest values being found for entire leaves. For pricked leaves bigger values of acidity were observed for the produced ones under natural environment. Independent of the preparation form rocket salad produced under natural environment presented minor

  12. Caracterização física e sensorial do café produzido nas condições topoclimáticas de Jesuitas, Paraná = Physical and sensory characterization of coffee produced in the topoclimatic conditions at Jesuítas, Paraná State (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Natal Dal Molin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A variação das condições climáticas interfere na formação e na maturação dos frutos, alterando suas características intrínsecas, as quais podem permitir diferentes qualidades de bebida, com potencial de produção de café especial. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o efeito das condições ambientais e da prática de cultivo no aspecto físico e sua conseqüência na qualidade de bebida de cafés da região de Jesuítas, Estado do Paraná. Na mesma safra em que foi realizado este estudo (2002-2003, avaliou-se a qualidade de bebida de cafés paranaenses entre os produtores nos diversos municípios cafeeiros do Estado e verificou-se que 86% das amostras apresentaram bebida classificadas como apenas “mole” e “dura”, e 14% com bebida “riada/rio”. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que aspráticas adotadas pelos agricultores, colaboradores do presente estudo, refletiram positivamente na qualidade final da bebida, quando se comparou com os resultados de qualidade de bebida do Estado. As condições climáticas e as práticas de cultivo e de colheitade Jesuítas, Estado do Paraná, permitiram a obtenção de café encorpado e de baixa acidez, de qualidade comparável aos cafés de alta qualidade produzidos tanto em nível nacional quantointernacional.Climatic variations influence formation and maturation of coffee grains by altering their intrinsic characteristics, which can allow for several types of coffee qualities, including the potentialfor production of special coffee. This study was carried out to verify the effect of environmental conditions and crop cultivation on chemical composition and their consequences in cup quality of coffees from region of Jesuítas, Paraná State. During the same crop season this study was accomplished (2002-2003, cup quality was evaluatedamong the producers in several coffee-growing municipalities in Paraná State. It was observed that 86% of samples were classified simply as

  13. Evaluation of microbial contamination of produced juice and concentrate in West Azarbaijan Province, north west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Haghighat-Afshar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the microbial quality of the industrial produced fruit juices in West Azerbaijan Province of Iran. Methods: In this study, 150 samples of produced juices were studied for the presence of acid resistant bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, mold and yeasts using national standard methods of Iran. Results: Obtained results showed that 1 00% of all fruit juice samples were devoid of any microbes. Conclusions: This study showed that consuming of industrial produced fruit juices are recommended because of their hygienic conditions of production and no existence of microbial contamination. While fresh fruit juices are contaminated with various microorganisms due to unsanitary conditions, therefore, their consuming are not recommended.

  14. Characterization of Soluble Organics in Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, D.T.

    2002-01-16

    Soluble organics in produced water and refinery effluents represent treatment problems for the petroleum industry. Neither the chemistry involved in the production of soluble organics nor the impact of these chemicals on total effluent toxicity is well understood. The U.S. Department of Energy provides funding for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support a collaborative project with Shell, Chevron, Phillips, and Statoil entitled ''Petroleum and Environmental Research Forum project (PERF 9844: Manage Water-Soluble Organics in Produced Water''). The goal of this project, which involves characterization and evaluation of these water-soluble compounds, is aimed at reducing the future production of such contaminants. To determine the effect that various drilling conditions might have on water-soluble organics (WSO) content in produced water, a simulated brine water containing the principal inorganic components normally found in Gulf of Mexico (GOM) brine sources was prepared. The GOM simulant was then contacted with as-received crude oil from a deep well site to study the effects of water cut, produced-water pH, salinity, pressure, temperature, and crude oil sources on the type and content of the WSO in produced water. The identities of individual semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were determined in all as-received crude and actual produced water samples using standard USEPA Method (8270C) protocol. These analyses were supplemented with the more general measurements of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in the gas (C{sub 6}-C{sub 10}), diesel (C{sub 10}-C{sub 20}), and oil (C{sub 20}-C{sub 28}) carbon ranges as determined by both gas chromatographic (GC) and infrared (IR) analyses. An open liquid chromatographic procedure was also used to differentiate the saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, and polar components within the extractable TPH. Inorganic constituents in the produced water were analyzed by ion

  15. Control by Contextual Stimuli in Novel Second-Order Conditional Discriminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gonzalez, Luis Antonio; Martinez, Hector

    2007-01-01

    Eighteen undergraduates participated in studies designed to examine the factors that produce transfer of contextual functions to novel stimuli in second-order conditional discriminations. In Study 1, participants selected comparison B1 given sample A1 and comparison B2 given sample A2 in a matching-to-sample procedure. Contextual stimuli X1 or X2…

  16. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  17. Bacteriocin producers from traditional food products

    OpenAIRE

    Thonart P.; Destain J.; Tine E.; Ngom A.; Diop MB.; Dubois-Dauphin R.

    2007-01-01

    A total of 220 strains of LAB isolated from 32 samples of traditional fermented food from Senegal were screened for bacteriocin production. Two bacteriocin producers, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Enterococcus faecium, were identifi ed from 12 bacteriocin-producing isolates on the basis of phenotypic analyses and 16S rDNA sequence. Both bacteriocins produced by new isolates show antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus coagulans whereas only that produced by L...

  18. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....

  19. 40 CFR 89.420 - Background sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background sample. 89.420 Section 89... Procedures § 89.420 Background sample. (a) Background samples are produced by continuously drawing a sample... background samples may be produced and analyzed for each mode. Hence, a unique background value will be used...

  20. Farmers as energy producers? Conditions for an ecological modernisation of the agriculture using generation of biogas as an example; Landwirte als Energiewirte? Bedingungen einer oekologischen Modernisierung der Landwirtschaft am Beispiel der Biogaserzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trojecka, Anetta Ewa

    2007-07-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration examines the socio-economic and cultural conditions for the biogas technology in the agriculture. Special attention is paid to the effects on resources and climate protection. Biological gas facilities are outlined as an integrative technology. They can be inserted into the regional and local cycles - with positive effects for nature and environment. But in the meantime, these ecological characteristics of the biogas technology are lost due to their adjustment on maximum output. The starting point of this consideration is the theory of an ecological modernization of the society which specifically will be transferred to the agriculture. The connection of modernity and ecology is a central question of the future of rural economy and the rural areas. The extension of the rationalization on ethical and normative questions of environmental and nature protection is a challenge for modern farmers. The contradictory requirements to the farmers - economic efficiency on the one hand, ecological requirements on the other hand - had contributed to the crisis of the consciousness condition of the agrarian human being. A typology of the ecological-modern farmer serves the later analysis of groups of energy managers, who were identified in the empirism. In the sense of an ecological reform of agriculture the group of transferring persons particularly emphasizes itself. Operators of biogas plants belong to it which would bring in the ecological innovations due to long-term economic advantages and strengthened their new social role as resources managers. The question arises how these farmers should be promoted in their contribution to the development of decentralized energy production. [German] Untersucht werden die soziooekonomischen und kulturellen Voraussetzungen fuer die Biogastechnik in der Landwirtschaft. Besondere Aufmerksamkeit gilt den Auswirkungen auf den Ressourcen- und Klimaschutz. Biogasanlagen sind als integrative

  1. Venous Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neck to help locate abnormally functioning glands or pituitary adenoma . This test is most often used after an unsuccessful neck exploration. Inferior petrosal sinus sampling , in which blood samples are taken from veins that drain the pituitary gland to study disorders related to pituitary hormone ...

  2. Sampling Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  3. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...

  4. Environmental sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckett, J.M.

    1998-12-31

    Environmental Sampling (ES) is a technology option that can have application in transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The basic process is to take a sample from the environment, e.g., soil, water, vegetation, or dust and debris from a surface, and through very careful sample preparation and analysis, determine the types, elemental concentration, and isotopic composition of actinides in the sample. The sample is prepared and the analysis performed in a clean chemistry laboratory (CCL). This ES capability is part of the IAEA Strengthened Safeguards System. Such a Laboratory is planned to be built by JAERI at Tokai and will give Japan an intrinsic ES capability. This paper presents options for the use of ES as a transparency measure for nuclear nonproliferation.

  5. Screening of potential biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seawater represents a specific environment harboring complex bacterial community which is adapted to harsh conditions. Hence, biosurfactant produced by these bacteria under these conditions have interesting proprieties. The screening of biosurfactant producing strains isolated from seawater biofilm was investigated.

  6. Elevating sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuz, Joseph M.; Takayama, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    Sampling – the process of collecting, preparing, and introducing an appropriate volume element (voxel) into a system – is often under appreciated and pushed behind the scenes in lab-on-a-chip research. What often stands in the way between proof-of-principle demonstrations of potentially exciting technology and its broader dissemination and actual use, however, is the effectiveness of sample collection and preparation. The power of micro- and nanofluidics to improve reactions, sensing, separation, and cell culture cannot be accessed if sampling is not equally efficient and reliable. This perspective will highlight recent successes as well as assess current challenges and opportunities in this area. PMID:24781100

  7. Consumers and Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maira (Elisa)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to

  8. Optimization of biomass-producing conditions of Micrococcus sp. S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    carboxylic acid (ATC), biomass, Plackett-Burman design, Box- ..... Purification and characterization of a novel L-2-amino-. 2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid hydrolase from Pseudomonas sp. strain ON-4a expressed in E. coli.

  9. Producing Conditional Mutants for Studying Plant Microtubule Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Cyr

    2009-09-29

    The cytoskeleton, and in particular its microtubule component, participates in several processes that directly affect growth and development in higher plants. Normal cytoskeletal function requires the precise and orderly arrangement of microtubules into several cell cycle and developmentally specific arrays. One of these, the cortical array, is notable for its role in directing the deposition of cellulose (the most prominent polymer in the biosphere). An understanding of how these arrays form, and the molecular interactions that contribute to their function, is incomplete. To gain a better understanding of how microtubules work, we have been working to characterize mutants in critical cytoskeletal genes. This characterization is being carried out at the subcellular level using vital microtubule gene constructs. In the last year of funding colleagues have discovered that gamma-tubulin complexes form along the lengths of cortical microtubules where they act to spawn new microtubules at a characteristic 40 deg angle. This finding complements nicely the finding from our lab (which was funded by the DOE) showing that microtubule encounters are angle dependent; high angles encounters results in catastrophic collisions while low angle encounters result in favorable zippering. The finding of a 40 deg spawn of new microtubules from extant microtubule, together with aforementioned rules of encounters, insures favorable co-alignment in the array. I was invited to write a New and Views essay on this topic and a PDF is attached (News and Views policy does not permit funding acknowledgments and so I was not allowed to acknowledge support from the DOE).

  10. METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1964-01-14

    This patent relates to a method of producing neutrons in which there is produced a heated plasma containing heavy hydrogen isotope ions wherein heated ions are injected and confined in an elongated axially symmetric magnetic field having at least one magnetic field gradient region. In accordance with the method herein, the amplitude of the field and gradients are varied at an oscillatory periodic frequency to effect confinement by providing proper ratios of rotational to axial velocity components in the motion of said particles. The energetic neutrons may then be used as in a blanket zone containing a moderator and a source fissionable material to produce heat and thermal neutron fissionable materials. (AEC)

  11. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  12. Effect of gamma radiation on the growth of Aspergillus Flavus aflatoxins producer and on the use of polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) in samples of maize grains artificially inoculated; Efeitos da radiacao gama no crescimento de Aspergillus flavus produtor de aflatoxinas e no emprego da tecnica da Reacao em Cadeia da Polimerase (RCP) em amostras de graos de milho inoculadas artificialmente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Simone

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this present study was to verify the effects of gamma radiation on the growth of Aspergillus flavus Link aflatoxins producer; to demonstrate the application of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique in the diagnostic of A. Flavus, as well to verify the effect of radiation in the profile of DNA bands. Twenty samples of grains maize with 200 g each were individually irradiated with 20 kGy, to eliminate the microbial contamination. In following, the samples were inoculated with an toxigenic A. flavus (1x10{sup 6} spores/ml), incubated for 15 days at 25 deg C with a relative humidity of around 97,5% and irradiated with 0, 2; 5 and 10 kGy. The samples, 5 to each dose of irradiation, were individually analyzed for the number of fungal cells, water activity, viability test (fluorescein diacetate and ethidium bromide), PCR and aflatoxins (AFB) detection. The results showed that the doses used were effective in reducing the number of Colony Forming Units (CFU/g) mainly the doses of 5 and 10 kGy. In addition, the viability test showed a decrease of viable cells with increase of irradiation doses. The reduction of AFB{sub 1} and AFB-2, was more efficient with the use of 2 kGy in comparison with the dose of 5 kGy, while the dose of 10 kGy, degraded the aflatoxins. Thereby, it was observed that AFB2 showed to be more radiosensitive. The use of PCR technique showed the presence of DNA bands, in all samples. (author)

  13. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-10-29

    statisticians used carefully thought out designs that systematically and economically provided plans for data collection from the DWPF process. Key shared features of the sampling designs used at DWPF and the Gy sampling methodology were the specification of a standard for sample representativeness, an investigation that produced data from the process to study the sampling function, and a decision framework used to assess whether the specification was met based on the data. Without going into detail with regard to the seven errors identified by Pierre Gy, as excellent summaries are readily available such as Pitard [1989] and Smith [2001], SRS engineers understood, for example, that samplers can be biased (Gy's extraction error), and developed plans to mitigate those biases. Experiments that compared installed samplers with more representative samples obtained directly from the tank may not have resulted in systematically partitioning sampling errors into the now well-known error categories of Gy, but did provide overall information on the suitability of sampling systems. Most of the designs in this report are related to the DWPF vessels, not the large SRS Tank Farm tanks. Samples from the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), which contains the feed to the DWPF melter, are characterized using standardized analytical methods with known uncertainty. The analytical error is combined with the established error from sampling and processing in DWPF to determine the melter feed composition. This composition is used with the known uncertainty of the models in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to ensure that the wasteform that is produced is comfortably within the acceptable processing and product performance region. Having the advantage of many years of processing that meets the waste glass product acceptance criteria, the DWPF process has provided a considerable amount of data about itself in addition to the data from many special studies. Demonstrating representative

  14. Assessment of Physicochemical Characteristics of Produced Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the physico-chemical characteristics, total hydrocarbon concentration (THC) and some heavy metal levels of produced water from terminals of two oil industry facilities in Nigeria, using standard methods. Appropriate sample bottles were used in the collection of samples for analyses of BOD, other ...

  15. Control and regulation of biogas plants. Partial-project. Characterization of microbial conditions during biomass conversion by determination of the number, type and activity of bacteria which produce methane and break down fatty acids; Styring og regulering af biogasanlaeg. Delprojekt. Mikrobiel karakterisering af biogasprocessens tilstand gennem bestemmelse af antal, art og aktivitet af methandannende og fedtsyrenedbrydende bakterier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahring, B.K.

    1992-05-01

    The number and activity of bacteria which produce methane and break down fatty acids were investigated in stable and unstable biogas reactors. It was concluded that the number of bacteria is generally lower in the case of unstable reactors, especially with regard to those which break down fatty acids and those which use hydrogen when producing methane. In unstable reactors the methanogenic activity was far less, especially where the substrate was acetate. In unstable reactors, because of high concentrations of volatile fatty acids, conditions for the bacteria that use acetate and propionate are substantial. No increase is seen in the initial methane production rate when extra substrates are added. Methanogenic activity, especially where hydrogen is used as the substrate, was shown to be much higher in a stable reactor where industrial wastes were added to cow manures giving a higher input of volatile acids. Digested manures had an optimal methanogenic activity at 60 degrees centigrade. Bacteria which used acetate and butyrate in the fermented material were most active at 60 degrees, and the propionate using ones were most active at 55 degrees. Only where butyrate was the substrate was there spontaneous activity at 65 degrees, which was the optimal temperature in the cases of hydrogen and formates. Where acetates were substrates, activity was found at temperatures of 70 degrees. Methanobacterium were found in large numbers. Methanosarcina were the only ones which used acetate. Antiserum against 11 types of methane bacteria were produced. (AB).

  16. Detection of hydrogen gas-producing anaerobes in refuse-derived fuel (RDF) pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Makiko; Kimura, Tetsuya; Ohmiya, Kunio; Sakka, Kazuo

    2005-11-01

    Recently, we reported that refuse-derived fuel (RDF) pellets contain a relatively high number of viable bacterial cells and that these bacteria generate heat and hydrogen gas during fermentation under wet conditions. In this study we analyzed bacterial cell numbers of RDF samples manufactured with different concentrations of calcium hydroxide, which is usually added to waste materials for the prevention of rotting of food wastes and the acceleration of drying of solid wastes, and determined the amount of hydrogen gas produced by them under wet conditions. Furthermore, we analyzed microflora of the RDF samples before and during fermentation by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA followed by sequencing. We found that the RDF samples contained various kinds of clostridia capable of producing hydrogen gas.

  17. How Mobility Systems Produce Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores a crucial aspect of sustainable mobility: the production of social inequality in mobility systems. The approach taken is to focus on how, as new transit infrastructures create alternative ways of traveling in and accessing the city, they create changed conditions for the forma......This paper explores a crucial aspect of sustainable mobility: the production of social inequality in mobility systems. The approach taken is to focus on how, as new transit infrastructures create alternative ways of traveling in and accessing the city, they create changed conditions...... for the formation of subject identities. New types of travellers are realised in the newly engineered spaces of mobility. The paper argues that this focus on these emergent mobile subject types can be useful in investigating the social inequalities that can result from the introduction of new infrastructures...... are constructed and how social inequality is materially produced....

  18. Sampled-data controller implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Leduc, Ryan J.

    2012-09-01

    The setting of this article is the implementation of timed discrete-event systems (TDES) as sampled-data (SD) controllers. An SD controller is driven by a periodic clock and sees the system as a series of inputs and outputs. On each clock edge (tick event), it samples its inputs, changes states and updates its outputs. In this article, we establish a formal representation of an SD controller as a Moore synchronous finite state machine (FSM). We describe how to translate a TDES supervisor to an FSM, as well as necessary properties to be able to do so. We discuss how to construct a single centralised controller as well as a set of modular controllers, and show that they will produce equivalent output. We briefly discuss how the recently introduced SD controllability definition relates to our translation method. SD controllability is an extension of TDES controllability which captures several new properties that are useful in dealing with concurrency issues, as well as make it easier to translate a TDES supervisor into an SD controller. We next discuss the application of SD controllability to a small flexible manufacturing system (FMS) from the literature. The example demonstrates the successful application of the new SD properties. We describe the design of the system in detail to illustrate the new conditions and to provide designers with guidance on how to apply the properties. We also present some FSM translation issues encountered, as well as the FSM version of the system's supervisors.

  19. Produce Sanitation System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    was also expected to improve food safety (i.e., reduce microbes) and reduce premature spoilage while minimizing environmental impact and unpleasant...PRECISION REDUCTION VEGETABLES CONTAMINATION TEST AND EVALUATION SAFETY PH FACTOR SANITATION FRESH FOODS MICROORGANISMS ...fruits and vegetables (FF&V) aboard Navy vessels, The sink saves labor associated with the washing of produce in food service operations by

  20. Radiation degradation of biological residues (Aflatoxins) produced in food laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Aquino, Simone; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Trindade, Reginaldo A.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (brazil)]. E-mails: vladrogo@yahoo.com.br; villavic@ipen.br; Zorzete, Patricia; Correa, Benedito [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas]. E-mail: correabe@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Some molds have the capacity to produce substances that are toxic and generally cancer-causing agents, such as aflatoxins, that stand between the most important carcinogenic substances (class one of the agents which are certainly carcinogenous for human people according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer). Aspergillus spp. is present in world-wide distribution, with predominance in tropical and subtropical regions growing in any substratum. The aim of this work is establish a minimum dose of radiation that degrades aflatoxins produced by fungi Aspergillus spp. The Aspergillus spp. colonies will be cultivated in coconut agar medium and the samples will be conditioned in appropriate bags for irradiation treatment of contaminated material and processed in the Gammacell 220 with dose of 20 kGy. (author)

  1. NEW PRODUCER STRAINS OF BIOBUTANOL. І. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Tigunova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Getting new, more productive strains of microorganisms that produce butanol is a topical problem. Studing of morphological and physiological characteristics of the isolated strains, improvement of their cultivation conditions, optimization of biobutanol synthesis gives the possibility to organize a cost-effective butanol production technology. The aim of this work was searching new butanol and butyric acid producer strains, their identification and studying the main steps of the selective strains biosynthesis. The objects of this study were microorganisms that had allocated from soils and sludges samples of Kiev’s lakes. Obtained cultures have been screened. Three strains were obtained as promising and identified as C. acetobutylicum, C. tyrobutylicum, C. butylicum. Selective medium have been developed and modified for the microorganisms. Producer’s features were investigated in order to maximize the accumulation of target metabolites.

  2. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes......’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...... of the century. 2, the laws and strategies of implementing regarding the regulation of civil societal institutions (folkeoplysningsloven) since the 1970’s this paper shows how civil society in 20th century Denmark was produced both conceptually and practically and how this entailed a specific vision and version...

  3. LSD produces place preference and flavor avoidance but does not produce flavor aversion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L A

    1996-06-01

    The hedonic properties of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) were assessed using the place conditioning, taste reactivity, and taste avoidance tests. LSD produced a conditioned place preference, but only at the highest dose tested (0.2 mg/kg). A single preexposure to the conditioning chamber (latent inhibition) prevented the establishment of a place preference. When paired with sucrose, doses of 0.05 to 0.2 mg/kg of LSD produced taste avoidance, but no dose of LSD produced an aversion to the taste as assessed by the taste reactivity test. These results suggest that LSD, like other rewarding drugs, produces taste avoidance by a mechanism other than that produced by emetic drugs.

  4. Heat pumping using the thermal earth gradient to produce air conditioned and hot water with savings of up to 70%; Bombeo de calor utilizando el gradiente termico de la tierra para producir aire acondicionado y agua caliente con ahorros de hasta un 70%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Ramirez, Alejandro [Novaenergia de Mexico S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The pumping of heat using the Earth heat as partial energy source bases its principle on which the energy of the ground is constant and the energy efficiency to produce air conditioning and hot water simultaneously is important, obtaining savings up to 70%, comparing itself with the traditional equipment and what these operate of separated way to produce each one of them the cold air and the hot water. The use of this technology presents an opportunity to reduce the energy costs of and the demand of the company. [Spanish] El bombeo de calor utilizando el calor de la tierra como fuente parcial de energia basa su principio en que la energia del suelo es constante y el rendimiento energetico para producir simultaneamente aire acondicionado y agua caliente es importante, obteniendose ahorros hasta de un 70%, comparandose con los equipos tradicionales y que estos operan de manera separada para producir cada uno de ellos el aire frio y el agua caliente. El uso de esta tecnologia presenta una oportunidad para reducir los costos de energia y demanda de la empresa.

  5. Caracterização físico-química de amostras de méis produzidas por Apis mellifera L. em fragmento de cerrado no município de Itirapina, São Paulo Physicochemical characterization of honey samples produced by Apis mellifera L. in a fragment of savannah area in Itirapina county, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiára Mendonça

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A fisionomia vegetal mais representativa do país, depois da floresta amazônica, é o cerrado, que ocupa atualmente dois milhões de km² do território brasileiro. Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as características físico-químicas de amostras de mel produzidas por Apis mellifera em um fragmento de cerrado, localizado em Itirapina, SP (22°14'S e 47°49'W. As amostras foram coletadas mensalmente, em cinco colméias, entre fevereiro e outubro de 2005 e as características avaliadas foram: açúcares redutores, redutores totais, sacarose, umidade, hidroximetilfurfural (HMF, cor, condutividade elétrica, pH, acidez, índice de formol, teor de cinzas, proteínas e viscosidade, além da análise polínica. Os resultados obtidos indicam que os limites estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira para parâmetros físico-químicos analisados são atendidos pela maioria das amostras de mel. Com relação à análise polínica, foi verificada a presença de Eucalyptus sp. como pólen dominante nos meses de fevereiro a julho e o de Citrus sp. no mês de outubro, em virtude da maior atratividade destes dois cultivos sobre as abelhas.The most representative vegetation type of the country after the Amazonian forest is the "cerrado" (savannah area, which currently occupies two million square kilometer of the Brazilian territory. This paper deals with the physicochemical characteristics of honey samples produced by Apis mellifera in a fragment of savannah area located in Itirapina, São Paulo State (22°14'S and 47°49'W, Brazil. The samples were collected monthly, in five beehives, from February to October 2005 and the following characters were determined: reducing sugars, total reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, moisture content, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, color, electrical conductivity, pH, acidity, formol index, ashes, protein and viscosity, beyond the pollinic analysis. The results indicate that the limits established by the current

  6. Níveis de cobre em amostras de cachaça produzidas na região noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Levels of copper in "cachaça" samples produced in the Northwest region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Garbin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer a qualidade, com destaque para os níveis de cobre, foram analisadas 25 amostras de cachaça artesanal, produzidas e comercializadas em 17 municípios pertencentes às microrregiões Ijuí, Cruz Alta, Santa Rosa e Três Passos, que integram o noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil e, compararam-se os valores encontrados, com aqueles estabelecidos pela Legislação. Para as análises, procedeu-se a avaliação dos aspectos gerais das amostras através de observações visuais e olfativas, conforme as recomendações do Ministério da Agricultura para análise de bebidas alcoólicas destiladas. O teor alcoólico foi determinado utilizando-se método densimétrico e os teores de cobre foram determinados através de espectrofotometria de absorção atômica (EAA. Aplicou-se os testes de ANOVA e Tukey. Foram constatados, a partir da análise dos aspectos gerais, que 72% das amostras apresentaram anormalidades de limpidez. Verificou-se que a Microrregião Três Passos apresentou 42,86% de suas amostras fora dos limites estabelecidos pela legislação para o teor alcoólico, entretanto os valores médios deste mesmo parâmetro, para todas as amostras das quatro microrregiões, situaram-se dentro do que estabelece a legislação. Quanto aos níveis de cobre, a maior concentração média foi observada na Microrregião Três Passos (10,22mg L-1 enquanto que na Microrregião Cruz Alta foram observados os menores níveis médios deste metal (2,95mg L-1. Apenas as microrregiões Ijuí e Três Passos apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas (PWhit objective to know the quality, with prominence for the copper levels, 25 samples of craftwork "cachaça" were analyzed, produced and commercialized in 17 cities from four Microregions: Ijuí, Cruz Alta, Santa Rosa and Três Passos, that integrate the northwest of Rio Grande do Sul Brazil and, were compared the found values with those established by the Legislation. For the

  7. Strategic Marketing Decisions for Organic Agricultural Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Jon C.; Peterson, H. Christopher

    2007-01-01

    A group of organic agricultural producers facing a strategic decision is featured. If they decide to form an organization to market their produce jointly, they will have to select a distribution channel. This case presents the demand conditions, requirements, advantages, and disadvantages of different distribution channels for organic vegetables, both on a general level and as they relate to this particular group. The following channels are addressed: roadside stands, farmers' markets, distri...

  8. Ethics and sample size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetti, Peter; Wolf, Leslie E; Segal, Mark R; McCulloch, Charles E

    2005-01-15

    The belief is widespread that studies are unethical if their sample size is not large enough to ensure adequate power. The authors examine how sample size influences the balance that determines the ethical acceptability of a study: the balance between the burdens that participants accept and the clinical or scientific value that a study can be expected to produce. The average projected burden per participant remains constant as the sample size increases, but the projected study value does not increase as rapidly as the sample size if it is assumed to be proportional to power or inversely proportional to confidence interval width. This implies that the value per participant declines as the sample size increases and that smaller studies therefore have more favorable ratios of projected value to participant burden. The ethical treatment of study participants therefore does not require consideration of whether study power is less than the conventional goal of 80% or 90%. Lower power does not make a study unethical. The analysis addresses only ethical acceptability, not optimality; large studies may be desirable for other than ethical reasons.

  9. Chimerical conditionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Francez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces and analyzes chimerical conditionals, a class of conditionals that are puzzling vis-à-vis the distinction between so-called 'biscuit' and hypothetical conditionals. An analysis of this distinction is developed which draws on the pragmatic account of Franke 2009. Building on this analysis, chimericity is then shown to derive from a systematic ambiguity of a definite and often implicit argument in the consequent of chimerical conditionals, between a rigid designator and an individual concept reading. This ambiguity is argued to arise from different ways in which context can resolve familiarity presuppositions. One consequence of the inquiry is that the notion of (independence employed in much work on conditionals cannot be viewed as a relation between propositions, but must be made sensitive to the dynamics of information flow. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.8.2 BibTeX info

  10. Laser-produced microjets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur; Takehara, K.; Etoh, T. G.; Ohl, C.-D.

    2009-11-01

    We use ultra-high-speed imaging to characterize the formation of a micro-jet when a laser-produced shock hits a bubble sitting under a free surface. The bubble is formed inside a sessile drop, sitting on a glass slide and buoyancy drives it to its top. The jetting is forced by an Nd:YAG-laser pulse of about 30 mJ, focused by a microscope objective sitting under the glass plate. The jet is initiated when the shock hits the curved bottom of the bubble. It emerges out of a bottom crown and has a very regular shape. For water the jets are a few microns in size and can emerge at over 200 m/s. In intermediate viscosity liquids the jetting can be even faster and can emerge at over 500 m/s, depending on the depth of the laser focus. Jets can even be produced in pure glycerin where they emerge at about 100 m/s.

  11. LIPID PRODUCING MICROALGAE FROM SEVERAL ECOSYSTEMS IN WEST AND CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI ANDREAS SANTOSA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to get lipid producing microalgae as feedstock for biofuel production. The microalgae were isolated from 355 collected water samples which represented many distinct ecosystems such as paddy fields, rivers, agricultural dams, ponds, swampy areas and unique ecosystem of volcano and mud-volcano craters in West- and Central Java, Indonesia. A total of 267 strains of microalgae were isolated from the samples of which 221 strains of them have capability to produce lipid. There were four promising strains that produce lipid between 14.7 – 45.7 percent dry weight in optimal condition that were identified as Chlamydomonas sp. KO-7267 and PK-7195, Chlorella sp. KS-7300 and Desmodesmus sp. BK-7291.

  12. TRIBOLOGICAL BEHAVIOURS OF ABS AND PA6 POLYMERMETAL SLIDING COMBINATIONS UNDER DRY FRICTION, WATER ABSORBED AND ELECTROPLATED CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MITHUN V. KULKARNI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction and wear properties of polyamide 6 (PA6 and poly-Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS sliding against metal under dry sliding, water absorption and electroplated (EP conditions were studied by using a pin-ondisc tribometer. The effect of applied load and sliding speed on the tribological behaviours of the polymer–metal sliding combinations under dry sliding, water absorbed and EP conditions were also investigated. The worn surfaces were examined by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Experimental results showed that ABS samples under water absorbed conditions showed higher wear loss compared to normal samples and the EP samples had exhibited lower wear loss compared to the water absorbed samples. Similarly EP-PA6 samples exhibited excellent wear resistance when compared with EP-ABS samples. Further, it was observed that the frictional heat produced on account of sliding action had a significant effect on the tribological behaviours of samples under dry sliding and water absorbed conditions.

  13. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of cassava flower honey samples produced by africanized honeybees Caracterização físico-química e microbiológica de amostras de mel de flores de mandioca produzido por abelhas africanizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Peres de Moura Pontara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cassava producers in the region of Marília-São Paulo are integrating their farming activity with beekeeping to diversify their income. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological quality of honey samples produced by Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera from cassava flower in 2008. Analysis were carried out for pH, total soluble solids (TSS, acidity, moisture, reducing and total sugars, apparent sucrose, hydroxymethylfurfural, color, ash, proteins, water insoluble solids, diastasic activity, mineral content, microbiological evaluations, and mineral and hydrocyanic acid (HCN content. The honey samples showed physicochemical and microbiological characteristics favorable to commercialization, with the exception of apparent sucrose and acidity, which show the need for a narrow focus of attention to the honey maturation degree at the harvest time and more careful monitoring during production and processing. The commercialization of Brazilian cassava honey, still little explored, can be widely spread in the market since the levels of hydrocyanic acid (HCN showed no consumption risk; in addition the simultaneous production of honey and cassava provides an alternative to family income increase.Produtores de mandioca da região de Marília, Estado de São Paulo, estão consorciando a atividade da apicultura em meio à cultura visando diversificar a renda obtida pela propriedade rural. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade físico-química e microbiológica do mel produzido por abelhas Apis mellifera africanizadas, elaborado a partir de flores de mandioca, no ano de 2008. Foram realizadas análises de pH, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez, umidade, açúcares redutores e totais, sacarose aparente, hidroximetilfurfural, cor, cinzas, proteínas, sólidos insolúveis em água, atividade diastásica, teor de minerais e monitoramento dos teores de ácido cianídrico (HCN, além de avaliações microbiol

  14. Sampling communicative behaviours in children with intellectual disability in structured and unstructured situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, T A; Waring, R E; Chan, J B

    1996-01-01

    Structured 'communicative temptation' procedures administered by a clinician were compared to unstructured parent-child interactions in sampling intentional communicative acts in 11 subjects with intellectual disability. The subjects were assessed twice over a 5-7 month period. The results indicated that the structured condition was more effective in sampling Requests and Comments, with more Requests than Comments produced. The unstructured condition was more effective in sampling responses, but only during the second assessment. Although there was no difference in the total number of intentional communicative acts produced across assessment times, there was an increase in the use of linguistic forms during the second assessment: that is, the subjects used more speech and signs and fewer gestures and general vocalisations during the second assessment than the first. The findings suggest the usefulness of combining structured and unstructured conditions in providing information on the variety of children's communicative acts and the linguistic level at which these are expressed.

  15. Credit in Acceptance Sampling on Attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Chris A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Credit is introduced in acceptance sampling on attributes and a Credit Based Acceptance sampling system is developed that is very easy to apply in practice.The credit of a producer is defined as the total number of items accepted since the last rejection.In our sampling system the sample size for a

  16. 40 CFR 90.422 - Background sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Background sample. 90.422 Section 90... Procedures § 90.422 Background sample. (a) Background samples are produced by drawing a sample of the dilution air during the exhaust collection phase of each test cycle mode. (1) An individual background...

  17. Low-sampling-rate ultra-wideband channel estimation using equivalent-time sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Ballal, Tarig

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a low-sampling-rate scheme for ultra-wideband channel estimation is proposed. The scheme exploits multiple observations generated by transmitting multiple pulses. In the proposed scheme, P pulses are transmitted to produce channel impulse response estimates at a desired sampling rate, while the ADC samples at a rate that is P times slower. To avoid loss of fidelity, the number of sampling periods (based on the desired rate) in the inter-pulse interval is restricted to be co-prime with P. This condition is affected when clock drift is present and the transmitted pulse locations change. To handle this case, and to achieve an overall good channel estimation performance, without using prior information, we derive an improved estimator based on the bounded data uncertainty (BDU) model. It is shown that this estimator is related to the Bayesian linear minimum mean squared error (LMMSE) estimator. Channel estimation performance of the proposed sub-sampling scheme combined with the new estimator is assessed in simulation. The results show that high reduction in sampling rate can be achieved. The proposed estimator outperforms the least squares estimator in almost all cases, while in the high SNR regime it also outperforms the LMMSE estimator. In addition to channel estimation, a synchronization method is also proposed that utilizes the same pulse sequence used for channel estimation. © 2014 IEEE.

  18. MICROALGAE AS TOCOPHEROL PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Mokrosnop

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are able to accumulate considerable amounts of tocopherols (up to 4 mg/g dry weight. The content of α-tocopherol to plant oils is low, whereas microalgae contain up to 97% of the tocochromanols that provides high bioactivity. The data about the content of tocopherols in eukaryotic microalgae Dunaliella tertiolecta, Nannochloropsis oculata, Isochrysis galbana, Euglena gracilis, Tetraselmis suecica, Diacronema vlkianum, as well as in the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis are given in the paper. The largest amounts of tocopherols are synthesized by Euglena gracilis cells at mixotrophic cultivation. The level of tocopherols in microalgae depends on cultivation conditions. Two-stage biotech cultivation techniques, limiting nutrition in some biogenic elements, the introduction of exogenous carbon sources are used to increase the yield of tocopherol from microalgae. The approaches to the genetic transformation of plants leading to higher content of active vitamin E are rewieved as well.

  19. Power Producer Production Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kněžek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing developments in the electricity market, in particular the establishment of the Prague Energy Exchange (PXE and the associated transfer from campaign-driven sale to continuous trading, represent a significant change for power companies.  Power producing companies can now optimize the sale of their production capacities with the objective of maximizing profit from wholesale electricity and supporting services. The Trading Departments measure the success rate of trading activities by the gross margin (GM, calculated by subtracting the realized sales prices from the realized purchase prices and the production cost, and indicate the profit & loss (P&L to be subsequently calculated by the Control Department. The risk management process is set up on the basis of a business strategy defining the volumes of electricity that have to be sold one year and one month before the commencement of delivery. At the same time, this process defines the volume of electricity to remain available for spot trading (trading limits. 

  20. Quality of Quarg produced by probiotics application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Spasenija D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Quarg is a soft fresh cheese which is characterised by nutritive and energy value. Presence of essential milk components and usage of various starter cultures, most important of which are probiotics, contribute to the increase of the consumers, interest because of great health effects. In addition to their nutritive and economic importance, probiotics are important from technological point of view, as well. Therefore, the possibilities of probiotic Quarg manufacture, the effect of probiotics, traditional starter culture and their combination, on Quarg quality have been investigated in this study. Quarg was produced of milk with 2.5% and 4.2% fat content. The obtained results showed significant differences in chemical composition physical and sensory properties and shelf-life of the produced cheese samples. From 10 samples produced, 2 samples were of excellent sensory properties and have been evaluated with maximum score. All samples were shelf-stable 5 weeks, while decrease of pH value was insignificant during 30 days of storage at below 4°C. Different kinds of Quarg, produced by use of probiotics, could be used by all consumers categories having beneficial effect on intestinal function and promoting good health because of probiotic bacteria presence.

  1. Isolation and morphological characterization of antibiotic producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To isolate and characterize antibiotic producing actinomycetes from soil samples in Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Methods: Crowded plate technique was used for the isolation of actinomycetes in media such as soybean – casein digest medium and actinomycetes isolation agar. The morphological and cultural ...

  2. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurt produce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the physicochemical and sensory acceptability of yoghurt produced from ewe, goat and a mixture of ewe milk and goat milk in Nigeria in order for the populace to harness the nutritional and therapeutic benefits of the milks. Methods: Samples of whole cow milk (WCM) as standard, goat milk (GM), ewe ...

  3. Classical conditioning and pain: conditioned analgesia and hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguez, Gonzalo; Laborda, Mario A; Miller, Ralph R

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews situations in which stimuli produce an increase or a decrease in nociceptive responses through basic associative processes and provides an associative account of such changes. Specifically, the literature suggests that cues associated with stress can produce conditioned analgesia or conditioned hyperalgesia, depending on the properties of the conditioned stimulus (e.g., contextual cues and audiovisual cues vs. gustatory and olfactory cues, respectively) and the proprieties of the unconditioned stimulus (e.g., appetitive, aversive, or analgesic, respectively). When such cues are associated with reducers of exogenous pain (e.g., opiates), they typically increase sensitivity to pain. Overall, the evidence concerning conditioned stress-induced analgesia, conditioned hyperalagesia, conditioned tolerance to morphine, and conditioned reduction of morphine analgesia suggests that selective associations between stimuli underlie changes in pain sensitivity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Atrazine and picloram adsorption in organic horizon forest samples under laboratory conditions Adsorção de atrazina e picloram em amostras florestais de horizonte orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Pinho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of two herbicides, atrazine and picloram, displaying different sorption characteristics, were evaluated for O (organic horizon samples collected from SMZs (streamside management zones in Piedmont (Ultisol of Georgia, USA. Samples were randomly collected from within 5 SMZs selected for a study of surface flow in field trials. The five SMZs represented five different slope classes, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Results indicate that 0 horizons have the potential for sorbing atrazine from surface water moving through forested SMZs. Atrazine adsorption was nearly linear over a 24-hour period. Equilibrium adsorption, determined through 24-hour laboratory tests, resulted in a Freundlich coefficient of 67.5 for atrazine. For picloram, negative adsorption was observed in laboratory experiments. This seemed to be due to interference with ELISA analyses; however, this was not confirmed. The adsorption coefficient (Kd obtained for atrazine in 0 horizons was greater than it would have been expected for mineral soil (from 1 to 4. Picloram was not sorbed in 0 horizons at any significant degree. Although there is a significant potential for the direct adsorption of soluble forms of herbicides in SMZs, the actual value of this adsorption for protecting water is likely to be limited even for relatively strongly sorbed chemicals, such as atrazine, due to relatively slow uptake kinetics.Este trabalho avaliou a adsorção de dois herbicidas - atrazina e picloram - com diferentes características de sorção, em amostras florestais de horizonte orgânico (HO coletadas em matas ciliares de manejo (MCM localizadas em uma região de Piedmond (Ultisol, no estado da Geórgia, EUA. As amostras foram coletadas aleatoriamente dentro de cinco áreas de mata ciliar distintas, em classes de declividade de 2, 5, 10, 15 e 20%, as quais foram selecionadas para desenvolver experimentos de campo sobre o transporte de herbicidas por escoamento superficial. Os resultados indicam

  5. BODY CONDITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrew Taylor

    seasonal variation that could be used in management decisions. ... This allowed approximately even numbers of males and females to be sampled on a seasonal basis. .... male and female mountain reedbuck at Sterkfontein. ..... this case, rather than males being subjected to more stress than females overall, differential ...

  6. STUDY ON OXYTETRACYCLINE RESIDUES IN COW’S MILK SAMPLES COLLECTED IN TETOVO, MACEDONIA FROM 2012 TO 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Kamberi, Mensur; Sulaj, Kapllan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the oxytetracycline residues in cow’s milk collected in farms of Tetovo in Macedonia. The cow’s milk samples produced in this area are controlled applying qualitative analytical tests for oxitetracycline residues in 262 milk samples through specific ELISA test. After this control positive milk samples were kept in freezing conditions to be analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method in order to perform qualitative evaluation of...

  7. Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diseases; starting first with eczema, then followed by food allergy, asthma, and allergic rhinitis. Researchers don’t yet know whether the Atopic March conditions merely coexist in people with overactive immune systems, or ... with eczema and food allergy in early childhood. However, the diseases don’ ...

  8. Organoleptic properties and quality of yoghurt produced from goat milk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Goat milk samples were collected from the Research Farm of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa Uinversity, Bauchi, Nigeria were used in investigating the shelf life of fresh and pasteurized milk as well as organoleptic properties of four yoghurt samples produced from them. Sensory evaluation was done on the yoghurt produced ...

  9. Robustness to non-normality of various tests for the one-sample location problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle K. McDougall

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of the normal distribution assumption on the power and size of the sign test, Wilcoxon's signed rank test and the t-test when used in one-sample location problems. Power functions for these tests under various skewness and kurtosis conditions are produced for several sample sizes from simulated data using the g-and-k distribution of MacGillivray and Cannon [5].

  10. Microbiological evaluation of lettuce produced by conventional and organic systems in farms of Londrina, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Harumi Niguma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the contamination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, produced in Londrina, Paraná (PR, with total coliform, coliform at 45 °C, E. coli, and Salmonella spp.; and to determine the E. coli contamination of irrigation water used at the farms studied. Four farms were evaluated, of which three produced lettuce using a conventional system and one using an organic system. An evaluation of the production practices of the farms was also carried out. A total of 111 samples were analyzed, 71 lettuce samples from the conventional system and 40 samples from the organic system. A total of eight irrigation water samples were collected for analysis. Coliform at 45 °C counts above the limit tolerated by Brazilian legislation were observed in 2.8% (2/71 of conventionally grown lettuce samples, and Salmonella spp. was isolated in 1.4% (1/71 of those samples. In the organic lettuce samples, 12.5% (5/40 had coliform at 45 °C counts above the limit tolerated and Salmonella spp. was not detected. Irrigation water samples from three farms were unsatisfactory, with counts higher than 102MPN of E. coli per 100mL. The results of this study demonstrate that most conventionally grown lettuce samples show good sanitary conditions in production, and that lettuce contamination is not related to contamination found in irrigation water samples. The results also showed that the organic production practices required by Brazilian certification agencies should be applied to ensure that contamination of produced lettuce remains controlled.

  11. Conditioning experiences and phobias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckelbach, H.; de Ruiter, C.; van den Hout, M.A.; Hoekstra, R.

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to examine the extent to which phobias are associated with a conditioning pathway to fear. The Phobic Origin Questionnaire (Öst and Hugdahl, Behav. Res. Ther. 19, 439-477, 1981) was administered to a sample of 91 phobic outpatients (patients with panic disorder

  12. Poverty and Poverty Status in Oil Producing Communities of Ondo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined poverty and poverty status in the oil producing communities of Nigeria; using oil-producing communities of Ondo state, Nigeria as a case study. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to collect data on economic characteristics of the household. In the first stage, oil-producing communities were ...

  13. Sampling designs dependent on sample parameters of auxiliary variables

    CERN Document Server

    Wywiał, Janusz L

    2015-01-01

    The book offers a valuable resource for students and statisticians whose work involves survey sampling. An estimation of the population parameters in finite and fixed populations assisted by auxiliary variables is considered. New sampling designs dependent on moments or quantiles of auxiliary variables are presented on the background of the classical methods. Accuracies of the estimators based on original sampling design are compared with classical estimation procedures. Specific conditional sampling designs are applied to problems of small area estimation as well as to estimation of quantiles of variables under study. .

  14. Myofibrillar disarray produced in normal hearts by chronic electrical pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomian, G E; Beazell, J

    1986-07-01

    Myofibrillar disarray has been observed in various normal, experimental, and pathologic conditions of the heart. In order to elucidate the common denominator involved in the development of disarray, we undertook the present study to test the hypothesis that myofibrillar disarray can be produced in the normal heart as a result of altering myocardial stress vectors. In the heart, the vectors associated with the patterns of contraction are determined by the sequence of depolarization. In order to alter this sequence, the conduction system of 12 normal dogs was interrupted by the production of complete atrioventricular block. After 3 months of electronic pacing of the right ventricular apex at 70 bpm, myofibrillar disarray was observed in 9 out of 12 of these hearts. In matched tissue samples from 12 control dogs, myofibrillar disarray was not observed. We conclude that myofibrillar disarray may be produced by abnormal stress vectors resulting from alterations in the sequence of depolarization, and therefore the pattern of contraction. We believe this to represent a unifying concept to explain the development of myofibrillar disarray observed in a variety of conditions.

  15. Bacteriocin producers from traditional food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonart P.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 220 strains of LAB isolated from 32 samples of traditional fermented food from Senegal were screened for bacteriocin production. Two bacteriocin producers, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Enterococcus faecium, were identified from 12 bacteriocin-producing isolates on the basis of phenotypic analyses and 16S rDNA sequence. Both bacteriocins produced by new isolates show antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus coagulans whereas only that produced by Lactococcus lactis has an activity against Bacillus cereus. Bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis strains were found in a variety of traditional foods indicating a high potential of growth of this strain in variable ecological complex environment. Partial 16S rDNA of the two bacteriocin producers obtained in this study has been registered to Genbank databases under the accession number AY971748 for Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (named CWBI-B1410 and AY971749 for Enterococcus faecium (named CWBI-B1411. The new bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain has been selected for identification and application of the bacteriocin to food preservation.

  16. Hydrofocusing Bioreactor Produces Anti-Cancer Alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Valluri, Jagan V.

    2011-01-01

    A methodology for growing three-dimensional plant tissue models in a hydrodynamic focusing bioreactor (HFB) has been developed. The methodology is expected to be widely applicable, both on Earth and in outer space, as a means of growing plant cells and aggregates thereof under controlled conditions for diverse purposes, including research on effects of gravitation and other environmental factors upon plant growth and utilization of plant tissue cultures to produce drugs in quantities greater and at costs lower than those of conventional methodologies. The HFB was described in Hydro focus - ing Bioreactor for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture (MSC-22358), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 66. To recapitulate: The HFB offers a unique hydrofocusing capability that enables the creation of a low-shear liquid culture environment simultaneously with the herding of suspended cells and tissue assemblies and removal of unwanted air bubbles. The HFB includes a rotating cell-culture vessel with a centrally located sampling port and an internal rotating viscous spinner attached to a rotating base. The vessel and viscous spinner can be made to rotate at the same speed and direction or different speeds and directions to tailor the flow field and the associated hydrodynamic forces in the vessel in order to obtain low-shear suspension of cells and control of the locations of cells and air bubbles. For research and pharmaceutical-production applications, the HFB offers two major benefits: low shear stress, which promotes the assembly of cells into tissue-like three-dimensional constructs; and randomization of gravitational vectors relative to cells, which affects production of medicinal compounds. Presumably, apposition of plant cells in the absence of shear forces promotes cell-cell contacts, cell aggregation, and cell differentiation. Only gentle mixing is necessary for distributing nutrients and oxygen. It has been postulated that inasmuch as cells in the simulated

  17. Sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotay, Steven J; Cook, Jo Marie

    2015-05-13

    Proper sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis of food and soil have always been essential to obtain accurate results, but the subject is becoming a greater concern as approximately 100 mg test portions are being analyzed with automated high-throughput analytical methods by agrochemical industry and contract laboratories. As global food trade and the importance of monitoring increase, the food industry and regulatory laboratories are also considering miniaturized high-throughput methods. In conjunction with a summary of the symposium "Residues in Food and Feed - Going from Macro to Micro: The Future of Sample Processing in Residue Analytical Methods" held at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, this is an opportune time to review sampling theory and sample processing for pesticide residue analysis. If collected samples and test portions do not adequately represent the actual lot from which they came and provide meaningful results, then all costs, time, and efforts involved in implementing programs using sophisticated analytical instruments and techniques are wasted and can actually yield misleading results. This paper is designed to briefly review the often-neglected but crucial topic of sample collection and processing and put the issue into perspective for the future of pesticide residue analysis. It also emphasizes that analysts should demonstrate the validity of their sample processing approaches for the analytes/matrices of interest and encourages further studies on sampling and sample mass reduction to produce a test portion.

  18. Towards a protocol for stream macroinvertebrate sampling in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Lusan; Hughes, Robert M; Cao, Yong; Wang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Standard protocols are critical for maximizing data comparability and aggregation in national monitoring programs, and taxa richness is a common indicator of site condition and biological diversity. There are two general approaches for sampling stream macroinvertebrate assemblages: targeted richest habitat and site wide. At seven sites, we compared three methods: Ontario Benthic Biomonitoring Network (OBBN), Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), and Rapid Bioassessment Protocol (RBP). The OBBN method produced a biased sample at a site with a single small riffle, the RBP method produced the most total taxa, and the EMAP method produced the most taxa at four sites and the most individuals at six sites. The RBP method produced asymptotes for percent tolerant individuals, percent chironomid individuals, and Hilsenhoff Biotic Index score after five to ten stations. The EMAP method produced asymptotes for those metrics after 10 to 20 stations per site. The EMAP method typically required half the number of stations as the RBP method to obtain 70-90% of true taxa richness as estimated by the Jaccard coefficient. We conclude that the EMAP method is preferable because of its greater precision in taxa richness estimates.

  19. Apes produce tools for future use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer, Juliane; Call, Josep

    2015-03-01

    There is now growing evidence that some animal species are able to plan for the future. For example great apes save and exchange tools for future use. Here we raise the question whether chimpanzees, orangutans, and bonobos would produce tools for future use. Subjects only had access to a baited apparatus for a limited duration and therefore should use the time preceding this access to create the appropriate tools in order to get the rewards. The apes were tested in three conditions depending on the need for pre-prepared tools. Either eight tools, one tool or no tools were needed to retrieve the reward. The apes prepared tools in advance for future use and they produced them mainly in conditions when they were really needed. The fact that apes were able to solve this new task indicates that their planning skills are flexible. However, for the condition in which eight tools were needed, apes produced less than two tools per trial in advance. However, they used their chance to produce additional tools in the tool use phase-thus often obtaining most of the reward from the apparatus. Increased pressure to prepare more tools in advance did not have an effect on their performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Evaluation of hygienic-sanitary conditions of the minas frescal and mozzarella cheese produced in Morrinhos city -GO Avaliação das condições higiênico-sanitárias do queijo minas frescal e mussarela produzido na cidade de Morrinhos – GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Carla Carneiro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological analyses were performed in 60 samples of Minas Frescal cheese and 60 samples of Mozzarella cheese. Samples were collected and produced in a dairy factory in Morrinhos-GO from April to September, for quantitative analysis of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Staphylococcus, mold and yeast. Concerning the presence of total coliforms the highest score to Minas Frescal cheese which was impossible to count; on the other hand, to Mozzarella cheese the highest score was 1.7.101 UFC/g, to fecal coliforms analyses, Minas Frescal Cheese presented under 1.0.101 UFC/g in all samples and the Mozzarella type showed 1.7.101 UFC/g. Analyses of Staphylococcus demonstrated the higher score for Minas Frescal which was 3.5.103 UFC/g; whereas Mozzarella cheese score was under 1.0.101 UFC/g; mold and yeast score was 3.4.102 UFC/g to Minas Frescal and 9.3.102 UFC/g to Mozzarella. Thus, results showed different scores for both cheeses. Minas Frescal cheese demonstrated higher indexes than Mozzarella when compared total coliforms and Staphylococcus, and Mozzarella presented higher fecal coliforms and moulds and yeasts analyses. According to described above, it is important to verify the hygienic-sanitary care in the foods manipulation.Foram realizadas análises microbiológicas em 60 amostras de queijo Minas Frescal e 60 amostras de queijo Mussarela produzidas em Morrinhos - GO. As amostras foram coletadas em um laticínio de Morrinhos entre os meses de abril a setembro, avaliando de forma quantitativa, coliformes totais, coliformes fecais, Staphylococcus, bolores e leveduras. Com relação a presença de coliformes totais o resultado mais elevado para Minas frescal foi de incontáveis UFC/g, enquanto para o queijo Mussarela foi 1,7.101 UFC/g, nas análises de coliformes fecais o queijo Minas Frescal apresentou resultados ≤ 1,0.101 UFC/g em todas as amostras e o tipo Mussarela apresentou 1,7.101 UFC/g. Com relação as análises de Staphylococcus o

  1. How Classical Conditioning Shapes Placebo Analgesia: Hidden versus Open Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Przemyslaw; Adamczyk, Waclaw; Swider, Karolina; Bajcar, Elzbieta A; Kicman, Pawel; Lisinska, Natalia

    2017-07-22

    To investigate the influence of expectancy of pain intensity, fear of pain (trait), and fear (state) on the effectiveness of hidden and open conditioning to produce placebo analgesia. A total of 90 healthy female volunteers were randomly assigned to three groups (hidden conditioning, open conditioning, and control) that received electrical stimuli preceded by either orange or blue lights. One color was paired with painful stimuli (control stimuli) and the other color was paired with nonpainful stimuli (conditioned stimuli) in both the hidden and open conditioning groups. Only participants in the open conditioning group were informed about this association. In the control group, both color lights were followed by control stimuli. In the testing phase, both colored lights were followed by identical control stimuli. Participants rated pain intensity, expectancy of pain intensity, fear, and fear of pain. A significant analgesic effect was found only in the hidden conditioning group, where no explicit verbal suggestions were provided. Hidden conditioning had an effect on expectancy and fear-participants in the hidden conditioning group expected less pain and experienced less fear in relation to conditioned stimuli. Fear was the only predictor of placebo analgesia in the hidden conditioning group. Neither expectancy of pain intensity nor fear of pain predicted placebo analgesia. Fear seems to be a more important factor than expectancy in producing placebo analgesia induced by hidden conditioning.

  2. Bioceramic 3D Implants Produced by Laser Assisted Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusquiños, Fernando; del Val, Jesús; Arias-González, Felipe; Comesaña, Rafael; Quintero, Félix; Riveiro, Antonio; Boutinguiza, Mohamed; Jones, Julian R.; Hill, Robert G.; Pou, Juan

    Cranial defect restoration requires a suitable implant capable to fulfill protective and aesthetic functions, such as polymeric and metallic implants. Nevertheless, the former materials cannot provide osteointegration of the implant within the host bone nor implant resorption, which is also required in pediatricorthopedics for normal patient growth. Resorbable and osteoconductivebioceramics are employed, such as silicate bioactive glasses. Nevertheless, manufacturing based on conventional casting in graphite moulds is not effective for warped shape implants suitable for patient tailored treatments. In this work, we analyze the application of rapid prototyping based on laser cladding to manufacture bioactive glass implants for low load bearing bone restoration. This laser-assisted additive technique is capable to produce three-dimensional geometries tailored to patient, with reduced fabrication time and implant composition modification. The obtained samples were characterized; the relationships between the processing conditions and the measured features were studied, in addition to the biological behavior analysis.

  3. Thin hydroxyapatite surface layers on titanium produced by ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, H; Bilger, G; Jones, D; Symietz, I

    2002-01-01

    In medicine metallic implants are widely used as hip replacement protheses or artificial teeth. The biocompatibility is in all cases the most important requirement. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is frequently used as coating on metallic implants because of its high acceptance by the human body. In this paper a process is described by which a HAp surface layer is produced by ion implantation with a continuous transition to the bulk material. Calcium and phosphorus ions are successively implanted into titanium under different vacuum conditions by backfilling oxygen into the implantation chamber. Afterwards the implanted samples are thermally treated. The elemental composition inside the implanted region was determined by nuclear analysis methods as (alpha,alpha) backscattering and the resonant nuclear reaction sup 1 H( sup 1 sup 5 N,alpha gamma) sup 1 sup 2 C. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate the formation of HAp. In addition a first biocompatibility test was performed to compare the growing of m...

  4. Systematic sampling with errors in sample locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegel, Johanna; Baddeley, Adrian; Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton

    2010-01-01

    Systematic sampling of points in continuous space is widely used in microscopy and spatial surveys. Classical theory provides asymptotic expressions for the variance of estimators based on systematic sampling as the grid spacing decreases. However, the classical theory assumes that the sample grid...... is exactly periodic; real physical sampling procedures may introduce errors in the placement of the sample points. This paper studies the effect of errors in sample positioning on the variance of estimators in the case of one-dimensional systematic sampling. First we sketch a general approach to variance...

  5. Fossil fuel producers under threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2016-01-01

    Oil and gas producers face three threats: prolonged low oil and gas prices, tightening of climate policy and a tough budget on cumulative carbon emissions, and technological innovation producing cheap substitutes for oil and gas. These threats pose real risks of putting oil and gas producers out of

  6. Branch Profiles and Working Conditions: Secondary Analyses on the Third European Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2001-01-01

    The aim was to perform a secondary analysis on the surveys produced by the European Foundation in representative samples of workers in the member states of the European Union in order to: 1. identify branch (industry sector) profiles in working conditions. The most recent ‘Third European Survey’

  7. 7 CFR 28.908 - Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Samples may be drawn in gins equipped with mechanical samplers approved by the Division and operated... that were drawn by a mechanical sampler at the gin may be transported with the bales to the warehouse... sample from a bale for review classification if the producer so desires. (b) Drawing of samples manual...

  8. An Abecedary of Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kenneth O., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The vocabulary of sampling is examined in order to provide a clear understanding of basic sampling concepts. The basic vocabulary of sampling (population, probability sampling, precision and bias, stratification), the fundamental grammar of sampling (random sample), sample size and response rate, and cluster, multiphase, snowball, and panel…

  9. More practical critical height sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Jeffrey H. Gove

    2015-01-01

    Critical Height Sampling (CHS) (Kitamura 1964) can be used to predict cubic volumes per acre without using volume tables or equations. The critical height is defined as the height at which the tree stem appears to be in borderline condition using the point-sampling angle gauge (e.g. prism). An estimate of cubic volume per acre can be obtained from multiplication of the...

  10. Modern survey sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arijit

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to SamplingAbstract Introduction Concepts of Population, Sample, and SamplingInitial RamificationsAbstract Introduction Sampling Design, Sampling SchemeRandom Numbers and Their Uses in Simple RandomSampling (SRS)Drawing Simple Random Samples with and withoutReplacementEstimation of Mean, Total, Ratio of Totals/Means:Variance and Variance EstimationDetermination of Sample SizesA.2 Appendix to Chapter 2 A.More on Equal Probability Sampling A.Horvitz-Thompson EstimatorA.SufficiencyA.LikelihoodA.Non-Existence Theorem More Intricacies Abstract Introduction Unequal Probability Sampling StrategiesPPS Sampling Exploring Improved WaysAbstract Introduction Stratified Sampling Cluster SamplingMulti-Stage SamplingMulti-Phase Sampling: Ratio and RegressionEstimationviiviii ContentsControlled SamplingModeling Introduction Super-Population ModelingPrediction Approach Model-Assisted Approach Bayesian Methods Spatial SmoothingSampling on Successive Occasions: Panel Rotation Non-Response and Not-at-Homes Weighting Adj...

  11. Quantum sampling problems, BosonSampling and quantum supremacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, A. P.; Bremner, Michael J.; Ralph, T. C.

    2017-04-01

    There is a large body of evidence for the potential of greater computational power using information carriers that are quantum mechanical over those governed by the laws of classical mechanics. But the question of the exact nature of the power contributed by quantum mechanics remains only partially answered. Furthermore, there exists doubt over the practicality of achieving a large enough quantum computation that definitively demonstrates quantum supremacy. Recently the study of computational problems that produce samples from probability distributions has added to both our understanding of the power of quantum algorithms and lowered the requirements for demonstration of fast quantum algorithms. The proposed quantum sampling problems do not require a quantum computer capable of universal operations and also permit physically realistic errors in their operation. This is an encouraging step towards an experimental demonstration of quantum algorithmic supremacy. In this paper, we will review sampling problems and the arguments that have been used to deduce when sampling problems are hard for classical computers to simulate. Two classes of quantum sampling problems that demonstrate the supremacy of quantum algorithms are BosonSampling and Instantaneous Quantum Polynomial-time Sampling. We will present the details of these classes and recent experimental progress towards demonstrating quantum supremacy in BosonSampling.

  12. Lunar Sample Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sample Atlas provides pictures of the Apollo samples taken in the Lunar Sample Laboratory, full-color views of the samples in microscopic thin-sections,...

  13. Recobrimentos de poli (tereftalato de etileno depositados em aço por aspersão térmica a partir de pós obtidos em diferentes condições de moagem Thermally sprayed coated carbon steel produced using PET powder obtained in different grinding conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Tavares Duarte

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram analisados recobrimentos de poli(tereftalato de etileno, PET, depositados em aço carbono através da técnica de aspersão térmica à combustão, e produzidos a partir de pós oriundos de processos de moagem, em moinho de bolas e de facas, de garrafas de PET pós-consumo. Algumas condições de moagem foram testadas, tendo-se obtido pós com diferentes características morfológicas. As características morfológicas dos pós e dos recobrimentos foram avaliadas por microscopia óptica e eletrônica, tendo-se observado que o recobrimento apresentava bolhas, provavelmente devido à degradação do polímero. Além disto, os recobrimentos produzidos, bem como as amostras de pó, foram caracterizados por espectroscopia na região do infravermelho, por calorimetria exploratória diferencial e através da determinação de viscosidade intrínseca em solução. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que é possível a produção de aço carbono recoberto com PET através da técnica de aspersão térmica, sendo que o grau de degradação, a morfologia e a distribuição granulométrica dos pós utilizados influenciaram significativamente as características e propriedades dos recobrimentos formados.The main purpose of this work was to study the production of a thermal spray coated poly(ethyleneterephthalate steel. Poly(ethylene terephthalate coatings were made of a thin grinding waste produced by a PET recycling company, and of a PET powder, which was obtained by grinding post-consumer beverage bottles. Some grinding conditions, using a ceramic ball mill, were studied. Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM and optical microscopy (OM were used in the study of powder and coating morphologies, and this analysis showed that PET coating presents bubbles due to polymer degradation. PET powder and coating characteristics were investigated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and measurements of intrinsic viscosity. It was observed that

  14. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environment Impacts of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, James W. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Rodgers, John H. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Alley, Bethany [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Beebe, Alex [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Coffey, Ruthanne [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Jurinko, Kristen [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Pardue, Michael [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Ritter, Tina [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Spacil, Michael M. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2013-08-08

    -reverse osmosis produced water was designed to promote oxidizing conditions within the first wetland cell for nitrification of ammonia, and the subsequent three cells were designed to promote reducing conditions for denitrification of nitrate. By incorporating multiple wetland cells in a CWTS, the conditions within each cell can be modified for removal of specific COCs. In addition, a CWTS designed with multiple cells allows for convenient sample collection points so that biogeochemical conditions of individual cells can be monitored and performance evaluated. Removal rate coefficients determined from the pilot-scale CWTS experiments and confirmed by the demonstration system can be used to calculate HRTs required to treat COCs in full-scale CWTSs. The calculated HRTs can then be used to determine the surface area or footprint of a full-size CWTS for a given inflow rate of produced water.

  15. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environment Impacts of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

    2013-05-15

    -reverse osmosis produced water was designed to promote oxidizing conditions within the first wetland cell for nitrification of ammonia, and the subsequent three cells were designed to promote reducing conditions for denitrification of nitrate. By incorporating multiple wetland cells in a CWTS, the conditions within each cell can be modified for removal of specific COCs. In addition, a CWTS designed with multiple cells allows for convenient sample collection points so that biogeochemical conditions of individual cells can be monitored and performance evaluated. Removal rate coefficients determined from the pilot-scale CWTS experiments and confirmed by the demonstration system can be used to calculate HRTs required to treat COCs in full-scale CWTSs. The calculated HRTs can then be used to determine the surface area or footprint of a full-size CWTS for a given inflow rate of produced water.

  16. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Beebe, Alex; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

    2013-05-15

    -reverse osmosis produced water was designed to promote oxidizing conditions within the first wetland cell for nitrification of ammonia, and the subsequent three cells were designed to promote reducing conditions for denitrification of nitrate. By incorporating multiple wetland cells in a CWTS, the conditions within each cell can be modified for removal of specific COCs. In addition, a CWTS designed with multiple cells allows for convenient sample collection points so that biogeochemical conditions of individual cells can be monitored and performance evaluated. Removal rate coefficients determined from the pilot-scale CWTS experiments and confirmed by the demonstration system can be used to calculate HRTs required to treat COCs in full-scale CWTSs. The calculated HRTs can then be used to determine the surface area or ?footprint? of a full-size CWTS for a given inflow rate of produced water.

  17. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  18. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  19. An evaluation of carbon steel corrosion under stagnant seawater conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason S; Ray, Richard I; Lemieux, Edward J; Falster, Alexander U; Little, Brenda J

    2004-01-01

    Corrosion of 1020 carbon steel coupons in natural seawater over a 1-year period was more aggressive under strictly anaerobic stagnant conditions than under aerobic stagnant conditions as measured by weight loss and instantaneous corrosion rate (polarization resistance). Under oxygenated conditions, a two-tiered oxide layer of lepidocrocite/goethite formed. The inner layer was extremely tenacious and resistant to acid cleaning. Under anaerobic conditions, the corrosion product was initially a non-tenacious sulphur-rich corrosion product, mackinawite, with enmeshed bacteria. As more sulphide was produced the mackinawite was transformed to pyrrhotite. In both aerobic and anaerobic exposures, corrosion was more aggressive on horizontally oriented coupons compared to vertically oriented samples.

  20. 1997 Baseline Sampling and Analysis Sample Locations, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [BSA_1997_sample_locations_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The monitor point data set was produced as a part of the Baseline Sampling and Analysis (BSA) program coordinated by the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office....

  1. 1999 Baseline Sampling and Analysis Sampling Locations, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [BSA_1999_sample_locations_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The monitor point data set was produced as a part of the Baseline Sampling and Analysis program coordinated by the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office. This...

  2. 1998 Baseline Sampling and Analysis Sampling Locations, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [BSA_1998_sample_locations_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The monitor point data set was produced as a part of the Baseline Sampling and Analysis program coordinated by the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office. This...

  3. A Mars Sample Return Sample Handling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David; Stroker, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We present a sample handling system, a subsystem of the proposed Dragon landed Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission [1], that can return to Earth orbit a significant mass of frozen Mars samples potentially consisting of: rock cores, subsurface drilled rock and ice cuttings, pebble sized rocks, and soil scoops. The sample collection, storage, retrieval and packaging assumptions and concepts in this study are applicable for the NASA's MPPG MSR mission architecture options [2]. Our study assumes a predecessor rover mission collects samples for return to Earth to address questions on: past life, climate change, water history, age dating, understanding Mars interior evolution [3], and, human safety and in-situ resource utilization. Hence the rover will have "integrated priorities for rock sampling" [3] that cover collection of subaqueous or hydrothermal sediments, low-temperature fluidaltered rocks, unaltered igneous rocks, regolith and atmosphere samples. Samples could include: drilled rock cores, alluvial and fluvial deposits, subsurface ice and soils, clays, sulfates, salts including perchlorates, aeolian deposits, and concretions. Thus samples will have a broad range of bulk densities, and require for Earth based analysis where practical: in-situ characterization, management of degradation such as perchlorate deliquescence and volatile release, and contamination management. We propose to adopt a sample container with a set of cups each with a sample from a specific location. We considered two sample cups sizes: (1) a small cup sized for samples matching those submitted to in-situ characterization instruments, and, (2) a larger cup for 100 mm rock cores [4] and pebble sized rocks, thus providing diverse samples and optimizing the MSR sample mass payload fraction for a given payload volume. We minimize sample degradation by keeping them frozen in the MSR payload sample canister using Peltier chip cooling. The cups are sealed by interference fitted heat activated memory

  4. DOES ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCE EMISSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír RIEVAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.

  5. Void formation in ODS EUROFER produced by hot isostatic pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Y.; Monge, M.A.; Munoz, A.; Leguey, T.; Pareja, R. [Madrid Univ. Carlos-3, Dept. de Fisica (Spain); Castro, V. de [Oxford Univ., Dept. of Materials (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: An obstacle in the development of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels for structural applications in fusion reactors is the toughness lack of the material produced by powder metallurgy and consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). In particular, ODS EUROFER steel with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles appears to exhibit poor impact properties. To asses the capabilities of this material, it is necessary elucidate if its failure is an inherent characteristic of the production process that can not be mitigated by normalizing and tempering treatments. In order to investigate this particular point, the evolution of the structural defects retained in the ODS material during isochronal annealing has been probed by positron annihilation spectroscopy. The present study has been performed on bail milled EUROFER powders consolidated by HIP, containing 0.25 wt % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and without Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. For comparison, un-milled EUROFER powder consolidated under identical conditions, and as-received EUROFER97 plate produced by Boehler AG have been also investigated. Samples from these four materials were isochronally annealed for 90 min up to 1323 K. Materials produced from milled powders had a longer positron lifetime than the one produced from un-milled powder or the EUROFER plate. In the material containing Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, i.e. in ODS EUROFER, annealing above 723 K produced a continuous increase in the mean positron lifetime <{tau}> up to reach a maximum value of 208 ps after annealing at 1223 K. A similar annealing behavior was observed for Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-free milled EUROFER (milled EUROFER), but the <{tau}> value steeply changed from {approx}160 ps at 823 K to {approx}200 ps after annealing at 1023 K. Subsequent anneals above this temperature produced meaningless changes in <{tau}>. The <{tau}> increase in milled EUROFER was accompanied by the intensity increase of a lifetime component of {approx}360 ps that is characteristic

  6. Acceptance sampling for attributes via hypothesis testing and the hypergeometric distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samohyl, Robert Wayne

    2017-10-01

    This paper questions some aspects of attribute acceptance sampling in light of the original concepts of hypothesis testing from Neyman and Pearson (NP). Attribute acceptance sampling in industry, as developed by Dodge and Romig (DR), generally follows the international standards of ISO 2859, and similarly the Brazilian standards NBR 5425 to NBR 5427 and the United States Standards ANSI/ASQC Z1.4. The paper evaluates and extends the area of acceptance sampling in two directions. First, by suggesting the use of the hypergeometric distribution to calculate the parameters of sampling plans avoiding the unnecessary use of approximations such as the binomial or Poisson distributions. We show that, under usual conditions, discrepancies can be large. The conclusion is that the hypergeometric distribution, ubiquitously available in commonly used software, is more appropriate than other distributions for acceptance sampling. Second, and more importantly, we elaborate the theory of acceptance sampling in terms of hypothesis testing rigorously following the original concepts of NP. By offering a common theoretical structure, hypothesis testing from NP can produce a better understanding of applications even beyond the usual areas of industry and commerce such as public health and political polling. With the new procedures, both sample size and sample error can be reduced. What is unclear in traditional acceptance sampling is the necessity of linking the acceptable quality limit (AQL) exclusively to the producer and the lot quality percent defective (LTPD) exclusively to the consumer. In reality, the consumer should also be preoccupied with a value of AQL, as should the producer with LTPD. Furthermore, we can also question why type I error is always uniquely associated with the producer as producer risk, and likewise, the same question arises with consumer risk which is necessarily associated with type II error. The resolution of these questions is new to the literature. The

  7. Conditional Eddies in Plasma Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Helene; Pécseli, Hans; Trulsen, J.

    1986-01-01

    Conditional structures, or eddies, in turbulent flows are discussed with special attention to electrostatic turbulence in plasmas. The potential variation of these eddies is obtained by sampling the fluctuations only when a certain condition is satisfied in a reference point. The resulting...

  8. Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

    2008-03-31

    limited to sediment depths of 10 cm or greater, which is outside of the primary zone of biological activity. Further, exposure to site sediments did not have any effects on test organisms, and macroinvertebrate communities did not indicate impairment at the oil production site as compared to a reference site. In situ experiments with H. azteca and C. fluminea, indicated a sublethal site effect (on growth of both species), but these could not be definitively linked with produced water infiltration. Severe weather conditions (drought followed by flooding) negatively influenced the intensity of lake sampling aimed at delineating produced water infiltration. Due to the lack of clear evidence of produced water infiltration into the sub-littoral zone of the lake, it was not possible to assess whether the laboratory bioassays of produced water effectively indicate risk in the receiving system. However, the acutely toxic nature of the produced water and general lack of biological effects in the lake at the oil production site suggest minimal to no produced water infiltration into surficial lake sediments and the near-shore water column. This study was able to demonstrate the utility of ion toxicity modeling to support data from toxicity identification evaluations aimed at identifying key toxic constituents in produced water. This information could be used to prioritize options for treating produced water in order to reduce toxic constituents and enhance options for reuse. The study also demonstrated how geographic information systems, toxicity modeling, and toxicity assessment could be used to facilitate future site assessments.

  9. Toxicity profile of commercially produced indigenous banana beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shale, K; Mukamugema, J; Lues, R J; Venter, P

    2012-08-01

    Mycotoxins, together with endotoxins, represent important classes of naturally occurring contaminants in food products, posing significant health risks to consumers. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of both Fusarium mycotoxins and endotoxins in commercially produced traditional banana beer. Two brands of commercially produced traditional banana beer were collected from a local retail market in Kigali, Rwanda. Beer samples were analysed for the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B₁ and zearalenone (ZEA), using an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) method. The quantification of bacterial endotoxin using Limulus amoeboecyte lysate (LAL) assay was also conducted. The contamination levels were 20 and 6.7 µg kg⁻¹ for DON; 34 and 31.3 µg kg⁻¹ for FB₁; 0.66 and 2.2 µg kg⁻¹ for ZEA in brands A and B of the beers, respectively. Results indicate that the levels of Fusarium toxins and bacterial endotoxin reported in this study did not pose adverse human health effects as a result of drinking/consuming banana beer. However, exposure to low/sub-threshold doses or non-toxic levels of endotoxins magnifies the toxic effect of xenobiotic agents (e.g. fungal toxins) on liver and other target organs. Considering Fusarium toxins and/or endotoxin contamination levels in other agricultural commodities intended for human consumption, health risks might be high and the condition is aggravated when beer is contaminated by mixtures of the mycotoxins, as indicated in this study.

  10. A Field Study of the Microbiological Quality of Fresh Produce

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Lynette M; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Moll, Deborah; Martinez, Martha C; Anciso, Juan; Mora, Brenda; Moe, Christine L

    2005-01-01

    .... A total of 398 produce samples (leafy greens, herbs, and cantaloupe) were collected through production and the packing shed and assayed by enumerative tests for total aerobic bacteria, total coliforms, total Enterococcus, and Escherichia...

  11. Acceptance sampling using judgmental and randomly selected samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Sieber, W. Karl

    2010-09-01

    We present a Bayesian model for acceptance sampling where the population consists of two groups, each with different levels of risk of containing unacceptable items. Expert opinion, or judgment, may be required to distinguish between the high and low-risk groups. Hence, high-risk items are likely to be identifed (and sampled) using expert judgment, while the remaining low-risk items are sampled randomly. We focus on the situation where all observed samples must be acceptable. Consequently, the objective of the statistical inference is to quantify the probability that a large percentage of the unsampled items in the population are also acceptable. We demonstrate that traditional (frequentist) acceptance sampling and simpler Bayesian formulations of the problem are essentially special cases of the proposed model. We explore the properties of the model in detail, and discuss the conditions necessary to ensure that required samples sizes are non-decreasing function of the population size. The method is applicable to a variety of acceptance sampling problems, and, in particular, to environmental sampling where the objective is to demonstrate the safety of reoccupying a remediated facility that has been contaminated with a lethal agent.

  12. Physical properties of yoghurt powder produced by spray drying

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koç, Banu; Sakin-Yılmazer, Melike; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen; Balkır, Pınar

    2014-01-01

    ... (the feed, outlet and inlet air temperatures) for producing yoghurt powder. The resulting yoghurt powder at each condition was subjected to the measurement of physical properties, moisture content, and reconstitution properties...

  13. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  14. Quality evaluation of 'lafun' produced from stored cassava roots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freshly harvested cassava roots were stored in the soil and some were stored heaped on the floor of a well ventilated store room. These roots were stored for periods ranging from 1 to 9 days and samples were drawn from them respectively at 3 days interval and used to produce Lafun. Also, Lafun was produced from ...

  15. Imaging study of using radiopharmaceuticals labeled with cyclotron-produced 99mTc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, X; Tanguay, J; Vuckovic, M; Buckley, K; Schaffer, P; Bénard, F; Ruth, T J; Celler, A

    2016-12-07

    Cyclotron-produced 99mTc (CPTc) has been recognized as an attractive and practical substitution of reactor/generator based 99mTc. However, the small amount of 92-98Mo in the irradiation of enriched 100Mo could lead to the production of other radioactive technetium isotopes (Tc-impurities) which cannot be chemically separated. Thus, these impurities could contribute to patient dose and affect image quality. The potential radiation dose caused by these Tc-impurities produced using different targets, irradiation conditions, and corresponding to different injection times have been investigated, leading us to create dose-based limits of these parameters for producing clinically acceptable CPTc. However, image quality has been not considered. The aim of the present work is to provide a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of image quality for CPTc. The impact of Tc-impurities in CPTc on image resolution, background noise, and contrast is investigated by performing both Monte-Carlo simulations and phantom experiments. Various targets, irradiation, and acquisition conditions are employed for investigating the image-based limits of CPTc production parameters. Additionally, the relationship between patient dose and image quality of CPTc samples is studied. Only those samples which meet both dose- and image-based limits should be accepted in future clinical studies.

  16. East Mountain Area 1995 air sampling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deola, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Air Quality Dept.

    1996-09-01

    Ambient air samples were taken at two locations in the East Mountain Area in conjunction with thermal testing at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS). The samples were taken to provide measurements of particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM{sub 10}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report summarizes the results of the sampling performed in 1995. The results from small-scale testing performed to determine the potentially produced air pollutants in the thermal tests are included in this report. Analytical results indicate few samples produced measurable concentrations of pollutants believed to be produced by thermal testing. Recommendations for future air sampling in the East Mountain Area are also noted.

  17. Solute-solvent interactions in micellar electrokinetic chromatography: V. Factors that produce peak splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ràfols, Clara; Poza, Ana; Fuguet, Elisabet; Rosés, Martí; Bosch, Elisabeth

    2002-08-01

    The experimental conditions that produce analyte peak splitting in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) have been systematically investigated. The system studied was a neutral phosphate buffer and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles as pseudostationary phase. A number of analytes showing a wide variety of hydrophobicity values and several organic solvents as sample diluents have been tested. Peak splitting phenomena are mainly due to the presence of organic solvent in the sample solution. They increase with the hydrophobicity of the analyte and decrease with the increase of the surfactant concentration. When hydrophobic compounds are analyzed the suggested ways to avoid split peaks are: (i) the use of 1-propanol or 1-butanol as sample diluent instead of methanol or acetonitrile or (ii) the use of high concentration of surfactant in the separating solution when the analyte must be dissolved in pure methanol or acetonitrile.

  18. Sampling and P-sampling expansions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using the hyperfinite representation of functions and generalized functions this paper develops a rigorous version of the so-called `delta method' approach to sampling theory. This yields a slightly more general version of the classical WKS sampling theorem for band-limited functions.

  19. How Sample Size Affects a Sampling Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulekar, Madhuri S.; Siegel, Murray H.

    2009-01-01

    If students are to understand inferential statistics successfully, they must have a profound understanding of the nature of the sampling distribution. Specifically, they must comprehend the determination of the expected value and standard error of a sampling distribution as well as the meaning of the central limit theorem. Many students in a high…

  20. Study of chemical changes produced in virgin olive oils with different phenolic contents during an accelerated storage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Chiavaro, Emma; Bendini, Alessandra; Lercker, Giovanni; Cerretani, Lorenzo

    2009-09-09

    Chemical changes produced in an extra virgin olive oil sample in the presence (EVOO) and absence (EVOOP) of its phenolic fraction during an accelerated storage treatment at 60 degrees C up to 7 weeks were studied. Modifications in phenol content, as well as changes in several quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide value, UV absorbance, fatty acid composition, oxidative stability index, and tocopherol content) were also evaluated under the same storage conditions and compared to those of the same sample deprived of phenolic compounds. When the phenolic extract of the EVOO was studied, a decrease of the antioxidants first present in the sample and an increase of the oxidized products were observed. In addition, oxidation seemed to produce the transformation of such phenolic compounds as secoiridoids and the appearance of oxidized forms of them. These latter compounds could be used as molecular markers of the lack of extra virgin olive oil freshness.

  1. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony [Houston, TX; Bauldreay, Joanna M [Chester, GB

    2011-12-27

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  2. Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Chorionic villus sampling Chorionic villus sampling E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... It's been added to your dashboard . Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a prenatal test . It’s used to ...

  3. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  4. DNA Sampling Hook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DNA Sampling Hook is a significant improvement on a method of obtaining a tissue sample from a live fish in situ from an aquatic environment. A tissue sample...

  5. Optimal sampling and sample preparation for NIR-based prediction of field scale soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knadel, Maria; Peng, Yi; Schelde, Kirsten; Thomsen, Anton; Deng, Fan; Humlekrog Greve, Mogens

    2013-04-01

    The representation of local soil variability with acceptable accuracy and precision is dependent on the spatial sampling strategy and can vary with a soil property. Therefore, soil mapping can be expensive when conventional soil analyses are involved. Visible near infrared spectroscopy (vis-NIR) is considered a cost-effective method due to labour savings and relative accuracy. However, savings may be offset by the costs associated with number of samples and sample preparation. The objective of this study was to find the most optimal way to predict field scale total organic carbon (TOC) and texture. To optimize the vis-NIR calibrations the effects of sample preparation and number of samples on the predictive ability of models with regard to the spatial distribution of TOC and texture were investigated. Conditioned Latin hypercube sampling (cLHs) method was used to select 125 sampling locations from an agricultural field in Denmark, using electromagnetic induction (EMI) and digital elevation model (DEM) data. The soil samples were scanned in three states (field moist, air dried and sieved to 2 mm) with a vis-NIR spectrophotometer (LabSpec 5100, ASD Inc., USA). The Kennard-Stone algorithm was applied to select 50 representative soil spectra for the laboratory analysis of TOC and texture. In order to investigate how to minimize the costs of reference analysis, additional smaller subsets (15, 30 and 40) of samples were selected for calibration. The performance of field calibrations using spectra of soils at the three states as well as using different numbers of calibration samples was compared. Final models were then used to predict the remaining 75 samples. Maps of predicted soil properties where generated with Empirical Bayesian Kriging. The results demonstrated that regardless the state of the scanned soil, the regression models and the final prediction maps were similar for most of the soil properties. Nevertheless, as expected, models based on spectra from field

  6. Secondary Particles Produced by Hadron Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkazem Ansarinejad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Use of hadron therapy as an advanced radiotherapy technique is increasing. In this method, secondary particles are produced through primary beam interactions with the beam-transport system and the patient’s body. In this study, Monte Carlo simulations were employed to determine the dose of produced secondary particles, particularly neutrons during treatment. Materials and Methods In this study, secondary particles, produced by proton and ion beams, were simulated for a cancer treatment plan. In particular, we evaluated the distribution of secondary neutrons, produced by a 400 MeV/u carbon beam on an electronic crate, which was exposed to radiation field under radioactive conditions. The level of major secondary particles, particularly neutrons, irradiating the target, was evaluated, using FLUKA Monte Carlo code. Results The fluences and radiation doses were applied to determine the shielding efficiency of devices and the probability of radiation damage to nearby electronic systems. According to the results, by using maximum-energy carbon ions (400 MeV/u, electronic devices are exposed to a dose rate of 0.05 µSv/s and an integrated dose of about 34 mSv, each year. Conclusion The simulation results could provide significant information about radiation assessment; they could also be a major help for clinical facilities to meet shielding requirements. Moreover, such simulations are essential for determining the radiation level, which is responsible for radiation-induced damages.

  7. Lunar Polar Environmental Testing: Regolith Simulant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie Elise

    2014-01-01

    As ISRU system development approaches flight fidelity, there is a need to test hardware in relevant environments. Extensive laboratory and field testing have involved relevant soil (lunar regolith simulants), but the current design iterations necessitate relevant pressure and temperature conditions. Including significant quantities of lunar regolith simulant in a thermal vacuum chamber poses unique challenges. These include facility operational challenges (dust tolerant hardware) and difficulty maintaining a pre-prepared soil state during pump down (consolidation state, moisture retention).For ISRU purposes, the regolith at the lunar poles will be of most interest due to the elevated water content. To test at polar conditions, the regolith simulant must be doped with water to an appropriate percentage and then chilled to cryogenic temperatures while exposed to vacuum conditions. A 1m tall, 28cm diameter bin of simulant was developed for testing these simulant preparation and drilling operations. The bin itself was wrapped with liquid nitrogen cooling loops (100K) so that the simulant bed reached an average temperature of 140K at vacuum. Post-test sampling was used to determine desiccation of the bed due to vacuum exposure. Depth dependent moisture data is presented from frozen and thawed soil samples.Following simulant only evacuation tests, drill hardware was incorporated into the vacuum chamber to test auguring techniques in the frozen soil at thermal vacuum conditions. The focus of this testing was to produce cuttings piles for a newly developed spectrometer to evaluate. This instrument, which is part of the RESOLVE program science hardware, detects water signatures from surface regolith. The drill performance, behavior of simulant during drilling, and characteristics of the cuttings piles will be offered.

  8. Sounds energetic: the radio producer's energy minibook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Minibook will be expanded into the final Radio Producer's Energy Sourcebook. Radio producers and broadcasters are asked to contribute ideas for presenting energy knowledge to the public and to be included in the Sourcebook. Chapter One presents a case study suggesting programming and promotion ideas and sample scripts for a radio campaign that revolves around no-cost or low-cost steps listeners can take to increase their home energy efficiency and save money. A variety of other energy topics and suggestions on ways to approach them are addressed in Chapter Two. Chapter Three contains energy directories for Baltimore, Philadelphia, Pittsburg, and Washington, DC. The directories will be expanded in the Sourcebook and will consist of a selection of local public and private sector energy-related organizations and list local experts and organizations and the best Federal, state, and local government programs that can provide consumers and citizens groups with information, technical assistance, and financial support. (MCW)

  9. Subsurface Noble Gas Sampling Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, C. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sun, Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-18

    The intent of this document is to provide information about best available approaches for performing subsurface soil gas sampling during an On Site Inspection or OSI. This information is based on field sampling experiments, computer simulations and data from the NA-22 Noble Gas Signature Experiment Test Bed at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS). The approaches should optimize the gas concentration from the subsurface cavity or chimney regime while simultaneously minimizing the potential for atmospheric radioxenon and near-surface Argon-37 contamination. Where possible, we quantitatively assess differences in sampling practices for the same sets of environmental conditions. We recognize that all sampling scenarios cannot be addressed. However, if this document helps to inform the intuition of the reader about addressing the challenges resulting from the inevitable deviations from the scenario assumed here, it will have achieved its goal.

  10. Evaluation of defense-waste glass produced by full-scale vitrification equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukacs, J.M.; Petkus, L.L.; Mellinger, G.B.

    1981-09-01

    Three full-scale vitrification processes at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory produced over 67,000 kg of simulated nuclear-waste glass from March 1979 to August 1980. Samples were analyzed to monitor process operation and evaluate the resulting glass product. These processes are: Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter (SC/ICM); Spray Calciner/Calcine-Fed Ceramic Melter (SC/CFCM); and Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM). Waste components in the process feed varied less than +- 10%. The SC/ICM and SC/CFCM which use separate waste and frit feed systems showed larger glass compositional variation than the LFCM, which processed only premixed feed during this period. The SC/ICM and SC/CFCM product contained significant amounts of acmite crystals, while the LFCM product was largely amorphous. In addition, the lower portion of all SC/ICM-filled canisters contained a zone rich in waste components. A product chemical durability as determined by pH4 and soxhlet leach tests varied considerably. Aside from increased durability under pH4 conditions with decreasing waste content, glass composition, microstructure and melting process did not correlate with glass durability. For all samples analyzed, the weight loss under pH4 conditions ranged from 17.7 to 85.2 wt %. Soxhlet conditions produced weight losses from 1.78 to 3.56 wt %.

  11. Investigation of Controlling Factors Impacting Water Quality in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The recent boom in production of natural gas from unconventional reservoirs has generated a substantial increase in the volume of produced brine that must be properly managed to prevent contamination of fresh water resources. Produced brine, which includes both flowback and formation water, is often highly saline and may contain elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material and other toxic elements. These characteristics present many challenges with regard to designing effective treatment and disposal strategies for shale gas produced brine. We will present results from a series of batch experiments where crushed samples from two shale formations in the Michigan Basin, the Antrim and Utica-Collingwood shales, were brought into contact with synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluids under in situ temperature and pressure conditions. The Antrim has been an active shale gas play for over three decades, while the Utica-Collingwood formation (a grouped reservoir consisting of the Utica shale and Collingwood limestone) is an emerging shale gas play. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of water-rock interactions in controlling produced water quality. We evaluate toxic element leaching from shale samples in contact with model hydraulic fracturing fluids under system conditions corresponding to reservoir depths up to 1.5 km. Experimental results have begun to elucidate the relative importance of shale mineralogy, system conditions, and chemical additives in driving changes in produced water quality. Initial results indicate that hydraulic fracturing chemical additives have a strong influence on the extent of leaching of toxic elements from the shale. In particular, pH was a key factor in the release of uranium (U) and divalent metals, highlighting the importance of the mineral buffering capacity of the shale. Low pH values persisted in the Antrim and Utica shale experiments and resulted in higher U extraction efficiencies than that

  12. Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) at variable resolutions for enhanced watershed scale Soil Sampling and Digital Soil Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalainen, Sampsa; Geng, Xiaoyuan; He, Juanxia

    2017-04-01

    attributes. When working within the same spatial resolution for covariates, however only modifying the desired number of sampling points produced, the change of point location portrayed a strong geospatial relationship when using continuous data. Access to agricultural fields and adjacent land uses is often "pinned" as the greatest deterrent to performing soil sampling for both soil survey and soil attribute validation work. The lack of access can be a result of poor road access and/or difficult geographical conditions to navigate for field work individuals. This seems a simple yet continuous issue to overcome for the scientific community and in particular, soils professionals. The ability to assist with the ease of access to sampling points will be in the future a contribution to the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) approach. By removing all locations in the initial instance from the DEM, the LHS model can be restricted to locations only with access from the adjacent road or trail. To further the approach, a road network geospatial dataset can be included within spatial Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications to access already produced points using a shortest-distance network method.

  13. Methodological Choices in Rating Speech Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Mary Grantham

    2016-01-01

    Much pronunciation research critically relies upon listeners' judgments of speech samples, but researchers have rarely examined the impact of methodological choices. In the current study, 30 German native listeners and 42 German L2 learners (L1 English) rated speech samples produced by English-German L2 learners along three continua: accentedness,…

  14. Isoprenoid hydrocarbons produced by thermal alteration of Nostoc muscorum and Rhodopseudomonas spheroides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, R. P.; Brown, S.; Calvin, M.

    1978-01-01

    The potential of algae and photosynthetic bacteria to serve as precursors of kerogen was studied to determine what factors affect the relative rates of formation of precursor hydrocarbons. Cells of Nostoc muscorum and Rhodopseudomonas spheroides were subjected to thermal alteration (by heating samples in glass tubes sealed under nitrogen) for two, four, and twelve weeks. Both unextracted and extracted cells in the absence and presence of montmorillonite were investigated, and the isoprenoid hydrocarbons produced in these experiments were determined. Phytane and five isomeric phytenes were the main hydrocarbons observed; their relative rates of formation in the different experimental conditions are described. No phytadienes, pristane, or pristenes were detected.

  15. Selection of phytase-producing moulds

    OpenAIRE

    Susana, I. W. R.; B Tangenjaya; S Hastiono

    2000-01-01

    Organic phosphorous in the form of phytate salts are found in feed component originated from cereals which can not be digested by chicken unless after the addition of an enzyme, i.e. phytase. A research to investigate phytase-producing moulds had been carried out. A total of 60 isolates from various collection units and isolation from samples had been collected then screened in Czapek’s medium with Ca-phytate as the source of phosphorous. From mould growth measurements and clearing zones form...

  16. Postharvest treatments of fresh produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, P. V.; Caleb, O. J.; Singh, Z.; Watkins, C. B.; Geyer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Postharvest technologies have allowed horticultural industries to meet the global demands of local and large-scale production and intercontinental distribution of fresh produce that have high nutritional and sensory quality. Harvested products are metabolically active, undergoing ripening and senescence processes that must be controlled to prolong postharvest quality. Inadequate management of these processes can result in major losses in nutritional and quality attributes, outbreaks of foodborne pathogens and financial loss for all players along the supply chain, from growers to consumers. Optimal postharvest treatments for fresh produce seek to slow down physiological processes of senescence and maturation, reduce/inhibit development of physiological disorders and minimize the risk of microbial growth and contamination. In addition to basic postharvest technologies of temperature management, an array of others have been developed including various physical (heat, irradiation and edible coatings), chemical (antimicrobials, antioxidants and anti-browning) and gaseous treatments. This article examines the current status on postharvest treatments of fresh produce and emerging technologies, such as plasma and ozone, that can be used to maintain quality, reduce losses and waste of fresh produce. It also highlights further research needed to increase our understanding of the dynamic response of fresh produce to various postharvest treatments. PMID:24797137

  17. Isolation and molecular identification of β-carotene producing strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dunaliella salina and Dunaliella bardawil are unique species of the genus Dunaliella that produce large amounts of â-carotene when cultivated under appropriate conditions. These include high light intensity, high sodium chloride concentration, nitrate deficiency and extreme temperatures. Under these conditions, only D.

  18. Sampling in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2005-01-01

    A basic knowledge of the Theory of Sampling (TOS) and a set of only eight sampling unit operations is all the practical sampler needs to ensure representativeness of samples extracted from all kinds of lots: production batches, - truckloads, - barrels, sub-division in the laboratory, sampling...... in nature and in the field (environmental sampling, forestry, geology, biology), from raw materials or manufactory processes etc. We here can only give a brief introduction to the Fundamental Sampling Principle (FSP) and these eight Sampling Unit Operations (SUO’s). Always respecting FSP and invoking only...

  19. Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, R.S. [Lovelace Health Systems, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01

    In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

  20. Detection of Shiga-like toxin producing Escherichia coli from raw milk cheeses produced in Wallonia [Belgium].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Lioui M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiga-like toxin Escherichia coli (STEC implicated in aqueous diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome, has become a serious health problem in various countries. In Belgium, all cases are sporadic and no outbreak has been detected so far. Cattle are thought to be a reservoir for E. coli O157:H7, and many foodborne diseases have been associated with the consumption of minced beef, beefburgers and raw milk. Recently, foodborne outbreaks were concerned with different unusual foods such as acidic products. Although some data suggest that STEC are not prevalent within dairy products, the aim of this work was to assess the prevalence of E. coli O157 and non-O157 STEC in raw milk cheeses produced in the southern part of Belgium (Wallonia. For this purpose, 153 frozen samples of soft and semi-soft cheeses made with raw cow, ewe and goat milk were analysed for the presence of E. coli O157 and STEC. By using a dynabeads immunomagnetic separation technique (Dynabeads anti-E. coli O157, Dynal followed by streaking onto sorbitol MacConckey agar, no sample was found contaminated by E. coli O157 serotype. By using polymerase chain reaction achieved from a loopful of confluent bacterial material growing onto MacConckey agar, the use of consensus primers detected stx genes in 11.1/ of the samples but Shiga-like toxin producing strains could be isolated only in five of them (3.3/. The isolation rate seems to be optimum for samples with a thermotolerant coliform count arround or below 102 cfu per g. The five Shiga-like toxin isolates were identified as belonging to the species Hafnia alvei or Enterobacter amnigenius without any accessory virulence factors needed to cause illness. Nevertheless, because of the ability of STEC to survive adverse conditions and the possibility for commensal non-pathogenic enteric bacteria to become pathogenic, raw milk cheeses are to be considered at risk for foodborne STEC contamination.

  1. Biofouling development on plasma treated samples versus layers coated samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatiuc, B.; Exnar, P.; Sabau, A.; Spatenka, P.; Dumitrache, C. L.; Hnatiuc, M.; Ghita, S.

    2016-12-01

    Biofouling is the most important cause of naval corrosion. In order to reduce the Biofouling development on naval materials as steel or resin, different new methods have been tested. These methods could help to follow the new IMO environment reglementations and they could replace few classic operations before the painting of the small ships. The replacement of these operations means a reduction in maintenance costs. Their action must influence especially the first two steps of the Biofouling development, called Microfouling, that demand about 24 hours. This work presents the comparative results of the Biofouling development on two different classic naval materials, steel and resin, for three treated samples, immersed in sea water. Non-thermal plasma, produced by GlidArc technology, is applied to the first sample, called GD. The plasma treatment was set to 10 minutes. The last two samples, called AE9 and AE10 are covered by hydrophobic layers, prepared from a special organic-inorganic sol synthesized by sol-gel method. Theoretically, because of the hydrophobic properties, the Biofouling formation must be delayed for AE9 and AE10. The Biofouling development on each treated sample was compared with a witness non-treated sample. The microbiological analyses have been done for 24 hours by epifluorescence microscopy, available for one single layer.

  2. Heat treatment of wet wood fiber: A study of the effect of reaction conditions on the formation of furfurals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandla A. Tshabalala; James D. McSweeny; Roger M. Rowell

    2012-01-01

    Furan monomers are produced when wood is heated at high temperatures. To understand the process conditions for production of furfural (FF) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from wood, samples of milled aspen wood were subjected to autohydrolyzis by microwave heating in a sealed Teflon reactor. The experiments were designed to simulate temperature and pressure variables...

  3. Níveis de treonina digestível em dietas para fêmeas suínas de alto potencial genético em lactação sob condições de alta temperatura ambiente Digestible threonine levels of high-producing lactating sows maintained under high temperature environment conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kiefer

    2007-10-01

    .64; 0.67; 0.70 and 0.73% and 13 replications, and each experimental unit was consisted by a female. The temperature inside in the room was of 29.7 ± 2.5°C. There was no effect of digestible threonine levels in the diet on the weight of the sows at weaning. The total and percentage sow weight losses linearly reduced with the increase of digestible threonine level in the diet during the lactation period. Digestible threonine level in the diets influenced fat thickness (FT at weaning, and affected the total and percentage variation of FT. The compositions of fat and corporal protein at weaning were not influenced by digestible threonine levels in the diet. A linear reduction for total and percentage of corporal fat mobilizations was observed as digestible threonine levels increased in the diet. The mobilization of corporal protein, milk production and the interval weaning time-estrus were not influenced by digestible threonine levels in the diet. Digestible threonine leveld in the diet had no effect on intake of diet, of lysine and of digestible energy. However, a linear increase was observed for the intake of digestible threonine as the levels of it increased in the diet. Digestible threonine levels in the diet had not influenced the energy efficiency of the females, the performance of the piglets and the litters. High-producing lactating sows under high temperature environmental conditions require 0.73% of digestible threonine, corresponding to a daily intake of 32.5g and the digestible threonine:digestible lysine ratio of 73%.

  4. Grains colonised by moulds: fungal identification and headspace analysis of produced volatile metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paola Tampieri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to verify if the headspace analysis of fungal volatile compounds produced by some species of Fusarium can be used as a marker of mould presence on maize. Eight samples of maize (four yellow maize from North Italy and four white maize from Hungary, naturally contaminated by Fusarium and positive for the presence of fumonisins, were analyzed to detect moisture content, Aw, volatile metabolites and an enumeration of viable moulds was performed by means of a colony count technique. Headspace samples were analysed using a gas-chromatograph equipped with a capillary column TR-WAX to detect volatile metabolites of moulds. Furthermore macro and microscopic examination of the colonies was performed in order to distinguish, according to their morphology, the genera of the prevalent present moulds. Prevalent mould of eight samples was Fusarium, but other fungi, like Aspergillus, Penicillum and Mucoraceae, were observed. The metabolites produced by F.graminearum and F. moniliforme were Isobutyl-acetate, 3-Methyl-1-butanol and, only a