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Sample records for sample collection handling

  1. Test sample handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A test sample handling apparatus using automatic scintillation counting for gamma detection, for use in such fields as radioimmunoassay, is described. The apparatus automatically and continuously counts large numbers of samples rapidly and efficiently by the simultaneous counting of two samples. By means of sequential ordering of non-sequential counting data, it is possible to obtain precisely ordered data while utilizing sample carrier holders having a minimum length. (U.K.)

  2. The UK Biobank sample handling and storage protocol for the collection, processing and archiving of human blood and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Peakman, Tim C

    2008-04-01

    UK Biobank is a large prospective study in the UK to investigate the role of genetic factors, environmental exposures and lifestyle in the causes of major diseases of late and middle age. Extensive data and biological samples are being collected from 500,000 participants aged between 40 and 69 years. The biological samples that are collected and how they are processed and stored will have a major impact on the future scientific usefulness of the UK Biobank resource. The aim of the UK Biobank sample handling and storage protocol is to specify methods for the collection and storage of participant samples that give maximum scientific return within the available budget. Processing or storage methods that, as far as can be predicted, will preclude current or future assays have been avoided. The protocol was developed through a review of the literature on sample handling and processing, wide consultation within the academic community and peer review. Protocol development addressed which samples should be collected, how and when they should be processed and how the processed samples should be stored to ensure their long-term integrity. The recommended protocol was extensively tested in a series of validation studies. UK Biobank collects about 45 ml blood and 9 ml of urine with minimal local processing from each participant using the vacutainer system. A variety of preservatives, anti-coagulants and clot accelerators is used appropriate to the expected end use of the samples. Collection of other material (hair, nails, saliva and faeces) was also considered but rejected for the full cohort. Blood and urine samples from participants are transported overnight by commercial courier to a central laboratory where they are processed and aliquots of urine, plasma, serum, white cells and red cells stored in ultra-low temperature archives. Aliquots of whole blood are also stored for potential future production of immortalized cell lines. A standard panel of haematology assays is

  3. Methodology for the Validation of Collection, Handling and Preservation of Water and Soil Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    capcability. For arsermiocadi, antiziowy, se-leni-um, thallium and. zinc, either elect~rodc~. ess discharige lamps or high intensity hollocw cathode lam~ps may...300 w:2 Z, p. 155 Analyze by flameless -ki if conc. ង. jig/1 *In those instances where -,.ore- .igor-Cus digestion for samole V- epa- rat -ion is de... rat -ri on Distill all samples prior to determinbion of phenols. Use the procedure in "Standard Methods for the Examination of IWater and Wastewater

  4. A Mars Sample Return Sample Handling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David; Stroker, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We present a sample handling system, a subsystem of the proposed Dragon landed Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission [1], that can return to Earth orbit a significant mass of frozen Mars samples potentially consisting of: rock cores, subsurface drilled rock and ice cuttings, pebble sized rocks, and soil scoops. The sample collection, storage, retrieval and packaging assumptions and concepts in this study are applicable for the NASA's MPPG MSR mission architecture options [2]. Our study assumes a predecessor rover mission collects samples for return to Earth to address questions on: past life, climate change, water history, age dating, understanding Mars interior evolution [3], and, human safety and in-situ resource utilization. Hence the rover will have "integrated priorities for rock sampling" [3] that cover collection of subaqueous or hydrothermal sediments, low-temperature fluidaltered rocks, unaltered igneous rocks, regolith and atmosphere samples. Samples could include: drilled rock cores, alluvial and fluvial deposits, subsurface ice and soils, clays, sulfates, salts including perchlorates, aeolian deposits, and concretions. Thus samples will have a broad range of bulk densities, and require for Earth based analysis where practical: in-situ characterization, management of degradation such as perchlorate deliquescence and volatile release, and contamination management. We propose to adopt a sample container with a set of cups each with a sample from a specific location. We considered two sample cups sizes: (1) a small cup sized for samples matching those submitted to in-situ characterization instruments, and, (2) a larger cup for 100 mm rock cores [4] and pebble sized rocks, thus providing diverse samples and optimizing the MSR sample mass payload fraction for a given payload volume. We minimize sample degradation by keeping them frozen in the MSR payload sample canister using Peltier chip cooling. The cups are sealed by interference fitted heat activated memory

  5. Sample Handling in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellar, Louisa; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2013-01-01

    Harsh environments, such as that on Venus, preclude the use of existing equipment for functions that involve interaction with the environment. The operating limitations of current high temperature electronics are well below the actual temperature and pressure found on Venus (460 deg C and 92 atm), so proposed lander configurations typically include a pressure vessel where the science instruments are kept at Earth-like temperature and pressure (25 deg C and 1 atm). The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a method for sample transfer from an external drill to internal science instruments for a lander on Venus. The initial concepts were string and pneumatically driven systems; and the latter system was selected for its ability to deliver samples at very high speed. The pneumatic system was conceived to be driven by the pressure difference between the Venusian atmosphere and the inside of the lander. The pneumatic transfer of a small capsule was demonstrated, and velocity data was collected from the lab experiment. The sample transfer system was modeled using CAD software and prototyped using 3D printing. General structural and thermal analyses were performed to approximate the proposed system's mass and effects on the temperature and pressure inside of the lander. Additionally, a sampler breadboard for use on Titan was tested and functionality problems were resolved.

  6. Measurement of thyroid hormones in donkey (Equus asinus) blood and milk: validation of ELISA kits and evaluation of sample collection, handling and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todini, Luca; Malfatti, Alessandro; Salimei, Elisabetta; Fantuz, Francesco

    2010-11-01

    Donkey's milk is well tolerated by human infants with cow's milk allergy and is useful in the treatment of human immune-related diseases and in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Thyroid hormones (TH) stimulate lactation and active triiodothyronine (T3) in colostrum and milk could take paracrine action supporting lactogenesis in the mother, and play physiological roles for the suckling offspring (systemic or within the gastrointestinal tract). The aims were to measure TH concentrations in donkey blood and milk, validate ELISA methods, evaluate the effects of sample collection and post-collection handling and the stability of TH in milk and blood serum and plasma samples. In milk and blood samples obtained from lactating jennies total concentrations of TH were assayed using competitive-type ELISA kits. Good validation results were obtained for both TH concentrations in blood serum and plasma and T3 in milk samples extracted with cold (-20°C) ethanol alkalinized (pH 9·0) with NH4OH. In most of the milk extract samples, thyroxine (T4) concentrations resulted below the sensitivity threshold. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variations of TH concentrations in different blood and milk samples were below 10%. Parallelism tests gave displacement lines parallel to those of the calibrators for both TH in blood serum and plasma and for T3 in milk extracts. Mean recovery rates were between 95% and 123%, but the concentration values approaching the highest calibrators were overestimated. Therefore, serum and plasma samples for T3 assay must be previously diluted with buffer. Both TH concentrations in blood serum and plasma and T3 in milk did not change during storage for up to 6 months at -20°C. In conclusion, the ELISA methods tested in the present study are suitable for determination of both TH concentrations in donkey blood samples, and for T3 measurement in milk, after extraction with cold alkaline ethanol.

  7. Aerobot Sampling and Handling System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to: ?Derive and document the functional and technical requirements for Aerobot surface sampling and sample handling across a range of...

  8. AMS sample handling in Groningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts-Bijma, A.Th.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Plicht, J. van der

    The Groningen AMS target laboratory has a capacity of producing 2000 targets annually. Samples are combusted by a CN analyser/mass spectrometer combination. A 25-fold graphitization setup is employed. We emphasize a combination of automation and quality. Backgrounds of better than 45 ka are

  9. Sample Acquisition and Handling System from a Remote Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Jack A.

    2011-01-01

    A system has been developed to acquire and handle samples from a suspended remote platform. The system includes a penetrator, a penetrator deployment mechanism, and a sample handler. A gravity-driven harpoon sampler was used for the system, but other solutions can be used to supply the penetration energy, such as pyrotechnic, pressurized gas, or springs. The deployment mechanism includes a line that is attached to the penetrator, a spool for reeling in the line, and a line engagement control mechanism. The penetrator has removable tips that can collect liquid, ice, or solid samples. The handling mechanism consists of a carousel that can store a series of identical or different tips, assist in penetrator reconfiguration for multiple sample acquisition, and deliver the sample to a series of instruments for analysis. The carousel sample handling system was combined with a brassboard reeling mechanism and a penetrator with removable tips. It can attach the removable tip to the penetrator, release and retrieve the penetrator, remove the tip, and present it to multiple instrument stations. The penetrator can be remotely deployed from an aerobot, penetrate and collect the sample, and be retrieved with the sample to the aerobot. The penetrator with removable tips includes sample interrogation windows and a sample retainment spring for unconsolidated samples. The line engagement motor can be used to control the penetrator release and reeling engagement, and to evenly distribute the line on the spool by rocking between left and right ends of the spool. When the arm with the guiding ring is aligned with the spool axis, the line is free to unwind from the spool without rotating the spool. When the arm is perpendicular to the spool axis, the line can move only if the spool rotates.

  10. Sample collection and documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullings, Harry M.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Watanabe, Tadaaki; Yamashita, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satoru; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Hasai, Hiromi

    2005-01-01

    Beginning within a few weeks after the bombings and periodically during the intervening decades, investigators in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have collected samples of materials that were in the cities at the time of the bombings. Although some early efforts were not driven by specific measurement objectives, many others were. Even some of the very earliest samples collected in 1945 were based on carefully conceived research plans and detailed specifications for samples appropriate to particular retrospective measurements, i.e., of particular residual quantities remaining from exposure to the neutrons and gamma rays from the bombs. This chapter focuses mainly on the work of groups at two institutions that have actively collaborated since the 1980s in major collection efforts and have shared samples among themselves and with other investigators: the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) and its predecessor the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), and Hiroshima University. In addition, a number of others are listed, who also contributed to the literature by their collection of samples. (J.P.N.)

  11. Laboratory Activity on Sample Handling and Maintaining a Laboratory Notebook through Simple pH Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Mitzy A.; March, Joe L.

    2016-01-01

    Sample handling and laboratory notebook maintenance are necessary skills but can seem abstract if not presented to students in context. An introductory exercise focusing on proper sample handling, data collection and laboratory notebook keeping for the general chemistry laboratory was developed to emphasize the importance of keeping an accurate…

  12. Sample handling of clinical specimens for ultratrace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, R.

    1987-01-01

    Some simple logistics to an improved sample handling of clinical specimens are presented. This comprises clean room conditions, clean laboratory ware, ultra-pure reagents and good analytical practice. Sample handling procedures for blood, urine, soft tissues and pharmaceuticals are briefly discussed. (author) 26 refs

  13. Curation and Handling for a Mars Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, J. D.; Skiba, T.; Ziemlewski, J. I.; McNamara, K. M.; Stansbery, E. K.; Agee, C. B.

    2000-01-01

    A prototype handling system to provide control of biological contamination of Earth by returned Mars samples while maintaining the chemical and biological integrity of those samples was designed, constructed and tested.

  14. Handling missing data in ranked set sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Bouza-Herrera, Carlos N

    2013-01-01

    The existence of missing observations is a very important aspect to be considered in the application of survey sampling, for example. In human populations they may be caused by a refusal of some interviewees to give the true value for the variable of interest. Traditionally, simple random sampling is used to select samples. Most statistical models are supported by the use of samples selected by means of this design. In recent decades, an alternative design has started being used, which, in many cases, shows an improvement in terms of accuracy compared with traditional sampling. It is called R

  15. Sample handling for kinetics and molecular assembly in flow cytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklar, L.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). National Flow Cytometry Resource]|[Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). School of Medicine; Seamer, L.C.; Kuckuck, F.; Prossnitz, E.; Edwards, B. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). School of Medicine; Posner, G. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-07-01

    Flow cytometry discriminates particle associated fluorescence from the fluorescence of the surrounding medium. It permits assemblies of macromolecular complexes on beads or cells to be detected in real-time with precision and specificity. The authors have investigated two types of robust sample handling systems which provide sub-second resolution and high throughput: (1) mixers which use stepper-motor driven syringes to initiate chemical reactions in msec time frames; and (2) flow injection controllers with valves and automated syringes used in chemical process control. In the former system, the authors used fast valves to overcome the disparity between mixing 100 {micro}ls of sample in 100 msecs and delivering sample to a flow cytometer at 1 {micro}l/sec. Particles were detected within 100 msec after mixing, but turbulence was created which lasted for 1 sec after injection of the sample into the flow cytometer. They used optical criteria to discriminate particles which were out of alignment due to the turbulent flow. Complex sample handling protocols involving multiple mixing steps and sample dilution have also been achieved. With the latter system they were able to automate sample handling and delivery with intervals of a few seconds. The authors used a fluidic approach to defeat turbulence caused by sample introduction. By controlling both sheath and sample with individual syringes, the period of turbulence was reduced to {approximately} 200 msecs. Automated sample handling and sub-second resolution should permit broad analytical and diagnostic applications of flow cytometry.

  16. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR HANDLING SAMPLE AND DATA CUSTODY (SOP-2.26)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the method for handling sample custody. A standardized Chain-of-Custody (CoC) Record is used to document the sample/data custody. Each participant is assigned one CoC Record for the samples/data collected at their home and/or day care center.

  17. Collecting Samples for Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Creatinine Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D ... that used for CSF in that they require aspiration of a sample of the fluid through a ...

  18. A Sample Handling System for Mars Sample Return - Design and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouis, E.; Renouf, I.; Deridder, M.; Vrancken, D.; Gelmi, R.; Re, E.

    2009-04-01

    A mission to return atmosphere and soil samples form the Mars is highly desired by planetary scientists from around the world and space agencies are starting preparation for the launch of a sample return mission in the 2020 timeframe. Such a mission would return approximately 500 grams of atmosphere, rock and soil samples to Earth by 2025. Development of a wide range of new technology will be critical to the successful implementation of such a challenging mission. Technical developments required to realise the mission include guided atmospheric entry, soft landing, sample handling robotics, biological sealing, Mars atmospheric ascent sample rendezvous & capture and Earth return. The European Space Agency has been performing system definition studies along with numerous technology development studies under the framework of the Aurora programme. Within the scope of these activities Astrium has been responsible for defining an overall sample handling architecture in collaboration with European partners (sample acquisition and sample capture, Galileo Avionica; sample containment and automated bio-sealing, Verhaert). Our work has focused on the definition and development of the robotic systems required to move the sample through the transfer chain. This paper presents the Astrium team's high level design for the surface transfer system and the orbiter transfer system. The surface transfer system is envisaged to use two robotic arms of different sizes to allow flexible operations and to enable sample transfer over relatively large distances (~2 to 3 metres): The first to deploy/retract the Drill Assembly used for sample collection, the second for the transfer of the Sample Container (the vessel containing all the collected samples) from the Drill Assembly to the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). The sample transfer actuator also features a complex end-effector for handling the Sample Container. The orbiter transfer system will transfer the Sample Container from the capture

  19. Micro and Nano Techniques for the Handling of Biological Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micro and Nano Techniques for the Handling of Biological Samples reviews the different techniques available to manipulate and integrate biological materials in a controlled manner, either by sliding them along a surface (2-D manipulation), or by gripping and moving them to a new position (3-D...

  20. Drilling, sampling, and sample-handling system for China's asteroid exploration mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Wenming; Wang, Kang; Gao, Sheng; Hou, Liang; Ji, Jianghui; Ding, Xilun

    2017-08-01

    Asteroid exploration has a significant importance in promoting our understanding of the solar system and the origin of life on Earth. A unique opportunity to study near-Earth asteroid 99942 Apophis will occur in 2029 because it will be at its perigee. In the current work, a drilling, sampling, and sample-handling system (DSSHS) is proposed to penetrate the asteroid regolith, collect regolith samples at different depths, and distribute the samples to different scientific instruments for in situ analysis. In this system, a rotary-drilling method is employed for the penetration, and an inner sampling tube is utilized to collect and discharge the regolith samples. The sampling tube can deliver samples up to a maximum volume of 84 mm3 at a maximum penetration depth of 300 mm to 17 different ovens. To activate the release of volatile substances, the samples will be heated up to a temperature of 600 °C by the ovens, and these substances will be analyzed by scientific instruments such as a mass spectrometer, an isotopic analyzer, and micro-cameras, among other instruments. The DSSHS is capable of penetrating rocks with a hardness value of six, and it can be used for China's asteroid exploration mission in the foreseeable future.

  1. Novel Sample-handling Approach for XRD Analysis with Minimal Sample Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, P.; Chipera, S.; Bish, D.; Blake, D.; Feldman, S.; Vaniman, D.; Bryson, C.

    2004-01-01

    Sample preparation and sample handling are among the most critical operations associated with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. These operations require attention in a laboratory environment, but they become a major constraint in the deployment of XRD instruments for robotic planetary exploration. We are developing a novel sample handling system that dramatically relaxes the constraints on sample preparation by allowing characterization of coarse-grained material that would normally be impossible to analyze with conventional powder-XRD techniques.

  2. A core handling device for the Mars Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Owen

    1989-01-01

    A core handling device for use on Mars is being designed. To provide a context for the design study, it was assumed that a Mars Rover/Sample Return (MRSR) Mission would have the following characteristics: a year or more in length; visits by the rover to 50 or more sites; 100 or more meter-long cores being drilled by the rover; and the capability of returning about 5 kg of Mars regolith to Earth. These characteristics lead to the belief that in order to bring back a variegated set of samples that can address the range of scientific objetives for a MRSR mission to Mars there needs to be considerable analysis done on board the rover. Furthermore, the discrepancy between the amount of sample gathered and the amount to be returned suggests that there needs to be some method of choosing the optimal set of samples. This type of analysis will require pristine material-unaltered by the drilling process. Since the core drill thermally and mechanically alters the outer diameter (about 10 pct) of the core sample, this outer area cannot be used. The primary function of the core handling device is to extract subsamples from the core and to position these subsamples, and the core itself if needed, with respect to the various analytical instruments that can be used to perform these analyses.

  3. Radiological safety aspects during handling of adjuster rod (cobalt-60) samples at Cirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, R.K.B.; Prasad, S.K.; Khuspe, R.R.; Babu, K.S.; Kamble, M.K.; Deshpande, S.B.; Srivastava, Alok; Ramesh, N.; Sharma, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Cobalt -60 produced from the irradiation of the 59 Co capsules in adjuster rod of Cirus is used in many medical and industrial applications such as radiation therapy, sterilization of agricultural products, sterilization of medical equipment, industrial gamma exposure devices, nucleonic gauging sources etc. Two adjuster rods used for adjusting small reactivity loads (3.5 mk at 40 MW) in reactor contain thirty 59 Co slugs each. The 59 Co slugs are in the form of small capsules. These slugs were irradiated for nearly 3 years of full power operation. Since the amount of activity handled in the adjuster rod is very high (35 - 40 kCi), adequate radiological safety coverage is to be provided during the transfer of adjuster rod from the reactor pile to Tray Rod Facility (TRF) and during remote handling and loading of adjuster rod samples in shipping flask at TRF. Radiation fields observed are 0.4 - 3.0 Gy/h. In Cirus, falling of Adjuster rod from vertical flask at top of pile could result in declaration of evacuation emergency due to potential hazards associated with the high radiation field (∼26 Gy/h at 1m) of 60 Co slugs. Entire process of remote handling is viewed through lead glass and movement of samples is carried out with the help of a pair of master slave manipulator (MSM) arms. TRF with full samples give a radiation background of 0.2 - 20 mGy/h, requiring control of movement of personnel in the area. This paper explains in detail about the health physics aspects during handling of adjuster rod from reactor pile to TRF and back to pile, unloading and loading of radioisotope samples, operational radiation protection experience gained and collective dose consumed for the above transfer and loading job. The collective dose consumed in the handling of two adjuster rods is 8.7 per-mSv. (author)

  4. The sample handling system for the Mars Icebreaker Life mission: from dirt to data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davé, Arwen; Thompson, Sarah J; McKay, Christopher P; Stoker, Carol R; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale; Mellerowicz, Bolek; Glass, Brian J; Willson, David; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Rask, Jon

    2013-04-01

    The Mars Icebreaker Life mission will search for subsurface life on Mars. It consists of three payload elements: a drill to retrieve soil samples from approximately 1 m below the surface, a robotic sample handling system to deliver the sample from the drill to the instruments, and the instruments themselves. This paper will discuss the robotic sample handling system. Collecting samples from ice-rich soils on Mars in search of life presents two challenges: protection of that icy soil--considered a "special region" with respect to planetary protection--from contamination from Earth, and delivery of the icy, sticky soil to spacecraft instruments. We present a sampling device that meets these challenges. We built a prototype system and tested it at martian pressure, drilling into ice-cemented soil, collecting cuttings, and transferring them to the inlet port of the SOLID2 life-detection instrument. The tests successfully demonstrated that the Icebreaker drill, sample handling system, and life-detection instrument can collectively operate in these conditions and produce science data that can be delivered via telemetry--from dirt to data. Our results also demonstrate the feasibility of using an air gap to prevent forward contamination. We define a set of six analog soils for testing over a range of soil cohesion, from loose sand to basalt soil, with angles of repose of 27° and 39°, respectively. Particle size is a key determinant of jamming of mechanical parts by soil particles. Jamming occurs when the clearance between moving parts is equal in size to the most common particle size or equal to three of these particles together. Three particles acting together tend to form bridges and lead to clogging. Our experiments show that rotary-hammer action of the Icebreaker drill influences the particle size, typically reducing particle size by ≈ 100 μm.

  5. Powder Handling Device for X-ray Diffraction Analysis with Minimal Sample Preparation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project consists in developing a Vibrating Powder Handling System for planetary X-Ray Diffraction instruments. The principle of this novel sample handling...

  6. 7 CFR 27.20 - Drawing and handling of samples of cotton; inspection of bales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drawing and handling of samples of cotton; inspection... Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.20 Drawing and handling of samples of cotton; inspection of bales. One sample shall be drawn from the top side of each bale and one from the bottom side. Each such sample shall...

  7. The Sample Handling System for the Mars Icebreaker Life Mission: from Dirt to Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Arwen; Thompson, Sarah J.; McKay, Christopher P.; Stoker, Carol R.; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale; Mellerowicz, Bolek; Glass, Brian J.; Wilson, David; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Mars icebreaker life mission will search for subsurface life on mars. It consists of three payload elements: a drill to retrieve soil samples from approx. 1 meter below the surface, a robotic sample handling system to deliver the sample from the drill to the instruments, and the instruments themselves. This paper will discuss the robotic sample handling system.

  8. Soil Gas Sample Handling: Evaluation of Water Removal and Sample Ganging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abrecht, David G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendoza, Donaldo P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Soil gas sampling is currently conducted in support of Nuclear Test Ban treaty verification. Soil gas samples are collected and analyzed for isotopes of interest. Some issues that can impact sampling and analysis of these samples are excess moisture and sample processing time. Here we discuss three potential improvements to the current sampling protocol; a desiccant for water removal, use of molecular sieve to remove CO2 from the sample during collection, and a ganging manifold to allow composite analysis of multiple samples.

  9. Effects of blood sample handling procedures on measurable inflammatory markers in plasma, serum and dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, K.; Thorsen, P.; Vogel, I.

    2008-01-01

    increased when blood samples were stored for a period of time before the centrifugation, for certain cytokines more than 1000 fold compared to serum and plasma isolated and frozen immediately after venepuncture. The concentrations in serum generally increased more than in plasma. The measurable......The interests in monitoring inflammation by immunoassay determination of blood inflammatory markers call for information on the stability of these markers in relation to the handling of blood samples. The increasing use of stored biobank samples for such ventures that may have been collected...... and stored for other purposes, justifies the study hereof. Blood samples were stored for 0, 4, 24, and 48 h at 4 degrees C, room temperature (RT), and at 35 degrees C, respectively, before they were separated into serum or plasma and frozen. Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) were stored for 0, 1, 2, 3, 7...

  10. Mars Science Laboratory Sample Acquisition, Sample Processing and Handling: Subsystem Design and Test Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandura, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The Sample Acquisition/Sample Processing and Handling subsystem for the Mars Science Laboratory is a highly-mechanized, Rover-based sampling system that acquires powdered rock and regolith samples from the Martian surface, sorts the samples into fine particles through sieving, and delivers small portions of the powder into two science instruments inside the Rover. SA/SPaH utilizes 17 actuated degrees-of-freedom to perform the functions needed to produce 5 sample pathways in support of the scientific investigation on Mars. Both hardware redundancy and functional redundancy are employed in configuring this sampling system so some functionality is retained even with the loss of a degree-of-freedom. Intentional dynamic environments are created to move sample while vibration isolators attenuate this environment at the sensitive instruments located near the dynamic sources. In addition to the typical flight hardware qualification test program, two additional types of testing are essential for this kind of sampling system: characterization of the intentionally-created dynamic environment and testing of the sample acquisition and processing hardware functions using Mars analog materials in a low pressure environment. The overall subsystem design and configuration are discussed along with some of the challenges, tradeoffs, and lessons learned in the areas of fault tolerance, intentional dynamic environments, and special testing

  11. Effects of blood sample handling procedures on measurable inflammatory markers in plasma, serum and dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, K.; Thorsen, P.; Vogel, I.

    2008-01-01

    , and 30 days at the same temperatures. 27 inflammatory markers in serum and plasma and 25 markers in DBSS were measured by a previously validated multiplex sandwich immunoassay using Luminex xMAP technology. The measurable concentrations of several cytokines in serum and plasma were significantly......The interests in monitoring inflammation by immunoassay determination of blood inflammatory markers call for information on the stability of these markers in relation to the handling of blood samples. The increasing use of stored biobank samples for such ventures that may have been collected...... increased when blood samples were stored for a period of time before the centrifugation, for certain cytokines more than 1000 fold compared to serum and plasma isolated and frozen immediately after venepuncture. The concentrations in serum generally increased more than in plasma. The measurable...

  12. Powder Handling Device for X-ray Diffraction Analysis with Minimal Sample Preparation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project consists of developing a Vibrating Sample Holder (VSH) for planetary X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) instruments. The principle of this novel sample handling...

  13. Collection and preparation of marine samples for radionuclide analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.

    1997-01-01

    The ultimate goal of research in radioecology is to be able to predict the pathways of radioactive material in the environment and hence estimate possible doses to the population in various regions. Knowledge of levels of contamination are necessary to maintain control of operations of nuclear facilities. Correct methods of sample collection, handling and preparation are among the most important parts for a correct assessment. On basis of the final results of radionuclide concentrations, scientific, medical and political decisions are taken. (author)

  14. Versatile electrochemial sensor for tissue culturing and sample handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmand, Tanya; Kwasny, Dorota; Al Atraktchi, Fatima Al-Zahraa

    2014-01-01

    in microfluidic devices for sample preparation. In this work we present the development of the sensor system along with results on characterization by impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Furthermore we present recent results on integration of the sensor as well as amperometric detection of dopamine...

  15. Evaluation of Sample Handling Effects on Serum Vitamin E and Cholesterol Concentrations in Alpacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S. Lear

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical cases of vitamin E deficiencies have been diagnosed in camelids and may indicate that these species are more sensitive to inadequate vitamin E in hay-based diets compared to other ruminant and equine species. In bovine, cholesterol has been reported to affect vitamin E concentrations. In order to evaluate vitamin E deficiencies in camelids, the effects of collection and storage of the blood samples prior to processing were necessary. Reports vary as to factors affecting vitamin E and cholesterol in blood samples, and diagnostic laboratories vary in instructions regarding sample handling. Blood was collected from healthy alpacas and processed under conditions including exposure to fluorescent light, serum and red blood cell contact, tube stopper contact, temperature, and hemolysis. Serum vitamin E and cholesterol concentrations were then measured. Statistical analyses found that the vitamin E concentrations decreased with prolonged contact with the tube stopper and with increasing hemolysis. Vitamin E concentration variations were seen with other factors but were not significant. Time prior to serum separation and individual animal variation was found to alter cholesterol concentrations within the sample, yet this finding was clinically unremarkable. No correlation was seen between vitamin E and cholesterol concentration, possibly due to lack of variation of cholesterol.

  16. Sample Handling System for in-situ Powder X-ray Diffraction Instruments., Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a Powder Handling System (PHS) that will deliver powdered samples to in situ planetary XRD instruments and provide unique means of...

  17. Experimental skin deposition of chromium on the hands following handling of samples of leather and metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Thyssen, Jacob P.; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chromium is an important skin sensitizer. Exposure to it has been regulated in cement, and recently in leather. Studies on the deposition of chromium ions on the skin as a result of handling different chromium-containing materials are sparse, but could improve the risk assessment...... of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis caused by chromium. Objectives: To determine whether the handling of chromium-containing samples of leather and metal results in the deposition of chromium onto the skin. Methods: Five healthy volunteers participated. For 30 min, they handled samples...... of leather and metal known to contain and release chromium. Skin deposition of chromium was assessed with the acid wipe sampling technique. Results: Acid wipe sampling of the participants' fingers showed chromium deposition on the skin in all participants who had been exposed to leather (range 0.01–0.20 µg...

  18. 45 CFR 674.5 - Requirements for collection, handling, documentation, and curation of Antarctic meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... stainless steel implements (or equivalent); (ii) Double bagging of samples in Teflon or polyethylene (or... degradation; (ii) Produce an authoritative classification for meteorites that can be shown to belong to a well... classification, total known mass, information about handling and sample preparation activities that have been...

  19. Water sample-collection and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Collection and distribution system samples water from six designated stations, filtered if desired, and delivers it to various analytical sensors. System may be controlled by Water Monitoring Data Acquisition System or operated manually.

  20. Elimination of ``memory`` from sample handling and inlet system of a mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastgner, P.

    1991-05-08

    This paper describes a method for preparing the sample handling and inlet system of a mass spectrometer for analysis of a subsequent sample following analysis of a previous sample comprising the flushing of the system interior with supercritical CO{sub 2} and venting the interior. The method eliminates the effect of system ``memory`` on the subsequent analysis, especially following persistent samples such as xenon and krypton.

  1. 10 CFR 707.12 - Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... drug testing. 707.12 Section 707.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.12 Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing... screening specimens to determine whether they are negative or positive for a specific drug, consistent with...

  2. Trends and applications of integrated automated ultra-trace sample handling and analysis (T9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, H.M.S.; Ye Han; Stewart, L.; Link, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Automated analysis, sub-ppt detection limits, and the trend toward speciated analysis (rather than just elemental analysis) force the innovation of sophisticated and integrated sample preparation and analysis techniques. Traditionally, the ability to handle samples at ppt and sub-ppt levels has been limited to clean laboratories and special sample handling techniques and equipment. The world of sample handling has passed a threshold where older or 'old fashioned' traditional techniques no longer provide the ability to see the sample due to the influence of the analytical blank and the fragile nature of the analyte. When samples require decomposition, extraction, separation and manipulation, application of newer more sophisticated sample handling systems are emerging that enable ultra-trace analysis and species manipulation. In addition, new instrumentation has emerged which integrate sample preparation and analysis to enable on-line near real-time analysis. Examples of those newer sample-handling methods will be discussed and current examples provided as alternatives to traditional sample handling. Two new techniques applying ultra-trace microwave energy enhanced sample handling have been developed that permit sample separation and refinement while performing species manipulation during decomposition. A demonstration, that applies to semiconductor materials, will be presented. Next, a new approach to the old problem of sample evaporation without losses will be demonstrated that is capable of retaining all elements and species tested. Both of those methods require microwave energy manipulation in specialized systems and are not accessible through convection, conduction, or other traditional energy applications. A new automated integrated method for handling samples for ultra-trace analysis has been developed. An on-line near real-time measurement system will be described that enables many new automated sample handling and measurement capabilities. This

  3. TMI-2 fuel canister and core sample handling equipment used in INEL hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Shurtliff, W.T.; Lynch, R.J.; Croft, K.M.; Whitmill, L.J.; Allen, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the specialized remote handling equipment developed and used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to handle samples obtained from the core of the damaged Unit 2 reactor at Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TMI-2). Samples of the core were removed, placed in TMI-2 fuel canisters, and transported to the INEL. Those samples will be examined as part of the analysis of the TMI-2 accident. The equipment described herein was designed for removing sample materials from the fuel canisters, assisting with initial examinations, and processing samples in preparation for detailed examinations. The more complex equipment used microprocessor remote controls with electric motor drives providing the required force and motion capabilities. The remaining components were unpowered and manipulator assisted

  4. Appropriate Handling, Processing and Analysis of Blood Samples Is Essential to Avoid Oxidation of Vitamin C to Dehydroascorbic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullar, Juliet M; Bayer, Simone; Carr, Anitra C

    2018-02-11

    Vitamin C (ascorbate) is the major water-soluble antioxidant in plasma and its oxidation to dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) has been proposed as a marker of oxidative stress in vivo. However, controversy exists in the literature around the amount of DHA detected in blood samples collected from various patient cohorts. In this study, we report on DHA concentrations in a selection of different clinical cohorts (diabetes, pneumonia, cancer, and critically ill). All clinical samples were collected into EDTA anticoagulant tubes and processed at 4 °C prior to storage at -80 °C for subsequent analysis by HPLC with electrochemical detection. We also investigated the effects of different handling and processing conditions on short-term and long-term ascorbate and DHA stability in vitro and in whole blood and plasma samples. These conditions included metal chelation, anticoagulants (EDTA and heparin), and processing temperatures (ice, 4 °C and room temperature). Analysis of our clinical cohorts indicated very low to negligible DHA concentrations. Samples exhibiting haemolysis contained significantly higher concentrations of DHA. Metal chelation inhibited oxidation of vitamin C in vitro, confirming the involvement of contaminating metal ions. Although EDTA is an effective metal chelator, complexes with transition metal ions are still redox active, thus its use as an anticoagulant can facilitate metal ion-dependent oxidation of vitamin C in whole blood and plasma. Handling and processing blood samples on ice (or at 4 °C) delayed oxidation of vitamin C by a number of hours. A review of the literature regarding DHA concentrations in clinical cohorts highlighted the fact that studies using colourimetric or fluorometric assays reported significantly higher concentrations of DHA compared to those using HPLC with electrochemical detection. In conclusion, careful handling and processing of samples, combined with appropriate analysis, is crucial for accurate determination of ascorbate

  5. Appropriate Handling, Processing and Analysis of Blood Samples Is Essential to Avoid Oxidation of Vitamin C to Dehydroascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet M. Pullar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C (ascorbate is the major water-soluble antioxidant in plasma and its oxidation to dehydroascorbic acid (DHA has been proposed as a marker of oxidative stress in vivo. However, controversy exists in the literature around the amount of DHA detected in blood samples collected from various patient cohorts. In this study, we report on DHA concentrations in a selection of different clinical cohorts (diabetes, pneumonia, cancer, and critically ill. All clinical samples were collected into EDTA anticoagulant tubes and processed at 4 °C prior to storage at −80 °C for subsequent analysis by HPLC with electrochemical detection. We also investigated the effects of different handling and processing conditions on short-term and long-term ascorbate and DHA stability in vitro and in whole blood and plasma samples. These conditions included metal chelation, anticoagulants (EDTA and heparin, and processing temperatures (ice, 4 °C and room temperature. Analysis of our clinical cohorts indicated very low to negligible DHA concentrations. Samples exhibiting haemolysis contained significantly higher concentrations of DHA. Metal chelation inhibited oxidation of vitamin C in vitro, confirming the involvement of contaminating metal ions. Although EDTA is an effective metal chelator, complexes with transition metal ions are still redox active, thus its use as an anticoagulant can facilitate metal ion-dependent oxidation of vitamin C in whole blood and plasma. Handling and processing blood samples on ice (or at 4 °C delayed oxidation of vitamin C by a number of hours. A review of the literature regarding DHA concentrations in clinical cohorts highlighted the fact that studies using colourimetric or fluorometric assays reported significantly higher concentrations of DHA compared to those using HPLC with electrochemical detection. In conclusion, careful handling and processing of samples, combined with appropriate analysis, is crucial for accurate

  6. 21 CFR 203.32 - Drug sample storage and handling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug sample storage and handling requirements. 203.32 Section 203.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... contamination, deterioration, and adulteration. (b) Compliance with compendial and labeling requirements...

  7. Handling and analysis of ices in cryostats and glove boxes in view of cometary samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, K.; Eich, G.; Heyl, M.; Kochan, H.; Oehler, A.; Patnaik, A.; Schlosser, W.; Schulz, R.

    1989-01-01

    Comet nucleus sample return mission and other return missions from planets and satellites need equipment for handling and analysis of icy samples at low temperatures under vacuum or protective gas. Two methods are reported which were developed for analysis of small icy samples and which are modified for larger samples in cometary matter simulation experiments (KOSI). A conventional optical cryostat system was modified to allow for transport of samples at 5 K, ion beam irradiation, and measurement in an off-line optical spectrophotometer. The new system consists of a removable window plug containing nozzles for condensation of water and volatiles onto a cold finger. This plug can be removed in a vacuum system, changed against another plug (e.g., with other windows (IR, VIS, VUV) or other nozzles). While open, the samples can be treated under vacuum with cooling by manipulators (cut, removal, sample taking, irradiation with light, photons, or ions). After bringing the plug back, the samples can be moved to another site of analysis. For handling the 30 cm diameter mineral-ice samples from the KOSI experiments an 80x80x80 cm glove box made out of plexiglass was used. The samples were kept in a liquid nitrogen bath, which was filled from the outside. A stream a dry N 2 and evaporating gas from the bath purified the glove box from impurity gases and, in particular, H 2 O, which otherwise would condense onto the samples

  8. Curating NASA's Past, Present, and Future Astromaterial Sample Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Allton, J. H.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Zolensky, M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at NASA Johnson Space Center (hereafter JSC curation) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. JSC presently curates 9 different astromaterials collections in seven different clean-room suites: (1) Apollo Samples (ISO (International Standards Organization) class 6 + 7); (2) Antarctic Meteorites (ISO 6 + 7); (3) Cosmic Dust Particles (ISO 5); (4) Microparticle Impact Collection (ISO 7; formerly called Space-Exposed Hardware); (5) Genesis Solar Wind Atoms (ISO 4); (6) Stardust Comet Particles (ISO 5); (7) Stardust Interstellar Particles (ISO 5); (8) Hayabusa Asteroid Particles (ISO 5); (9) OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft Coupons and Witness Plates (ISO 7). Additional cleanrooms are currently being planned to house samples from two new collections, Hayabusa 2 (2021) and OSIRIS-REx (2023). In addition to the labs that house the samples, we maintain a wide variety of infra-structure facilities required to support the clean rooms: HEPA-filtered air-handling systems, ultrapure dry gaseous nitrogen systems, an ultrapure water system, and cleaning facilities to provide clean tools and equipment for the labs. We also have sample preparation facilities for making thin sections, microtome sections, and even focused ion-beam sections. We routinely monitor the cleanliness of our clean rooms and infrastructure systems, including measurements of inorganic or organic contamination, weekly airborne particle counts, compositional and isotopic monitoring of liquid N2 deliveries, and daily UPW system monitoring. In addition to the physical maintenance of the samples, we track within our databases the current and ever changing characteristics (weight, location, etc.) of more than 250,000 individually numbered samples across our various collections, as well as more than 100,000 images, and countless "analog" records that record the sample processing records of each individual sample. JSC Curation is co-located with JSC

  9. Probabilistic Round Trip Contamination Analysis of a Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling Process Using Markovian Decompositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nicolas; Lin, Ying; Barengoltz, Jack

    2010-01-01

    A method for evaluating the probability of a Viable Earth Microorganism (VEM) contaminating a sample during the sample acquisition and handling (SAH) process of a potential future Mars Sample Return mission is developed. A scenario where multiple core samples would be acquired using a rotary percussive coring tool, deployed from an arm on a MER class rover is analyzed. The analysis is conducted in a structured way by decomposing sample acquisition and handling process into a series of discrete time steps, and breaking the physical system into a set of relevant components. At each discrete time step, two key functions are defined: The probability of a VEM being released from each component, and the transport matrix, which represents the probability of VEM transport from one component to another. By defining the expected the number of VEMs on each component at the start of the sampling process, these decompositions allow the expected number of VEMs on each component at each sampling step to be represented as a Markov chain. This formalism provides a rigorous mathematical framework in which to analyze the probability of a VEM entering the sample chain, as well as making the analysis tractable by breaking the process down into small analyzable steps.

  10. Importance of sampling frequency when collecting diatoms

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Naicheng

    2016-11-14

    There has been increasing interest in diatom-based bio-assessment but we still lack a comprehensive understanding of how to capture diatoms’ temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency (ASF). To cover this research gap, we collected and analyzed daily riverine diatom samples over a 1-year period (25 April 2013–30 April 2014) at the outlet of a German lowland river. The samples were classified into five clusters (1–5) by a Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method based on similarity between species compositions over time. ASFs were determined to be 25 days at Cluster 2 (June-July 2013) and 13 days at Cluster 5 (February-April 2014), whereas no specific ASFs were found at Cluster 1 (April-May 2013), 3 (August-November 2013) (>30 days) and Cluster 4 (December 2013 - January 2014) (<1 day). ASFs showed dramatic seasonality and were negatively related to hydrological wetness conditions, suggesting that sampling interval should be reduced with increasing catchment wetness. A key implication of our findings for freshwater management is that long-term bio-monitoring protocols should be developed with the knowledge of tracking algal temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency.

  11. Importance of sampling frequency when collecting diatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Naicheng; Faber, Claas; Sun, Xiuming; Qu, Yueming; Wang, Chao; Ivetic, Snjezana; Riis, Tenna; Ulrich, Uta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-11-01

    There has been increasing interest in diatom-based bio-assessment but we still lack a comprehensive understanding of how to capture diatoms’ temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency (ASF). To cover this research gap, we collected and analyzed daily riverine diatom samples over a 1-year period (25 April 2013-30 April 2014) at the outlet of a German lowland river. The samples were classified into five clusters (1-5) by a Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method based on similarity between species compositions over time. ASFs were determined to be 25 days at Cluster 2 (June-July 2013) and 13 days at Cluster 5 (February-April 2014), whereas no specific ASFs were found at Cluster 1 (April-May 2013), 3 (August-November 2013) (>30 days) and Cluster 4 (December 2013 - January 2014) (<1 day). ASFs showed dramatic seasonality and were negatively related to hydrological wetness conditions, suggesting that sampling interval should be reduced with increasing catchment wetness. A key implication of our findings for freshwater management is that long-term bio-monitoring protocols should be developed with the knowledge of tracking algal temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency.

  12. Sample Handling Considerations for a Europa Sample Return Mission: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Calaway, M. L.; Evans, C. A.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2015-01-01

    The intent of this abstract is to provide a basic overview of mission requirements for a generic Europan plume sample return mission, based on NASA Curation experience in NASA sample return missions ranging from Apollo to OSIRIS-REx. This should be useful for mission conception and early stage planning. We will break the mission down into Outbound and Return legs and discuss them separately.

  13. A new handling tool for irradiated samples at the LENA plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloni, L.; Venturelli, A.

    1988-01-01

    The handling of neutron irradiated samples at the LENA plant has been so far carried out manually, thus exposing reactor and health physics operators and reactor users to radiation doses. It was then decided to develop an automatic system operated from the reactor console. The system was divided in two sections: one taking care of sample insertion and extraction and the other of the storage of irradiated samples. This paper describes the design and the installation of the storage section. It allows a fast removal of the irradiated samples from the reactor top and their storage in lead pits at the ground level. The extraction of irradiated samples comes out to be quite simplified and radiation doses to operators and users are strongly reduced. All work from design to construction has been carried out by the personnel of the electronic group of the LENA plant

  14. Robotic Sample Manipulator for Handling Astromaterials Inside the Geolab Microgravity Glovebox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary S.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Li,Z.; Tong, S.; Zhong, Y.; Dahiwala, R.; Wang, L.; Porter, F.

    2013-01-01

    Future human and robotic sample return missions will require isolation containment systems with strict protocols and procedures for reducing inorganic and organic contamination. Robotic handling and manipulation of astromaterials may be required for preliminary examination inside such an isolation containment system. In addition, examination of astromaterials in microgravity will require constant contact to secure samples during manipulation. The National Space Grant Foundation exploration habitat (XHab) academic innovative challenge 2012 administered through the NASA advanced exploration systems (AES) deep space habitat (DSH) project awarded funding to the University of Bridgeport team to develop an engineering design for tools to facilitate holding and handling geological samples for analysis in a microgravity glovebox environment. The Bridgeport XHab team developed a robotic arm system with a three-finger gripper that could manipulate geologic samples within the existing GeoLab glovebox integrated into NASA's DSH called the GeoLab Robotic Sample Manipulator (see fig. 1 and 2). This hardware was deployed and tested during the 2012 DSH mission operations tests [1].

  15. Quality standards for sample collection in coagulation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2012-09-01

    Preanalytical activities, especially those directly connected with blood sample collection and handling, are the most vulnerable steps throughout the testing process. The receipt of unsuitable samples is commonplace in laboratory practice and represents a serious problem, given the reliability of test results can be adversely compromised following analysis of these specimens. The basic criteria for an appropriate and safe venipuncture are nearly identical to those used for collecting blood for clinical chemistry and immunochemistry testing, and entail proper patient identification, use of the correct technique, as well as appropriate devices and needles. There are, however, some peculiar aspects, which are deemed to be particularly critical when collecting quality specimens for clot-based tests, and these require clearer recognition. These include prevention of prolonged venous stasis, collection of nonhemolyzed specimens, order of draw, and appropriate filling and mixing of the primary collection tubes. All of these important preanalytical issues are discussed in this article, and evidence-based suggestions as well as recommendations on how to obtain a high-quality sample for coagulation testing are also illustrated. We have also performed an investigation aimed to identify variation of test results due to underfilling of primary blood tubes, and have identified a clinically significant bias in test results when tubes are drawn at less than 89% of total fill for activated partial thromboplastin time, less than 78% for fibrinogen, and less than 67% for coagulation factor VIII, whereas prothrombin time and activated protein C resistance remain relatively reliable even in tubes drawn at 67% of the nominal volume. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Robotic Irradiated Sample Handling Concept Design in Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI using Simulation Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Mohd Sabri Minhat; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept design of an Robotic Irradiated Sample Handling Machine using graphical software application, designed as a general, flexible and open platform to work on robotics. Webots has proven to be a useful tool in many fields of robotics, such as manipulator programming, mobile robots control (wheeled, sub-aquatic and walking robots), distance computation, sensor simulation, collision detection, motion planning and so on. Webots is used as the common interface for all the applications. Some practical cases and application for this concept design are illustrated on the paper to present the possibilities of this simulation software. (author)

  17. Self-contained harpoon and sample handling device for a remote platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Jack; Hall, Jeffery

    2009-03-01

    A key objective of the NASA exploration missions is to explore the Solar System and beyond in an implementation that is safe, sustainable and affordable. One of the major enabling technologies for meeting this objective is the development of effective autonomous sampling systems for robotic in-situ analysis and scientific experiments for life and water detection as well as the potential to conduct materials characterization and mineralogy. Rapid sampling techniques with minimum deterioration of the sample and the potential to capture volatiles have long been an objective of the planetary science community. Tethered penetrator sampling whether the penetrator is driven by gravity [Jones et al. 2006], chemical means [Jones et al. 2006], mechanical springs [Backes et al. 2008] or air guns [Lorenz and Shandera 2000] has the potential to meet this objective. In this paper we present the development of a tethered harpoon sampling and sample handling system operated from an aerial platform for in-situ astrobiological investigations. The harpoon system can be driven into the sample using gravity, pyro, spring or compressed gas mechanisms and is retrieved using a spooling mechanism. The system description and preliminary test results are presented.

  18. Dual Source Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometer and Sample Handling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinckerhoff, W.; Mahaffy, P.; Cornish, T.; Cheng, A.; Gorevan, S.; Niemann, H.; Harpold, D.; Rafeek, S.; Yucht, D.

    We present details of an instrument under development for potential NASA missions to planets and small bodies. The instrument comprises a dual ionization source (laser and electron impact) time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) and a carousel sam- ple handling system for in situ analysis of solid materials acquired by, e.g., a coring drill. This DSTOF instrument could be deployed on a fixed lander or a rover, and has an open design that would accommodate measurements by additional instruments. The sample handling system (SHS) is based on a multi-well carousel, originally de- signed for Champollion/DS4. Solid samples, in the form of drill cores or as loose chips or fines, are inserted through an access port, sealed in vacuum, and transported around the carousel to a pyrolysis cell and/or directly to the TOF-MS inlet. Samples at the TOF-MS inlet are xy-addressable for laser or optical microprobe. Cups may be ejected from their holders for analyzing multiple samples or caching them for return. Samples are analyzed with laser desorption and evolved-gas/electron-impact sources. The dual ion source permits studies of elemental, isotopic, and molecular composition of unprepared samples with a single mass spectrometer. Pulsed laser desorption per- mits the measurement of abundance and isotope ratios of refractory elements, as well as the detection of high-mass organic molecules in solid samples. Evolved gas analysis permits similar measurements of the more volatile species in solids and aerosols. The TOF-MS is based on previous miniature prototypes at JHU/APL that feature high sensitivity and a wide mass range. The laser mode, in which the sample cup is directly below the TOF-MS inlet, permits both ablation and desorption measurements, to cover elemental and molecular species, respectively. In the evolved gas mode, sample cups are raised into a small pyrolysis cell and heated, producing a neutral gas that is elec- tron ionized and pulsed into the TOF-MS. (Any imaging

  19. Sample handling factors affecting the enumeration of lactobacilli and cellulolytic bacteria in equine feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to compare media types and evaluate the effects of fecal storage time and temperature on the enumeration of cellulolytic bacteria and lactobacilli from horses. Fecal samples were collected from horses (n = 3) and transported to the lab (CO2, 37 ºC, 0.5 h). The samples were assign...

  20. Mars Science Laboratory Sample Acquisition, Sample Processing and Handling Subsystem: A Description of the Sampling Functionality of the System after being on the Surface for Two Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, L. W.; Anderson, R. C.; Abbey, W. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Sample Acquisition/Sample Processing and Handling (SA/SPaH) subsystem for the Mars Science Library (MSL) is a rover-based sampling system. SA/SPaH consists of a powdering drill and a scooping, sieving, and portioning device mounted on a turret at the end of a robotic arm. Curiosity rover preformed several sample acquisitions and processing of solid samples during its first year of operation. Material were processed and delivered to the two analytical instruments, Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) and Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM), both of which required specific particle size for the material delivered to them to perform their analysis to determine its mineralogy and geochemistry content. In this presentation, the functionality of the system will be explained along with the in-situ targets the system has acquire and the samples that were delivered.

  1. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Homeland Security, collecting DNA samples from: (1) Aliens lawfully in, or being processed for lawful... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection...

  2. Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalla, R.

    1994-10-01

    As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples

  3. 75 FR 43989 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Sample Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0358... for Dogs Treated With SLENTROL AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... on the sample collection plan for dogs treated with the drug SLENTROL. DATES: Submit either...

  4. Analysis of the research sample collections of Uppsala biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmark, Malin T; Beskow, Anna H

    2014-10-01

    Uppsala Biobank is the joint and only biobank organization of the two principals, Uppsala University and Uppsala University Hospital. Biobanks are required to have updated registries on sample collection composition and management in order to fulfill legal regulations. We report here the results from the first comprehensive and overall analysis of the 131 research sample collections organized in the biobank. The results show that the median of the number of samples in the collections was 700 and that the number of samples varied from less than 500 to over one million. Blood samples, such as whole blood, serum, and plasma, were included in the vast majority, 84.0%, of the research sample collections. Also, as much as 95.5% of the newly collected samples within healthcare included blood samples, which further supports the concept that blood samples have fundamental importance for medical research. Tissue samples were also commonly used and occurred in 39.7% of the research sample collections, often combined with other types of samples. In total, 96.9% of the 131 sample collections included samples collected for healthcare, showing the importance of healthcare as a research infrastructure. Of the collections that had accessed existing samples from healthcare, as much as 96.3% included tissue samples from the Department of Pathology, which shows the importance of pathology samples as a resource for medical research. Analysis of different research areas shows that the most common of known public health diseases are covered. Collections that had generated the most publications, up to over 300, contained a large number of samples collected systematically and repeatedly over many years. More knowledge about existing biobank materials, together with public registries on sample collections, will support research collaborations, improve transparency, and bring us closer to the goals of biobanks, which is to save and prolong human lives and improve health and quality of life.

  5. Biopolymers for Sample Collection, Protection, and Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-19

    or swab sampling followed by microbial analysis using traditional culture or PCR assay (Temprano et al. 2004). However, at least one study shows that...Egypt, it was used as a pigment binder and ad- hesive in paints for making hieroglyphs, binder in cos- metics and inks, and for adhering flaxen wrappings...for embalming mummies (Sanchez et al. 2002). In current times, acacia gum is used extensively in food industry as an emulsifier, flavoring agent

  6. Update 1996: Blood collection and handling procedures for assessment of plasminogen activators and inhibitors (Leiden Fibrinolysis Workshop)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluft, C.; Meijer, P.

    1996-01-01

    Procedures of blood collection and handling can be different for the various variables in fibrinolysis. Some of them may require adaptation to the progress in assay methodology and in biochemical and physiological knowledge. During the Leiden Fibrinolysis Workshop 6 in 1996, the procedures described

  7. Collection and preparation of samples for gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jingquan

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the basic principles of sample collection and preparation: setting up unified sampling program, methods and procedures, sample packing, transportation and storage, determination of sample quantity, sample pretreatment and preparation of samples to be analysed, etc. for gamma spectrometry. And the paper also describes briefly the main methods and special issues of sampling and preparation for the same environmental and biological samples, such as, air, water, grass, soil and foods

  8. New aspects of blood collection and handling procedures for the assessment of t-PA and PAI-1 variables after the introduction of acid blood collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, P.; Kret, R.; Bloetjes, P.T.M.; Rosen, S.; Kluft, C.

    1994-01-01

    Blood collection and handling procedures for t-PA activity have thusfar been rather strict and have restrained the use in clinical practice. We evaluated simplifications in the procedures for specifically the use of Stabilyte® vacutainers with respect to time before centrifugation of blood, storage

  9. Procedures for Handling and Chemical Analysis of Sediment and Water Samples,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    control program, beginning with sample collection. The three chemical tests that are described are: a. A short-term water leaching test (the standard...demand P, G 300 ml-2 Z 4 0 C 6 hr Chemical oxygen demand P, (3 200 ml H2S04 to pH < 2 7 days 4 °C PCB’s ( 2 Z 4°c Orranochlorine pesti- cides C I Z 40 C...the purpose of the study as discussed in Section 1. The elutriate test is a short-term, sediment- leaching procedure. It consists of agitating a known

  10. Standardized Method for Measuring Collection Efficiency from Wipe-sampling of Trace Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkouteren, Jennifer R; Lawrence, Jeffrey A; Staymates, Matthew E; Sisco, Edward

    2017-04-10

    One of the limiting steps to detecting traces of explosives at screening venues is effective collection of the sample. Wipe-sampling is the most common procedure for collecting traces of explosives, and standardized measurements of collection efficiency are needed to evaluate and optimize sampling protocols. The approach described here is designed to provide this measurement infrastructure, and controls most of the factors known to be relevant to wipe-sampling. Three critical factors (the applied force, travel distance, and travel speed) are controlled using an automated device. Test surfaces are chosen based on similarity to the screening environment, and the wipes can be made from any material considered for use in wipe-sampling. Particle samples of the explosive 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) are applied in a fixed location on the surface using a dry-transfer technique. The particle samples, recently developed to simulate residues made after handling explosives, are produced by inkjet printing of RDX solutions onto polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrates. Collection efficiency is measured by extracting collected explosive from the wipe, and then related to critical sampling factors and the selection of wipe material and test surface. These measurements are meant to guide the development of sampling protocols at screening venues, where speed and throughput are primary considerations.

  11. Scientific guidelines for preservation of samples collected from Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gooding, J.L.

    1990-04-01

    The maximum scientific value of Martian geologic and atmospheric samples is retained when the samples are preserved in the conditions that applied prior to their collection. Any sample degradation equates to loss of information. Based on detailed review of pertinent scientific literature, and advice from experts in planetary sample analysis, number values are recommended for key parameters in the environmental control of collected samples with respect to material contamination, temperature, head-space gas pressure, ionizing radiation, magnetic fields, and acceleration/shock. Parametric values recommended for the most sensitive geologic samples should also be adequate to preserve any biogenic compounds or exobiological relics

  12. Sampling strategy to develop a primary core collection of apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 435 accessions of apple germplasm collected from the Xincheng National Apple Germplasm Repository and 10 morphological traits of them were used for studying the optimal sampling strategy for primary core collection of apple (Malus domestica Brokh). In order to acquire the appropriate primary core collection,..

  13. How the Monte Carlo production of a wide variety of different samples is centrally handled in the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Corti, G; Clemencic, M; Closier, J; Couturier, B; Kreps, M; Mathe, Z; O'Hanlon, D; Robbe, P; Romanovsky, V; Stagni, F; Zhelezov, A

    2015-01-01

    In the LHCb experiment a wide variety of Monte Carlo simulated samples needs to be produced for the experiment's physics program. Monte Carlo productions are handled centrally similarly to all massive processing of data in the experiment. In order to cope with the large set of different types of simulation samples, necessary procedures based on common infrastructures have been set up with a numerical event type identification code used throughout. The various elements in the procedure, from writing a configuration for an event type to deploying them on the production environment, from submitting and processing a request to retrieving the sample produced as well as the conventions established to allow their interplay will be described. The choices made have allowed a high level of automation of Monte Carlo productions that are handled centrally in a transparent way with experts concentrating on their specific tasks. As a result the massive Monte Carlo production of the experiment is efficiently processed on a ...

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.; Duncan, A.

    2010-01-28

    During the month of September 2008, grout core samples were collected from the Saltstone Disposal Facility, Vault 4, cell E. This grout was placed during processing campaigns in December 2007 from Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment Batch 2 salt solution. The 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria sample collected on 11/16/07 represents the salt solution in the core samples. Core samples were retrieved to initiate the historical database of properties of emplaced Saltstone and to demonstrate the correlation between field collected and laboratory prepared samples. Three samples were collected from three different locations. Samples were collected using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit. In April 2009, the core samples were removed from the evacuated sample container, inspected, transferred to PVC containers, and backfilled with nitrogen. Samples furthest from the wall were the most intact cylindrically shaped cored samples. The shade of the core samples darkened as the depth of coring increased. Based on the visual inspection, sample 3-3 was selected for all subsequent analysis. The density and porosity of the Vault 4 core sample, 1.90 g/cm{sup 3} and 59.90% respectively, were comparable to values achieved for laboratory prepared samples. X-ray diffraction analysis identified phases consistent with the expectations for hydrated Saltstone. Microscopic analysis revealed morphology features characteristic of cementitious materials with fly ash and calcium silicate hydrate gel. When taken together, the results of the density, porosity, x-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic analysis support the conclusion that the Vault 4, Cell E core sample is representative of the expected waste form.

  15. The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS)—A master catalog and collections management plan for U.S. Geological Survey geologic samples and sample collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is widely recognized in the earth science community as possessing extensive collections of earth materials collected by research personnel over the course of its history. In 2006, a Geologic Collections Inventory was conducted within the USGS Geology Discipline to determine the extent and nature of its sample collections, and in 2008, a working group was convened by the USGS National Geologic and Geophysical Data Preservation Program to examine ways in which these collections could be coordinated, cataloged, and made available to researchers both inside and outside the USGS. The charge to this working group was to evaluate the proposition of creating a Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS), a centralized database that would (1) identify all existing USGS geologic collections, regardless of size, (2) create a virtual link among the collections, and (3) provide a way for scientists and other researchers to obtain access to the samples and data in which they are interested. Additionally, the group was instructed to develop criteria for evaluating current collections and to establish an operating plan and set of standard practices for handling, identifying, and managing future sample collections. Policies and procedures promoted by the GCMS would be based on extant best practices established by the National Science Foundation and the Smithsonian Institution. The resulting report—USGS Circular 1410, “The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS): A Master Catalog and Collections Management Plan for U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Samples and Sample Collections”—has been developed for sample repositories to be a guide to establishing common practices in the collection, retention, and disposal of geologic research materials throughout the USGS.

  16. Mars Technology Rover with Arm-Mounted Percussive Coring Tool, Microimager, and Sample-Handling Encapsulation Containerization Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younse, Paulo J.; Dicicco, Matthew A.; Morgan, Albert R.

    2012-01-01

    A report describes the PLuto (programmable logic) Mars Technology Rover, a mid-sized FIDO (field integrated design and operations) class rover with six fully drivable and steerable cleated wheels, a rocker-bogey suspension, a pan-tilt mast with panorama and navigation stereo camera pairs, forward and rear stereo hazcam pairs, internal avionics with motor drivers and CPU, and a 5-degrees-of-freedom robotic arm. The technology rover was integrated with an arm-mounted percussive coring tool, microimager, and sample handling encapsulation containerization subsystem (SHEC). The turret of the arm contains a percussive coring drill and microimager. The SHEC sample caching system mounted to the rover body contains coring bits, sample tubes, and sample plugs. The coring activities performed in the field provide valuable data on drilling conditions for NASA tasks developing and studying coring technology. Caching of samples using the SHEC system provide insight to NASA tasks investigating techniques to store core samples in the future.

  17. The ABN Database: Sampling Strategies for Collection Overlap Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochester, Maxine K.

    1987-01-01

    Reports the methodology and results of a study which explored the potential of three approaches to sampling the Australian Bibliographic Network (ABN) database files for determining collection overlap among Australian libraries. (Author/CLB)

  18. Fieldwork and catalogue of samples collected in Polan, September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, N.; Drewniak, A.; Glowniak, E.; Ineson, J.; Matyja, B.A.; Merta, T.; Wierzbowski, A.

    1995-12-31

    This report lists the collection of samples taken during the field work of the EFP-95 Project, named `The Polish Middle to Late Jurassic Epicratonic basin, stratigraphy, facies and basin history` (short title: Jurrasic basin study, Poland) in Poland, August 7-20, 1995. The samples were collected for palynological studies, and/or sedimentaological studies, and/or source rock studies, and/or reservoir rock characteristics. Prepared samples (slides etc.) are stored in the collections of the GEUS, and remaining rock-material at the store of the GEUS. Field work with collection of samples for palynological studies has been carried earlier in 1988 and at the Oxfordian and Kimmeridgian Joint Working Groups Meeting 1992. (au)

  19. Collection and preparation of bottom sediment samples for analysis of radionuclides and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    The publication is the first in a series of TECDOCs on sampling and sample handling as part of the IAEA support to improve reliability of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) in Member State laboratories. The purpose of the document is to provide information on the methods for collecting sediments, the equipment used, and the sample preparation techniques for radionuclide and elemental analysis. The most appropriate procedures for defining the strategies and criteria for selecting sampling locations, for sample storage and transportation are also given. Elements of QA/QC and documentation needs for sampling and sediment analysis are discussed. Collection and preparation of stream and river bottom sediments, lake bottom sediments, estuary bottom sediments, and marine (shallow) bottom sediments are covered. The document is intended to be a comprehensive manual for the collection and preparation of bottom sediments as a prerequisite to obtain representative and meaningful results using NATs. Quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) is emphasized as an important aspect to ensure proper collection, transportation, preservation, and analysis since it forms the basis for interpretation and legislation. Although there are many approaches and methods available for sediment analyses, the scope of the report is limited to sample preparation for (1) analysis of radionuclides (including sediment dating using radionuclides such as Pb-210 and Cs-137) and (2) analysis of trace, minor and major elements using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as NAA, XRF and PIXE

  20. Sampling strategy to develop a primary core collection of apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... A total of 435 accessions of apple germplasm collected from the Xincheng National Apple Germplasm. Repository and 10 morphological traits of them were used for studying the optimal sampling strategy for primary core collection of apple (Malus domestica Brokh). In order to acquire the appropriate.

  1. The Apollo lunar samples collection analysis and results

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the specific mission planning for lunar sample collection, the equipment used, and the analysis and findings concerning the samples at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Texas. Anthony Young documents the collection of Apollo samples for the first time for readers of all backgrounds, and includes interviews with many of those involved in planning and analyzing the samples. NASA contracted with the U.S. Geologic Survey to perform classroom and field training of the Apollo astronauts. NASA’s Geology Group within the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, helped to establish the goals of sample collection, as well as the design of sample collection tools, bags, and storage containers. In this book, detailed descriptions are given on the design of the lunar sampling tools, the Modular Experiment Transporter used on Apollo 14, and the specific areas of the Lunar Rover vehicle used for the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions, which carried the sampling tools, bags, and other related equipment ...

  2. Quantification and handling of sampling errors in instrumental measurements: a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Bro, R.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental measurements are often used to represent a whole object even though only a small part of the object is actually measured. This can introduce an error due to the inhomogeneity of the product. Together with other errors resulting from the measuring process, such errors may have a serious...... impact on the results when the instrumental measurements are used for multivariate regression and prediction. This paper gives examples of how errors influencing the predictions obtained by a multivariate regression model can be quantified and handled. Only random errors are considered here, while...... in certain situations, the effect of systematic errors is also considerable. The relevant errors contributing to the prediction error are: error in instrumental measurements (x-error), error in reference measurements (y-error), error in the estimated calibration model (regression coefficient error) and model...

  3. Sampling and sample handling procedures for priority pollutants in surface coal mining wastewaters. [Detailed list to be analyzed for

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, R. S.; Johnson, D. O.; Henricks, J. D.

    1979-03-01

    The report describes the procedures used by Argonne National Laboratory to sample surface coal mine effluents in order to obtain field and laboratory data on 110 organic compounds or classes of compounds and 14 metals and minerals that are known as priority pollutants, plus 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD/sub 5/), total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total suspended solids (TSS). Included are directions for preparation of sampling containers and equipment, methods of sampling and sample preservation, and field and laboratory protocols, including chain-of-custody procedures. Actual analytical procedures are not described, but their sources are referenced.

  4. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasas, Alex; Ramalhinho, Helena; Pessoa, Luciana S; Resende, Mauricio G C; Caballé, Imma; Barba, Nuria

    2014-01-09

    Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem.

  5. Standard Practice for Handling, Transporting, and Installing Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) Sample Plates Used in Environmentally Controlled Areas for Spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the handling, transporting, and installing of sample plates used for the gravimetric determination of nonvolatile residue (NVR) within and between facilities. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. Sampling strategy for a core collection of Peruvian quinoa germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R; Ruiz-Tapia, E N; Mujica-Sanchez, A

    1998-03-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is an Andean crop with a high potential for cultivation under temperate agricultural conditions. A new quinoa cultivar for such an environment requires plant characteristics that may be available primarily largely in genetic resources held in gene banks. A core collection may simplify management and enhance the utilisation of quinoa genetic resources. This paper describes the development of a core subset of the whole quinoa gene bank (1029 accessions) of the Universidad Nacional del Altiplano (UNAP). All accessions available in this gene bank have location and altitude descriptors and a partial description for qualitative and quantitative descriptors. The core collection (103 accessions) contains chosen ecotypes or landraces that capture most of the genetic variability available in this Peruvian germplasm. The accessions were selected for the core collection based on a geographically stratified non-overlapping sampling procedure. The number of accessions that were allocated to the core subset was determined using a proportional method adjusted by the relative importance of the quinoa crop in each geographical cluster as determined by its acreage. The sampling method also considered the morphological diversity within four geographical clusters of at least 100 accessions. The multivariate pattern of morphological variation was defined within each of these clusters by independent principal component analyses. A comparison of phenotypic diversity between the entire collection and its core subset confirmed that the proper sampling strategy for this core collection of Peruvian quinoa germplasm had been applied. The most important phenotypic correlations between quantitative descriptors observed in the entire collection, which may be under the control of co-adapted gene complexes, were also preserved by the core collection. The most comprenhensive quinoa core collection should consider accessions from other gene banks in Bolivia and Ecuador, a

  7. Automated, Ultra-Sterile Solid Sample Handling and Analysis on a Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Maria F.; Stockton, Amanda M.; Willis, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    There are no existing ultra-sterile lab-on-a-chip systems that can accept solid samples and perform complete chemical analyses without human intervention. The proposed solution is to demonstrate completely automated lab-on-a-chip manipulation of powdered solid samples, followed by on-chip liquid extraction and chemical analysis. This technology utilizes a newly invented glass micro-device for solid manipulation, which mates with existing lab-on-a-chip instrumentation. Devices are fabricated in a Class 10 cleanroom at the JPL MicroDevices Lab, and are plasma-cleaned before and after assembly. Solid samples enter the device through a drilled hole in the top. Existing micro-pumping technology is used to transfer milligrams of powdered sample into an extraction chamber where it is mixed with liquids to extract organic material. Subsequent chemical analysis is performed using portable microchip capillary electrophoresis systems (CE). These instruments have been used for ultra-highly sensitive (parts-per-trillion, pptr) analysis of organic compounds including amines, amino acids, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and thiols. Fully autonomous amino acid analyses in liquids were demonstrated; however, to date there have been no reports of completely automated analysis of solid samples on chip. This approach utilizes an existing portable instrument that houses optics, high-voltage power supplies, and solenoids for fully autonomous microfluidic sample processing and CE analysis with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Furthermore, the entire system can be sterilized and placed in a cleanroom environment for analyzing samples returned from extraterrestrial targets, if desired. This is an entirely new capability never demonstrated before. The ability to manipulate solid samples, coupled with lab-on-a-chip analysis technology, will enable ultraclean and ultrasensitive end-to-end analysis of samples that is orders of magnitude more sensitive than the ppb goal given

  8. Apparatus and process for collection of gas and vapor samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dennis G [Augusta, GA; Peterson, Kurt D [Aiken, SC; Riha, Brian D [Augusta, GA

    2008-04-01

    A gas sampling apparatus and process is provided in which a standard crimping tool is modified by an attached collar. The collar permits operation of the crimping tool while also facilitating the introduction of a supply of gas to be introduced into a storage vial. The introduced gas supply is used to purge ambient air from a collection chamber and an interior of the sample vial. Upon completion of the purging operation, the vial is sealed using the crimping tool.

  9. Implementation of an Enhanced Measurement Control Program for handling nuclear safety samples at WSRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boler-Melton, C.; Holland, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    In the separation and purification of nuclear material, nuclear criticality safety (NCS) is of primary concern. The primary nuclear criticality safety controls utilized by the Savannah River Site (SRS) Separations Facilities involve administrative and process equipment controls. Additional assurance of NCS is obtained by identifying key process hold points where sampling is used to independently verify the effectiveness of production control. Nuclear safety measurements of samples from these key process locations provide a high degree of assurance that processing conditions are within administrative and procedural nuclear safety controls. An enhanced procedure management system aimed at making improvements in the quality, safety, and conduct of operation was implemented for Nuclear Safety Sample (NSS) receipt, analysis, and reporting. All procedures with nuclear safety implications were reviewed for accuracy and adequate detail to perform the analytical measurements safely, efficiently, and with the utmost quality. Laboratory personnel worked in a ''Deliberate Operating'' mode (a systematic process requiring continuous expert oversight during all phases of training, testing, and implementation) to initiate the upgrades. Thus, the effort to revise and review nuclear safety sample procedures involved a team comprised of a supervisor, chemist, and two technicians for each procedure. Each NSS procedure was upgraded to a ''Use Every Time'' (UET) procedure with sign-off steps to ensure compliance with each step for every nuclear safety sample analyzed. The upgrade program met and exceeded both the long and short term customer needs by improving measurement reliability, providing objective evidence of rigid adherence to program principles and requirements, and enhancing the system for independent verification of representative sampling from designated NCS points

  10. Sample size for collecting germplasms – a polyploid model with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Conservation; diploid; exploration; germplasm; inbreeding; polyploid; seeds ... A seed factor which influences the plant sample size has also been isolated to aid the collectors in selecting the appropriate combination of number of plants and seeds per plant. ..... able saving of resources during collection and storage of.

  11. Analysis of core samples from the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert gas hydrate stratigraphic test well: Insights into core disturbance and handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Lu, Hailong; Winters, William; Boswell, Ray; Hunter, Robert; Collett, Timothy S.

    2009-09-01

    Collecting and preserving undamaged core samples containing gas hydrates from depth is difficult because of the pressure and temperature changes encountered upon retrieval. Hydrate-bearing core samples were collected at the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well in February 2007. Coring was performed while using a custom oil-based drilling mud, and the cores were retrieved by a wireline. The samples were characterized and subsampled at the surface under ambient winter arctic conditions. Samples thought to be hydrate bearing were preserved either by immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN), or by storage under methane pressure at ambient arctic conditions, and later depressurized and immersed in LN. Eleven core samples from hydrate-bearing zones were scanned using x-ray computed tomography to examine core structure and homogeneity. Features observed include radial fractures, spalling-type fractures, and reduced density near the periphery. These features were induced during sample collection, handling, and preservation. Isotopic analysis of the methane from hydrate in an initially LN-preserved core and a pressure-preserved core indicate that secondary hydrate formation occurred throughout the pressurized core, whereas none occurred in the LN-preserved core, however no hydrate was found near the periphery of the LN-preserved core. To replicate some aspects of the preservation methods, natural and laboratory-made saturated porous media samples were frozen in a variety of ways, with radial fractures observed in some LN-frozen sands, and needle-like ice crystals forming in slowly frozen clay-rich sediments. Suggestions for hydrate-bearing core preservation are presented.

  12. USAGE OF PRESSURE OSCILLATIONS OF FLUCTUATING GAS FLOW FOR HANDLING OF 40X HARDENED STEEL SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Il'ina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with experience in the use of advanced technology of aeroacoustic treatment of materials for impact toughness improvement of the 40X type constructional steel samples. The method is based on the influence of pulsating air stream with oscillating shock-wave structures on the sample. As a result, the so-called Maxwell's waves are generated in the sample, that can lead to a beneficial transformation in the micro- and substructure and also in the phase structure of hardened steels. Obtained changes may be enough to improve impact toughness and decrease the residual stresses that arise in the course of previous treatments. Distortion of components decreases in this case, and failure probability becomes lower at the further treatment and operation. The advantage of technology is elimination of the additional heat treatment, for example, of the relaxation annealing that serves to reduce the residual stresses. This can be useful, particularly, for the preservation of high hardness and wear resistance, obtained by hardening and low-temperature tempering (about 200 ° C, as the relaxation annealing has typically a higher temperature and will result in their reduction. The toughness increase of the samples is assumed as an indicator of the positive impact of the considered treatment. Main Results. We have defined characteristics and modes of experimental acoustic transducer implementing the aeroacoustic processing. Experiments have been carried out on the impact assessment of aeroacoustic effects on the toughness of widely used 40X type steel. The obtained results enable to suggest that the application of aeroacoustic treatment for samples hardened by heat treatment leads to the toughness increasing of the investigated material. In this case an increased value of hardness obtained after heat treatment is maintained. Practical Relevance. The results supplement previously obtained experimental data for aeroacoustic

  13. Use of CTX-I and PINP as bone turnover markers: National Bone Health Alliance recommendations to standardize sample handling and patient preparation to reduce pre-analytical variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, P; Naylor, K; Hoyle, N R; Eastell, R; Leary, E T

    2017-09-01

    The National Bone Health Alliance (NBHA) recommends standardized sample handling and patient preparation for C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I) and N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) measurements to reduce pre-analytical variability. Controllable and uncontrollable patient-related factors are reviewed to facilitate interpretation and minimize pre-analytical variability. The IOF and the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) Bone Marker Standards Working Group have identified PINP and CTX-I in blood to be the reference markers of bone turnover for the fracture risk prediction and monitoring of osteoporosis treatment. Although used in clinical research for many years, bone turnover markers (BTM) have not been widely adopted in clinical practice primarily due to their poor within-subject and between-lab reproducibility. The NBHA Bone Turnover Marker Project team aim to reduce pre-analytical variability of CTX-I and PINP measurements through standardized sample handling and patient preparation. Recommendations for sample handling and patient preparations were made based on review of available publications and pragmatic considerations to reduce pre-analytical variability. Controllable and un-controllable patient-related factors were reviewed to facilitate interpretation and sample collection. Samples for CTX-I must be collected consistently in the morning hours in the fasted state. EDTA plasma is preferred for CTX-I for its greater sample stability. Sample collection conditions for PINP are less critical as PINP has minimal circadian variability and is not affected by food intake. Sample stability limits should be observed. The uncontrollable aspects (age, sex, pregnancy, immobility, recent fracture, co-morbidities, anti-osteoporotic drugs, other medications) should be considered in BTM interpretation. Adopting standardized sample handling and patient preparation procedures will significantly reduce controllable pre

  14. Are Flow Injection-based Approaches Suitable for Automated Handling of Solid Samples?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald; Cerdà, Victor

    Flow-based approaches were originally conceived for liquid-phase analysis, implying that constituents in solid samples generally had to be transferred into the liquid state, via appropriate batch pretreatment procedures, prior to analysis. Yet, in recent years, much effort has been focused...... electrolytic or aqueous leaching, on-line dialysis/microdialysis, in-line filtration, and pervaporation-based procedures have been successfully implemented in continuous flow/flow injection systems. In this communication, the new generation of flow analysis, including sequential injection, multicommutated flow...... with the potential hyphenation with modern analytical instrumentation for automated monitoring of the content of targeted species in the on-line generated extracts [3,4]. [1] Z.-L. Zhi, A. Ríos, M. Valcárcel, Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem., 26 (1996) 239. [2] M. Miró, E.H. Hansen, R. Chomchoei, W. Frenzel, TRAC-Trends Anal...

  15. Developing Expertise and Connoisseurship Through Handling Objects of Good Design: Example of the I.L.E.A./Camberwell Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Georgaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article takes an existing collection of design objects, the I.L.E.A./Camberwell Collection, to discuss issues of expertise, connoisseurship, and taste-formation. The article examines how the discipline of design history provides appropriate methodologies which explain expertise and connoisseurship in design with reference to the taste agenda informing the I.L.E.A./Camberwell Collection. The investigation focuses on disentangling and appraising the collection’s dual identity: as the repository of a historically contained notion of taste and as an active educational agent, being currently utilized in the University of the Arts London as a learning resource. The article proposes “handling” as a relevant research perspective. Handling’s particular advantages in investigating material culture are presented with reference to the increased importance of object-based learning and the need to extend the dominance of vision and language as the main learning modalities. The conclusion argues that while taste-formation on the principles of “good design” proved a flawed project, the practice of handling objects is of unique pedagogical value and fosters the development of expertise and connoisseurship in design.

  16. Device for collecting and analyzing matrix-isolated samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Gerald T.

    1979-01-01

    A gas-sample collection device is disclosed for matrix isolation of individual gas bands from a gas chromatographic separation and for presenting these distinct samples for spectrometric examination. The device includes a vacuum chamber containing a rotatably supported, specular carrousel having a number of external, reflecting surfaces around its axis of rotation for holding samples. A gas inlet is provided for depositing sample and matrix material on the individual reflecting surfaces maintained at a sufficiently low temperature to cause solidification. Two optical windows or lenses are installed in the vacuum chamber walls for transmitting a beam of electromagnetic radiation, for instance infrared light, through a selected sample. Positioned within the chamber are two concave mirrors, the first aligned to receive the light beam from one of the lenses and focus it to the sample on one of the reflecting surfaces of the carrousel. The second mirror is aligned to receive reflected light from that carrousel surface and to focus it outwardly through the second lens. The light beam transmitted from the sample is received by a spectrometer for determining absorption spectra.

  17. Search for Martian fossil communities: Science strategies, sediment sites, and sample handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The strategy for locating and sampling possible fossilized Martian organisms benefits from our experience with fossil microbial ecosystems on Earth. Evidence of early life is typically preserved as stromatolites in carbonates and cherts, and as microfossils in cherts, carbonates and shales. Stromatolites, which are laminated flat or domal structures built by microbial communities, are very likely the oldest and most widespread relics of early life. These communities flourished in supratidal to subtidal coastal benthic environments, wherever sunlight was available and where incoming sediments were insufficient to bury the communities before they became established. A logical site for such communities on Mars might be those areas in an ancient lake bed which were furthest from sediment input, but were still sufficiently shallow to have received sunlight. Therefore, although some sites within Valles Marineris might have contained ponded water, the possibly abundant sediment inputs might have overwhelmed stromatolite-like communities. Localized depressions which acted as catchment basins for ancient branched valley systems might be superior sites. Perhaps such depressions received drainage which, because of the relatively modest water discharges implied for these streams, was relatively low in transported sediment. Multiple streams converging on a single basin might have been able to maintain a shallow water environment for extended periods of time.

  18. Collection and preparation of water samples for hydrogeochemical reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baucom, E.I.; Ferguson, R.B.; Wallace, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A method based on ion exchange and neutron activation analysis (NAA) was developed and field-tested to determine uranium over the range 0.02 to 10,000 ppb in natural water using a single procedure. Water samples are filtered in the field using a specially-designed one-liter filter apparatus pressurized to 40 psig with an inert gas. The filtered water is treated with a high purity, mixed cation-anion resin in the hydronium-hydroxide form. All ions are removed from solution under the strong driving force of the neutralization reaction. Anionic, cationic, and natural complexes of uranium can be concentrated with this method. Field tests showed greater than 95 percent recovery of 13 elements analyzed (including greater than 99 percent recovery of uranium) and greater than or equal to 90 percent recovery of 4 other elements. Uranium collected on the resin was quantitatively determined by NAA. Coefficient of variation for sampling plus analysis was less than 20 percent for samples containing more than 0.1 ppb uranium. Advantages of this method include: (1) wide dynamic range, (2) low detection limit for uranium (0.02 ppb), (3) high precision and accuracy, (4) relatively low cost, (5) high-yield recovery from low-level aqueous samples without risk of loss to containers, (6) decreased risk of significant sample contamination compared with other low-level methods, (7) production of stable samples suitable for retrievable storage, and(8) concentration of other ions that can be determined by NAA. This paper presents (1) background regarding development of procedures for sample collection and preparation, (2) results of development programs, (3) description of equipment and field procedures, and (4) preliminary conclusions regarding use of this technology for hydrogeochemical reconnaissance for uranium

  19. Experimental and Sampling Design for the INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-02-16

    This report describes the experimental and sampling design developed to assess sampling approaches and methods for detecting contamination in a building and clearing the building for use after decontamination. An Idaho National Laboratory (INL) building will be contaminated with BG (Bacillus globigii, renamed Bacillus atrophaeus), a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (BA). The contamination, sampling, decontamination, and re-sampling will occur per the experimental and sampling design. This INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test is being planned by the Validated Sampling Plan Working Group (VSPWG). The primary objectives are: 1) Evaluate judgmental and probabilistic sampling for characterization as well as probabilistic and combined (judgment and probabilistic) sampling approaches for clearance, 2) Conduct these evaluations for gradient contamination (from low or moderate down to absent or undetectable) for different initial concentrations of the contaminant, 3) Explore judgment composite sampling approaches to reduce sample numbers, 4) Collect baseline data to serve as an indication of the actual levels of contamination in the tests. A combined judgmental and random (CJR) approach uses Bayesian methodology to combine judgmental and probabilistic samples to make clearance statements of the form "X% confidence that at least Y% of an area does not contain detectable contamination” (X%/Y% clearance statements). The INL-2 experimental design has five test events, which 1) vary the floor of the INL building on which the contaminant will be released, 2) provide for varying the amount of contaminant released to obtain desired concentration gradients, and 3) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. Desirable contaminant gradients would have moderate to low concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations down to zero in other rooms. Such gradients would provide a range of contamination levels to challenge the sampling

  20. Organic analysis of ambient samples collected near Tank 241-C-103: Results from samples collected on May 12, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Lucke, R.B.; Young, J.S.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes organic analyses results from ambient samples collected both upwind and through the vapor sampling system (VSS) near Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-103 (referred to as Tank C-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed. Quantitative results were obtained for organic compounds. Five organic tentatively identified compounds (TICS) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, we looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. We observed 39. Of these, only one was observed above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrument detection limit. Dichloromethane was above the detection limits using both methods, but the result from the TO-14 method is traceable to a standard gas mixture and is considered more accurate. Organic analytes were found only in the sample collected through the VSS, suggesting that these compounds were residual contamination from a previous sampling job. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text

  1. Modeling evaporative loss of oil mist collected by sampling filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, P C; Volckens, J; Leith, D

    2000-01-01

    Oil mists can cause respiratory distress and have been linked to skin and gastrointestinal cancers in workers. Standard concentration assessment methods call for sampling these mists with fibrous or membrane filters. Previous experimental studies using glass fiber (GF) filters and polyvinyl chloride and polytetrafluoroethylene membrane filters indicate that mist sampled onto filters may volatilize. A model has been developed to predict the evaporation of mist collected on a fibrous sampling filter. Evaporation of retained fluid from membrane filters can be modeled by treating the filter as though it is a fibrous filter. Predictions from the model exhibit good agreement with experimental results. At low mist concentrations, the model indicates that evaporation of retained mineral oil occurs readily. At high mist concentrations, significant evaporation from the filters is not expected because the vapor accompanying the airborne mist is already saturated with the compounds in the oil. The findings from this study indicate that sampling mineral oil mist with filters in accordance with standard methods can lead to estimates of worker exposure to oil mist that are too low.

  2. Oxytocin Levels in Community-Collected Saliva Samples Transported by Dry Versus Wet Ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Lois C; Pickler, Rita H; Sullenbarger, Brent A; Connelly, Cynthia D

    2018-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide produced primarily in the hypothalamus, is associated with both critical physiological and psychological processes, particularly stress and feelings of affiliation. Increasingly, researchers are seeking ways to reliably incorporate OT as an outcome biomarker in clinical research. Previously, OT levels were measured in plasma or urine. Recently, researchers have measured this biomarker in saliva, particularly when conducting research in clinical and community settings. In spite of increased interest in the use of salivary OT in clinical research, procedures for handling, transport, and analysis of specimens vary. It is not known if significant OT protein degradation occurs if samples are initially transported on wet ice before being frozen. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of transport media (wet vs. dry ice) on OT levels derived from saliva collected from 12 postpartum women residing in the community. Saliva collected from each participant was divided between two microcentrifuge tubes (MIDSCI, Valley Park, MO), one placed on wet ice and one on dry ice for transport from the participant's home to the laboratory freezer. Time from collection to storage freezer was recorded. Laboratory personnel, blinded to method of transport, batch processed the samples. No significant differences in OT levels were found by transport method. Despite large interperson variations in OT levels, there were negligible intraperson variations. Although further research is required to identify factors (including transport time) related to interperson variation, this study supports the use of wet ice as a means of transporting salivary OT specimens in community-based research.

  3. MOBBED: A computational data infrastructure for handling large collections of event-rich time series datasets in MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eCockfield

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Experiments to monitor human brain activity during active behavior record a variety of modalities (e.g., EEG, eye tracking, motion capture, respiration monitoring and capture a complex environmental context leading to large, event-rich time series datasets. The considerable variability of responses within and among subjects in more realistic behavioral scenarios requires experiments to assess many more subjects over longer periods of time. This explosion of data requires better computational infrastructure to more systematically explore and process these collections. MOBBED is a lightweight, easy-to-use, extensible toolkit that allows users to incorporate a computational database into their normal MATLAB workflow. Although capable of storing quite general types of annotated data, MOBBED is particularly oriented to multichannel time series such as EEG that have event streams overlaid with sensor data. MOBBED directly supports access to individual events, data frames and time-stamped feature vectors, allowing users to ask questions such as what types of events or features co-occur under various experimental conditions. A database provides several advantages not available to users who process one dataset at a time from the local file system. In addition to archiving primary data in a central place to save space and avoid inconsistencies, such a database allows users to manage, search, and retrieve events across multiple datasets without reading the entire dataset. The database also provides infrastructure for handling more complex event patterns that include environmental and contextual conditions. The database can also be used as a cache for expensive intermediate results that are reused in such activities as cross-validation of machine learning algorithms.MOBBED is implemented over PostgreSQL, a widely used open source database, and is freely available under the GNU general public license at http://visual.cs.utsa.edu/mobbed.

  4. MOBBED: a computational data infrastructure for handling large collections of event-rich time series datasets in MATLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockfield, Jeremy; Su, Kyungmin; Robbins, Kay A

    2013-01-01

    Experiments to monitor human brain activity during active behavior record a variety of modalities (e.g., EEG, eye tracking, motion capture, respiration monitoring) and capture a complex environmental context leading to large, event-rich time series datasets. The considerable variability of responses within and among subjects in more realistic behavioral scenarios requires experiments to assess many more subjects over longer periods of time. This explosion of data requires better computational infrastructure to more systematically explore and process these collections. MOBBED is a lightweight, easy-to-use, extensible toolkit that allows users to incorporate a computational database into their normal MATLAB workflow. Although capable of storing quite general types of annotated data, MOBBED is particularly oriented to multichannel time series such as EEG that have event streams overlaid with sensor data. MOBBED directly supports access to individual events, data frames, and time-stamped feature vectors, allowing users to ask questions such as what types of events or features co-occur under various experimental conditions. A database provides several advantages not available to users who process one dataset at a time from the local file system. In addition to archiving primary data in a central place to save space and avoid inconsistencies, such a database allows users to manage, search, and retrieve events across multiple datasets without reading the entire dataset. The database also provides infrastructure for handling more complex event patterns that include environmental and contextual conditions. The database can also be used as a cache for expensive intermediate results that are reused in such activities as cross-validation of machine learning algorithms. MOBBED is implemented over PostgreSQL, a widely used open source database, and is freely available under the GNU general public license at http://visual.cs.utsa.edu/mobbed. Source and issue reports for MOBBED

  5. Sampling technique for collection of expired COsub(2) in studies using naturally labelled sup(13)C in calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, R.; Pelletier, G.; Gagnon, M.

    1984-01-01

    Natural isotopic labelling of animal metabolic processes presents great advantages over the use of artificially enriched compounds. These advantages include the use of natural diets, low cost and easiness of handling, sampling and disposal. Changes in the sup(13)C/sup(12)C ratio of expired COsub(2) after ingestion of a test meal containing a variable proportion of Csub(3) and/or Csub(4) plant-derived products permits measurements of the immediate oxidation of dietary carbohydrates. A breathing device for collection of expired COsub(2) and purification techniques are described. The breath-sampling device is composed of a polypropylene enclosure and a rubber bag. The rubber bag is blown up by the animal and a sample of the expired gas is transferred to a sampling glass holder in which a vacuum had been previously achieved. Sample purification of expired COsub(2) is done by differential freezing

  6. Effects of Blood Sample Collection Pre- and Post- Slaughter, Edta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were immediately subjected to Wet mount (WM), Haemotocrit centrifugation test (HCT) and Thin smear (TS) tests. The results revealed that, of the 100 samples examined, 19 (19%) were positive for the presence of Microfilaria spp while 6(6%) yielded Trypanosome spp. Of the 19 samples detected having ...

  7. Automatic collection of bovine blood samples | Hale | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A technique is described which allows automatic collection of jugular venous blood from tethered cows. In this system, blood is pumped continuously from an intravenous cannula which has a double lumen while an anticoagulant is pumped through the second opening. Diluted blood is collected in a fraction collector which ...

  8. Design of the CERN MEDICIS Collection and Sample Extraction System

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Alexander

    MEDICIS is a new facility at CERN ISOLDE that aims to produce radio-isotopes for medical research. Possible designs for the collection and transport system for the collection of radio-isotopes was investigated. A system using readily available equipment was devised with the the aim of keeping costs to a minimum whilst maintaining the highest safety standards. FLUKA, a Monte Carlo radiation transport code, was used to simulate the radiation from the isotopes to be collected. Of the isotopes to be collected 44Sc was found to give the largest dose by simulating the collection of all isotopes of interest to CERN’s MEDICIS facility, for medical research. The simulations helped guide the amount of shielding used in the final design. Swiss Regulations stipulating allowed activity level of individual isotopes was also considered within the body of the work.

  9. Bridging the Gap between Sample Collection and Laboratory Analysis: Using Dried Blood Spots to Identify Human Exposure to Chemical Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I; Blake, Thomas A; Perez, Jonas W; Crow, Brian S; Shaner, Rebecca L; Coleman, Rebecca M; Johnson, Rudolph C

    2016-05-13

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  10. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  11. The collection and field chemical analysis of water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.E.; Ealey, D.T.; Hollenbach, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    A successful water sampling program requires a clear understanding of appropriate measurement and sampling procedures in order to obtain reliable field data and representative samples. It is imperative that the personnel involved have a thorough knowledge of the limitations of the techniques being used. Though this seems self-evident, many sampling and field-chemical-analysis programs are still not properly conducted. Recognizing these problems, the Department of Energy contracted with Bendix Field Engineering Corporation through the Technical Measurements Center to develop and select procedures for water sampling and field chemical analysis at waste sites. The fundamental causese of poor field programs are addressed in this paper, largely through discussion of specific field-measurement techniques and their limitations. Recommendations for improvement, including quality-assurance measures, are also presented

  12. Concordance analysis of methylation biomarkers detection in self-collected and physician-collected samples in cervical neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Cheng-Chang; Huang, Rui-Lan; Liao, Yu-Ping; Su, Po-Hsuan; Hsu, Yaw-Wen; Wang, Hui-Chen; Tien, Chau-Yang; Yu, Mu-Hsien; Lin, Ya-Wen; Lai, Hung-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Non-attendance at gynecological clinics is a major limitation of cervical cancer screening and self-collection of samples may improve this situation. Although HPV testing of self-collected vaginal samples is acceptable, the specificity is inadequate. The current focus is increasing self-collection of vaginal samples to minimize clinic visits. In this study, we analyzed the concordance and clinical performance of DNA methylation biomarker (PAX1, SOX1, and ZNF582) detection in self-collected vaginal samples and physician-collected cervical samples for the identification of cervical neoplasm. We enrolled 136 cases with paired methylation data identified from abnormal Pap smears (n = 126) and normal controls (n = 10) regardless of HPV status at gynecological clinics. The study group comprised 37 cervical intraepithelial neoplasm I (CIN1), 23 cervical intraepithelial neoplasm II (CIN2), 16 cervical intraepithelial neoplasm III (CIN3), 30 carcinoma in situ (CIS), 13 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and seven adenocarcinomas (ACs)/adenosquamous carcinomas (ASCs). PAX1, SOX1 and ZNF582 methylation in study samples was assessed by real-time quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis. We generated methylation index cutoff values for the detection of CIN3+ in physician-collected cervical samples for analysis of the self-collected group. Concordance between the physician-collected and self-collected groups was evaluated by Cohen’s Kappa. Sensitivity, specificity and area under curve (AUC) were calculated for detection of CIN3+ lesions. Finally, we produced an optimal cutoff value with the best sensitivity from the self-collected groups. We generated a methylation index cutoff value from physician-collected samples for detection of CIN3+. There were no significant differences in sensitivity, specificity of PAX1, SOX1 and ZNF582 between the self-collected and physician-collected groups. The methylation status of all three genes in the normal control

  13. Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

  14. Sedimentary characteristics of samples collected from some submarine canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Arnold H.

    Oriented rectangular cores of 20.3 × 30.5 cm and 45.7 cm high have been collected in a number of submarine canyons off southern California (U.S.A.) and off the southern tip of Baja California (Mexico) for a detailed study of their sedimentary structures. By applying several methods, mainly X-ray

  15. Evaluation of standard methods for collecting and processing fuel moisture samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally M. Haase; José Sánchez; David R. Weise

    2016-01-01

    A variety of techniques for collecting and processing samples to determine moisture content of wildland fuels in support of fire management activities were evaluated. The effects of using a chainsaw or handsaw to collect samples of largediameter wood, containers for storing and transporting collected samples, and quick-response ovens for estimating moisture content...

  16. Curating NASA's Past, Present, and Future Extraterrestrial Sample Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Allton, J. H.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Zolensky, M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "...curation of all extra-terrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "...documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the past, present, and future activities of the NASA Curation Office.

  17. Cryogenic Collection of Complete Subsurface Samples for Molecular Biological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    knowledge of indigenous microbial organisms, including their metabolic capabilities and the ways in which they respond to changing environmental... Indigenous Pseudomonas spp. in Soil Hot Spots. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 65(4), 1786–1788. American Society for Microbiology. Retrieved...1428 856 0 96% 1 Environmental samples 1399 838 0 96% 1 Organism (phylum/ class/ genus ) Proteobacteria Uncultured Bacteria division OP11

  18. Technical Evaluation of Sample-Processing, Collection, and Preservation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    policy document entitled The National Strategy for Biosurveillance was released (White House, July 2012) as part of the National Security Strategy...concept of leveraging existing capabilities to “scan and discern the environment,” which implies the use of current technical biosurveillance ...testing of existing sample-processing technologies are expected to enable in silico evaluations of biosurveillance methodologies, equipment, and

  19. Honey residues monitoring, samples collected from three of the East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were also no targeted antibiotics were present in the samples. This result could be an indication that either the farmers and honey producers in those countries (Kenya, Uganda and South Sudan) abide by the food Safety measures and procedures, or there is a limited utilization of the targeted drugs and pesticides in ...

  20. Active handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelton, I.S.

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes the work carried out by the National Nuclear Corporation on radioactive handling projects. The categories of these active handling projects include: irradiated reactor fuel and components handling for AGR fuel and fast reactor fuel, nuclear facilities for laboratory facilities and tritium handling, and nuclear waste from power station arisings and repository design. A description is given of the design work and responsibility for the facilities in each of the above active handling categories. The work requires a consistent approach to compliance with design codes and radiological protection criteria. (U.K.)

  1. Protocol for collecting eDNA samples from streams [Version 2.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. J. Carim; T. Wilcox; M. K. Young; K. S. McKelvey; M. K. Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the 2014 field season, we had over two dozen biologist throughout the western US collect over 300 samples for eDNA analysis with paired controls. Control samples were collected by filtering 0.5 L of distilled water. No samples had any evidence of field contamination. This method of sampling verifies the cleanliness of the field equipment, as well as the...

  2. Advanced fluidic handling and use of two-phase flow for high throughput structural investigation of proteins on a microfluidic sample preparation platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P.; Snakenborg, Detlef; Møller, M.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the structure of proteins can bring forth a wealth of information about biological function and can be used to better understand the processes in living cells. This paper reports a new microfluidic sample preparation system for the structural investigation of proteins by Small Angle X......-ray Scattering (SAXS). The system includes hardware and software features for precise fluidic control, synchrotron beamline control, UV absorbance measurements and automated data analysis. The precise fluidic handling capabilities are used to transport and precisely position samples as small as 500 n...

  3. The milk samples collected with filter paper for progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiahua; Geng Guoxia; Zhang Huaiyu

    1985-01-01

    The cow milk was collected with filter paper treated with ethanol during eastrus-day (0 day) and 22th and 24th day after mating. Then it was dried and stored in room temprature until analysis for progesterone by means of radioimmunoassay. The sensitivity is 13.62 pg/bule (n = 4), the coefficients of variation within a group and between groups are 8.8% (n = 10) and 16.65% (n = 8) respectively, and the recovery is 91.23% (n = 4). The average progesterone level for 22th and 24th day in the pregnant cows (6.28 +- 1.28 ng/ml) was much higher than that in the non-pregnant cow (2.00 +- 1.18 ng/ml), the difference being significant (P < 0.001). The judgement based on progesterone level (5 pregnant and 5 non-pregnant cows) faily agreed with the clinical diagnosis

  4. Self-Collected versus Clinician-Collected Sampling for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Screening: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunny, Carole; Taylor, Darlene; Hoang, Linda; Wong, Tom; Gilbert, Mark; Lester, Richard; Krajden, Mel; Ogilvie, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Background The increases in STI rates since the late 1990s in Canada have occurred despite widespread primary care and targeted public health programs and in the setting of universal health care. More innovative interventions are required that would eliminate barriers to STI testing such as internet-based or mail-in home and community service testing for patients that are hard to reach, who refuse to go for clinician-based testing, or who decline an examination. Jurisdictions such as New Zealand and some American states currently use self-collected sampling, but without the required evidence to determine whether self-collected specimens are as accurate as clinician-collected specimens in terms of chlamydia and gonorrhea diagnostic accuracy. The objective of the review is to compare self-collected vaginal, urine, pharyngeal and rectal samples to our reference standard - clinician-collected cervical, urethral, pharyngeal and rectal sampling techniques to identify a positive specimen using nucleic acid amplification test assays. Methods The hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic and the fixed effect models were used to assess the accuracy of comparable specimens that were collected by patients compared to clinicians. Sensitivity and specificity estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported as our main outcome measures. Findings We included 21 studies based on over 6100 paired samples. Fourteen included studies examined chlamydia only, 6 compared both gonorrhea and chlamydia separately in the same study, and one examined gonorrhea. The six chlamydia studies comparing self-collection by vaginal swab to a clinician-collected cervical swab had the highest sensitivity (92%, 95% CI 87-95) and specificity (98%, 95% CI 97-99), compared to other specimen-types (urine/urethra or urine/cervix). Six studies compared urine self-samples to urethra clinician-collected samples in males and produced a sensitivity of 88% (95% CI 83-93) and a specificity of

  5. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column and dimini......When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column...... and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila....

  6. Field testing of collection cards for Cannabis sativa samples with a single hexanucleotide DNA marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeier, Lindsay; Hemenway, John; Shirley, Nicholas; LaNier, Tommy; Coyle, Heather Miller

    2011-09-01

    The validity and feasibility of using DNA collection cards in the field for preservation and analysis of Cannabis sativa genotypes were investigated using a highly specific hexanucleotide marker. Collection cards were submitted to the National Marijuana Initiative, which selectively trained and managed the collection of specific types of samples from a variety of participating agencies. Samples collected at seizure sites included fresh marijuana leaf samples, dried "dispensary" samples, U.S. border seizures, and hashish. Using a standardized PCR kit with custom-labeled oligonucleotide primers specific to marijuana, collection cards produced eight genotypes and 13 different alleles, extremely low baselines, and no cross-reactivity with control plant species. Results were produced from all sample types with the exception of hashish. Plant DNA collection cards represent an easily implementable method for the genetic identification and relatedness of C. sativa street and grow site-seized samples with applications for databasing and market disruption. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Cortisol and prolactin concentrations during repeated blood sample collection from freely moving, mouse-sized mammals (Phodopus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reburn, C J; Wynne-Edwards, K E

    2000-04-01

    Validation of a method for obtaining blood samples that does not change cortisol or prolactin concentrations yet allows serial blood samples to be collected from animals under anesthesia, without prior handling, from freely interacting social groups of small mammals. Results from five experiments are reported. Male dwarf hamsters (Phodopus spp.) were housed in modified home cages under continuous flow of compressed air that could be switched to isoflurane in O2 vehicle without approaching the cages. Dwarf hamsters respond to manual restraint with behavioral distress and increase in the concentration of the dominant glucocorticoid, cortisol, and decrease in prolactin concentration. Both effects are evident within one minute. In contrast, when this new method was used, neither cortisol nor prolactin changed in response to repeated sample collection (up to 8 successive samples at 2 hour intervals), prolonged isoflurane exposure, or substantial blood volume reduction (30%). Prolactin concentration was suppressed and cortisol concentration was increased in response to stimuli from other hamsters tested without anesthesia. Suppression of prolactin concentration was graded in response to the degree of stress and equaled the pharmacologic reduction caused by bromocryptine mesylate (50 microg of CB154 x 3 days). The technique is superior to alternatives for studies of behavioral endocrinology of freely interacting small mammals.

  8. SPME-GC analysis of THC in saliva samples collected with "EPITOPE" device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucci, N; De Giovanni, N; Chiarotti, M; Scarlata, S

    2001-07-15

    In this study we examined the presence of cannabinoids in saliva samples obtained from 24 drug-abusers. The saliva specimens were collected by "EPITOPE" system and the subsequent elution of samples was achieved by centrifugation. The resulting ultrafiltrates have been directly sampled with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and then analyzed by GC/MS. Saliva sampling is less invasive than collection of blood.

  9. Evaluation of a New Technique for iFOBT Utilising a New Sample Collection Device with Increased Buffer Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns-Toepler, Markus; Hardt, Philip

    2017-07-01

    The aims of the present study were: (i) Evaluate specificity and sensitivity of Hb Smart enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (ScheBo Biotech) compared to colonoscopy results and (ii) assess stability of a new sample collection device containing a newly formulated buffer to extract haemoglobin using buffer and stool samples spiked with defined concentrations of haemoglobin. Stool samples were quantified with the ELISA method. The stability of haemoglobin in the extraction buffer and in native stool samples, respectively, was determined daily by ELISA during storage for 5 days at 4°C and at room temperature after addition of haemoglobin. Haemoglobin ELISA had a sensitivity of 78.4% for detection of CRC with a specificity of 98%. Haemoglobin extracted in corresponding extraction buffer demonstrated stability throughout storage for 5 days at 4°C and at room temperature. Hb Smart represents a very promising tool for large-scale screening of CRC with regard to sample handling, stability and analysis of haemoglobin in faeces. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  10. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a device...

  11. How to handle speciose clades? Mass taxon-sampling as a strategy towards illuminating the natural history of Campanula (Campanuloideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilhem Mansion

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Speciose clades usually harbor species with a broad spectrum of adaptive strategies and complex distribution patterns, and thus constitute ideal systems to disentangle biotic and abiotic causes underlying species diversification. The delimitation of such study systems to test evolutionary hypotheses is difficult because they often rely on artificial genus concepts as starting points. One of the most prominent examples is the bellflower genus Campanula with some 420 species, but up to 600 species when including all lineages to which Campanula is paraphyletic. We generated a large alignment of petD group II intron sequences to include more than 70% of described species as a reference. By comparison with partial data sets we could then assess the impact of selective taxon sampling strategies on phylogenetic reconstruction and subsequent evolutionary conclusions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Phylogenetic analyses based on maximum parsimony (PAUP, PRAP, Bayesian inference (MrBayes, and maximum likelihood (RAxML were first carried out on the large reference data set (D680. Parameters including tree topology, branch support, and age estimates, were then compared to those obtained from smaller data sets resulting from "classification-guided" (D088 and "phylogeny-guided sampling" (D101. Analyses of D088 failed to fully recover the phylogenetic diversity in Campanula, whereas D101 inferred significantly different branch support and age estimates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A short genomic region with high phylogenetic utility allowed us to easily generate a comprehensive phylogenetic framework for the speciose Campanula clade. Our approach recovered 17 well-supported and circumscribed sub-lineages. Knowing these will be instrumental for developing more specific evolutionary hypotheses and guide future research, we highlight the predictive value of a mass taxon-sampling strategy as a first essential step towards illuminating the detailed

  12. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives

  13. A personal digital assistant application (MobilDent) for dental fieldwork data collection, information management and database handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, M; Häggström, M; Johansson, O; Sjögren, P

    2008-11-08

    To develop a personal digital assistant (PDA) application for oral health assessment fieldwork, including back-office and database systems (MobilDent). System design, construction and implementation of PDA, back-office and database systems. System requirements for MobilDent were collected, analysed and translated into system functions. User interfaces were implemented and system architecture was outlined. MobilDent was based on a platform with. NET (Microsoft) components, using an SQL Server 2005 (Microsoft) for data storage with Windows Mobile (Microsoft) operating system. The PDA devices were Dell Axim. System functions and user interfaces were specified for MobilDent. User interfaces for PDA, back-office and database systems were based on. NET programming. The PDA user interface was based on Windows suitable to a PDA display, whereas the back-office interface was designed for a normal-sized computer screen. A synchronisation module (MS Active Sync, Microsoft) was used to enable download of field data from PDA to the database. MobilDent is a feasible application for oral health assessment fieldwork, and the oral health assessment database may prove a valuable source for care planning, educational and research purposes. Further development of the MobilDent system will include wireless connectivity with download-on-demand technology.

  14. How to Handle Speciose Clades? Mass Taxon-Sampling as a Strategy towards Illuminating the Natural History of Campanula (Campanuloideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansion, Guilhem; Parolly, Gerald; Crowl, Andrew A.; Mavrodiev, Evgeny; Cellinese, Nico; Oganesian, Marine; Fraunhofer, Katharina; Kamari, Georgia; Phitos, Dimitrios; Haberle, Rosemarie; Akaydin, Galip; Ikinci, Nursel; Raus, Thomas; Borsch, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Speciose clades usually harbor species with a broad spectrum of adaptive strategies and complex distribution patterns, and thus constitute ideal systems to disentangle biotic and abiotic causes underlying species diversification. The delimitation of such study systems to test evolutionary hypotheses is difficult because they often rely on artificial genus concepts as starting points. One of the most prominent examples is the bellflower genus Campanula with some 420 species, but up to 600 species when including all lineages to which Campanula is paraphyletic. We generated a large alignment of petD group II intron sequences to include more than 70% of described species as a reference. By comparison with partial data sets we could then assess the impact of selective taxon sampling strategies on phylogenetic reconstruction and subsequent evolutionary conclusions. Methodology/Principal Findings Phylogenetic analyses based on maximum parsimony (PAUP, PRAP), Bayesian inference (MrBayes), and maximum likelihood (RAxML) were first carried out on the large reference data set (D680). Parameters including tree topology, branch support, and age estimates, were then compared to those obtained from smaller data sets resulting from “classification-guided” (D088) and “phylogeny-guided sampling” (D101). Analyses of D088 failed to fully recover the phylogenetic diversity in Campanula, whereas D101 inferred significantly different branch support and age estimates. Conclusions/Significance A short genomic region with high phylogenetic utility allowed us to easily generate a comprehensive phylogenetic framework for the speciose Campanula clade. Our approach recovered 17 well-supported and circumscribed sub-lineages. Knowing these will be instrumental for developing more specific evolutionary hypotheses and guide future research, we highlight the predictive value of a mass taxon-sampling strategy as a first essential step towards illuminating the detailed evolutionary

  15. ANNALS EXPRESS: Evaluation of sample stability for a quantitative faecal immunochemical test and comparison of two sample collection approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellen, Samantha; de Ferrars, Maria; Chapman, Claire Louise; Bevan, Sarah; Turvill, James; Turnock, Daniel Charles

    2018-01-01

    Faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) is increasingly being used to triage symptomatic patients for suspected colorectal cancer. However, there are limited data on the effect of pre-analytical factors on faecal haemoglobin (f-Hb) when measured by FIT. The aim of this work was to evaluate the stability of f-Hb in faeces and to compare two methods of f-Hb sampling for FIT. Six patients provided faeces for f-Hb measurement which were transferred into specialised collection devices at baseline and at 1, 2, 3 and 7 days after storage at either room temperature or 4°C. A total of 137 patients returned both faeces transferred into the specialised collection device and faeces in a standard collection pot. A quantitative immunoturbidometric method was used to measure f-Hb and results were compared categorically. Discrepant results were assessed against diagnosis. f-Hb concentration declined rapidly within a day of storage at room temperature but results remained ⩾10 µg Hb/ g faeces in 5/6 patients after two days. An f-Hb result ⩾10 µg Hb/ g faeces was obtained in 4/6 patients after storage for seven days at 4⁰C. Results obtained when patients used specialised collection devices were significantly different to results obtained when faeces was transferred into the specialised collection device in the laboratory. There is considerable heterogeneity in f-Hb sample stability therefore samples should be transferred rapidly into specialised collection devices to prevent false negative results. Use of collection devices by patients can lead to false positive results compared to their use in a laboratory.

  16. [Establishment and Management of Multicentral Collection Bio-sample Banks of Malignant Tumors from Digestive System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Si; Shen, Junwei; Zhu, Liang; Wu, Chaoqun; Li, Dongliang; Yu, Hongyu; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Yi

    2015-11-01

    To establish and manage of multicentral collection bio-sample banks of malignant tumors from digestive system, the paper designed a multicentral management system, established the standard operation procedures (SOPs) and leaded ten hospitals nationwide to collect tumor samples. The biobank has been established for half a year, and has collected 695 samples from patients with digestive system malignant tumor. The clinical data is full and complete, labeled in a unified way and classified to be managed. The clinical and molecular biology researches were based on the biobank, and obtained achievements. The biobank provides a research platform for malignant tumor of digestive system from different regions and of different types.

  17. Assembly for collecting samples for purposes of identification or analysis and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cyril V [Knoxville, TN; Smith, Rob R [Knoxville, TN

    2010-02-02

    An assembly and an associated method for collecting a sample of material desired to be characterized with diagnostic equipment includes or utilizes an elongated member having a proximal end with which the assembly is manipulated by a user and a distal end. In addition, a collection tip which is capable of being placed into contact with the material to be characterized is supported upon the distal end. The collection tip includes a body of chemically-inert porous material for binding a sample of material when the tip is placed into contact with the material and thereby holds the sample of material for subsequent introduction to the diagnostic equipment.

  18. Use of a dry-plasma collection device to overcome problems with storage and transportation of blood samples for epidemiology studies in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurgalieva, Z Z; Almuchambetova, R; Machmudova, A; Kapsultanova, D; Osato, M S; Peacock, J; Zoltek, R P; Marchildon, P A; Graham, D Y; Zhangabylov, A

    2000-11-01

    Studies are difficult in areas lacking modern facilities due to the inability to reliably collect, store, and ship samples. Thus, we sought to evaluate the use of a dry plasma collection device for seroepidemiology studies. Plasma was obtained by fingerstick using a commercial dry plasma collection device (Chemcard Plasma Collection Device) and serum (venipuncture) from individuals in Kazakhstan. Plasma samples were air dried for 15 min and then stored desiccated in foil zip-lock pouches at 4 to 6 degrees C and subsequently shipped to the United States by air at ambient temperature. Serum samples remained frozen at -20 degrees C until assayed. Helicobacter pylori status was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HM-CAP EIA) for the dry plasma and the serum samples. The results were concordant in 250 of the 289 cases (86.5%). In 25 cases (8.6%), the dry plasma samples gave indeterminate results and could not be retested because only one sample was collected. Five serum samples were positive, and the corresponding dry plasma samples were negative; one serum sample was negative, and the corresponding plasma sample was positive. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the Chemcard samples to serum were 97.6 and 97.9%, respectively, excluding those with indeterminate results. Repeated freeze-thawing had no adverse effect on the accuracy of the test. We found the dry plasma collection device to provide an accurate and practical alternative to serum when venipuncture may be difficult or inconvenient and sample storage and handling present difficulties, especially for seroepidemiologic studies in rural areas or developing countries and where freeze-thawing may be unavoidable.

  19. Molecular identification of Blastocystis sp. subtypes in water samples collected from Black sea, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloren, Zeynep; Gulabi, Berivan Basak; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the subtypes of Blastocystis sp. and complete a phylogenetic analysis of 268 water samples that were collected from the Samsun, Amasya and Sinop Provinces of the Black Sea in Turkey, between the years 2011 and 2014. Blastocystis sp. was investigated in 48 uncultured sea water samples that were collected from 4 sites within the Sinop Province. A total of 100 river water samples were collected from 37 sites in the Samsun Province and 120 river water samples were collected from 10 sampling sites within the Amasya Province. The small subunit (SSU) rDNA gene Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed for the detection of Blastocytis sp. and the PCR-positive samples were sequenced. Subsequently, the (SSU) rDNA sequences were aligned by Bioedit and phylogenetic trees were constructed for Blastocystis with reference to the genotypes from GenBank. Blastocystis sp. were found in 3 out of the 75 (4%) river water samples that were collected from the Samsun Province. Six of the 120 (5%) river water samples and 1 out of the 48 (2%) seawater samples were positive for Blastocystis in the Amasya and Sinop Provinces. There were two different subtypes (ST; 1 and 3) found from sequencing all of the samples from the investigated sites. Two and one PCR products were found to be positive for ST1 and ST3 from the different samples collected within the Samsun Province. Two and 4 PCR products from the Amasya Province were ST1 and ST3, respectively and only one sample from the Sinop Province was found to be positive for ST1. This is the first report to identify and report the occurrence of Blastocystis subtypes within the Black Sea of Turkey. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Occurrence of [i]Leptospira[/i] DNA in water and soil samples collected in eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Wójcik-Fatla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [i]Leptospira[/i] is an important re-emerging zoonotic human pathogen, disseminated by sick and carrier animals, water and soil. Weather calamities, such as flooding or cyclones favour the spreading of these bacteria. To check a potential role of natural water and soil in the persistence and spread of [i]Leptospira [/i]on the territory of eastern Poland, 40 samples of natural water and 40 samples of soil were collected from areas exposed to flooding, and 64 samples of natural water and 68 samples of soil were collected from areas not exposed to flooding. Samples of water were taken from various reservoirs (rivers, natural lakes, artificial lakes, canals, ponds, farm wells and samples of soils were taken at the distance of 1–3 meters from the edge of the reservoirs. The samples were examined for the presence of [i]Leptospira[/i] DNA by nested-PCR. Two out of 40 samples of water (5.0% collected from the area exposed to flooding showed the presence of [i]Leptospira[/i] DNA, while all 40 samples of soil from this area were negative. All samples of water and soil (64 and 68, respectively collected from the areas not exposed to flooding were negative. No significant difference were found between the results obtained in the areas exposed and not exposed to flooding. In conclusion, these results suggest that water and soil have only limited significance in the persistence and dissemination of [i]Leptospira[/i] in eastern Poland.

  1. The representativeness of pore water samples collected from the unsaturated zone using pressure-vacuum lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C.A.; Healy, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Studies have indicated that the chemistry of water samples may be altered by the collection technique, creating concern about the representativeness of the pore water samples obtained. A study using soil water pressure-vacuum lysimeters in outwash sand and glacial till deposits demonstrates that for non-dilute-solution samples the effect of pH of sampling with lysimeters is minimal, and that measured major cation and anion concentrations are representative of the natural pore water; trace-metal concentrations can be significantly altered by collection procedures at low concentrations. -from Authors

  2. A Prototype Ice-Melting Probe for Collecting Biological Samples from Cryogenic Ice at Low Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ashley

    2017-08-01

    In the Solar System, the surface of an icy moon is composed of irregular ice formations at cryogenic temperatures (mission, whose aim is to collect and analyze biological samples from the surface ice, must contain a device that collects samples without refreezing liquid and without sublimation of ice. In addition, if the samples are biological in nature, then precautions must be taken to ensure the samples do not overheat or mix with the oxidized layer. To achieve these conditions, the collector must maintain temperatures close to maintenance or growth conditions of the organism (moon-Microbe-Eukaryote-Spacecraft. Astrobiology 17, 709-720.

  3. Establishment of a cervical cancer bio-bank for the Chinese population: from project-based sample collection to routine management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ru; Li, Xiong; Zhou, Hang; Jia, Yao; Zhou, Jin; Huang, Kecheng; Tang, Fangxu; Hu, Ting; Shen, Jian; Chen, Zhilan; Wang, Shaoshuai; Sun, Haiying; Guo, Lili; Wang, Lin; Wang, Hui; Ma, Ding; Li, Shuang

    2015-08-01

    There is an increasing need for the establishment of a cervical cancer bio-bank that will facilitate both clinical and basic research. The cervical cancer bio-bank was first established in January 1999 and included two stages. First, a GWAS-based sample collection was conducted with special emphasis on the diagnosis and the retrieval of the corresponding bio-specimens, especially blood samples. Second, clinical data and their corresponding bio-specimens were routinely collected and handled. Notably, these bio-specimens also included samples from Wufeng Tujia Autonomous County, which has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in China. The specimens were collected from patients with cervical cancer and those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, while the control samples were collected from normal individuals. With special emphasis on clinical data and blood samples for the GWAS analysis, the collection of other bio-specimens was slow, and the pairing of specimens and clinical data was poor during the first stage. However, in the second stage, the pairing of the clinical data and its corresponding bio-specimens improved. At present, the samples procured and preserved in the bio-bank cover most regions of China and different ethnic groups for both the normal controls and cervical cancer patients of different pathological categories. This bio-bank of cervical cancer specimens from the Chinese population will greatly promote the studies of cervical cancer in China.

  4. Variability and reliability of POP concentrations in multiple breast milk samples collected from the same mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Risa; Ichiba, Masayoshi; Matsumoto, Akiko; Nakai, Kunihiko; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Iwai-Shimada, Miyuki; Ishiyama, Momoko; Ryuda, Noriko; Someya, Takashi; Tokumoto, Ieyasu; Ueno, Daisuke

    2018-01-13

    Risk assessment of infant using a realistic persistent organic pollutant (POP) exposure through breast milk is essential to devise future regulation of POPs. However, recent investigations have demonstrated that POP levels in breast milk collected from the same mother showed a wide range of variation daily and monthly. To estimate the appropriate sample size of breast milk from the same mother to obtain reliable POP concentrations, breast milk samples were collected from five mothers living in Japan from 2006 to 2012. Milk samples from each mother were collected 3 to 6 times a day through 3 to 7 days consecutively. Food samples as the duplicated method were collected from two mothers during the period of breast milk sample collection. Those were employed for POP (PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, and HCB) analysis. PCB concentrations detected in breast milk samples showed a wide range of variation which was maximum 63 and 60% of relative standard deviation (RSD) in lipid and wet weight basis, respectively. The time course trend of those variations among the mothers did not show any typical pattern. A larger amount of PCB intake through food seemed to affect 10 h after those concentrations in breast milk in lipid weight basis. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analyses indicated that the appropriate sample size for good reproducibility of POP concentrations in breast milk required at least two samples for lipid and wet weight basis.

  5. Private collection: high correlation of sample collection and patient admission date in clinical microbiological testing complicates sharing of phylodynamic metadata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shean, Ryan C; Greninger, Alexander L

    2018-01-01

    Infectious pathogens are known for their rapid evolutionary rates with new mutations arising over days to weeks. The ability to rapidly recover whole genome sequences and analyze the spread and evolution of pathogens using genetic information and pathogen collection dates has lead to interest in real-time tracking of infectious transmission and outbreaks. However, the level of temporal resolution afforded by these analyses may conflict with definitions of what constitutes protected health information (PHI) and privacy requirements for de-identification for publication and public sharing of research data and metadata. In the United States, dates and locations associated with patient care that provide greater resolution than year or the first three digits of the zip code are generally considered patient identifiers. Admission and discharge dates are specifically named as identifiers in Department of Health and Human Services guidance. To understand the degree to which one can impute admission dates from specimen collection dates, we examined sample collection dates and patient admission dates associated with more than 270,000 unique microbiological results from the University of Washington Laboratory Medicine Department between 2010 and 2017. Across all positive microbiological tests, the sample collection date exactly matched the patient admission date in 68.8% of tests. Collection dates and admission dates were identical from emergency department and outpatient testing 86.7% and 96.5% of the time, respectively, with >99% of tests collected within 1 day from the patient admission date. Samples from female patients were significantly more likely to be collected closer to admission date that those from male patients. We show that PHI-associated dates such as admission date can confidently be imputed from deposited collection date. We suggest that publicly depositing microbiological collection dates at greater resolution than the year may not meet routine Safe Harbor

  6. Planning for the Collection and Analysis of Samples of Martian Granular Materials Potentially to be Returned by Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, B. L.; Beaty, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Mars 2020 rover is scheduled to land on Mars in 2021 and will be equipped with a sampling system capable of collecting rock cores, as well as a specialized drill bit for collecting unconsolidated granular material. A key mission objective is to collect a set of samples that have enough scientific merit to justify returning to Earth. In the case of granular materials, we would like to catalyze community discussion on what we would do with these samples if they arrived in our laboratories, as input to decision-making related to sampling the regolith. Numerous scientific objectives have been identified which could be achieved or significantly advanced via the analysis of martian rocks, "regolith," and gas samples. The term "regolith" has more than one definition, including one that is general and one that is much more specific. For the purpose of this analysis we use the term "granular materials" to encompass the most general meaning and restrict "regolith" to a subset of that. Our working taxonomy includes the following: 1) globally sourced airfall dust (dust); 2) saltation-sized particles (sand); 3) locally sourced decomposed rock (regolith); 4) crater ejecta (ejecta); and, 5) other. Analysis of martian granular materials could serve to advance our understanding areas including habitability and astrobiology, surface-atmosphere interactions, chemistry, mineralogy, geology and environmental processes. Results of these analyses would also provide input into planning for future human exploration of Mars, elucidating possible health and mechanical hazards caused by the martian surface material, as well as providing valuable information regarding available resources for ISRU and civil engineering purposes. Results would also be relevant to matters of planetary protection and ground-truthing orbital observations. We will present a preliminary analysis of the following, in order to generate community discussion and feedback on all issues relating to: What are the

  7. Tritium concentrations in environmental water and food samples collected around the vicinity of the PNPP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, T.Y.; Enriquez, S.O.; Duran, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    The natural radioactivity levels of tritium in environmental samples collected around the vicinity and more distant environment of the first Philippine Nuclear Power Plant (PNPP-1) in Bataan were assessed. The samples analyzed consisted of water samples such as seawater, freshwater, drinking water, groundwater and rainwater; and food samples such as cereals, vegetables, fruits; meat, milk fish and crustaceans. Tritium concentrations in water samples were determined by distillation and liquid scintillation counting techniques. The food samples were analyzed for tissue-free water tritium by the freezing-drying method followed by liquid scintillation counting techniques. (Auth.) 13 refs

  8. OSIRIS-REx Touch-and-Go (TAG) Mission Design for Asteroid Sample Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Alexander; Sutter, Brian; Linn, Timothy; Bierhaus, Beau; Berry, Kevin; Mink, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in September 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid Bennu in October 2018. After several months of proximity operations to characterize the asteroid, OSIRIS-REx flies a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid's surface to collect at least 60 g of pristine regolith sample for Earth return. This paper provides mission and flight system overviews, with more details on the TAG mission design and key events that occur to safely and successfully collect the sample. An overview of the navigation performed relative to a chosen sample site, along with the maneuvers to reach the desired site is described. Safety monitoring during descent is performed with onboard sensors providing an option to abort, troubleshoot, and try again if necessary. Sample collection occurs using a collection device at the end of an articulating robotic arm during a brief five second contact period, while a constant force spring mechanism in the arm assists to rebound the spacecraft away from the surface. Finally, the sample is measured quantitatively utilizing the law of conservation of angular momentum, along with qualitative data from imagery of the sampling device. Upon sample mass verification, the arm places the sample into the Stardust-heritage Sample Return Capsule (SRC) for return to Earth in September 2023.

  9. Influence of sample collection and preanalytical sample processing on the analyses of biological markers in the European multicentre study IDEFICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplies, J; Günther, K; Bammann, K; Fraterman, A; Russo, P; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; Vanaelst, B; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Ahrens, W

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of a standardised sampling protocol and process quality across the different IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) centres on the results of the biochemical measurements. Baseline survey within the community-based intervention study. A total of 16,224 children, aged 2-8 years, enrolled in the IDEFICS baseline survey in 8 European countries. Venous or capillary blood samples were collected from 12,430 children, urine samples from 13,890 children and saliva samples from 14,019 children. A set of quality indicators was recorded for the biological blood, urine and saliva samples collected during the IDEFICS study. Results of blood and urine measurements were analysed and stratified by selected quality indicators. Concentrations of biological markers in blood and urine measured during the IDEFICS baseline survey are associated with several quality indicators assessed in this study. Between-country variations of these biomarkers are described. It was confirmed that fasting has a big influence on the concentration of certain biomarkers. Biomarkers in morning urine samples may be erroneous if the study subjects void during the night or if samples are not taken from the very first morning urine. The analysed data underline that a standardised sampling protocol is of major importance, especially in multicentre studies, but non-compliance is ever present in spite of well-defined standard operation procedures. Deviations from the protocol should therefore always be documented to avoid error pertaining to the concentration of biological markers.

  10. 78 FR 79009 - Proposed Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records (Pertains to Underground...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... requested data can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is... Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records (Pertains to Underground Metal and Nonmetal... with an opportunity to comment on proposed and continuing collections of information in accordance with...

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis antibody detection in home-collected blood samples for use in epidemiological studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenderboom, B M; van Ess, E F; van den Broek, I V F; van Loo, I H M; Hoebe, C J P A; Ouburg, S; Morré, S A

    Capillary blood collected in serum tubes was subjected to centrifugation delay while stored at room temperature. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) IgG concentrations in aliquoted serum of these blood samples remained stable for seven days after collection. CT IgG concentrations can reliably be measured in

  12. [The alternative method for albuminuria determination: second morning urine sample instead of 24-hour urine collection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barska, Iga; Mikołajczyk, Melania; Paradowski, Marek

    2013-05-01

    Urinary albumin excretion is an established risk factor for renal and cardiovascular events. Measurement of albumin in the urine daily collection is the gold standard in assessing albuminuria. The 24-hour urine collection is cumbersome procedure that generates a lot of mistakes, therefore other methods have been proposed. The aim of the study was to compare the assessment of albuminuria in the 24-hour urine collection and in the second morning urine sample as well as to determine UACR. The study included 32 patients, from whom the daily and the second morning urine samples were collected. In both samples, the albumin and creatinine concentrations were determined and the urinary albumin: creatinine ratio (UACR) was calculated. An excellent correlation between the UACR determined from the 24-hour urine collection and the other portion of the second morning sample was obtained within a wide range of albuminuria values (r = 0.9825). Furthermore, a better correlation between the same characteristics was obtained in urine of patients with normoalbuminuria when UACR did not exceed 30 mg/g creatinine (r = 0.9771). Above this value, the correlation was slightly lower for micro- and macroalbuminuria and equalled 0.9249 and 0.9332, respectively. On the basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that the second morning urine sample with the determination of UACR is a good alternative to the 24-hour urine collection and the first morning urine sample which are burdened with a preanalytical error.

  13. Acceptability of self-collected vaginal samples for HPV testing in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the acceptability of self-collected vaginal samples for HPV testing in women living in rural and urban areas of ... Conclusion: Acceptability of self-sampling for HPV testing was similarly excellent in both groups despite their difference in terms ... cancer is the leading cause of death caused by cancer in.

  14. Soil sample collection and analysis for the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Carvacho, Omar F.; Brown, Michael S.; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Magliano, Karen C.

    A unique set of soil samples was collected as part of the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study. The study was carried out to establish whether or not source profiles could be constructed using novel analytical methods that could distinguish soil dust sources from each other. The soil sources sampled included fields planted in cotton, almond, tomato, grape, and safflower, dairy and feedlot facilities, paved and unpaved roads (both urban and rural), an agricultural staging area, disturbed land with salt buildup, and construction areas where the topsoil had been removed. The samples were collected using a systematic procedure designed to reduce sampling bias, and were stored frozen to preserve possible organic signatures. For this paper the samples were characterized by particle size (percent sand, silt, and clay), dry silt content (used in EPA-recommended fugitive dust emission factors), carbon and nitrogen content, and potential to emit both PM 10 and PM 2.5. These are not the "novel analytical methods" referred to above; rather, it was the basic characterization of the samples to use in comparing analytical methods by other scientists contracted to the California Air Resources Board. The purpose of this paper is to document the methods used to collect the samples, the collection locations, the analysis of soil type and potential to emit PM 10, and the sample variability, both within field and between fields of the same crop type.

  15. 77 FR 36567 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application and Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP... requirement concerning the: Application and Approval to Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods. This... respondents or record keepers from the collection of information (total capital/startup costs and operations...

  16. Collecting Comet Samples by ER-2 Aircraft: Cosmic Dust Collection During the Draconid Meteor Shower in October 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Ron; Burkett, P. J.; Rodriquez, M.; Frank, D.; Gonzalez, C.; Robinson, G.-A.; Zolensky, M.; Brown, P.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Broce, S.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Many tons of dust grains, including samples of asteroids and comets, fall from space into the Earth's atmosphere each day. NASA periodically collects some of these particles from the Earth's stratosphere using sticky collectors mounted on NASA's high-flying aircraft. Sometimes, especially when the Earth experiences a known meteor shower, a special opportunity is presented to associate cosmic dust particles with a known source. NASA JSC's Cosmic Dust Collection Program has made special attempts to collect dust from particular meteor showers and asteroid families when flights can be planned well in advance. However, it has rarely been possible to make collections on very short notice. In 2012, the Draconid meteor shower presented that opportunity. The Draconid meteor shower, originating from Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner, has produced both outbursts and storms several times during the last century, but the 2012 event was not predicted to be much of a show. Because of these predictions, the Cosmic Dust team had not targeted a stratospheric collection effort for the Draconids, despite the fact that they have one of the slowest atmospheric entry velocities (23 km/s) of any comet shower, and thus offer significant possibilities of successful dust capture. However, radar measurements obtained by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar during the 2012 Draconids shower indicated a meteor storm did occur October 8 with a peak at 16:38 (+/-5 min) UTC for a total duration of approximately 2 hours.

  17. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  18. A sampling system for collecting gas-tight time-series hydrothermal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.; Yang, C.; Ding, K.

    2012-12-01

    It is known that the hydrothermal venting has temporal variations associated with tectonic and geochemical processes. To date, the methods for long-term monitoring of the seafloor hydrothermal systems are rare. A new sampling system has been designed to be deployed at seafloor for long term to collect gas-tight time-series samples from hydrothermal vents. Based on the modular design principle, the sampling system is currently composed of a control module and six sampling modules, which is convenient to be upgraded by adding more sampling modules if needed. The control module consists of a rechargeable battery pack and a circuit board with functions of sampling control, temperature measurement, data storage and communication. Each sampling module has an independent sampling valve, a valve actuator and a sampling cylinder. The sampling cylinder consists of a sample chamber and an accumulator chamber. Compressed nitrogen gas is used to maintain the sample at in-situ pressure. A prototype of the sampling system has been constructed and tested. First, the instrument was tested in a high-pressure vessel at a pressure of 40 MPa. Six sampling modules were successfully triggered and water samples were collected and kept at in-situ pressure after experiment. Besides, the instrument was field tested at the shallow hydrothermal field near off Kueishantao islet (24°51'N, 121°55'E), which is located offshore of northeastern Taiwan, from May 25 to May 28, 2011. The sampling system worked at an automatic mode. Each sampling module was triggered according to the preset time. Time-series hydrothermal fluids have been collected from a shallow hydrothermal vent with a depth of 16 m. The preliminary tests indicated the success of the design and construction of the prototype of the sampling system. Currently, the sampling system is being upgraded by integration of a DC-DC power conversion and serial-to-Ethernet conversion module, so that it can utilize the continuous power supply and

  19. Effect of collection material and sample processing on pig oral fluid testing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Chris; Karriker, Locke; Wang, Chong; Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Renukaradhya, Gourapura; Kittawornrat, Apisit; Lizano, Sergio; Coetzee, Johann; Main, Rodger; Meiszberg, Allison; Panyasing, Yaowalak; Zimmerman, Jeffrey

    2013-10-01

    The effect of sampling material, sample processing, and collection order on the detection of analytes in pig oral fluid specimens was evaluated. Oral fluid samples were collected from 104 pens of commercial wean-to-finish pigs using ropes made of three different materials. Processed (centrifuged and filtered) and unprocessed oral fluid samples were tested using commercial ELISAs for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) antibodies and total IgM, IgA, and IgG. Unprocessed samples were tested for PRRSV nucleic acid and processed samples were assayed for PRRSV neutralizing antibodies. Analysis of the data using repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer adjusted t tests found statistically significant, non-uniform, and assay-dependent effects of all three factors. Therefore, when testing oral fluid specimens, swine health specialists, veterinarians, and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential impact of these factors on specific analytes. For monitoring health and welfare parameters, oral fluid samples should be collected using cotton-based materials and undergo minimal post-collection processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

  1. Efficiency of Different Sampling Tools for Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Collections in Malaysian Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Wan Mohd Hafezul Wan Abdul; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Hamid, Suhaila Abd; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the sampling performance of three benthic sampling tools commonly used to collect freshwater macroinvertebrates. Efficiency of qualitative D-frame and square aquatic nets were compared to a quantitative Surber sampler in tropical Malaysian streams. The abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrates collected using each tool evaluated along with their relative variations (RVs). Each tool was used to sample macroinvertebrates from three streams draining different areas: a vegetable farm, a tea plantation and a forest reserve. High macroinvertebrate diversities were recorded using the square net and Surber sampler at the forested stream site; however, very low species abundance was recorded by the Surber sampler. Relatively large variations in the Surber sampler collections (RVs of 36% and 28%) were observed for the vegetable farm and tea plantation streams, respectively. Of the three sampling methods, the square net was the most efficient, collecting a greater diversity of macroinvertebrate taxa and a greater number of specimens (i.e., abundance) overall, particularly from the vegetable farm and the tea plantation streams (RVwater quality, but each sample required a slightly longer processing time (±20 min) compared with those gathered via the other samplers. In conclusion, all three apparatuses were suitable for macroinvertebrate collection in Malaysian streams and gathered assemblages that resulted in the determination of similar biological water quality classes using the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP). However, despite a slightly longer processing time, the square net was more efficient (lowest RV) at collecting samples and more suitable for the collection of macroinvertebrates from deep, fast flowing, wadeable streams with coarse substrates. PMID:27019685

  2. The Importance of Meteorite Collections to Sample Return Missions: Past, Present, and Future Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzenbach, L. C.; McCoy, T. J.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Abell, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    While much of the scientific community s current attention is drawn to sample return missions, it is the existing meteorite and cosmic dust collections that both provide the paradigms to be tested by these missions and the context for interpreting the results. Recent sample returns from the Stardust and Hayabusa missions provided us with new materials and insights about our Solar System history and processes. As an example, Stardust sampled CAIs among the population of cometary grains, requiring extensive and unexpected radial mixing in the early solar nebula. This finding would not have been possible, however, without extensive studies of meteoritic CAIs that established their high-temperature, inner Solar System formation. Samples returned by Stardust also revealed the first evidence of a cometary amino acid, a discovery that would not have been possible with current in situ flight instrument technology. The Hayabusa mission provided the final evidence linking ordinary chondrites and S asteroids, a hypothesis that developed from centuries of collection and laboratory and ground-based telescopic studies. In addition to these scientific findings, studies of existing meteorite collections have defined and refined the analytical techniques essential to studying returned samples. As an example, the fortuitous fall of the Allende CV3 and Murchison CM2 chondrites within months before the return of Apollo samples allowed testing of new state-of-the-art analytical facilities. The results of those studies not only prepared us to better study lunar materials, but unanticipated discoveries changed many of our concepts about the earliest history and processes of the solar nebula. This synergy between existing collections and future space exploration is certainly not limited to sample return missions. Laboratory studies confirmed the existence of meteorites from Mars and raised the provocative possibility of preservation of ancient microbial life. The laboratory studies in

  3. Sample collection of virulent and non-virulent B. anthracis and Y. pestis for bioforensics analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong-geller, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdez, Yolanda E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shou, Yulin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoshida, Thomas M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marrone, Babetta L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dunbar, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Validated sample collection methods are needed for recovery of microbial evidence in the event of accidental or intentional release of biological agents into the environment. To address this need, we evaluated the sample recovery efficiencies of two collection methods -- swabs and wipes -- for both non-virulent and virulent strains of B. anthracis and Y. pestis from four types of non-porous surfaces: two hydrophilic surfaces, stainless steel and glass, and two hydrophobic surfaces, vinyl and plastic. Sample recovery was quantified using Real-time qPCR to assay for intact DNA signatures. We found no consistent difference in collection efficiency between swabs or wipes. Furthermore, collection efficiency was more surface-dependent for virulent strains than non-virulent strains. For the two non-virulent strains, B. anthracis Sterne and Y. pestis A1122, collection efficiency was approximately 100% and 1 %, respectively, from all four surfaces. In contrast, recovery of B. anthracis Ames spores and Y. pestis C092 from vinyl and plastic was generally lower compared to collection from glass or stainless steel, suggesting that surface hydrophobicity may playa role in the strength of pathogen adhesion. The surface-dependent collection efficiencies observed with the virulent strains may arise from strain-specific expression of capsular material or other cell surface receptors that alter cell adhesion to specific surfaces. These findings contribute to validation of standard bioforensics procedures and emphasize the importance of specific strain and surface interactions in pathogen detection.

  4. Human blood RNA stabilization in samples collected and transported for a large biobank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duale Nur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa is a nation-wide population-based pregnancy cohort initiated in 1999, comprising more than 108.000 pregnancies recruited between 1999 and 2008. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of integrating RNA analyses into existing MoBa protocols. We compared two different blood RNA collection tube systems – the PAXgene™ Blood RNA system and the Tempus™ Blood RNA system - and assessed the effects of suboptimal blood volumes in collection tubes and of transportation of blood samples by standard mail. Endpoints to characterize the samples were RNA quality and yield, and the RNA transcript stability of selected genes. Findings High-quality RNA could be extracted from blood samples stabilized with both PAXgene and Tempus tubes. The RNA yields obtained from the blood samples collected in Tempus tubes were consistently higher than from PAXgene tubes. Higher RNA yields were obtained from cord blood (3 – 4 times compared to adult blood with both types of tubes. Transportation of samples by standard mail had moderate effects on RNA quality and RNA transcript stability; the overall RNA quality of the transported samples was high. Some unexplained changes in gene expression were noted, which seemed to correlate with suboptimal blood volumes collected in the tubes. Temperature variations during transportation may also be of some importance. Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that special collection tubes are necessary for RNA stabilization and they should be used for establishing new biobanks. We also show that the 50,000 samples collected in the MoBa biobank provide RNA of high quality and in sufficient amounts to allow gene expression analyses for studying the association of disease with altered patterns of gene expression.

  5. Human blood RNA stabilization in samples collected and transported for a large biobank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is a nation-wide population-based pregnancy cohort initiated in 1999, comprising more than 108.000 pregnancies recruited between 1999 and 2008. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of integrating RNA analyses into existing MoBa protocols. We compared two different blood RNA collection tube systems – the PAXgene™ Blood RNA system and the Tempus™ Blood RNA system - and assessed the effects of suboptimal blood volumes in collection tubes and of transportation of blood samples by standard mail. Endpoints to characterize the samples were RNA quality and yield, and the RNA transcript stability of selected genes. Findings High-quality RNA could be extracted from blood samples stabilized with both PAXgene and Tempus tubes. The RNA yields obtained from the blood samples collected in Tempus tubes were consistently higher than from PAXgene tubes. Higher RNA yields were obtained from cord blood (3 – 4 times) compared to adult blood with both types of tubes. Transportation of samples by standard mail had moderate effects on RNA quality and RNA transcript stability; the overall RNA quality of the transported samples was high. Some unexplained changes in gene expression were noted, which seemed to correlate with suboptimal blood volumes collected in the tubes. Temperature variations during transportation may also be of some importance. Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that special collection tubes are necessary for RNA stabilization and they should be used for establishing new biobanks. We also show that the 50,000 samples collected in the MoBa biobank provide RNA of high quality and in sufficient amounts to allow gene expression analyses for studying the association of disease with altered patterns of gene expression. PMID:22988904

  6. Blood venous sample collection: Recommendations overview and a checklist to improve quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavarina, Davide; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    The extra-analytical phases of the total testing process have substantial impact on managed care, as well as an inherent high risk of vulnerability to errors which is often greater than that of the analytical phase. The collection of biological samples is a crucial preanalytical activity. Problems or errors occurring shortly before, or soon after, this preanalytical step may impair sample quality and characteristics, or else modify the final results of testing. The standardization of fasting requirements, rest, patient position and psychological state of the patient are therefore crucial for mitigating the impact of preanalytical variability. Moreover, the quality of materials used for collecting specimens, along with their compatibility, can guarantee sample quality and persistence of chemical and physical characteristics of the analytes over time, so safeguarding the reliability of testing. Appropriate techniques and sampling procedures are effective to prevent problems such as hemolysis, undue clotting in the blood tube, draw of insufficient sample volume and modification of analyte concentration. An accurate identification of both patient and blood samples is a key priority as for other healthcare activities. Good laboratory practice and appropriate training of operators, by specifically targeting collection of biological samples, blood in particular, may greatly improve this issue, thus lowering the risk of errors and their adverse clinical consequences. The implementation of a simple and rapid check-list, including verification of blood collection devices, patient preparation and sampling techniques, was found to be effective for enhancing sample quality and reducing some preanalytical errors associated with these procedures. The use of this tool, along with implementation of objective and standardized systems for detecting non-conformities related to unsuitable samples, can be helpful for standardizing preanalytical activities and improving the quality of

  7. Advanced Curation Activities at NASA: Implications for Astrobiological Studies of Future Sample Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; Harrington, A. D.; Regberg, A. B.; Snead, C. J.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10F JSC is charged with curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions. The Directive goes on to define Curation as including documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for re-search, education, and public outreach. Here we briefly describe NASA's astromaterials collections and our ongoing efforts related to enhancing the utility of our current collections as well as our efforts to prepare for future sample return missions. We collectively refer to these efforts as advanced curation.

  8. Pediatric blood sample collection from a pre-existing peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniff, Heather; DeCarlo, Ann; Haskamp, Amy Corey; Broome, Marion E

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to minimize pain in a hospitalized child, the purpose of this observational study was to describe characteristics of blood samples collected from pre-existing peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheters in pediatric patients. One hundred and fifty blood samples were reviewed for number of unusable samples requiring a specimen to be re-drawn. Success of the blood draw and prevalence of the loss of the PIV following blood collection was also measured. Findings included one clotted specimen, success rate of 91.3%, and 1.3% of PIVs becoming non-functional after collection. Obtaining blood specimens from a pre-existing PIV should be considered in a pediatric patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Active Collection of Land Cover Sample Data from Geo-Tagged Web Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyang Hou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sample data plays an important role in land cover (LC map validation. Traditionally, they are collected through field survey or image interpretation, either of which is costly, labor-intensive and time-consuming. In recent years, massive geo-tagged texts are emerging on the web and they contain valuable information for LC map validation. However, this kind of special textual data has seldom been analyzed and used for supporting LC map validation. This paper examines the potential of geo-tagged web texts as a new cost-free sample data source to assist LC map validation and proposes an active data collection approach. The proposed approach uses a customized deep web crawler to search for geo-tagged web texts based on land cover-related keywords and string-based rules matching. A data transformation based on buffer analysis is then performed to convert the collected web texts into LC sample data. Using three provinces and three municipalities directly under the Central Government in China as study areas, geo-tagged web texts were collected to validate artificial surface class of China’s 30-meter global land cover datasets (GlobeLand30-2010. A total of 6283 geo-tagged web texts were collected at a speed of 0.58 texts per second. The collected texts about built-up areas were transformed into sample data. User’s accuracy of 82.2% was achieved, which is close to that derived from formal expert validation. The preliminary results show that geo-tagged web texts are valuable ancillary data for LC map validation and the proposed approach can improve the efficiency of sample data collection.

  10. Archival policies and collections database for the Woods Hole Science Center's marine sediment samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Brian J.; Kelsey, Sarah A.

    2007-01-01

    The Woods Hole Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been an active member of the Woods Hole research community, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for over 40 years. In that time there have been many projects that involved the collection of sediment samples conducted by USGS scientists and technicians for the research and study of seabed environments and processes. These samples were collected at sea or near shore and then brought back to the Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) for analysis. While at the center, samples are stored in ambient temperature, refrigerated and freezing conditions ranging from +2º Celsius to -18º Celsius, depending on the best mode of preparation for the study being conducted or the duration of storage planned for the samples. Recently, storage methods and available storage space have become a major concern at the WHSC. The core and sediment archive program described herein has been initiated to set standards for the management, methods, and duration of sample storage. A need has arisen to maintain organizational consistency and define storage protocol. This handbook serves as a reference and guide to all parties interested in using and accessing the WHSC's sample archive and also defines all the steps necessary to construct and maintain an organized collection of geological samples. It answers many questions as to the way in which the archive functions.

  11. Multi-element composition of historical lichen collections and bark samples, indicators of changing atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O. W.; Chimonides, P. D. J.; Jeffries, T. E.; Jones, G. C.; Rusu, A.-M.; Read, H.

    Thirty six element signatures were compared in historical Parmelia sulcata samples from the Natural History Museum herbarium collected over the period 1797-1967 with those recorded in the same species and tree bark sampled in 2000 from Burnham Beeches, lying 40 km west of London. Nineteen elements reached highest concentrations in herbarium samples, consistent with a pollution legacy and dust contamination in the herbarium. Healthy Parmelia sampled east and down-wind of London at a farm during peak SO 2 emissions in 1967 contained highest V, Ni, Zn, Cd, Se, Ge contents, supporting derivation from fuel combustion; the same sample was previously determined as having a low δ34S and high S and N contents. Lowest V, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, Ba, Pb, Mo, Sb, Li, B, Cs, U, Th, Ga contents were recorded in a sample with a high δ34S and low S content collected in 1887 from a remote region from Ross-shire, Scotland. Se and Cd enrichment, never-the-less suggest a transboundary pollution influence. Lichen Pb concentrations from Burnham Beeches were amongst the lowest recorded in spite of lichens being collected close to roads. Herbarium samples help interpret changes in element deposition where few data exist, in spite of dust contamination.

  12. "Collection of a lifetime: a practical approach to developing a longitudinal collection of women's healthcare biological samples".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, Mark K; Leslie, Kimberly K; Hamilton, Wendy S; Boese, Brenda J; Ahuja, Monika; Hunter, Stephen K; Santillan, Donna A

    2014-08-01

    The objective is to develop a biorepository of samples that represent all stages of a women's life. Importantly, our goal is to collect longitudinal physical specimens as well as the associated short and long-term clinical information. The Women's Health Tissue Repository was established to encompass four tissue banks: Well Women Tissue Bank, Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Tissue Bank, Maternal Fetal Tissue Bank, and the long-established Gynecologic Malignancies Tissue Bank. Based on their health status, women being seen in Women's Health at the University of Iowa are recruited to contribute samples and grant access to their electronic medical record to the biorepository. Samples are coded, processed, and stored for use by investigators. The Maternal Fetal Tissue Bank was the first expansion of our department's biobanking efforts. Approximately 75% of the women approached consent to participate in the Maternal Fetal Tissue Bank. Enrollment has steadily increased. Samples have been used for over 20 projects in the first 3 years and are critical to 7 funded grants and 3 patent applications. Patient samples with corresponding clinical data are initially important to women's health research. Our model demonstrates that many research projects by faculty, fellows, and residents have benefited from the existence of the Women's Health Tissue Repository. While challenging to achieve, longitudinal sampling allows for the greatest opportunity to study normal and pathological changes throughout all phases of a women's life, including pregnancy. This bank facilitates and accelerates the development of novel research, technologies, and possible therapeutic options in women's health. The establishment of more longitudinal biorepositories based on our model would enhance women's health research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Survey of elemental concentrations in lichen samples collected from Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Horimoto, L.K.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Coccaro, D.M.B.; Marcelli, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    Samples of the lichen Canoparmelia texana collected in seven different sites of Sao Paulo State and one site of the Parana State were analysed by neutron activation analysis in order to obtain information on the air quality in these regions and also to select a region of interest for the evaluation of baseline level of elements in lichen species. Concentrations of the elements Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ti, Th, U, V, Zn and lanthanides were determined and a preliminary comparisons was made between the results obtained for samples collected in different sites. (author)

  14. Sources of variability in collection and preparation of paint and lead-coating samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, S L; Gutknecht, W F

    2001-06-01

    Chronic exposure of children to lead (Pb) can result in permanent physiological impairment. Since surfaces coated with lead-containing paints and varnishes are potential sources of exposure, it is extremely important that reliable methods for sampling and analysis be available. The sources of variability in the collection and preparation of samples were investigated to improve the performance and comparability of methods and to ensure that data generated will be adequate for its intended use. Paint samples of varying sizes (areas and masses) were collected at different locations across a variety of surfaces including metal, plaster, concrete, and wood. A variety of grinding techniques were compared. Manual mortar and pestle grinding for at least 1.5 min and mechanized grinding techniques were found to generate similar homogenous particle size distributions required for aliquots as small as 0.10 g. When 342 samples were evaluated for sample weight loss during mortar and pestle grinding, 4% had 20% or greater loss with a high of 41%. Homogenization and sub-sampling steps were found to be the principal sources of variability related to the size of the sample collected. Analysis of samples from different locations on apparently identical surfaces were found to vary by more than a factor of two both in Pb concentration (mg cm-2 or %) and areal coating density (g cm-2). Analyses of substrates were performed to determine the Pb remaining after coating removal. Levels as high as 1% Pb were found in some substrate samples, corresponding to more than 35 mg cm-2 Pb. In conclusion, these sources of variability must be considered in development and/or application of any sampling and analysis methodologies.

  15. Method of determining the efficiency of air sampling traps to collect and release volatile organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucco, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    A new method is described that facilitates determining the efficiency of air sampling traps to adsorb and thermally desorb volatile organic compounds. A known volume of a liquid standard of volatile organic compounds is vaporized into an air stream, a fraction of which is collected on an air sampling trap. This trap is subsequently thermally desorbed and analyzed using a GC/FID. The efficiency of the trap to adsorb and thermally desorb each compound tested is calculated.

  16. A simple and novel method for retrieval of Pasteurellaceae from swab samples collected in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie J; Bertelsen, Mads F; Dietz, Rune

    2013-01-01

    and stored at -20°C. As a control study, 15 samples were collected from the oral cavity of a captive brown bear. One was immediately plated, while the remaining 12 swabs were stored at -20°C for 7 days and multiples of 30 days up to 330 days prior to plating. Two samples were stored without the medium for 7......Traditionally it has been difficult or impossible to collect and preserve bacterial samples of especially fastidious bacteria in mixed primary cultures, unless the samples could be transported to a laboratory within approximately 24 h. Therefore, a simple novel method for preserving swab samples...... until bacterial isolation can be completed in the laboratory was developed and evaluated. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were used as a representative for fastidious bacteria. A 7.5% glucose serum medium was used as freeze medium. Swab samples were soaked in the medium a maximum of 2 h after collection...

  17. Gamma ray spectrometry results from core samples collected for RESUME 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, D.C.W.; Allyson, J.D.; Toivonen, H.; Honkamaa, T.

    1997-01-01

    Field sampling of an airfield at Vesivehmaa, near Vaeaeksy, Finland (Area I) was carried out between 26-29 May 1995, to establish the radionuclide deposition and inventory of Chernobyl derived 137 Cs, and natural radionuclides. The objective was to establish a common calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometers, for Exercise RESUME 95 conducted in August 1995. The report presents the sampling details, handling and treatment. The analyses are discussed with particular emphasis given to 137 Ca, 134 Cs, 40 K, 214 Bi and 208 radionuclides, and the quantification of their respective deposition and inventories. The results have been used to estimate the effective concentrations of nuclides at the calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometry, and the depth distribution. For 137 Cs the weighted mean activity per unit area takes on values of 50.7±5.2 kBq m -2 at 1 m ground clearance, 51.1±6.9 kBq m -2 at 50 m height and 47.9±8.5 kBq m -2 at 100 m. The similarity of these values confirms the suitability of the Vesivehmaa site for comparison of in-situ and airborne results despite variations of a factor of two between results from individual cores. The mean α/ρ value for 137 Cs in Area I is 0.77±0.10 cm 2 g -1 (relaxation mass per unit area, β 1.31±0.15 gcm -2 ). Additional soil sampling across parts of Area II (a 6x3 km area selected for mapping Chernobyl deposition) was carried out. The mean level of 137 Cs activity from these samples was 92.4±63 kBq m -2 , a sample taken near Laihansuo showing the largest value obtained at 172 kBq m -2 . (EG)

  18. Portable automation of static chamber sample collection for quantifying soil gas flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    The collection of soil gas flux using the static chamber method is labor intensive. The number of chambers that can be sampled in a given time period is limited by the spacing between chambers and the availability of trained research technicians. However, the static chamber method can limit spatial ...

  19. Acceptability of self-collected vaginal samples for HPV testing in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the acceptability of self-collected vaginal samples for HPV testing in women living in rural and urban areas of Madagascar. Materials and methods: Participants were recruited in a health care center (urban group) and smaller affiliated dispensaries (rural group). They were invited to perform ...

  20. Use of aspiration method for collecting brain samples for rabies diagnosis in small wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamamoto, K; Quadros, J; Queiroz, L H

    2011-02-01

    In developing countries such as Brazil, where canine rabies is still a considerable problem, samples from wildlife species are infrequently collected and submitted for screening for rabies. A collaborative study was established involving environmental biologists and veterinarians for rabies epidemiological research in a specific ecological area located at the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The wild animals' brains are required to be collected without skull damage because the skull's measurements are important in the identification of the captured animal species. For this purpose, samples from bats and small mammals were collected using an aspiration method by inserting a plastic pipette into the brain through the magnum foramen. While there is a progressive increase in the use of the plastic pipette technique in various studies undertaken, it is also appreciated that this method could foster collaborative research between wildlife scientists and rabies epidemiologists thus improving rabies surveillance. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs... Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (§ 864.3260...

  2. Antimicrobial activity and pollen composition of honey samples collected from different provinces in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercan, Nazime; Guvensen, Aykut; Celik, Ali; Katircioglu, Hikmet

    2007-03-01

    The antibacterial activity of honey samples from different sources were collected and investigated against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 27736, Morganella morganii, Micrococcus luteus NRRL B-4375, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, and Candida albicans. Pathogens exhibited different sensitivities towards the honey samples. The results showed that majority of the honey samples (75%) generally inhibitied the bacteria tested. The honey samples which were obtained from Izmir (samples 1 and 2) proved more effective as inhibitors against P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and S. aureus. The honey which was obtained from Muğla (sample 5) exhibited high anticandidal activity on C. albicans. A comparison of the honey samples on the basis of pollen content revealed that they were heterofloral, and samples which had highest antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and S. aureus were dominated by pollen from Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae (sample 1), and Trifolium, Trigonella, Cyperaceae, Zea mays and Anthemis taxa (sample 2). The honey proved more effective on bacteria than antibiotics.

  3. PIXE Analysis of Aerosol and Soil Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoskowitz, Joshua; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of aerosol and soil samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the aerosol samples near Piseco Lake and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The soil samples were also collected at Piseco Lake and pressed into cylindrical pellets for experimentation. PIXE analysis of the aerosol and soil samples were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. There are higher concentrations of sulfur at smaller particle sizes (0.25-1 μm), suggesting that it could be suspended in the air for days and originate from sources very far away. Other elements with significant concentrations peak at larger particle sizes (1-4 μm) and are found in the soil samples, suggesting that these elements could originate in the soil. The PIXE analysis will be described and the resulting data will be presented.

  4. Improved explosive collection and detection with rationally assembled surface sampling materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Bays, J. Timothy; Gerasimenko, Aleksandr A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.; Addleman, R. Shane

    2016-01-01

    Sampling and detection of trace explosives is a key analytical process in modern transportation safety. In this work we have explored some of the fundamental analytical processes for collection and detection of trace level explosive on surfaces with the most widely utilized system, thermal desorption IMS. The performance of the standard muslin swipe material was compared with chemically modified fiberglass cloth. The fiberglass surface was modified to include phenyl functional groups. When compared to standard muslin, the phenyl functionalized fiberglass sampling material showed better analyte release from the sampling material as well as improved response and repeatability from multiple uses of the same swipe. The improved sample release of the functionalized fiberglass swipes resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity. Various physical and chemical properties were systematically explored to determine optimal performance. The results herein have relevance to improving the detection of other explosive compounds and potentially to a wide range of other chemical sampling and field detection challenges.

  5. Portable Automation of Static Chamber Sample Collection for Quantifying Soil Gas Flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Morgan P.; Groh, Tyler A.; Parkin, Timothy B.; Williams, Ryan J.; Isenhart, Thomas M.; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.

    2018-01-01

    Quantification of soil gas flux using the static chamber method is labor intensive. The number of chambers that can be sampled is limited by the spacing between chambers and the availability of trained research technicians. An automated system for collecting gas samples from chambers in the field would eliminate the need for personnel to return to the chamber during a flux measurement period and would allow a single technician to sample multiple chambers simultaneously. This study describes Chamber Automated Sampling Equipment (FluxCASE) to collect and store chamber headspace gas samples at assigned time points for the measurement of soil gas flux. The FluxCASE design and operation is described, and the accuracy and precision of the FluxCASE system is evaluated. In laboratory measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) concentrations of a standardized gas mixture, coefficients of variation associated with automated and manual sample collection were comparable, indicating no loss of precision. In the field, soil gas fluxes measured from FluxCASEs were in agreement with manual sampling for both N2O and CO2. Slopes of regression equations were 1.01 for CO2 and 0.97 for N2O. The 95% confidence limits of the slopes of the regression lines included the value of one, indicating no bias. Additionally, an expense analysis found a cost recovery ranging from 0.6 to 2.2 yr. Implementing the FluxCASE system is an alternative to improve the efficiency of the static chamber method for measuring soil gas flux while maintaining the accuracy and precision of manual sampling.

  6. Optimizing detection of noble gas emission at a former UNE site: sample strategy, collection, and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, R.; Olsen, K.; Hayes, J. C.; Emer, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    Underground nuclear tests may be first detected by seismic or air samplers operated by the CTBTO (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization). After initial detection of a suspicious event, member nations may call for an On-Site Inspection (OSI) that in part, will sample for localized releases of radioactive noble gases and particles. Although much of the commercially available equipment and methods used for surface and subsurface environmental sampling of gases can be used for an OSI scenario, on-site sampling conditions, required sampling volumes and establishment of background concentrations of noble gases require development of specialized methodologies. To facilitate development of sampling equipment and methodologies that address OSI sampling volume and detection objectives, and to collect information required for model development, a field test site was created at a former underground nuclear explosion site located in welded volcanic tuff. A mixture of SF-6, Xe127 and Ar37 was metered into 4400 m3 of air as it was injected into the top region of the UNE cavity. These tracers were expected to move towards the surface primarily in response to barometric pumping or through delayed cavity pressurization (accelerated transport to minimize source decay time). Sampling approaches compared during the field exercise included sampling at the soil surface, inside surface fractures, and at soil vapor extraction points at depths down to 2 m. Effectiveness of various sampling approaches and the results of tracer gas measurements will be presented.

  7. Method for rapid screening analysis of Sr-90 in edible plant samples collected near Fukushima, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Hikaru; Sakamoto, Hideaki; Shiga, Norikatsu; Suzuki, Kaori

    2016-01-01

    A screening method for measuring 90 Sr in edible plant samples by focusing on 90 Y in equilibrium with 90 Sr is reported. 90 Y was extracted from samples with acid, co-precipitated with iron hydroxide, and precipitated with oxalic acid. The dissolved oxalate precipitate was loaded on an extraction chromatography resin, and the 90 Y-enriched eluate was analyzed by Cherenkov counting with a TDCR liquid scintillation counter. 90 Sr ( 90 Y) concentration was determined in plant samples collected near the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants with this method. - Highlights: • A screening method for measuring 90 Sr in edible plant samples by focusing on 90 Y in equilibrium with 90 Sr is reported. • 90 Y was extracted from samples with acid, co-precipitated with iron hydroxide, and precipitated with oxalic acid. • The dissolved oxalate precipitate was loaded on an extraction chromatography resin. • 90 Y-enriched eluate was analyzed by Cherenkov counting with a TDCR liquid scintillation counter. • 90 Sr ( 90 Y) concentration was determined in edible plant samples collected near the damaged Fukushima Daiichi NPPs with this method.

  8. Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research. Part 3: Sampling, data collection and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Albine; Korstjens, Irene

    2018-12-01

    In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called frequently asked questions (FAQs). This series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting high-quality qualitative research in primary care. By 'novice' we mean Master's students and junior researchers, as well as experienced quantitative researchers who are engaging in qualitative research for the first time. This series addresses their questions and provides researchers, readers, reviewers and editors with references to criteria and tools for judging the quality of qualitative research papers. The second article focused on context, research questions and designs, and referred to publications for further reading. This third article addresses FAQs about sampling, data collection and analysis. The data collection plan needs to be broadly defined and open at first, and become flexible during data collection. Sampling strategies should be chosen in such a way that they yield rich information and are consistent with the methodological approach used. Data saturation determines sample size and will be different for each study. The most commonly used data collection methods are participant observation, face-to-face in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Analyses in ethnographic, phenomenological, grounded theory, and content analysis studies yield different narrative findings: a detailed description of a culture, the essence of the lived experience, a theory, and a descriptive summary, respectively. The fourth and final article will focus on trustworthiness and publishing qualitative research.

  9. Aerosol sampling system for collection of Capstone depleted uranium particles in a high-energy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Thomas D; Guilmette, Raymond A; Cheng, Yung Sung; Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Hoover, Mark D

    2009-03-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a large-caliber DU penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by a DU penetrator, (2) collect aerosols as a function of time post perforation, and (3) obtain size-classified samples for analysis of chemical composition, particle morphology, and solubility in lung fluid. This paper describes the experimental setup and sampling methodologies used to achieve these objectives. Custom-designed arrays of sampling heads were secured to the inside of the target in locations approximating the breathing zones of the crew locations in the test vehicles. Each array was designed to support nine filter cassettes and nine cascade impactors mounted with quick-disconnect fittings. Shielding and sampler placement strategies were used to minimize sampler loss caused by the penetrator impact and the resulting fragments of eroded penetrator and perforated armor. A cyclone train was used to collect larger quantities of DU aerosol for measurement of chemical composition and solubility. A moving filter sample was used to obtain semicontinuous samples for DU concentration determination. Control for the air samplers was provided by five remotely located valve control and pressure monitoring units located inside and around the test vehicle. These units were connected to a computer interface chassis and controlled using a customized LabVIEW engineering computer control program. The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol.

  10. Sample collection: an overview of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    A Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) for uranium is currently being conducted throughout the conterminous United States and Alaska. The HSSR is part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This ambitious geochemical reconnaissance program is conducted by four national laboratories: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and Savannah River Laboratory. The program is based on an extensive review of world literature, reconnaissance work done in other countries, and pilot studies conducted by each laboratory. Sample-collection methods and sample density are determined to optimize the probability of detecting potential uranium mineralization. To achieve this aim, each laboratory has developed independent standardized field collection procedures that are designed for its section of the country. Field parameters such as pH, conductivity, climate, geography, and geology are recorded at each site. Most samples are collected at densities of one sample site per 10 to 23 km 2 . The HSSR program has helped to improve existing hydrogeochemical reconnaissance exploration techniques. In addition to providing industry with data that may help to identify potential uranium districts and to extend known uranium provinces, the HSSR also provides multi-element analytical data, which can be used in water quality, soil, sediment, environmental, and base-metal exploration studies

  11. Mutagenicity and clastogenicity of native airborne particulate matter samples collected under industrial, urban or rural influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepers, C; Dergham, M; Armand, L; Billet, S; Verdin, A; Andre, V; Pottier, D; Courcot, D; Shirali, P; Sichel, F

    2014-08-01

    Airborne particulate matter has recently been classified by the IARC as carcinogenic to humans (group 1). However, the link between PM chemical composition and its carcinogenicity is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and to compare genotoxic potencies of 6 native PM samples collected in spring-summer or autumn-winter, either in industrial, urban or rural area. We evaluated their mutagenicity through Ames test on YG1041, TA98, and TA102 tester strains, and their clastogenicity on human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells using comet assay, γ-H2AX quantification, and micronucleus assay. Ames test results showed a strong positive response, presumably associated with nitro-aromatics content. In addition, at least 2 positive responses were observed out of the 3 genotoxicity assays for each of the 6 samples, demonstrating their clastogenicity. Our data suggest that PM samples collected in autumn-winter season are more genotoxic than those collected in spring-summer, potentially because of higher concentrations of adsorbed organic compounds. Taken together, our results showed the mutagenicity and clastogenicity of native PM₂.₅ samples from different origins, and bring additional elements to explain the newly recognized carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Solid waste handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.)

  13. Curating NASA's future extraterrestrial sample collections: How do we achieve maximum proficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael; Zeigler, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "…documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working to-wards a state of maximum proficiency. Founding Principle: Curatorial activities began at JSC (Manned Spacecraft Center before 1973) as soon as design and construction planning for the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) began in 1964 [1], not with the return of the Apollo samples in 1969, nor with the completion of the LRL in 1967. This practice has since proven that curation begins as soon as a sample return mission is conceived, and this founding principle continues to return dividends today [e.g., 2]. The Next Decade: Part of the curation process is planning for the future, and we refer to these planning efforts as "advanced curation" [3]. Advanced Curation is tasked with developing procedures, technology, and data sets necessary for curating new types of collections as envisioned by NASA exploration goals. We are (and have been) planning for future curation, including cold curation, extended curation of ices and volatiles, curation of samples with special chemical considerations such as perchlorate-rich samples, curation of organically- and biologically-sensitive samples, and the use of minimally invasive analytical techniques (e.g., micro-CT, [4]) to characterize samples. These efforts will be useful for Mars Sample Return

  14. Evaluation of a novel dried blood spot collection device (HemaSpot™) to test blood samples collected from dogs for antibodies to Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Pick, Leanne D; Hernandez, Jaime O Esquivel; Lindsay, David S

    2014-09-15

    Collection of blood samples from veterinary and wildlife patients is often challenging because the samples have to be collected on farm or in the wild under various environmental conditions. This poses many technical problems associated with venipuncture materials, their safe use and disposal, transportation and processing of collected samples. Dried blood spot (DBS) sample collection techniques offer a simple and practical alternative to traditional blood collection methods to obtain blood samples from animals for parasite antibody evaluation. The DBS collection devices are compact, simple to use, and are particularly useful for large number of samples. Additionally, DBS samples take up less space and they are easier to transport than traditional venipuncture-collected blood samples. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a potentially fatal parasitic disease of dogs and humans and it is frequently diagnosed by antibody tests. Immunochromatographic tests (ICT) for antibodies to Leishmania infantum are commercially available for dogs and they produce qualitative results in minutes. Measurement of canine antibodies to L. infantum with the ICT using traditional venipuncture has been validated previously, but the use of DBS samples has not been evaluated using this method. The purpose of the present study was to determine the ability of DBS samples to detect antibodies to L. infantum in dogs using a commercial ICT assay. One hundred plasma samples from dogs experimentally infected with the LIVT-1 strain of L. infantum were collected by venipuncture and frozen. Individual samples were thawed, and then 80 μl plasma (2 drops) was aliquotted onto the 8-spoked disk pad on individual DBS sample collection devices (HemaSpot™, Spot-On Sciences, Austin, TX), dried, and stored in the dark at room temperature. After one month and six months, respectively, 2 spokes of the 8 spokes of the disk pad of each DBS sample were removed and eluted in 200 μl PBS. The eluate was used to test

  15. Persistent organic pollutants in biota samples collected during the Ymer-80 expedition to the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Kylin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During the 1980 expedition to the Arctic with the icebreaker Ymer, a number of vertebrate species were sampled for determination of persistent organic pollutants. Samples of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus, n=34, glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus, n=8, common eider (Somateria mollissima, n=10, Brünnich's guillemot (Uria lomvia, n=9, ringed seal (Pusa hispida, n=2 and polar bear (Ursus maritimus, n=2 were collected. With the exception of Brünnich's guillemot, there was a marked contamination difference of birds from western as compared to eastern/northern Svalbard. Samples in the west contained a larger number of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners and also polychlorinated terphenyls, indicating local sources. Brünnich's guillemots had similar pollutant concentrations in the west and east/north; possibly younger birds were sampled in the west. In Arctic char, pollutant profiles from lake Linnévatn (n=5, the lake closest to the main economic activities in Svalbard, were similar to profiles in Arctic char from the Shetland Islands (n=5, but differed from lakes to the north and east in Svalbard (n=30. Arctic char samples had higher concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs than the marine species of birds and mammals, possibly due to accumulation via snowmelt. Compared to the Baltic Sea, comparable species collected in Svalbard had lower concentrations of PCB and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, but similar concentrations indicating long-range transport of hexachlorobenzene, HCHs and cyclodiene pesticides. In samples collected in Svalbard in 1971, the concentrations of PCB and DDT in Brünnich's guillemot (n=7, glaucous gull (n=2 and polar bear (n=2 were similar to the concentrations found in 1980.

  16. Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Baldwin, David L.; Daniel, Richard C.; Bos, Stanley J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Carlson, Clark D.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Neiner, Doinita; Oliver, Brian M.; Pool, Karl N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Urie, Michael W.

    2013-09-10

    This data package contains the K Basin sludge characterization results obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory during processing and analysis of four sludge core samples collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210 in 2010 as requested by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company. Sample processing requirements, analytes of interest, detection limits, and quality control sample requirements are defined in the KBC-33786, Rev. 2. The core processing scope included reconstitution of a sludge core sample distributed among four to six 4-L polypropylene bottles into a single container. The reconstituted core sample was then mixed and subsampled to support a variety of characterization activities. Additional core sludge subsamples were combined to prepare a container composite. The container composite was fractionated by wet sieving through a 2,000 micron mesh and a 500-micron mesh sieve. Each sieve fraction was sampled to support a suite of analyses. The core composite analysis scope included density determination, radioisotope analysis, and metals analysis, including the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit metals (with the exception of mercury). The container composite analysis included most of the core composite analysis scope plus particle size distribution, particle density, rheology, and crystalline phase identification. A summary of the received samples, core sample reconstitution and subsampling activities, container composite preparation and subsampling activities, physical properties, and analytical results are presented. Supporting data and documentation are provided in the appendices. There were no cases of sample or data loss and all of the available samples and data are reported as required by the Quality Assurance Project Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan.

  17. Estimation of uranium in drinking water samples collected from different locations across Tarapur, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusane, C.B.; Maity, Sukanta; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, drinking water samples were collected from different locations across Tarapur, India for screening uranium contents. Uranium concentrations were determined by differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPASV). Uranium concentration in water samples varied in a wide range from 0.6-7.9 μg L -1 . Results were compared with the international water quality guidelines World Health Organization (WHO, 2011) and were found within the permissible limit. Results were also compared with the safe limit values for drinking water recommended by national organization like Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). (author)

  18. Manual on sample-based data collection for fisheries assessment : Examples from Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Per Johan

    with through both detailed discussion and by using simple examples. These examples are mostly based on situations in tropical fisheries and, in particular, experience has been drawn from developing a data collection programme in Viet Nam. The main questions addressed in the manual are which fisheries data...... (artisanal) vessels and a few large (industrial) vessels. The methodology is the "sample-based approach" - the manual does not deal with a methodology that assumes complete enumeration. The data collection methodology presented attempts to utilize whatever information can be obtained in practice......This manual deals with the practical implementation of a routine data collection programme. This programme is developed through a top-down approach, from the identification of the objectives down to the practical recording and management of data obtained from the fishery. The issues are dealt...

  19. Next Generation Offline Approaches to Trace Gas-Phase Organic Compound Speciation: Sample Collection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, R.; Marcotte, A.; Khare, P.; Ditto, J.; Charan, S.; Gentner, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) are major precursors to secondary organic aerosol, and contribute to tropospheric ozone formation. Their wide volatility range, chemical complexity, behavior in analytical systems, and trace concentrations present numerous hurdles to characterization. We present an integrated sampling-to-analysis system for the collection and offline analysis of trace gas-phase organic compounds with the goal of preserving and recovering analytes throughout sample collection, transport, storage, and thermal desorption for accurate analysis. Custom multi-bed adsorbent tubes are used to collect samples for offline analysis by advanced analytical detectors. The analytical instrumentation comprises an automated thermal desorption system that introduces analytes from the adsorbent tubes into a gas chromatograph, which is coupled with an electron ionization mass spectrometer (GC-EIMS) and other detectors. In order to optimize the collection and recovery for a wide range of analyte volatility and functionalization, we evaluated a variety of commercially-available materials, including Res-Sil beads, quartz wool, glass beads, Tenax TA, and silica gel. Key properties for optimization include inertness, versatile chemical capture, minimal affinity for water, and minimal artifacts or degradation byproducts; these properties were assessed with a diverse mix of traditionally-measured and functionalized analytes. Along with a focus on material selection, we provide recommendations spanning the entire sampling-and-analysis process to improve the accuracy of future comprehensive I/SVOC measurements, including oxygenated and other functionalized I/SVOCs. We demonstrate the performance of our system by providing results on speciated VOCs-SVOCs from indoor, outdoor, and chamber studies that establish the utility of our protocols and pave the way for precise laboratory characterization via a mix of detection methods.

  20. Geothermal water and gas: collected methods for sampling and analysis. Comment issue. [Compilation of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, J.G.; Serne, R.J.; Shannon, D.W.; Woodruff, E.M.

    1976-08-01

    A collection of methods for sampling and analysis of geothermal fluids and gases is presented. Compilations of analytic options for constituents in water and gases are given. Also, a survey of published methods of laboratory water analysis is included. It is stated that no recommendation of the applicability of the methods to geothermal brines should be assumed since the intent of the table is to encourage and solicit comments and discussion leading to recommended analytical procedures for geothermal waters and research. (WHK)

  1. Urine concentrations of oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate urine concentrations of 8 mg oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes. Nine male endurance athletes with a VO2max of 70.2 ± 5.9 mL/min/kg (mean ± SD) took part in the study. Two hours after administration of 8 mg oral...

  2. Gamma ray spectrometry results from core samples collected for RESUME 95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, D.C.W.; Allyson, J.D. [SURRC, East Kilbride, Scotland (United Kingdom); Toivonen, H.; Honkamaa, T. [STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Field sampling of an airfield at Vesivehmaa, near Vaeaeksy, Finland (Area I) was carried out between 26-29 May 1995, to establish the radionuclide deposition and inventory of Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs, and natural radionuclides. The objective was to establish a common calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometers, for Exercise RESUME 95 conducted in August 1995. The report presents the sampling details, handling and treatment. The analyses are discussed with particular emphasis given to {sup 137}Ca, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 208} radionuclides, and the quantification of their respective deposition and inventories. The results have been used to estimate the effective concentrations of nuclides at the calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometry, and the depth distribution. For {sup 137}Cs the weighted mean activity per unit area takes on values of 50.7{+-}5.2 kBq m{sup -2} at 1 m ground clearance, 51.1{+-}6.9 kBq m{sup -2} at 50 m height and 47.9{+-}8.5 kBq m{sup -2} at 100 m. The similarity of these values confirms the suitability of the Vesivehmaa site for comparison of in-situ and airborne results despite variations of a factor of two between results from individual cores. The mean {alpha}/{rho} value for {sup 137}Cs in Area I is 0.77{+-}0.10 cm{sup 2}g{sup -1} (relaxation mass per unit area, {beta} 1.31{+-}0.15 gcm{sup -2}). Additional soil sampling across parts of Area II (a 6x3 km area selected for mapping Chernobyl deposition) was carried out. The mean level of {sup 137}Cs activity from these samples was 92.4{+-}63 kBq m{sup -2}, a sample taken near Laihansuo showing the largest value obtained at 172 kBq m{sup -2}. (EG). 17 refs.

  3. Analysis of Samples Collected from the Surface of Interim Storage Canisters at Calvert Cliffs in June 2017: Revision 01.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schindelholz, Eric John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    In June 2017, dust and salt samples were collected from the surface of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) dry storage canisters at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant. The samples were delivered to Sandia National laboratories for analysis. Two types of samples were collected: filter-backed Scotch-Brite TM pads were used to collect dry dust samples for characterization of salt and dust morphologies and distributions; and Saltsmart TM test strips were used to collect soluble salts for determining salt surface loadings per unit area. After collection, the samples were sealed into plastic sleeves for shipping. Condensation within the sleeves containing the Scotch-Brite TM samples remobilized the salts, rendering them ineffective for the intended purpose, and also led to mold growth, further compromising the samples; for these reasons, the samples were not analyzed. The SaltSmart TM samples were unaffected and were analyzed by ion chromatography for major anions and cations. The results of those analyses are presented here.

  4. X RF measurement for sediment sample collected from the niles in Khartoum State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Aisha Abdelgader Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study to determine the concentration of element (K, Ca Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr) in sediment sample collected from thirty different sites from the three rivers in Khartoum state. X-ray fluorescence (X RF) was used to identify the element concentration. Validation of the equipment was done by measuring reference samples provided by IAEA. Iron was found to be the dominant element with concentration ranged between (13000 ppm) in the white nile to (101000 ppm) in the blue nile, Pb was found to be the lowest among the twelve elements measured with concentration ranged between (11.7 ppm) in the white nile to (28 ppm) in the river nile for all samples. In general there was no variation of the concentration of elements between the blue nile sediments and the river nile sediments and was found variation of concentration of elements between the white nile sediments and other two niles. (Author).

  5. Mapping of marine benthic invertebrates in the Oslofjord and the Skagerrak: sampling data of museum collections from 1950-1955 and from recent investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Oug

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from large sampling programmes for the mapping of marine invertebrates in the Oslofjord, Norway, and the Skagerrak, spanning more than six decades, are compiled and digitized to provide easy access in modern data repositories. Two sampling programmes undertaken in the period 1950–55 are still the most extensive mapping of marine benthic fauna in the area. Information from a total of more than 900 localities, or sampling events, covering all benthic habitats in the Oslofjord and coastal waters to Kvitsøy in Rogaland county, have been carefully digitized from field notes, original sea charts, and primary observations from sample handling in the field. Geographical coordinates referred to WGS84 chart datum have been fixed with a general accuracy of 20 m in the Oslofjord and 100–250 m in coastal areas, based on precise map sketches with cross-bearings to land objects and chart annotations. Most samples were collected using triangular, Agassiz and lightweight dredges. The collected material has been deposited in the collections of the Natural History Museum, University of Oslo. Two recent projects, ‘Polyskag’ and ‘Bioskag’ (2006–2014, are briefly described. The projects focused on the diversity of marine bristle worms (Polychaeta, inter alia providing material for molecular genetic analyses. Type localities for early described species and generally understudied biotopes were visited. The data from the 1950s, together with recent studies, constitute a considerable resource for studies of biodiversity, facilitated through the sharing of species records from the museum collections in modern data repositories. The accurate positioning of sampling localities in the 1950s is of particular value for documenting species distributions over long time spans, thus providing a reference base for studying present and future species changes and assessing the effects of human influence and environmental changes in the Oslofjord and the Skagerrak.

  6. Feasibility of automated speech sample collection with stuttering children using interactive voice response (IVR) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Adam P; Block, Susan; Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Eadie, Patricia; Barth, Ben; Conway, Laura; Mundt, James C; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the feasibility of adopting automated interactive voice response (IVR) technology for remotely capturing standardized speech samples from stuttering children. Participants were 10 6-year-old stuttering children. Their parents called a toll-free number from their homes and were prompted to elicit speech from their children using a standard protocol involving conversation, picture description and games. The automated IVR system was implemented using an off-the-shelf telephony software program and delivered by a standard desktop computer. The software infrastructure utilizes voice over internet protocol. Speech samples were automatically recorded during the calls. Video recordings were simultaneously acquired in the home at the time of the call to evaluate the fidelity of the telephone collected samples. Key outcome measures included syllables spoken, percentage of syllables stuttered and an overall rating of stuttering severity using a 10-point scale. Data revealed a high level of relative reliability in terms of intra-class correlation between the video and telephone acquired samples on all outcome measures during the conversation task. Findings were less consistent for speech samples during picture description and games. Results suggest that IVR technology can be used successfully to automate remote capture of child speech samples.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Drug Deposition in Hair Samples Collected from Different Anatomical Body Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Alegakis, Athanasios K; Kavvalakis, Matthaios P; Vakonaki, Elena; Stivaktakis, Polychronis D; Kanaki, Katerina; Vardavas, Alexander I; Barbounis, Emmanouil G; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we focused on the validation of a method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of cannabinoids, cocaine and opiates in hair as well as on the distribution of the drugs deposition in hair collected from different anatomical body sites. The proposed analytical procedure was validated for various parameters such as selectivity, linearity, limit of quantification, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and recovery. Four hundred and eighty-one samples were collected during 2010-2015 from 231 drug abusers. A 6-h ultrasonic-assisted methanolic extraction was applied for the isolation of the drugs. The analysis was performed in an liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system for the opiates and cocaine and in a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system for the cannabinoids. Cocaine was the most frequent detected drug (68.8-80.5%) followed by cannabinoids (47.6-63.3%) and opiates (34.7-46.7%) depending on the body site that the samples were collected. The mean concentrations of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were 0.63 ± 2.11 for head, 0.54 ± 1.03 for pubic, 0.34 ± 0.51 for axillary and 0.18 ± 0.18 ng/mg for chest hair samples. The values of cocaine were 6.52 ± 15.98, 4.64 ± 10.77, 6.96 ± 38.21 and 3.94 ± 6.35 ng/mg, while the values of 6-monoacetylmorphine (MAM) were 3.33 ± 5.89, 3.06 ± 9.33, 1.37 ± 1.37 and 16.4 ± 1.77 ng/mg for head, pubic, axillary and chest samples, respectively. Differences between the detected concentrations of cocaine and opiates between the hair samples of different anatomical sites, as well as the ratio of drug metabolites to the parent compounds were observed in some cases. Statistically significant differences in the mean detected levels were noticed for morphine and heroin between head and pubic hair and also for cocaine and benzoylecgonine, between head and axillary hair samples. Moreover, the ratio of MAM to morphine and THC to cannabinol seems to correlate statistically with the total opiate or

  8. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in butter samples collected from the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Dervisoglu, Muhammed; Guvenc, Dilek; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Atmaca, Enes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of 9 organochlorine compounds (aldrin, hexachlorobenzene, 2,4-DDE, 4,4-DDE, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT, and α-, β-, and γ-HCH) in butter samples collected in the Eastern, Middle and Western Black Sea Regions of Turkey between October 2009 and June 2010. The liquid-liquid extraction method was used to extract the organochlorine compounds from the samples and the measurements were performed by using a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector system. DDT metabolites, aldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and α-, and γ-HCH were not detected in the samples but β-HCH was detected in 3 of a total of 88 samples. In the first period, only one sample from the West Black Sea Region was β-HCH positive (0.014 mg kg(-1)). The other β-HCH positive samples collected in Middle and West Black Sea Regions in the second period had a concentration of 0.066 and 0.019 mg kg(-1), respectively. All concentrations of the detected compounds exceeded the legal limits of 0.003 mg kg(-1) for β-HCH, as prescribed by the Turkish Food Codex, and therefore pose a potential health risk for consumers. The contamination detected is most likely due to the past usage of β-HCH in agriculture and its long term persistence in the environment. These results strongly suggest that further research should be focused on the detection of pesticide residues in agricultural areas across the nation.

  9. A prospective evaluation of the effect of sample collection site on intraoperative parathormone monitoring during parathyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Todd D; Chen, Emery; Ata, Ashar; DeCresce, Robert; Prinz, Richard A; Solorzano, Carmen C

    2008-10-01

    Sample collection site may affect the dynamics of intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring (IPM) and influence surgical decisions. We prospectively studied 45 patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism. The IPM cure criterion was a decrease in peripheral vein (PV) parathyroid hormone (PTH) of >50% at 10 minutes after gland excision. PTH samples were collected simultaneously from PV and central vein (CV) and compared for PTH decay, the incidence of >50% PTH decay, and the incidence of normal PTH values after gland excision. Mean PTH levels were significantly higher from the CV before and after gland excision. Mean PTH decay 10 minutes after gland excision was 89% PV versus 88% CV, resulting in mean PTH levels of 27 +/- 23 and 39 +/- 35 pg/mL, respectively (P 50% decay in PTH was present in 98% PV versus 88% CV samples. By 10 minutes, the incidence of >50% PTH decay was equivalent (98%). This yielded normal range PTH levels from the PV versus CV in 90% versus 76% of patients at 5 minutes, 96% versus 89% at 10 minutes, and 95% versus 81% at 20 minutes. Of 45 patients, 44 (98%) are normocalcemic at a mean follow-up of 6.3 months. IPM predicted the single operative failure. CV sampling produces significantly higher PTH levels. Surgeons sampling from a PV may observe a >50% decrease in PTH and normal range PTH values starting 5 minutes after gland excision. Surgeons who sample from the CV and require normalization of PTH levels may have to wait longer and/or continue potentially unnecessary neck exploration.

  10. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN COLLECTED SAMPLES FROM VICINITY OF A HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Samimi ، R. Akbari Rad ، F. Ghanizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tehran as the biggest city of Iran with a population of more than 10 millions has potentially high pollutant exposures of gas oil and gasoline combustion from vehicles that are commuting in the highways every day. The vehicle exhausts contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are produced by incomplete combustion and can be directly deposited in the environment. In the present study, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in the collected samples of a western highway in Tehran was investigated. The studied location was a busy highway in Tehran. High performance liquid chromatography equipped with florescence detector was used for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the studied samples. Total concentration of the ten studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compounds ranged from 11107 to 24342 ng/g dry weight in the dust samples and increased from 164 to 2886 ng/g dry weight in the soil samples taken from 300 m and middle of the highway, respectively. Also the average of Σ PAHs was 1759 ng/L in the water samples of pools in parks near the highway. The obtained results indicated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination levels were very high in the vicinity of the highway.

  11. Diffraction cartography: applying microbeams to macromolecular crystallography sample evaluation and data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Matthew W; Guijarro, Matias; Petitdemange, Sebastien; Baker, Isabel; Svensson, Olof; Burghammer, Manfred; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph; Gordon, Elspeth J; Flot, David; McSweeney, Sean M; Leonard, Gordon A

    2010-08-01

    Crystals of biological macromolecules often exhibit considerable inter-crystal and intra-crystal variation in diffraction quality. This requires the evaluation of many samples prior to data collection, a practice that is already widespread in macromolecular crystallography. As structural biologists move towards tackling ever more ambitious projects, new automated methods of sample evaluation will become crucial to the success of many projects, as will the availability of synchrotron-based facilities optimized for high-throughput evaluation of the diffraction characteristics of samples. Here, two examples of the types of advanced sample evaluation that will be required are presented: searching within a sample-containing loop for microcrystals using an X-ray beam of 5 microm diameter and selecting the most ordered regions of relatively large crystals using X-ray beams of 5-50 microm in diameter. A graphical user interface developed to assist with these screening methods is also presented. For the case in which the diffraction quality of a relatively large crystal is probed using a microbeam, the usefulness and implications of mapping diffraction-quality heterogeneity (diffraction cartography) are discussed. The implementation of these techniques in the context of planned upgrades to the ESRF's structural biology beamlines is also presented.

  12. A continuous flow from sample collection to data acceptability determination using an automated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, J.F.; Leasure, C.; Sauter, A.D.

    1993-01-01

    In its role as regulator, EPA is the recipient of enormous reams of analytical data, especially within the Superfund Program. In order to better manage the volume of paper that comes in daily, Superfund has required its laboratories to provide data that is contained on reporting forms to be delivered also on a diskette for uploading into data bases for various purposes, such as checking for contractual compliance, tracking quality assurance parameters, and, ultimately, for reviewing the data by computer. This last area, automated review of the data, has generated programs that are not necessarily appropriate for use by clients other than Superfund. Such is the case with Los Alamos National Laboratory's Environmental Chemistry Group and its emerging subcontractor community, designed to meet the needs of the remedial action program at LANL. LANL is in the process of implementing an automated system that will be used from the planning stage of sample collection to the production of a project-specific report on analytical data quality. Included are electronic scheduling and tracking of samples, data entry, checking and transmission, data assessment and qualification for use, and report generation that will tie the analytical data quality back to the performance criteria defined prior to sample collection. Industry standard products will be used (e.g., ORACLE, Microsoft Excel) to ensure support for users, prevent dependence on proprietary software, and to protect LANL's investment for the future

  13. CHARACTERISTIC OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM TWO SEMI INDUSTRIAL SITES IN BANDUNG, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Dwiana Lestiani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Air particulate matter concentrations, black carbon as well as elemental concentrations in two semi industrial sites were investigated as a preliminary study for evaluation of air quality in these areas. Sampling of airborne particulate matter was conducted in July 2009 using a Gent stacked filter unit sampler and a total of 18 pairs of samples were collected. Black carbon was determined by reflectance measurement and elemental analysis was performed using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and As were detected. Twenty four hour PM2.5 concentration at semi industrial sites Kiaracondong and Holis ranged from 4.0 to 22.2 µg m-3, while the PM10 concentration ranged from 24.5 to 77.1 µg m-3. High concentration of crustal elements, sulphur and zinc were identified in fine and coarse fractions for both sites. The fine fraction data from both sites were analyzed using a multivariate principal component analysis and for Kiaracondong site, identified factors are attributed to sea-salt with soil dust, vehicular emissions and biomass burning, non ferrous smelter, and iron/steel work industry, while for Holis site identified factors are attributed to soil dust, industrial emissions, vehicular emissions with biomass burning, and sea-salt. Although particulate samples were collected from semi industrial sites, vehicular emissions constituted with S, Zn and BC were identified in both sites.

  14. Cleaning the IceMole: collection of englacial samples from Blood Falls, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikucki, J.; Digel, I.; Chua, M.; Davis, J.; Ghosh, D.; Lyons, W. B.; Welch, K. A.; Purcell, A.; Francke, G.; Feldmann, M.; Espe, C.; Heinen, D.; Dachwald, B.; Kowalski, J.; Tulaczyk, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Minimally Invasive Direct Glacial Access project (MIDGE) used a maneuverable thermoelectric melting probe called the IceMole to collect the first englacial samples of brine from Blood Falls, Antarctica. In order to maintain the scientific integrity of samples collected and minimize impact to this specially protected ecosystem, microbial and chemical contamination of the IceMole needed to be minimized. Guidelines have been established for research in Antarctic subglacial systems by the scientific and regulatory community and have been detailed by the "Code of Conduct for the Exploration and Research of Subglacial Aquatic Environments" put forth by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) Action Group, and was submitted to the Antarctic Treaty System. This Code of Conduct (CoC) recognizes the ecological importance and pristine nature of subglacial habitats and recommends a path forward towards clean exploration. Similarly, the US and European space agencies (NASA and ESA) have detailed instrument preparation protocols for the exploration of icy worlds in our solar system for planetary protection. Given the synergistic aims of these two groups we have adopted protocols from both subglacial and space exploration approaches. Here we present our approach to cleaning the IceMole in the field and report on ability to reduce the bioload inherent on the melter. Specifically our protocol reduced the exterior bio-load by an order of magnitude, to levels common in most clean rooms, and 1-3 orders of magnitude below that of Taylor Glacier ice surrounding Blood Falls. Our results indicate that the collection of englacial samples for microbiological analysis is feasible with melting probes.

  15. Effects of the number of people on efficient capture and sample collection: a lion case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sam M; Maruping, Nkabeng T; Schoultz, Darius; Smit, Travis R

    2013-05-24

    Certain carnivore research projects and approaches depend on successful capture of individuals of interest. The number of people present at a capture site may determine success of a capture. In this study 36 lion capture cases in the Kruger National Park were used to evaluate whether the number of people present at a capture site influenced lion response rates and whether the number of people at a sampling site influenced the time it took to process the collected samples. The analyses suggest that when nine or fewer people were present, lions appeared faster at a call-up locality compared with when there were more than nine people. The number of people, however, did not influence the time it took to process the lions. It is proposed that efficient lion capturing should spatially separate capture and processing sites and minimise the number of people at a capture site.

  16. Effects of the number of people on efficient capture and sample collection: A lion case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam M. Ferreira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Certain carnivore research projects and approaches depend on successful capture of individuals of interest. The number of people present at a capture site may determine success of a capture. In this study 36 lion capture cases in the Kruger National Park were used to evaluate whether the number of people present at a capture site influenced lion response rates and whether the number of people at a sampling site influenced the time it took to process the collected samples. The analyses suggest that when nine or fewer people were present, lions appeared faster at a call-up locality compared with when there were more than nine people. The number of people, however, did not influence the time it took to process the lions. It is proposed that efficient lion capturing should spatially separate capture and processing sites and minimise the number of people at a capture site.

  17. Amino acid content of soybean samples collected in different Brazilian states: harvest 2003/2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Goldflus

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is the most important protein source in animal nutrition and is widely used in poultry diets. Several factors influence the concentration of amino acids present in soybean grains cultivated in Brazil, such as climatic changes, genetics, topography, and soil fertility. Many technologies of soybean processing are used in order to eliminate or inactivate both heat-labile and heat-stable anti-nutritional factors. During processing, soybean by-products with different nutritional values are also produced. Processing conditions may as well affect the coefficients of digestibility of nutrients that are present in soybean protein sources. Furthermore, positive and negative effects of the environment may be masked by changes in processing conditions. This study aimed to compare the levels of crude protein and essential and non-essential amino acids in soybean samples collected in the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and Santa Catarina during the harvest of 2003/2004 in Brazil. Measurements were made using NIRS (Near Infrared System of Reflectance Spectroscopy, and expressed on an "as-fed" basis. Soybeans sampled in different states evidenced nutritional differences. It is worth noting that samples collected in Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul and Mato Grosso do Sul presented high levels of essential amino acids. The analyzed levels of essential amino acids were not always directly related to the protein concentrations of the samples. Because of the diversity of growing conditions in Brazil and worldwide, soybean produced in different environmental conditions is expected to show variable protein composition and quality, as demonstrated in the present study.

  18. Effective sample labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.T.; Bryce, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Ground-water samples collected for hazardous-waste and radiological monitoring have come under strict regulatory and quality assurance requirements as a result of laws such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To comply with these laws, the labeling system used to identify environmental samples had to be upgraded to ensure proper handling and to protect collection personnel from exposure to sample contaminants and sample preservatives. The sample label now used as the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is a complete sample document. In the event other paperwork on a labeled sample were lost, the necessary information could be found on the label

  19. Physicochemical and Bacterial Properties of Pasteurized Milk Samples Collected from Tabriz, Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Farhoodi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are important components of a balanced diet. Milk does have distinct physicochemical, biological and microbial characteristics. The bacterial contamination of milk not only reduces the nutritional quality but its consumption threatens health of the society. In this study, 100 pasteurized milk samples were collected randomly from Tabriz City, northwestern and were analyzed for total plate count (TPC, coliform, E. coli and some physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidity and density. 33.3% of samples had unacceptable microbial contamination in both warm and cold seasons. E. coli contamination was not detected in all milk samples, but 54% of pasteurized milk samples were contaminated with coliforms. The pH value (6.6-6.8 and titratable acidity (0.14-0.16% were in acceptable range. The means value of samples’ density was 1028.79±1.04. Lower microbial contamination level in this area indicates that the dairy factories are concerned about appropriate sanitary practice and pasteurization process.

  20. Determination of Lead in Water Samples by GFAAS after Collection on Montmorillonite with Slurry Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Ece; Tinas, Hande; Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a highly accurate, fast and practical separation/enrichment technique is described to determine the Pb in tap water samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. For this purpose, at first, Pb was collected on montmorillonite by batch technique, the supernatant was decanted and the solid phase was slurried in a mixture of 0.1% Triton X-114 and 0.1 mol L -1 HNO 3 then directly introduced into graphite furnace without elution. Since the elution step was not applied, the method was simpler and faster compared to conventional techniques. The risks of elution step on the precision and recovery were eliminated. Up to 50-fold enrichment could be obtained by this method. The limit of detection (3δ, N = 10) and characteristic concentration of the method for Pb were 0.46 and 1.13 μg L -1 , respectively. In addition, the Pb in water samples (tap and river) collected from different regions of Turkey were determined.

  1. PIXE Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosol Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoskowitz, Josh; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Safiq, Alexandrea; Smith, Jeremy; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2013-10-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced x-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the samples and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The PIXE experiments were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. X-Ray energy spectra were measured with a silicon drift detector and analyzed with GUPIX software to determine the elemental concentrations of the aerosols. A broad range of elements from silicon to zinc were detected with significant sulfur concentrations measured for particulate matter between 0.25 and 0.5 μm in size. The PIXE analysis will be described and preliminary results will be presented.

  2. Combined-sewer overflow data and methods of sample collection for selected sites, Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat, M.J.; Wolf, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The discharge of untreated sewage is illegal in Michigan unless permitted under Act 245 due to public health concerns. In October, 1992, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR, now the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality) issued a discharge permit to Detroit authorizing discharge from the City's 78 combined-sewer overflows (CSOs), and requiring that a long-term control plan be developed to achieve mandated waterquality standards in receiving waters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) issued a national CSO policy in April, 1994, which requires (1) operational improvements of existing systems to minimize discharges and prevent their occurrence in dry weather; (2) publicly operated treatment works (POTW) to characterize the frequency and volume of discharges; and (3) construction of CSO discharge control projects where necessary.In 1993, the Southeast Michigan Council of Governments (SEMCOG) requested assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Detroit Water and Sewerage Department (DWSD) and MDNR, Surface Water Quality Division, to address part of the technical data requirements for requirement 2. The USGS scope of services for this interdisciplinary, multiagency investigation consisted of collection, compilation, and interpretation of the necessary hydrologic data, and documentation of results. In addition to USGS personnel, personnel from DWSD assisted with the field collection of samples and in alerting USGS personnel to CSO effluent discharges.From October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995, four CSOs discharging to the Detroit River in Detroit, Michigan (figure 1) were monitored to characterize storm-related water quantity and quality. Water velocity, stage, and precipitation were measured continuously and recorded at 5-minute intervals. Water-quality samples were collected at discrete times during storms and analyzed for inorganic and organic pollutants. Discharges were sampled between 30 and 78 times

  3. DISTRIBUTION COEFICIENTS (KD) GENERATED FROM A CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almond, P.; Kaplan, D.

    2011-04-25

    Core samples originating from Vault 4, Cell E of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) were collected in September of 2008 (Hansen and Crawford 2009, Smith 2008) and sent to SRNL to measure chemical and physical properties of the material including visual uniformity, mineralogy, microstructure, density, porosity, distribution coefficients (K{sub d}), and chemical composition. Some data from these experiments have been reported (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). In this study, leaching experiments were conducted with a single core sample under conditions that are representative of saltstone performance. In separate experiments, reducing and oxidizing environments were targeted to obtain solubility and Kd values from the measurable species identified in the solid and aqueous leachate. This study was designed to provide insight into how readily species immobilized in saltstone will leach from the saltstone under oxidizing conditions simulating the edge of a saltstone monolith and under reducing conditions, targeting conditions within the saltstone monolith. Core samples were taken from saltstone poured in December of 2007 giving a cure time of nine months in the cell and a total of thirty months before leaching experiments began in June 2010. The saltstone from Vault 4, Cell E is comprised of blast furnace slag, class F fly ash, portland cement, and Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) Batch 2 salt solution. The salt solution was previously analyzed from a sample of Tank 50 salt solution and characterized in the 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) report (Zeigler and Bibler 2009). Subsequent to Tank 50 analysis, additional solution was added to the tank solution from the Effluent Treatment Project as well as from inleakage from Tank 50 pump bearings (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). Core samples were taken from three locations and at three depths at each location using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit (1-1, 1-2, 1-3; 2-1, 2-2, 2-3; 3-1, 3-2, 3-3) (Hansen and

  4. Autonomous Microbial Sampler (AMS), a device for the uncontaminated collection of multiple microbial samples from submarine hydrothermal vents and other aquatic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Craig D.; Doherty, Kenneth W.; Molyneaux, Stephen J.; Morrison, Archie T.; Billings, John D.; Engstrom, Ivory B.; Pfitsch, Don W.; Honjo, Susumu

    2006-05-01

    An Autonomous Microbial Sampler (AMS) is described that will obtain uncontaminated and exogenous DNA-free microbial samples from most marine, freshwater and hydrothermal ecosystems. Sampling with the AMS may be conducted using manned submersibles, remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), or when tethered to a hydrowire during hydrocast operations on research vessels. The modular device consists of a titanium nozzle for sampling in potentially hot environments (>350 °C) and fluid-handling components for the collection of six independent filtered or unfiltered samples. An onboard microcomputer permits sampling to be controlled by the investigator, by external devices (e.g., AUV computer), or by internal programming. Temperature, volume pumped and other parameters are recorded during sampling. Complete protection of samples from microbial contamination was observed in tests simulating deployment of the AMS in coastal seawater, where the sampling nozzle was exposed to seawater containing 1×10 6 cells ml -1 of a red pigmented tracer organism, Serratia marinorubra. Field testing of the AMS at a hydrothermal vent field was successfully undertaken in 2000. Results of DNA destruction studies have revealed that exposure of samples of the Eukaryote Euglena and the bacterium S. marinorubra to 0.5 N sulfuric acid at 23 °C for 1 h was sufficient to remove polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifiable DNA. Studies assessing the suitability of hydrogen peroxide as a sterilizing and DNA-destroying agent showed that 20% or 30% hydrogen peroxide sterilized samples of Serratia in 1 h and destroyed the DNA of Serratia in 3 h, but not 1 or 2 h. DNA AWAY™ killed Serratia and destroyed the DNA of both Serratia and the vent microbe (GB-D) of the genus Pyrococcus in 1 h.

  5. Comparison of noninvasive sample collection procedures for canine leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR-hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Sidney de Almeida; Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro de; Ituassu, Leonardo Trindade; Melo, Maria Norma de

    2007-01-01

    The dogs are the main reservoir of the visceral leishmaniasis etiological agent Leishmania chagasi and these animals have to be systematically monitored. The aim of present work was to standardize a method for canine leishmaniasis diagnosis using DNA samples obtained by a noninvasive ways. Two kind of samples were compared: conjunctival swab and blood. The samples were analyzed by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) associated with the hybridization of 32 P labeled DNA probes. An in vitro test was carried out using cotton swabs seeded with L. chagasi parasites at different cell numbers. After that, the PCR and hybridization sensitivity was evaluated in two groups of 23 seropositive dogs. Conjunctival swabs and 1,0 mL of blood were collected from each animal. 90 μL of these blood were spotted onto filter paper and the remaining used to prepare the buffy coat. The DNA purification from cotton swabs was carried out through the phenol-chloroform (group 1) or boiling (group 2). The Wizard kit was used to DNA extraction from buffy coat. The filters were treated according to Dialab protocol. The analysis of the seeded samples showed that the PCR was able to identify until ten parasites while the following hybridization of the PCR products allows the detection of until one parasite. The PCR positivity for the conjunctival swabs were 73.9% and 52.2% respectively to the groups 1 and 2. For buffy coat the positivities were 43.5% and 56.5% respectively. The filters presented the lowest positivity. The hybridization step was not accomplished yet for these samples. (author)

  6. Comparison of noninvasive sample collection procedures for canine leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR-hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Sidney de Almeida; Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: vidasnino@yahoo.com.br; antero@cdtn.br; Ituassu, Leonardo Trindade; Melo, Maria Norma de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: melo@mono.icb.ufmg.br; ltituassu@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    The dogs are the main reservoir of the visceral leishmaniasis etiological agent Leishmania chagasi and these animals have to be systematically monitored. The aim of present work was to standardize a method for canine leishmaniasis diagnosis using DNA samples obtained by a noninvasive ways. Two kind of samples were compared: conjunctival swab and blood. The samples were analyzed by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) associated with the hybridization of {sup 32}P labeled DNA probes. An in vitro test was carried out using cotton swabs seeded with L. chagasi parasites at different cell numbers. After that, the PCR and hybridization sensitivity was evaluated in two groups of 23 seropositive dogs. Conjunctival swabs and 1,0 mL of blood were collected from each animal. 90 {mu}L of these blood were spotted onto filter paper and the remaining used to prepare the buffy coat. The DNA purification from cotton swabs was carried out through the phenol-chloroform (group 1) or boiling (group 2). The Wizard kit was used to DNA extraction from buffy coat. The filters were treated according to Dialab protocol. The analysis of the seeded samples showed that the PCR was able to identify until ten parasites while the following hybridization of the PCR products allows the detection of until one parasite. The PCR positivity for the conjunctival swabs were 73.9% and 52.2% respectively to the groups 1 and 2. For buffy coat the positivities were 43.5% and 56.5% respectively. The filters presented the lowest positivity. The hybridization step was not accomplished yet for these samples. (author)

  7. Prevalence of Streptococcus spp. collected from vaginal samples and their antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Mazzone

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Streptococci are a heterogeneous group Gram positive bacteria, predominantly anaerobes. They are classified by growth characteristics, hemolysis on blood and antigenic composition.Among the most pathogenic streptococci are ß-hemolytic Streptococcus group B (GBS responsible for pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis in newborn. In order to prevent infections that might involve not only the female but also but also the future newborn, a bacterial culture have to be performed during pregnancy. Objectives. This study aims to assess the prevalence of GBS and their resistance to antibiotics among bacteria collected from vaginal samples. Methods. During the considered period of study: May 2008 - May 2009, 384 vaginal samples from young women were microbiologically investigated. Swabs were sown on CNA (bioMérieux plates and incubated under CO2 environment for 24-48 hours. For the identification of group and the evaluation of their susceptibility to antibiotics the kit Slidex streptococcal Plus (bioMérieux and the ATB Strep (bioMéieux respectively were used. Breakpoint values were as suggested by CLSI. Results. GBS was the most frequently pathogen found with 59.5% (69 on a total of 116 positive samples, followed by Group D streptococci with 34.5% (40, and Group A with 4.3% (5, Group C and F, accounted for 0.8% (1. Moreover, all the isolates, with the exception of group D, resulted susceptible to penicillin, amoxicillin, vancomycin and cefotaxime, 45% to erythromycin, 47% to clindamycin, 75% to cotrimoxazole. Conclusions. The data from this survey show that GBS is the prevalent pathogen, among Streptococcus spp collected from the vagina.The percentage of antibiotic resistant strains found confirms the importance of the Clinical Pathology Laboratory in the surveillance of streptococcal infections for the control and prevention.

  8. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF SOIL SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the method for collecting soil samples from the child's outdoor play area to measure for persistent organic pollutants. Soil samples are collected by scraping up the top 0.5 cm of soil in a 0.095 m2 (1 ft2) area in the middle of the child's play area.

  9. Journal: A Review of Some Tracer-Test Design Equations for Tracer-Mass Estimation and Sample Collection Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determination of necessary tracer mass, initial sample-collection time, and subsequent sample-collection frequency are the three most difficult aspects to estimate for a proposed tracer test prior to conducting the tracer test. To facilitate tracer-mass estimation, 33 mass-estima...

  10. Monitoring Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae in soil and rainwater samples collected at two sites on a cornish estate

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Lockley; Judith Turner; Gillian Humphries; Phil Jennings

    2008-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from quadrats marked out below the canopies of two rhododendrons, one infected by Phytophthora ramorum (Site 1) and the other (Site 2) infected by Phytophthora kernoviae and P. ramorum. Rainwater was collected in high-level and low level traps. Soil and rainwater were sampled at...

  11. Collecting data from migrants in Ghana: Lessons learned using respondent-driven sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha R. Lattof

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Policymakers and program implementers require high-quality data on migrants and migration in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC; however, a shortage of high-quality data exists in these settings. Sampling migrant populations requires better techniques. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS may be one such solution. Objective: Using Ghana as a case study, the objectives of this paper are to: 1 assess RDS recruitment productivity, network size, and ties of internal migrants; 2 test for homophily; and 3 detail the successes of and challenges to implementing RDS in Ghana and how these lessons can be applied to migrant populations in other LMIC settings. Methods: This study used RDS to sample 625 rural-urban female migrants working as market porters (kayayei in Accra, Ghana. Results: This study generated the most comprehensive data set on kayayei to date. Network size increases as participants become more educated and migrate more often to Accra. Ethnic group membership is an important determinant of recruitment, with certain groups preferring to recruit from within. Employing members of the kayayei population to collect data built crucial trust. Conclusions: Whilst RDS is not a one-size-fits-all solution for sampling hard-to-reach migrants in LMIC, it can be a powerful tool to uncover and to recruit hard-to-reach migrant populations. In countries with multiple ethnolinguistic groups, recruiting a migrant population with greater ethnolinguistic overlap may facilitate quicker equilibrium. Contribution: This study expands the evidence base on use of RDS among migrant populations in LMIC and provides lessons learned to assist other researchers implementing RDS in LMIC settings.

  12. Human Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids and Sample Collection Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. Subsequently, the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA on April 15, 2010 to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. Human Exploration Considerations: These missions would be the first human expeditions to interplanetary bodies beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars, Phobos and Deimos, and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. However, prior to sending human explorers to NEAs, robotic investigations of these bodies would be required in order to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk. These precursor missions to NEAs would fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning their physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration of these relatively unknown destinations. Sample Science Benefits: Information obtained from a human investigation of a NEA, together with ground-based observations and prior spacecraft investigations of asteroids and comets, will also provide a real measure of ground truth to data obtained from terrestrial meteorite collections. Major advances in the areas of geochemistry, impact history, thermal history, isotope analyses, mineralogy, space weathering, formation ages, thermal inertias, volatile content, source regions, solar system formation, etc. can be expected from human NEA missions. Samples directly returned from a

  13. Removal of arsenic from ground water samples collected from West Bengal, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajith, Nicy; Swain, K.K.; Dalvi, Aditi A.; Verma, R.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in ground water is one of the major concerns in many parts of the world including Bangladesh and India. Considering the high toxicity of arsenic, World Health Organization (WHO) has set a provisional guideline value of 10 μg L -1 for arsenic in drinking water. Several methods have been adopted for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. Most of the methods fail to remove As(III), the most toxic form of arsenic. An extra oxidative treatment step is essential for effective removal of total arsenic. Manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) oxidizes As(III) to As(V). Removal of arsenic from water using manganese dioxide has been reported. During this work, removal of arsenic from ground water samples collected from arsenic contaminated area of West Bengal, India were carried out using MnO 2

  14. Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon oil spill samples collected from Alabama shoreline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulabagal, V; Yin, F; John, G F; Hayworth, J S; Clement, T P

    2013-05-15

    We compare the chromatographic signatures of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon (DH) source oil, three other reference crude oils, DH emulsified mousse that arrived on Alabama's shoreline in June 2010, and seven tar balls collected from Alabama beaches from 2011 to 2012. Characteristic hopane and sterane fingerprints show that all the tar ball samples originated from DH oil. In addition, the diagnostic ratios of various hopanes indicate an excellent match. Quantitation data for C₃₀αβ-hopane concentration levels show that most of the weathering observed in DH-related tar balls found on Alabama's beaches is likely the result of natural evaporation and dissolution that occurred during transport across the Gulf of Mexico prior to beach deposition. Based on the physical and biomarker characterization data presented in this study we conclude that virtually all fragile, sticky, brownish tar balls currently found on Alabama shoreline originated from the DH oil spill. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Organophosphorus and Carbamate Pesticide Residues Detected in Water Samples Collected from Paddy and Vegetable Fields of the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Karim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Several types of organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides have been used extensively by the farmers in Bangladesh during the last few decades. Twenty seven water samples collected from both paddy and vegetable fields in the Savar and Dhamrai Upazilas in Bangladesh were analyzed to determine the occurrence and distribution of organo-phosphorus (chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran pesticide residues. A high performance liquid chromatograph instrument equipped with a photodiode array detector was used to determine the concentrations of these pesticide residues. Diazinon and carbofuran were detected in water samples collected from Savar Upazila at 0.9 μg/L and 198.7 μg/L, respectively. Malathion was also detected in a single water sample at 105.2 μg/L from Dhamrai Upazila. Carbaryl was the most common pesticide detected in Dhamrai Upazila at 14.1 and 18.1 μg/L, while another water sample from Dhamrai Upazila was contaminated with carbofuran at 105.2 μg/L. Chlorpyrifos was not detected in any sample. Overall, the pesticide residues detected were well above the maximum acceptable levels of total and individual pesticide contamination, at 0.5 and 0.1 μg/L, respectively, in water samples recommended by the European Economic Community (Directive 98/83/EC. The presence of these pesticide residues may be attributed by their intense use by the farmers living in these areas. Proper handling of these pesticides should be ensured to avoid direct or indirect exposure to these pesticides.

  16. Handbook: Collecting Groundwater Samples from Monitoring Wells in Frenchman Flat, CAU 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Lyles, Brad [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Cooper, Clay [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Hershey, Ron [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Healey, John [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Frenchman Flat basin on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) contains Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 98, which is comprised of ten underground nuclear test locations. Environmental management of these test locations is part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended) with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the State of Nevada. A Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been approved for CAU 98 (DOE, 2011). The CADD/CAP reports on the Corrective Action Investigation that was conducted for the CAU, which included characterization and modeling. It also presents the recommended corrective actions to address the objective of protecting human health and the environment. The recommended corrective action alternative is “Closure in Place with Modeling, Monitoring, and Institutional Controls.” The role of monitoring is to verify that Contaminants of Concern (COCs) have not exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) limits (Code of Federal Regulations, 2014) at the regulatory boundary, to ensure that institutional controls are adequate, and to monitor for changed conditions that could affect the closure conditions. The long-term closure monitoring program will be planned and implemented as part of the Closure Report stage after activities specified in the CADD/CAP are complete. Groundwater at the NNSS has been monitored for decades through a variety of programs. Current activities were recently consolidated in an NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan (DOE, 2014). Although monitoring directed by the plan is not intended to meet the FFACO long-term monitoring requirements for a CAU (which will be defined in the Closure Report), the objective to ensure public health protection is similar. It is expected that data collected in accordance with the plan will support the transition to long-term monitoring at each

  17. Specific Skin Lesions of Sarcoidosis Located at Venipuncture Points for Blood Sample Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoval, Joaquim; Penín, Rosa M; Mañá, Juan

    2017-07-08

    It has been suggested that the predilection of sarcoidosis to affect scars is due to the presence of antigens or foreign bodies that can serve as a stimulus for granuloma formation. Several patients with sarcoidosis-specific skin lesions in venous puncture sites have been reported. However, in these patients the pathogenesis of the cutaneous lesions is not clear because the presence of foreign bodies is not to be expected. Our objective was to describe 3 patients who developed specific lesions of sarcoidosis in areas of venipuncture and to discuss their possible pathogenesis. The database of the Sarcoid Clinic of Bellvitge Hospital (an 800-bed university referral center providing tertiary care to approximately 1 million people in Barcelona, Spain) was reviewed to detect those patients with specific cutaneous lesions of systemic sarcoidosis in areas of venipuncture. Three patients with biopsy-proven specific cutaneous lesions of systemic sarcoidosis in areas of venipuncture for blood collection were detected (3 women, mean age 56 years). In one case, the histopathological image shows the hypothetical path of a needle through the skin. In 2 cases, an amorphous birefringent material was detected under polarized light. This material was consistent with silicone. In patients who are developing sarcoidosis, the smallest amount of oil used as lubricant in the needle for sample blood collection may induce the formation of granulomas. In addition to exploring scars, it is advisable to explore the cubital folds to detect specific cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis.

  18. Handling Digital Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd De Beer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present project was borne out of the collaborative partnership fostered by the 2014 conference, ”Invention and Imagination in British Art and Architecture, 600–1500”. The British Museum’s medieval collections were embedded into the fabric of the conference through a series of gallery talks and handling sessions that explored the conference’s themes of experimentation, the exceptional, envisioning, process, and the roles of response. Making the British Museum’s collection accessible and freely available to all “studious and curious persons” has been at the core of its mission since the eighteenth century, and it was important that there was an opportunity for conference delegates to engage directly with objects.

  19. Analysis of Drugs of Abuse in Anonymously Collected Urine and Soil samples from a Music Festival in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardal, Marie; Ramin, Pedram; Plósz, Benedek G.

    and urine samples were also prepared by adding acetonitrile, shaking, centrifugation, and evaporation. Extracts were then analyzed by UHPLC-MSn (TF LXQ), UHPLC-HRMS/MS (TF Q-Exactive), and GC-MS (TF ISQ). Urine samples were additionally tested for 9-carboxy-THC by immunoassay and ethanol by headspace GC......Aim: Pooled human urine and soil from urinating spots were collected anonymously at a Scandinavian music festival. Samples should be screened for drugs of abuse, particularly novel psychoactive substances (NPS), but also therapeutic drugs and ethanol. Methods: Twenty-one urine samples were...... collected anonymously from urinal and HMMA-d3 and trimipramin-d3 were added as internal standards. Additionally, 12 soil samples were collected near fences where people urinated. Urine samples were processed by enzymatic conjugate cleavage, SPE (HCX and C18), and acetylation prior to GC-MS. Soil samples...

  20. Control of the positional relationship between a sample collection instrument and a surface to be analyzed during a sampling procedure using a laser sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J [Clinton, TN; Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-21

    A system and method utilizes distance-measuring equipment including a laser sensor for controlling the collection instrument-to-surface distance during a sample collection process for use, for example, with mass spectrometric detection. The laser sensor is arranged in a fixed positional relationship with the collection instrument, and a signal is generated by way of the laser sensor which corresponds to the actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface. The actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface is compared to a target distance between the laser sensor and the surface when the collection instrument is arranged at a desired distance from the surface for sample collecting purposes, and adjustments are made, if necessary, so that the actual distance approaches the target distance.

  1. Uranium analysis in some food samples collected from Bathinda area of Punjab, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Prasher, Sangeeta; Singh, Surinder

    2009-07-01

    To strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure in Bathinda, the uranium concentration in daily diet of the residents has been measured and its associated radiation risks were estimated for the adult population. Food samples were collected from major cancer prone areas of the district, from which daily diets were prepared. These diet samples were analyzed using fission track technique. The measured values of the uranium content were found to vary from 0.38 mBq/g in mustard seeds to 4.60 mBq/g in wheat. In case of milk the uranium content is found to vary from 28.57-213.36 mBq/ℓ with mean concentration of 61.35 mBq/ℓ. This leads to a daily dietary intake of 0.90 Bq/day. The measured value of 0.90 Bq d-1, contributes to 1.12 mSv to the cumulative effective dose to the population. This dose is much large than the International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) annual effective dose limit of 1 mSv for the general public [1]. Therefore, it would pose significant health hazard.

  2. Product Return Handling

    OpenAIRE

    de Brito, M.P.; de Koster, M.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we focus on product return handling and warehousing issues. In some businesses return rates can be well over 20% and returns can be especially costly when not handled properly. In spite of this, many managers have handled returns extemporarily. The fact that quantitative methods barely exist to support return handling decisions adds to this. In this article we bridge those issues by 1) going over the key decisions related with return handling; 2) identifying quanti...

  3. Location and Age Database for Selected Foraminifer Samples Collected by Exxon Petroleum Geologists in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabb, Earl E.; Parker, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Most of the geologic maps published for central California before 1960 were made without the benefit of age determinations from microfossils. The ages of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks in the mostly poorly exposed and structurally complex sedimentary rocks represented in the Coast Ranges are critical in determining stratigraphic succession or lack of it, and in determining whether the juxtaposition of similar appearing but different age formations means a fault is present. Since the 1930’s, at least, oil company geologists have used microfossils to assist them in geologic mapping and in determining the environments of deposition of the sediment containing the microfossils. This information has been so confidential that some companies even coded the names of foraminifers to prevent disclosure. In the past 20 years, however, the attitude of petroleum companies about this information has changed, and many of the formerly confidential materials and reports are now available. We report here on 1,964 Exxon foraminifer samples mostly from surface localities in the San Francisco Bay region, and elsewhere in California. Most but not all the samples were plotted on U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) 7.5’ topographic maps or on obsolete USGS 15’ maps. The information from the slides can be used to update geologic maps prepared without the benefit of microfossil data, to analyze the depth and temperature of ocean water covering parts of California during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras, and for solving nomenclature and other scientific problems. A similar report on more than 30,000 slides for surface samples collected by Chevron geologists has been released (Brabb and Parker, 2003), and another report provides information on slides for more than 2000 oil test wells in Northern California (Brabb, Powell, and Brocher, 2001).

  4. Use of self-collected capillary blood samples for islet autoantibody screening in relatives: a feasibility and acceptability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Rafkin, L E; Matheson, D; Henderson, C; Boulware, D; Besser, R E J; Ferrara, C; Yu, L; Steck, A K; Bingley, P J

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using self-collected capillary blood samples for islet autoantibody testing to identify risk in relatives of people with Type 1 diabetes. Participants were recruited via the observational TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study, which screens and monitors relatives of people with Type 1 diabetes for islet autoantibodies. Relatives were sent kits for capillary blood collection, with written instructions, an online instructional video link and a questionnaire. Sera from capillary blood samples were tested for autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet antigen-2, insulin and zinc transporter 8. 'Successful' sample collection was defined as obtaining sufficient volume and quality to provide definitive autoantibody results, including confirmation of positive results by repeat assay. In 240 relatives who returned samples, the median (range) age was 15.5 (1-49) years and 51% were male. Of these samples, 98% were sufficient for glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet antigen-2 and zinc transporter 8 autoantibody testing and 84% for insulin autoantibody testing and complete autoantibody screen. The upper 90% confidence bound for unsuccessful collection was 4.4% for glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet antigen-2 and/or zinc transporter 8 autoantibody assays, and 19.3% for insulin autoantibodies. Despite 43% of 220 questionnaire respondents finding capillary blood collection uncomfortable or painful, 82% preferred home self-collection of capillary blood samples compared with outpatient venepuncture (90% of those aged 18 years). The perceived difficulty of collecting capillary blood samples did not affect success rate. Self-collected capillary blood sampling offers a feasible alternative to venous sampling, with the potential to facilitate autoantibody screening for Type 1 diabetes risk. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  5. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Chemistry of the Coral Reefs in American Samoa from Water Samples collected since 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water samples are collected and analyzed to assess spatial and temporal variation in the seawater carbonate systems of coral reef ecosystems in the Hawaiian and...

  6. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of 137 Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff

  7. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of {sup 137}Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff.

  8. Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of agricultural soil samples collected in Dakahlia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Shams A M

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the natural radioactivity has been carried out, by using a gamma-ray spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3″ × 3″] system, in surface soil samples collected from various locations in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. These locations form the agriculturally important regions of Egypt. The study area has many industries such as chemical, paper, organic fertilisers and construction materials, and the soils of the study region are used as a construction material. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil ranged from 5.7 ± 0.3 to 140 ± 7, from 9.0 ± 0.4 to 139 ± 7 and from 22 ± 1 to 319 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent (Req), excess lifetime cancer risk, hazard indices (Hex and Hin) and annual gonadal dose equivalent, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in the soil were calculated.

  9. Simultaneous quantification of stevioside and rebaudioside A in different stevia samples collected from the Indian subcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Karishma; Tamboli, Ennus T.; Singh, Mhaveer; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2012-01-01

    Background: A high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed for simultaneous estimation of stevioside and rebaudioside A in Stevia rebaudiana samples collected from different regions of Indian subcontinent. Materials and Methods: The separation was achieved by using acetone: ethyl acetate: water (5:4:1, v/v/v) as the solvent system on precoated silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates. The densitometric quantification of stevia glycosides was carried out at wavelength 360 nm in absorption mode after spraying with anisaldehyde sulphuric acid as detecting reagent. Results: The well resolved peaks for stevioside and rebaudioside A were observed at Rf values 0.31± 0.02 and 0.21± 0.02 respectively. The calibration curves were found linear with a wide range of concentration 100 - 2000 ng spot-1 with good correlation coefficient 0.996 and 0.991 for stevioside and rebaudioside A, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed method was validated as per the ICH (International Conferences on Harmonization) guidelines and found simple, sensitive, economic, reproducible, robust and accurate for quantitative analysis of stevia glycosides, which can be applied for quality control of stevia as well as to check. PMID:23248559

  10. Extracting samples of high diversity from thematic collections of large gene banks using a genetic-distance based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangel Paulo HN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breeding programs are usually reluctant to evaluate and use germplasm accessions other than the elite materials belonging to their advanced populations. The concept of core collections has been proposed to facilitate the access of potential users to samples of small sizes, representative of the genetic variability contained within the gene pool of a specific crop. The eventual large size of a core collection perpetuates the problem it was originally proposed to solve. The present study suggests that, in addition to the classic core collection concept, thematic core collections should be also developed for a specific crop, composed of a limited number of accessions, with a manageable size. Results The thematic core collection obtained meets the minimum requirements for a core sample - maintenance of at least 80% of the allelic richness of the thematic collection, with, approximately, 15% of its size. The method was compared with other methodologies based on the M strategy, and also with a core collection generated by random sampling. Higher proportions of retained alleles (in a core collection of equal size or similar proportions of retained alleles (in a core collection of smaller size were detected in the two methods based on the M strategy compared to the proposed methodology. Core sub-collections constructed by different methods were compared regarding the increase or maintenance of phenotypic diversity. No change on phenotypic diversity was detected by measuring the trait "Weight of 100 Seeds", for the tested sampling methods. Effects on linkage disequilibrium between unlinked microsatellite loci, due to sampling, are discussed. Conclusions Building of a thematic core collection was here defined by prior selection of accessions which are diverse for the trait of interest, and then by pairwise genetic distances, estimated by DNA polymorphism analysis at molecular marker loci. The resulting thematic core collection

  11. Extracting samples of high diversity from thematic collections of large gene banks using a genetic-distance based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa-Filho, Marco; Rangel, Paulo H N; Ferreira, Marcio E

    2010-06-24

    Breeding programs are usually reluctant to evaluate and use germplasm accessions other than the elite materials belonging to their advanced populations. The concept of core collections has been proposed to facilitate the access of potential users to samples of small sizes, representative of the genetic variability contained within the gene pool of a specific crop. The eventual large size of a core collection perpetuates the problem it was originally proposed to solve. The present study suggests that, in addition to the classic core collection concept, thematic core collections should be also developed for a specific crop, composed of a limited number of accessions, with a manageable size. The thematic core collection obtained meets the minimum requirements for a core sample - maintenance of at least 80% of the allelic richness of the thematic collection, with, approximately, 15% of its size. The method was compared with other methodologies based on the M strategy, and also with a core collection generated by random sampling. Higher proportions of retained alleles (in a core collection of equal size) or similar proportions of retained alleles (in a core collection of smaller size) were detected in the two methods based on the M strategy compared to the proposed methodology. Core sub-collections constructed by different methods were compared regarding the increase or maintenance of phenotypic diversity. No change on phenotypic diversity was detected by measuring the trait "Weight of 100 Seeds", for the tested sampling methods. Effects on linkage disequilibrium between unlinked microsatellite loci, due to sampling, are discussed. Building of a thematic core collection was here defined by prior selection of accessions which are diverse for the trait of interest, and then by pairwise genetic distances, estimated by DNA polymorphism analysis at molecular marker loci. The resulting thematic core collection potentially reflects the maximum allele richness with the smallest

  12. A new system for the simultaneous measurement of δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N by IRMS and radiocarbon by AMS on gaseous samples: Design features and performances of the gas handling interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braione, Eugenia; Maruccio, Lucio; Quarta, Gianluca; D’Elia, Marisa; Calcagnile, Lucio, E-mail: lucio.calcagnile@unisalento.it

    2015-10-15

    We present the general design features and preliminary performances of a new system for the simultaneous AMS-{sup 14}C and IRMS δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N measurements on samples with masses in the μg range. The system consists of an elemental analyzer (EA), a gas splitting unit (GSU), a IRMS system, a gas handling interface (GHI) and a sputtering ion source capable of accepting gaseous samples. A detailed description of the system and of the control software supporting unattended operation are presented together with the first performance tests carried out by analyzing samples with masses ranging from 8 μgC to 2.4 mgC. The performances of the system were tested in term of stability of the ion beam extracted from the ion source, precision and accuracy of the results by comparing the measured isotopic ratios with those expected for reference materials.

  13. Sampling and examination methods used for TMI-2 samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, A.W.; Akers, D.W.; McIsaac, C.V.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the sampling and examination techniques that were used in the collection and analysis of TMI-2 samples. Samples ranging from auxiliary building air to core debris were collected and analyzed. Handling of the larger samples and many of the smaller samples had to be done remotely and many standard laboratory analytical techniques were modified to accommodate the extremely high radiation fields associated with these samples. The TMI-2 samples presented unique problems with sampling and the laboratory analysis of prior molten fuel debris. 14 refs., 8 figs

  14. 78 FR 25308 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is minimized, collection... agencies with an opportunity to comment on proposed and continuing collections of information in accordance..., 2013. ADDRESSES: Comments concerning the information collection requirements of this notice must be...

  15. Urine protein-to-creatinine concentration ratio in samples collected by means of cystocentesis versus manual compression in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhena, Hugo C R; Santos, Raquel R; Sargo, Teresa J; Lima, Tatiana B; Dias, Sofia S; Pastorinho, M Ramiro; Queiroga, Felisbina L; Silvestre-Ferreira, Ana C

    2015-04-15

    Objective-To compare urine protein-to-creatinine concentration (UPC) ratios in samples collected by means of cystocentesis versus manual compression in cats. Design-Evaluation study. Animals-43 client-owned cats requiring urinalysis. Procedures-In all cats, 5 mL of urine from the midstream phase of micturition was collected by means of manual compression and, subsequently, an additional 5 mL of urine was obtained by means of ultrasound-guided cystocentesis. A complete urinalysis was performed on all samples, and UPC ratios were determined. Results-Cats were classified on the basis of the International Renal Interest Society substaging system as being free from proteinuria (UPC ratio, 0.4; 17). None of the cats had postrenal proteinuria. A significant linear correlation was identified between UPC ratios in urine samples obtained by means of manual compression and ratios in samples obtained by means of cystocentesis. For all cats, UPC ratios for samples obtained by the 2 collection methods resulted in classification in the same IRIS substage. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggested that collection of a urine sample from the midstream phase of micturition by manual compression would be a reliable alternative to cystocentesis for the determination of UPC ratio in cats, provided that postrenal proteinuria was excluded by means of urine sediment analysis. Once postrenal proteinuria was ruled out, the method used to collect urine samples did not appear to influence the quantification of urine protein concentration.

  16. Application of the BMWP-Costa Rica biotic index in aquatic biomonitoring: sensitivity to collection method and sampling intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E; Lorion, Christopher M

    2014-04-01

    The use of aquatic macroinvertebrates as bio-indicators in water quality studies has increased considerably over the last decade in Costa Rica, and standard biomonitoring methods have now been formulated at the national level. Nevertheless, questions remain about the effectiveness of different methods of sampling freshwater benthic assemblages, and how sampling intensity may influence biomonitoring results. In this study, we compared the results of qualitative sampling using commonly applied methods with a more intensive quantitative approach at 12 sites in small, lowland streams on the southern Caribbean slope of Costa Rica. Qualitative samples were collected following the official protocol using a strainer during a set time period and macroinvertebrates were field-picked. Quantitative sampling involved collecting ten replicate Surber samples and picking out macroinvertebrates in the laboratory with a stereomicroscope. The strainer sampling method consistently yielded fewer individuals and families than quantitative samples. As a result, site scores calculated using the Biological Monitoring Working Party-Costa Rica (BMWP-CR) biotic index often differed greatly depending on the sampling method. Site water quality classifications using the BMWP-CR index differed between the two sampling methods for 11 of the 12 sites in 2005, and for 9 of the 12 sites in 2006. Sampling intensity clearly had a strong influence on BMWP-CR index scores, as well as perceived differences between reference and impacted sites. Achieving reliable and consistent biomonitoring results for lowland Costa Rican streams may demand intensive sampling and requires careful consideration of sampling methods.

  17. Comparison of indoor air sampling and dust collection methods for fungal exposure assessment using quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating fungal contamination indoors is complicated because of the many different sampling methods utilized. In this study, fungal contamination was evaluated using five sampling methods and four matrices for results. The five sampling methods were a 48 hour indoor air sample ...

  18. 50 CFR 23.50 - What are the requirements for a sample collection covered by an ATA carnet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Application Procedures, Criteria, and... the specimens remain under customs control. (b) Definition. For purposes of this section, sample... definition of a sample collection as provided in paragraph (b) of this section. (2) The wildlife or plant...

  19. CO2 isotope analyses using large air samples collected on intercontinental flights by the CARIBIC Boeing 767

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assonov, S.S.; Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M.; Koeppel, C.; Röckmann, T.

    2009-01-01

    Analytical details for 13C and 18O isotope analyses of atmospheric CO2 in large air samples are given. The large air samples of nominally 300 L were collected during the passenger aircraft-based atmospheric chemistry research project CARIBIC and analyzed for a large number of trace gases and

  20. Mobile sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-PAH: Results of samples collected in a roadway tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benner, B.A. Jr.; Gordon, G.E.; Wise, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    A recent review article emphasized the need for further characterizations of the carbonaceous fraction of mobile source emissions, particularly with the impending removal of lead alkyl octane boosters and bromine-containing lead scavengers from regular leaded gasolines. The lead and bromine emitted from the combustion of these fuels have been used as tracers of mobile source emissions for a number of years. Single vehicle emission studies have shed light on the relationship between engine operating parameters and the chemical characteristics of the emissions but they are not suitable for use in source apportionment studies which require emission data from a large number of different vehicles. Air particulate samples collected near a busy highway or in a roadway tunnel would be more appropriate for use in estimating the mobile source contribution of organic compounds to a region. Suspended particle samples collected in a heavily-travelled roadway tunnel (Baltimore Harbor Tunnel, Baltimore, Maryland) were characterized for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and some nitro-PAH by gas and liquid chromatographic techniques. These samples included those collected on Teflon filters and on glass fiber filters for investigating any differences in samples collected on an inert (Teflon) and more reactive (glass-fiber) medium. All samples collected on Teflon were backed-up with polyurethane foam plugs (PUF) which trapped any inherent vapor-phase PAH as well as any compounds ''blown-off'' the particles during collection

  1. Product Return Handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we focus on product return handling and warehousing issues. In some businesses return rates can be well over 20% and returns can be especially costly when not handled properly. In spite of this, many managers have handled returns extemporarily. The fact that quantitative

  2. 32P-postlabeling assay for carcinogen-DNA adducts: description of beta shielding apparatus and semi-automatic spotting and washing devices that facilitate the handling of multiple samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, M.V.; Blackburn, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    The utilization of the 32 P-postlabeling assay in combination with TLC for the sensitive detection and estimation of aromatic DNA adducts has been increasing. The procedure consists of 32 P-labeling of carcinogen-adducted 3'-nucleotides in the DNA digests using γ- 32 P ATP and polynucleotide kinase, separation of 32 P-labeled adducts by TLC, and their detection by autoradiography. During both 32 P-labeling and initial phases of TLC, a relatively high amount of γ- 32 P ATP is handled when 30 samples are processed simultaneously. We describe the design of acrylic shielding apparatus, semi-automatic TLC spotting devices, and devices for development and washing of multiple TLC plates, which not only provide substantial protection from exposure to 32 P beta radiation, but also allow quick and easy handling of a large number of samples. Specifically, the equipment includes: (i) a multi-tube carousel rack having 15 wells to hold capless Eppendorf tubes and a rotatable lid with an aperture to access individual tubes; (ii) a pipette shielder; (iii) two semi-automatic spotting devices to apply radioactive solutions to TLC plates; (iv) a multi-plate holder for TLC plates; and (v) a mechanical device for washing multiple TLC plates. Item (i) is small enough to be held in one-hand, vortexed, and centrifuged to mix the solutions in each tube while beta radiation is shielded. Items (iii) to (iv) aid in the automation of the assay. (author)

  3. A review of historical data on the radionuclide content of soil samples collected from the Hanford Site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.

    1988-11-01

    The measurement of radioactive materials in soil samples collected from the environs of the Hanford Site has been a routine part of environmental monitoring since 1971. Soil samples have also been collected and analyzed for special-purpose studies. The main objective of this report is to review and summarize the historical record of soil sampling results related to environmental monitoring from the late 1950s through 1987. Other objectives are to publish previously unpublished data and to consolidate results from routine environmental monitoring and special studies into a single document. 51 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs

  4. Purposeful Sampling for Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis in Mixed Method Implementation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Horwitz, Sarah M; Green, Carla A; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Duan, Naihua; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2015-09-01

    Purposeful sampling is widely used in qualitative research for the identification and selection of information-rich cases related to the phenomenon of interest. Although there are several different purposeful sampling strategies, criterion sampling appears to be used most commonly in implementation research. However, combining sampling strategies may be more appropriate to the aims of implementation research and more consistent with recent developments in quantitative methods. This paper reviews the principles and practice of purposeful sampling in implementation research, summarizes types and categories of purposeful sampling strategies and provides a set of recommendations for use of single strategy or multistage strategy designs, particularly for state implementation research.

  5. The 'Prof. Dr. Rómulo Lambre' Collection: an Argentinian sample of modern skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salceda, S A; Desántolo, B; Mancuso, R García; Plischuk, M; Inda, A M

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes the 'Prof. Dr. Rómulo Lambre' skeletal collection. The Lambre Collection is housed in the School of Medical Sciences of the National University of La Plata and it consists of skeletal remains ceded by the Municipal Cemetery of La Plata. The collection has more than four hundred skeletons, with information on age, sex, nationality, date and cause of death. It was created for teaching and research purposes in compliance with current legislation, and its management meets guidelines specified in the Declaration of the Argentinian Association for Biological Anthropology on Research Ethics on Human Remains (2007). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Geophysical, geochemical, mineralogical, and enivronmental data for rock samples collected in a mineralized volcanic environment, upper Animas River watershed, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, A.E.; Horton, R.J.; Stanton, M.R.; McDougal, R.R.; Fey, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    This report provides analyses of 90 rock samples collected in the upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colo., from 2001 to 2007. The samples are analyzed for geophysical, geochemical, mineralogical, and environmental rock properties of acid neutralizing capacity and net acid production. The database is derived from both published (n=68) and unpublished (n=32) data. New for all samples are geophysical measurements of electrical resistivity, density, and porosity. Rock samples were acquired from 12 geologic units that include key Tertiary volcanic and plutonic lithologies, all with varying degrees of alteration.

  7. Manual on sample-based data collection for fisheries assessment: examples from Viet Nam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sparre, Per

    2000-01-01

    .... The data collection programme is developed through a top-down approach, from the identification of the objectives down to the practical recording and management of data obtained from the fishery...

  8. Comparison of three media for transport and storage of the samples collected for detection of avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Chun; Liu, Shuo; Hou, Guang-Yu; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Wang, Kai-Cheng; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Wang, Su-Chun; Li, Jin-Ping; Yu, Jian-Min; Du, Xiang; Huang, Bao-Xu; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2015-09-15

    Detection of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) is important for diagnosis, surveillance and control of avian influenza which is of great economic and public health significance. Proper transport and storage of samples is critical for the detection when the samples cannot be detected immediately. As recommended by some international or national authoritative entities and some publications, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), PBS-glycerol and brain heart infusion broth (BHIB) are frequently used for transport and storage of the samples collected for detection of AIVs worldwide. In this study, we compared these three media for transport and storage of simulated and authentic swab and feces samples collected for detection of AIVs using virus isolation and reverse transcription-PCR. The results suggest that PBS-glycerol is superior to PBS and BHIB as the sample transport and storage media. The results also suggest that the samples collected for detection of AIVs should be detected as soon as possible because the virus concentration of the samples may decline rapidly during storage within days at 4 or -20°C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of the sample collection strategies for the investigation of pollution stage of some heavy metals in marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baysal A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, sampling collection strategies were compared for the determination of some heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ni and investigate their effects on the marine pollution. The sampling area is a natural bay using as a shipbuilding industries for three decades especially. To determine the permanent heavy metal pollution in this area, the sediment samples were taken different strategies; i the bay were divided square pieces which is 200 m length, and the samples were taken this distance (total 71 point, ii the samples were taken along the shore, then 200 m away the shore and 400 m away the shore (total 58 point. After the sample collection using ISO 5667-12 and EPA sampling procedure, the samples were prepared for the metal analysis. Acid treated samples were analyze by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. As a results both strategies were (are compared for investigation of some heavy metals pollution in marine sediment. The preliminary results were found between below LOD and 401.0 mg/kg for lead, and between 0.10 and 1005.0 mg/kg for chromium. Finally, the permanent heavy metal pollution is investigated in this bay.

  10. Analysis of Biodiesel Blends Samples Collected in the United States in 2008 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, T. L.; Fouts, L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    NREL sampled and tested the quality of U.S. B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel) in 2008; 32 samples from retail locations and fleets were tested against a proposed ASTM D7467 B6-B20 specification, now in effect.

  11. Two-dimensional correlation analysis of spectra collected without knowing sampling order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Isao

    2018-03-01

    Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) without a priori knowledge of meaningful spectral sampling order is considered. Construction of synchronous 2D correlation spectrum does not require the knowledge of sampling order, and disrelation spectrum derived from synchronous spectrum possesses useful features similar to those of asynchronous spectrum. Disrelation analysis may provide enhanced spectral resolution and distinction of bands arising from different sources but not the sequential order of intensity variations. Dataset sampled in an arbitrary or scrambled order may be reassembled into a more structured form by rank ordering the spectra with the intensity of a select band. If there is no meaningful data structure, asynchronous 2D correlation should not be attempted, although synchronous and disrelation spectra may still be useful. The intrinsic ambiguity in the direction of sampling order may sometimes be resolved using additional physical information known about the sample system.

  12. A Future Moon Mission: Curatorial Statistics on Regolith Fragments Applicable to Sample Collection by Raking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Bevill, T. J.

    2003-01-01

    The strategy of raking rock fragments from the lunar regolith as a means of acquiring representative samples has wide support due to science return, spacecraft simplicity (reliability) and economy [3, 4, 5]. While there exists widespread agreement that raking or sieving the bulk regolith is good strategy, there is lively discussion about the minimum sample size. Advocates of consor-tium studies desire fragments large enough to support petrologic and isotopic studies. Fragments from 5 to 10 mm are thought adequate [4, 5]. Yet, Jolliff et al. [6] demonstrated use of 2-4 mm fragments as repre-sentative of larger rocks. Here we make use of cura-torial records and sample catalogs to give a different perspective on minimum sample size for a robotic sample collector.

  13. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  14. Sampling intraspecific variability in leaf functional traits: Practical suggestions to maximize collected information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzellis, Francesco; Palandrani, Chiara; Savi, Tadeja; Alberti, Roberto; Nardini, Andrea; Bacaro, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    The choice of the best sampling strategy to capture mean values of functional traits for a species/population, while maintaining information about traits' variability and minimizing the sampling size and effort, is an open issue in functional trait ecology. Intraspecific variability (ITV) of functional traits strongly influences sampling size and effort. However, while adequate information is available about intraspecific variability between individuals (ITV BI ) and among populations (ITV POP ), relatively few studies have analyzed intraspecific variability within individuals (ITV WI ). Here, we provide an analysis of ITV WI of two foliar traits, namely specific leaf area (SLA) and osmotic potential (π), in a population of Quercus ilex L. We assessed the baseline ITV WI level of variation between the two traits and provided the minimum and optimal sampling size in order to take into account ITV WI , comparing sampling optimization outputs with those previously proposed in the literature. Different factors accounted for different amount of variance of the two traits. SLA variance was mostly spread within individuals (43.4% of the total variance), while π variance was mainly spread between individuals (43.2%). Strategies that did not account for all the canopy strata produced mean values not representative of the sampled population. The minimum size to adequately capture the studied functional traits corresponded to 5 leaves taken randomly from 5 individuals, while the most accurate and feasible sampling size was 4 leaves taken randomly from 10 individuals. We demonstrate that the spatial structure of the canopy could significantly affect traits variability. Moreover, different strategies for different traits could be implemented during sampling surveys. We partially confirm sampling sizes previously proposed in the recent literature and encourage future analysis involving different traits.

  15. Handling in adults physiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Smutný, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The thesis Handling In Adults Physiotherapy summarizes the knowledge of respiratory handling in application on adult patients. Part of the thesis also covers the relationship between body position and respiratory motor control. Experimental part consists of a clinical study with 10 COPD patients. The patients were treated in 3 positions by respiratory handling therapy. The result demonstrates a significant change in blood saturation after the therapy in position on a side. It also proves appr...

  16. Standardization of sample collection, isolation and analysis methods in extracellular vesicle research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Witwer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of publications on extracellular RNA (exRNA and extracellular vesicles (EV has highlighted the potential of these molecules and vehicles as biomarkers of disease and therapeutic targets. These findings have created a paradigm shift, most prominently in the field of oncology, prompting expanded interest in the field and dedication of funds for EV research. At the same time, understanding of EV subtypes, biogenesis, cargo and mechanisms of shuttling remains incomplete. The techniques that can be harnessed to address the many gaps in our current knowledge were the subject of a special workshop of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV in New York City in October 2012. As part of the “ISEV Research Seminar: Analysis and Function of RNA in Extracellular Vesicles (evRNA”, 6 round-table discussions were held to provide an evidence-based framework for isolation and analysis of EV, purification and analysis of associated RNA molecules, and molecular engineering of EV for therapeutic intervention. This article arises from the discussion of EV isolation and analysis at that meeting. The conclusions of the round table are supplemented with a review of published materials and our experience. Controversies and outstanding questions are identified that may inform future research and funding priorities. While we emphasize the need for standardization of specimen handling, appropriate normative controls, and isolation and analysis techniques to facilitate comparison of results, we also recognize that continual development and evaluation of techniques will be necessary as new knowledge is amassed. On many points, consensus has not yet been achieved and must be built through the reporting of well-controlled experiments.

  17. Standardization of sample collection, isolation and analysis methods in extracellular vesicle research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witwer, Kenneth W.; Buzás, Edit I.; Bemis, Lynne T.; Bora, Adriana; Lässer, Cecilia; Lötvall, Jan; Nolte-‘t Hoen, Esther N.; Piper, Melissa G.; Sivaraman, Sarada; Skog, Johan; Théry, Clotilde; Wauben, Marca H.; Hochberg, Fred

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of publications on extracellular RNA (exRNA) and extracellular vesicles (EV) has highlighted the potential of these molecules and vehicles as biomarkers of disease and therapeutic targets. These findings have created a paradigm shift, most prominently in the field of oncology, prompting expanded interest in the field and dedication of funds for EV research. At the same time, understanding of EV subtypes, biogenesis, cargo and mechanisms of shuttling remains incomplete. The techniques that can be harnessed to address the many gaps in our current knowledge were the subject of a special workshop of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) in New York City in October 2012. As part of the “ISEV Research Seminar: Analysis and Function of RNA in Extracellular Vesicles (evRNA)”, 6 round-table discussions were held to provide an evidence-based framework for isolation and analysis of EV, purification and analysis of associated RNA molecules, and molecular engineering of EV for therapeutic intervention. This article arises from the discussion of EV isolation and analysis at that meeting. The conclusions of the round table are supplemented with a review of published materials and our experience. Controversies and outstanding questions are identified that may inform future research and funding priorities. While we emphasize the need for standardization of specimen handling, appropriate normative controls, and isolation and analysis techniques to facilitate comparison of results, we also recognize that continual development and evaluation of techniques will be necessary as new knowledge is amassed. On many points, consensus has not yet been achieved and must be built through the reporting of well-controlled experiments. PMID:24009894

  18. Miniature Sample Collection and Delivery System using Gas-Entrained Powder Transport Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a miniature system for acquisition and delivery of solid samples to landed planetary instruments. This system would entrain powder produced by...

  19. 9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... laboratory within one day. If delivery is delayed, samples should be refrigerated. (a) For egg- and meat-type... should be cultured in accordance with illustration 2 of § 147.11, including delayed secondary enrichment...

  20. Nuclear fuel handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, C.; Dupen, C.F.G.; Noyes, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    A fuel handling machine for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor in which a retractable handling tube and gripper are lowered into the reactor to withdraw a spent fuel assembly into the handling tube. The handling tube containing the fuel assembly immersed in liquid sodium is then withdrawn completely from the reactor into the outer barrel of the handling machine. The machine is then used to transport the spent fuel assembly directly to a remotely located decay tank. The fuel handling machine includes a decay heat removal system which continuously removes heat from the interior of the handling tube and which is capable of operating at its full cooling capacity at all times. The handling tube is supported in the machine from an articulated joint which enables it to readily align itself with the correct position in the core. An emergency sodium supply is carried directly by the machine to provide make up in the event of a loss of sodium from the handling tube during transport to the decay tank. 5 claims, 32 drawing figures

  1. Practices of Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ræbild, Ulla

    area within fashion research. This paper proposes an understanding of the work process of fashion designers as practices of handling comprising a number of embodied methodologies tied to both spatial and temporal dimensions. The term handling encompasses four meanings. As a verb it is literally...... a dichotomized idea of design as combined, alternating or parallel processes of thinking and doing. In other words, the notion of handling is not about reflection in or on action, as brought to the fore by Schön (1984), but about reflection as action. Below the methodological macro level of handling, the paper...

  2. Experience in handling concentrated tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslander, W.J.

    1985-12-01

    The notes describe the experience in handling concentrated tritium in the hydrogen form accumulated in the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories Tritium Laboratory. The techniques of box operation, pumping systems, hydriding and dehydriding operations, and analysis of tritium are discussed. Information on the Chalk River Tritium Extraction Plant is included as a collection of reprints of papers presented at the Dayton Meeting on Tritium Technology, 1985 April 30 - May 2

  3. Validation of the direct nasopharyngeal sampling method for collection of expired air in preterm neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoor, Sophie R. D.; de Koning, Barbara A. E.; Wattimena, Darcos L.; Tibboel, Dick; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2004-01-01

    In clinical studies, the oxidation of 13C-labeled substrates to 13CO2 and the measurement of the appearance of excess 13CO2 in expiratory air has progressed to an increasingly common method as it is noninvasive and lacks the radiation exposure associated with the use of 14C. The collection of

  4. 77 FR 38323 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Respirable Coal Mine Dust Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ..., silicosis, and chronic bronchitis, known collectively as ``black lung.'' These diseases are debilitating and... dust levels since 1970 and, consequently, the prevalence rate of black lung among coal miners, severe... Safety and Health (NIOSH) indicate that black lung remains an occupational health risk among our nation's...

  5. Demonstration Exercise of a Validated Sample Collection Method for Powders Suspected of Being Biological Agents in Georgia 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, B.

    2007-01-01

    August 7, 2006 the state of Georgia conducted a collaborative sampling exercise between the Georgia National Guard 4th Civil Support Team Weapons of Mass Destruction (CST-WMD) and the Georgia Department of Human Resources Division of Public Health demonstrating a recently validated bulk powder sampling method. The exercise was hosted at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) at Glynn County, Georgia and involved the participation of the Georgia Emergency Management Agency (GEMA), Georgia National Guard, Georgia Public Health Laboratories, the Federal Bureau of Investigation Atlanta Office, Georgia Coastal Health District, and the Glynn County Fire Department. The purpose of the exercise was to demonstrate a recently validated national sampling standard developed by the American Standards and Test Measures (ASTM) International; ASTM E2458 S tandard Practice for Bulk Sample Collection and Swab Sample Collection of Visible Powders Suspected of Being Biological Agents from Nonporous Surfaces . The intent of the exercise was not to endorse the sampling method, but to develop a model for exercising new sampling methods in the context of existing standard operating procedures (SOPs) while strengthening operational relationships between response teams and analytical laboratories. The exercise required a sampling team to respond real-time to an incident cross state involving a clandestine bio-terrorism production lab found within a recreational vehicle (RV). Sample targets consisted of non-viable gamma irradiated B. anthracis Sterne spores prepared by Dugway Proving Ground. Various spore concentration levels were collected by the ASTM method, followed by on- and off-scene analysis utilizing the Center for Disease Control (CDC) Laboratory Response Network (LRN) and National Guard Bureau (NGB) CST mobile Analytical Laboratory Suite (ALS) protocols. Analytical results were compared and detailed surveys of participant evaluation comments were examined. I will

  6. Effects of season, sex, and sample collection on concentrations of fecal cortisol metabolites in red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, S; Palme, R; Arnold, W

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal variation, sex differences, and invasive sample collection may confound glucocorticoid measures as indices of stress. We investigated the effects of sex and season on glucocorticoid production on a non-invasive basis by measuring concentrations of cortisol metabolites in feces of undisturbed red deer (Cervus elaphus). Although feces can be collected easily, assignment to individuals is difficult. Anonymous fecal samples may cause overrepresentation of particular individuals thus introducing a source of error when estimating mean hormone levels within a population. We therefore examined the effects of collecting anonymous fecal samples on mean fecal cortisol metabolite levels. Neither sex nor sample collection mode significantly affected mean fecal cortisol metabolite concentrations in the studied population of red deer. Fecal glucocorticoid excretion varied seasonally with a peak during December and January. Out of several potential predictor variables investigated, minimum ambient temperature and snow proved to be the only factors exerting a significant effect on fecal glucocorticoid excretion. We suggest that high winter glucocorticoid levels may act via catabolic function during adaptation of deer to cold winter month when resources are limited.

  7. Microbial diversity in firework chemical exposed soil and water samples collected in Virudhunagar district, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    Dhasarathan, P.; Theriappan, P.; Ashokraja, C.

    2009-01-01

    Microbial diversity of soil and water samples collected from pyrochemicals exposed areas of Virdhunagar district (Tamil Nadu, India) was studied. Soil and water samples from cultivable area, waste land and city area of the same region were also studied for a comparative acount. There is a remarkable reduction in total heterotrophic bacterial population (THB) in pyrochemicals exposed soil and water samples (42 × 104 CFU/g and 5.6 × 104 CFU/ml respectively), compared to the THB of cultivable ar...

  8. Survey of Hygienic quality of honey samples collected form Qazvin province during 2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzagh Mahmoudi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study : Consumption of honey has remarkably increased in the last years all over the world. Factors such as plant species, environmental, processing, and storing condition are affecting honey quality. The purpose of this study was to evaluation of Hygienic quality of honey samples produced from Qazvin province. Materials and Methods: 34 fresh honey Samples were obtained from beekeepers from different regions of the alamut area in the period between June and November 2011. The microbial contamination (bacteria and fungi was determined using conventional microbiological methods and the total aflatoxin was detected by “high performance liquid chromatography” (HPLC. Results: The results of microbial analysis showed that the aerobic mesophil bacteria count (50 cfu/g and fungal count (1.5*10 2 cfu/g were in low levels. However, coliforms were not detected in any of the honey sample. The most prevalent bacteria and fungi were Bacillus cereus and Aspergillus flavus respectively. Based on the HPLC method analysis, all of honey samples were contaminated whit aflatoxin and the mean concentration of aflatoxin was 3.67 ppb. Also the aflatoxin levels in 35% honey samples were higher than the maximum allowable amount of Europe ::::union:::: (4 µg/kg. Conclusion : According to the results, should have more control on the Hygienic quality of honey over the production, storage and supply periods in this area.  

  9. Collection of fungi samples from nails: comparative study of curettage and drilling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemer, A; Trau, H; Davidovici, B; Grunwald, M H; Amichai, B

    2008-02-01

    Onychomycosis is a common problem. Obtaining a positive laboratory test before treatment is important in clinical practice because the treatment of onychomycosis requires expensive oral antifungal therapy with potentially serious side-effects. The purpose of this study was to compare curettage and subungual drilling techniques of nail sampling in the diagnosis of onychomycosis. We evaluated 194 patients suffering from distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis and lateral subungual onychomycosis using curettage and subungual drilling sampling techniques. Nail samples were obtained in each case from proximal, medial and distal parts of the nail. KOH examination and fungal culture were used for detection and identification of fungal infection. With each technique, the culture sensitivity improved as the location of the sample was more proximal (drilling proximal vs. distal, chi(2) = 5.15, P = 0.023; curettage proximal vs. distal, chi(2) = 4.2, P = 0.041). In each sample location, the drilling technique has a better culture sensitivity (drilling vs. curettage proximal, chi(2) = 11.9, P = 0.001; drill vs. curettage distal, chi(2) = 13.7, P nails.

  10. Curating NASA's Future Extraterrestrial Sample Collections: How Do We Achieve Maximum Proficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Zeigler, Ryan; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "... documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working towards a state of maximum proficiency.

  11. 21 CFR 111.80 - What representative samples must you collect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Requirement to Establish a Production and... manufactured batch at points, steps, or stages, in the manufacturing process as specified in the master... statistical sampling plan (or otherwise every finished batch), before releasing for distribution to verify...

  12. Tank 241-U-107 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  13. Sampling Participants' Experience in Laboratory Experiments: Complementary challenges for more complete data collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eMcAuliffe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Speelman and McGann's (2013 examination of the uncritical way in which the mean is often used in psychological research raises questions both about the average's reliability and its validity. In the present paper, we argue that interrogating the validity of the mean involves, amongst other things, a better understanding of the person's experiences, the meaning of their actions, at the time that the behaviour of interest is carried out. Recently emerging approaches within Psychology and Cognitive Science have argued strongly that experience should play a more central role in our examination of behavioural data, but the relationship between experience and behaviour remains very poorly understood. We outline some of the history of the science on this fraught relationship, as well as arguing that contemporary methods for studying experience fall into one of two categories. Wide approaches tend to incorporate naturalistic behaviour settings, but sacrifice accuracy and reliability in behavioural measurement. Narrow approaches maintain controlled measurement of behaviour, but involve too specific a sampling of experience, which obscures crucial temporal characteristics. We therefore argue for a novel, mid-range sampling technique, that extends Hurlburt's Descriptive Experience Sampling, and adapts it for the controlled setting of the laboratory. This Controlled Descriptive Experience Sampling may be an appropriate tool to help calibrate both the mean and the meaning of an experimental situation with one another.

  14. Tank 241-AX-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  15. Tank 241-C-106 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-26

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  16. Tank 241-B-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-27

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  17. Tank 241-T-107 Headspace Gas and Vapor Characterization Results for Samples Collected in January 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-26

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  18. Tank 241-C-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-28

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  19. Tank 241-C-107 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-28

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  20. Tank 241-U-106 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  1. Tank 241-S-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  2. Tank 241-U-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  3. Tank 241-TX-105 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-25

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  4. Tank 241-T-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in January 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  5. Tank 241-AX-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in June 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  6. Tank 241-A-101 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in June 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  7. Tank 241-U-203 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  8. Tank 241-C-106 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  9. Tank 241-C-107 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  10. Tank 241-S-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  11. Tank 241-BY-112 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  12. Tank 241-TY-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in April 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  13. Tank 241-C-110 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  14. Tank 241-SX-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  15. Tank 241-U-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  16. Tank 241-SX-106 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  17. Tank 241-C-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  18. Tank 241-TX-105 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  19. Attitudes towards biomedical use of tissue sample collections, consent, and biobanks among Finns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro Mikael; Sihvo, Sinikka; Snell, Karolna

    2010-01-01

    To ascertain the attitudes towards the use of existing diagnostic and research samples, the setting up of a national biobank, and different types of informed consent among Finns. Method: A population survey of 2,400 randomly selected Finns aged 24-65 was conducted at the beginning of 2007....

  20. Tank 241-C-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  1. Tank 241-C-110 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  2. Tank 241-B-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  3. Tank 241-BX-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  4. Tank 241-C-101 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  5. Forage nutritive value of plant samples collected by clipping or rumen evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowing nutritive value and intake of forage by an animal is important to understand methane production data from individual animals in a grazed environment. Digestibility of forages is typically evaluated as the in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) using a clipped forage sample; however, beef...

  6. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-107: Results from samples collected on 10/26/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-BY-107 (referred to as Tank BY-107). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The organic analytes for TO-14 compounds were extended to include 15 analytes identified by the Toxicological Review Panel for Tank C-103 and reported in Toxicological Evaluation of Analytes from Tank 241-C-103 PAE-10189. While these analytes are only of toxicological concern for Tank C-103, program management included these analytes for future tank analyses as identified in the fiscal year work plan. This plan is attached to a letter dated 9/30/94 and addressed to Mr. T. J. Kelly of WHC. The plan also requires PNL to analyze for the permanent gases as shown in Table 3.5. The sample job was designated S4077, and samples were collected by WHC on October 26, 1994, using the vapor sampling system (VSS). Sampling devices, including six sorbent trains (for inorganic analyses), and six SUMMA trademark canisters (for organic analyses) were supplied to the WHC sampling staff on October 24. Samples were taken (by WHC) from the tank headspace on October 26 and were returned to PNL from the field on November 8. Inorganic (sorbent trap) samples were delivered to PNL on chain of custody (COC) 008071. The SUMMA trademark canisters were delivered on COC 008070. Three SUMMA trademark canister samples were stored at the PNL 326/23B laboratory pending further instruction from WHC to send them to the Oregon Graduate Institute (OGI) for analysis

  7. The Influence Of Customer Handling On Brand Image In Building Customer Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Kurniawan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Complaint handling influences brand image which will influence customer loyalty in the future. This research is aimed to find out how the complaint handling is capable to influence against the brand image in building the customer loyalty of Indomaret Minimarket with the study case of Indomaret Minimarket. This research also aims to find out how the complaint handling is conducted by Indomaret Minimarket the brand image of service on Indomaret Minimarket as well as the customer loyalty of Indomaret Minimarket. This research using questionnaire as an instrument in collecting the data. The analysis type of this research is descriptive analysis and causal. The sample used as many as a 165 respondents with purposive sampling techniques. This research uses 33 indicators that will be counted with analysis technique SEM Structural Equation Modelling. The result of this research is that the complaint handling conducted by Indomaret Minimarket has been good but the aspect of speed in complaint handling is considered as not good. Besides the brand image and loyalty have been good enough. The customer loyalty is influenced by the complaint handling and the brand image by 32.7. The complaint handling has a significant influence against the customer satisfaction but the complaint handling does not influence against the customer loyalty. The brand image significantly influences against the customer loyalty. Then complaint handling influential not directly to customers trough loyalty of customer satisfaction. In addition the necessary integrated system standardization compensation and to rejuvenate issue at regular intervals to improve complaint handling that can give the effect to customer loyalty through brand image.

  8. k0-INAA for APM samples collected in period of June 2004 - March 2005 and some marine certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dung, Ho Manh; Vu, Cao Dong; Y, Truong; Sy, Nguyen Thi

    2006-01-01

    The airborne particulate matter (APM) samples have been collected in 2004 using two types of polycarbonate membrane filter PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 at two sites of industrial (Ho Chi Mihn City) and rural (Dateh) regions in south of Vietnam. Three marine certified reference materials have been selected to establish a k0-NAA procedure for marine samples. The concentration of trace multi-element in the samples has been determined by the k 0 -INAA procedure using K o -DALAT software developed in Dalat NRI. About 28 elements in 224 APM samples collected at two areas of Dateh and HCMC of Vietnam in period from June, 2004 to March, 2005 were presented in report. The statistical analysis was applied to the data set to investigate the pollution source at sampling sites. The results proved that the k 0 -NAA on the Dalat research reactor is a reliable and effective analytical technique for characterization of trace multi-element in APM and marine samples for air and marine environmental pollution study in Vietnam. (author)

  9. LIIS: A web-based system for culture collections and sample annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Forster

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Lab Information Indexing System (LIIS is a web-driven database application for laboratories looking to store their sample or culture metadata on a central server. The design was driven by a need to replace traditional paper storage with an easier to search format, and extend current spreadsheet storage methods. The system supports the import and export of CSV spreadsheets, and stores general metadata designed to complement the environmental packages provided by the Genomic Standards Consortium. The goals of the LIIS are to simplify the storage and archival processes and to provide an easy to access library of laboratory annotations. The program will find utility in microbial ecology laboratories or any lab that needs to annotate samples/cultures.

  10. Prevalence of L. monocytogenes in environmental samples collected in dairy plants of Sassari Province, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Terrosu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Listeria (L. monocytogenes is frequently isolated from food production environment and often persists in dairy plants despite vigorous sanitation regimes. In recent years several alert notifications were sent to Rapid Alert System for Food Products system as a consequence of Listeria monocytogenes contamination of ricotta cheese. After the alert of 2012, competent authority (Local Health Unit of Sassari Province organised an environmental monitoring plan with the partnership of the Institute for Experimental Veterinary Medicine of Sardinia to verify analysis of dairy plants own-check according to Regulation (EC N° 2073/05 and further modifications. In 2014 n. 665 processing areas samples of n. 50 dairy plants of Sassari Province were examined. UNI EN ISO 11290-1:2005 for detection of L. monocytogenes was used. Non-compliance in n. 5 diary plants are observed (n. 8 positive samples. Post-non-compliance environmental sanitisation was efficient and own-check plans included appropriate corrective actions.

  11. GeoLab Sample Handling System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work builds upon the successes in developing and field testing GeoLab as part of the 2010 and 2011 Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) and Desert RATS activities....

  12. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-C-101: Results from samples collected on 9/1/94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucke, R.B.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W. [and others

    1995-11-01

    This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-C-101 (referred to as Tank C-101) and the ambient air collected - 30 ft upwind near the tank and through the VSS near the tank. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The sample job was designated S4056, and samples were collected by WHC on September 1, 1994, using the vapor sampling system (VSS). The samples were inspected upon delivery to the 326/23B laboratory and logged into PNL record book 55408 before implementation of PNL Technical Procedure PNL-TVP-07. Custody of the sorbent traps was transferred to PNL personnel performing the inorganic analysis and stored at refrigerated ({le} 10{degrees}C) temperature until the time of analysis. The canisters were stored in the 326/23B laboratory at ambient (25{degrees}C) temperature until the time of the analysis. Access to the 326/23B laboratory is limited to PNL personnel working on the waste-tank safety program. Analyses described in this report were performed at PNL in the 300 area of the Hanford Reservation. Analytical methods that were used are described in the text. In summary, sorbent traps for inorganic analyses containing sample materials were either weighed (for water analysis) or desorbed with the appropriate aqueous solutions (for NH{sub 3}, NO{sub 2}, and NO analyses). The aqueous extracts were analyzed either by selective electrode or by ion chromatography (IC). Organic analyses were performed using cryogenic preconcentration followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

  13. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-C-101: Results from samples collected on 9/1/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucke, R.B.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-C-101 (referred to as Tank C-101) and the ambient air collected - 30 ft upwind near the tank and through the VSS near the tank. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The sample job was designated S4056, and samples were collected by WHC on September 1, 1994, using the vapor sampling system (VSS). The samples were inspected upon delivery to the 326/23B laboratory and logged into PNL record book 55408 before implementation of PNL Technical Procedure PNL-TVP-07. Custody of the sorbent traps was transferred to PNL personnel performing the inorganic analysis and stored at refrigerated (≤ 10 degrees C) temperature until the time of analysis. The canisters were stored in the 326/23B laboratory at ambient (25 degrees C) temperature until the time of the analysis. Access to the 326/23B laboratory is limited to PNL personnel working on the waste-tank safety program. Analyses described in this report were performed at PNL in the 300 area of the Hanford Reservation. Analytical methods that were used are described in the text. In summary, sorbent traps for inorganic analyses containing sample materials were either weighed (for water analysis) or desorbed with the appropriate aqueous solutions (for NH 3 , NO 2 , and NO analyses). The aqueous extracts were analyzed either by selective electrode or by ion chromatography (IC). Organic analyses were performed using cryogenic preconcentration followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)

  14. Long-term outcomes of cochlear implantation in early childhood: sample characteristics and data collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geers, Ann E; Brenner, Christine A; Tobey, Emily A

    2011-02-01

    This article describes participants in a follow-up study of a nationwide sample of children who had used a cochlear implant (CI) since preschool. The children were originally tested when they were in early elementary grades, and results were published in a monograph supplement of Ear and Hearing. Recently, many of these children returned for follow-up testing when they were in high school with >10 yrs experience with a CI. This introductory article will (1) discuss the extent to which the sample tested is representative of typical populations and (2) describe how sample characteristics changed over time for the 112 students tested in both elementary grades and high school. Over a 4-yr period, 112 teenagers from across North America, accompanied by a parent, attended a research camp that was similar to one in which they had participated 8 yrs earlier. A battery of auditory, speech, language, and reading tests was administered, and responses to questionnaires and written language samples were obtained and are described in the following articles in this issue. This article summarizes child, family, and educational characteristics that were quantified so that their role in outcome levels achieved could be examined statistically. For example, metrics were devised to reflect the extent to which a student's language improved when sign language was added to spoken language (i.e., sign enhancement) based on test results obtained in elementary grades and in high school. Comparisons of early characteristics of the 112 students who returned for follow-up testing with the 72 who did not return indicated comparable Performance Intelligence Quotients, communication mode ratings, family education/income, and age at implant. However, follow-up participants had better speech perception, speech intelligibility, and language skills at 8 or 9 yrs of age. Seventy-five percent of returning teenagers were fully mainstreamed in high school (compared with 63% in elementary grades). Only 5

  15. Analysis of Dust Samples Collected from an In-Service Interim Storage System at the Maine Yankee Nuclear Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Enos, David

    2016-10-01

    In July, 2016, the Electric Power Research Institute and industry partners performed a field test at the Maine Yankee Nuclear Site, located near Wiscasset, Maine. The primary goal of the field test was to evaluate the use of robots in surveying the surface of an in-service interim storage canister within an overpack; however, as part of the demonstration, dust and soluble salt samples were collected from horizontal surfaces within the interim storage system. The storage system is a vertical system made by NAC International, consisting of a steel-lined concrete overpack containing a 304 stainless steel (SS) welded storage canister. The canister did not contain spent fuel but rather greater-than-class-C waste, which did not generate significant heat, limiting airflow through the storage system. The surfaces that were sampled for deposits included the top of the shield plug, the side of the canister, and a shelf at the bottom of the overpack, just below the level of the pillar on which the canister sits. The samples were sent to Sandia National Laboratories for analysis. This report summarizes the results of those analyses. Because the primary goal of the field test was to evaluate the use of robots in surveying the surface of the canister within the overpack, collection of dust samples was carried out in a qualitative fashion, using paper filters and sponges as the sampling media. The sampling focused mostly on determining the composition of soluble salts present in the dust. It was anticipated that a wet substrate would more effectively extract soluble salts from the surface that was sampled, so both the sponges and the filter paper were wetted prior to being applied to the surface of the metal. Sampling was accomplished by simply pressing the damp substrate against the metal surface for two minutes, and then removing it. It is unlikely that the sampling method quantitatively collected dust or salts from the metal surface; however, both substrates did extract a

  16. Liquid-Based Medium Used to Prepare Cytological Breast Nipple Fluid Improves the Quality of Cellular Samples Automatic Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonta, Marco Antonio; Velame, Fernanda; Gema, Samara; Filassi, Jose Roberto; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the second cause of death in women worldwide. The spontaneous breast nipple discharge may contain cells that can be analyzed for malignancy. Halo® Mamo Cyto Test (HMCT) was recently developed as an automated system indicated to aspirate cells from the breast ducts. The objective of this study was to standardize the methodology of sampling and sample preparation of nipple discharge obtained by the automated method Halo breast test and perform cytological evaluation in samples preserved in liquid medium (SurePath™). Methods We analyzed 564 nipple fluid samples, from women between 20 and 85 years old, without history of breast disease and neoplasia, no pregnancy, and without gynecologic medical history, collected by HMCT method and preserved in two different vials with solutions for transport. Results From 306 nipple fluid samples from method 1, 199 (65%) were classified as unsatisfactory (class 0), 104 (34%) samples were classified as benign findings (class II), and three (1%) were classified as undetermined to neoplastic cells (class III). From 258 samples analyzed in method 2, 127 (49%) were classified as class 0, 124 (48%) were classified as class II, and seven (2%) were classified as class III. Conclusion Our study suggests an improvement in the quality and quantity of cellular samples when the association of the two methodologies is performed, Halo breast test and the method in liquid medium. PMID:29147397

  17. Comparison of Cervicovaginal Cytopathological Samples Collected in Basic Health Units and in Private Clinics in the Midwest of Santa Catarina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallazem, Bárbara; Dambrós, Bibiana Paula; Gamba, Conrado de Oliveira; Perazzoli, Marcelo; Kirschnick, Alexandre

    2018-02-01

     To compare the quality of cervicovaginal samples obtained from basic health units (BHUs) of the Unified Health System (SUS) and those obtained from private clinics to screen precursor lesions of cervical cancer.  It was an intervention study whose investigated variables were: adequacy of the samples; presence of epithelia in the samples, and cytopathological results. A total of 940 forms containing the analysis of the biological samples were examined: 470 forms of women attended at BHUs of the SUS and 470 forms of women examined in private clinics in January and February of 2016.  All the unsatisfactory samples were collected at BHUs and corresponded to 4% of the total in this sector ( p  private clinics ( p  private system and SUS, respectively. Less serious lesions corresponded to 0.89% of the samples from the SUS and 2.56% of the tests from the private sector; more serious lesions were not represented in the samples obtained from BHUs, whereas the percentage was 1.49% in private institutions.  Unsatisfactory cervical samples were observed only in exams performed at the SUS. There is a need for guidance and training of professionals who perform this procedure to achieve higher reliability in the results and more safety for women who undergo this preventive test. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  18. Disposable diaper to collect urine samples from young children for pyrethroid pesticide studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Beach, James; Raymer, James; Gardner, Micheal

    2004-09-01

    Disposable diapers are widely used in the US and many other areas in the world; therefore, they are ideal media for urine collection for measurement of young children's exposure to pesticides. However, disposable diapers normally contain polyacrylate polymers that make the extraction and analysis of urine very difficult. The objectives of this paper were to evaluate whether disposable diapers that contain polyacrylate granules can be extracted using salt solutions, and whether they can be used for the collection and quantitative measurements of selected urinary pyrethroid pesticide metabolites and creatinine. The storage stability of the metabolites and creatinine in a wet diaper at body temperature and at refrigeration temperature was also evaluated. Salt solutions including calcium chloride dihydrate, magnesium sulfate, ammonium acetate, and sodium chloride solutions were tested for efficiency of polymer shrinkage. Pyrethroid metabolites 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-(1-cyclopropane) carboxylic acid (DCCA), 3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2,dimethyl-(1-cyclopropane) carboxylic acid (DBCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) were analyzed using LC/MS/MS and evaluated for recoveries in the urine released from the diapers. The study found calcium chloride dihydate to be satisfactory in releasing urine and metabolites from the polymers. The percent recoveries for the three tested pyrethroid metabolites were mostly in the range of 65-130. The percent recoveries for creatinine were in the range of 71-133. The detection limit for each of the three metabolites was 0.1 microg/l. The pyrethroid metabolites and creatinine were stable on the diaper for at least 72 h. We concluded from this study that calcium chloride dihydrate can successfully release urine and metabolites from polyacrylate-containing diapers, and the method is promising for studies of pyrethroid metabolites.

  19. Challenges in collecting clinical samples for research from pregnant women of South Asian origin: evidence from a UK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelotpol, Sharmind; Hay, Alastair W M; Jolly, A Jim; Woolridge, Mike W

    2016-08-31

    To recruit South Asian pregnant women, living in the UK, into a clinicoepidemiological study for the collection of lifestyle survey data and antenatal blood and to retain the women for the later collection of cord blood and meconium samples from their babies for biochemical analysis. A longitudinal study recruiting pregnant women of South Asian and Caucasian origin living in the UK. Recruitment of the participants, collection of clinical samples and survey data took place at the 2 sites within a single UK Northern Hospital Trust. Pregnant women of South Asian origin (study group, n=98) and of Caucasian origin (comparison group, n=38) living in Leeds, UK. Among the participants approached, 81% agreed to take part in the study while a 'direct approach' method was followed. The retention rate of the participants was a remarkable 93.4%. The main challenges in recruiting the ethnic minority participants were their cultural and religious conservativeness, language barrier, lack of interest and feeling of extra 'stress' in taking part in research. The chief investigator developed an innovative participant retention method, associated with the women's cultural and religious practices. The method proved useful in retaining the participants for about 5 months and in enabling successful collection of clinical samples from the same mother-baby pairs. The collection of clinical samples and lifestyle data exceeded the calculated sample size required to give the study sufficient power. The numbers of samples obtained were: maternal blood (n=171), cord blood (n=38), meconium (n=176), lifestyle questionnaire data (n=136) and postnatal records (n=136). Recruitment and retention of participants, according to the calculated sample size, ensured sufficient power and success for a clinicoepidemiological study. Results suggest that development of trust and confidence between the participant and the researcher is the key to the success of a clinical and epidemiological study involving

  20. Metal-organic frameworks for analytical chemistry: from sample collection to chromatographic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Chang, Na; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2012-05-15

    In modern analytical chemistry researchers pursue novel materials to meet analytical challenges such as improvements in sensitivity, selectivity, and detection limit. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an emerging class of microporous materials, and their unusual properties such as high surface area, good thermal stability, uniform structured nanoscale cavities, and the availability of in-pore functionality and outer-surface modification are attractive for diverse analytical applications. This Account summarizes our research on the analytical applications of MOFs ranging from sampling to chromatographic separation. MOFs have been either directly used or engineered to meet the demands of various analytical applications. Bulk MOFs with microsized crystals are convenient sorbents for direct application to in-field sampling and solid-phase extraction. Quartz tubes packed with MOF-5 have shown excellent stability, adsorption efficiency, and reproducibility for in-field sampling and trapping of atmospheric formaldehyde. The 2D copper(II) isonicotinate packed microcolumn has demonstrated large enhancement factors and good shape- and size-selectivity when applied to on-line solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples. We have explored the molecular sieving effect of MOFs for the efficient enrichment of peptides with simultaneous exclusion of proteins from biological fluids. These results show promise for the future of MOFs in peptidomics research. Moreover, nanosized MOFs and engineered thin films of MOFs are promising materials as novel coatings for solid-phase microextraction. We have developed an in situ hydrothermal growth approach to fabricate thin films of MOF-199 on etched stainless steel wire for solid-phase microextraction of volatile benzene homologues with large enhancement factors and wide linearity. Their high thermal stability and easy-to-engineer nanocrystals make MOFs attractive as new stationary phases to fabricate MOF

  1. Assessment of selected contaminants in streambed- and suspended-sediment samples collected in Bexar County, Texas, 2007-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2011-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of sediment-associated contaminants are typically associated with urban areas such as San Antonio, Texas, in Bexar County, the seventh most populous city in the United States. This report describes an assessment of selected sediment-associated contaminants in samples collected in Bexar County from sites on the following streams: Medio Creek, Medina River, Elm Creek, Martinez Creek, Chupaderas Creek, Leon Creek, Salado Creek, and San Antonio River. During 2007-09, the U.S. Geological Survey periodically collected surficial streambed-sediment samples during base flow and suspended-sediment (large-volume suspended-sediment) samples from selected streams during stormwater runoff. All sediment samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and for organic compounds including halogenated organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Selected contaminants in streambed and suspended sediments in watersheds of the eight major streams in Bexar County were assessed by using a variety of methods—observations of occurrence and distribution, comparison to sediment-quality guidelines and data from previous studies, statistical analyses, and source indicators. Trace elements concentrations were low compared to the consensus-based sediment-quality guidelines threshold effect concentration (TEC) and probable effect concentration (PEC). Trace element concentrations were greater than the TEC in 28 percent of the samples and greater than the PEC in 1.5 percent of the samples. Chromium concentrations exceeded sediment-quality guidelines more frequently than concentrations of any other constituents analyzed in this study (greater than the TEC in 69 percent of samples and greater than the PEC in 8 percent of samples). Mean trace element concentrations generally are lower in Bexar County samples compared to concentrations in samples collected during previous studies in the Austin and Fort Worth, Texas, areas, but considering the relatively

  2. Radioactivity measurements in moss (Hypnum cupressiforme) and lichen (Cladonia rangiformis) samples collected from Marmara region of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belivermis, Murat, E-mail: belmurat@istanbul.edu.t [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Cotuk, Yavuz, E-mail: cotukyav@istanbul.edu.t [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    The present study was conducted to compare the {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 238}U activity concentrations in epigeic moss (Hypnum cupressiforme) and lichen (Cladonia rangiformis). The activity levels in 37 moss and 38 lichen samples collected from the Marmara region of Turkey were measured using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 238}U in the moss samples were found to be in the range of 0.36-8.13, 17.1-181.1, 1.51-6.17, and 0.87-6.70 Bq kg{sup -1} respectively, while these values were below detection limit (BDL)-4.32, 16.6-240.0, 1.32-6.47, and BDL-3.57 Bq kg{sup -1} respectively in lichen. The average moss/lichen activity ratios of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 238}U were found to be 1.32 {+-} 0.57, 2.79 {+-} 1.67, 2.11 {+-} 0.82, and 2.19 {+-} 1.02, respectively. Very low {sup 137}Cs concentrations were observed in moss and lichen samples compared to soil samples collected from the same locations in a previous study. Seasonal variations of the measured radionuclide activities were also examined in the three sampling stations.

  3. Salivary Cortisol as a Biomarker of Stress in Mothers and their Low Birth Weight Infants and Sample Collecting Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janevski Milica Ranković

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salivary cortisol measurement is a non-invasive method suitable for use in neonatal research. Mother-infant separation after birth represents stress and skin-to-skin contact (SSC has numerous benefits. The aim of the study was to measure salivary cortisol in mothers and newborns before and after SSC in order to assess the effect of SSC on mothers’ and infants’ stress and to estimate the efficacy of collecting small saliva samples in newborns.

  4. Determination of multi-element in marine sediment samples collected in Angola by the k0-NAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, M.C.P.; Ho Manh Dung; Cao Dong Vu; Nguyen Thi Sy; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Vuong Huu Tan

    2006-01-01

    The marine sediment samples were designed to collect in Angola for marine environmental pollution study. The k 0 -standardization method of neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) on Dalat research reactor has been developed to determine of multi-element in the Angola marine sediment samples. The samples were irradiated in cell 7-1 for short- and middle-lived nuclides and rotary specimen rack for long-lived nuclides. The irradiation facilities were characterized for neutron spectrum parameters and post-activated samples were measured on the calibrated gamma-ray spectrometers using HPGe detectors. The analytical results for 9 marine sediment samples with 27 elements: Al, As, Br, Ca, Ce,Cl, Co, Cs, Dy, Fe, Hf, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, U, V and Zn in term of mean concentration, standard deviation and their content range are shown in the report. The analytical quality assurance was done by analysis of a Japan's certified reference material namely marine sediment NMIJ-CRM-7302a. These preliminary results revealed that the k 0 -NAA technique on the Dalat research reactor is a good analytical technique for determination of multi-element in the marine sediment samples. Some heavy metals and trace elements determined in this work possibly connected to the human activities at the sampling region. (author)

  5. Field Geologic Observation and Sample Collection Strategies for Planetary Surface Exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS Geologist Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Jose M., Jr.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic field- work, the Desert RATS(Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crew members who participated in the 2010 field test.We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies relatedtoduplicationofsamplesandobservations;logisticalconstraintson the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to flexibly execute their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  6. Magnetical hollow fiber bar collection of extract in homogenous ionic liquid microextraction of triazine herbicides in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Jiang, Jia; Kang, Mingqin; Li, Dan; Zang, Shuang; Tian, Sizhu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Ziwei

    2017-04-01

    The homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction combined with magnetical hollow fiber bar collection was developed for extracting triazine herbicides from water samples. These analytes were separated and determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The triazines were quickly extracted into ionic liquid microdroplets dispersed in solution, and then these microdroplets were completely collected with magnetical hollow fiber bars; the pores of which were impregnated with hydrophobic ionic liquid, which makes the phase separation simplified with no need of centrifugation. Some experimental parameters, such as the type of ionic liquid, ultrasonic immersion time of hollow fiber, pH of sample solution, volume of hydrophilic ionic liquid, amount of ion-pairing agent NH 4 PF 6 , NaCl concentration, number of magnetical hollow fiber bar, stirring rate, and collection time were investigated and optimized. When the present method was applied to the analysis of real water samples, the precision and recoveries of six triazine herbicides vary from 0.1 to 9.2% and 73.4 to 118.5%, respectively. The detection limits for terbumeton, ametryn, prometryn, terbutryn, trietazine, and dimethametryn were 0.48, 0.15, 0.15, 0.14, 0.35, and 0.16 μg L -1 , respectively.

  7. Remote handling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, G.

    1984-01-01

    After a definition of intervention, problems encountered for working in an adverse environment are briefly analyzed for development of various remote handling equipments. Some examples of existing equipments are given [fr

  8. Ergonomics and patient handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoskey, Kelsey L

    2007-11-01

    This study aimed to describe patient-handling demands in inpatient units during a 24-hour period at a military health care facility. A 1-day total population survey described the diverse nature and impact of patient-handling tasks relative to a variety of nursing care units, patient characteristics, and transfer equipment. Productivity baselines were established based on patient dependency, physical exertion, type of transfer, and time spent performing the transfer. Descriptions of the physiological effect of transfers on staff based on patient, transfer, and staff characteristics were developed. Nursing staff response to surveys demonstrated how patient-handling demands are impacted by the staff's physical exertion and level of patient dependency. The findings of this study describe the types of transfers occurring in these inpatient units and the physical exertion and time requirements for these transfers. This description may guide selection of the most appropriate and cost-effective patient-handling equipment required for specific units and patients.

  9. Handling Pyrophoric Reagents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Haynie, Todd O.

    2009-08-14

    Pyrophoric reagents are extremely hazardous. Special handling techniques are required to prevent contact with air and the resulting fire. This document provides several methods for working with pyrophoric reagents outside of an inert atmosphere.

  10. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-C-105: Results from samples collected on 2/16/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.W.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-C-105 (referred to as Tank C-105). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace. For organic analyses, six SUMMA trademark canisters were delivered to WHC on COC 0061 11 on 2/14/94. At the request of WHC, an additional six SUMMA trademark canisters were supplied on COC 005127 on 2/16/94. Samples were collected by WHC from the headspace of Tank C-105 through the VSS on 2/16/94, but only three SUMMA trademark canisters were returned to PNL using COC 0061 11 on 2/18/94. The canisters were stored in the 326/23B laboratory at ambient (25 degrees C) temperature until the time of the analysis. Analyses described in this report were performed at PNL in the 300 area of the Hanford Reservation. Analytical methods that were used are described in the text. In summary, sorbent traps for inorganic analyses containing sample materials were either weighed (for water analysis) or desorbed with the appropriate aqueous solutions. The aqueous extracts were analyzed either by selective electrode or by ion chromatography (IC). Organic analyses were performed using cryogenic preconcentration followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)

  11. Assessment of trace metal levels in some moss and lichen samples collected from near the motorway in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendil, Durali, E-mail: dmendil@gop.edu.tr [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Celik, Fatma; Tuzen, Mustafa [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-07-30

    In this study, 14 different lichen and moss samples were collected from near the Sivas-Tokat motorway (5-25 m), control samples were collected from uncontaminated locations (1000-3000 m) during 2005. Samples were analyzed using flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The maximum metal concentrations were found to be as 468.1 {mu}g/g (Fe), 270.5 {mu}g/g (Mn), 67.6 {mu}g/g (Zn), 53.3 {mu}g/g (Pb), 79.6 {mu}g/g (Ni), 33.9 {mu}g/g (Cr), 29.6 {mu}g/g (Cu) and 5.7 {mu}g/g (Cd) for mosses, 455.5 {mu}g/g (Fe), 170.5 {mu}g/g (Mn), 77.6 {mu}g/g (Zn), 6.5 {mu}g/g (Pb), 10.1 {mu}g/g (Ni), 3.8 {mu}g/g (Cr), 25.6 {mu}g/g (Cu) and 1.5 {mu}g/g (Cd) {mu}g/g for lichens. The concentration of trace metals in samples is depended on moss and lichen species. Some species is accumulated trace metals at high ratio.

  12. Sterile Reverse Osmosis Water Combined with Friction Are Optimal for Channel and Lever Cavity Sample Collection of Flexible Duodenoscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J. Alfa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSimulated-use buildup biofilm (BBF model was used to assess various extraction fluids and friction methods to determine the optimal sample collection method for polytetrafluorethylene channels. In addition, simulated-use testing was performed for the channel and lever cavity of duodenoscopes.Materials and methodsBBF was formed in polytetrafluorethylene channels using Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sterile reverse osmosis (RO water, and phosphate-buffered saline with and without Tween80 as well as two neutralizing broths (Letheen and Dey–Engley were each assessed with and without friction. Neutralizer was added immediately after sample collection and samples concentrated using centrifugation. Simulated-use testing was done using TJF-Q180V and JF-140F Olympus duodenoscopes.ResultsDespite variability in the bacterial CFU in the BBF model, none of the extraction fluids tested were significantly better than RO. Borescope examination showed far less residual material when friction was part of the extraction protocol. The RO for flush-brush-flush (FBF extraction provided significantly better recovery of E. coli (p = 0.02 from duodenoscope lever cavities compared to the CDC flush method.Discussion and conclusionWe recommend RO with friction for FBF extraction of the channel and lever cavity of duodenoscopes. Neutralizer and sample concentration optimize recovery of viable bacteria on culture.

  13. Comparison of PIXE and XRF analysis of airborne particulate matter samples collected on Teflon and quartz fibre filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, M.; Yubero, E.; Calzolai, G.; Lucarelli, F.; Crespo, J.; Galindo, N.; Nicolás, J. F.; Giannoni, M.; Nava, S.

    2018-02-01

    Within the framework of research projects focusing on the sampling and analysis of airborne particulate matter, Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) techniques are routinely used in many laboratories throughout the world to determine the elemental concentration of the particulate matter samples. In this work an inter-laboratory comparison of the results obtained from analysing several samples (collected on both Teflon and quartz fibre filters) using both techniques is presented. The samples were analysed by PIXE (in Florence, at the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of INFN-LABEC laboratory) and by XRF (in Elche, using the ARL Quant'X EDXRF spectrometer with specific conditions optimized for specific groups of elements). The results from the two sets of measurements are in good agreement for all the analysed samples, thus validating the use of the ARL Quant'X EDXRF spectrometer and the selected measurement protocol for the analysis of aerosol samples. Moreover, thanks to the comparison of PIXE and XRF results on Teflon and quartz fibre filters, possible self-absorption effects due to the penetration of the aerosol particles inside the quartz fibre-filters were quantified.

  14. Pre-Mission Input Requirements to Enable Successful Sample Collection by a Remote Field/EVA Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; Young, K. E.; Lim, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is intended to evaluate the sample collection process with respect to sample characterization and decision making. In some cases, it may be sufficient to know whether a given outcrop or hand sample is the same as or different from previous sampling localities or samples. In other cases, it may be important to have more in-depth characterization of the sample, such as basic composition, mineralogy, and petrology, in order to effectively identify the best sample. Contextual field observations, in situ/handheld analysis, and backroom evaluation may all play a role in understanding field lithologies and their importance for return. For example, whether a rock is a breccia or a clast-laden impact melt may be difficult based on a single sample, but becomes clear as exploration of a field site puts it into context. The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team is a new activity focused on a science and exploration field based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for the human and robotic exploration of the Moon, near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and Phobos and Deimos. We used the FINESSE field excursion to the West Clearwater Lake Impact structure (WCIS) as an opportunity to test factors related to sampling decisions. In contract to other technology-driven NASA analog studies, The FINESSE WCIS activity is science-focused, and moreover, is sampling-focused, with the explicit intent to return the best samples for geochronology studies in the laboratory. This specific objective effectively reduces the number of variables in the goals of the field test and enables a more controlled investigation of the role of the crewmember in selecting samples. We formulated one hypothesis to test: that providing details regarding the analytical fate of the samples (e.g. geochronology, XRF/XRD, etc.) to the crew prior to their traverse will result in samples that are more likely to meet specific analytical

  15. Airborne nanoparticle exposures associated with the manual handling of nanoalumina and nanosilver in fume hoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Su-Jung; Ada, Earl; Isaacs, Jacqueline A.; Ellenbecker, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Manual handling of nanoparticles is a fundamental task of most nanomaterial research; such handling may expose workers to ultrafine or nanoparticles. Recent studies confirm that exposures to ultrafine or nanoparticles produce adverse inflammatory responses in rodent lungs and such particles may translocate to other areas of the body, including the brain. An important method for protecting workers handling nanoparticles from exposure to airborne nanoparticles is the laboratory fume hood. Such hoods rely on the proper face velocity for optimum performance. In addition, several other hood design and operating factors can affect worker exposure. Handling experiments were performed to measure airborne particle concentration while handling nanoparticles in three fume hoods located in different buildings under a range of operating conditions. Nanoalumina and nanosilver were selected to perform handling experiments in the fume hoods. Air samples were also collected on polycarbonate membrane filters and particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Handling tasks included transferring particles from beaker to beaker by spatula and by pouring. Measurement locations were the room background, the researcher's breathing zone and upstream and downstream from the handling location. Variable factors studied included hood design, transfer method, face velocity/sash location and material types. Airborne particle concentrations measured at breathing zone locations were analyzed to characterize exposure level. Statistics were used to test the correlation between data. The test results found that the handling of dry powders consisting of nano-sized particles inside laboratory fume hoods can result in a significant release of airborne nanoparticles from the fume hood into the laboratory environment and the researcher's breathing zone. Many variables were found to affect the extent of particle release including hood design, hood operation (sash height, face velocity

  16. Mold contamination and air handling units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen C; Palmatier, Robert N; Andriychuk, Larysa A; Martin, Jared M; Jumper, Cynthia A; Holder, Homer W; Straus, David C

    2007-07-01

    An investigation was conducted on selected locations in air handling units (AHUs) to (a) identify common mold species found on these locations, (b) determine whether some locations (and subsets) featured mold growth sites more frequently than others, (c) ascertain whether the operating condition of AHUs is related to mold contamination, and (d) provide a basis for a microbial sampling protocol for AHUs. A total of 566 tape lifts and 570 swab samples were collected from the blower wheel fan blades, insulation, cooling coil fins, and ductwork from 25 AHUs. All AHU conditions were numerically rated using a heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) survey. Results showed that Cladosporium sp. fungi were commonly recovered in terms of growth sites and deposited spores, and they were found mainly in the blower wheel fan blades, the ductwork, and the cooling coil fins. Subsections of the fan blades, insulation, and cooling coil fins showed no preferred area for mold growth sites. Other organisms such as Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., and Paecilomyces sp. were recovered from the cooling coil fins and insulation. Because of the widespread prevalence of Cladosporium sp., there was no relationship between mold growth and operating condition. However, the presence of different species of molds in locations other than the blower wheel blades may indicate that the AHU condition is not optimal. A suggested microbial sampling protocol including interpretations of sample results is presented.

  17. PCR detection of Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis in smegma samples collected from dairy cattle in Fars, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Hosseinzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv, is regarded as one of the major threats to the cattle industry around the world. Abortion and infertility are two important reproductive problems in cows infected with C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Reports on the presence of Cfv are scarce in the cattle, in Iran. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the presence of Cfv in the reproductive tract of dairy cattle either slaughtered in Shiraz abattoir or dairy herds with a history of infertility and abortion, and further to identify and differentiate this micro-organism in dairy cattle in Fars, south of Iran. A total of 95 smegma samples from the preputial cavity and the fornix of the cervical opening were collected using scraping method from bulls (n = 34 and cows (n = 61 in addition to eight samples of commercially bull frozen semen. Smegma samples were then cultured for isolation of Cfv and then the extracted DNA was examined for the presence of Cfv using an optimized multiplex PCR assay. None of the frozen semen samples examined were positive for Cfv. However, out of 95 smegma samples, thirteen animals (12.6% were found positive for Cfv consisting of 3 males and 10 females. In conclusion, the results of the current study clearly confirmed the presence of Cfv using PCR in the slaughtered cattle and dairy farms with a history of poor fertility and abortion in Fars, Iran.

  18. Orion Entry Handling Qualities Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, B.; Tiggers, M.; Strahan, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Sullivan, K.; Stephens, J. P.; Hart, J.; Law, H., III; Bilimoria, K.; Bailey, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion Command Module (CM) is a capsule designed to bring crew back from the International Space Station (ISS), the moon and beyond. The atmospheric entry portion of the flight is deigned to be flown in autopilot mode for nominal situations. However, there exists the possibility for the crew to take over manual control in off-nominal situations. In these instances, the spacecraft must meet specific handling qualities criteria. To address these criteria two separate assessments of the Orion CM s entry Handling Qualities (HQ) were conducted at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) using the Cooper-Harper scale (Cooper & Harper, 1969). These assessments were conducted in the summers of 2008 and 2010 using the Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) six degree of freedom, high fidelity Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) simulation. This paper will address the specifics of the handling qualities criteria, the vehicle configuration, the scenarios flown, the simulation background and setup, crew interfaces and displays, piloting techniques, ratings and crew comments, pre- and post-fight briefings, lessons learned and changes made to improve the overall system performance. The data collection tools, methods, data reduction and output reports will also be discussed. The objective of the 2008 entry HQ assessment was to evaluate the handling qualities of the CM during a lunar skip return. A lunar skip entry case was selected because it was considered the most demanding of all bank control scenarios. Even though skip entry is not planned to be flown manually, it was hypothesized that if a pilot could fly the harder skip entry case, then they could also fly a simpler loads managed or ballistic (constant bank rate command) entry scenario. In addition, with the evaluation set-up of multiple tasks within the entry case, handling qualities ratings collected in the evaluation could be used to assess other scenarios such as the constant bank angle

  19. The effects of neonatal handling on adrenocortical responsiveness, morphological development and corticosterone binding globulin in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Buddy A; Breuner, Creagh W; Dufty, Alfred M

    2011-06-01

    Early developmental experiences play an important role in development of the adult phenotype. We investigated the effects of neonatal handling on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in a free-living avian species, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). In the handled group (H), kestrel chicks were handled for 15 min/day from hatching until 26 days of age, after which time blood samples were collected for analysis of adrenal responsiveness and corticosterone binding globulin (CBG) levels. The non-handled control group (NH) was left undisturbed until 26 days of age when blood samples were collected and analyzed as above. Handled and NH kestrels did not differ in body condition index. Both total corticosterone (CORT) and CBG capacity were dampened significantly in H kestrels. However, free CORT did not differ between the two groups. In addition, hormone challenges of corticotropin releasing factor and adrenocorticotropin hormone were compared to saline injections to determine if the pituitary or the adrenal glands, respectively, were rendered more or less sensitive by handling. There was no difference in the responsiveness of H and NH kestrels to either hormone challenge. It is clear from these data that handling had an affect on fledgling phenotypic development, although whether the effects are permanent or ephemeral is unknown. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Direct PCR amplification of DNA from human bloodstains, saliva, and touch samples collected with microFLOQ® swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambers, Angie; Wiley, Rachel; Novroski, Nicole; Budowle, Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that nylon flocked swabs outperform traditional fiber swabs in DNA recovery due to their innovative design and lack of internal absorbent core to entrap cellular materials. The microFLOQ ® Direct swab, a miniaturized version of the 4N6 FLOQSwab ® , has a small swab head that is treated with a lysing agent which allows for direct amplification and DNA profiling from sample collection to final result in less than two hours. Additionally, the microFLOQ ® system subsamples only a minute portion of a stain and preserves the vast majority of the sample for subsequent testing or re-analysis, if desired. The efficacy of direct amplification of DNA from dilute bloodstains, saliva stains, and touch samples was evaluated using microFLOQ ® Direct swabs and the GlobalFiler™ Express system. Comparisons were made to traditional methods to assess the robustness of this alternate workflow. Controlled studies with 1:19 and 1:99 dilutions of bloodstains and saliva stains consistently yielded higher STR peak heights than standard methods with 1ng input DNA from the same samples. Touch samples from common items yielded single source and mixed profiles that were consistent with primary users of the objects. With this novel methodology/workflow, no sample loss occurs and therefore more template DNA is available during amplification. This approach may have important implications for analysis of low quantity and/or degraded samples that plague forensic casework. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Improved sperm kinematics in semen samples collected after 2 h versus 4-7 days of ejaculation abstinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alipour, H; Van Der Horst, G; Christiansen, O B

    2017-01-01

    a controlled repeated-measures design based on semen samples from 43 male partners, in couples attending for IVF treatment, who had a sperm concentration above 15 million/ml. Data were collected between June 2014 and December 2015 in the Fertility Unit of Aalborg University Hospital (Aalborg, Denmark...... in this study was also used for the IVF/ICSI treatments and therefore only patients with a semen volume ≥2 ml and concentration ≥15 million/ml were included. Further validation in large prospective randomized controlled trials, more purposely directed at normozoospermic males with partners having problems...

  2. Source Identification and Sequential Leaching of Heavy Metals in Soil Samples Collected from Selected Dump Sites in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    , E.E. Awokunmi; , S.S. Asaolu; , O.O Ajayi; , A.O. Adebayo

    2011-01-01

    Ten heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Co, Cd, Cr and Sn) in fractioned and bulk soil samples collected from four dump sites located in AdoEkiti and Ikere -Ekiti, South western Nigeria were analysed using a modified Tessier’s procedure and acid digestion to obtain the distribution pattern of metal in this region. The metals were found to have been distributed in all phases with Fe, Cr, and Sn dominating the residual fraction (90.12 - 94.88%), Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn were found in all the extrac...

  3. Practices of Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ræbild, Ulla

    to touch, pick up, carry, or feel with the hands. Figuratively it is to manage, deal with, direct, train, or control. Additionally, as a noun, a handle is something by which we grasp or open up something. Lastly, handle also has a Nordic root, here meaning to trade, bargain or deal. Together all four...... meanings seem to merge in the fashion design process, thus opening up for an embodied engagement with matter that entails direction giving, organizational management and negotiation. By seeing processes of handling as a key fashion methodological practice, it is possible to divert the discourse away from...... introduces four ways whereby fashion designers apply their own bodies as tools for design; a) re-activating past garment-design experiences, b) testing present garment-design experiences c) probing for new garment-design experiences and d) design of future garment experiences by body proxy. The paper...

  4. Practices of Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ræbild, Ulla

    Abstract While few will dispute the idea that fashion designers relate to the notion of the body in their work practice, the actual embodied engagement of the designer, and the role that the personal bodies of the designers play in processes of fashion design, is an underexposed although nascent...... area within fashion research. This paper proposes an understanding of the work process of fashion designers as practices of handling comprising a number of embodied methodologies tied to both spatial and temporal dimensions. The term handling encompasses four meanings. As a verb it is literally...... meanings seem to merge in the fashion design process, thus opening up for an embodied engagement with matter that entails direction giving, organizational management and negotiation. By seeing processes of handling as a key fashion methodological practice, it is possible to divert the discourse away from...

  5. TRANSPORT/HANDLING REQUESTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST/HM

    2002-01-01

    A new EDH document entitled 'Transport/Handling Request' will be in operation as of Monday, 11th February 2002, when the corresponding icon will be accessible from the EDH desktop, together with the application instructions. This EDH form will replace the paper-format transport/handling request form for all activities involving the transport of equipment and materials. However, the paper form will still be used for all vehicle-hire requests. The introduction of the EDH transport/handling request form is accompanied by the establishment of the following time limits for the various services concerned: 24 hours for the removal of office items, 48 hours for the transport of heavy items (of up to 6 metric tons and of standard road width), 5 working days for a crane operation, extra-heavy transport operation or complete removal, 5 working days for all transport operations relating to LHC installation. ST/HM Group, Logistics Section Tel: 72672 - 72202

  6. Remote handling at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental area A at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) encompasses a large area. Presently there are four experimental target cells along the main proton beam line that have become highly radioactive, thus dictating that all maintenance be performed remotely. The Monitor remote handling system was developed to perform in situ maintenance at any location within area A. Due to the complexity of experimental systems and confined space, conventional remote handling methods based upon hot cell and/or hot bay concepts are not workable. Contrary to conventional remote handling which require special tooling for each specifically planned operation, the Monitor concept is aimed at providing a totally flexible system capable of remotely performing general mechanical and electrical maintenance operations using standard tools. The Monitor system is described

  7. [Logistics of collection and transportation of biological samples and the organization of the central laboratory in the ELSA-Brasil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeli, Ligia G; Vidigal, Pedro G; Leite, Claudia Mendes; Castilhos, Cristina D; Pimentel, Robércia Anjos; Maniero, Viviane C; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Pereira, Alexandre C; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2013-06-01

    The ELSA (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) is a multicenter cohort study which aims at the identification of risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in the Brazilian population. The paper describes the strategies for the collection, processing, transportation, and quality control of blood and urine tests in the ELSA. The study decided to centralize the tests at one single laboratory. The processing of the samples was performed at the local laboratories, reducing the weight of the material to be transported, and diminishing the costs of transportation to the central laboratory at the Universidade de São Paulo Hospital. The study included tests for the evaluation of diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, electrolyte abnormalities, thyroid hormones, uric acid, hepatic enzyme abnormalities, inflammation, and total blood cell count. In addition, leukocyte DNA, urine, plasma and serum samples were stored. The central laboratory performed approximately 375,000 tests.

  8. OCCURRENCE OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN READY TO EAT FOOD SAMPLES COLLECTED BY LOMBARDY REGION HEALTH AUTHORITIES IN 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Oliverio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study provides data on the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food samples collected by Lombardy region health authorities and analyzed by Department of Food Microbiology, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell’Emilia Romagna. From the total of 503 food samples analyzed, the pathogen was detected in 85 (16,9%. In particular it was highlighted in 8/152 (5,3% meat products, in 5/245 (2% dairy products and in 42/106 (39,6% fishery products. Given the considerable public health implications, the study confirms that a well-planned program of listeriosis surveillance should be enforced to suitably estimate the burden of disease and to prevent foodborne outbreaks.

  9. Analysis of Dust Samples Collected from an Unused Spent Nuclear Fuel Interim Storage Container at Hope Creek, Delaware.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In July, 2014, the Electric Power Research Institute and industry partners sampled dust on the surface of an unused canister that had been stored in an overpack at the Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station for approximately one year. The foreign material exclusion (FME) cover that had been on the top of the canister during storage, and a second recently - removed FME cover, were also sampled. This report summarizes the results of analyses of dust samples collected from the unused Hope Creek canister and the FME covers. Both wet and dry samples of the dust/salts were collected, using SaltSmart(TM) sensors and Scotch - Brite(TM) abrasive pads, respectively. The SaltSmart(TM) samples were leached and the leachate analyzed chemically to determine the composition and surface load per unit area of soluble salts present on the canister surface. The dry pad samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence and by scanning electron microscopy to determine dust texture and mineralogy; and by leaching and chemical analysis to deter mine soluble salt compositions. The analyses showed that the dominant particles on the canister surface were stainless steel particles, generated during manufacturing of the canister. Sparse environmentally - derived silicates and aluminosilicates were also present. Salt phases were sparse, and consisted of mostly of sulfates with rare nitrates and chlorides. On the FME covers, the dusts were mostly silicates/aluminosilicates; the soluble salts were consistent with those on the canister surface, and were dominantly sulfates. It should be noted that the FME covers were w ashed by rain prior to sampling, which had an unknown effect of the measured salt loads and compositions. Sulfate salts dominated the assemblages on the canister and FME surfaces, and in cluded Ca - SO4 , but also Na - SO4 , K - SO4 , and Na - Al - SO4 . It is likely that these salts were formed by particle - gas conversion reactions, either

  10. The CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability) Study: Methods of Data Collection and Characteristics of Study Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Palmer, Keith T.; Felli, Vanda E.; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H.; Felknor, Sarah A.; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Serra, Consol; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R.; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S. P.; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R.; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Marziale, Maria H.; Sarquis, Leila M.; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V.; Quintana, Leonardo A.; Rojas, Marianela; Salazar Vega, Eduardo J.; Harris, E. Clare; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Martinez, J. Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G.; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M.; Pesatori, Angela C.; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Sirk, Tuuli; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J.; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kelsall, Helen L.; Hoe, Victor C. W.; Urquhart, Donna M.; Derett, Sarah; McBride, David; Gray, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Background The CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability) study was established to explore the hypothesis that common musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and associated disability are importantly influenced by culturally determined health beliefs and expectations. This paper describes the methods of data collection and various characteristics of the study sample. Methods/Principal Findings A standardised questionnaire covering musculoskeletal symptoms, disability and potential risk factors, was used to collect information from 47 samples of nurses, office workers, and other (mostly manual) workers in 18 countries from six continents. In addition, local investigators provided data on economic aspects of employment for each occupational group. Participation exceeded 80% in 33 of the 47 occupational groups, and after pre-specified exclusions, analysis was based on 12,426 subjects (92 to 1018 per occupational group). As expected, there was high usage of computer keyboards by office workers, while nurses had the highest prevalence of heavy manual lifting in all but one country. There was substantial heterogeneity between occupational groups in economic and psychosocial aspects of work; three- to five-fold variation in awareness of someone outside work with musculoskeletal pain; and more than ten-fold variation in the prevalence of adverse health beliefs about back and arm pain, and in awareness of terms such as “repetitive strain injury” (RSI). Conclusions/Significance The large differences in psychosocial risk factors (including knowledge and beliefs about MSDs) between occupational groups should allow the study hypothesis to be addressed effectively. PMID:22792189

  11. Waste tank vapor project: Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103: Data report for OVS samples collected from Sample Job 7b, Parts I and II, received 5/18/94 and 5/24/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.R.; Edwards, J.A.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1994-09-01

    On 5/18/94, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) delivered samples to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) that were collected from waste Tank 241-C-103 on 5/16/94. These samples were from Sample Job (SJ) 7b, Part 1. On 5/24/94, WHC delivered samples to PNL that were collected from waste Tank 241-C-103 on 5/18/94. These samples were from SJ7b, Part 2. A summary of data derived from the sampling of waste Tank 241-C-103 for gravimetric (H 2 O) and normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) concentrations are shown for SJ7b. Gravimetric analysis was performed on the samples within 24 hours of receipt by PNL. The NPH concentration of 10 samples collected for Part 1 was slightly higher than the average concentration for 15 samples collected in Part 2, 812 (± 133) mg/m 3 and 659 (± 88) mg/m 3 , respectively. The higher concentrations measured in Part 1 samples may be because the samples in Part 1 were collected at a single level, 0.79 meters above the air-liquid interface. Part 2 samples were collected at three different tank levels, 0.79, 2.92, and 5.05 m above the air-liquid interface. In Part 2, the average NPH concentrations for 5 samples collected at each of three levels was similar: 697 (60) mg/m 3 at the low level, 631 (51) mg/m 3 at the mid level, and 651 (134) mg/m 3 at the high level. It is important to note that the measured tridecane to dodecane concentration remained constant in all samples collected in Parts 1 and 2. That ratio is 1.2 ± 0.05. This consistent ratio indicates that there were no random analytical biases towards either compound

  12. Safe handling of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance and recommendations on operational radiation protection aspects related to the safe handling of tritium in laboratories, industrial-scale nuclear facilities such as heavy-water reactors, tritium removal plants and fission fuel reprocessing plants, and facilities for manufacturing commercial tritium-containing devices and radiochemicals. The requirements of nuclear fusion reactors are not addressed specifically, since there is as yet no tritium handling experience with them. However, much of the material covered is expected to be relevant to them as well. Annex III briefly addresses problems in the comparatively small-scale use of tritium at universities, medical research centres and similar establishments. However, the main subject of this publication is the handling of larger quantities of tritium. Operational aspects include designing for tritium safety, safe handling practice, the selection of tritium-compatible materials and equipment, exposure assessment, monitoring, contamination control and the design and use of personal protective equipment. This publication does not address the technologies involved in tritium control and cleanup of effluents, tritium removal, or immobilization and disposal of tritium wastes, nor does it address the environmental behaviour of tritium. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. 7 CFR 996.40 - Handling standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING...-pound samples for aflatoxin chemical analysis. The three 48-pound samples shall be designated by the... buyer, for aflatoxin assay, to a USDA laboratory or USDA-approved laboratory that can provide analyses...

  14. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-BX-107: Results from samples collected on November 17, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BX-107 (Tank BX-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5080. Samples were collected by WHC on November 17, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  15. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-108: Results from samples collected on December 6, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-108 (Tank S-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5086. Samples were collected by WHC on December 6, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  16. Headspace vapor charterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-110: Results from samples collected on December 5, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-110 (Tank S-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5085. Samples were collected by WHC on December 5, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  17. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-BY-102: Results from samples collected on November 21, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-102 (Tank BY-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5081. Samples were collected by YMC on November 21, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  18. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-104: Results from samples collected on July 25, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-104 (Tank SX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5049. Samples were collected by WHC on July 25, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  19. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-T-110: Results from samples collected on August 31, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-T-110 (Tank T-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5056. Samples were collected by WHC on August 31, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  20. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-105: Results from samples collected on July 26, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-105 (Tank SX-105) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5047. Samples were collected by WHC on July 26, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  1. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-109: Results from samples collected on August 1, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-109 (Tank SX-109) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5048. Samples were collected by WHC on August 1, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  2. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank SX-102: Results from samples collected on July 19, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-102 (Tank SX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed under the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5046. Samples were collected by WHC on July 19, 1995, using the vapor sampling system (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  3. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-103: Results from samples collected on June 21, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-AX-103 (Tank AX-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5029. Samples were collected by WHC on June 21, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  4. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-101: Results from samples collected on June 15, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-AX-101 (Tank AX-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) under the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5028. Samples were collected by WHC on June 15, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  5. MANU. Handling of bentonite prior buffer block manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the entire bentonite handling process starting from freight from harbour to storage facility and ending up to the manufacturing filling process of the bentonite block moulds. This work describes the bentonite handling prior to the process in which bentonite blocks are manufactured in great quantities. This work included a study of relevant Nordic and international well documented cases of storage, processing and techniques involving bentonite material. Information about storage and handling processes from producers or re-sellers of bentonite was collected while keeping in mind the requirements coming from the Posiva side. Also a limited experiment was made for humidification of different material types. This work includes a detailed description of methods and equipment needed for bentonite storage and processing. Posiva Oy used Jauhetekniikka Oy as a consultant to prepare handling process flow charts for bentonite. Jauhetekniikka Oy also evaluated the content of this report. The handling of bentonite was based on the assumption that bentonite process work is done in one factory for 11 months of work time while the weekly volume is around 41-45 tons. Storage space needed in this case is about 300 tons of bentonite which equals about seven weeks of raw material consumption. This work concluded several things to be carefully considered: sampling at various phases of the process, the air quality at the production/storage facilities (humidity and temperature), the level of automation/process control of the manufacturing process and the means of producing/saving data from different phases of the process. (orig.)

  6. Determination of the prevalence of extended spectrum β-lactamase in clinical samples collected from Dehradun City Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL and determine its prevalence in various clinical samples collected from Dehradun City Hospital. Methods: The samples were first cultured in MacConkey’s agar plates by streak plate method, then identified by Gram staining and biochemical tests. The isolated bacterial strains were then tested for antibiotic susceptibility by Kirby-Bauer method. The ESBL detection is then carried out by double disc diffusion method. Results: Off the 56 samples cultured, 21 strains were identified which were six Escherichia coli (E. coli, six Klebsiella, four Proteus, four Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa and only one Acinetobacter. Eight out of 21 (38.1% strains including three of E. coli, three of Klebsiella and two of P. aeruginosa, were found to be resistance to all five antibiotics (piperacillin, amikacin, ampicillin, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin. Initial screening using four antibiotics (cefotaxime, ceftazidime, aztreonam and ceftriaxone and the final confirmatory test using ceftazidime/clavulanic acid and ceftazidime alone showed that 19.05% of all strains isolated were ESBL producers. Individually, 16.67% E. coli, 16.67% Klebsiella pneumoniae, 25% P. aeruginosa and 100% Acinetobacter were found to be ESBL producers. Conclusions: Antibiotic resistance by ESBL has become a major risk factor worldwide, therefore routine checkup and accordingly prescription are suggested.

  7. CO2 isotope analyses using large air samples collected on intercontinental flights by the CARIBIC Boeing 767.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assonov, S S; Brenninkmeijer, C A M; Koeppel, C; Röckmann, T

    2009-03-01

    Analytical details for 13C and 18O isotope analyses of atmospheric CO2 in large air samples are given. The large air samples of nominally 300 L were collected during the passenger aircraft-based atmospheric chemistry research project CARIBIC and analyzed for a large number of trace gases and isotopic composition. In the laboratory, an ultra-pure and high efficiency extraction system and high-quality isotope ratio mass spectrometry were used. Because direct comparison with other laboratories was practically impossible, the extraction and measurement procedures were tested in considerable detail. Extracted CO2 was measured twice vs. two different working reference CO2 gases of different isotopic composition. The two data sets agree well and their distributions can be used to evaluate analytical errors due to isotope measurement, ion corrections, internal calibration consistency, etc. The calibration itself is based on NBS-19 and also verified using isotope analyses on pure CO2 gases (NIST Reference Materials (RMs) and NARCIS CO2 gases). The major problem encountered could be attributed to CO2-water exchange in the air sampling cylinders. This exchange decreased over the years. To exclude artefacts due to such isotopic exchange, the data were filtered to reject negative delta18O(CO2) values. Examples of the results are given. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The ex situ conservation strategy for endangered plant species: small samples, storage and lessons from seed collected from US national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ex situ collections of seeds sampled from wild populations provide germplasm for restoration and for scientific study about biological diversity. Seed collections of endangered species are urgent because they might forestall ever-dwindling population size and genetic diversity. However, collecting ...

  9. Employee and customer handling of nicotine-containing e-liquids in vape shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Robert; Allem, Jon Patrick; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer Beth; Sussman, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Vape shops sell electronic cigarettes and related products such as e-liquids, which may contain nicotine. Direct contact with nicotine can lead to adverse health effects, and few regulations exist on how nicotine is handled in vape shops. This study examined how customers and employees come into contact with, and handle, nicotine-containing e-liquids in vape shops with the goal of informing potential future regulation of nicotine handling in vape shops. Data were collected from 77 vape shops in the Los Angeles basin. Characteristics of the shops were documented by employee interviews and in store observations. Data collection was focused on shops located in areas with high concentrations of communities of interest; 20 shops from African-American communities, 17 from Hispanic communities, 18 from Korean communities, and 22 from non-Hispanic White communities. Half of the vape shops allowed customers to sample e-liquids with nicotine. Most of the shops (83%) provided self-service sampling stations for customers. A majority of shop employees (72%) reported that spills of e-liquids containing nicotine had occurred in the past. While 64% of the shops provided safety equipment, only 34% provided equipment for proper nicotine handling. Furthermore, 62% of shop employees reported handling nicotine without gloves or other safety equipment. Regulation on the handling of nicotine by customers and vape shop employees is important to prevent unsafe practices and subsequent injury. The frequent occurrence of spills and limited availability of safety equipment in vape shops highlights the need for the creation and enforcement of regulations to protect employees and customers. Appropriate safety training and equipment should be provided to employees to prevent accidental exposure to nicotine. Information on ways to safely handle nicotine should be communicated to vape shop employees and customers.

  10. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-BY-108: Results from samples collected January 23, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for water, ammonia, permanent gases, total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHCs, also known as TO-12), and organic analytes in samples collected in SUMMA trademark canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs) from the tank headspace. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Sampling and Analysis Plan for Tank Vapor Sampling Comparison Testclose quotes, and the sample jobs were designated S6004, S6005, and S6006. Samples were collected by WHC on January 23, 1996, using the VSS, a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe; and the ISVS with and without particulate prefiltration

  11. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-102: Results from samples collected on January 26, 1996. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) with and without particulate prefiltration. Samples were collected from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for water, ammonia, permanent gases, total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHCs, also known as TO-12), and organic analytes in samples collected in SUMMA trademark canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs) from the tank headspace. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Sampling and Analysis Plan for Tank Vapor Sampling Comparison Test close-quote, and the sample jobs were designated S6007, S6008, and S6009. Samples were collected by WHC on January 26, 1996, using the VSS, a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe; and the ISVS with and without particulate prefiltration

  12. Collection and Characterization of Samples for Establishment of a Serum Repository for Lyme Disease Diagnostic Test Development and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins, Claudia R.; Sexton, Christopher; Young, John W.; Ashton, Laura V.; Pappert, Ryan; Beard, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    Serological assays and a two-tiered test algorithm are recommended for laboratory confirmation of Lyme disease. In the United States, the sensitivity of two-tiered testing using commercially available serology-based assays is dependent on the stage of infection and ranges from 30% in the early localized disease stage to near 100% in late-stage disease. Other variables, including subjectivity in reading Western blots, compliance with two-tiered recommendations, use of different first- and second-tier test combinations, and use of different test samples, all contribute to variation in two-tiered test performance. The availability and use of sample sets from well-characterized Lyme disease patients and controls are needed to better assess the performance of existing tests and for development of improved assays. To address this need, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health prospectively collected sera from patients at all stages of Lyme disease, as well as healthy donors and patients with look-alike diseases. Patients and healthy controls were recruited using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Samples from all included patients were retrospectively characterized by two-tiered testing. The results from two-tiered testing corroborated the need for novel and improved diagnostics, particularly for laboratory diagnosis of earlier stages of infection. Furthermore, the two-tiered results provide a baseline with samples from well-characterized patients that can be used in comparing the sensitivity and specificity of novel diagnostics. Panels of sera and accompanying clinical and laboratory testing results are now available to Lyme disease serological test users and researchers developing novel tests. PMID:25122862

  13. Standardizing operational vector sampling techniques for measuring malaria transmission intensity: evaluation of six mosquito collection methods in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jacklyn; Bayoh, Nabie; Olang, George; Killeen, Gerry F; Hamel, Mary J; Vulule, John M; Gimnig, John E

    2013-04-30

    Operational vector sampling methods lack standardization, making quantitative comparisons of malaria transmission across different settings difficult. Human landing catch (HLC) is considered the research gold standard for measuring human-mosquito contact, but is unsuitable for large-scale sampling. This study assessed mosquito catch rates of CDC light trap (CDC-LT), Ifakara tent trap (ITT), window exit trap (WET), pot resting trap (PRT), and box resting trap (BRT) relative to HLC in western Kenya to 1) identify appropriate methods for operational sampling in this region, and 2) contribute to a larger, overarching project comparing standardized evaluations of vector trapping methods across multiple countries. Mosquitoes were collected from June to July 2009 in four districts: Rarieda, Kisumu West, Nyando, and Rachuonyo. In each district, all trapping methods were rotated 10 times through three houses in a 3 × 3 Latin Square design. Anophelines were identified by morphology and females classified as fed or non-fed. Anopheles gambiae s.l. were further identified as Anopheles gambiae s.s. or Anopheles arabiensis by PCR. Relative catch rates were estimated by negative binomial regression. When data were pooled across all four districts, catch rates (relative to HLC indoor) for An. gambiae s.l (95.6% An. arabiensis, 4.4% An. gambiae s.s) were high for HLC outdoor (RR = 1.01), CDC-LT (RR = 1.18), and ITT (RR = 1.39); moderate for WET (RR = 0.52) and PRT outdoor (RR = 0.32); and low for all remaining types of resting traps (PRT indoor, BRT indoor, and BRT outdoor; RR < 0.08 for all). For Anopheles funestus, relative catch rates were high for ITT (RR = 1.21); moderate for HLC outdoor (RR = 0.47), CDC-LT (RR = 0.69), and WET (RR = 0.49); and low for all resting traps (RR < 0.02 for all). At finer geographic scales, however, efficacy of each trap type varied from district to district. ITT, CDC-LT, and WET appear to be effective methods for large-scale vector sampling in

  14. Multiple drug resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from Chicken samples collected from Mhow and Indore city of Madhyapradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaskhedikar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen antibacterial agents belonging to 9 different groups of antibiotics viz. aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, nitrofurantoin, fluroquinolones, chloramphenicol, sulphonamides, tetracyclines, penicillin and polymixin were used for in vitro sensitivity testing of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fifteen samples of chicken collected from retail shops in Mhow city. The sensitivity (100% was attributed to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cephotaxime, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, kanamycin, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin followed by oxytetracycline (50%. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin and colistin antibiotics. That means, none of the isolates were found to be sensitive for penicillin and polymixin group of antibiotics. Multiple drug resistance was also observed in all A. hydrophila isolates. Out of total isolates, 100% were resistant to two antimicrobial drugs and 50% to three drugs. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 31-32

  15. Seasonal dynamics of house dust mites in dust samples collected from sleeping places in north-western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosik-Bogacka, D I; Kalisinska, E; Henszel, L; Kuzna-Grygiel, W

    2012-02-01

    The most common families of mites found in house dust are Pyroglyphidae, Glycyphagidae and Acaridae; all are a source of many antigens responsible for allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the seasonal dynamics of allergenic mite populations in dust samples collected from sleeping places in apartments in north-western Poland. The mites were isolated from the dust using a saturated saline floating method. In 132 dust samples we determined: Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Euroglyphus maynei, Hirstia sp., Chortoglyphus arcuatus, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Gohieria fusca and Cheyletus sp. The greatest frequency was observed for D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, Ch. arcuatus and Cheyletus sp., in the fourth quarter and D. farinae in the third quarter. Smaller coefficients of dominance were found for D. pteronyssinus, Ch. arcuatus and Cheyletus sp., and their greatest mean concentrations were found in the first and fourth quarters. Given the division of the year into heating and non-heating seasons, mites D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus achieved the highest mean concentration in the first season, and Cheyletus sp. in the second season. The analysis of the participation of developmental stages showed that the adults of D. farinae were more prevalent than juveniles in the first, second and third quarters, and imago stages of D. pteronyssinus were more numerous in relation to juveniles in the first, third and fourth quarters. The results confirm the high incidence of house dust mites in sleeping places in north-western Poland dwellings; the best conditions for the development of these mites, mainly D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus, occur in the fourth quarter and are the least favourable in the second quarter. In many cases, these results are consistent with data from other parts of Poland collected by various authors. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. The Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus (Scorpiones, Buthidae): component variations in venom samples collected in different geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ravelo, Rodolfo; Coronas, Fredy I V; Zamudio, Fernando Z; González-Morales, Lidia; López, Georgina Espinosa; Urquiola, Ariel Ruiz; Possani, Lourival D

    2013-05-20

    The venom of the Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus is poorly study from the point of view of their components at molecular level and the functions associated. The purpose of this article was to conduct a proteomic analysis of venom components from scorpions collected in different geographical areas of the country. Venom from the blue scorpion, as it is called, was collected separately from specimens of five distinct Cuban towns (Moa, La Poa, Limonar, El Chote and Farallones) of the Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa mountain massif and fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); the molecular masses of each fraction were ascertained by mass spectrometry analysis. At least 153 different molecular mass components were identified among the five samples analyzed. Molecular masses varied from 466 to 19755 Da. Scorpion HPLC profiles differed among these different geographical locations and the predominant molecular masses of their components. The most evident differences are in the relative concentration of the venom components. The most abundant components presented molecular weights around 4 kDa, known to be K+-channel specific peptides, and 7 kDa, known to be Na+-channel specific peptides, but with small molecular weight differences. Approximately 30 peptides found in venom samples from the different geographical areas are identical, supporting the idea that they all probably belong to the same species, with some interpopulational variations. Differences were also found in the presence of phospholipase, found in venoms from the Poa area (molecular weights on the order of 14 to 19 kDa). The only ubiquitous enzyme identified in the venoms from all five localities studied (hyaluronidase) presented the same 45 kD molecular mass, identified by gel electrophoresis analysis. The venom of these scorpions from different geographical areas seem to be similar, and are rich in peptides that have of the same molecular masses of the peptides purified from other scorpions that

  17. HANDLING, STORAGE AND IRON ORE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Fonseca Fortes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify handling and storage impact in iron ore quality, in their physical and chemical characteristics most important for a mining. It is tried to show the interferences in iron ore quality caused by the handling equipment and stockpiling. The research is restricted to Complexo Vargem Grande (Vale. The timeline was demarcated based on the formation of stockpiling. The fieldwork enables data collection and distinction of the routine procedures of casual operations handling. The quantitative analysis is conducted by the statistical method. As a conclusion, handling and storage identified are able to insert changes in physical and chemical characteristics of iron ore. Storage contributes to reduce variability of silica and alumina concentrations, but contributes too particle size deterioration. The handling induces degradation and segregation. However, there is the possibility to decrease handling of the ore and to establish the ideal size of stocks on the system in study, improving the efficiency of the system and consequent in global costs.

  18. Collective estimation of multiple bivariate density functions with application to angular-sampling-based protein loop modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Maadooliat, Mehdi

    2015-10-21

    This paper develops a method for simultaneous estimation of density functions for a collection of populations of protein backbone angle pairs using a data-driven, shared basis that is constructed by bivariate spline functions defined on a triangulation of the bivariate domain. The circular nature of angular data is taken into account by imposing appropriate smoothness constraints across boundaries of the triangles. Maximum penalized likelihood is used to fit the model and an alternating blockwise Newton-type algorithm is developed for computation. A simulation study shows that the collective estimation approach is statistically more efficient than estimating the densities individually. The proposed method was used to estimate neighbor-dependent distributions of protein backbone dihedral angles (i.e., Ramachandran distributions). The estimated distributions were applied to protein loop modeling, one of the most challenging open problems in protein structure prediction, by feeding them into an angular-sampling-based loop structure prediction framework. Our estimated distributions compared favorably to the Ramachandran distributions estimated by fitting a hierarchical Dirichlet process model; and in particular, our distributions showed significant improvements on the hard cases where existing methods do not work well.

  19. Handling in large quantities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehring, B.; Schaberg, D. (Polysins (Germany, F.R.))

    A large number of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plants in Germany receive ground limestone. Unloading, storage and handling of limestone at such a FGD plant is described, in particular, the silo discharge system. The FGD process on installations which use fluidized bed boiler technology is carried out within the fluidized bed. The transport system POLDOS monitors and controls the limestone flow into the fluidized bed. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Handling of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanhueza Mir, Azucena

    1998-01-01

    Based on characteristics and quantities of different types of radioactive waste produced in the country, achievements in infrastructure and the way to solve problems related with radioactive waste handling and management, are presented in this paper. Objectives of maintaining facilities and capacities for controlling, processing and storing radioactive waste in a conditioned form, are attained, within a great range of legal framework, so defined to contribute with safety to people and environment (au)

  1. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23 and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  2. Overview on Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Burger; Deepak Gupta; Patrick Jacobs; John Shillinglaw

    2003-06-30

    Gas hydrates are crystalline, ice-like compounds of gas and water molecules that are formed under certain thermodynamic conditions. Hydrate deposits occur naturally within ocean sediments just below the sea floor at temperatures and pressures existing below about 500 meters water depth. Gas hydrate is also stable in conjunction with the permafrost in the Arctic. Most marine gas hydrate is formed of microbially generated gas. It binds huge amounts of methane into the sediments. Worldwide, gas hydrate is estimated to hold about 1016 kg of organic carbon in the form of methane (Kvenvolden et al., 1993). Gas hydrate is one of the fossil fuel resources that is yet untapped, but may play a major role in meeting the energy challenge of this century. In June 2002, Westport Technology Center was requested by the Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a ''Best Practices Manual on Gas Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis'' under Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41327. The scope of the task was specifically targeted for coring sediments with hydrates in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and from the present Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drillship. The specific subjects under this scope were defined in 3 stages as follows: Stage 1: Collect information on coring sediments with hydrates, core handling, core preservation, sample transportation, analysis of the core, and long term preservation. Stage 2: Provide copies of the first draft to a list of experts and stakeholders designated by DOE. Stage 3: Produce a second draft of the manual with benefit of input from external review for delivery. The manual provides an overview of existing information available in the published literature and reports on coring, analysis, preservation and transport of gas hydrates for laboratory analysis as of June 2003. The manual was delivered as draft version 3 to the DOE Project Manager for distribution in July 2003. This Final Report is provided for records purposes.

  3. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  4. Uranium hexafluoride handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF 6 from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride

  5. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. WISE TECHNOLOGY FOR HANDLING BIG DATA FEDERATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentijn, E; Begeman, Kornelis; Belikov, Andrey; Boxhoorn, Danny; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; McFarland, John; Vriend, Willem-Jan; Williams, Owen; Soille, P.; Marchetti, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    The effective use of Big Data in current and future scientific missions requires intelligent data handling systems which are able to interface the user to complicated distributed data collections. We review the WISE Concept of Scientific Information Systems and the WISE solutions for the storage and

  7. Analysis of dust samples collected from spent nuclear fuel interim storage containers at Hope Creek, Delaware, and Diablo Canyon, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David George [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Potentially corrosive environments may form on the surface of spent nuclear fuel dry storage canisters by deliquescence of deposited dusts. To assess this, samples of dust were collected from in-service dry storage canisters at two near-marine sites, the Hope Creek and Diablo Canyon storage installations, and have been characterized with respect to mineralogy, chemistry, and texture. At both sites, terrestrially-derived silicate minerals, including quartz, feldspars, micas, and clays, comprise the largest fraction of the dust. Also significant at both sites were particles of iron and iron-chromium metal and oxides generated by the manufacturing process. Soluble salt phases were minor component of the Hope Creek dusts, and were compositionally similar to inland salt aerosols, rich in calcium, sulfate, and nitrate. At Diablo Canyon, however, sea-salt aerosols, occurring as aggregates of NaCl and Mg-sulfate, were a major component of the dust samples. The seasalt aerosols commonly occurred as hollow spheres, which may have formed by evaporation of suspended aerosol seawater droplets, possibly while rising through the heated annulus between the canister and the overpack. The differences in salt composition and abundance for the two sites are attributed to differences in proximity to the open ocean and wave action. The Diablo Canyon facility is on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, while the Hope Creek facility is on the shores of the Delaware River, several miles from the open ocean.

  8. Molecular detection of toxigenic potential of fungi in peanut samples collected in retail shops in Maringá/PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Valéria de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many foods are susceptible to fungal contamination. Grains, such as peanuts, are commonly affected, with consequences including compromised integrity and infeasibility for human and animal consumption. Furthermore, some fungi may pose a health risk, largely due the production of mycotoxins. Among these, aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus produce various carcinogenic, teratogenic, immunosuppressive, hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects. Molecular techniques have been used to identify and distinguish fungal species in foods. The objective of this study was molecular detection of Aspergillus species in peanut samples collected in stores in Maringá-PR, by amplification of fungal genetic material with specific primers for the intergenic spacer aflR-aflJ and later cutting with restriction enzymes. Of the 50 peanut samples analyzed, 27 were positive for the intergenic spacer aflR-aflJ, seven of which were identified as Aspergillus flavus. Our results demonstrate that peanuts sold in retail stores in this region have potential for contamination with toxigenic fungi.

  9. Automation impact study of Army training management 2: Extension of sampling and collection of installation resource data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanquist, T.F.; McCallum, M.C.; Hunt, P.S.; Slavich, A.L.; Underwood, J.A.; Toquam, J.L.; Seaver, D.A.

    1989-05-01

    This automation impact study of Army training management (TM) was performed for the Army Development and Employment Agency (ADEA) and the Combined Arms Training Activity (CATA) by the Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The primary objective of the study was to provide the Army with information concerning the potential costs and savings associated with automating the TM process. This study expands the sample of units surveyed in Phase I of the automation impact effort (Sanquist et al., 1988), and presents data concerning installation resource management in relation to TM. The structured interview employed in Phase I was adapted to a self-administered survey. The data collected were compatible with that of Phase I, and both were combined for analysis. Three US sites, one reserve division, one National Guard division, and one unit in the active component outside the continental US (OCONUS) (referred to in this report as forward deployed) were surveyed. The total sample size was 459, of which 337 respondents contributed the most detailed data. 20 figs., 62 tabs.

  10. Investigation of the Efficiencies of Bioaerosol Samplers for Collecting Aerosolized Bacteria Using a Fluorescent Tracer. I: Effects of Non-sampling Processes on Bacterial Culturability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Doornenbal, P.; Huynh, T.T.T.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Landman, W.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    By sampling aerosolized microorganisms, the efficiency of a bioaerosol sampler can be calculated depending on its ability both to collect microorganisms and to preserve their culturability during a sampling process. However, those culturability losses in the non-sampling processes should not be

  11. Comparison of organic compositions in dust storm and normal aerosol samples collected at Gosan, Jeju Island, during spring 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gehui; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Lee, Meehye

    To better understand the current physical and chemical properties of East Asian aerosols, an intensive observation of atmospheric particles was conducted at Gosan site, Jeju Island, South Korea during 2005 spring. Total suspended particle (TSP) samples were collected using pre-combusted quartz filters and a high-volume air sampler with the time intervals ranging from 3 h to 48 h. The kinds and amount of various organic compounds were measured in the samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among the 99 target compounds detected, saccharides (average, 130 ± 14 ng m -3), fatty acids (73 ± 7 ng m -3), alcohols (41 ± 4 ng m -3), n-alkanes (32 ± 3 ng m -3), and phthalates (21 ± 2 ng m -3) were found to be major compound classes with polyols/polyacids, lignin and resin products, PAHs, sterols and aromatic acids being minor. Compared to the previous results reported for 2001 late spring samples, no significant changes were found in the levels of their concentrations and compositions for 4 years, although the economy in East Asia, especially in China, has sharply expanded from 2001 to 2005. During the campaign at Gosan site, we encountered two distinct dust storm episodes with high TSP concentrations. The first dust event occurred on March 28, which was characterized by a predominance of secondary organic aerosols. The second event that occurred on the next day (March 29) was found to be characterized by primary organic aerosols associated with forest fires in Siberia/northeastern China. A significant variation in the molecular compositions, which was found within a day, suggests that the compositions of East Asian aerosols are heterogeneous due to multi-contributions from different source regions together with different pathways of long-range atmospheric transport of particles.

  12. Metal distribution in road dust samples collected in an urban area close to a petrochemical plant at Gela, Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manno, Emanuela; Varrica, Daniela; Dongarrà, Gaetano

    Eight samples of road dust were collected from three different localities (industrial, urban, peripheral) of the town of Gela (Italy) to characterize their chemical composition and to assess (a) the influence of the petrochemical plant and the urban traffic on the trace element content in different grain-size fractions of street dust and (b) the solid-phase speciation of the analysed metal using sequential extraction. The samples were sieved into six particle size ranges: 500-250, 250-125, 125-63, 63-40, 40-20 and <20 μm and then analysed for 15 trace elements by ICP-MS. Sequential extraction of metals was performed on each subsample. A principal component analysis was also carried out to define the possible origin of metals in dusts. A comparison was made between the trace metal concentrations in road dust and those in main local outcropping rocks. The obtained results, indicate, that the road dust samples contain non-soil-derived elements, whose primary contributors appear to be vehicular traffic and the nearby petrochemical plant. Traffic appears to be responsible for the high levels of Ba, Cu, Cr, Mo, Pb, Sb and Zn. High concentrations of Ni, V and, partly, Ba and Cr were associated with emissions from the petrochemical plant. With respect to the local background, Sb was the most highly enriched trace element in the road dusts. Results of sequential extraction analysis show that most metals are mainly distributed in the non-residual fractions and particularly in the organic/sulphide and Fe-Mn oxides fractions. They also point to superficial adsorption as an important transfer mechanism of trace metals from their sources to the environment.

  13. The Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument for a Polish sample with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: psychometric properties of proxy version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misterska, Ewa; Adamczak, Karolina; Kaminiarczyk-Pyzałka, Dominika; Adamczyk, Katarzyna; Głowacki, Jakub; Niedziela, Marek; Glowacki, Maciej

    2017-12-01

    The aims of the study were to investigate the psychometric properties of the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) for parents of children aged 2-10 years, in a Polish sample of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and to compare the results from children with chronic arthritis to the results from a normative sample. The sample consisted of the parents of 29 (72.5%) girls and 11 (27.5%) boys. The ages of the children ranged from 2 to 10 years (mean 6.50, standard deviation [SD] 2.63). Disease course was classified as oligoarticular (n = 26, 65%) and polyarticular (n = 14, 35%). Parents who took part in the intrarater reliability study completed the Polish version of PODCI twice. The PODCI consists of the following subscales: Upper Extremity and Physical Function, Transfer and Mobility Tasks, Sports/Physical Functioning, Pain/Comfort, and Happiness. A Global Functioning Scale consists of the mean of the 'mean of items' values for the first four scales. The mean standarized Global Functioning Scale was 81.79 (SD 13.45), whereas the mean normative Global Functioning Scale score equaled 33.65 (SD 18.19). Cronbach's alpha value of the Global Functioning Scale was excellent and equaled 0.81. The effect size concerning the Global Functioning Scale equaled 0.123. Test-retest reliability equaled 0.98, whereas intrarater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) equaled 0.99. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the PODCI questionnaire provides a Polish equivalent to assess physical function in children with chronic arthritis. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Glove Changing When Handling Money: Observational and Microbiological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Wahrman, Miryam Z; Shah, Jay; Guerra, Laura A; MacDonald, Zerlina; Marte, Myladys; Basch, Charles E

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of glove changing by mobile food vendors after monetary transactions, and the presence of bacterial contamination on a sample of dollar bills obtained from 25 food vendors near five hospitals in Manhattan, New York City. During 495 monetary transactions observed there were only seven glove changes performed by the workers. Eleven of 34 food workers wore no gloves at all while handling money and food. Nineteen of 25 one-dollar bills collected (76 %) had 400 to 42,000 total bacterial colony-forming units. Colonies were of varied morphology and size. Of these 19 samples, 13 were selected (based on level of growth), and tested for the presence of coliform bacteria, which was found in 10 of the 13 samples. Effective strategies to monitor and increase glove wearing and changing habits of mobile food vendors are needed to reduce risk of foodborne illness.

  15. Preference Handling for Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Judy; University of Kentucky; Junker, Ulrich; ILOG

    2009-01-01

    This article explains the benefits of preferences for AI systems and draws a picture of current AI research on preference handling. It thus provides an introduction to the topics covered by this special issue on preference handling.

  16. FUEL HANDLING FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achudume, A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this design calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) of the Monitored Geological Repository (MGR). The FHF is a surface facility supporting waste handling operations i.e. receive transportation casks, transfer wastes, prepare waste packages, and ship out loaded waste packages and empty casks. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation. The results are also limited to normal operations only. Results of this calculation will be used to support the FHF design and License Application

  17. Extreme coal handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, S; Homleid, D. [Air Control Science Inc. (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Within the journals 'Focus on O & M' is a short article describing modifications to coal handling systems at Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska, which is supplied with power and heat from a subbituminous coal-fired central plant. Measures to reduce dust include addition of an enclosed recirculation chamber at each transfer point and new chute designs to reduce coal velocity, turbulence, and induced air. The modifications were developed by Air Control Science (ACS). 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Crud handling circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.C.; Manuel, R.J.; McAllister, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    A process for handling the problems of crud formation during the solvent extraction of wet-process phosphoric acid, e.g. for uranium and rare earth removal, is described. It involves clarification of the crud-solvent mixture, settling, water washing the residue and treatment of the crud with a caustic wash to remove and regenerate the solvent. Applicable to synergistic mixtures of dialkylphosphoric acids and trialkylphosphine oxides dissolved in inert diluents and more preferably to the reductive stripping technique. (U.K.)

  19. Students' Strategies for Exception Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashkovits, Rami; Lavy, Ilana

    2011-01-01

    This study discusses and presents various strategies employed by novice programmers concerning exception handling. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: we provide an analysis tool to measure the level of assimilation of exception handling mechanism; we present and analyse strategies to handle exceptions; we present and analyse…

  20. Extending the Collection Duration of Breath Samples for Enteric Methane Emission Estimation Using the SF6 Tracer Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Koolaard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The daily sample collection protocol of the sulphur hexafluoride (SF6 tracer technique for the estimation of methane (CH4 emissions from ruminants may not be practical under extensive grazing systems. Here, under controlled conditions, we evaluated extended periods of sampling as an alternative to daily sample collections. Eight rumen-fistulated cows were housed and fed lucerne silage to achieve common daily feed intakes of 6.4 kg dry matter per cow. Following SF6 permeation tube dosing, eight sampling lines were fitted to the breath collection harness, so that a common gas mix was available to each line. Half of the lines collected samples into PVC yokes using a modified capillary system as commonly used in New Zealand (NZL, and half collected samples into stainless steel cylinders using a ball-bearing flow restrictor as used in Argentina (ARG, all within a 10-day time frame, either daily, across two consecutive 5-day periods or across one 10-day period (in duplicate. The NZL system had greater sampling success (97.3 vs. 79.5% and yielded more consistent CH4 emission estimates than the ARG system. Emission estimates from NZL daily, NZL 5-day and NZL 10-day samplings were 114, 110 and 111 g d−1, respectively. Extended sample collection protocol may be feasible, but definitive evaluation of this alternative as well as sample collection systems is required under grazing situations before a decision on recommendation can be made.

  1. Tank 241-B-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization: Results for homogeneity samples collected on October 16, 1996. Tank vapor characterization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, K.B.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-B-103 (Tank B-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Samples were collected to determine the homogeneity of selected inorganic and organic headspace constituents. Two risers (Riser 2 and Riser 7) were sampled at three different elevations (Bottom, Middle, and Top) within the tank. Tank headspace samples were collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL

  2. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Chemistry of the Coral Reefs in the Pacific Remote Island Areas from Water Samples collected since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water samples are collected and analyzed to assess spatial and temporal variation in the seawater carbonate systems of coral reef ecosystems in the Hawaiian and...

  3. Determination of gold of No. 501 uranium deposits and soil samples by cold leaching gold in dilute aqua regia and collection on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Maogen; Yao Liying.

    1989-01-01

    The gold determination method is described by cold leaching gold in dilute aqua regia and collection on activated charcoal and presents the results obtained in determining gold of uranium deposits and soil samples

  4. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Chemistry of the Coral Reefs in the Mariana Archipelago from Water Samples collected in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water samples are collected and analyzed to assess spatial and temporal variation in the seawater carbonate systems of coral reef ecosystems in the Hawaiian and...

  5. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Chemistry of the Coral Reefs in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands from Water Samples collected in 2015 (NCEI Accession 0160330)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water samples are collected and analyzed to assess spatial and temporal variation in the seawater carbonate systems of coral reef ecosystems in the Hawaiian and...

  6. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Chemistry of the Coral Reefs in the Hawaiian Archipelago from Water Samples collected since 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water samples are collected and analyzed to assess spatial and temporal variation in the seawater carbonate systems of coral reef ecosystems in the Hawaiian and...

  7. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Chemistry of the Coral Reefs in the Pacific Remote Island Areas from Water Samples collected in 2015 (NCEI Accession 0159169)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water samples are collected and analyzed to assess spatial and temporal variation in the seawater carbonate systems of coral reef ecosystems in the Hawaiian and...

  8. Uranium favorability of tertiary sedimentary rocks of the Pend Oreille River valley, Washington. [Measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples, and examination of available water logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjaniemi, D.K.; Robins, J.W.

    1975-08-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Pend Oreille River valley were investigated in a regional study to determine the favorability for potential uranium resources of northeastern Washington. This project involved measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples, and examination of available water well logs. The Box Canyon Dam area north of Ione is judged to have very high favorability. Thick-bedded conglomerates interbedded with sandstones and silty sandstones compose the Tiger Formation in this area, and high radioactivity levels are found near the base of the formation. Uranophane is found along fracture surfaces or in veins. Carbonaceous material is present throughout the Tiger Formation in the area. Part of the broad Pend Oreille valley surrounding Cusick, Washington, is an area of high favorability. Potential host rocks in the Tiger Formation, consisting of arkosic sandstones interbedded with radioactive shales, probably extend throughout the subsurface part of this area. Carbonaceous material is present and some samples contain high concentrations of uranium. In addition, several other possible chemical indicators were found. The Tiger-Lost Creek area is rated as having medium favorability. The Tiger Formation contains very hard, poorly sorted granite conglomerate with some beds of arkosic sandstone and silty sandstone. The granite conglomerate was apparently derived from source rocks having relatively high uranium content. The lower part of the formation is more favorable than the upper part because of the presence of carbonaceous material, anomalously high concentrations of uranium, and other possible chemical indicators. The area west of Ione is judged to have low favorability, because of the very low permeability of the rocks and the very low uranium content. (auth)

  9. Direct and indirect alcohol biomarkers data collected in hair samples - multivariate data analysis and likelihood ratio interpretation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Alladio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentration values of direct and indirect biomarkers of ethanol consumption were detected in blood (indirect or hair (direct samples from a pool of 125 individuals classified as either chronic (i.e. positive and non-chronic (i.e. negative alcohol drinkers. These experimental values formed the dataset under examination (Table 1. Indirect biomarkers included: aspartate transferase (AST, alanine transferase (ALT, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, mean corpuscular volume of the erythrocytes (MCV, carbohydrate-deficient-transferrin (CDT. The following direct biomarkers were also detected in hair: ethyl myristate (E14:0, ethyl palmitate (E16:0, ethyl stearate (E18:1, ethyl oleate (E18:0, the sum of their four concentrations (FAEEs, i.e. Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters and ethyl glucuronide (EtG; pg/mg. Body mass index (BMI was also collected as a potential influencing factor. Likelihood ratio (LR approaches have been used to provide predictive models for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse, based on different combinations of direct and indirect alcohol biomarkers, as described in “Evaluation of direct and indirect ethanol biomarkers using a likelihood ratio approach to identify chronic alcohol abusers for forensic purposes” (E. Alladio, A. Martyna, A. Salomone, V. Pirro, M. Vincenti, G. Zadora, 2017 [1].

  10. External dose assessment from the measured radioactivity in soil samples collected from the Islamabad capital territory, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, S U; Anwar, J [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Faheem, M [Department of Physics, Islamabad Model College for Girls, F-6/2, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ziafat, M [Department of Physics, Gomal University, D I Khan (Pakistan); Nasir, T [KRL, Kahuta, Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Matiullah [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2009-12-01

    It is a well known fact that natural radionuclides are the major contributors towards the gamma ray exposure received by the general public. In this context, soil samples were collected from the Islamabad capital territory and activities due to {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs were measured using gamma ray spectrometry: activities ranged from 41.5-106.2 Bq kg{sup -1}, 4.0-193.8 Bq kg{sup -1}, 325.3-657.4 Bq kg{sup -1} and 1.6-9.45 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. From the measured activities, the external hazard index, internal hazard index, absorbed dose rate and mean annual effective dose were calculated. External and internal hazard indices were calculated as 0.76 and 0.95, respectively. The mean absorbed dose rate was found to be 130.97 nGy h{sup -1}. The mean effective dose was estimated as 0.16 mSv y{sup -1}, which is less than the maximum permissible dose of 1 mSv y{sup -1}.

  11. Geochemical Data for Samples Collected in 2008 Near the Concealed Pebble Porphyry Cu-Au-Mo Deposit, Southwest Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, David L.; Granitto, Matthew; Giles, Stuart A.; Smith, Steven M.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an exploration geochemical research study over the Pebble porphyry copper-gold-molybdenum deposit. This report presents the analytical data collected in 2008. The Pebble deposit is world class in size, and is almost entirely concealed by tundra, glacial deposits, and post-Cretaceous volcanic rocks. The Pebble deposit was chosen for this study because it is concealed by surficial cover rocks, is relatively undisturbed (except for exploration company drill holes), is a large mineral system, and is fairly well-constrained at depth by the drill hole geology and geochemistry. The goals of this study are to 1) determine whether the concealed deposit can be detected with surface samples, 2) better understand the processes of metal migration from the deposit to the surface, and 3) test and develop methods for assessing mineral resources in similar concealed terrains. The analytical data are presented as an integrated Microsoft Access 2003 database and as separate Excel files.

  12. The Hydrothermal Vent Biosampler (HVB) Developed to Collect `Pristine' Samples (Iceland & Myojin Knoll & Planned deployment on the Myojin Knoll & Suiyo Seamount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, A.; Bruckner, J.; Venkateswaran, K.; Matthews, J.

    2006-12-01

    Marine hydrothermal systems and the unique biota associated with them represent some of the most interesting ecosystems on the planet. These `extreme' environments are often composed of vents spewing super-heated fluid containing a variety of minerals and reduced compounds, numerous of which can be used as substrates for growth by microorganisms. To accurately describe the diversity and distribution of these chemosynthetic communities, it is essential to collect samples from defined locations associated with a given hydrothermal vent without contamination from the surrounding water column (e.g. the collected samples are `pristine'). Additionally, samples need to be collected in sufficient volume to a) account for the potential low biomass of these environments and b) provide modern molecular techniques with adequate sample material. The hydrothermal vent biosampler (HVB) was developed to collect `pristine' hydrothermal vent samples for microbial analyses. Utilizing an array of sensors (temperature monitors and flow meters), the system can relay real time data regarding sampling conditions allowing accurate placement of the HVB's collection nozzle and ensuring samples are collected from defined locations. The unit has been designed to withstand extreme conditions (source water temperatures >400°C) and has been pressure tested to a simulated depth of 6.5km and undergone field trials along the Eyjafjordur Fjord hydrothermal system (Iceland). Collection of sufficient biomass is achieved through employment of a series of filters (90, 60, 7 and 0.2 ìm pore sizes) that concentrate ~20L of hydrothermal fluid to a final volume of 500-ml. Filtered samples can be directly collected from the HVB for subsequent biological analyses (both culture- and molecular-based). In conjunction with JAMSTEC, further field exercises along the Myojin Knoll and Suiyo Seamount have been planned for November 2006.

  13. Stratospheric Air Sub-sampler (SAS) and its application to analysis of Delta O-17(CO2) from small air samples collected with an AirCore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mrozek, Dorota Janina; van der Veen, Carina; Hofmann, Magdalena E. G.; Chen, Huilin; Kivi, Rigel; Heikkinen, Pauli; Rockmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present the set-up and a scientific application of the Stratospheric Air Sub-sampler (SAS), a device to collect and to store the vertical profile of air collected with an AirCore (Karion et al., 2010) in numerous sub-samples for later analysis in the laboratory. The SAS described here is a 20m

  14. Bulk material handling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleysteuber, William K.; Mayercheck, William D.

    1979-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a bulk material handling system particularly adapted for underground mining and includes a monorail supported overhead and carrying a plurality of conveyors each having input and output end portions with the output end portion of a first of the conveyors positioned above an input end portion of a second of the conveyors, a device for imparting motion to the conveyors to move the material from the input end portions toward the output end portions thereof, a device for supporting at least one of the input and output end portions of the first and second conveyors from the monorail, and the supporting device including a plurality of trolleys rollingly supported by the monorail whereby the conveyors can be readily moved therealong.

  15. Colonic potassium handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Vaarby; Matos, Joana E.; Prætorius, Helle

    2010-01-01

    Homeostatic control of plasma K+ is a necessary physiological function. The daily dietary K+ intake of approximately 100 mmol is excreted predominantly by the distal tubules of the kidney. About 10% of the ingested K+ is excreted via the intestine. K+ handling in both organs is specifically...... regulated by hormones and adapts readily to changes in dietary K+ intake, aldosterone and multiple local paracrine agonists. In chronic renal insufficiency, colonic K+ secretion is greatly enhanced and becomes an important accessory K+ excretory pathway. During severe diarrheal diseases of different causes......, intestinal K+ losses caused by activated ion secretion may become life threatening. This topical review provides an update of the molecular mechanisms and the regulation of mammalian colonic K+ absorption and secretion. It is motivated by recent results, which have identified the K+ secretory ion channel...

  16. MFTF exception handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowell, D.M.; Bridgeman, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    In the design of large experimental control systems, a major concern is ensuring that operators are quickly alerted to emergency or other exceptional conditions and that they are provided with sufficient information to respond adequately. This paper describes how the MFTF exception handling system satisfies these requirements. Conceptually exceptions are divided into one of two classes. Those which affect command status by producing an abort or suspend condition and those which fall into a softer notification category of report only or operator acknowledgement requirement. Additionally, an operator may choose to accept an exception condition as operational, or turn off monitoring for sensors determined to be malfunctioning. Control panels and displays used in operator response to exceptions are described

  17. Plutonium safe handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvehlov, Yu.

    2000-01-01

    The abstract, prepared on the basis of materials of the IAEA new leadership on the plutonium safe handling and its storage (the publication no. 9 in the Safety Reports Series), aimed at presenting internationally acknowledged criteria on the radiation danger evaluation and summarizing the experience in the safe management of great quantities of plutonium, accumulated in the nuclear states, is presented. The data on the weapon-class and civil plutonium, the degree of its danger, the measures for provision of its safety, including the data on accident radiation consequences with the fission number 10 18 , are presented. The recommendations, making it possible to eliminate the super- criticality danger, as well as ignition and explosion, to maintain the tightness of the facility, aimed at excluding the radioactive contamination and the possibility of internal irradiation, to provide for the plutonium security, physical protection and to reduce irradiation are given [ru

  18. Remote handling in ZEPHYR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andelfinger, C.; Lackner, E.; Ulrich, M.; Weber, G.; Schilling, H.B.

    1982-04-01

    A conceptual design of the ZEPHYR building is described. The listed radiation data show that remote handling devices will be necessary in most areas of the building. For difficult repair and maintenance works it is intended to transfer complete units from the experimental hall to a hot cell which provides better working conditions. The necessary crane systems and other transport means are summarized as well as suitable commercially available manipulators and observation devices. The conept of automatic devices for cutting and welding and other operations inside the vacuum vessel and the belonging position control system is sketched. Guidelines for the design of passive components are set up in order to facilitate remote operation. (orig.)

  19. Handle with care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Full text: A film dealing with transport of radioactive materials by everyday means - rail, road, sea and air transport - has been made for IAEA. It illustrates in broad terms some of the simple precautions which should be followed by persons dealing with such materials during shipment. Throughout, the picture stresses the transport regulations drawn up and recommended by the Agency, and in particular the need to carry out carefully the instructions based on these regulations in order to ensure that there is no hazard to the public nor to those who handle radioactive materials in transit and storage. In straightforward language, the film addresses the porter of a goods wagon, an airline cargo clerk, a dockside crane operator, a truck driver and others who load and ship freight. It shows the various types of package used to contain different categories of radioactive substances according to the intensity of the radiation emitted. It also illustrates their robustness by a series of tests involving drops, fires, impact, crushing, etc. Clear instructions are conveyed on what to do in the event of an unlikely accident with any type of package. The film is entitled, 'The Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials', and is No. 3 in the series entitled, 'Handle with Care'. It was made for IAEA through the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority by the Film Producers' Guild in the United Kingdom. It is in 16 mm colour, optical sound, with a running time of 20 minutes. It is available for order at $50 either direct from IAEA or through any of its Member Governments. Prints can be supplied in English, French, Russian or Spanish. Copies are also available for adaptation for commentaries in other languages. (author)

  20. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida parapsilosis complex species isolated from culture collection of clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silvestre Ataides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION:Candida parapsilosis is a common yeast species found in cases of onychomycosis and candidemia associated with infected intravascular devices. In this study, we differentiated Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis , and Candida metapsilosis from a culture collection containing blood and subungual scraping samples. Furthermore, we assessed the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of these species to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin.METHODS:Differentiation of C. parapsilosis complex species was performed by amplification of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (SADH gene and digestion by the restriction enzyme Ban I. All isolates were evaluated for the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations using Etest, a method for antifungal susceptibility testing.RESULTS:Among the 87 isolates, 78 (89.7% were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto , five (5.7% were identified as C. orthopsilosis , and four (4.6% were identified as C. metapsilosis . Analysis of antifungal susceptibility showed that C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates were less susceptible to amphotericin B and itraconazole. One C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolate was resistant to amphotericin B and itraconazole. Moreover, 10.2% of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates were resistant to caspofungin. Two C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates and one C. metapsilosis isolate were susceptible to fluconazole in a dose-dependent manner.CONCLUSIONS:We reported the first molecular identification of C. parapsilosiscomplex species in State of Goiás, Brazil. Additionally, we showed that although the three species exhibited differences in antifungal susceptibility profiles, the primary susceptibility of this species was to caspofungin.

  1. Tank vapor characterization project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-BY-108: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 3/28/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H 2 O) and ammonia (NH 3 ), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA trademark canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC

  2. Tank vapor characterization project - headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-107: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 3/26/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H 2 O) and ammonia (NH 3 ), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA trademark canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC

  3. Tank vapor characterization project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-102: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 04/04/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-S-102 (Tank S-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H 2 O) and ammonia (NH 3 ), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA trademark canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC

  4. A confirmatory test of the underlying factor structure of scores on the collective self-esteem scale in two independent samples of Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsey, Shawn O; Constantine, Madonna G

    2006-04-01

    In this study, we examined the factor structure of the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (CSES; Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) across 2 separate samples of Black Americans. The CSES was administered to a sample of Black American adolescents (n = 538) and a community sample of Black American adults (n = 313). Results of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs), however, did not support the original 4-factor model identified by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992) as providing an adequate fit to the data for these samples. Furthermore, an exploratory CFA procedure failed to find a CSES factor structure that could be replicated across the 2 samples of Black Americans. We present and discuss implications of the findings.

  5. Handling Stability of Tractor Semitrailer Based on Handling Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yuan-yuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Handling instability is a serious threat to driving safety. In order to analyze the handling stability of a tractor semitrailer, a handling diagram can be used. In our research, considering the impact of multiple nonsteering rear axles and nonlinear characteristics of tires on vehicle handling stability, the handling equations are developed for description of stability of tractor semi-trailer. Then we obtain handling diagrams so as to study the influence of driving speed, loaded mass, and fifth wheel lead on vehicle handling stability. The analysis results show that the handling stability of a tractor semi-trailer when the tractor has two nonsteering rear axles is better than that when the tractor has only one nonsteering rear axle. While the stability in the former case is slightly influenced by driving speed and loaded mass, the latter is strongly influenced by both. The fifth wheel lead is found to only slightly influence handling stability for both tractor semi-trailers. Therefore, to ensure the driving safety of tractor semi-trailers when the tractor has only one nonsteering rear axle, much stricter restraints should be imposed on driving speed, and the loaded mass must not exceed the rated load of the trailer.

  6. Colling Wipe Samples for VX Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, C; Hoppes, W G

    2010-02-11

    This standard operating procedure (SOP) provides uniform procedures for the collection of wipe samples of VX residues from surfaces. Personnel may use this procedure to collect and handle wipe samples in the field. Various surfaces, including building materials (wood, metal, tile, vinyl, etc.) and equipment, may be sampled based on this procedure. The purpose of such sampling is to determine whether or not the relevant surfaces are contaminated, to determine the extent of their contamination, to evaluate the effectiveness of decontamination procedures, and to determine the amount of contaminant that might present as a contact hazard.

  7. The safe handling of spent nuclear fuel at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A seminar was held by the Institute of Mechanical Engineers to discuss all aspects of the safe handling of spent nuclear fuels at Sellafield. Topics discussed were the design of vessels for BNFL's reprocessing plants, the automatic sampling of radioactive liquors, safety engineering and pipework installations. The commissioning of BNFL's fuel handling plant was also discussed. (UK)

  8. New transport and handling contract

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Department

    2008-01-01

    A new transport and handling contract entered into force on 1.10.2008. As with the previous contract, the user interface is the internal transport/handling request form on EDH: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TransportRequest/ To ensure that you receive the best possible service, we invite you to complete the various fields as accurately as possible and to include a mobile telephone number on which we can reach you. You can follow the progress of your request (schedule, completion) in the EDH request routing information. We remind you that the following deadlines apply: 48 hours for the transport of heavy goods (up to 8 tonnes) or simple handling operations 5 working days for crane operations, transport of extra-heavy goods, complex handling operations and combined transport and handling operations in the tunnel. For all enquiries, the number to contact remains unchanged: 72202. Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 72672 - 160319

  9. Use of body-mounted cameras to enhance data collection: an evaluation of two arthropod sampling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted that compared the effectiveness of a sweepnet versus a vacuum suction device for collecting arthropods in cotton. The study differs from previous research in that body-mounted action cameras (B-MACs) were used to record the activity of the person conducting the collections. The...

  10. Unvented Drum Handling Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    This drum-handling plan proposes a method to deal with unvented transuranic drums encountered during retrieval of drums. Finding unvented drums during retrieval activities was expected, as identified in the Transuranic (TRU) Phase I Retrieval Plan (HNF-4781). However, significant numbers of unvented drums were not expected until excavation of buried drums began. This plan represents accelerated planning for management of unvented drums. A plan is proposed that manages unvented drums differently based on three categories. The first category of drums is any that visually appear to be pressurized. These will be vented immediately, using either the Hanford Fire Department Hazardous Materials (Haz. Mat.) team, if such are encountered before the facilities' capabilities are established, or using internal capabilities, once established. To date, no drums have been retrieved that showed signs of pressurization. The second category consists of drums that contain a minimal amount of Pu isotopes. This minimal amount is typically less than 1 gram of Pu, but may be waste-stream dependent. Drums in this category are assayed to determine if they are low-level waste (LLW). LLW drums are typically disposed of without venting. Any unvented drums that assay as TRU will be staged for a future venting campaign, using appropriate safety precautions in their handling. The third category of drums is those for which records show larger amounts of Pu isotopes (typically greater than or equal to 1 gram of Pu). These are assumed to be TRU and are not assayed at this point, but are staged for a future venting campaign. Any of these drums that do not have a visible venting device will be staged awaiting venting, and will be managed under appropriate controls, including covering the drums to protect from direct solar exposure, minimizing of container movement, and placement of a barrier to restrict vehicle access. There are a number of equipment options available to perform the venting. The

  11. Tank vapor characterization project. Tank 241-TY-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization: Results for homogeneity samples collected on November 22, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, K.B.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Hayes, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-TY-103 (Tank TY-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Samples were collected to determine the homogeneity of selected inorganic and organic headspace constituents. Two risers (Riser 8 and Riser 18) were sampled at three different elevations (Top, Middle, and Bottom) within the tank. Tank headspace samples were collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. No analytes were determined to be above immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP)

  12. Tank vapor characterization project - Tank 241-U-112 headspace gas and vapor characterization: Results for homogeneity samples collected on December 6, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklarew, D.S.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Hayes, J.C. [and others

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-U-112 (Tank U-112) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Samples were collected to determine the homogeneity of selected inorganic and organic headspace constitutents. Two risers (Riser 3 and Riser 6) were sampled at three different elevations (Bottom, Middle, and Top) within the tank. Tank headspace samples were collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan.

  13. Tank vapor characterization project - Tank 241-TY-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization: Results for homogeneity samples collected on November 22, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, K.B.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Hayes, J.C. [and others

    1997-07-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-TY-103 (Tank TY-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Samples were collected to determine the homogeneity of selected inorganic and organic headspace constituents. Two risers (Riser 8 and Riser 18) were sampled at three different elevations (Top, Middle, and Bottom) within the tank. Tank headspace samples were collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. No analytes were determined to be above immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP).

  14. Tank vapor characterization project - Tank 241-U-112 headspace gas and vapor characterization: Results for homogeneity samples collected on December 6, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklarew, D.S.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Hayes, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-U-112 (Tank U-112) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Samples were collected to determine the homogeneity of selected inorganic and organic headspace constitutents. Two risers (Riser 3 and Riser 6) were sampled at three different elevations (Bottom, Middle, and Top) within the tank. Tank headspace samples were collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan

  15. Trends in Modern Exception Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kuta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Exception handling is nowadays a necessary component of error proof information systems. The paper presents overview of techniques and models of exception handling, problems connected with them and potential solutions. The aspects of implementation of propagation mechanisms and exception handling, their effect on semantics and general program efficiency are also taken into account. Presented mechanisms were adopted to modern programming languages. Considering design area, formal methods and formal verification of program properties we can notice exception handling mechanisms are weakly present what makes a field for future research.

  16. How Retailers Handle Complaint Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Wilke, Ricky; Zaichkowsky, Judy

    2009-01-01

    This article fills a gap in the literature by providing insight about the handling of complaint management (CM) across a large cross section of retailers in the grocery, furniture, electronic and auto sectors. Determinants of retailers’ CM handling are investigated and insight is gained as to the......This article fills a gap in the literature by providing insight about the handling of complaint management (CM) across a large cross section of retailers in the grocery, furniture, electronic and auto sectors. Determinants of retailers’ CM handling are investigated and insight is gained...

  17. Standard operating procedures for collection of soil and sediment samples for the Sediment-bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response (SCoRR) strategy pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Shawn C.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Jones, Daniel K.; Benzel, William M.; Griffin, Dale W.; Loftin, Keith A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Cohl, Jonathan A.

    2015-12-17

    An understanding of the effects on human and ecological health brought by major coastal storms or flooding events is typically limited because of a lack of regionally consistent baseline and trends data in locations proximal to potential contaminant sources and mitigation activities, sensitive ecosystems, and recreational facilities where exposures are probable. In an attempt to close this gap, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has implemented the Sediment-bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response (SCoRR) strategy pilot study to collect regional sediment-quality data prior to and in response to future coastal storms. The standard operating procedure (SOP) detailed in this document serves as the sample-collection protocol for the SCoRR strategy by providing step-by-step instructions for site preparation, sample collection and processing, and shipping of soil and surficial sediment (for example, bed sediment, marsh sediment, or beach material). The objectives of the SCoRR strategy pilot study are (1) to create a baseline of soil-, sand-, marsh sediment-, and bed-sediment-quality data from sites located in the coastal counties from Maine to Virginia based on their potential risk of being contaminated in the event of a major coastal storm or flooding (defined as Resiliency mode); and (2) respond to major coastal storms and flooding by reoccupying select baseline sites and sampling within days of the event (defined as Response mode). For both modes, samples are collected in a consistent manner to minimize bias and maximize quality control by ensuring that all sampling personnel across the region collect, document, and process soil and sediment samples following the procedures outlined in this SOP. Samples are analyzed using four USGS-developed screening methods—inorganic geochemistry, organic geochemistry, pathogens, and biological assays—which are also outlined in this SOP. Because the SCoRR strategy employs a multi-metric approach for sample analyses, this

  18. TFTR tritium handling concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garber, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, to be located on the Princeton Forrestal Campus, is expected to operate with 1 to 2.5 MA tritium--deuterium plasmas, with the pulses involving injection of 50 to 150 Ci (5 to 16 mg) of tritium. Attainment of fusion conditions is based on generation of an approximately 1 keV tritium plasma by ohmic heating and conversion to a moderately hot tritium--deuterium ion plasma by injection of a ''preheating'' deuterium neutral beam (40 to 80 keV), followed by injection of a ''reacting'' beam of high energy neutral deuterium (120 to 150 keV). Additionally, compressions accompany the beam injections. Environmental, safety and cost considerations led to the decision to limit the amount of tritium gas on-site to that required for an experiment, maintaining all other tritium in ''solidified'' form. The form of the tritium supply is as uranium tritide, while the spent tritium and other hydrogen isotopes are getter-trapped by zirconium--aluminum alloy. The issues treated include: (1) design concepts for the tritium generator and its purification, dispensing, replenishment, containment, and containment--cleanup systems; (2) features of the spent plasma trapping system, particularly the regenerable absorption cartridges, their integration into the vacuum system, and the handling of non-getterables; (3) tritium permeation through the equipment and the anticipated releases to the environment; (4) overview of the tritium related ventilation systems; and (5) design bases for the facility's tritium clean-up systems

  19. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

  20. Remote handling and accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.T.

    1983-01-01

    The high-current levels of contemporary and proposed accelerator facilities induce radiation levels into components, requiring consideration be given to maintenance techniques that reduce personnel exposure. Typical components involved include beamstops, targets, collimators, windows, and instrumentation that intercepts the direct beam. Also included are beam extraction, injection, splitting, and kicking regions, as well as purposeful spill areas where beam tails are trimmed and neutral particles are deposited. Scattered beam and secondary particles activate components all along a beamline such as vacuum pipes, magnets, and shielding. Maintenance techniques vary from hands-on to TV-viewed operation using state-of-the-art servomanipulators. Bottom- or side-entry casks are used with thimble-type target and diagnostic assemblies. Long-handled tools are operated from behind shadow shields. Swinging shield doors, unstacking block, and horizontally rolling shield roofs are all used to provide access. Common to all techniques is the need to make operations simple and to provide a means of seeing and reaching the area

  1. Radiological results for samples collected on paired glass- and cellulose-fiber filters at the Sandia complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Airborne particulates are collected at U.S. Department of Energy sites that exhibit radiological contamination on the soil surface to help assess the potential for wind to transport radionuclides from the contamination sites. Collecting these samples was originally accomplished by drawing air through a cellulose-fiber filter. These filters were replaced with glass-fiber filters in March 2011. Airborne particulates were collected side by side on the two filter materials between May 2013 and May 2014. Comparisons of the sample mass and the radioactivity determinations for the side-by-side samples were undertaken to determine if the change in the filter medium produced significant results. The differences in the results obtained using the two filter types were assessed visually by evaluating the time series and correlation plots and statistically by conducting a nonparametric matched-pair sign test. Generally, the glass-fiber filters collect larger samples of particulates and produce higher radioactivity values for the gross alpha, gross beta, and gamma spectroscopy analyses. However, the correlation between the radioanalytical results for the glass-fiber filters and the cellulose-fiber filters was not strong enough to generate a linear regression function to estimate the glass-fiber filter sample results from the cellulose-fiber filter sample results.

  2. Radiological results for samples collected on paired glass- and cellulose-fiber filters at the Sandia complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizell, Steve A.; Shadel, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Airborne particulates are collected at U.S. Department of Energy sites that exhibit radiological contamination on the soil surface to help assess the potential for wind to transport radionuclides from the contamination sites. Collecting these samples was originally accomplished by drawing air through a cellulose-fiber filter. These filters were replaced with glass-fiber filters in March 2011. Airborne particulates were collected side by side on the two filter materials between May 2013 and May 2014. Comparisons of the sample mass and the radioactivity determinations for the side-by-side samples were undertaken to determine if the change in the filter medium produced significant results. The differences in the results obtained using the two filter types were assessed visually by evaluating the time series and correlation plots and statistically by conducting a nonparametric matched-pair sign test. Generally, the glass-fiber filters collect larger samples of particulates and produce higher radioactivity values for the gross alpha, gross beta, and gamma spectroscopy analyses. However, the correlation between the radioanalytical results for the glass-fiber filters and the cellulose-fiber filters was not strong enough to generate a linear regression function to estimate the glass-fiber filter sample results from the cellulose-fiber filter sample results.

  3. A Direct-Push Sample-Freezing Drive Shoe for Collecting Sediment Cores with Intact Pore Fluid, Microbial, and Sediment Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, B. A.; Trost, J.; Christy, T. M.; Mason, B.

    2015-12-01

    Abiotic and biological reactions in shallow groundwater and bottom sediments are central to understanding groundwater contaminant attenuation and biogeochemical cycles. The laminar flow regime in unconsolidated surficial aquifers creates narrow reaction zones. Studying these reaction zones requires fine-scale sampling of water together with adjacent sediment in a manner that preserves in situ redox conditions. Collecting representative samples of these narrow zones with traditional subsurface sampling equipment is challenging. For example, use of a basket type core catcher for saturated, non-cohesive sediments results in loss of fluid and sediments during retrieval. A sample-freezing drive shoe designed for a wire line piston core sampler allowed collection of cores with intact sediment, microbial, and pore fluid distributions and has been the basis for studies documenting centimeter-scale variations in aquifer microbial populations (Murphy and Herkelrath, 1996). However, this freezing drive shoe design is not compatible with modern-day direct push sampling rigs. A re-designed sample-freezing drive shoe compatible with a direct-push dual-tube coring system was developed and field-tested. The freezing drive shoe retained sediment and fluid distributions in saturated sediment core samples by freezing a 10 centimeter plug below the core sample with liquid CO­2. Core samples collected across the smear zone at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota, were successfully extracted without loss of fluid or sediment. Multiple core sections from different depths in the aquifer were retrieved from a single hole. This new design makes a highly effective sampling technology available on modern-day direct push sampling equipment to inform myriad questions about subsurface biogeochemistry processes. The re-design of the freezing drive shoe was supported by the USGS Innovation Center for Earth Sciences. References: Murphy, Fred, and W. N. Herkelrath. "A sample

  4. Consecutive first-morning urine samples to measure change in the albumin-to-creatinine ratio: a pilot study of a home urine collection protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontrop, Jessica M; Garg, Amit X; Li, Lihua; Gallo, Kerri; Schumann, Virginia; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Clark, William F; Weir, Matthew A

    2016-01-01

    Multiple first-morning urine samples are recommended for measuring the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR); however, this can be challenging in community-based research. The objectives of the study are to pilot-test a home urine collection protocol and examine how the average and variance of ACR varied with the number of urine collections and time to laboratory analysis. This is a prospective observational pilot study. This study was conducted in London, Ontario, Canada at the London Health Sciences Centre (2012-2013). The patients were adults with chronic kidney disease (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate, 36 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). Participants collected a first-morning 20-mL urine sample on three consecutive days. This process was repeated after 3 months. Samples were picked up by hospital courier and analyzed for ACR on the same day; additional aliquots were analyzed after a delay of 24-48 h (stored at 4 °C) and 3-9 months (stored at -80 °C). The geometric mean of the percentage change in ACR between baseline and 3 months was calculated and compared between single samples and the average of two vs. three consecutive samples. Of 31 patients enrolled, 26 (83.9 %) submitted all six urine samples. The geometric mean of ACR for three consecutive samples at baseline was 87, 83, and 80 mg/mmol, and the corresponding percentage increase from baseline to 3 months was 15 % (95 % confidence interval (CI), -9 to 46 %), 33 % (95 % CI, 10 to 59 %), and 22 % (95 % CI, -6 to 57 %). Compared with single urine collections at baseline and follow-up, averaging ACR values from two consecutive first-morning urine samples improved the sample variance and reduced the required sample size to detect a given treatment effect by approximately 30 %. No further gain in statistical efficiency was achieved with three urine samples. Results were similar when the laboratory analysis was delayed by 24-48 h, but a delay of 3-9 months resulted in systematic

  5. Impact of biospecimens handling on biomarker research in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callari Maurizio

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling is moving from the research setting to the practical clinical use. Gene signatures able to correctly identify high risk breast cancer patients as well as to predict response to treatment are currently under intense investigation. While technical issues dealing with RNA preparation, choice of array platforms, statistical analytical tools are taken into account, the tissue collection process is seldom considered. The time elapsed between surgical tissue removal and freezing of samples for biological characterizations is rarely well defined and/or recorded even for recently stored samples, despite the publications of standard operating procedures for biological sample collection for tissue banks. Methods Breast cancer samples from 11 patients were collected immediately after surgical removal and subdivided into aliquots. One was immediately frozen and the others were maintained at room temperature for respectively 2, 6 and 24 hrs. RNA was extracted and gene expression profile was determined using cDNA arrays. Phosphoprotein profiles were studied in parallel. Results Delayed freezing affected the RNA quality only in 3 samples, which were not subjected to gene profiling. In the 8 breast cancer cases with apparently intact RNA also in sample aliquots frozen at delayed times, 461 genes were modulated simply as a function of freezing timing. Some of these genes were included in gene signatures biologically and clinically relevant for breast cancer. Delayed freezing also affected detection of phosphoproteins, whose pattern may be crucial for clinical decision on target-directed drugs. Conclusion Time elapsed between surgery and freezing of samples appears to have a strong impact and should be considered as a mandatory variable to control for clinical implications of inadequate tissue handling.

  6. The Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus (Scorpiones, Buthidae): component variations in venom samples collected in different geographical areas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodr?guez-Ravelo, Rodolfo; Coronas, Fredy I V; Zamudio, Fernando Z; Gonz?lez-Morales, Lidia; L?pez, Georgina Espinosa; Urquiola, Ariel Ruiz; Possani, Lourival D

    2013-01-01

    Backgound The venom of the Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus is poorly study from the point of view of their components at molecular level and the functions associated. The purpose of this article was to conduct a proteomic analysis of venom components from scorpions collected in different geographical areas of the country. Results Venom from the blue scorpion, as it is called, was collected separately from specimens of five distinct Cuban towns (Moa, La Poa, Limonar, El Chote and Farallones)...

  7. Population variability of phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A concentrations in spot urine samples versus 24- or 48-h collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Krista L Yorita; Lorber, Matthew; Koch, Holger M; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Morgan, Marsha K

    2012-11-01

    Human exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) can be assessed through urinary biomonitoring, but methods to infer daily intakes assume that spot sample concentrations are comparable to daily average concentrations. We evaluate this assumption using human biomonitoring data from Germany and the United States (US). The German data comprised three regional studies with spot samples and one with full-day samples analyzed for phthalate metabolites. The US data included: a study on DEHP metabolites and BPA involving eight persons supplying all urine voids (from which 24-h samples were constructed) for seven consecutive days; NHANES spot sample data on DEHP metabolites and BPA; and a regional study of children with 48-h samples analyzed for BPA. In the German data, measures of central tendency differed, but spot and 24-h samples showed generally comparable variance including 95th percentiles and maxima equidistant from central tendency measures. In contrast, the US adult data from the eight-person study showed similar central tendencies for phthalate metabolites and BPA, but generally greater variability for the spot samples, including higher 95th percentiles and maxima. When comparing children's BPA concentrations in NHANES spot and 48-h samples, distributions showed similar central tendency and variability. Overall, spot urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites and BPA have variability roughly comparable with corresponding 24-h average concentrations obtained from a comparable population, suggesting that spot samples can be used to characterize population distributions of intakes. However, the analysis also suggests that caution should be exercised when interpreting the high end of spot sample data sets.

  8. Field Evaluation of Capillary Blood Samples as a Collection Specimen for the Rapid Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Infection During an Outbreak Emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Thomas; Palyi, Bernadett; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Jonckheere, Sylvie; de Clerck, Hilde; Bore, Joseph Akoi; Gabriel, Martin; Stoecker, Kilian; Eickmann, Markus; van Herp, Michel; Formenty, Pierre; Di Caro, Antonino; Becker, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    Reliable reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based diagnosis of Ebola virus infection currently requires a blood sample obtained by intravenous puncture. During the current Ebola outbreak in Guinea, we evaluated the usability of capillary blood samples collected from fingersticks of patients suspected of having Ebola virus disease (EVD) for field diagnostics during an outbreak emergency. A total of 120 venous and capillary blood samples were collected from 53 patients admitted to the Ebola Treatment Centre in Guéckédou, Guinea, between July and August 2014. All sample specimens were analyzed by RT-PCR using the RealStar Filovirus Screen RT-PCR Kit 1.0 from altona Diagnostics (Germany). We compared samples obtained by venipuncture and those obtained by capillary blood sampling absorbed onto swab devices. The resulting sensitivity and specificity of tests performed with capillary blood samples were 86.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.9%-95.6%; 33/38 patients) and 100% (95% CI, 84.6%-100%; 22/22 patients), respectively. Our data suggest that capillary blood samples could serve as an alternative to venous blood samples for the diagnosis of EVD in resource-limited settings during a crisis. This can be of particular advantage in cases when venipuncture is difficult to perform-for example, with newborns and infants or when adult patients reject venipuncture for cultural or religious reasons. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  9. Evaluation of sampling and storage procedures on preserving the community structure of stool microbiota: A simple at-home toilet-paper collection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al, Kait F; Bisanz, Jordan E; Gloor, Gregory B; Reid, Gregor; Burton, Jeremy P

    2018-01-01

    The increasing interest on the impact of the gut microbiota on health and disease has resulted in multiple human microbiome-related studies emerging. However, multiple sampling methods are being used, making cross-comparison of results difficult. To avoid additional clinic visits and increase patient recruitment to these studies, there is the potential to utilize at-home stool sampling. The aim of this pilot study was to compare simple self-sampling collection and storage methods. To simulate storage conditions, stool samples from three volunteers were freshly collected, placed on toilet tissue, and stored at four temperatures (-80, 7, 22 and 37°C), either dry or in the presence of a stabilization agent (RNAlater®) for 3 or 7days. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing by Illumina, the effect of storage variations for each sample was compared to a reference community from fresh, unstored counterparts. Fastq files may be accessed in the NCBI Sequence Read Archive: Bioproject ID PRJNA418287. Microbial diversity and composition were not significantly altered by any storage method. Samples were always separable based on participant, regardless of storage method suggesting there was no need for sample preservation by a stabilization agent. In summary, if immediate sample processing is not feasible, short term storage of unpreserved stool samples on toilet paper offers a reliable way to assess the microbiota composition by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of high-risk human papillomavirus infections using clinician- and self-collected cervical sampling methods in rural women from far western Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek C Johnson

    Full Text Available Nepal has one of the highest cervical cancer rates in South Asia. Only a few studies in populations from urban areas have investigated type specific distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV in Nepali women. Data on high-risk HPV (HR-HPV types are not currently available for rural populations in Nepal. We aimed to assess the distribution of HR- HPV among rural Nepali women while assessing self-collected and clinician-collected cervico-vaginal specimens as sample collection methods for HPV screening.Study participants were recruited during a health camp conducted by Nepal Fertility Care Center in Achham District of rural far western Nepal. Women of reproductive age completed a socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire, and provided two specimens; one cervical-vaginal specimen using a self-collection method and another cervical specimen collected by health camp auxiliary nurse midwives during a pelvic examination. All samples were tested for 14 different HR-HPV mRNA and also specific for HPV16/18/45 mRNA.Of 261 women with both clinician- and self-collected cervical samples, 25 tested positive for HR-HPV, resulting in an overall HR-HPV prevalence of 9.6% (95% confidence Interval [CI]: 6.3-13.8. The overall Kappa value assessing agreement between clinician- and self-collected tests was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43-0.81, indicating a "good" level of agreement. Abnormal cytology was reported for 8 women. One woman identified with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, and 7 women with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL. Seven of the 8 women tested positive for HR-HPV (87.5% in clinician-collected samples and 6 in self-collected samples (75.0%.This is the first study to assess HR-HPV among rural Nepali women. Self-collected sampling methods should be the subject of additional research in Nepal for screening HR-HPV, associated with pre-cancer lesions and cancer, in women in rural areas with limited access to health services.

  11. Pre-Mission Input Requirements to Enable Successful Sample Collection by A Remote Field/EVA Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; Lim, D. S. S.; Young, K. E.; Brunner, A.; Elphic, R. E.; Horne, A.; Kerrigan, M. C.; Osinski, G. R.; Skok, J. R.; Squyres, S. W.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team, part of the Solar System Exploration Virtual Institute (SSERVI), is a field-based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of the Moon, near-Earth asteroids, Phobos and Deimos, and beyond. In contract to other technology-driven NASA analog studies, The FINESSE WCIS activity is science-focused and, moreover, is sampling-focused with the explicit intent to return the best samples for geochronology studies in the laboratory. We used the FINESSE field excursion to the West Clearwater Lake Impact structure (WCIS) as an opportunity to test factors related to sampling decisions. We examined the in situ sample characterization and real-time decision-making process of the astronauts, with a guiding hypothesis that pre-mission training that included detailed background information on the analytical fate of a sample would better enable future astronauts to select samples that would best meet science requirements. We conducted three tests of this hypothesis over several days in the field. Our investigation was designed to document processes, tools and procedures for crew sampling of planetary targets. This was not meant to be a blind, controlled test of crew efficacy, but rather an effort to explicitly recognize the relevant variables that enter into sampling protocol and to be able to develop recommendations for crew and backroom training in future endeavors.

  12. Multidisciplinary team review of best practices for collection and handling of blood cultures to determine effective interventions for increasing the yield of true-positive bacteremias, reducing contamination, and eliminating false-positive central line-associated bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Robert A; Spitzer, Eric D; Beaudry, Josephine; Beck, Cindy; Diblasi, Regina; Gilleeny-Blabac, Michelle; Haugaard, Carol; Heuschneider, Stacy; Kranz, Barbara P; McLean, Karen; Morales, Katherine L; Owens, Susan; Paciella, Mary E; Torregrosa, Edwin

    2015-11-01

    A literature search was conducted using keywords for articles published in English from January 1990 to March 2015. Using criteria related to blood culture collection and handling, the search yielded 101 articles. References used also included Microbiology Laboratory standards, guidelines, and textbook information. The literature identified diverse and complex issues surrounding blood culture practices, including the impact of false-positive results, laboratory definition of contamination, effect on central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) reporting, indications for collecting blood cultures, drawing from venipuncture sites versus intravascular catheters, selection of antiseptics, use of needleless connectors, inoculation of blood culture bottles, and optimizing program management in emergency departments, education, and implementation of bundled practice initiatives. Hospitals should optimize best practice in the collection, handling, and management of blood culture specimens, an often overlooked but essential component in providing optimal care of patients in all settings and populations, reducing financial burdens, and increasing the accuracy of reportable CLABSI. Although universal concepts exist in blood culture practices, some issues require further research to determine benefit. Institutions undertaking a review of their blood culture programs are encouraged to use a checklist that addresses elements that encompass the research contained in this review. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Waste tank vapor project: Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-104: Results from samples collected on June 24, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1994-11-01

    This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from Hanford waste Tank 241-BY-104 (referred to as Tank BY-104) on June 24, 1994. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze inorganic and organic samples collected from the tank headspace. The sample job was designated S4019 and was performed by WHC on June 24, 1994 using the vapor sampling system (VSS). The results of the analyses are expected to be used in the determination of safety and toxicological issues related to the tank-headspace gas as described in the WHC report entitled Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Vapor Issue Resolution, WHC-SD-WM-DQO-002, Rev. 0. Sampling devices, including 16 sorbent trains (for inorganic analyses), and 5 SUMMA trademark canisters (for organic analyses), were supplied to the WHC sampling staff on June 20, 1994. Samples were taken (by WHC) on June 24. The samples were returned from the field on June 27. The inorganic samples delivered to PNL on chain-of-custody (COC) 006893 included 16 sorbent trains as described in Tables 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4. Additional inorganic blank spikes were obtained from related sample jobs. SUMMA trademark samples delivered to PNL on COC 006896 included one ambient air sample, one ambient-air sample through the sampling system, and three tank-headspace SUMMA trademark canister samples. The samples were inspected upon delivery to the 326/23B laboratory and logged into PNL laboratory record book 55408. Custody of the sorbent trains was transferred to PNL personnel performing the inorganic analysis and stored at refrigerated (≤10 degrees C) temperature until the time of analysis. Access to the 326/23B laboratory is limited to PNL personnel working on the waste-tank safety program

  14. Parallel Handling of Integrity Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Flokstra, Jan; Apers, Peter M.G.

    1990-01-01

    Integrity constraints form an important part of a data model. Therefore, a complete integrity constraint handling subsystem is considered an important part of any modern DBMS. In implementing an integrity constraint handling subsystem, there are two major problem areas: providing enough

  15. Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.W. Rowe

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the ''Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study'' is to develop proposed design requirements for the repository Waste Handling System in sufficient detail to allow the surface facility design to proceed to the License Application effort if the proposed requirements are approved by DOE. Proposed requirements were developed to further refine waste handling facility performance characteristics and design constraints with an emphasis on supporting modular construction, minimizing fuel inventory, and optimizing facility maintainability and dry handling operations. To meet this objective, this study attempts to provide an alternative design to the Site Recommendation design that is flexible, simple, reliable, and can be constructed in phases. The design concept will be input to the ''Modular Design/Construction and Operation Options Report'', which will address the overall program objectives and direction, including options and issues associated with transportation, the subsurface facility, and Total System Life Cycle Cost. This study (herein) is limited to the Waste Handling System and associated fuel staging system

  16. A mixed methods approach to assess the likelihood of testing for STI using self-collected samples among behaviourally bisexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Vanessa; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Dodge, Brian; Baldwin, Aleta; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2015-08-01

    Behaviourally bisexual women (women who have sex with women and men (WSWM)) are more likely to report a history of sexually transmitted infections (STI) than women who have sex exclusively with men or exclusively with women. Barriers to care may prohibit WSWM from seeking STI testing. The present study investigated participant willingness to self-collect oral, vaginal and anal samples for STI testing. Eighty WSWM were recruited from two midwestern locations. After completing an online questionnaire, a subset of the participants were interviewed (n=54) and provided the option to self-collect oral, vaginal and/or anal samples to screen for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis. Over two-thirds (67.5%, n=54) of the participants completed the baseline scheduled and attended the interview. The majority of these participants provided vaginal (87.0%, n=47), oral (85.2%, n=46) and/or anal (61.1%, n=33) samples. Participants with a history of anal play were significantly more likely to provide an anal sample. C. trachomatis infection was identified in the samples of 6.8% (n=3) of the participants including 4.5% (n=2) of the vaginal samples and 3.3% (n=1) of the anal samples. None of the samples were positive for N. gonorrhoeae or T. vaginalis. Participants who reported a recent history of anal sexual behaviour with a male partner were significantly more likely to self-collect an anal sample. Given the comparatively high STI rates among WSWM, self-sampling in non-traditional settings may present a unique opportunity to provide needed care to this underserved population of women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Identification of Colored Dyes that are Resistant to Fading on Exposure to Ethylene Oxide; Use with Indicating FTA™ Sample Collection Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Moran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory Standards and Forensic Communities are expressing an expectation for HID products to be certified as “DNA-free.” Recently, “DNA-free” status was described for HID-related products using ethylene oxide (EtO; this gas reduces the presence of amplifiable DNA and causes minimal interference to downstream HID-analytical methods. During sample collection, indicating cards, for example, Indicating FTA™ (GE Healthcare Life Sciences, UK, are used to collect and store buccal cell DNA. These cards contain a dye which changes color on application of a colorless sample. Generating “DNA-free” indicating cards using EtO should not impact the dyes' ability to indicate sample location or the efficacy of the card in downstream HID-analytical methods. This study was initiated to identify alternative dyes to those currently used with sample indicating collection cards. The most promising, dyes when applied to cellulose papers exhibited a uniform color distribution and excellent sample indicating properties even when mixed with chemicals associated with FTA™. When dyed cellulose papers were exposed to EtO, ultraviolet radiation, elevated temperature, and humidity, negligible fading or discoloration was observed. The presence of these dyes on cellulose papers did not interfere with direct short tandem repeat (STR profiling. Allelic concordance, first pass success rate, and mean peak heights were comparable to samples applied to Indicating FTA. Biological samples applied to EtO-treated dyed cellulose papers and stored >1 month produced full STR profiles of sufficient quality to allow submission to DNA databases, confirming negligible interference from EtO treatment. These alternative sample indicating dyes resist EtO-mediated fading while fulfilling the Forensic Community's expectation for “DNA-free” with negligible impact on collection card performance.

  18. Petrographic description of calcite/opal samples collected on field trip of December 5-9, 1992. Special report No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.A.; Schluter, C.M.

    1993-06-01

    This study is part of the research program of the Yucca Mountain Project intended to provide the State of Nevada with a detailed analysis and assessment of the water-deposited minerals of Yucca Mountain and adjacent regions. Forty-three separate stops were made and 203 samples were collected during the five days of the field trip. This report describes petrographic observations made on the calcite/opal samples

  19. Acceptability and usability of self-collected sampling for HPV testing among African-American women living in the Mississippi Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Litton, Allison G; Garcés-Palacio, Isabel C; Partridge, Edward E; Castle, Philip E

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing has been shown to be an effective approach to cervical cancer screening, and self-collection sampling for HPV testing could be a potential alternative to Pap test, provided that women who tested positive by any method get timely follow-up and care. This feasibility study examined acceptability and usability of self-collected sampling for HPV testing among African-American (AA) women in the Mississippi Delta to inform the development of interventions to promote cervical cancer screening in this population. The study consisted of two phases. Phase I consisted of eight focus groups (n = 87) with AA women to explore knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about cervical cancer and HPV infection as well as acceptability of self-collected sampling for HPV testing. In phase II, we examined the usability of this technology through one discussion group (n = 9). The Health Belief Model guided data collection and analysis. Although participants perceived themselves as susceptible to cervical cancer and acknowledged its severity, there was a lack of knowledge of the link between HPV and cervical cancer, and they expressed a number of misconceptions. The most frequent barriers to screening included embarrassment, discomfort, and fear of the results. Women in both phases were receptive to self-collected sampling for HPV testing. All participants in the usability phase expressed that self-collection was easy and they did not experience any difficulties. Self-collection for HPV testing is an acceptable and feasible method among AA women in the Mississippi Delta to complement current cytology cervical cancer screening programs. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of biochemical variables in plasma samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of standard and microsample blood collection tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Jacqueline C; Flatland, Bente

    2010-08-01

    To compare results of biochemical analyses performed on plasma samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of standard and microsample blood collection tubes. Evaluation study. 29 healthy client-owned animals (14 dogs and 15 cats). A blood sample (3 mL) was collected from each animal; 2.5 mL was transferred into a vacuum tube that contained lithium heparin, and 0.5 mL was transferred into a microsample tube that contained lithium heparin. Variables evaluated were albumin, bicarbonate, BUN, calcium, chloride, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, total bilirubin, and total protein concentrations and alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase activities. Results for the 2 types of tubes in each species were compared by use of Pearson correlation coefficients, Passing-Bablok regression analysis, and Bland-Altman analysis. Data were normally distributed, except for creatine kinase activity of cats. The Pearson correlation coefficient was minimal for total bilirubin concentration in cats and moderate, high, or very high for all other variables. Constant bias for cholesterol and glucose concentration in dogs was identified during Bland-Altman analysis, although the mean difference between types of blood collection tubes was small. No constant or proportional bias for any other variable was revealed by regression analysis or Bland-Altman analysis. Samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of microsample blood collection tubes that contained lithium heparin provided clinically equivalent biochemical results, compared with results for samples obtained by use of standard blood collection tubes, and minimized the total sample volume collected for diagnostic testing.

  1. Comparison of complete blood counts in samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of standard and microsample blood collection tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Jacqueline C; Flatland, Bente

    2010-08-01

    To compare results of a CBC performed on blood samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of standard and microsample collection tubes. Evaluation study. 29 healthy client-owned animals (14 dogs and 15 cats). A blood sample (3 mL) was collected from each animal; 2.5 mL was transferred into a vacuum tube that contained sodium EDTA, and 0.5 mL was transferred into a microsample tube that contained sodium EDTA. Variables evaluated were total numbers of RBCs and WBCs, hemoglobin concentration, Hct, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean platelet volume, and plasma total protein concentration as well as neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, and platelet counts. Results for the 2 types of tube in each species were compared by use of Pearson correlation coefficients, Passing-Bablok regression analysis, and Bland-Altman analysis. The Pearson correlation coefficient was low for basophil count in cats and moderate, high, or very high for all other variables. Constant and proportional biases were identified for MCHC in dogs by use of Passing-Bablok regression analysis, although the mean difference between types of blood collection tubes was small. No evidence of constant or proportional bias for any other variable was revealed by regression analysis or Bland-Altman analysis. Samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of microsample blood collection tubes provided clinically equivalent CBC results, compared with results for samples obtained by use of standard blood collection tubes, and minimized the total sample volume collected for diagnostic testing.

  2. Development of an animal-borne blood sample collection device and its deployment for the determination of cardiovascular and stress hormones in phocid seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshio; Suzuki, Ippei; Wong, Marty K S; Milne, Ryan; Moss, Simon; Sato, Katsufumi; Hall, Ailsa

    2016-10-01

    An animal-borne blood sampler with data-logging functions was developed for phocid seals, which collected two blood samples for the comparison of endocrinological/biochemical parameters under two different conditions. The sampler can be triggered by preset hydrostatic pressure, acceleration (descending or ascending), temperature, and time, and also manually by light. The sampling was reliable with 39/50 (78%) successful attempts to collect blood samples. Contamination of fluids in the tubing to the next blood sample was seals ( Phoca vitulina ), the automated blood-sampling method was less stressful than direct blood withdrawal, as evidenced by lower levels of stress hormones ( P seal blood. Using the sampler, plasma levels of cardiovascular hormones, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), AVP, and ANG II were compared in grey seals ( Halichoerus grypus ), between samples collected when the animals were on land and in the water. HPLC analyses determined that [Met 12 ] ANP (1-28) and various forms of angiotensins (ANG II, III, and IV) were circulating in seal blood. Although water immersion profoundly changes the plasma levels of cardiovascular hormones in terrestrial mammals, there were only tendencies toward an increase in ANP ( P = 0.069) and a decrease in AVP ( P = 0.074) in the seals. These results suggest that cardiovascular regulation in phocid seals may have undergone adaptation during evolution of the carnivore to a semiaquatic lifestyle. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. South Pole-Aitken Sample Return Mission: Collecting Mare Basalts from the Far Side of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Lucey, P. G.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the probability that a sample mission to a site within the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) would return basaltic material. A sample mission to the SPA would be the first opportunity to sample basalts from the far side of the Moon. The near side basalts are more abundant in terms of volume and area than their far-side counterparts (16:1), and the basalt deposits within SPA represent approx. 28% of the total basalt surface area on the far side. Sampling far-side basalts is of particular importance because as partial melts of the mantle, they could have derived from a mantle that is mineralogically and chemically different than determined for the nearside, as would be expected if the magma ocean solidified earlier on the far side. For example, evidence to support the existence of high-Th basalts like those that appear to be common on the nearside in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane has been found. Although SPA is the deepest basin on the Moon, it is not extensively filled with mare basalt, as might be expected if similar amounts of partial melting occurred in the mantle below SPA as for basins on the near side. These observations may mean that mantle beneath the far-side crust is lower in Th and other heat producing elements than the nearside. One proposed location for a sample-return landing site is 60 S, 160 W. This site was suggested to maximize the science return with respect to sampling crustal material and SPA impact melt, however, basaltic samples would undoubtedly occur there. On the basis of Apollo samples, we should expect that basaltic materials would be found in the vicinity of any landing site within SPA, even if located away from mare deposits. For example, the Apollo 16 mission landed in an ancient highlands region 250-300 km away from the nearest mare-highlands boundary yet it still contains a small component of basaltic samples (20 lithic fragments ranging is size from <1 to .01 cm). A soil sample from the floor of SPA will likely contain an

  4. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-U-112: Results from samples collected on 7/09/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-112 at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company

  5. Isolation Distance, Inflorescence Sampling, and Population Size: Maintaining Genetic Diversity in the U.S. Temperate Grass Germplasm Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the regeneration of cross-pollinating accessions, genetic contamination from foreign pollen and reduction of the effective population size can be a hindrance to maintaining the genetic diversity in the temperate grass collection at the Western Regional Plant Introduction Station (WRPIS). The...

  6. Variation in isotopologues of atmospheric nitric acid in passively collected samples along an air pollution gradient in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Bell; James O. Sickman; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Pamela E. Padgett; Edith B. Allen

    2014-01-01

    The sources and oxidation pathways of atmospheric nitric acid (HNO3) can be evaluated using the isotopic signatures of oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N). This study evaluated the ability of Nylasorb nylon filters to passively collect unbiased isotopologues of atmospheric HNO3 under controlled and field conditions. Filters...

  7. Investigation of the Efficiencies of Bioaerosol Samplers for Collecting Aerosolized Bacteria Using a Fluorescent Tracer. II: Sampling Efficiency and Half-Life Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Doornenbal, P.; Huynh, T.T.T.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Landman, W.J.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Using uranine as a physical tracer, this study assessed the sampling efficiencies of four bioaerosol samplers (Andersen 6-stage impactor, all glass impinger “AGI-30,” OMNI-3000, and Airport MD8 with gelatin filter) for collecting Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis), Gram-negative bacteria

  8. Guidelines for the processing and quality assurance of benthic invertebrate samples collected as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, T.F.; Gurtz, M.E.; Meador, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate samples are collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This is a perennial, multidisciplinary program that integrates biological, physical, and chemical indicators of water quality to evaluate status and trends and to develop an understanding of the factors controlling observed water quality. The Program examines water quality in 60 study units (coupled ground- and surface-water systems) that encompass most of the conterminous United States and parts of Alaska and Hawaii. Study-unit teams collect and process qualitative and semi-quantitative invertebrate samples according to standardized procedures. These samples are processed (elutriated and subsampled) in the field to produce as many as four sample components: large-rare, main-body, elutriate, and split. Each sample component is preserved in 10-percent formalin, and two components, large-rare and main-body, are sent to contract laboratories for further processing. The large-rare component is composed of large invertebrates that are removed from the sample matrix during field processing and placed in one or more containers. The main-body sample component consists of the remaining sample materials (sediment, detritus, and invertebrates) and is subsampled in the field to achieve a volume of 750 milliliters or less. The remaining two sample components, elutriate and split, are used for quality-assurance and quality-control purposes. Contract laboratories are used to identify and quantify invertebrates from the large-rare and main-body sample components according to the procedures and guidelines specified within this document. These guidelines allow the use of subsampling techniques to reduce the volume of sample material processed and to facilitate identifications. These processing procedures and techniques may be modified if the modifications provide equal or greater levels of accuracy and precision. The intent of sample processing is to

  9. Blood sample tube transporting system versus point of care technology in an emergency department; effect on time from collection to reporting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Birgitte; Mogensen, Christian Backer

    2012-01-01

    Time is a crucial factor in an emergency department and the effectiveness of diagnosing depends on, among other things, the accessibility of rapid reported laboratory test results; i.e.: a short turnaround time (TAT). Former studies have shown a reduced time to action when point of care...... technologies (POCT) are used in emergency departments. This study assesses the hypothesis, that using Point of Care Technology in analysing blood samples versus tube transporting blood samples for laboratory analyses results in shorter time from the blood sample is collected to the result is reported...

  10. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-105 (in situ): Results from samples collected on May 9, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.W.; Lucke, R.B.; Sharma, A.K.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the tank headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BY-105 (referred to as Tank BY-105). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds NH 3 , NO 2 , NO, HCN, and H 2 O. Sampling for sulfur oxides was not requested. Results of the inorganic samples were affected by sampling errors that led to an undefined uncertainty in sample volume. Consequently, tank-headspace concentrations are estimated only. Thirty-nine tentatively identified organic analytes were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and their quantitation is beyond the scope of this study. In addition, we looked for the 41 standard TO-14 analytes. Of these, only a few were observed above the 2-ppbv detection limit. The 16 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed. These 16 analytes account for approximately 68% of the total or organic components in Tank BY-105

  11. Chemometrics methods for the investigation of methylmercury and total mercury contamination in mollusks samples collected from coastal sites along the Chinese Bohai Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawei, Wang; Lina, Liang; Jianbo, Shi; Guibin, Jiang

    2005-06-01

    The development and application of chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis and correlation analysis for the determination of methylmercury (MeHg) and total mecury (HgT) in gastropod and bivalve species collected from eight coastal sites along the Chinese Bohai Sea are described. HgT is directly determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), while MeHg is measured by a laboratory established high performance liquid chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry system (HPLC-AFS). One-way ANOVA and cluster analysis indicated that the bioaccumulation of Rap to accumulate Hg was significantly (P<0.05) different from other mollusks. Correlation analysis shows that there is linear relationship between MeHg and HgT in mollusks samples collected from coastal sites along the Chinese Bohai Sea, while in mollusks samples collected from Hongqiao market in Beijing City, there is not any linear relationship.

  12. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-S-106: Results from samples collected on 06/13/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-106 (Tank S-106) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA trademark canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in the same table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  13. Occurrence of volatile nitrosamines in food samples collected in three high-risk areas for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, S; Hubert, A; de-Thé, G; Ohshima, H; Bourgade, M C; Bartsch, H

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-four samples of foods consumed frequently in Tunisia, southern China and Greenland, all high-risk areas for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), were analysed for the presence of volatile nitrosamines by gas chromatography (GC) combined with a thermal energy analyser (TEA). Relatively high levels of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP) and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) were found in Tunisian stewing base (touklia) and dried mutton preserved in olive oil (qaddid). In one Chinese salted and dried fish sample, a high level of NDMA (133 micrograms/kg) was detected, but for the 14 others the levels ranged from undetectable to 14 micrograms/kg, with a mean of 3 micrograms/kg. Similarly high levels of NDMA, were found in Eskimo dried, unsalted fish samples. NDMA, NPIP and NPYR at various levels were present in Chinese vegetables fermented in brine. The possible role of nitrosamines in the etiology of NPC is discussed.

  14. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-C-202: Results from samples collected on 06/25/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-C-202 (Tank C-202) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  15. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Vapor space characterization of waste Tank A-101, Results from samples collected on June 8, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-A-101 (Tank A-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text

  16. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-C-201: Results from samples collected on 06/19/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-C-201 (Tank C-201) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary, of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  17. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-B-107: Results from samples collected on 7/23/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-B-107 (Tank B-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwestern National Laboratory (PNNL). A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA trademark canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in the same table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  18. [On the use of FTA technology for collection, archieving, and molecular analysis of microsporidia dna from clinical stool samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, O I; Dem'ianov, A V; Bovers, L S; Did'e, E S; Sokolova, Iu Ia

    2011-01-01

    The FTA technology was applied for sampling, archiving, and molecular analysis of the DNA isolated from stool samples to diagnose and identify microsporidia, the intracellular opportunistic parasites which induce malabsortion syndrome in immunosuppressed humans, particularly in patients with AIDS. Microsporidia DNA was successfully amplified in 6 of 50 stool samples of HIV-positive patients of the S. P. Botkin Memorial Infectious Disease Hospital (St. Petersburg) applied to FTA cards (FTA-Cars, Whatman Inc. Florham Park, NJ, USA). Amplicons (the fragments of rDNA) were directly sequenced, and microsporidia species--Encephalitozoon intestinalis, E. cuniculi, E. hellem, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi--were identified in Genbank by NCBI BLAST program. The FTA method of DNA immobilization is especially promising for epidemiological and field population studies which involve genotyping of microsporidia species and isolates.

  19. Geochemical data for stream-sediment, heavy-mineral-concentrate and rock samples collected from the Fortyseven Creek gold-arsenic-antimony-tungsten prospect, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Lee, G.K.; O'Leary, R. M.; Theodorakos, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    In the summer of 1991, we conducted a reconnaissance geochemical survey around the Fortyseven Creek Au-As-Sb-W prospect that is located in the southwestern part of the Sleetmute quadrangle. At that time, this project was a small part of a more comprehensive Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program (AMRAP) study of the Sleemute quadrangle. AMRAP studies were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to fulfill requirements of the Alaska National Interests Lands Conservation Act (Public Law 96-487, 1980) to survey certain federal lands to determine their mineral potential. Although AMRAP is no longer in operation, this study represents a small topical study that was conducted during the Sleetmute quadrangle AMRAP study. The objective of the Fortyseven Creek work was to characterize the geochemistry of samples collected downstream from the Fortyseven Creek prospect, as well as mineralized and altered rock samples collected from the prospect. In this report, we describe the samples collected in 1991, the methods used for the analysis of the samples, and the geochemical data for these samples. The data in this report are also available in digital form on computer diskette in Gray and others (1999). An interpretation of these data appears in Gray and others (1998).

  20. Advanced technologies for remote handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayarajan, K.; Ray, D.D.; Pal, Prabir K; Singh, Manjit

    2009-01-01

    Master slave manipulators (MSMs), in-cell cranes and power manipulators are the general-purpose remote handling tools used in nuclear industry. In-cell cranes and power manipulators can handle heavy objects; whereas MSMs can handle objects with precision and dexterity. The department had identified the importance of indigenising these technologies and developed a variety of mechanical MSMs and Servo Manipulators. This paper traces the history and evolution of these technologies. It also mentions about the telepresence technologies that are set to transform the operator's experience of manipulation by bringing in visual, haptic and aural immersion in the slave environment. (author)