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Sample records for sample changer system

  1. A pneumatic sample changer for gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoni, C.J.; Fones, R.V.; Simon, F.O.

    1973-01-01

    A gravity-feed, pneumatic-ejection sample changer has been developed. The changer is suitable for both flat and well-type detectors and permits the continuous use of gamma-ray spectroscopy equipment 24 h a day, 7 days a week. The electronic circuitry has a fail-safe feature which stops the operation of the changer if a malfunction occurs. ?? 1973 The American Institute of Physics.

  2. BioSAXS Sample Changer: a robotic sample changer for rapid and reliable high-throughput X-ray solution scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, Adam, E-mail: around@embl.fr; Felisaz, Franck [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Fodinger, Lukas; Gobbo, Alexandre [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Huet, Julien [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Villard, Cyril [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Blanchet, Clement E., E-mail: around@embl.fr [EMBL c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Pernot, Petra; McSweeney, Sean [ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France); Roessle, Manfred; Svergun, Dmitri I. [EMBL c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Cipriani, Florent, E-mail: around@embl.fr [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2015-01-01

    A robotic sample changer for solution X-ray scattering experiments optimized for speed and to use the minimum amount of material has been developed. This system is now in routine use at three high-brilliance European synchrotron sites, each capable of several hundred measurements per day. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of macromolecules in solution is in increasing demand by an ever more diverse research community, both academic and industrial. To better serve user needs, and to allow automated and high-throughput operation, a sample changer (BioSAXS Sample Changer) that is able to perform unattended measurements of up to several hundred samples per day has been developed. The Sample Changer is able to handle and expose sample volumes of down to 5 µl with a measurement/cleaning cycle of under 1 min. The samples are stored in standard 96-well plates and the data are collected in a vacuum-mounted capillary with automated positioning of the solution in the X-ray beam. Fast and efficient capillary cleaning avoids cross-contamination and ensures reproducibility of the measurements. Independent temperature control for the well storage and for the measurement capillary allows the samples to be kept cool while still collecting data at physiological temperatures. The Sample Changer has been installed at three major third-generation synchrotrons: on the BM29 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the P12 beamline at the PETRA-III synchrotron (EMBL@PETRA-III) and the I22/B21 beamlines at Diamond Light Source, with the latter being the first commercial unit supplied by Bruker ASC.

  3. A multi-sample changer coupled to an electron cyclotron resonance source for accelerator mass spectrometry experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrasek, R; Palchan, T; Pardo, R; Peters, C; Power, M; Scott, R

    2014-02-01

    A new multi-sample changer has been constructed allowing rapid changes between samples. The sample changer has 20 positions and is capable of moving between samples in 1 min. The sample changer is part of a project using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility to measure neutron capture rates on a wide range of actinides in a reactor environment. This project will require the measurement of a large number of samples previously irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory. The AMS technique at ATLAS is based on production of highly charged positive ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source followed by acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The sample material is introduced into the plasma via laser ablation chosen to limit the dependency of material feed rates upon the source material composition as well as minimize cross-talk between samples.

  4. BioSAXS Sample Changer: a robotic sample changer for rapid and reliable high-throughput X-ray solution scattering experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, Adam; Felisaz, Franck; Fodinger, Lukas; Gobbo, Alexandre; Huet, Julien; Villard, Cyril; Blanchet, Clement E; Pernot, Petra; McSweeney, Sean; Roessle, Manfred; Svergun, Dmitri I; Cipriani, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of macromolecules in solution is in increasing demand by an ever more diverse research community, both academic and industrial. To better serve user needs, and to allow automated and high-throughput operation, a sample changer (BioSAXS Sample Changer) that is able to perform unattended measurements of up to several hundred samples per day has been developed. The Sample Changer is able to handle and expose sample volumes of down to 5 µl with a measurement/cleaning cycle of under 1 min. The samples are stored in standard 96-well plates and the data are collected in a vacuum-mounted capillary with automated positioning of the solution in the X-ray beam. Fast and efficient capillary cleaning avoids cross-contamination and ensures reproducibility of the measurements. Independent temperature control for the well storage and for the measurement capillary allows the samples to be kept cool while still collecting data at physiological temperatures. The Sample Changer has been installed at three major third-generation synchrotrons: on the BM29 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the P12 beamline at the PETRA-III synchrotron (EMBL@PETRA-III) and the I22/B21 beamlines at Diamond Light Source, with the latter being the first commercial unit supplied by Bruker ASC.

  5. FlexED8: the first member of a fast and flexible sample-changer family for macromolecular crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Gergely; Felisaz, Franck; Sorez, Clement; Lopez-Marrero, Marcos; Janocha, Robert; Manjasetty, Babu; Gobbo, Alexandre; Belrhali, Hassan; Bowler, Matthew W; Cipriani, Florent

    2017-10-01

    Automated sample changers are now standard equipment for modern macromolecular crystallography synchrotron beamlines. Nevertheless, most are only compatible with a single type of sample holder and puck. Recent work aimed at reducing sample-handling efforts and crystal-alignment times at beamlines has resulted in a new generation of compact and precise sample holders for cryocrystallography: miniSPINE and NewPin [see the companion paper by Papp et al. (2017, Acta Cryst., D73, 829-840)]. With full data collection now possible within seconds at most advanced beamlines, and future fourth-generation synchrotron sources promising to extract data in a few tens of milliseconds, the time taken to mount and centre a sample is rate-limiting. In this context, a versatile and fast sample changer, FlexED8, has been developed that is compatible with the highly successful SPINE sample holder and with the miniSPINE and NewPin sample holders. Based on a six-axis industrial robot, FlexED8 is equipped with a tool changer and includes a novel open sample-storage dewar with a built-in ice-filtering system. With seven versatile puck slots, it can hold up to 112 SPINE sample holders in uni-pucks, or 252 miniSPINE or NewPin sample holders, with 36 samples per puck. Additionally, a double gripper, compatible with the SPINE sample holders and uni-pucks, allows a reduction in the sample-exchange time from 40 s, the typical time with a standard single gripper, to less than 5 s. Computer vision-based sample-transfer monitoring, sophisticated error handling and automatic error-recovery procedures ensure high reliability. The FlexED8 sample changer has been successfully tested under real conditions on a beamline.

  6. RoboDiff: combining a sample changer and goniometer for highly automated macromolecular crystallography experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurizzo, Didier; Bowler, Matthew W; Caserotto, Hugo; Dobias, Fabien; Giraud, Thierry; Surr, John; Guichard, Nicolas; Papp, Gergely; Guijarro, Matias; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph; Flot, David; McSweeney, Sean; Cipriani, Florent; Theveneau, Pascal; Leonard, Gordon A

    2016-08-01

    Automation of the mounting of cryocooled samples is now a feature of the majority of beamlines dedicated to macromolecular crystallography (MX). Robotic sample changers have been developed over many years, with the latest designs increasing capacity, reliability and speed. Here, the development of a new sample changer deployed at the ESRF beamline MASSIF-1 (ID30A-1), based on an industrial six-axis robot, is described. The device, named RoboDiff, includes a high-capacity dewar, acts as both a sample changer and a high-accuracy goniometer, and has been designed for completely unattended sample mounting and diffraction data collection. This aim has been achieved using a high level of diagnostics at all steps of the process from mounting and characterization to data collection. The RoboDiff has been in service on the fully automated endstation MASSIF-1 at the ESRF since September 2014 and, at the time of writing, has processed more than 20 000 samples completely automatically.

  7. Game Changers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik

    2012-01-01

    at forsøge at beskrive nogle af de mekanismer, som gør, at nogle af disse kreative industrier bliver netop kreative og innovative, at de ikke alene kan klare sig, men også ændre og udvikle både indhold, form og organisering – at de bliver det der på managementsprog hedder game changers....

  8. A multi-purpose robotic sample changer for texture and powder measurements on the HIPPO neutron diffractometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losko, Adrian; Vogel, Sven

    2012-10-01

    Automation of sample changes is essential on neutron diffractometers with short count times per sample (as little as 1min for steel samples), such as the high pressure preferred orientation (HIPPO) instrument at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), to allow for a high sample throughput. Efficient use of available neutron flux is indispensable and reduces the instrument downtime and workload of beamline personnel. High precision motion in cartesian coordinates permits accurate sample alignment and increased coverage of sample directions for texture measurements. Using geometrical properties of diffraction by crystals, corrections in sample displacements in strain measurements will minimize the artificial strain due to misalignment of the sample position to determine the center of ``gravity'' of the diffraction signal by utilizing a sample rotation that will ensure that the same grain population will diffract in two different detectors, allowing to determine any sample position offset. Those corrections are only achievable with a combination of high precision sample positioning and a large detector coverage as on HIPPO. Here we present the capabilities of the new robotic sample changer to help improve texture and strain measurements on the HIPPO instrument.

  9. Electronic tap-changer for distribution transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Faiz, Jawad

    2011-01-01

    This reference collects all relevant aspects electronic tap-changer and presents them in a comprehensive and orderly manner. It explains logically and systematically the design and optimization of a full electronic tap-changer for distribution transformers. The book provides a fully new insight to all possible structures of power section design and categorizes them comprehensively, including cost factors of the design. In the control section design, the authors review mechanical tap-changer control systems and they present the modeling of a full electronic tap-changer as well as a closed-loop

  10. Analysis on machine tool systems using spindle vibration monitoring for automatic tool changer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Liang Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the intelligent systems of technology have become one of the major items in the development of machine tools. One crucial technology is the machinery status monitoring function, which is required for abnormal warnings and the improvement of cutting efficiency. During processing, the mobility act of the spindle unit determines the most frequent and important part such as automatic tool changer. The vibration detection system includes the development of hardware and software, such as vibration meter, signal acquisition card, data processing platform, and machine control program. Meanwhile, based on the difference between the mechanical configuration and the desired characteristics, it is difficult for a vibration detection system to directly choose the commercially available kits. For this reason, it was also selected as an item for self-development research, along with the exploration of a significant parametric study that is sufficient to represent the machine characteristics and states. However, we also launched the development of functional parts of the system simultaneously. Finally, we entered the conditions and the parameters generated from both the states and the characteristics into the developed system to verify its feasibility.

  11. Africa's game changers and the catalysts of social and system innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Swilling

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that many African economies are being transformed by rapid economic growth driven largely by rising demand for the abundant natural resources scattered across the African continent. I critically review the mainstream game-changing dynamics driving this process, with special reference to a set of influential policy-oriented documents. This is followed by an analysis of less-recognized game-changing dynamics that have, in turn, been affected by the mainstream game-changing dynamics. These less-recognized game-changing dynamics include energy infrastructure challenges in a context of climate change, securing access to water, access to arable soils, slum urbanism, and food security responses. These mainstream and less-recognized game-changing dynamics provide the context for analyzing a range of African actor networks engaged in social and system innovations. I use a transdisciplinary framework to discuss these actor networks and how they construct their understanding of the game changers affecting their programs and actions. Based on a case study of the iShack initiative in Stellenbosch, South Africa, I conclude that social and system innovations will need to be driven by transformation knowledge co-produced by researchers and social actors who can actively link game-changing dynamics that operate at multiple scales with local-level innovations with potential societal impacts.

  12. Static electromagnetic frequency changers

    CERN Document Server

    Rozhanskii, L L

    1963-01-01

    Static Electromagnetic Frequency Changers is about the theory, design, construction, and applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers, devices that used for multiplication or division of alternating current frequency. It is originally published in the Russian language. This book is organized into five chapters. The first three chapters introduce the readers to the principles of operation, the construction, and the potential applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers and to the principles of their design. The two concluding chapters use some hitherto unpublished work

  13. IT as a Game Changer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2012-01-01

    Information technology can be a game changer in higher education, as it has been in other sectors. Information technology has brought about much of the economic growth of the past century, accelerating globalization and fostering democracy. This chapter explores many ways that information technology can be a game changer. Some are as simple as…

  14. Detailed Report on the Behaviour of the User Entrepreneur as a Key 'System Changer' in Future Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, Liz; Adams, Gemma; Verbong, Geert

    This document synthesizes the outputs of work packages 1, 2, 5 and 6 relating to the behaviour of the user entrepreneur. It identifies the key roles of the user entrepreneur in user innovation which have an impact on system change and how these changes are relevant in future scenarios....

  15. Novice Career Changers Weather the Classroom Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, James; Snyder, Mary Grace; Cuddapah, Jennifer Locraft

    2013-01-01

    A close look at one professional's career change into teaching illustrates unique challenges and qualities, showing in stark relief what makes the induction smoother and the experience more successful. This article presents the story of a novice career changer teacher that illustrates their unique problems and dispositions, as well as…

  16. Aerosol sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masquelier, Donald A.

    2004-02-10

    A system for sampling air and collecting particulate of a predetermined particle size range. A low pass section has an opening of a preselected size for gathering the air but excluding particles larger than the sample particles. An impactor section is connected to the low pass section and separates the air flow into a bypass air flow that does not contain the sample particles and a product air flow that does contain the sample particles. A wetted-wall cyclone collector, connected to the impactor section, receives the product air flow and traps the sample particles in a liquid.

  17. Synthetic Biology: game changer in intelectual property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Landeweerd

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology can be considered a game changer that plays an important role in the current NBIC, or BINC convergence of nano-, bio-, info and cognitive sciences. Although most synthetic biology experts are unaware of it, the field appeals to the imagination in its adherence to targets that were usually associated with premodern alchemist science. This paper elaborates several aspects of synthetic biology as well as its consequences for long held notions of intellectual property and the ontological categories of scientific discovery on the one hand and engineering on the other, the distinction between natural and artificial, the grown and the made.

  18. How game changers catalyzed, disrupted, and incentivized social innovation: three historical cases of nature conservation, assimilation, and women's rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances R. Westley

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We explore the impact of "game changers" on the dynamics of innovation over time in three problem domains, that of wilderness protection, women's rights, and assimilation of indigenous children in Canada. Taking a specifically historical and cross-scale approach, we look at one social innovation in each problem domain. We explore the origins and history of the development of the National Parks in the USA, the legalization of contraception in the USA and Canada, and the residential school system in Canada. Based on a comparison of these cases, we identify three kinds of game changers, those that catalyze social innovation, which we define as "seminal," those that disrupt the continuity of social innovation, which we label exogenous shocks, and those that provide opportunities for novel combinations and recombinations, which we label as endogamous game changers.

  19. A Mars Sample Return Sample Handling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David; Stroker, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We present a sample handling system, a subsystem of the proposed Dragon landed Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission [1], that can return to Earth orbit a significant mass of frozen Mars samples potentially consisting of: rock cores, subsurface drilled rock and ice cuttings, pebble sized rocks, and soil scoops. The sample collection, storage, retrieval and packaging assumptions and concepts in this study are applicable for the NASA's MPPG MSR mission architecture options [2]. Our study assumes a predecessor rover mission collects samples for return to Earth to address questions on: past life, climate change, water history, age dating, understanding Mars interior evolution [3], and, human safety and in-situ resource utilization. Hence the rover will have "integrated priorities for rock sampling" [3] that cover collection of subaqueous or hydrothermal sediments, low-temperature fluidaltered rocks, unaltered igneous rocks, regolith and atmosphere samples. Samples could include: drilled rock cores, alluvial and fluvial deposits, subsurface ice and soils, clays, sulfates, salts including perchlorates, aeolian deposits, and concretions. Thus samples will have a broad range of bulk densities, and require for Earth based analysis where practical: in-situ characterization, management of degradation such as perchlorate deliquescence and volatile release, and contamination management. We propose to adopt a sample container with a set of cups each with a sample from a specific location. We considered two sample cups sizes: (1) a small cup sized for samples matching those submitted to in-situ characterization instruments, and, (2) a larger cup for 100 mm rock cores [4] and pebble sized rocks, thus providing diverse samples and optimizing the MSR sample mass payload fraction for a given payload volume. We minimize sample degradation by keeping them frozen in the MSR payload sample canister using Peltier chip cooling. The cups are sealed by interference fitted heat activated memory

  20. Sampling system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit.

  1. Sampling system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2017-03-07

    In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for supporting a tubing bundle during installation or removal. The apparatus includes a clamp for securing the tubing bundle to an external wireline. In various examples, the clamp is external to the tubing bundle or integral with the tubing bundle. According to one method, a tubing bundle and wireline are deployed together and the tubing bundle periodically secured to the wireline using a clamp. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit. In a specific example, one or more clamps are used to connect the first and/or second conduits to an external wireline.

  2. Game changer: the topology of creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vaan, Mathijs; Stark, David; Vedres, Balazs

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the sociological factors that explain why some creative teams are able to produce game changers--cultural products that stand out as distinctive while also being critically recognized as outstanding. The authors build on work pointing to structural folding--the network property of a cohesive group whose membership overlaps with that of another cohesive group. They hypothesize that the effects of structural folding on game changing success are especially strong when overlapping groups are cognitively distant. Measuring social distance separately from cognitive distance and distinctiveness independently from critical acclaim, the authors test their hypothesis about structural folding and cognitive diversity by analyzing team reassembly for 12,422 video games and the career histories of 139,727 video game developers. When combined with cognitive distance, structural folding channels and mobilizes a productive tension of rules, roles, and codes that promotes successful innovation. In addition to serving as pipes and prisms, network ties are also the source of tools and tensions.

  3. Development of a system using the library of the Genie spectroscopy software and exchange of samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapolli, Andre L.; Munita, Casimiro S., E-mail: alapolli@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    One the great difficulties in using the NAA method is in regards to the time that the operator spends exchanging the samples after each measurement. It becomes a big problem in routine analyses when various chemical elements are determined and then each sample must be measured at different decay times. The application of the automatic sample exchanger reduces the time analysis by several hours and reduces the tedious manual operation. Then, the effective use of NAA depends on the availability of a suitable automatic sample changer. There are some systems that are sold commercially, however many laboratories can not acquire them because they are costly. This paper presents altered programs the G2KNAA.REX, which created a screen making possible automatic or manual acquisitions by calling the old program NAAACQ.rex for the procurement manual and the new program NAAACQ2.rex for automatic requisitions. In conclusion, as can be seen in the program lines, the synchronization to automation, which unites the three systems (the computer, the Canberra Set, the sample exchanger) is done in a timely manner. The system was tested and is functioning in a satisfactory manner. (author)

  4. Online Collaboration Processes of Career Changers Seeking Alternative Teacher Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes Varjao, Jaqueline Urania

    2012-01-01

    In March 2011, the U.S. Department of Education released a list of Teacher Shortage Area (TSA) nationwide. In most states the need for certified teachers fall in four main areas: English as a Second Language (ESOL), Mathematics and Science (6-12), and Foreign Language. The current study explored the ways in which career changers enrolled in online…

  5. Inserting the tap values of the tap changer transformers into the Jacobian matrix as control variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Yalçın

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Series and shunt admittance values of under load tap changer transformers are changed according to tap changing. As this situation changes the structure of bus admittance matrix, it causes the need of rebuilding the bus admittance matrix at each tap changing case in power flow studies. In this paper, a new approach that includes the tap changing effects into the Jacobian matrix. By this approach, the need of rebuilding the bus admittance matrix at each tap changing case during power flow study is prevented. So, fast convergence is achieved for the power flow algorithm. Although there are similar studies for this aim in the literature, apart from these studies, including the tap changing effects to the Jacobian matrix when more than one under load tap changer transformers are connected to the same bus with different connection combinations is provided by the proposed approach. For this aim, new power equations and new Jacobian matrix component calculation equations are obtained. The proposed approach is tested on IEEE 57-bus test system and its accuracy is proved.

  6. On-load Tap Changer Diagnosis on High-Voltage Power Transformers using Dynamic Resistance Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erbrink, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    High-voltage transformers have tap changers to regulate the voltage in the high-voltage network when the load changes. Those tap changers are subject to different degradation mechanisms and need regular maintenance. Various defects, like contact degradation, often remain undetected and the

  7. Design and Development of an Automatic Tool Changer for an Articulated Robot Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, H.; Karamanoglu, M.

    2014-07-01

    In the creative industries, the length of time between the ideation stage and the making of physical objects is decreasing due to the use of CAD/CAM systems and adicitive manufacturing. Natural anisotropic materials, such as solid wood can also be transformed using CAD/CAM systems, but only with subtractive processes such as machining with CNC routers. Whilst some 3 axis CNC routing machines are affordable to buy and widely available, more flexible 5 axis routing machines still present themselves as a too big investment for small companies. Small refurbished articulated robots can be a cheaper alternative but they require a light end-effector. This paper presents a new lightweight tool changer that converts a small 3kg payload 6 DOF robot into a robot apprentice able to machine wood and similar soft materials.

  8. AHP 40:THE MOUNTAIN CHANGERS: LIFESTYLE MIGRATION IN SOUTHWEST CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Sigley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the early twenty-first century, the People's Republic of China (PRC continues its remarkable transformation that encompasses all facets of social life. One of the most significant, visible forms of such change is urbanization. Chinese cities are rapidly expanding and, according to some reports, will grow by a staggering 400 million people over the next several decades. In just under forty years China will have transformed from a predominantly rural to urban society, a pace of urbanization not matched in previous human experience. Yet while migration in China has in recent decades been overwhelmingly of people moving from the countryside to the city, and to a lesser extent (but also quite large given the size of China's population migration of more well educated urbanites and professionals between cities, there has been a small flow of people in the other direction, that is, of those leaving the metropolises of the eastern seaboard to seek out alternative lifestyles in the mountains of western China, and in particular to places like Yunnan in the southwest. These are akin to the "sea changers" and "tree changers" found in more affluent Western societies and can be included in the relatively new phenomenon of "lifestyle migration." This paper provides a preliminary overview of this phenomenon in the context of Dali, a prefectural city in Yunnan Province.

  9. Coordinated voltage control scheme for distribution grid with on-load tap-changer and distributed energy resources in a market context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; Bindner, Henrik W.; Mehmedalic, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary changes in the electricity system are reshaping the system operation and control to achieve a more sustainable environment. In this transition, distributed energy resources (DERs) may introduce some problems, such as intermittent features, but could also play an important role on...... for case study. The necessity of the coordination between DER units and the grid facilities, e.g., on-load tap-changer (OLTC), is addressed....

  10. Extreme Environment Sampling System Deployment Mechanism Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future Venus or Comet mission architectures may feature robotic sampling systems comprised of a Sampling Tool and Deployment Mechanism. Since 2005, Honeybee has been...

  11. 40 CFR 1065.805 - Sampling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling system. 1065.805 Section 1065.805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.805 Sampling system. (a) Dilute engine...

  12. Automatic polarization control in optical sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Yang, Aiying; Feng, Lihui

    2015-08-01

    In an optical sampling system for high-speed optical communications, polarization controlling is one of the most important parts of the system, regardless of nonlinear optical sampling or linear optical sampling. A simple method based on variance calculation of sampled data is proposed in this paper to tune the wave plates in a motor-driven polarization controller. In the experiment, an optical sampling system base on SFG in PPLN is carried for a 10Gbit/s or beyond optical data signal. The results demonstrate that, with the proposed method, the error of estimated Q factor from the sampled data is least, and the tuning time of optimized polarization state is less than 30 seconds with the accuracy of +/-1°.

  13. Subsurface Sample Acquisition and Transfer Systems (SSATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafeek, S.; Gorevan, S. P.; Kong, K. Y.

    2001-01-01

    In the exploration of planets and small bodies, scientists will need the services of a deep drilling and material handling system to not only obtain the samples necessary for analyses but also to precisely transfer and deposit those samples in in-situ instruments on board a landed craft or rover. The technology for such a deep sampling system as the SSATS is currently been developed by Honeybee Robotics through a PIDDP effort. The SSATS has its foundation in a one-meter prototype (SATM) drill that was developed under the New Millenium Program for ST4/Champollion. Additionally the SSATS includes relevant coring technology form a coring drill (Athena Mini-Corer) developed for the Mars Sample Return Mission. These highly developed technologies along with the current PIDDP effort, is combined to produce a sampling system that can acquire and transfer samples from various depths. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. A Comet Surface Sample Return System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase II investigation will focus on the development of spacecraft systems required to obtain a sample from the nucleus of a comet, hermetically seal...

  15. GeoLab Sample Handling System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop  a robotic sample handling/ manipulator system for the GeoLab glovebox. This work leverages from earlier GeoLab work and a 2012 collaboration with a...

  16. A Comet Surface Sample Return System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase I investigation will focus on the development of spacecraft systems required to obtain a sample from the nucleus of a comet, hermetically seal the...

  17. Rotary Mode Core Sample System availability improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, W.W.; Bennett, K.L.; Potter, J.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Cross, B.T.; Burkes, J.M.; Rogers, A.C. [Southwest Research Institute (United States)

    1995-02-28

    The Rotary Mode Core Sample System (RMCSS) is used to obtain stratified samples of the waste deposits in single-shell and double-shell waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The samples are used to characterize the waste in support of ongoing and future waste remediation efforts. Four sampling trucks have been developed to obtain these samples. Truck I was the first in operation and is currently being used to obtain samples where the push mode is appropriate (i.e., no rotation of drill). Truck 2 is similar to truck 1, except for added safety features, and is in operation to obtain samples using either a push mode or rotary drill mode. Trucks 3 and 4 are now being fabricated to be essentially identical to truck 2.

  18. Sampling system for in vivo ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jorgen Arendt; Mathorne, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Newly developed algorithms for processing medical ultrasound images use the high frequency sampled transducer signal. This paper describes demands imposed on a sampling system suitable for acquiring such data and gives details about a prototype constructed. It acquires full clinical images at a s...... at a sampling frequency of 20 MHz with a resolution of 12 bits. The prototype can be used for real time image processing. An example of a clinical in vivo image is shown and various aspects of the data acquisition process are discussed....

  19. The LITA Drill and Sample Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, G.; Yoon, S.; Zacny, K.; Wettergreeng, D.; Cabrol, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Life in the Atacama (LITA) project has a goal of demonstrating autonomous roving, sample acquisition, delivery and analysis operations in Atacama, Chile. To enable the sample handling requirement, Honeybee Robotics developed a rover-deployed, rotary-percussive, autonomous drill, called the LITA Drill, capable of penetrating to ~80 cm in various formations, capturing and delivering subsurface samples to a 20 cup carousel. The carousel has a built-in capability to press the samples within each cup, and position target cups underneath instruments for analysis. The drill and sample delivery system had to have mass and power requirements consistent with a flight system. The drill weighs 12 kg and uses less than 100 watt of power to penetrate ~80 cm. The LITA Drill auger has been designed with two distinct stages. The lower part has deep and gently sloping flutes for retaining powdered sample, while the upper section has shallow and steep flutes for preventing borehole collapse and for efficient movement of cuttings and fall back material out of the hole. The drill uses the so called 'bite-sampling' approach that is samples are taken in short, 5-10 cm bites. To take the first bite, the drill is lowered onto the ground and upon drilling of the first bite it is then retracted into an auger tube. The auger with the auger tube are then lifted off the ground and positioned next to the carousel. To deposit the sample, the auger is rotated and retracted above the auger tube. The cuttings retained on the flutes are either gravity fed or are brushed off by a passive side brush into the cup. After the sample from the first bite has been deposited, the drill is lowered back into the same hole to take the next bite. This process is repeated until a target depth is reached. The bite sampling is analogous to peck drilling in the machining process where a bit is periodically retracted to clear chips. If there is some fall back into the hole once the auger has cleared the hole, this

  20. "Elite" Career-Changers and Their Experience of Initial Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the motivation of "high-status" professionals to change career and enter teaching, and their experience of undertaking initial teacher education (ITE) programmes in England. The study builds on previous research which found that career-changers are disproportionately more likely to fail to complete their ITE studies,…

  1. Harpoon-based sample Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Javier; Nuth, Joseph; Wegel, Donald

    2012-02-01

    Acquiring information about the composition of comets, asteroids, and other near Earth objects is very important because they may contain the primordial ooze of the solar system and the origins of life on Earth. Sending a spacecraft is the obvious answer, but once it gets there it needs to collect and analyze samples. Conceptually, a drill or a shovel would work, but both require something extra to anchor it to the comet, adding to the cost and complexity of the spacecraft. Since comets and asteroids are very low gravity objects, drilling becomes a problem. If you do not provide a grappling mechanism, the drill would push the spacecraft off the surface. Harpoons have been proposed as grappling mechanisms in the past and are currently flying on missions such as ROSETTA. We propose to use a hollow, core sampling harpoon, to act as the anchoring mechanism as well as the sample collecting device. By combining these two functions, mass is reduced, more samples can be collected and the spacecraft can carry more propellant. Although challenging, returning the collected samples to Earth allows them to be analyzed in laboratories with much greater detail than possible on a spacecraft. Also, bringing the samples back to Earth allows future generations to study them.

  2. Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.

    1994-10-01

    As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples.

  3. Automated system for fractionation of blood samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, N. E.; Genung, R. K.; Johnson, W. F.; Mrochek, J. E.; Scott, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    A prototype system for preparing multiple fractions of blood components (plasma, washed red cells, and hemolysates) using automated techniques has been developed. The procedure is based on centrifugal separation and differential pressure-induced transfer in a rotor that has been designed to process numerous samples simultaneously. Red cells are sedimented against the outer walls of the sample chamber, and plasma is syphoned, by imposition of eithr a slight positive or negative pressure, into individual reservoirs in a collection ring. Washing of cells is performed in situ; samples of washed cells, either packed or in saline solution, can be recovered. Cellular hemolysates are prepared and automatically transferred to individual, commercially available collection vials ready for storage in liquid nitrogen or immediate analysis. The system has potential application in any biomedical area which requires high sample throughput and in which one or more of the blood fractions will be used. A separate unit has been designed and developed for the semiautomated cleaning of the blood processing vessel.

  4. Decentralized Voltage Control Coordination of On-Load Tap Changer Transformers, Distributed Generation Units and Flexible Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romani Dalmau, Aina; Martinez Perez, David; Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker

    2015-01-01

    approach is introduced in order to coordinate the voltage control capability from different assets in medium voltage networks. In this sense, the on-load tap changer strategy of the primary substation and the power factor control of wind turbines and combined heat and power plants are combined...... of the on-load tap changer and the reactive power from dispersed generation while maximizing the capacity usage of the Power-to-Gas load....

  5. Blood Sample Transportation by Pneumatic Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Lund, Merete E; Titlestad, Kjell

    2018-01-01

    in blood samples. Studies were extracted from PubMed and Embase. The search period ended November 2016. RESULTS: A total of 39 studies were retrieved. Of these, only 12 studies were conducted on inpatients, mainly intensive care unit patients. Blood gases, hematology, and clinical chemistry were well...... investigated, whereas coagulation, rotational thromboelastometry, and platelet function in acutely ill patients were addressed by only 1 study each. Only a few parameters were affected in a clinically significant way (clotting time parameter in extrinsic system thromboelastometry, pO2 in blood gas, multiplate...

  6. System and Method for Isolation of Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye (Inventor); Wu, Honglu (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods for isolating samples are provided. The system comprises a first membrane and a second membrane disposed within an enclosure. First and second reservoirs can also be disposed within the enclosure and adapted to contain one or more reagents therein. A first valve can be disposed within the enclosure and in fluid communication with the first reservoir, the second reservoir, or both. The first valve can also be in fluid communication with the first or second membranes or both. The first valve can be adapted to selectively regulate the flow of the reagents from the first reservoir, through at least one of the first and second membranes, and into the second reservoir.

  7. A sample storage management system for biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegele, C; Alteyrac, L; Caboux, E; Smans, M; Lesueur, F; Le Calvez-Kelm, F; Hainaut, P

    2010-11-01

    Establishment of large-scale biobanks of human specimens is essential to conduct molecular pathological or epidemiological studies. This requires automation of procedures for specimen cataloguing and tracking through complex analytical processes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) develops a large portfolio of studies broadly aimed at cancer prevention and including cohort, case-control and case-only studies in various parts of the world. This diversity of study designs, structure, annotations and specimen collections is extremely difficult to accommodate into a single sample management system (SMS). Current commercial or academic SMS are often restricted to a few sample types and tailored to a limited number of analytic workflows [Voegele et al. (2007) A laboratory information management system (LIMS) for a high throughput genetic platform aimed at candidate gene mutation screening. Bioinformatics, 23, 2504-2506]. Thus, we developed a system based on a three-tier architecture and relying on an Oracle database and an Oracle Forms web application. Data are imported through forms or csv files, and information retrieval is enabled via multi-criteria queries that can generate different types of reports including tables, Excel files, trees, pictures and graphs. The system is easy to install, flexible, expandable and implemented with a high degree of data security and confidentiality. Both the database and the interface have been modeled to be compatible with and adaptable to almost all types of biobanks. The SMS source codes, which are under the GNU General Public License, and supplementary data are freely available at 'http://www-gcs.iarc.fr/sms.php' Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  8. Voltage Management in Unbalanced Low Voltage Networks Using a Decoupled Phase-Tap-Changer Transformer

    OpenAIRE

    Coppo, Massimiliano; Turri, Roberto; Marinelli, Mattia; Han, Xue

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies a medium voltage-low voltage transformer with a decoupled on load tap changer capability on each phase. The overall objective is the evaluation of the potential benefits on a low voltage network of such possibility. A realistic Danish low voltage network is used for the analysis. The load profiles are characterized by using single phase measurement data on voltages, currents and active powers with a 10 minutes resolution. Different scenarios are considered: no tap action, th...

  9. Business Model Generation: A handbook for visionaries, game changers and challengers

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, MAY; João José Pinto Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    The book entitled “Business Model Generation: A Handbook for visionaries, game changers and challengers” though written by Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010) was also co-created by 470 practitioners from 45 countries. The book is thus a good example of how a global creative collaboration effort can contribute positively to the business and management literature and subsequently to the advancement of society. The book "Business Model Generation" has both narrative and visual detail. Befor...

  10. Can Unconventional Gas be a Game Changer in European Gas Markets?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Although unconventional gas development will not be a game changer for European gas markets overall it could have a significant impact in individual countries although probably not this decade. Florence Gény’s study argues that much more stringent European environmental standards difficulties of access to land and fresh water and lack of incentives for landowners to allow companies to drill will require a completely different business model for unconventional gas development in Europe compare...

  11. Microfluidic-Based Robotic Sampling System for Radioactive Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack D. Law; Julia L. Tripp; Tara E. Smith; Veronica J. Rutledge; Troy G. Garn; John Svoboda; Larry Macaluso

    2014-02-01

    A novel microfluidic based robotic sampling system has been developed for sampling and analysis of liquid solutions in nuclear processes. This system couples the use of a microfluidic sample chip with a robotic system designed to allow remote, automated sampling of process solutions in-cell and facilitates direct coupling of the microfluidic sample chip with analytical instrumentation. This system provides the capability for near real time analysis, reduces analytical waste, and minimizes the potential for personnel exposure associated with traditional sampling methods. A prototype sampling system was designed, built and tested. System testing demonstrated operability of the microfluidic based sample system and identified system modifications to optimize performance.

  12. Sample Return Systems for Extreme Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since the Apollo era, sample return missions have been primarily limited to asteroid sampling. More comprehensive sampling could yield critical information on the...

  13. Towards a compact and precise sample holder for macromolecular crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Christopher; Janocha, Robert; Sorez, Clement; Astruc, Anthony; McCarthy, Andrew; Belrhali, Hassan; Cipriani, Florent

    2017-01-01

    Most of the sample holders currently used in macromolecular crystallography offer limited storage density and poor initial crystal-positioning precision upon mounting on a goniometer. This has now become a limiting factor at high-throughput beamlines, where data collection can be performed in a matter of seconds. Furthermore, this lack of precision limits the potential benefits emerging from automated harvesting systems that could provide crystal-position information which would further enhance alignment at beamlines. This situation provided the motivation for the development of a compact and precise sample holder with corresponding pucks, handling tools and robotic transfer protocols. The development process included four main phases: design, prototype manufacture, testing with a robotic sample changer and validation under real conditions on a beamline. Two sample-holder designs are proposed: NewPin and miniSPINE. They share the same robot gripper and allow the storage of 36 sample holders in uni-puck footprint-style pucks, which represents 252 samples in a dry-shipping dewar commonly used in the field. The pucks are identified with human- and machine-readable codes, as well as with radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags. NewPin offers a crystal-repositioning precision of up to 10 µm but requires a specific goniometer socket. The storage density could reach 64 samples using a special puck designed for fully robotic handling. miniSPINE is less precise but uses a goniometer mount compatible with the current SPINE standard. miniSPINE is proposed for the first implementation of the new standard, since it is easier to integrate at beamlines. An upgraded version of the SPINE sample holder with a corresponding puck named SPINEplus is also proposed in order to offer a homogenous and interoperable system. The project involved several European synchrotrons and industrial companies in the fields of consumables and sample-changer robotics. Manual handling of mini

  14. Aerobot Sampling and Handling System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to: ?Derive and document the functional and technical requirements for Aerobot surface sampling and sample handling across a range of...

  15. A Geology Sampling System for Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naids, Adam J.; Hood, Anthony D.; Abell, Paul; Graff, Trevor; Buffington, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of microgravity bodies is being investigated as a precursor to a Mars surface mission. Asteroids, comets, dwarf planets, and the moons of Mars all fall into this microgravity category and some are being discussed as potential mission targets. Obtaining geological samples for return to Earth will be a major objective for any mission to a small body. Currently, the knowledge base for geology sampling in microgravity is in its infancy. Humans interacting with non-engineered surfaces in microgravity environment pose unique challenges. In preparation for such missions a team at the NASA Johnson Space Center has been working to gain experience on how to safely obtain numerous sample types in such an environment. This paper describes the type of samples the science community is interested in, highlights notable prototype work, and discusses an integrated geology sampling solution.

  16. A Geology Sampling System for Microgravity Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Anthony; Naids, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of microgravity bodies is being investigated as a precursor to a Mars surface mission. Asteroids, comets, dwarf planets, and the moons of Mars all fall into this microgravity category and some are been discussed as potential mission targets. Obtaining geological samples for return to Earth will be a major objective for any mission to a microgravity body. Currently the knowledge base for geology sampling in microgravity is in its infancy. Humans interacting with non-engineered surfaces in microgravity environment pose unique challenges. In preparation for such missions a team at the NASA Johnson Space Center has been working to gain experience on how to safely obtain numerous sample types in such an environment. This paper describes the type of samples the science community is interested in, highlights notable prototype work, and discusses an integrated geology sampling solution.

  17. System and method for extracting a sample from a surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary; Covey, Thomas

    2015-06-23

    A system and method is disclosed for extracting a sample from a sample surface. A sample is provided and a sample surface receives the sample which is deposited on the sample surface. A hydrophobic material is applied to the sample surface, and one or more devices are configured to dispense a liquid on the sample, the liquid dissolving the sample to form a dissolved sample material, and the one or more devices are configured to extract the dissolved sample material from the sample surface.

  18. Sample Return Systems for Extreme Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I we were able to demonstrate that sample return missions utilizing high velocity penetrators (0.1- 1 km/s) could provide substantial new capabilities for...

  19. Is Insulin Pump a game changer in the management of Diabetes Mellitus: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Ghazanfar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of diabetes has drastically increased over the past decade and it has a debilitating effect on one’s quality of life. The Insulin Pump is a relatively new modality in the management of Diabetic patients. The objective of our case series was to assess the impact of insulin pump on glycemic control and quality of life of diabetic patients. In this case series we have presented four Type 2 diabetic cases which presented with different common complications associated with diabetes as well as its management, particularly the complication of hypoglycemic episodes. Worldwide introduction of insulin pump can prove to be a trend changer in the management of diabetes

  20. Voltage Management in Unbalanced Low Voltage Networks Using a Decoupled Phase-Tap-Changer Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppo, Massimiliano; Turri, Roberto; Marinelli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies a medium voltage-low voltage transformer with a decoupled on load tap changer capability on each phase. The overall objective is the evaluation of the potential benefits on a low voltage network of such possibility. A realistic Danish low voltage network is used for the analysis....... The load profiles are characterized by using single phase measurement data on voltages, currents and active powers with a 10 minutes resolution. Different scenarios are considered: no tap action, three-phase coordinated tap action, single phase discrete step and single phase continuous tap action...

  1. Rapid surface sampling and archival record system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barren, E.; Penney, C.M.; Sheldon, R.B. [GE Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    A number of contamination sites exist in this country where the area and volume of material to be remediated is very large, approaching or exceeding 10{sup 6} m{sup 2} and 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}. Typically, only a small fraction of this material is actually contaminated. In such cases there is a strong economic motivation to test the material with a sufficient density of measurements to identify which portions are uncontaminated, so extensively they be left in place or be disposed of as uncontaminated waste. Unfortunately, since contamination often varies rapidly from position to position, this procedure can involve upwards of one million measurements per site. The situation is complicated further in many cases by the difficulties of sampling porous surfaces, such as concrete. This report describes a method for sampling concretes in which an immediate distinction can be made between contaminated and uncontaminated surfaces. Sample acquisition and analysis will be automated.

  2. A Game Changer: Electrifying Remote Communities by Using Isolated Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Wang, Jianhui

    2017-06-01

    Microgrids, as self-contained entities, are of increasing interest in modern electric grids. Microgrids provide a sustainable solution to aggregate distributed energy resources (DERs) [e.g., photovoltaics (PVs), wind turbines], energy storage, and loads in a localized manner, especially in distribution systems. As a controllable unit, a microgrid can manage and balance the source and load power inside it to ensure stable and reliable operation. Moreover, through coordination with upper-level control systems, it can be dispatched and respond to the control commands issued by the central controller in the distribution system-in other words, a system that is effectively a distribution management system (DMS).

  3. Systems and methods for self-synchronized digital sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Jr., John R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Systems and methods for self-synchronized data sampling are provided. In one embodiment, a system for capturing synchronous data samples is provided. The system includes an analog to digital converter adapted to capture signals from one or more sensors and convert the signals into a stream of digital data samples at a sampling frequency determined by a sampling control signal; and a synchronizer coupled to the analog to digital converter and adapted to receive a rotational frequency signal from a rotating machine, wherein the synchronizer is further adapted to generate the sampling control signal, and wherein the sampling control signal is based on the rotational frequency signal.

  4. Digital Suicide Prevention: Can Technology Become a Game-changer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabzadeh, Arshya; Sahin, Ned; Kalali, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Suicide continues to be a leading cause of death and has been recognized as a significant public health issue. Rapid advances in data science can provide us with useful tools for suicide prevention, and help to dynamically assess suicide risk in quantitative data-driven ways. In this article, the authors highlight the most current international research in digital suicide prevention, including the use of machine learning, smartphone applications, and wearable sensor driven systems. The authors also discuss future opportunities for digital suicide prevention, and propose a novel Sensor-driven Mental State Assessment System.

  5. Global Unique Identification of Geoscience Samples: The International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) and the System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Goldstein, S. L.; Vinayagamoorthy, S.; Lenhardt, W. C.

    2005-12-01

    Data on samples represent a primary foundation of Geoscience research across disciplines, ranging from the study of climate change, to biogeochemical cycles, to mantle and continental dynamics and are key to our knowledge of the Earth's dynamical systems and evolution. Different data types are generated for individual samples by different research groups, published in different papers, and stored in different databases on a global scale. The utility of these data is critically dependent on their integration. Such integration can be achieved within a Geoscience Cyberinfrastructure, but requires unambiguous identification of samples. Currently, naming of samples is arbitrary and inconsistent and therefore severely limits our ability to share, link, and integrate sample-based data. Major problems include name duplication, and changing of names as a sample is passed along over many years to different investigators. SESAR, the System for Earth Sample Registration (http://www.geosamples.org), addresses this problem by building a registry that generates and administers globally unique identifiers for Geoscience samples: the International Geo Sample Number (IGSN). Implementation of the IGSN in data publication and digital data management will dramatically advance interoperability among information systems for sample-based data, opening an extensive range of new opportunities for discovery and for interdisciplinary approaches in research. The IGSN will also facilitate the ability of investigators to build on previously collected data on samples as new measurements are made or new techniques are developed. With potentially broad application to all types of Geoscience samples, SESAR is global in scope. It is a web-based system that can be easily accessed by individual users through an interactive web interface and by distributed client systems via standard web services. Samples can be registered individually or in batches and at various levels of granularity from entire cores

  6. Fluid sample collection and distribution system. [qualitative analysis of aqueous samples from several points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A multipoint fluid sample collection and distribution system is provided wherein the sample inputs are made through one or more of a number of sampling valves to a progressive cavity pump which is not susceptible to damage by large unfiltered particles. The pump output is through a filter unit that can provide a filtered multipoint sample. An unfiltered multipoint sample is also provided. An effluent sample can be taken and applied to a second progressive cavity pump for pumping to a filter unit that can provide one or more filtered effluent samples. The second pump can also provide an unfiltered effluent sample. Means are provided to periodically back flush each filter unit without shutting off the whole system.

  7. Local Identification of Voltage Instability from Load Tap Changer Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Papangelis, Lampros; Vournas, Costas D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a local long-term voltage instability monitoring method, which is suitable for on-line applications. The proposed extended-time Local Identification of Voltage Emergency Situations (eLIVES) method is a significantly modified version of the previously presented LIVES method. Th...... to acquired distribution voltage measurements and a new set of rules to detect a voltage emergency situation. The effectiveness of the eLIVES method is presented on the IEEE Nordic test system for voltage stability and security assessment.......This paper presents a local long-term voltage instability monitoring method, which is suitable for on-line applications. The proposed extended-time Local Identification of Voltage Emergency Situations (eLIVES) method is a significantly modified version of the previously presented LIVES method...

  8. Ares V: Game Changer for National Security Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, Phil; Morris, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    NASA is designing the Ares V cargo launch vehicle to vastly expand exploration of the Moon begun in the Apollo program and enable the exploration of Mars and beyond. As the largest launcher in history, Ares V also represents a national asset offering unprecedented opportunities for new science, national security, and commercial missions of unmatched size and scope. The Ares V is the heavy-lift component of NASA's dual-launch architecture that will replace the current space shuttle fleet, complete the International Space Station, and establish a permanent human presence on the Moon as a stepping-stone to destinations beyond. During extensive independent and internal architecture and vehicle trade studies as part of the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), NASA selected the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V to support future exploration. The smaller Ares I will launch the Orion crew exploration vehicle with four to six astronauts into orbit. The Ares V is designed to carry the Altair lunar lander into orbit, rendezvous with Orion, and send the mated spacecraft toward lunar orbit. The Ares V will be the largest and most powerful launch vehicle in history, providing unprecedented payload mass and volume to establish a permanent lunar outpost and explore significantly more of the lunar surface than was done during the Apollo missions. The Ares V consists of a Core Stage, two Reusable Solid Rocket Boosters (RSRBs), Earth Departure Stage (EDS), and a payload shroud. For lunar missions, the shroud would cover the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). The Ares V Core Stage is 33 feet in diameter and 212 feet in length, making it the largest rocket stage ever built. It is the same diameter as the Saturn V first stage, the S-IC. However, its length is about the same as the combined length of the Saturn V first and second stages. The Core Stage uses a cluster of five Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne RS-68B rocket engines, each supplying about 700,000 pounds of thrust

  9. A Sample Handling System for Mars Sample Return - Design and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouis, E.; Renouf, I.; Deridder, M.; Vrancken, D.; Gelmi, R.; Re, E.

    2009-04-01

    A mission to return atmosphere and soil samples form the Mars is highly desired by planetary scientists from around the world and space agencies are starting preparation for the launch of a sample return mission in the 2020 timeframe. Such a mission would return approximately 500 grams of atmosphere, rock and soil samples to Earth by 2025. Development of a wide range of new technology will be critical to the successful implementation of such a challenging mission. Technical developments required to realise the mission include guided atmospheric entry, soft landing, sample handling robotics, biological sealing, Mars atmospheric ascent sample rendezvous & capture and Earth return. The European Space Agency has been performing system definition studies along with numerous technology development studies under the framework of the Aurora programme. Within the scope of these activities Astrium has been responsible for defining an overall sample handling architecture in collaboration with European partners (sample acquisition and sample capture, Galileo Avionica; sample containment and automated bio-sealing, Verhaert). Our work has focused on the definition and development of the robotic systems required to move the sample through the transfer chain. This paper presents the Astrium team's high level design for the surface transfer system and the orbiter transfer system. The surface transfer system is envisaged to use two robotic arms of different sizes to allow flexible operations and to enable sample transfer over relatively large distances (~2 to 3 metres): The first to deploy/retract the Drill Assembly used for sample collection, the second for the transfer of the Sample Container (the vessel containing all the collected samples) from the Drill Assembly to the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). The sample transfer actuator also features a complex end-effector for handling the Sample Container. The orbiter transfer system will transfer the Sample Container from the capture

  10. Four-bar linkage-based automatic tool changer: Dynamic modeling and torque optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangho; Seo, TaeWon [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Won; Kim, Jongwon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    An Automatic tool changer (ATC) is a device used in a tapping machine to reduce process time. This paper presents the optimization of a Peak torque reduction mechanism (PTRM) for an ATC. It is necessary to reduce the fatigue load and energy consumed, which is related to the peak torque. The PTRM uses a torsion spring to reduce the peak torque and was applied to a novel ATC mechanism, which was modeled using inverse dynamics. Optimization of the PTRM is required to minimize the peak torque. The design parameters are the initial angle and stiffness of the torsion spring, and the objective function is the peak torque of the input link. The torque was simulated, and the peak torque was decreased by 10 %. The energy consumed was reduced by the optimization.

  11. Game Changers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Sean

    2011-01-01

    New concepts of PE and sports programs are making it more fun for everyone to play. Diets featuring fast food, sugary soft drinks and declining physical activity have contributed to a tripling of childhood obesity rates in the United States in the last 30 years, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control. Today, nearly a third of American…

  12. Drilling, sampling, and sample-handling system for China's asteroid exploration mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Wenming; Wang, Kang; Gao, Sheng; Hou, Liang; Ji, Jianghui; Ding, Xilun

    2017-08-01

    Asteroid exploration has a significant importance in promoting our understanding of the solar system and the origin of life on Earth. A unique opportunity to study near-Earth asteroid 99942 Apophis will occur in 2029 because it will be at its perigee. In the current work, a drilling, sampling, and sample-handling system (DSSHS) is proposed to penetrate the asteroid regolith, collect regolith samples at different depths, and distribute the samples to different scientific instruments for in situ analysis. In this system, a rotary-drilling method is employed for the penetration, and an inner sampling tube is utilized to collect and discharge the regolith samples. The sampling tube can deliver samples up to a maximum volume of 84 mm3 at a maximum penetration depth of 300 mm to 17 different ovens. To activate the release of volatile substances, the samples will be heated up to a temperature of 600 °C by the ovens, and these substances will be analyzed by scientific instruments such as a mass spectrometer, an isotopic analyzer, and micro-cameras, among other instruments. The DSSHS is capable of penetrating rocks with a hardness value of six, and it can be used for China's asteroid exploration mission in the foreseeable future.

  13. Ten Years of Advancing Sample Management Best Practices: The System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M.; Lehnert, K.

    2016-12-01

    Physical samples collected and curated as part of Earth science research represent both research resources and research products that need to be properly documented, shared, and cited. The System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR) is a registry for Earth and environmental science samples operated as part of the IEDA Data Facility that supports discovery and access of samples by making sample metadata openly and persistently accessible on the web for both humans and machines, and by providing IGSNs as unique, persistent identifiers for samples that resolve to sample metadata profiles at SESAR and at other sample catalogs. SESAR was developed more than a decade ago, and was at the time the only Allocating Agent for the IGSN. Although the IGSN system now consists of a globally-distributed architecture with six Allocating Agents in three countries, SESAR remains the primary sample registration and metadata management system for many investigators and even repositories, even those from other countries with operating allocating agents, and provides unmatched services that support the sample curation workflow. In its ongoing effort to respond to the needs of its users, SESAR continues to upgrade its interfaces (web application MySESAR as the personal workspace and web services) and functionality. We will present an update on the most recent developments and most highly-used functionalities, including role-based access to MySESAR functionalities, grouping and sharing subsets of sample metadata, customizing and printing labels, and transferring ownership of sample metadata. In addition to its many functionalities, SESAR enforces a high-level of metadata quality control, which is made possible through a combination of automated validation procedures and data curator-expertise.

  14. Importance sampling of rare events in chaotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Jorge C.; Parente Lopes, João M. Viana; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2017-10-01

    Finding and sampling rare trajectories in dynamical systems is a difficult computational task underlying numerous problems and applications. In this paper we show how to construct Metropolis-Hastings Monte-Carlo methods that can efficiently sample rare trajectories in the (extremely rough) phase space of chaotic systems. As examples of our general framework we compute the distribution of finite-time Lyapunov exponents (in different chaotic maps) and the distribution of escape times (in transient-chaos problems). Our methods sample exponentially rare states in polynomial number of samples (in both low- and high-dimensional systems). An open-source software that implements our algorithms and reproduces our results can be found in reference [J. Leitao, A library to sample chaotic systems, 2017, https://github.com/jorgecarleitao/chaospp].

  15. A Multi-Sample Standoff Multimodal Biometric System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Patlolla, Dilip Reddy [ORNL; Mann, Christopher J [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The data captured by existing standoff biometric systems typically has lower biometric recognition performance than their close range counterparts due to imaging challenges, pose challenges, and other factors. To assist in overcoming these limitations systems typically perform in a multi-modal capacity such as Honeywell s Combined Face and Iris (CFAIRS) [21] system. While this improves the systems performance, standoff systems have yet to be proven as accurate as their close range equivalents. We will present a standoff system capable of operating up to 7 meters in range. Unlike many systems such as the CFAIRS our system captures high quality 12 MP video allowing for a multi-sample as well as multi-modal comparison. We found that for standoff systems multi-sample improved performance more than multi-modal. For a small test group of 50 subjects we were able to achieve 100% rank one recognition performance with our system.

  16. System and method for measuring fluorescence of a sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riot, Vincent J.

    2017-06-27

    The present disclosure provides a system and a method for measuring fluorescence of a sample. The sample may be a polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) array, a loop-mediated-isothermal amplification array, etc. LEDs are used to excite the sample, and a photodiode is used to collect the sample's fluorescence. An electronic offset signal is used to reduce the effects of background fluorescence and the noises from the measurement system. An integrator integrates the difference between the output of the photodiode and the electronic offset signal over a given period of time. The resulting integral is then converted into digital domain for further processing and storage.

  17. System and method for measuring fluorescence of a sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riot, Vincent J

    2015-03-24

    The present disclosure provides a system and a method for measuring fluorescence of a sample. The sample may be a polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) array, a loop-mediated-isothermal amplification array, etc. LEDs are used to excite the sample, and a photodiode is used to collect the sample's fluorescence. An electronic offset signal is used to reduce the effects of background fluorescence and the noises from the measurement system. An integrator integrates the difference between the output of the photodiode and the electronic offset signal over a given period of time. The resulting integral is then converted into digital domain for further processing and storage.

  18. Active Fault Diagnosis in Sampled-data Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2015-01-01

    The focus in this paper is on active fault diagnosis (AFD) in closed-loop sampleddata systems. Applying the same AFD architecture as for continuous-time systems does not directly result in the same set of closed-loop matrix transfer functions. For continuous-time systems, the LFT (linear fractional...... transformation) structure in the connection between the parametric faults and the matrix transfer function (also known as the fault signature matrix) applied for AFD is not directly preserved for sampled-data system. As a consequence of this, the AFD methods cannot directly be applied for sampled-data systems....... Two methods are considered in this paper to handle the fault signature matrix for sampled-data systems such that standard AFD methods can be applied. The first method is based on a discretization of the system such that the LFT structure is preserved resulting in the same LFT structure in the fault...

  19. An expert system for the calculation of sample size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebell, M H; Neale, A V; Hodgkins, B J

    1994-06-01

    Calculation of sample size is a useful technique for researchers who are designing a study, and for clinicians who wish to interpret research findings. The elements that must be specified to calculate the sample size include alpha, beta, Type I and Type II errors, 1- and 2-tail tests, confidence intervals, and confidence levels. A computer software program written by one of the authors (MHE), Sample Size Expert, facilitates sample size calculations. The program uses an expert system to help inexperienced users calculate sample sizes for analytic and descriptive studies. The software is available at no cost from the author or electronically via several on-line information services.

  20. Improved sample manipulation at the STRESS-SPEC neutron diffractometer using an industrial 6-axis robot for texture and strain analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randau, C. [Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Clausthal University of Technology, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Brokmeier, H.G., E-mail: heinz-guenter.brokmeier@tu-clausthal.de [Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Clausthal University of Technology, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Centre Geesthacht, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Gan, W.M. [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Centre Geesthacht, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Hofmann, M.; Voeller, M. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TU München, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Tekouo, W. [Institute for Machine Tools and Industrial Management, TU München, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Al-hamdany, N. [Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Clausthal University of Technology, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Seidl, G. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TU München, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Schreyer, A. [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Centre Geesthacht, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2015-09-11

    The materials science neutron diffractometer STRESS-SPEC located at FRM II is a dedicated instrument for strain and pole figure measurements. Both methods make complementary demands on sample handling. On one hand pole figure measurements need a high degree of freedom to orient small samples and on the other hand in strain investigations it is often necessary to handle large and heavy components. Therefore a robot based sample positioning system was developed, which has the capability to provide both possibilities. Based on this new robot system further developments like a full automated sample changer system for texture measurements were accomplished. Moreover this system opens the door for combined strain and texture analysis at STRESS-SPEC.

  1. Water and steam sampling systems; Provtagningssystem foer vatten och aanga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Mats

    2009-10-15

    The supervision of cycle chemistry can be divided into two parts, the sampling system and the chemical analysis. In modern steam generating plants most of the chemical analyses are carried out on-line. The detection limits of these analyzers are pushed downward to the ppt-range (parts per trillion), however the analyses are not more correct than the accuracy of the sampling system. A lot of attention has been put to the analyzers and the statistics to interpret the results but the sampling procedures has gained much less attention. This report aims to give guidance of the considerations to be made regarding sampling systems. Sampling is necessary since most analysis of interesting parameters cannot be carried out in- situ on-line in the steam cycle. Today's on-line instruments for pH, conductivity, silica etc. are designed to meet a water sample at a temperature of 10-30 deg C. This means that the sampling system has to extract a representative sample from the process, transport and cool it down to room temperature without changing the characteristics of the fluid. In the literature research work, standards and other reports can be found. Although giving similar recommendations in most aspects there are some discrepancies that may be confusing. This report covers all parts in the sampling system: Sample points and nozzles; Sample lines; Valves, regulating and on-off; Sample coolers; Temperature, pressure and flow rate control; Cooling water; and Water recovery. On-line analyzers connecting to the sampling system are not covered. This report aims to clarify what guidelines are most appropriate amongst the existing ones. The report should also give guidance to the design of the sampling system in order to achieve representative samples. In addition to this the report gives an overview of the fluid mechanics involved in sampling. The target group of this report is owners and operators of steam generators, vendors of power plant equipment, consultants working in

  2. Non-Contact Conductivity Measurement for Automated Sample Processing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Kirby, James P.

    2012-01-01

    A new method has been developed for monitoring and control of automated sample processing and preparation especially focusing on desalting of samples before analytical analysis (described in more detail in Automated Desalting Apparatus, (NPO-45428), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 8 (August 2010), page 44). The use of non-contact conductivity probes, one at the inlet and one at the outlet of the solid phase sample preparation media, allows monitoring of the process, and acts as a trigger for the start of the next step in the sequence (see figure). At each step of the muti-step process, the system is flushed with low-conductivity water, which sets the system back to an overall low-conductivity state. This measurement then triggers the next stage of sample processing protocols, and greatly minimizes use of consumables. In the case of amino acid sample preparation for desalting, the conductivity measurement will define three key conditions for the sample preparation process. First, when the system is neutralized (low conductivity, by washing with excess de-ionized water); second, when the system is acidified, by washing with a strong acid (high conductivity); and third, when the system is at a basic condition of high pH (high conductivity). Taken together, this non-contact conductivity measurement for monitoring sample preparation will not only facilitate automation of the sample preparation and processing, but will also act as a way to optimize the operational time and use of consumables

  3. A large-scale cryoelectronic system for biological sample banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Stephen G.; Durst, Christopher H. P.; Fuchs, Christian C.; Zimmermann, Heiko; Ihmig, Frank R.

    2009-11-01

    We describe a polymorphic electronic infrastructure for managing biological samples stored over liquid nitrogen. As part of this system we have developed new cryocontainers and carrier plates attached to Flash memory chips to have a redundant and portable set of data at each sample. Our experimental investigations show that basic Flash operation and endurance is adequate for the application down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. This identification technology can provide the best sample identification, documentation and tracking that brings added value to each sample. The first application of the system is in a worldwide collaborative research towards the production of an AIDS vaccine. The functionality and versatility of the system can lead to an essential optimization of sample and data exchange for global clinical studies.

  4. System for Earth Sample Registration SESAR: Services for IGSN Registration and Sample Metadata Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S.; Lehnert, K. A.; Coleman, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    SESAR, the System for Earth Sample Registration, is an online registry for physical samples collected for Earth and environmental studies. SESAR generates and administers the International Geo Sample Number IGSN, a unique identifier for samples that is dramatically advancing interoperability amongst information systems for sample-based data. SESAR was developed to provide the complete range of registry services, including definition of IGSN syntax and metadata profiles, registration and validation of name spaces requested by users, tools for users to submit and manage sample metadata, validation of submitted metadata, generation and validation of the unique identifiers, archiving of sample metadata, and public or private access to the sample metadata catalog. With the development of SESAR v3, we placed particular emphasis on creating enhanced tools that make metadata submission easier and more efficient for users, and that provide superior functionality for users to manage metadata of their samples in their private workspace MySESAR. For example, SESAR v3 includes a module where users can generate custom spreadsheet templates to enter metadata for their samples, then upload these templates online for sample registration. Once the content of the template is uploaded, it is displayed online in an editable grid format. Validation rules are executed in real-time on the grid data to ensure data integrity. Other new features of SESAR v3 include the capability to transfer ownership of samples to other SESAR users, the ability to upload and store images and other files in a sample metadata profile, and the tracking of changes to sample metadata profiles. In the next version of SESAR (v3.5), we will further improve the discovery, sharing, registration of samples. For example, we are developing a more comprehensive suite of web services that will allow discovery and registration access to SESAR from external systems. Both batch and individual registrations will be possible

  5. Sample Management System for Heavy Ion Irradiation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A robotic sample management device and system for the exposure of biological and material specimens to heavy ion beams of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL)...

  6. Importance Sampling Simulations of Markovian Reliability Systems using Cross Entropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, Ad

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports simulation experiments, applying the cross entropy method suchas the importance sampling algorithm for efficient estimation of rare event probabilities in Markovian reliability systems. The method is compared to various failurebiasing schemes that have been proved to give

  7. Importance sampling of rare events in chaotic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitão, Jorge C.; Parente Lopes, João M.Viana; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2017-01-01

    Finding and sampling rare trajectories in dynamical systems is a difficult computational task underlying numerous problems and applications. In this paper we show how to construct Metropolis-Hastings Monte-Carlo methods that can efficiently sample rare trajectories in the (extremely rough) phase ...

  8. Contamination of successive samples in portable pumping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Thomas; Rand E. Eads

    1983-01-01

    Automatic discrete sample pumping systems used to monitor water quality should deliver to storage all materials pumped in a given cycle. If they do not, successive samples will be contaminated, a severe problem with highly variable suspended sediment concentrations in small streams. The cross-contamination characteristics of two small commonly used portable pumping...

  9. Robust H2 performance for sampled-data systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Mike Lind

    1997-01-01

    Robust H2 performance conditions under structured uncertainty, analogous to well known methods for H∞ performance, have recently emerged in both discrete and continuous-time. This paper considers the extension into uncertain sampled-data systems, taking into account inter-sample behavior. Convex...

  10. Identification of continuous-time systems from samples of input ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents an introductory survey ofthe methodsthat have been developed for identification of continuous-time systems from samples of input-output data. The two basic approaches may be described as. the indirect method, where first a discrete-time model is estimated from the sampled data and then an ...

  11. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Stack Air Sampling System Qualification Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2001-01-24

    This report documents tests that were conducted to verify that the air monitoring system for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility ventilation exhaust stack meets the applicable regulatory criteria regarding the placement of the air sampling probe, sample transport, and stack flow measurement accuracy.

  12. Implications of sampling design and sample size for national carbon accounting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhl, Michael; Lister, Andrew; Scott, Charles T; Baldauf, Thomas; Plugge, Daniel

    2011-11-08

    Countries willing to adopt a REDD regime need to establish a national Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) system that provides information on forest carbon stocks and carbon stock changes. Due to the extensive areas covered by forests the information is generally obtained by sample based surveys. Most operational sampling approaches utilize a combination of earth-observation data and in-situ field assessments as data sources. We compared the cost-efficiency of four different sampling design alternatives (simple random sampling, regression estimators, stratified sampling, 2-phase sampling with regression estimators) that have been proposed in the scope of REDD. Three of the design alternatives provide for a combination of in-situ and earth-observation data. Under different settings of remote sensing coverage, cost per field plot, cost of remote sensing imagery, correlation between attributes quantified in remote sensing and field data, as well as population variability and the percent standard error over total survey cost was calculated. The cost-efficiency of forest carbon stock assessments is driven by the sampling design chosen. Our results indicate that the cost of remote sensing imagery is decisive for the cost-efficiency of a sampling design. The variability of the sample population impairs cost-efficiency, but does not reverse the pattern of cost-efficiency of the individual design alternatives. Our results clearly indicate that it is important to consider cost-efficiency in the development of forest carbon stock assessments and the selection of remote sensing techniques. The development of MRV-systems for REDD need to be based on a sound optimization process that compares different data sources and sampling designs with respect to their cost-efficiency. This helps to reduce the uncertainties related with the quantification of carbon stocks and to increase the financial benefits from adopting a REDD regime.

  13. Direct-push multilevel sampling system for unconsolidated aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducommun, Pascale; Boutsiadou, Xenia; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    An economical multilevel groundwater monitoring system has been developed that can be rapidly installed with a direct-push machine, yet is suitable for sampling across large permeability contrasts. This sealed multiport sampling (SMPS) system consists of up to five lengths of PVC tubing (12 mm OD), each with a screen at a specific depth created by drilling 2.5-mm holes. Above and below each screen, round elastomer pieces, with peripheral holes (to clip in the sampling tubes) and a central hole (to hold a discontinuous piece of central tubing at the height of the screen), are emplaced. Cement-bentonite grout is injected via a tremie tube inserted through the discontinuous centre tube into each interval between the sampling screens. The elastomer pieces and central tube prevent grout from reaching the screened interval. A textile wrapped around the system holds the arrangement in place and at the same time serves to filter the groundwater at the level of the sampling screens. The SMPS system was tested at a tetrachloroethene (PCE) contaminated site. The seals effectively separated the sampling intervals even in heterogeneous formations. Furthermore, concentration profiles agreed well with a reference system. The system should be suitable for a wide range of hydrogeological conditions.

  14. Enhanced sampling techniques in molecular dynamics simulations of biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Rafael C; Melo, Marcelo C R; Schulten, Klaus

    2015-05-01

    Molecular dynamics has emerged as an important research methodology covering systems to the level of millions of atoms. However, insufficient sampling often limits its application. The limitation is due to rough energy landscapes, with many local minima separated by high-energy barriers, which govern the biomolecular motion. In the past few decades methods have been developed that address the sampling problem, such as replica-exchange molecular dynamics, metadynamics and simulated annealing. Here we present an overview over theses sampling methods in an attempt to shed light on which should be selected depending on the type of system property studied. Enhanced sampling methods have been employed for a broad range of biological systems and the choice of a suitable method is connected to biological and physical characteristics of the system, in particular system size. While metadynamics and replica-exchange molecular dynamics are the most adopted sampling methods to study biomolecular dynamics, simulated annealing is well suited to characterize very flexible systems. The use of annealing methods for a long time was restricted to simulation of small proteins; however, a variant of the method, generalized simulated annealing, can be employed at a relatively low computational cost to large macromolecular complexes. Molecular dynamics trajectories frequently do not reach all relevant conformational substates, for example those connected with biological function, a problem that can be addressed by employing enhanced sampling algorithms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Recent developments of molecular dynamics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Collecting Samples in Gale Crater, Mars; an Overview of the Mars Science Laboratory Sample Acquisition, Sample Processing and Handling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. C.; Jandura, L.; Okon, A. B.; Sunshine, D.; Roumeliotis, C.; Beegle, L. W.; Hurowitz, J.; Kennedy, B.; Limonadi, D.; McCloskey, S.; Robinson, M.; Seybold, C.; Brown, K.

    2012-09-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Mission (MSL), scheduled to land on Mars in the summer of 2012, consists of a rover and a scientific payload designed to identify and assess the habitability, geological, and environmental histories of Gale crater. Unraveling the geologic history of the region and providing an assessment of present and past habitability requires an evaluation of the physical and chemical characteristics of the landing site; this includes providing an in-depth examination of the chemical and physical properties of Martian regolith and rocks. The MSL Sample Acquisition, Processing, and Handling (SA/SPaH) subsystem will be the first in-situ system designed to acquire interior rock and soil samples from Martian surface materials. These samples are processed and separated into fine particles and distributed to two onboard analytical science instruments SAM (Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite) and CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) or to a sample analysis tray for visual inspection. The SA/SPaH subsystem is also responsible for the placement of the two contact instruments, Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS), and the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), on rock and soil targets. Finally, there is a Dust Removal Tool (DRT) to remove dust particles from rock surfaces for subsequent analysis by the contact and or mast mounted instruments (e.g. Mast Cameras (MastCam) and the Chemistry and Micro-Imaging instruments (ChemCam)).

  16. Neural signal sampling via the low power wireless pico system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz; Cheney, David; Gugel, Karl; Sanchez, Justin C; Principe, Jose C

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a powerful new low power wireless system for sampling multiple channels of neural activity based on Texas Instruments MSP430 microprocessors and Nordic Semiconductor's ultra low power high bandwidth RF transmitters and receivers. The system's development process, component selection, features and test methodology are presented.

  17. Intrinsically passive control using sampled data system passivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stramigioli, Stefano; Barbagli, F.; Prattichizzo, D.; Salisbury, K.

    In this chapter, which is a distilled version of [271], we present a novel way to approach the interconnection of a continuous and a discrete time physical system firstly presented in [270, 268, 257]. This is done in a way which preserves passivity of the coupled system independently of the sampling

  18. Fault Tolerant Controllers for Sampled-data Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, H.; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    A general compensator architecture for fault tolerant control (FTC) for sampled-data systems is proposed. The architecture is based on the YJBK parameterization of all stabilizing controllers, and uses the dual YJBK parameterization to quantify the performance of the fault tolerant system. The FT...

  19. Water vapor measurement system in global atmospheric sampling program, appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, D. R.; Dudzinski, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    The water vapor measurement system used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The system used a modified version of a commercially available dew/frostpoint hygrometer with a thermoelectrically cooled mirror sensor. The modifications extended the range of the hygrometer to enable air sample measurements with frostpoint temperatures down to -80 C at altitudes of 6 to 13 km. Other modifications were made to permit automatic, unattended operation in an aircraft environment. This report described the hygrometer, its integration with the GASP system, its calibration, and operational aspects including measurement errors. The estimated uncertainty of the dew/frostpoint measurements was + or - 1.7 Celsius.

  20. A fast analysis system for forensic DNA reference samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Johannes; Albinsson, Linda; Ansell, Carina; Tapper, Helene; Hansson, Oskar; Holgersson, Stig; Ansell, Ricky

    2008-06-01

    On January 1st, 2006, the Swedish legislation on obtaining DNA reference samples from suspects and the recording of DNA profiles in databases was changed. As a result the number of samples analysed at the Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science (SKL) increased from about 4500 in 2005 to more than 25,000 in 2006. To meet this challenge, SKL launched a new analysis system to create an unbroken chain, from sampling to incorporation of a profile in the national DNA database and subsequent automatic generation of digitally signed hit reports. The system integrates logistics, digital data transfer, new functions in LIMS (ForumDNA Version 4, Ida Infront AB) and laboratory automation. Buccal swab samples are secured on a FTA card attached to an identity form, which is barcoded with a unique sample ID. After sampling, the police officer sends a digital request to SKL. The sample is automatically registered in LIMS and processed on delivery. The resulting DNA profiles are automatically classified according to quality using a custom-made expert system. Building the evaluation around mathematical rules makes it reproducible, standardised and minimises manual work and clerk errors. All samples are run in duplicate and the two profiles are compared within LIMS before incorporation in the database. In the first year of operation, the median time for completion of an analysis was 3 days, measured from delivery of the sample to incorporation of the profile in the national DNA database. In spite of the dramatic increase in the number of reference samples there was no backlog.

  1. ACS sampling system: design, implementation, and performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Cirami, Roberto; Chiozzi, Gianluca

    2004-09-01

    By means of ACS (ALMA Common Software) framework we designed and implemented a sampling system which allows sampling of every Characteristic Component Property with a specific, user-defined, sustained frequency limited only by the hardware. Collected data are sent to various clients (one or more Java plotting widgets, a dedicated GUI or a COTS application) using the ACS/CORBA Notification Channel. The data transport is optimized: samples are cached locally and sent in packets with a lower and user-defined frequency to keep network load under control. Simultaneous sampling of the Properties of different Components is also possible. Together with the design and implementation issues we present the performance of the sampling system evaluated on two different platforms: on a VME based system using VxWorks RTOS (currently adopted by ALMA) and on a PC/104+ embedded platform using Red Hat 9 Linux operating system. The PC/104+ solution offers, as an alternative, a low cost PC compatible hardware environment with free and open operating system.

  2. An Overview of the Mars Science Laboratory Sample Acquisition, Sample Processing and Handling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, L. W.; Anderson, R. C.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Jandura, L.; Limonadi, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Mission (MSL), landed on Mars on August 5. The rover and a scientific payload are designed to identify and assess the habitability, geological, and environmental histories of Gale crater. Unraveling the geologic history of the region and providing an assessment of present and past habitability requires an evaluation of the physical and chemical characteristics of the landing site; this includes providing an in-depth examination of the chemical and physical properties of Martian regolith and rocks. The MSL Sample Acquisition, Processing, and Handling (SA/SPaH) subsystem is the first in-situ system designed to acquire interior rock and soil samples from Martian surface materials. These samples are processed and separated into fine particles and distributed to two onboard analytical science instruments SAM (Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite) and CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) or to a sample analysis tray for visual inspection. The SA/SPaH subsystem is also responsible for the placement of the two contact instruments, Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS), and the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), on rock and soil targets. Finally, there is a Dust Removal Tool (DRT) to remove dust particles from rock surfaces for subsequent analysis by the contact and or mast mounted instruments (e.g. Mast Cameras (MastCam) and the Chemistry and Micro-Imaging instruments (ChemCam)). It is expected that the SA/SPaH system will have produced a scooped system and possibility a drilled sample in the first 90 sols of the mission. Results from these activities and the ongoing testing program will be presented.

  3. An integrated flask sample collection system for greenhouse gas measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turnbull

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A one hour integrated flask sampling system to collect air in automated NOAA/ESRL 12-flask packages is described. The integrating compressor system uses a mass flow controller to regulate the flow of air through a 15 l volume, thus providing a mixture of air collected over an hour-long period. By beginning with a high flow rate of 3.8 standard liters per minute and gradually decreasing the flow rate over time to 0.29 standard liters per minute it is possible to obtain a nearly uniformly time averaged sample of air and collect it into a pressurized 0.7 l flask. The weighting function determining the air mixture obtained is described in detail. Laboratory and field tests demonstrate that the integrated sample approximates a simple mean of air collected during the one-hour sampling time.

  4. System design description for the consolidated sludge sampling system for K Basins floor and fuel canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HECHT, S.L.

    1999-02-18

    This System Design Description describes the Consolidated Sludge Sampling System used in the gathering of sludge samples from K Basin floor and fuel canisters. This document provides additional information on the need for the system, the functions and requirements of the systems, the operations of the system, and the general work plan used in its' design and development.

  5. LifeChanger: A Pilot Study of a Game-Based Curriculum for Sexuality Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Melissa; Jagoda, Patrick; Heathcock, Stephen; Orzalli, Sarah; Saper, Carolyn; Dudley, Jessyca; Wilson, Claire

    2016-04-01

    To assess the feasibility and acceptability of a game-based sexuality education curriculum. Curriculum evaluation used descriptive statistics, observation, and qualitative and quantitative data collection. The study was conducted in eighth grade classrooms in Chicago, Illinois. Students from 3 eighth grade classrooms from a school using a game-based curriculum. The intervention had 11 modules and used an ecological model informed by the extant literature. The intervention was developed by the Game Changer Chicago Design Lab and featured a card game designed with youth participation. The study outcomes of interest included learning, feasibility, and acceptability of the curriculum. Students highly rated frank conversation via "Ask the Doctor" sessions and role-playing. Students raised concerns about the breadth of activities, preferring to explore fewer topics in greater depth. A game-based curriculum was feasible, yet students placed the highest value on frank discussion about sexuality. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Photovoltaic Hosting Capacity of Feeders with Reactive Power Control and Tap Changers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceylan, Oğuzhan; Paudyal, Sumit; Bhattarai, Bishnu P.; Myers, Kurt S.

    2017-06-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm to determine photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity of power distribution networks as a function of number of PV injection nodes, reactive power support from the PVs, and the sub-station load tap changers (LTCs). In the proposed method, several minute by minute simulations are run based on randomly chosen PV injection nodes, daily PV output profiles, and daily load profiles from a pool of high-resolution realistic data set. The simulation setup is built using OpenDSS and MATLAB. The performance of the proposed method is investigated in the IEEE 123-node distribution feeder for multiple scenarios. The case studies are performed particularly for one, two, five and ten PV injection nodes, and looking at the maximum voltage deviations. Case studies show that the PV hosting capacity of the 123-node feeder greatly differs with the number of PV injection nodes. We have also observed that the PV hosting capacity increases with reactive power support and higher tap position of sub-station LTC.

  7. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+): game changer or just another quick fix?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Oscar; Koh, Lian Pin

    2012-02-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) provides financial compensation to land owners who avoid converting standing forests to other land uses. In this paper, we review the main opportunities and challenges for REDD+ implementation, including expectations for REDD+ to deliver on multiple environmental and societal cobenefits. We also highlight a recent case study, the Norway-Indonesia REDD+ agreement and discuss how it might be a harbinger of outcomes in other forest-rich nations seeking REDD+ funds. Looking forward, we critically examine the fundamental assumptions of REDD+ as a solution for the atmospheric buildup of greenhouse gas emissions and tropical deforestation. We conclude that REDD+ is currently the most promising mechanism driving the conservation of tropical forests. Yet, to emerge as a true game changer, REDD+ must still demonstrate that it can access low transaction cost and high-volume carbon markets or funds, while also providing or complimenting a suite of nonmonetary incentives to encourage a developing nation's transition from forest losing to forest gaining, and align with, not undermine, a globally cohesive attempt to mitigate anthropogenic climate change. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Business model generation a handbook for visionaries, game changers, and challengers

    CERN Document Server

    Osterwalder, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Business Model Generation is a handbook for visionaries, game changers, and challengers striving to defy outmoded business models and design tomorrow′s enterprises. If your organization needs to adapt to harsh new realities, but you don′t yet have a strategy that will get you out in front of your competitors, you need Business Model Generation. Co–created by 470 "Business Model Canvas" practitioners from 45 countries, the book features a beautiful, highly visual, 4–color design that takes powerful strategic ideas and tools, and makes them easy to implement in your organization. It explains the most common Business Model patterns, based on concepts from leading business thinkers, and helps you reinterpret them for your own context. You will learn how to systematically understand, design, and implement a game–changing business model––or analyze and renovate an old one. Along the way, you′ll understand at a much deeper level your customers, distribution channels, partners, revenue streams, costs...

  9. The "glymphatic" mechanism for solute clearance in Alzheimer's disease: game changer or unproven speculation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alex J; Verkman, Alan S

    2017-11-03

    How solutes and macromolecules are removed from brain tissue is of central importance in normal brain physiology and in how toxic protein aggregates are cleared in neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Conventionally, solute transport in the narrow and tortuous extracellular space in brain parenchyma has been thought to be primarily diffusive and nondirectional. The recently proposed "glymphatic" (glial-lymphatic) hypothesis posits that solute clearance is convective and driven by active fluid transport from para-arterial to paravenous spaces though aquaporin-4 water channels in astrocyte endfeet. Glymphatic, convective solute clearance has received much attention because of its broad implications for AD and other brain pathologies and even the function of sleep. However, the theoretical plausibility of glymphatic transport has been questioned, and recent data have challenged its experimental underpinnings. A substantiated mechanism of solute clearance in the brain is of considerable importance because of its implications for pathogenic mechanisms of neurologic diseases and delivery of therapeutics.-Smith, A. J., Verkman, A. S. The "glymphatic" mechanism for solute clearance in Alzheimer's disease: game changer or unproven speculation? © FASEB.

  10. Sampled-data models for linear and nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yuz, Juan I

    2014-01-01

    Sampled-data Models for Linear and Nonlinear Systems provides a fresh new look at a subject with which many researchers may think themselves familiar. Rather than emphasising the differences between sampled-data and continuous-time systems, the authors proceed from the premise that, with modern sampling rates being as high as they are, it is becoming more appropriate to emphasise connections and similarities. The text is driven by three motives: ·      the ubiquity of computers in modern control and signal-processing equipment means that sampling of systems that really evolve continuously is unavoidable; ·      although superficially straightforward, sampling can easily produce erroneous results when not treated properly; and ·      the need for a thorough understanding of many aspects of sampling among researchers and engineers dealing with applications to which they are central. The authors tackle many misconceptions which, although appearing reasonable at first sight, are in fact either p...

  11. Determining the Bayesian optimal sampling strategy in a hierarchical system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, Matthew D.; Ringland, James T.; Boggs, Paul T.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2010-09-01

    Consider a classic hierarchy tree as a basic model of a 'system-of-systems' network, where each node represents a component system (which may itself consist of a set of sub-systems). For this general composite system, we present a technique for computing the optimal testing strategy, which is based on Bayesian decision analysis. In previous work, we developed a Bayesian approach for computing the distribution of the reliability of a system-of-systems structure that uses test data and prior information. This allows for the determination of both an estimate of the reliability and a quantification of confidence in the estimate. Improving the accuracy of the reliability estimate and increasing the corresponding confidence require the collection of additional data. However, testing all possible sub-systems may not be cost-effective, feasible, or even necessary to achieve an improvement in the reliability estimate. To address this sampling issue, we formulate a Bayesian methodology that systematically determines the optimal sampling strategy under specified constraints and costs that will maximally improve the reliability estimate of the composite system, e.g., by reducing the variance of the reliability distribution. This methodology involves calculating the 'Bayes risk of a decision rule' for each available sampling strategy, where risk quantifies the relative effect that each sampling strategy could have on the reliability estimate. A general numerical algorithm is developed and tested using an example multicomponent system. The results show that the procedure scales linearly with the number of components available for testing.

  12. Sampling and Filtering in Photovoltaic System Performance Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driesse, Anton [PV Performance Labs, Freiburg (Germany); Stein, Joshua S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photovoltaic and Distributed Systems Integration; Riley, Daniel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photovoltaic and Distributed Systems Integration; Carmignani, Craig K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photovoltaic and Distributed Systems Integration

    2014-10-01

    The performance of photovoltaic systems must be monitored accurately to ensure profitable long-term operation. The most important signals to be measured—irradiance and temperature, as well as power, current and voltage on both DC and AC sides of the system—contain rapid fluctuations that are not observable by typical monitoring systems. Nevertheless these fluctuations can affect the accuracy of the data that are stored. This report closely examines the main signals in one operating PV system, which were recorded at 2000 samples per second. It analyzes the characteristics and causes of the rapid fluctuations that are found, such as line-frequency harmonics, perturbations from anti-islanding detection, MPPT searching action and others. The operation of PV monitoring systems is then simulated using a wide range of sampling intervals, archive intervals and filtering options to assess how these factors influence data accuracy. Finally several potential sources of error are discussed with real-world examples.

  13. Multi-dimensional virtual system introduced to enhance canonical sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Junichi; Kasahara, Kota; Nakamura, Haruki

    2017-10-01

    When an important process of a molecular system occurs via a combination of two or more rare events, which occur almost independently to one another, computational sampling for the important process is difficult. Here, to sample such a process effectively, we developed a new method, named the "multi-dimensional Virtual-system coupled Monte Carlo (multi-dimensional-VcMC)" method, where the system interacts with a virtual system expressed by two or more virtual coordinates. Each virtual coordinate controls sampling along a reaction coordinate. By setting multiple reaction coordinates to be related to the corresponding rare events, sampling of the important process can be enhanced. An advantage of multi-dimensional-VcMC is its simplicity: Namely, the conformation moves widely in the multi-dimensional reaction coordinate space without knowledge of canonical distribution functions of the system. To examine the effectiveness of the algorithm, we introduced a toy model where two molecules (receptor and its ligand) bind and unbind to each other. The receptor has a deep binding pocket, to which the ligand enters for binding. Furthermore, a gate is set at the entrance of the pocket, and the gate is usually closed. Thus, the molecular binding takes place via the two events: ligand approach to the pocket and gate opening. In two-dimensional (2D)-VcMC, the two molecules exhibited repeated binding and unbinding, and an equilibrated distribution was obtained as expected. A conventional canonical simulation, which was 200 times longer than 2D-VcMC, failed in sampling the binding/unbinding effectively. The current method is applicable to various biological systems.

  14. A novel PMT test system based on waveform sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, S.; Ma, L.; Ning, Z.; Qian, S.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, X.; Wang, Z.; Yu, B.; Gao, F.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2018-01-01

    Comparing with the traditional test system based on a QDC and TDC and scaler, a test system based on waveform sampling is constructed for signal sampling of the 8"R5912 and the 20"R12860 Hamamatsu PMT in different energy states from single to multiple photoelectrons. In order to achieve high throughput and to reduce the dead time in data processing, the data acquisition software based on LabVIEW is developed and runs with a parallel mechanism. The analysis algorithm is realized in LabVIEW and the spectra of charge, amplitude, signal width and rising time are analyzed offline. The results from Charge-to-Digital Converter, Time-to-Digital Converter and waveform sampling are discussed in detailed comparison.

  15. Authentication Assurance Level Application to the Inventory Sampling Measurement System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaney, Mike M.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Hansen, Randy R.; Geelhood, Bruce D.

    2001-09-06

    This document concentrates on the identification of a standardized assessment approach for the verification of security functionality in specific equipment, the Inspection Sampling Measurement System (ISMS) being developed for MAYAK. Specifically, an Authentication Assurance Level 3 is proposed to be reached in authenticating the ISMS.

  16. Consensus of Multiagent Systems with Sampled Information and Noisy Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Jun Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider consensus problems of first-order multiagent systems with sampled information and noisy measurements. A distributed stochastic approximation type algorithm is employed to attenuate the measurement noises. We provide conditions under which almost sure strong consensus is guaranteed for fixed and switching directed network topologies. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  17. The Violent Early Solar System, as Told by Sample Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    One of the legacies of the samples collected by the Apollo and Luna missions is the link forged between radiometric ages of rocks and relative ages according to stratigraphic relationships and impact crater size-frequency distributions. Our current understanding of the history of the inner solar system is based on the relative chronology of individual planets, tied to the absolute geochronology of the Moon via these important samples. Sample ages have enabled us to infer that impact-melt breccias from Apollo 14 and 15 record the formation of the Imbrium Basin, those from the highland massifs at Apollo 17 record the age of Serenitatis, those from the KREEP-poor Apollo 16 site record the age of Nectaris, and materials from Luna 24 record the age of Crisium. Ejecta from smaller and younger craters Copernicus and Tycho were sampled at Apollo 12 and 17, respectively, and local craters such as Cone at Apollo 14, and North Ray and South Ray at Apollo 16 were also sampled and ages determined for those events. Much of what we understand about the lunar impact flux is based on these ages. Samples from these nearside locations reveal a preponderance of impact-disturbed or recrystallized ages between 3.75 and 3.95 billion years. Argon and lead loss (and correlated disturbances in the Rb-Sr system) have been attributed to metamorphism of the lunar crust by an enormous number of impacts in a brief pulse of time, called the Lunar Cataclysm or Late Heavy Bombardment. Subsequent high-precision geochronometric analyses of Apollo samples and lunar highlands meteorites show a wider range of ages, but very few older than 4 Ga. The paucity of ancient impact melt rocks has been interpreted to mean that either that most impact basins formed at this time, or that ejecta from the large, near-side, young basins dominates the Apollo samples.

  18. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  19. Recent Results of the Investigation of a Microfluidic Sampling Chip and Sampling System for Hot Cell Aqueous Processing Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia Tripp; Jack Law; Tara Smith

    2013-10-01

    A Fuel Cycle Research and Development project has investigated an innovative sampling method that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements present in aqueous processing streams. Initially sampling technologies were evaluated and microfluidics sampling chip technology was selected and tested. A conceptual design for a fully automated microcapillary-based system was completed and a robotic automated sampling system was fabricated. The mechanical and sampling operation of the completed sampling system was investigated. In addition, the production of a less expensive, mass produced sampling chip was investigated to avoid chip reuse thus increasing sampling reproducibility/accuracy. The microfluidic-based robotic sampling system’s mechanical elements were tested to ensure analytical reproducibility and the optimum robotic handling of microfluidic sampling chips.

  20. MIMO Frequency Sampling Filters for Modelling of MIMO System Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hilmi R.A. Aziz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the modelling of a system based on a system identification approach, data acquisition is the first procedure that must be carried out. The data acquisition process from a real system typically yields large amounts of data. This may lead to unacceptable computational time during the identification process. Raw data may also suffer severe noise disturbance, especially in the high frequency region. In addition, bias estimation will occur if one only considers direct identification from a closed-loop system. To overcome this problem, in this paper a multivariable frequency sampling filter approach is introduced. Multi-input-multi-output (MIMO raw data are analyzed in order to obtain only relevant and meaningful parameters that describe the empirical model of the analyzed data. By performing this procedure, compressed, cleaned and unbiased data are produced. The efficacy of the MIMO frequency sampling filters was demonstrated by compressing two sets of data: pH neutralization process data and steam generator plant data. The results show that the amount of raw data was successfully compressed and that the output was ready for identification purposes with less computational time, i.e. they could be further used to develop a model of the system, to conduct time and frequency response analysis, and also for developing a new control system design.

  1. Experimental Testing and Model Validation of a Decoupled-Phase On-Load Tap Changer Transformer in an Active Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchino, Antonio; Hu, Junjie; Coppo, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    this problem, distribution transformers with on-load tapping capability are under development. This paper presents model and experimental validation of a 35 kVA three-phase power distribution transformer with independent on-load tap changer control capability on each phase. With the purpose of investigating...... to reproduce the main feature of an unbalanced grid. The experimental activities are recreated in by carrying out dynamics simulation studies, aiming at validating the implemented models of both the transformer as well as the other grid components. Phase-neutral voltages’ deviations are limited, proving...

  2. Solar System Samples for Research, Education, and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Kascak, A.; Tobola, K.; Galindo, C.; Allen, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the next two years, during the NASA Year of the Solar System, spacecraft from NASA and our international partners will; encounter a comet, orbit asteroid 4 Vesta, continue to explore Mars with rovers, and launch robotic explorers to the Moon and Mars. We have pieces of all these worlds in our laboratories, and their continued study provides incredibly valuable "ground truth" to complement space exploration missions. Extensive information about these unique materials, as well as actual lunar samples and meteorites, are available for display and education. The Johnson Space Center (JSC) has the unique responsibility to curate NASA's extraterrestrial samples from past and future missions. Curation includes documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach.

  3. Fault tolerant controllers for sampled-data systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    A general compensator architecture for fault tolerant control (FTC) for sampled-data systems is proposed. The architecture is based on the YJBK parameterization of all stabilizing controllers, and uses the dual YJBK parameterization to quantify the performance of the fault tolerant system. The FTC...... architecture is based on a discrete-time nominal feedback controller and with the FTC part also in discrete-time. Further, a number of problems for the design of the controller reconfiguration part in the FTC architecture is considered. It is shown how these design problems can be transformed into standard...... design problems for feedback controllers....

  4. All-polymer microfluidic systems for droplet based sample analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carl Esben

    here were fabricated exclusive using commercially relevant fabrication methods such as injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. Further, to reduce the complexity of the final system, I have worked towards an all-in-one device which includes sample loading, priming (removal of air), droplet formation...... bonded by ultrasonic welding. In the sub-projects of this PhD, improvements have been made to multiple aspects of fabricating and conducting droplet (or multiphase) microfluidics: • Design phase: Numerical prediction of the capillary burst pressure of a multiphase system. • Fabrication: Two new types...

  5. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  6. Sampling the time evolution of mixed quantum-classical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantum mechanics is not logically closed with respect to the classical world. Its formalism unfolds as the quantization of a sub-set of classical Hamiltonians. The interpretation of quantum theory in terms of the measurement process inevitably requires to deal with systems composed by a mixture of both classical and quantum degrees of freedom. Moreover, when energy can flow between the quantum and classical degrees of freedom (i.e., in the case of nonadiabatic dynamics, there are more theoretical difficulties in order to obtain a fully consistent quantum-classical formalism. In order to perform calculations, one can renounce to the usual Lie algebraic structure of well-established physical theories, adopt non-Hamiltonian brackets, and obtain a formalism for the dynamics and statistics of quantum-classical systems that has an affordable computational complexity. Recent progress in the algorithms for the sampling of nonadiabatic dynamics of quantum-classical systems at long time is reviewed here.

  7. Hand held sample tube manipulator, system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Donald V [Liberty Township, OH; Smith, Deborah L [Liberty Township, OH; Severance, Richard A [late of Columbus, OH

    2001-01-01

    A manipulator apparatus, system and method for measuring analytes present in sample tubes. The manipulator apparatus includes a housing having a central bore with an inlet end and outlet end; a plunger mechanism with at least a portion thereof slideably disposed for reciprocal movement within the central bore, the plunger mechanism having a tubular gas channel with an inlet end and an outlet end, the gas channel inlet end disposed in the same direction as said inlet end of the central bore, wherein the inlet end of said plunger mechanism is adapted for movement so as to expel a sample tube inserted in the bore at the outlet end of the housing, the inlet end of the plunger mechanism is adapted for connection to gas supply; a first seal is disposed in the housing for sealing between the central bore and the plunger mechanism; a second seal is disposed at the outlet end of the housing for sealing between the central bore and a sample tube; a holder mounted on the housing for holding the sample tube; and a biasing mechanism for returning the plunger mechanism to a starting position.

  8. Impact of ADC parameters on linear optical sampling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung-Hien; Gay, Mathilde; Gomez-Agis, Fausto; Lobo, Sébastien; Sentieys, Olivier; Simon, Jean-Claude; Peucheret, Christophe; Bramerie, Laurent

    2017-11-01

    Linear optical sampling (LOS), based on the coherent photodetection of an optical signal under test with a low repetition-rate signal originating from a pulsed local oscillator (LO), enables the characterization of the temporal electric field of optical sources. Thanks to this technique, low-speed photodetectors and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) can be integrated in the LOS system providing a cost-effective tool for characterizing high-speed signals. However, the impact of photodetector and ADC parameters on such LOS systems has not been explored in detail so far. These parameters, including the integration time of the track-and-hold function, the effective number of bits (ENOB) of the ADC, as well as the combined limited bandwidth of the photodetector and ADC are experimentally and numerically investigated in a LOS system for the first time. More specifically, by reconstructing 10-Gbit/s non-return-to-zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) and 10-Gbaud NRZ-quadrature phase-shift-keying (QPSK) signals, it is shown that a short integration time provides a better recovered signal fidelity. Furthermore, an ENOB of 6 bits and an ADC bandwidth normalized to the sampling rate of 2.8 are found to be sufficient in order to reliably monitor the considered signals.

  9. Passive vs. Parachute System Architecture for Robotic Sample Return Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, Robert W.; Henning, Allen B.; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2016-01-01

    The Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) is a flexible vehicle concept based on the Mars Sample Return (MSR) EEV design which can be used in the preliminary sample return mission study phase to parametrically investigate any trade space of interest to determine the best entry vehicle design approach for that particular mission concept. In addition to the trade space dimensions often considered (e.g. entry conditions, payload size and mass, vehicle size, etc.), the MMEEV trade space considers whether it might be more beneficial for the vehicle to utilize a parachute system during descent/landing or to be fully passive (i.e. not use a parachute). In order to evaluate this trade space dimension, a simplified parachute system model has been developed based on inputs such as vehicle size/mass, payload size/mass and landing requirements. This model works in conjunction with analytical approximations of a mission trade space dataset provided by the MMEEV System Analysis for Planetary EDL (M-SAPE) tool to help quantify the differences between an active (with parachute) and a passive (no parachute) vehicle concept.

  10. Active Chemical Sampling System for Underwater Chemical Source Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Takemura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of active water sampling to enhance chemical reception for small underwater robots. The search for a chemical source in a stagnant water environment is not an easy task because the chemical solution released from the source stays in the close vicinity of the source. No signal is obtained even if a robot with chemical sensors is placed a few centimeters from the chemical source. In the system under study, four electrochemical sensors are aligned in front of a suction pipe that draws water samples from the surroundings. Owing to the smooth laminar flow converging to the suction port, the streak of the chemical solution drawn to the sensors is shaped into a thin filamentous form. To prevent the chemical solution from passing between the sensors without touching their surfaces, slits are placed in front of the sensors to guide the incoming chemical solution from different directions to the corresponding sensors. A chemical source can be located by moving the system in the direction of the sensor showing the largest response. It is also shown that the chemical reception at the sensors can be significantly enhanced when the system is wobbled to introduce disturbances.

  11. Voltage Control for Unbalanced Low Voltage Grids Using a Decoupled-Phase On-Load Tap-Changer Transformer and Photovoltaic Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchino, Antonio; Marinelli, Mattia; Hu, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents modeling and analysis of the potential benefits of joint actions of a MV/LV three-phase power distribution transformer with independent on-load tap-changer control on each phase and photovoltaic inverters provided with reactive power control capability, in terms of accommodating...

  12. Randomly Sampled-Data Control Systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kuoruey

    1990-01-01

    The purpose is to solve the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) problem with random time sampling. Such a sampling scheme may arise from imperfect instrumentation as in the case of sampling jitter. It can also model the stochastic information exchange among decentralized controllers to name just a few. A practical suboptimal controller is proposed with the nice property of mean square stability. The proposed controller is suboptimal in the sense that the control structure is limited to be linear. Because of i. i. d. assumption, this does not seem unreasonable. Once the control structure is fixed, the stochastic discrete optimal control problem is transformed into an equivalent deterministic optimal control problem with dynamics described by the matrix difference equation. The N-horizon control problem is solved using the Lagrange's multiplier method. The infinite horizon control problem is formulated as a classical minimization problem. Assuming existence of solution to the minimization problem, the total system is shown to be mean square stable under certain observability conditions. Computer simulations are performed to illustrate these conditions.

  13. Advanced Pressure Coring System for Deep Earth Sampling (APRECOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, E.; Rothfuss, M.; Müller, W. H.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays the recovery of cores from boreholes is a standard operation. However, during that process the mechanical, physical, and chemical properties as well as living conditions for microorganisms are significantly altered. In-situ sampling is one approach to overcome the severe scientific limitations of conventional, depressurized core investigations by recovering, processing, and conducting experiments in the laboratory, while maintaining unchanged environmental parameters. The most successful equipment today is the suite of tools developed within the EU funded projects HYACE (Hydrate Autoclave Coring Equipment) and HYACINTH (Deployment of HYACE tools In New Tests on Hydrates) between 1997 and 2005. Within several DFG (German Research Foundation) projects the Technical University Berlin currently works on concepts to increase the present working pressure of 250 bar as well as to reduce logistical and financial expenses by merging redundant and analogous procedures and scaling down the considerable size of key components. It is also proposed to extend the range of applications for the wireline rotary pressure corer and the sub-sampling and transfer system to all types of soil conditions (soft to highly-consolidated). New modifications enable the tools to be used in other pressure related fields of research, such as unconventional gas exploration (coal-bed methane, tight gas, gas hydrate), CO2 sequestration, and microbiology of the deep biosphere. Expedient enhancement of an overall solution for pressure core retrieval, process and investigation will open the way for a complete on-site, all-purpose, in-situ equipment. The advanced assembly would allow for executing the whole operation sequences of coring, non-destructive measurement, sub-sampling and transfer into storage, measurement and transportation chambers, all in sterile, anaerobic conditions, and without depressurisation in quick succession. Extensive post-cruise handling and interim storage would be

  14. Procedures for sampling and sample reduction within quality assurance systems for solid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this experimental study on sampling was to determine the size and number of samples of biofuels required (taken at two sampling points in each case) and to compare two methods of sampling. The first objective of the sample-reduction exercise was to compare the reliability of various sampling methods, and the second objective was to measure the variations introduced as a result of reducing the sample size to form suitable test portions. The materials studied were sawdust, wood chips, wood pellets and bales of straw, and these were analysed for moisture, ash, particle size and chloride. The sampling procedures are described. The study was conducted in Scandinavia. The results of the study were presented in Leipzig in October 2004. The work was carried out as part of the UK's DTI Technology Programme: New and Renewable Energy.

  15. Mars Science Laboratory Sample Acquisition, Sample Processing and Handling Subsystem: A Description of the Sampling Functionality of the System after being on the Surface for Two Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, L. W.; Anderson, R. C.; Abbey, W. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Sample Acquisition/Sample Processing and Handling (SA/SPaH) subsystem for the Mars Science Library (MSL) is a rover-based sampling system. SA/SPaH consists of a powdering drill and a scooping, sieving, and portioning device mounted on a turret at the end of a robotic arm. Curiosity rover preformed several sample acquisitions and processing of solid samples during its first year of operation. Material were processed and delivered to the two analytical instruments, Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) and Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM), both of which required specific particle size for the material delivered to them to perform their analysis to determine its mineralogy and geochemistry content. In this presentation, the functionality of the system will be explained along with the in-situ targets the system has acquire and the samples that were delivered.

  16. Classifier-Guided Sampling for Complex Energy System Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backlund, Peter B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eddy, John P. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report documents the results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort enti tled "Classifier - Guided Sampling for Complex Energy System Optimization" that was conducted during FY 2014 and FY 2015. The goal of this proj ect was to develop, implement, and test major improvements to the classifier - guided sampling (CGS) algorithm. CGS is type of evolutionary algorithm for perform ing search and optimization over a set of discrete design variables in the face of one or more objective functions. E xisting evolutionary algorithms, such as genetic algorithms , may require a large number of o bjecti ve function evaluations to identify optimal or near - optimal solutions . Reducing the number of evaluations can result in significant time savings, especially if the objective function is computationally expensive. CGS reduce s the evaluation count by us ing a Bayesian network classifier to filter out non - promising candidate designs , prior to evaluation, based on their posterior probabilit ies . In this project, b oth the single - objective and multi - objective version s of the CGS are developed and tested on a set of benchm ark problems. As a domain - specific case study, CGS is used to design a microgrid for use in islanded mode during an extended bulk power grid outage.

  17. Development of an Integrated Suspended Sediment Sampling System - Prototype Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerantzaki, Sofia; Moirogiorgou, Konstantia; Efstathiou, Dionissis; Giannakis, George; Voutsadaki, Stella; Zervakis, Michalis; Sibetheros, Ioannis A.; Zacharias, Ierotheos; Karatzas, George P.; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is characterized by a unique micro-climate and a complex geologic and geomorphologic environment caused by its position in the Alpine orogenesis belt. Unique features of the region are the temporary rivers that are dry streams or streams with very low flow for most of the time over decadal time scales. One of their key characteristics is that they present flashy hydrographs with response times ranging from minutes to hours. It is crucial to monitor flash-flood events and observe their behavior since they can cause environmental degradation of the river's wider location area. The majority of sediment load is transferred during these flash events. Quantification of these fluxes through the development of new measuring devices is of outmost importance as it is the first step for a comprehensive understanding of the water quality, the soil erosion and erosion sources, and the sediment and nutrient transport routes. This work proposes an integrated suspended sediment sampling system which is implemented in a complex semi-arid Mediterranean watershed (i.e. the Koiliaris River Basin of Crete) with temporary flow tributaries and karstic springs. The system consists of sensors monitoring water stage and turbidity, an automated suspended sediment sampler, and an online camera recording video sequence of the river flow. Water stage and turbidity are continuously monitored and stage is converted to flow with the use of a rating curve; when either of these variables exceeds certain thresholds, the pump of the sediment sampler initiates sampling with a rotation proportional to the stage (flow weighted sampling). The water passes through a filter that captures the sediment, the solids are weighted after each storm and the data are converted to a total sediment flux. At the same time, the online camera derives optical measurements for the determination of the two-dimensional river flow velocity and the spatial sediment distribution by analyzing the Hue

  18. Autonomous sample switcher for Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J. H.; Restrepo, J.; Barrero, C. A.; Tobón, J. E.; Ramírez, L. F.; Jaramillo, J.

    2017-11-01

    In this work we show the design and implementation of an autonomous sample switcher device to be used as a part of the experimental set up in transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy, which can be extended to other spectroscopic techniques employing radioactive sources. The changer is intended to minimize radiation exposure times to the users or technical staff and to optimize the use of radioactive sources without compromising the resolution of measurements or spectra. This proposal is motivated firstly by the potential hazards arising from the use of radioactive sources and secondly by the expensive costs involved, and in other cases the short life times, where a suitable and optimum use of the sources is crucial. The switcher system includes a PIC microcontroller for simple tasks involving sample displacement and positioning, in addition to a virtual instrument developed by using LabView. The shuffle of the samples proceeds in a sequential way based on the number of counts and the signal to noise ratio as selection criteria whereas the virtual instrument allows performing} a remote monitoring from a PC via Internet about the status of the spectra and to take control decisions. As an example, we show a case study involving a series of akaganeite samples. An efficiency and economical analysis is finally presented and discussed.

  19. Autonomous sample switcher for Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, J. H., E-mail: jolobotero@gmail.com; Restrepo, J., E-mail: jrestre@gmail.com [University of Antioquia, Group of Magnetism and Simulation, Institute of Physics (Colombia); Barrero, C. A., E-mail: cesar.barrero.meneses@gmail.com [University of Antioquia, Group of Solid State Physics, Institute of Physics (Colombia); Tobón, J. E., E-mail: nobotj@gmail.com; Ramírez, L. F., E-mail: luisf.ramirez@udea.edu.co; Jaramillo, J., E-mail: jdex87@gmail.com [University of Antioquia, Group of Scientific Instrumentation and Microelectronics, Institute of Physics (Colombia)

    2017-11-15

    In this work we show the design and implementation of an autonomous sample switcher device to be used as a part of the experimental set up in transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy, which can be extended to other spectroscopic techniques employing radioactive sources. The changer is intended to minimize radiation exposure times to the users or technical staff and to optimize the use of radioactive sources without compromising the resolution of measurements or spectra. This proposal is motivated firstly by the potential hazards arising from the use of radioactive sources and secondly by the expensive costs involved, and in other cases the short life times, where a suitable and optimum use of the sources is crucial. The switcher system includes a PIC microcontroller for simple tasks involving sample displacement and positioning, in addition to a virtual instrument developed by using LabView. The shuffle of the samples proceeds in a sequential way based on the number of counts and the signal to noise ratio as selection criteria whereas the virtual instrument allows performing a remote monitoring from a PC via Internet about the status of the spectra and to take control decisions. As an example, we show a case study involving a series of akaganeite samples. An efficiency and economical analysis is finally presented and discussed.

  20. SAMSAN- MODERN NUMERICAL METHODS FOR CLASSICAL SAMPLED SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    SAMSAN was developed to aid the control system analyst by providing a self consistent set of computer algorithms that support large order control system design and evaluation studies, with an emphasis placed on sampled system analysis. Control system analysts have access to a vast array of published algorithms to solve an equally large spectrum of controls related computational problems. The analyst usually spends considerable time and effort bringing these published algorithms to an integrated operational status and often finds them less general than desired. SAMSAN reduces the burden on the analyst by providing a set of algorithms that have been well tested and documented, and that can be readily integrated for solving control system problems. Algorithm selection for SAMSAN has been biased toward numerical accuracy for large order systems with computational speed and portability being considered important but not paramount. In addition to containing relevant subroutines from EISPAK for eigen-analysis and from LINPAK for the solution of linear systems and related problems, SAMSAN contains the following not so generally available capabilities: 1) Reduction of a real non-symmetric matrix to block diagonal form via a real similarity transformation matrix which is well conditioned with respect to inversion, 2) Solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem with balancing and grading, 3) Computation of all zeros of the determinant of a matrix of polynomials, 4) Matrix exponentiation and the evaluation of integrals involving the matrix exponential, with option to first block diagonalize, 5) Root locus and frequency response for single variable transfer functions in the S, Z, and W domains, 6) Several methods of computing zeros for linear systems, and 7) The ability to generate documentation "on demand". All matrix operations in the SAMSAN algorithms assume non-symmetric matrices with real double precision elements. There is no fixed size limit on any matrix in any

  1. Electrokinetics for sample preparation of biological molecules in biological samples using microfluidic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallan, Aliaa I; Guijt, Rosanne M; Breadmore, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Sample preparation is the first part of every analytical method, but is often considered only after the optimization of the method. It is traditionally performed using a range of techniques requiring extensive manual handling, with solid-phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, protein precipitation and ultracentrfiguation, among others, being used depending on the targets and the application. In this article, we will focus on alternatives based on electrokinetics for applications including sample clean-up, concentration and derivatization of large biological molecules (DNA, peptides and proteins) of diagnostic importance, as well as small molecules as a tool for therapeutic drug monitoring. This article describes these approaches in terms of mechanisms, applicability and potential to be integrated into a lab-on-a-chip device for directly processing biological samples. Examples dealing with treated or clean samples have been excluded except where they show exceptionally high value.

  2. Multi-well sample plate cover penetration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald [Pleasanton, CA

    2011-12-27

    An apparatus for penetrating a cover over a multi-well sample plate containing at least one individual sample well includes a cutting head, a cutter extending from the cutting head, and a robot. The cutting head is connected to the robot wherein the robot moves the cutting head and cutter so that the cutter penetrates the cover over the multi-well sample plate providing access to the individual sample well. When the cutting head is moved downward the foil is pierced by the cutter that splits, opens, and folds the foil inward toward the well. The well is then open for sample aspiration but has been protected from cross contamination.

  3. Analysis of Direct Samples of Early Solar System Aqueous Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Bodnar, R J.; Fedele, L.; Yurimoto,H.; Itoh, S.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past three decades we have become increasingly aware of the fundamental importance of water, and aqueous alteration, on primitive solar-system bodies. Some carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites have been altered by interactions with liquid water within the first 10 million years after formation of their parent asteroids. Millimeter to centimeter-sized aggregates of purple halite containing aqueous fluid inclusions were found in the matrix of two freshly-fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans (1998, hereafter simply "Monahans") (H5) and Zag (H3-6) (Zolensky et al., 1999; Whitby et al., 2000; Bogard et al., 2001) In order to understand origin and evolution of the aqueous fluids inside these inclusions we much measure the actual fluid composition, and also learn the O and H isotopic composition of the water. It has taken a decade for laboratory analytical techniques to catch up to these particular nanomole-sized aqueous samples. We have recently been successful in (1) measuring the isotopic composition of H and O in the water in a few fluid inclusions from the Zag and Monahans halite, (2) mineralogical characterization of the solid mineral phases associated with the aqueous fluids within the halite, and (3) the first minor element analyses of the fluid itself. A Cameca ims-1270 equipped with a cryo-sample-stage of Hokkaido University was specially prepared for the O and H isotopic measurements. The cryo-sample-stage (Techno. I. S. Corp.) was cooled down to c.a. -190 C using liquid nitrogen at which the aqueous fluid in inclusions was frozen. We excavated the salt crystal surfaces to expose the frozen fluids using a 15 keV Cs+ beam and measured negative secondary ions. The secondary ions from deep craters of approximately 10 m in depth emitted stably but the intensities changed gradually during measurement cycles because of shifting states of charge compensation, resulting in rather poor reproducibility of multiple measurements of standard fluid

  4. High Pressure Atmospheric Sampling Inlet System for Venus or the Gas Giants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a miniaturized high pressure atmospheric sampling inlet system for sample acquisition in extreme planetary environments,...

  5. The Sample Registration System: an innovative system for monitoring demographic dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozumder, K A; Koenig, M A; Phillips, J F; Murad, S

    1990-09-01

    "The International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) has been at the forefront of the development of longitudinal systems for demographic surveillance. The Demographic Surveillance System from the Matlab study area is internationally recognized as a unique source of accurate and complete demographic data for a large rural population within a developing setting. In this paper, an overview is presented of a second demographic surveillance system--the Sample Registration System (SRS)--which has been in operation for six years in two other areas of rural Bangladesh." Fertility and mortality rates for the period 1983-1988 are calculated from the SRS data. excerpt

  6. On-Board Pressurization Systems for Sample Return Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To-date, the realization of high-performance liquid bipropellant rocket engines for ascent vehicle and sample return applications has largely been hindered by the...

  7. Microcomputer-Controlled Reader Systems for Archaeological and Geological TL Dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Mejdahl, V.

    1984-01-01

    Two fully automated TL reader systems for TL dating and a manually operated reader for research purpose were put into operation during 1982-3. All systems are controlled by HP-85 or HP-86 microcomputers; thus flexibility in selection of measurement parameters, calculation of TL signals and display...... and printout of glow curves is achieved. The basic design of the automated reader system incorporates a 24-position microprocessor-controlled sample changer and a beta irradiator. The system automatically provides the data for constructing the primary and secondary response curves required for determining...... the archaeological and geological ages. The principle of the measurement procedures are described, and dating results are presented to illustrate the performance of the systems...

  8. Sampling the Solar System. A Critical Exploration Component for Future Planetary Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, C. K.

    2017-02-01

    Sample return is a critical component for understanding our solar system (and other solar systems), and advancing human exploration activities. Here I will examine potential pathways for evolving sample return technologies needed to carry out increasingly complex missions.

  9. The Sample Handling System for the Mars Icebreaker Life Mission: from Dirt to Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Arwen; Thompson, Sarah J.; McKay, Christopher P.; Stoker, Carol R.; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale; Mellerowicz, Bolek; Glass, Brian J.; Wilson, David; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Mars icebreaker life mission will search for subsurface life on mars. It consists of three payload elements: a drill to retrieve soil samples from approx. 1 meter below the surface, a robotic sample handling system to deliver the sample from the drill to the instruments, and the instruments themselves. This paper will discuss the robotic sample handling system.

  10. Fiber sample presentation system for spectrophotometer cotton fiber color measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) is used to class U.S. cotton for fiber color, yielding the industry accepted, cotton-specific color parameters Rd and +b. The HVI examines a 9 square inch fiber sample, and it is also used to test large AMS standard cotton “biscuits” or rectangles. Much inte...

  11. An Integrated Tool for System Analysis of Sample Return Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.; Maddock, Robert W.; Winski, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    The next important step in space exploration is the return of sample materials from extraterrestrial locations to Earth for analysis. Most mission concepts that return sample material to Earth share one common element: an Earth entry vehicle. The analysis and design of entry vehicles is multidisciplinary in nature, requiring the application of mass sizing, flight mechanics, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, thermal analysis, structural analysis, and impact analysis tools. Integration of a multidisciplinary problem is a challenging task; the execution process and data transfer among disciplines should be automated and consistent. This paper describes an integrated analysis tool for the design and sizing of an Earth entry vehicle. The current tool includes the following disciplines: mass sizing, flight mechanics, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and impact analysis tools. Python and Java languages are used for integration. Results are presented and compared with the results from previous studies.

  12. Analytical Chemistry Division's sample transaction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton, J.S.; Tilson, P.A.

    1980-10-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Division uses the DECsystem-10 computer for a wide range of tasks: sample management, timekeeping, quality assurance, and data calculation. This document describes the features and operating characteristics of many of the computer programs used by the Division. The descriptions are divided into chapters which cover all of the information about one aspect of the Analytical Chemistry Division's computer processing.

  13. High Temperature Venus Drill and Sample Delivery System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We proposed to design, build and test a high temperature Pneumatic Drill and Trencher system for Venus subsurface exploration. The Venus Drill and Trencher will be...

  14. Stochastic Dynamics with Correct Sampling for Constrained Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, E A J F; Goga, N; Berendsen, H J C

    2014-10-14

    In this paper we discuss thermostatting using stochastic methods for molecular simulations where constraints are present. For so-called impulsive thermostats, like the Andersen thermostat, the equilibrium temperature will differ significantly from the imposed temperature when a limited number of particles are picked and constraints are applied. We analyze this problem and give two rigorous solutions for it. A correct general treatment of impulsive stochastic thermostatting, including pairwise dissipative particle dynamics and stochastic forcing in the presence of constraints, is given and it is shown that the constrained canonical distribution is sampled rigorously. We discuss implementation issues such as second order Trotter expansions. The method is shown to rigorously maintain the correct temperature for the case of extended simple point charge (SPC/E) water simulations.

  15. Design of the CERN MEDICIS Collection and Sample Extraction System

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Alexander

    MEDICIS is a new facility at CERN ISOLDE that aims to produce radio-isotopes for medical research. Possible designs for the collection and transport system for the collection of radio-isotopes was investigated. A system using readily available equipment was devised with the the aim of keeping costs to a minimum whilst maintaining the highest safety standards. FLUKA, a Monte Carlo radiation transport code, was used to simulate the radiation from the isotopes to be collected. Of the isotopes to be collected 44Sc was found to give the largest dose by simulating the collection of all isotopes of interest to CERN’s MEDICIS facility, for medical research. The simulations helped guide the amount of shielding used in the final design. Swiss Regulations stipulating allowed activity level of individual isotopes was also considered within the body of the work.

  16. 40 CFR 90.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT... analytical system description. (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this section is... downstream of the mixing area to ensure a uniform sample distribution across the CVS duct at the sampling...

  17. Performance evaluation of continuous blood sampling system for PET study. Comparison of three detector-systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, K; Sakamoto, S; Senda, M; Yamamoto, S; Tarutani, K; Minato, K

    2002-01-01

    To measure cerebral blood flow with sup 1 sup 5 O PET, it is necessary to measure the time course of arterial blood radioactivity. We examined the performance of three different types of continuous blood sampling system. Three kinds of continuous blood sampling system were used: a plastic scintillator-based beta detector (conventional beta detector (BETA)), a bismuth germinate (BGO)-based coincidence gamma detector (Pico-count flow-through detector (COINC)) and a Phoswich detector (PD) composed by a combination of plastic scintillator and BGO scintillator. Performance of these systems was evaluated for absolute sensitivity, count rate characteristic, sensitivity to background gamnra photons, and reproducibility for nylon tube geometry. The absolute sensitivity of the PD was 0.21 cps/Bq for sup 6 sup 8 Ga positrons at the center of the detector. This was approximately three times higher than BETA, two times higher than COINC. The value measured with BETA was stable, even when background radioactivity was incre...

  18. Integrated microdroplet-based system for enzyme synthesis and sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Florian; Best, Michel; Stewart, Robert; Oakeshott, John; Peat, Thomas; Zhu, Yonggang

    2013-12-01

    Microdroplet-based microfluidic devices are emerging as powerful tools for a wide range of biochemical screenings and analyses. Monodispersed aqueous microdroplets from picoliters to nanoliters in volume are generated inside microfluidic channels within an immiscible oil phase. This results in the formation of emulsions which can contain various reagents for chemical reactions and can be considered as discrete bioreactors. In this paper an integrated microfluidic platform for the synthesis, screening and sorting of libraries of an organophosphate degrading enzyme is presented. The variants of the selected enzyme are synthesized from a DNA source using in-vitro transcription and translation method. The synthesis occurs inside water-in-oil emulsion droplets, acting as bioreactors. Through a fluorescence based detection system, only the most efficient enzymes are selected. All the necessary steps from the enzyme synthesis to selection of the best genes (producing the highest enzyme activity) are thus integrated inside a single and unique device. In the second part of the paper, an innovative design of the microfluidic platform is presented, integrating an electronic prototyping board for ensuring the communication between the various components of the platform (camera, syringe pumps and high voltage power supply), resulting in a future handheld, user-friendly, fully automated device for enzyme synthesis, screening and selection. An overview on the capabilities as well as future perspectives of this new microfluidic platform is provided.

  19. 40 CFR 89.419 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sample distribution across the CVS duct at the point of sampling. (3) The CO and CO2 analytical system... measurement of hydrocarbon emissions noted in the following paragraph and to prevent condensation of water at... temperature measuring system (sensors and readout) shall have an accuracy and precision of ±2 °C. For systems...

  20. A bottom-landing water sampling system for the benthic boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, A. J.; Barrett, C. D.

    A novel water sampling device which enables vertical profiles of water samples to be obtained within the benthic boundary layer in shelf sea waters is described. A maximum of ten samples spread over 2 m immediately above the seabed can be obtained on each deployment. The design of the sample bottles minimizes disturbances to particle aggregates and positive displacement sampling ensures that the samples are representative of the environment. Suspended-solids profiles sampled in the benthic boundary layer over 15-hour period at a station in the English Channel are presented to demonstrate the utility of the system.

  1. Miniature Sample Collection and Delivery System using Gas-Entrained Powder Transport Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a miniature system for acquisition and delivery of solid samples to landed planetary instruments. This system would entrain powder produced by...

  2. ReGenesees: an Advanced R System for Calibration, Estimation and Sampling Error Assessment in Complex Sample Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zardetto Diego

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ReGenesees is a new software system for design-based and model-assisted analysis of complex sample surveys, based on R. As compared to traditional estimation platforms, it ensures easier and safer usage and achieves a dramatic reduction in user workload for both the calibration and the variance estimation tasks. Indeed, ReGenesees allows the specification of calibration models in a symbolic way, using R model formulae. Driven by this symbolic metadata, the system automatically and transparently generates the right values and formats for the auxiliary variables at the sample level, and assists the user in defining and calculating the corresponding population totals. Moreover, ReGenesees can handle arbitrary complex estimators, provided they can be expressed as differentiable functions of Horvitz-Thompson or calibration estimators of totals. Complex estimators can be defined in a completely free fashion: the user only needs to provide the system with the symbolic expression of the estimator as a mathematical function. ReGenesees is in fact able to automatically linearize such complex estimators, so that the estimation of their variance comes at no cost at all to the user. Remarkably, all the innovative features sketched above leverage a particular strong point of the R programming language, namely its ability to process symbolic information.

  3. Stochastic Stability of Sampled Data Systems with a Jump Linear Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Oscar R.; Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Gray, W. Steven

    2004-01-01

    In this paper an equivalence between the stochastic stability of a sampled-data system and its associated discrete-time representation is established. The sampled-data system consists of a deterministic, linear, time-invariant, continuous-time plant and a stochastic, linear, time-invariant, discrete-time, jump linear controller. The jump linear controller models computer systems and communication networks that are subject to stochastic upsets or disruptions. This sampled-data model has been used in the analysis and design of fault-tolerant systems and computer-control systems with random communication delays without taking into account the inter-sample response. This paper shows that the known equivalence between the stability of a deterministic sampled-data system and the associated discrete-time representation holds even in a stochastic framework.

  4. 40 CFR 91.421 - Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES.... (a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this section is designed to measure the... the mixing area to ensure a uniform sample distribution across the CVS duct at the sampling zone. (3...

  5. 40 CFR 1065.145 - Gaseous and PM probes, transfer lines, and sampling system components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Scrubber. You may use ammonia scrubbers for any or all gaseous sampling systems to prevent interference with NH3, poisoning of the NO2-to-NO converter, and deposits in the sampling system or analyzers. Follow the ammonia scrubber manufacturer's recommendations or use good engineering judgment in applying...

  6. Comparisons of sampling procedures and time of sampling for the detection of Salmonella in Danish infected chicken flocks raised in floor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Andersen, J.; Madsen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriological follow-up samples were taken from 41 chicken (Gallus gallus) flocks in floor systems, where Salmonella enterica (Salmonella) had been detected either directly in bacteriological samples or indirectly by serological samples. Three types of follow-up samples were compared to each...... other within each flock: 1) 5 pairs of socks, analysed as 5 samples, 2) 2 pairs of socks, analysed as one sample, and 3) 60 faecal samples, analysed as one pooled sample. Agreement between sampling methods was evaluated by the following statistical tests: 'Kappa', 'The adjusted rand', McNemar"s test...

  7. Frequency response variation of two offshore wind park transformers with different tap changer positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holbøll, Joachim; Sørensen, T

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of several sweep frequency response analysis (SFRA) measurements performed on two identical offshore wind farm transformers. A comparison is made between the transformers based on different recommended measurements and procedures, different measurement systems...

  8. [Establishment and Management of Multicentral Collection Bio-sample Banks of Malignant Tumors from Digestive System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Si; Shen, Junwei; Zhu, Liang; Wu, Chaoqun; Li, Dongliang; Yu, Hongyu; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Yi

    2015-11-01

    To establish and manage of multicentral collection bio-sample banks of malignant tumors from digestive system, the paper designed a multicentral management system, established the standard operation procedures (SOPs) and leaded ten hospitals nationwide to collect tumor samples. The biobank has been established for half a year, and has collected 695 samples from patients with digestive system malignant tumor. The clinical data is full and complete, labeled in a unified way and classified to be managed. The clinical and molecular biology researches were based on the biobank, and obtained achievements. The biobank provides a research platform for malignant tumor of digestive system from different regions and of different types.

  9. Stratified random sampling for estimating billing accuracy in health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhakulsomsiri, Jirachai; Parthanadee, Parthana

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents a stratified random sampling plan for estimating accuracy of bill processing performance for the health care bills submitted to third party payers in health care systems. Bill processing accuracy is estimated with two measures: percent accuracy and total dollar accuracy. Difficulties in constructing a sampling plan arise when the population strata structure is unknown, and when the two measures require different sampling schemes. To efficiently utilize sample resource, the sampling plan is designed to effectively estimate both measures from the same sample. The sampling plan features a simple but efficient strata construction method, called rectangular method, and two accuracy estimation methods, one for each measure. The sampling plan is tested on actual populations from an insurance company. Accuracy estimates obtained are then used to compare the rectangular method to other potential clustering methods for strata construction, and compare the accuracy estimation methods to other eligible methods. Computational study results show effectiveness of the proposed sampling plan.

  10. Preliminary level 2 specification for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-02-08

    This preliminary Level 2 Component Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the in-tank sampling system which will support the BNFL contract in the final disposal of Hanford's High Level Wastes (HLW) and Low Activity Wastes (LAW). The PHMC will provide Low Activity Wastes (LAW) tank wastes for final treatment by BNFL from double-shell feed tanks. Concerns about the inability of the baseline ''grab'' sampling to provide large volume samples within time constraints has led to the development of a nested, fixed-depth sampling system. This sampling system will provide large volume? representative samples without the environmental, radiation exposure, and sample volume Impacts of the current base-line ''grab'' sampling method. This preliminary Level 2 Component Specification is not a general specification for tank sampling, but is based on a ''record of decision'', AGA (HNF-SD-TWR-AGA-001 ), the System Specification for the Double Shell Tank System (HNF-SD-WM-TRD-O07), and the BNFL privatization contract.

  11. Studies with sample conductivity, insertion rates, and particle deflection in a continuous flow electrophoresis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The continuous flow electrophoresis system makes electrophoresis possible in a free-flowing film of aqueous electrolyte medium. The sample continuously enters the electrolyte at the top of the chamber and is subjected to the action of a lateral dc field. This divides the sample into fractions since each component has a distinctive electrophoretic mobility. Tests were made using monodisperse polystyrene latex microspheres to determine optimum sample conductivity, insertion rates and optimum electric field applications as baseline data for future STS flight experiments. Optimum sample flow rates for the selected samples were determined to be approximately 26 micro-liters/min. Experiments with samples in deionized water yielded best results and voltages in the 20 V/cm to 30 V/cm range were optimum. Deflections of formaldehyde fixed turkey and bovine erythrocytes were determined using the continuous flow electrophoresis system. The effects of particle interactions on sample resolution and migration in the chamber was also evaluated.

  12. Dynamic Output-Feedback Passivity Control for Fuzzy Systems under Variable Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyi Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the problem of dynamic output-feedback control for a class of nonlinear systems with nonuniform uncertain sampling via Takagi-Sugeno (T-S fuzzy control approach. The sampling is not required to be periodic, and the state variables are not required to be measurable. A new type fuzzy dynamic output-feedback sampled-data controller is constructed, and a novel time-dependent Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is chosen for fuzzy systems under variable sampling. By using Lyapunov stability theory, a sufficient condition for very-strict passive analysis of fuzzy systems with nonuniform uncertain sampling is derived. Based on this condition, a novel fuzzy dynamic output-feedback controller is designed such that the closed-loop system is very-strictly passive. The existence condition of the controller can be solved by convex optimization approach. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Preliminary level 2 specification for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-05-26

    This revision 1 Level 2 Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for a sampling system and for an at-tank analysis system that will support the BNFL, Inc. privatization contract in the final disposal of Hanford's high level waste (HLW) and low activity waste (LAW). The sampling system will quickly provide large volume, representative waste samples for validating the chemical, radiological, and physical properties of the tank waste without the exposure and time concerns of the baseline grab sampling method. The on-line sensors of the at-tank analysis system will provide data from which the mixing or settling status of the waste can be assessed. This revision 1 document includes functions, requirement, and specifications for the at-tank analysis system, the results of the preliminary outline design, and the FY 1998 validation testing. The sample container filling system will comply with RCRA criteria for samples with volatile organic constituents, include empty container and swipe input ports, use Hanford's Steel Pig radioactive sample package, comply with Hanford's flammable gas criteria, and have the means to recover from broken sample containers.

  14. Stochastic Stability of Nonlinear Sampled Data Systems with a Jump Linear Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Oscar R.; Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Gray, W. Steven

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the stability of a sampled- data system consisting of a deterministic, nonlinear, time- invariant, continuous-time plant and a stochastic, discrete- time, jump linear controller. The jump linear controller mod- els, for example, computer systems and communication net- works that are subject to stochastic upsets or disruptions. This sampled-data model has been used in the analysis and design of fault-tolerant systems and computer-control systems with random communication delays without taking into account the inter-sample response. To analyze stability, appropriate topologies are introduced for the signal spaces of the sampled- data system. With these topologies, the ideal sampling and zero-order-hold operators are shown to be measurable maps. This paper shows that the known equivalence between the stability of a deterministic, linear sampled-data system and its associated discrete-time representation as well as between a nonlinear sampled-data system and a linearized representation holds even in a stochastic framework.

  15. Target Tracking of a Linear Time Invariant System under Irregular Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xue-Bo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to event-triggered sampling in a system, or maybe with the aim of reducing data storage, tracking many applications will encounter irregular sampling time. By calculating the matrix exponential using an inverse Laplace transform, this paper transforms the irregular sampling tracking problem to the problem of tracking with time-varying parameters of a system. Using the common Kalman filter, the developed method is used to track a target for the simulated trajectory and video tracking. The results of simulation experiments have shown that it can obtain good estimation performance even at a very high irregular rate of measurement sampling time.

  16. A serial sample loading system: interfacing multiwell plates with microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Tushar D; Zec, Helena C; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2012-10-01

    There is an increasing demand for novel high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. The robotic sample-handling techniques currently used in these industries, although fast, are still limited to operating in multiwell plates with the sample volumes per reaction in the microliter regime. Digital microfluidics offers an alternative for reduction in sample volume consumption for HTS but lacks a reliable technique for transporting a large number of samples to the microfluidic device. In this report, we develop a technique for serial delivery of sample arrays to a microfluidic device from multiwell plates, through a single sample inlet. Under this approach, a serial array of sample plugs, separated by an immiscible carrier fluid, is loaded into a capillary and delivered to a microfluidic device. Similar approaches have been attempted in the past, however, either with a slower sample loading device such as a syringe pump or vacuum-based sample loading with limited driving pressure. We demonstrated the application of our positive-pressure-based serial sample loading (SSL) system to load a series of sample plugs into a capillary. The adaptability of the SSL system to generate sample plugs with a variety of volumes in a predictable manner was also demonstrated.

  17. Double Shell Tank (DST) Ventilation System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SASAKI, L.M.

    2000-06-08

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples from the primary ventilation systems of the AN, AP, AW, and AY/AZ tank farms. Sampling will be performed in accordance with Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis (Air DQO) (Mulkey 1999). The sampling will verify if current air emission estimates used in the permit application are correct and provide information for future air permit applications. Vapor samples will be obtained from tank farm ventilation systems, downstream from the tanks and upstream of any filtration. Samples taken in support of the DQO will consist of SUMMA{trademark} canisters, triple sorbent traps (TSTs), sorbent tube trains (STTs), polyurethane foam (PUF) samples. Particulate filter samples and tritium traps will be taken for radiation screening to allow the release of the samples for analysis. The following sections provide the general methodology and procedures to be used in the preparation, retrieval, transport, analysis, and reporting of results from the vapor samples.

  18. Velocity synchronization of multi-agent systems with mismatched parameters via sampled position data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen; Huang, Chunli; Lü, Jinhu; Li, Xiong; Chen, Shihua

    2016-02-01

    Power systems are special multi-agent systems with nonlinear coupling function and symmetric structures. This paper extends these systems to a class of multi-agent systems with mismatched parameters, linear coupling function, and asymmetric structures and investigates their velocity synchronization via sampled position data. The dynamics of the agents is adopted as that of generators with mismatched parameters, while the system structures are supposed to be complex. Two distributed linear consensus protocols are designed, respectively, for multi-agent systems without or with communication delay. Necessary and sufficient conditions based on the sampling period, the mismatched parameters, the delay, and the nonzero eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix are established. It is shown that velocity synchronization of multi-agent systems with mismatched parameters can be achieved if the sampled period is chosen appropriately. Simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  19. Laser heating of aqueous samples on a micro-optical-electro-mechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Kennedy, Ian

    2013-02-05

    A system of heating a sample on a microchip includes the steps of providing a microchannel flow channel in the microchip; positioning the sample within the microchannel flow channel, providing a laser that directs a laser beam onto the sample for heating the sample; providing the microchannel flow channel with a wall section that receives the laser beam and enables the laser beam to pass through wall section of the microchannel flow channel without being appreciably heated by the laser beam; and providing a carrier fluid in the microchannel flow channel that moves the sample in the microchannel flow channel wherein the carrier fluid is not appreciably heated by the laser beam.

  20. Approximate Optimal Control of Affine Nonlinear Continuous-Time Systems Using Event-Sampled Neurodynamic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Avimanyu; Xu, Hao; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an approximate optimal control of nonlinear continuous-time systems in affine form by using the adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) with event-sampled state and input vectors. The knowledge of the system dynamics is relaxed by using a neural network (NN) identifier with event-sampled inputs. The value function, which becomes an approximate solution to the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation, is generated by using event-sampled NN approximator. Subsequently, the NN identifier and the approximated value function are utilized to obtain the optimal control policy. Both the identifier and value function approximator weights are tuned only at the event-sampled instants leading to an aperiodic update scheme. A novel adaptive event sampling condition is designed to determine the sampling instants, such that the approximation accuracy and the stability are maintained. A positive lower bound on the minimum inter-sample time is guaranteed to avoid accumulation point, and the dependence of inter-sample time upon the NN weight estimates is analyzed. A local ultimate boundedness of the resulting nonlinear impulsive dynamical closed-loop system is shown. Finally, a numerical example is utilized to evaluate the performance of the near-optimal design. The net result is the design of an event-sampled ADP-based controller for nonlinear continuous-time systems.

  1. The development of a fully computerized system for sampled d.c. polarography with standard interfacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.

    1976-01-01

    A complete system, based on the online PDP-11 computer (Digital Equipment Corporation) was developed for computerized sampled d.c. polarography with direct digital control. The system includes compensation of ohmic cell resistance and processing of the polarographic data. The accuracy of the system

  2. Development of a new multiple sampling trawl with autonomous opening/closing net control system for sampling juvenile pelagic fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oozeki, Yoshioki; Hu, Fuxiang; Tomatsu, Chiaki; Kubota, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    A new multiple layer sampling trawl with an autonomous net opening/closing control system was developed to sample pelagic juvenile fish quantitatively. The new trawl system, based on the Matsuda-Oozeki-Hu Trawl (MOHT), has a rigid-frame 3.3 m high and 2.35 m wide and five nets of 11.0 m length with a rectangular mouth of 2.22 m×1.81 m (4 m2 mouth area; large-scale prototype). A cambered V-shape depressor is hung below the frame and two bridles are attached at the midpoint of the side frames. A net-release controller is used, which not only controls the net release mechanism but also records the net depth, temperature and flow rate during net towing. The controller sends stored command signals to the net release mechanism as depth settings and/or time settings and does not require any commands from the surface through a conducting cable or by acoustic signals. Two other models were constructed before the construction of the large-scale prototype, which are a small-scale prototype (2 m2 mouth area) for testing the net release mechanism and a 1/4-scale model of the large-scale prototype for flume tank tests. Flume tank tests with the 1/4-scale model showed that the frame leaned forward at a tilt angle from 5 to 15 degrees at towing speeds from 0.8 to 1.4 m s-1. Opened nets closed smoothly and sequentially nets were completely opened when the trigger was released by the command. Net depth rarely changed even during changes in towing speed. Sea trials both by the small-scale and the large-scale prototype demonstrated the same towing characteristics expected from the flume tank tests. The newly developed multiple layer opening/closing MOHT (MOC-MOHT) is considered to be suitable for quantitative layer sampling of juvenile fish.

  3. A portable molecular-sieve-based CO{sub 2} sampling system for radiocarbon measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, V., E-mail: vesa.palonen@helsinki.fi [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, Helsinki FI-00014 (Finland)

    2015-12-15

    We have developed a field-capable sampling system for the collection of CO{sub 2} samples for radiocarbon-concentration measurements. Most target systems in environmental research are limited in volume and CO{sub 2} concentration, making conventional flask sampling hard or impossible for radiocarbon studies. The present system captures the CO{sub 2} selectively to cartridges containing 13X molecular sieve material. The sampling does not introduce significant under-pressures or significant losses of moisture to the target system, making it suitable for most environmental targets. The system also incorporates a significantly larger sieve container for the removal of CO{sub 2} from chambers prior to the CO{sub 2} build-up phase and sampling. In addition, both the CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O content of the sample gas are measured continuously. This enables in situ estimation of the amount of collected CO{sub 2} and the determination of CO{sub 2} flux to a chamber. The portable sampling system is described in detail and tests for the reliability of the method are presented.

  4. A portable molecular-sieve-based CO2 sampling system for radiocarbon measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palonen, V.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a field-capable sampling system for the collection of CO2 samples for radiocarbon-concentration measurements. Most target systems in environmental research are limited in volume and CO2 concentration, making conventional flask sampling hard or impossible for radiocarbon studies. The present system captures the CO2 selectively to cartridges containing 13X molecular sieve material. The sampling does not introduce significant under-pressures or significant losses of moisture to the target system, making it suitable for most environmental targets. The system also incorporates a significantly larger sieve container for the removal of CO2 from chambers prior to the CO2 build-up phase and sampling. In addition, both the CO2 and H2O content of the sample gas are measured continuously. This enables in situ estimation of the amount of collected CO2 and the determination of CO2 flux to a chamber. The portable sampling system is described in detail and tests for the reliability of the method are presented.

  5. System and method for liquid extraction electrospray-assisted sample transfer to solution for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2016-07-12

    A system for sampling a surface includes a surface sampling probe comprising a solvent liquid supply conduit and a distal end, and a sample collector for suspending a sample collection liquid adjacent to the distal end of the probe. A first electrode provides a first voltage to solvent liquid at the distal end of the probe. The first voltage produces a field sufficient to generate electrospray plume at the distal end of the probe. A second electrode provides a second voltage and is positioned to produce a plume-directing field sufficient to direct the electrospray droplets and ions to the suspended sample collection liquid. The second voltage is less than the first voltage in absolute value. A voltage supply system supplies the voltages to the first electrode and the second electrode. The first electrode can apply the first voltage directly to the solvent liquid. A method for sampling for a surface is also disclosed.

  6. Metabolic changers in oxygen transport in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Possibilities for correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Z Bondarenko

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2 - is an independent predictor of development of heart failure (HF. Spiroergometry - is a method for studying blood gas exchange parameters, commonly used for specification of HF. The purpose: 1. To study features of gas exchange at patients with DM2 without cardiovascular diseases in comparison with healthy control. 2. To estimate efficiency of metoprolol for correction of metabolic disturbances in patients with DM2. Materials and methods: 12 patients with DM2, aged 48,4±8, without history of cardiovascular diseases and 15 control subjects, aged 43,6±8 underwent cardio-pulmonary exercise test on treadmill, according to Bruce protocol. Exercise energy, VO2 peak, MET, VE max, VCO2 production were observed. Results: Patients with DM2 had a reduced exercise duration (p<0,001, lower peak oxygen consumption (p<0,001, VCO2 production and MET (p<0,005, than controls, representing the same state of hypoxia as in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD of functional class 2. The introduction of metoprolol to patients with DM2 significantly increased exercise duration time and VCO2 production (p<0,005. Conclusions: 1. VO2 consumption in patients with DM2 is decreased to the same levels as in persons without DM2, who have IHD and HF. 2. Changes in oxygen-transport in persons with DM2 may serve as a marker of negative influence of the disease on cardiovascular system status. 3. Metoprolol improves parameters of cardio-respiratory system in patients with DM2.

  7. O2/CO Ignition System for Mars Sample Return Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Returning a geological sample from the surface of Mars will require an ascent propulsion system with a comparatively large velocity change (delta-V) capability due...

  8. Computing stationary distributions in equilibrium and nonequilibrium systems with forward flux sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeriani, C.; Allen, R.J.; Morelli, M.J.; Frenkel, D.; Wolde, P.R. ten

    2007-01-01

    We present a method for computing stationary distributions for activated processes in equilibrium and nonequilibrium systems using forward flux sampling. In this method, the stationary distributions are obtained directly from the rate constant calculations for the forward and backward

  9. Improved Rock Core Sample Break-off, Retention and Ejection System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort advances the design of an innovative core sampling and acquisition system with improved core break-off, retention and ejection features. The...

  10. Miniaturized, Low Power Cryogenic Inlet System with Sampling Probes for Titan Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a miniature, low power cryogenic inlet system with sampling probes for Titan. This addresses a key technology gap for...

  11. Sample Handling System for in-situ Powder X-ray Diffraction Instruments. Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a Powder Handling System (PHS) that will deliver powdered samples to in situ planetary XRD instruments and provide unique means of...

  12. Miniaturized In Situ Atmospheric Probe Sampling Inlet System for Uranus or Saturn Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a miniaturized in situ atmospheric probe sampling inlet system for measuring chemical and isotopic composition of the...

  13. A multi-probe thermophoretic soot sampling system for high-pressure diffusion flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Alex M.; Gülder, Ömer L. [Institute for Aerospace Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T6 (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    Optical diagnostics and physical probing of the soot processes in high pressure combustion pose challenges that are not faced in atmospheric flames. One of the preferred methods of studying soot in atmospheric flames is in situ thermophoretic sampling followed by transmission electron microscopy imaging and analysis for soot sizing and morphology. The application of this method of sampling to high pressures has been held back by various operational and mechanical problems. In this work, we describe a rotating disk multi-probe thermophoretic soot sampling system, driven by a microstepping stepper motor, fitted into a high-pressure chamber capable of producing sooting laminar diffusion flames up to 100 atm. Innovative aspects of the sampling system design include an easy and precise control of the sampling time down to 2.6 ms, avoidance of the drawbacks of the pneumatic drivers used in conventional thermophoretic sampling systems, and the capability to collect ten consecutive samples in a single experimental run. Proof of principle experiments were performed using this system in a laminar diffusion flame of methane, and primary soot diameter distributions at various pressures up to 10 atm were determined. High-speed images of the flame during thermophoretic sampling were recorded to assess the influence of probe intrusion on the flow field of the flame.

  14. 40 CFR 86.309-79 - Sampling and analytical system; schematic drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; schematic drawing. 86.309-79 Section 86.309-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Procedures § 86.309-79 Sampling and analytical system; schematic drawing. (a) Any variation from the... only with prior approval by the Administrator. (b) Schematic drawing. (1) An example of a sampling and...

  15. Recent results of the investigation of a micro-fluidic sampling chip and sampling system for hot cell aqueous processing streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripp, J.; Smith, T.; Law, J. [Idaho National Laboratory: P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A Fuel Cycle Research and Development project has investigated an innovative sampling method that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements present in aqueous processing streams. Initially sampling technologies were evaluated and micro-fluidic sampling chip technology was selected and tested. A conceptual design for a fully automated microcapillary-based system was completed and a robotic automated sampling system was fabricated. The mechanical and sampling operation of the completed sampling system was investigated. Different sampling volumes have been tested. It appears that the 10 μl volume has produced data that had much smaller relative standard deviations than the 2 μl volume. In addition, the production of a less expensive, mass produced sampling chip was investigated to avoid chip reuse thus increasing sampling reproducibility/accuracy. The micro-fluidic-based robotic sampling system's mechanical elements were tested to ensure analytical reproducibility and the optimum robotic handling of micro-fluidic sampling chips. (authors)

  16. Genetic markers as therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis: A game changer in clinical therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A M Mohamed Thoufic; Vino, S

    2016-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory, multi-systemic autoimmune disease unremitted by genetic and environmental factors. The factors are crucial but inadequate in the development of disease; however, these factors can be representative of potential therapeutic targets and response to clinical therapy. Insights into the contribution of genetic risk factors are currently in progress with studies querying the genetic variation, their role in gene expression of coding and non-coding genes and other mechanisms of disease. In this review, we describe the significance of genetic markers architecture of RA through genome-wide association studies and meta-analysis studies. Further, it also reveals the mechanism of disease pathogenesis investigated through the mutual findings of functional and genetic studies of individual RA-associated genes, which includes HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DPB1, PADI4, PTPN22, TRAF1-C5, STAT4 and C5orf30. However, the genetic background of RA remains to be clearly depicted. Prospective efforts of the post-genomic and functional genomic period can travel toward real possible assessment of the genetic effect on RA. The discovery of novel genes associated with the disease can be appropriate in identifying potential biomarkers, which could assist in early diagnosis and aggressive treatment.

  17. Output-feedback sampled-data control design for linear parameter-varying systems with delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanifar, Amin; Mohammadpour, Javad; Grigoriadis, Karolos M.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we address the sampled-data output-feedback control design problem for continuous-time linear parameter-varying systems with time-varying delay in the system states. Due to the combination of the plant's continuous-time dynamics and the controller's discrete-time dynamics connected through A/D and D/A converter devices, the closed-loop system is a hybrid system. In order to analyse this hybrid system from stability and performance perspectives we use the input-delay approach to map the closed-loop system into the continuous-time domain with delay in the states. This results in a closed-loop system containing two types of delays, the system internal delay and the one imposed by the mapping. Next, we use delay-dependent conditions for analysis of stability and ?-norm performance which result in a sampled-data control synthesis procedure. The proposed output-feedback sampled-data controller is obtained based on the solution to a linear matrix inequality optimisation problem using a set of appropriately defined slack variables. A numerical example of a milling machine is presented to demonstrate the viability of the proposed sampled-data control design method to satisfy the stability and performance objectives even with a varying sampling rate.

  18. Study on sampling of continuous linear system based on generalized Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiguang

    2003-09-01

    In the research of signal and system, the signal's spectrum and the system's frequency characteristic can be discussed through Fourier Transform (FT) and Laplace Transform (LT). However, some singular signals such as impulse function and signum signal don't satisfy Riemann integration and Lebesgue integration. They are called generalized functions in Maths. This paper will introduce a new definition -- Generalized Fourier Transform (GFT) and will discuss generalized function, Fourier Transform and Laplace Transform under a unified frame. When the continuous linear system is sampled, this paper will propose a new method to judge whether the spectrum will overlap after generalized Fourier transform (GFT). Causal and non-causal systems are studied, and sampling method to maintain system's dynamic performance is presented. The results can be used on ordinary sampling and non-Nyquist sampling. The results also have practical meaning on research of "discretization of continuous linear system" and "non-Nyquist sampling of signal and system." Particularly, condition for ensuring controllability and observability of MIMO continuous systems in references 13 and 14 is just an applicable example of this paper.

  19. Integrating a sampling oscilloscope card and spectroscopy ADCs in a data acquisition system

    CERN Document Server

    Maartensson, L

    2001-01-01

    A high-rate sampling oscilloscope card has been integrated into an existing data acquisition system for spectroscopy ADCs. Experiments where pulse-shape analyses are important have then been made possible. Good performance characteristics of the integrated system have been achieved. Spectroscopy ADC data together with pulse-shape data sampled 512 times at 100 MHz are saved to hard disk at event rates up to about 1 kHz with low dead time losses.

  20. Radian remote sampling system digital processor system. Software detail documentation: Pittsburgh Energy Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    Software documentation for the DART data acquisition system is provided. This system runs on a minicomputer. After an overview of the system and file structures, the various subprograms are discussed individually; flow charts are included. 37 figures. (RWR)

  1. An automated discontinuous venous blood sampling system for ex vivo glucose determination in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Roland; Feichtner, Franz; Köhler, Hans; Bodenlenz, Manfred; Plank, Johannes; Wutte, Andrea; Mader, Julia K; Ellmerer, Martin; Hainisch, Reinhard; Pieber, Thomas R; Schaupp, Lukas

    2009-01-01

    Intensive insulin therapy reduces mortality and morbidity in critically ill patients but places great demands on medical staff who must take frequent blood samples for the determination of glucose levels. A cost-effective solution to this resourcing problem could be provided by an effective and reliable automated blood sampling (ABS) system suitable for ex vivo glucose determination. The primary study aim was to compare the performance of a prototype ABS system with a manual reference system over a 30 h sampling period under controlled conditions in humans. Two venous cannulae were inserted to connect the ABS system and the reference system. Blood samples were taken with both systems at 15, 30, and 60 min intervals and analyzed using a Beckman glucose analyzer. During the study, blood glucose levels were altered through four meal ingestions. The median Pearson coefficient of correlation between manually and automatically withdrawn blood samples was 0.976 (0.953-0.996). The system error was -3.327 ± 5.546% (-6.03-0.49). Through Clark error grid analysis, 420 data pairs were analyzed, showing that 98.6% of the data were in zone A and 1.4% were in zone B. Insulin titration error grid analysis revealed an acceptable treatment in 100% of cases. A 17.5-fold reduction in the occurrence of blood-withdrawal failures through occluded catheters was moreover achieved by the added implementation in the ABS system of a "keep vein open" saline infusion. Our study showed that the ABS system described provides a user-friendly, reliable automated means for reproducible and accurate blood sampling from a peripheral vein for blood glucose determination and thus represents a promising alternative to frequent manual blood sampling. © Diabetes Technology Society

  2. Global risk & global challenges - Space as a game changer for socioeconomic sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Christopher; Karlsson, Evelina; Giannopapa, Christina

    2017-11-01

    activities touch upon every aspect of responding to the humanity's risks. Especially in the identification and the preventive management of humanity's risks, space systems are a crucial enabler. They are also an important part in dealing with risks related to scarcity of resources. It is thus important that current levels of investments into space infrastructure are maintained, as the benefits of space activities is essential to humankind's existence and that upon further programmatic decisions, stakeholders involved with the management of risks are being consulted.

  3. Development of an on-line preconcentration system for zinc determination in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Rosilene L; Maltez, Heloisa F; Carasek, Eduardo

    2006-04-15

    An on-line preconcentration system for zinc determination in 24-h urine, blood plasma and erythrocyte matrices by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used. This procedure was based on adsorption of Zn(II) ions onto a minicolumn filled with silica gel, chemically modified with niobium(V) oxide (Nb(2)O(5)-SiO(2)). The determination of the optimum conditions for Zn(II) preconcentration was done using two-level full factorial and Doehlert designs. In the optimization procedure, four variables (sample pH, eluent concentration, sample flow rate and eluent flow rate) were investigated. The results obtained from the full factorial design demonstrated that the sample pH and sample flow rate variables, and their interactions, were statistically significant. A Doehlert matrix was used in order to determine the optimum conditions for the sample pH and sample flow rate. The optimized conditions for sample pH and flow rate sampling were 6.6 and 7.1 ml min(-1), respectively, to obtain the maximum Zn(II) preconcentration and determination in the biological samples studied. Parameters of analytical curve, precision, effect of other ions in the proposed system and accuracy were achieved to assess the proposed method. The accuracy was confirmed by analysis of certified reference materials (urine Seronorm Trace Elements) and recovery tests in blood plasma and erythrocyte samples. Detection limit (3sigma/S) of 0.77 microg l(-1), precision (calculated as relative standard deviation) of 1.5% for Zn(II) concentration of 10 microg l(-1) (n=7) and a sampling frequency of 27 samples/h were obtained from the proposed system.

  4. Numerical methods for the analysis of sampled-data systems and for the computation of system zeros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodel, A. Scottedward

    1992-01-01

    MARSYAS is a computer-aided control system design package for the simulation and analysis of dynamic systems. In the summer of 1991 MARSYAS was updated to allow for the analysis of sampled-data systems in terms of frequency response, stability, etc. This update was continued during the summer of 1992 in order to extend further MARSYAS commands to the study of sampled-data systems. Further work was done to examine the computation of OPENAT transfer functions, root-locii and w-plane frequency response plots.

  5. Estimation and compensation of sample frequency offset in coherent optical OFDM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xingwen; Qiu, Kun

    2011-07-04

    Coherent optical OFDM systems employ DAC at the transmitters and ADC at the receivers. The sample frequencies of DAC and ADC in such systems need to be synchronized, especially in the context of high-speed transmissions. This paper presents a channel model including the effect of the sample frequency offset, which adds an additional phase shift proportional to the subcarrier index. The sample frequency offset monitoring and the compensation method are discussed and verified in experiment. It is expected that the synchronization can be achieved by feeding the monitoring result back to the receiver oscillator.

  6. Set Up of an Automatic Water Quality Sampling System in Irrigation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Heinz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a high-resolution automatic sampling system for continuous in situ measurements of stable water isotopic composition and nitrogen solutes along with hydrological information. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS for stable water isotope analysis (δ2H and δ18O, a reagentless hyperspectral UV photometer (ProPS for monitoring nitrate content and various water level sensors for hydrometric information. The automatic sampling system consists of different sampling stations equipped with pumps, a switch cabinet for valve and pump control and a computer operating the system. The complete system is operated via internet-based control software, allowing supervision from nearly anywhere. The system is currently set up at the International Rice Research Institute (Los Baños, The Philippines in a diversified rice growing system to continuously monitor water and nutrient fluxes. Here we present the system’s technical set-up and provide initial proof-of-concept with results for the isotopic composition of different water sources and nitrate values from the 2012 dry season.

  7. Reachable Distance Space: Efficient Sampling-Based Planning for Spatially Constrained Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Xinyu Tang,

    2010-01-25

    Motion planning for spatially constrained robots is difficult due to additional constraints placed on the robot, such as closure constraints for closed chains or requirements on end-effector placement for articulated linkages. It is usually computationally too expensive to apply sampling-based planners to these problems since it is difficult to generate valid configurations. We overcome this challenge by redefining the robot\\'s degrees of freedom and constraints into a new set of parameters, called reachable distance space (RD-space), in which all configurations lie in the set of constraint-satisfying subspaces. This enables us to directly sample the constrained subspaces with complexity linear in the number of the robot\\'s degrees of freedom. In addition to supporting efficient sampling of configurations, we show that the RD-space formulation naturally supports planning and, in particular, we design a local planner suitable for use by sampling-based planners. We demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach for several systems including closed chain planning with multiple loops, restricted end-effector sampling, and on-line planning for drawing/sculpting. We can sample single-loop closed chain systems with 1,000 links in time comparable to open chain sampling, and we can generate samples for 1,000-link multi-loop systems of varying topologies in less than a second. © 2010 The Author(s).

  8. Sampled-data active disturbance rejection output feedback control for systems with mismatched uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun You

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the sampled-data disturbance rejection control problem for a class of non-integral-chain systems with mismatched uncertainties. Aiming to reject the adverse effects caused by general mismatched uncertainties via digital control strategy, a new generalized discrete-time extended state observer is first proposed to estimate the lumped disturbances in the sampling point. A disturbance rejection control law is then constructed in a sampled-data form, which will lead to easier implementation in practices. By carefully selecting the control gains and a sampling period sufficiently small to restrain the state growth under a zero-order-holder input, the bounded-input bounded-output stability of the hybrid closed-loop system and the disturbance rejection ability are delicately proved even the controller is dormant within two neighbor sampling points. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of the proposed method.

  9. Droplet-based micro-flow chemiluminescence system for in vivo glucose determination by microdialysis sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhujun; Liu, Haisheng

    2005-04-01

    A micro-flow chemiluminescence (CL) system in vivo for glucose determination by the on-line microdialysis sampling is described in this paper. The micro-flow CL system uses discrete sample droplets, which formed at the tip of the capillary with the sampling volume of 4.5 microl. The sol-gel method is introduced to co-immobilize horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOD) on the inside surface of the micro-flow cell which was fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The CL detection involved enzymatic oxidation of glucose to D-gluconic acid and H2O2, then H2O2 oxidizing luminol to produce CL in presence of HRP. The microdialysis probe was utilized for sampling in the rabbit blood; the sample throughput was 20 h(-1). The glucose level in blood of the rabbit was on-line monitored with good results.

  10. Sample to answer: a fully integrated nucleic acid identification system for bacteria monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungkyu; Elsnab, John; Johnson, Michael; Gale, Bruce K.

    2010-02-01

    A fully integrated microfluidic system was developed and incorporates an EC-MWCNT (electrochemical multiwalled carbon nanotube) sensor for the detection of bacteria. Sample metering, reagent metering and delivery was implemented with microvalves and pumps embedded inside the microfluidic system. The nucleic acid extraction was performed using microchannels controlled using automated platforms and a disposable microfluidic silica cartridge. The target samples were flowed and hybridized with probe ssDNA (single strand DNA) across the MWCNT-EC sensor (built on a silicon chip), which was embedded in a microfluidic cell. The 9-pad sensor was scanned before and after hybridization to measure the quantity of RNA (Ribonucleic acid) bound to the array surface. A rapid and accurate sample-in answer-out nucleic acid system was realized with automated volume metering, microfluidic sample preparation, and integrated nano-biosensors.

  11. A pre-sample charge measurement system for quantitative NMP-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristiansson, P., E-mail: Per.Kristiansson@nuclear.lu.s [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Borysiuk, M.; Arteaga-Marrero, N.; Elfman, M.; Nilsson, E.J.C.; Nilsson, C.; Pallon, J. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    In many IBA applications the main aim is to obtain quantitative figures characterizing the sample. Normally charge, i.e. number of probe particles, is used for normalization and is measured either by collecting the charge deposited in the sample or by collecting the particle in a post-sample Faraday cup or in combination. Both these techniques have drawbacks and results can be difficult to compare for samples with different matrix composition. In this work, we present an upgraded design and test results from the Lund NMP pre-sample charge measurement system. The system presented is based on a pre-sample beam deflection controlled by the beam scanning system for the nuclear microprobe. It can be operated in different modes, but during normal operation the beam is blanked once per pixel and the corresponding charge is collected during the beam-off period. The system does not only measure an average of the beam current during data collection, but actually a pixel-by-pixel normalization is possible. Data of the system performance are presented and in addition illustrations of how quantitative measurements both for PIXE and elastic scattering can be made more reliable.

  12. Atmospheric scanning electron microscope system with an open sample chamber: Configuration and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiyama, Hidetoshi, E-mail: hinishiy@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Koizumi, Mitsuru, E-mail: koizumi@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Technics Ltd., 2-6-38 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-0021 (Japan); Ogawa, Koji, E-mail: kogawa@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Technics Ltd., 2-6-38 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-0021 (Japan); Kitamura, Shinich, E-mail: kitamura@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Konyuba, Yuji, E-mail: ykonyuub@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: watanabeyoshiy@pref.yamagata.jp [Yamagata Research Institute of Technology, 2-2-1, Matsuei, Yamagata 990-2473 (Japan); Ohbayashi, Norihiko, E-mail: n.ohbayashi@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Membrane Trafficking Mechanisms, Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Fukuda, Mitsunori, E-mail: nori@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Membrane Trafficking Mechanisms, Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Suga, Mitsuo, E-mail: msuga@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Sato, Chikara, E-mail: ti-sato@aist.go.jp [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-4, Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    An atmospheric scanning electron microscope (ASEM) with an open sample chamber and optical microscope (OM) is described and recent developments are reported. In this ClairScope system, the base of the open sample dish is sealed to the top of the inverted SEM column, allowing the liquid-immersed sample to be observed by OM from above and by SEM from below. The optical axes of the two microscopes are aligned, ensuring that the same sample areas are imaged to realize quasi-simultaneous correlative microscopy in solution. For example, the cathodoluminescence of ZnO particles was directly demonstrated. The improved system has (i) a fully motorized sample stage, (ii) a column protection system in the case of accidental window breakage, and (iii) an OM/SEM operation system controlled by a graphical user interface. The open sample chamber allows the external administration of reagents during sample observation. We monitored the influence of added NaCl on the random motion of silica particles in liquid. Further, using fluorescence as a transfection marker, the effect of small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous Varp on Tyrp1 trafficking in melanocytes was examined. A temperature-regulated titanium ASEM dish allowed the dynamic observation of colloidal silver nanoparticles as they were heated to 240 °C and sintered. - Highlights: • Atmospheric SEM (ASEM) allows observation of samples in liquid or gas. • Open sample chamber allows in situ monitoring of evaporation and sintering processes. • in situ monitoring of processes during reagent administration is also accomplished. • Protection system for film breakage is developed for ASEM. • Usability of ASEM has been improved significantly including GUI control.

  13. Automatic system for the determination of metals by anodic stripping potentiometry in non-deaerated samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladera, A.; Estela, J. M.; Cerdá, V.

    1990-01-01

    An automatic system for the determination of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu by anodic stripping potentiometry using the oxygen dissolved in the sample as oxidant is reported. The system relies on the use of a PC-compatible computer for instrumental control and data acquisition and processing. PMID:18925264

  14. 40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system; diesel engines. 86.1310-90 Section 86.1310-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1310-90 Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines...

  15. Development and evaluation of a lightweight sensor system for emission sampling from open area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new sensor system for mobile and aerial emission sampling was developed for open area sources, such as open burning. The sensor system, termed “Kolibri”, consists of multiple low-cost air quality sensors measuring CO2, CO, and black carbon, samplers for particulate matter with ...

  16. Development and evaluation of a lightweight sensor system for aerial emission sampling from open area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new sensor system for mobile and aerial emission sampling was developed for open area pollutant sources, such as prescribed forest burns. The sensor system, termed “Kolibri”, consists of multiple low-cost air quality sensors measuring CO2, CO, samplers for particulate matter wi...

  17. [Identification of Systemic Contaminations with Legionella Spec. in Drinking Water Plumbing Systems: Sampling Strategies and Corresponding Parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, S; Schreiber, C; Müller, H; Zacharias, N; Kistemann, T

    2017-05-01

    After the amendment of the Drinking Water Ordinance in 2011, the requirements for the hygienic-microbiological monitoring of drinking water installations have increased significantly. In the BMBF-funded project "Biofilm Management" (2010-2014), we examined the extent to which established sampling strategies in practice can uncover drinking water plumbing systems systemically colonized with Legionella. Moreover, we investigated additional parameters that might be suitable for detecting systemic contaminations. We subjected the drinking water plumbing systems of 8 buildings with known microbial contamination (Legionella) to an intensive hygienic-microbiological sampling with high spatial and temporal resolution. A total of 626 drinking hot water samples were analyzed with classical culture-based methods. In addition, comprehensive hygienic observations were conducted in each building and qualitative interviews with operators and users were applied. Collected tap-specific parameters were quantitatively analyzed by means of sensitivity and accuracy calculations. The systemic presence of Legionella in drinking water plumbing systems has a high spatial and temporal variability. Established sampling strategies were only partially suitable to detect long-term Legionella contaminations in practice. In particular, the sampling of hot water at the calorifier and circulation re-entrance showed little significance in terms of contamination events. To detect the systemic presence of Legionella,the parameters stagnation (qualitatively assessed) and temperature (compliance with the 5K-rule) showed better results. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. An integrated hybrid system for genetic analysis combining EWOD sample preparation and magnetic detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Des; Jary, Dorothee; Peponnet, Christine; Cardosa, Filipe; Freitas, Paolo; Dinca, Mihai; Aherne, Margaret; Galvin, Paul

    2011-08-01

    Over the last decade microelectronic technologies have delivered significant advances in devices for point of care diagnostics. Complex microfluidic systems integrate components such as valves, pumps etc. to manipulate liquids. In recent years, the drive is to combine biochemical protocols in a single system, delivering "sample in answer out". An Electrowetting on Dielectric (EWOD) device offers the possibility to move and manipulate 64nl volumes implementing biochemical processes, while the magnetic sensor facilitates hybridisation detection. We outline an injection molding approach where EWOD and magnetic devices are integrated into a hybrid microfluidic system with the potential to implement "sample in answer out" biological protocols.

  19. X-ray microtomography system for small and light samples using a flat panel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, A. B.; dos Santos, T. M. P.; Machado, A. S.; Oliveira, D. F.; Azeredo, S. R.; Lopes, R. T.

    2017-10-01

    A low-cost system able to perform microtomography of samples such as teeth, insects, or other small materials and low atomic numbers is presented. For this, a small flat panel type sensor was used. The process of characterization of the detector is detailed, as well as its main characteristics. The electromechanical control and the software used are also described. The advantages, some limitations, and comparisons with commercial systems are presented along with some three-dimensional volumetric reconstruction of different materials that served as samples during the development of the system.

  20. Versatile, low-cost, computer-controlled, sample positioning system for vacuum applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Aburto, Carlos; Liff, Dale R.

    1991-01-01

    A versatile, low-cost, easy to implement, microprocessor-based motorized positioning system (MPS) suitable for accurate sample manipulation in a Second Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) system, and for other ultra-high vacuum (UHV) applications was designed and built at NASA LeRC. The system can be operated manually or under computer control. In the latter case, local, as well as remote operation is possible via the IEEE-488 bus. The position of the sample can be controlled in three linear orthogonal and one angular coordinates.

  1. An Automated Sample Preparation System for Large-Scale DNA Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, Andre; Willis, Thomas D.; Federspiel, Nancy A.; Davis, Ronald W.

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies, both in the form of high lane-density gels and automated capillary systems, will lead to an increased requirement for sample preparation systems that operate at low cost and high throughput. As part of the development of a fully automated sequencing system, we have developed an automated subsystem capable of producing 10,000 sequence-ready ssDNA templates per day from libraries of M13 plaques at a cost of $0.29 per sample. This Front End has been in high throughput operation since June, 1997 and has produced > 400,000 high-quality DNA templates. PMID:10330125

  2. Being a Game Changer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrig, Brian; Taranto, Greg

    2012-01-01

    One of the key features that draws many people to play video games is the fact that they are interactive. Video games allow the user to be actively engaged and in control of the action (Prensky, 2006). Seventh grade students at Canonsburg Middle School are actively engaging in the creation of video games. The students are engaged at a much deeper…

  3. A spectrophotometric flow injection system for streptomycin determination in veterinary samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frugeri, Pedro Marcos; Lago, Ayla Campos do; Wisniewski, Célio; Luccas, Pedro Orival

    2014-01-01

    In this work a spectrophotometric flow injection analysis system for streptomycin determination in veterinary samples, is being proposed. The method is based on streptomycin alkaline hydrolysis that forms guanidine, followed by the reaction with Fe(II). The colored product has absorption peak at 520 nm. To evaluate and optimize the system parameters, chemometrics tools, such as factorial design, Pareto chart and Doelhert design, were used. The veterinary samples are diluted in water and introduced in the FIA system, therefore no sample preparation is required. The optimized system presented: linear range of 60 up to 1000 mg L-1, limit of detection of 18 mg L-1 and sampling rate of 36 readings per hour. The precision was checked and the CV for veterinary sample readings were always less than 6.5%. The accuracy was studied by comparison with chromatographic method, thus, five samples of pharmaceutical veterinary were determined by HPLC and by the proposed method, and the results are in agreement (t-test, p = 0.05).

  4. Sampling-based algorithms for analysis and design of hybrid and embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Amit

    This dissertation considers the problem of safety analysis of hybrid and embedded systems using sampling-based incremental search algorithms. The safety specifications are a set of conditions that the states (or the trajectories) of the system must satisfy for the system to be considered safe. The safety analysis problem is known to be undecidable for dynamical systems. Most of the existing approaches for analyzing the safety specifications of a dynamical system are liable to give inconclusive results in general. This is because of the fact that each of these approaches can either only construct a safety certificate for a safe system, or, a feasible counterexample for an unsafe system. Sampling-based incremental search algorithms have been very successful for motion planning problems in robotics and the counterexample generation problem for dynamical systems. In this dissertation, we propose a novel approach that uses sampling-based incremental search algorithms to search for feasible counterexamples to safety and uses the sampled trajectories to construct a safety certificate in case no counterexample is found. We do so by introducing a notion of completeness for such algorithms that we call as resolution completeness. A sampling-based algorithm is called resolution-complete for safety analysis of a given system, if for any given resolution of controls it is guaranteed to terminate, producing, either a feasible counterexample to safety or a certificate that guarantees safe behavior of the system at the given resolution. We propose a variety of sampling-based resolution-complete algorithms for safety analysis of hybrid and embedded systems. The algorithms construct feasible trajectories at increasing levels of resolution of the controls and use structural properties of the system to make reachability claims for states in the neighborhood of the constructed trajectories. Conditions guaranteeing completeness of the proposed algorithms are derived for the case of

  5. Testing of a Microfluidic Sampling System for High Temperature Electrochemical MC&A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nichols, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-11-27

    This report describes the preliminary validation of a high-temperature microfluidic chip system for sampling of electrochemical process salt. Electroanalytical and spectroscopic techniques are attractive candidates for improvement through high-throughput sample analysis via miniaturization. Further, microfluidic chip systems are amenable to micro-scale chemical processing such as rapid, automated sample purification to improve sensor performance. The microfluidic chip was tested to determine the feasibility of the system for high temperature applications and conditions under which microfluidic systems can be used to generate salt droplets at process temperature to support development of material balance and control systems in a used fuel treatment facility. In FY13, the project focused on testing a quartz microchip device with molten salts at near process temperatures. The equipment was installed in glove box and tested up to 400°C using commercial thermal transfer fluids as the carrier phase. Preliminary tests were carried out with a low-melting halide salt to initially characterize the properties of this novel liquid-liquid system and to investigate the operating regimes for inducing droplet flow within candidate carrier fluids. Initial results show that the concept is viable for high temperature sampling but further development is required to optimize the system to operate with process relevant molten salts.

  6. Thermometry of the system “heat-resistant sample - incident plasma stream”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsyan, M. A.; Chinnov, V. F.; Kavyrshin, D. I.; Gadzhiev, M. Kh; Khromov, M. A.; Chistolinov, A. V.; Senchenko, V. N.

    2017-11-01

    To study the interacting system “heat-resistant sample – an incident plasma stream” a setup of synchronized measurement equipment was developed and tested that recorded the main parameters of such interaction. Heat resistance tests were carried out on the samples of MPG-6 grade isotropic graphite, and samples of pyrolytic graphite that were subjected to a long (60 … 100 s) exposure to nitrogen, argon and air plasma streams at atmospheric pressure. As plasma generators a series of plasma torches with a vortex stabilization of the stream and an expanding anode channels was used. The temperature and composition of the plasma in the jet and near the sample were determined using two AvaSpec2048 and AvaSpec3648 scanning optical spectrometers and the MS5402i spectrograph with the Andor matrix at its outlet. The surface temperature of the sample was determined in real time using three independent ways: two pyrometric systems - a high-speed micro-pyrometer FMP1001 and a two-position visualization of the heated sample by high-speed Motion Pro X3 and VS-FAST cameras, and the spectral analysis of the wide-range thermal radiation of the samples. The main method for determining the rate of material loss during the action of a plasma jet on it was to analyze a two-position synchronous visualization of the “jet-sample” system. When a crater was formed on the surface of the sample under the “dagger” effect of a plasma jet, a video recording system of the crater zone was used, backlit using the “laser knife” method.

  7. The Violent Early Solar System, as Told by Lunar Sample Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    One of the legacies of the samples collected by the Apollo and Luna missions is the link forged between radiometric ages of rocks and relative ages according to stratigraphic relationships and impact crater size-frequency distributions. Our current understanding of the history of the inner solar system is based on the relative chronology of individual planets, tied to the absolute geochronology of the Moon via these important samples. Samples from these nearside locations reveal a preponderance of impact-disturbed or recrystallized ages between 3.75 and 3.95 billion years. Argon and lead loss (and correlated disturbances in the Rb-Sr system) have been attributed to metamorphism of the lunar crust by an enormous number of impacts in a brief pulse of time, called the Lunar Cataclysm or Late Heavy Bombardment. Subsequent high-precision geochronometric analyses of Apollo samples and lunar highlands meteorites show a wider range of ages, but very few older than 4 Ga. The paucity of ancient impact melt rocks has been interpreted to mean that either that most impact basins formed at this time, or that ejecta from the large, near-side, young basins dominates the Apollo samples. Selenochronology is getting more complicated: new results question meaning of sample ages, crater counts, crater production functions, and the solar system itself. Improved geological mapping of lunar geologic units and boundaries using multiple remote sensing datasets. High-resolution image-based crater counting of discrete geologic units and relating them to location. Improved understanding of the regolith thickness and its global variation (GRAIL). Tying the sampling of impact-melt rocks to the lunar impact flux. Using improved techniques (magnetic fields, diffusion studies, isotopic analysis) on existing samples. New sample return from benchmark craters, particularly SPA, which appears in 2013 Decadal Survey.

  8. Effect of metal and sampling rate on accuracy of Flock of Birds electromagnetic tracking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaScalza, Suzanne; Arico, Jane; Hughes, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Electromagnetic tracking devices are used in many biomechanics applications. Previous studies have shown that metal located within the working field of direct current electromagnetic tracking devices produces significant errors. However, the effect of sampling rate on the errors produced in a metallic environment has never been studied. In this study, the accuracy of Ascension Technologies' Flock of Birds was evaluated at sampling rates of 20, 60, 100, and 140 Hz, in the presence of both aluminum and steel. Aluminum interference caused an increase in measurement error as the sampling rate increased. Conversely, steel interference caused a decrease in measurement error as the sampling rate increased. We concluded that the accuracy of the Flock of Birds tracking system can be optimized in the presence of metal by careful choice in sampling rate. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  9. Rapid Impingement Detection System with Uniform Sampling for Ball-and-Socket Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ding; Lee, Won-Sook; Joslin, Chris; Beaulé, Paul

    Detecting the position and the level of joint impingement Femoroacetabular impingement is often a key to computer-aided surgical plan to normalize joint kinematics. So far most of the current impingement detection methods for ball-and-socket joint are not efficient or only report a few collided points as the detection results. In this chapter, we present a novel real-time impingement detection system with rapid memory-efficient uniform sampling and surface-to-surface distance measurement feature to estimate the overall impingement. Our system describes near-spherical objects in spherical coordinate system, which reduces the space complexity and the computation costs. The sampling design further reduces the memory cost by generating uniform sampling orientations. The rapid and accurate impingement detection with surface-to-surface distance measurement can provide more realistic detailed information to estimate the overall impingement on the ball-and-socket joint, which is particularly useful for computer-aided surgical plan.

  10. A New System of Skip-Lot Sampling Plans including Resampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Chi-Hyuck

    2014-01-01

    Skip-lot sampling plans have been widely used in industries to reduce the inspection efforts when products have good quality records. These schemes are known as economically advantageous and useful to minimize the cost of the inspection of the final lots. A new system of skip-lot sampling plan called SkSP-R is proposed in this paper. The performance measures for the proposed SkSP-R plan are derived using the Markov chain formulation. The proposed plan is found to be more efficient than the single sampling plan and the SkSP-2 plan. PMID:24574871

  11. The effects of sample scheduling and sample numbers on estimates of the annual fluxes of suspended sediment in fluvial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Clarke, Robin T.; Merten, Gustavo Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1970s, there has been both continuing and growing interest in developing accurate estimates of the annual fluvial transport (fluxes and loads) of suspended sediment and sediment-associated chemical constituents. This study provides an evaluation of the effects of manual sample numbers (from 4 to 12 year−1) and sample scheduling (random-based, calendar-based and hydrology-based) on the precision, bias and accuracy of annual suspended sediment flux estimates. The evaluation is based on data from selected US Geological Survey daily suspended sediment stations in the USA and covers basins ranging in area from just over 900 km2 to nearly 2 million km2 and annual suspended sediment fluxes ranging from about 4 Kt year−1 to about 200 Mt year−1. The results appear to indicate that there is a scale effect for random-based and calendar-based sampling schemes, with larger sample numbers required as basin size decreases. All the sampling schemes evaluated display some level of positive (overestimates) or negative (underestimates) bias. The study further indicates that hydrology-based sampling schemes are likely to generate the most accurate annual suspended sediment flux estimates with the fewest number of samples, regardless of basin size. This type of scheme seems most appropriate when the determination of suspended sediment concentrations, sediment-associated chemical concentrations, annual suspended sediment and annual suspended sediment-associated chemical fluxes only represent a few of the parameters of interest in multidisciplinary, multiparameter monitoring programmes. The results are just as applicable to the calibration of autosamplers/suspended sediment surrogates currently used to measure/estimate suspended sediment concentrations and ultimately, annual suspended sediment fluxes, because manual samples are required to adjust the sample data/measurements generated by these techniques so that they provide depth-integrated and cross

  12. Automation system for neutron activation analysis at the reactor IBR-2, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Sergey S; Dmitriev, Andrey Yu; Frontasyeva, Marina V

    The present status of development of software packages and equipment designed for automation of NAA at the reactor IBR-2 of FLNP, JINR, Dubna, RF, is described. The NAA database, construction of sample changers and software for automation of spectra measurement and calculation of concentrations are presented. Automation of QC procedures is integrated in the software developed. Details of the design are shown.

  13. Adaptive Kalman Filter Based on Adjustable Sampling Interval in Burst Detection for Water Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo Yong Choi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid detection of bursts and leaks in water distribution systems (WDSs can reduce the social and economic costs incurred through direct loss of water into the ground, additional energy demand for water supply, and service interruptions. Many real-time burst detection models have been developed in accordance with the use of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA systems and the establishment of district meter areas (DMAs. Nonetheless, no consideration has been given to how frequently a flow meter measures and transmits data for predicting breaks and leaks in pipes. This paper analyzes the effect of sampling interval when an adaptive Kalman filter is used for detecting bursts in a WDS. A new sampling algorithm is presented that adjusts the sampling interval depending on the normalized residuals of flow after filtering. The proposed algorithm is applied to a virtual sinusoidal flow curve and real DMA flow data obtained from Jeongeup city in South Korea. The simulation results prove that the self-adjusting algorithm for determining the sampling interval is efficient and maintains reasonable accuracy in burst detection. The proposed sampling method has a significant potential for water utilities to build and operate real-time DMA monitoring systems combined with smart customer metering systems.

  14. A Highly Flexible, Automated System Providing Reliable Sample Preparation in Element- and Structure-Specific Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorberg, Ellen; Fleischer, Heidi; Junginger, Steffen; Liu, Hui; Stoll, Norbert; Thurow, Kerstin

    2016-10-01

    Life science areas require specific sample pretreatment to increase the concentration of the analytes and/or to convert the analytes into an appropriate form for the detection and separation systems. Various workstations are commercially available, allowing for automated biological sample pretreatment. Nevertheless, due to the required temperature, pressure, and volume conditions in typical element and structure-specific measurements, automated platforms are not suitable for analytical processes. Thus, the purpose of the presented investigation was the design, realization, and evaluation of an automated system ensuring high-precision sample preparation for a variety of analytical measurements. The developed system has to enable system adaption and high performance flexibility. Furthermore, the system has to be capable of dealing with the wide range of required vessels simultaneously, allowing for less cost and time-consuming process steps. However, the system's functionality has been confirmed in various validation sequences. Using element-specific measurements, the automated system was up to 25% more precise compared to the manual procedure and as precise as the manual procedure using structure-specific measurements. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  15. How anonymous is 'anonymous'? Some suggestions towards a coherent universal coding system for genetic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Harald; Callier, Shawneequa

    2012-05-01

    So-called 'anonymous' tissue samples are widely used in research. Because they lack externally identifying information, they are viewed as useful in reconciling conflicts between the control, privacy and confidentiality interests of those from whom the samples originated and the public (or commercial) interest in carrying out research, as reflected in 'consent or anonymise' policies. High level guidance documents suggest that withdrawal of consent and samples and the provision of feedback are impossible in the case of anonymous samples. In view of recent developments in science and consumer-driven genomics the authors argue that such statements are misleading and only muddle complex ethical questions about possible entitlements to control over samples. The authors therefore propose that terms such as 'anonymised', 'anonymous' or 'non-identifiable' be removed entirely from documents describing research samples, especially from those aimed at the public. This is necessary as a matter of conceptual clarity and because failure to do so may jeopardise public trust in the governance of large scale databases. As there is wide variation in the taxonomy for tissue samples and no uniform national or international standards, the authors propose that a numeral-based universal coding system be implemented that focuses on specifying incremental levels of identifiability, rather than use terms that imply that the reidentification of research samples and associated actions are categorically impossible.

  16. 75 FR 52587 - 2009 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS)/National Automotive Sampling System General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 2009 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS)/National... Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Request for advertisement of public... analysis while also reducing costs and errors. The Data Standardization Work Group, consisting of...

  17. Method And Apparatus For Reducing Sample Dispersion In Turns And Junctions Of Micro-Channel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stewart K. , Nilson, Robert H.

    2004-05-11

    What is disclosed pertains to improvement in the performance of microchannel devices by providing turns, wyes, tees, and other junctions that produce little dispersion of a sample as it traverses the turn or junction. The reduced dispersion results from contraction and expansion regions that reduce the cross-sectional area over some portion of the turn or junction. By carefully designing the geometries of these regions, sample dispersion in turns and junctions is reduced to levels comparable to the effects of ordinary diffusion. The low dispersion features are particularly suited for microfluidic devices and systems using either electromotive force, pressure, or combinations thereof as the principle of fluid transport. Such microfluidic devices and systems are useful for separation of components, sample transport, reaction, mixing, dilution or synthesis, or combinations thereof.

  18. Active-Varying Sampling-Based Fault Detection Filter Design for Networked Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Long Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with fault detection filter design for continuous-time networked control systems considering packet dropouts and network-induced delays. The active-varying sampling period method is introduced to establish a new discretized model for the considered networked control systems. The mutually exclusive distribution characteristic of packet dropouts and network-induced delays is made full use of to derive less conservative fault detection filter design criteria. Compared with the fault detection filter design adopting a constant sampling period, the proposed active-varying sampling-based fault detection filter design can improve the sensitivity of the residual signal to faults and shorten the needed time for fault detection. The simulation results illustrate the merits and effectiveness of the proposed fault detection filter design.

  19. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology...

  20. Computing stationary distributions in equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems with Forward Flux Sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeriani, C.; Allen, R.J.; Morelli, M.J.; Frenkel, D.; ten Wolde, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    We present a method for computing stationary distributions for activated processes in equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems using Forward Flux Sampling (FFS). In this method, the stationary distributions are obtained directly from the rate constant calculations for the forward and backward

  1. The applying of multisensory system to assessment of blood samples by composition of equilibrium gaseous phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kuchmenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article discussed the possibility of blood sample’s assessment with the following diagnostic characteristics: "endometriosis", "fibroids", "uterine body cancer" by the signals of multisensor system. It has been found that blood samples can be reliably ranking into groups according to their diagnostic characteristics using the geometry, square of "visual prints" and the sorption effectiveness parameters max ij А.

  2. Methods, compounds and systems for detecting a microorganism in a sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colston, Jr, Bill W.; Fitch, J. Patrick; Gardner, Shea N.; Williams, Peter L.; Wagner, Mark C.

    2016-09-06

    Methods to identify a set of probe polynucleotides suitable for detecting a set of targets and in particular methods for identification of primers suitable for detection of target microorganisms related polynucleotides, set of polynucleotides and compositions, and related methods and systems for detection and/or identification of microorganisms in a sample.

  3. Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System. Topical report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the results of Phase 1 efforts to develop a Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System for the detection of semivolatile organic contaminants on concrete, transite, and metal surfaces. The characterization of equipment and building surfaces for the presence of contaminants as part of building decontamination and decommissioning activities is an immensely large tacks of concern to both government and industry. Contaminated and clean materials must be clearly identified and segregated so that the clean materials can be recycled or reused, if possible, or disposed of more cheaply as nonhazardous waste. Characterization of building and equipment surfaces will be needed during initial investigations, during cleanup operations, and during the final confirmatory process, increasing the total number of samples well beyond that needed for initial characterization. This multiplicity of information places a premium on the ability to handle and track data as efficiently as possible. Aware of the shortcomings of traditional surface characterization technology, GE, with DOE support has undertaken a 12-month effort to complete Phase 1 of a proposed four-phase program to develop the RSSAR system. The objectives of this work are to provide instrumentation to cost-effectively sample concrete and steel surfaces, provide a quick-look indication for the presence or absence of contaminants, and collect samples for later, more detailed analysis in a readily accessible and addressable form. The Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System will be a modular instrument made up of several components: (1) sampling heads for concrete surfaces, steel surfaces, and bulk samples; (2) quick-look detectors for photoionization and ultraviolet; (3) multisample trapping module to trap and store vaporized contaminants in a manner suitable for subsequent detailed lab-based analyses.

  4. Observing System Simulation Experiments for the assessment of temperature sampling strategies in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Raicich

    Full Text Available For the first time in the Mediterranean Sea various temperature sampling strategies are studied and compared to each other by means of the Observing System Simulation Experiment technique. Their usefulness in the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS is assessed by quantifying their impact in a Mediterranean General Circulation Model in numerical twin experiments via univariate data assimilation of temperature profiles in summer and winter conditions. Data assimilation is performed by means of the optimal interpolation algorithm implemented in the SOFA (System for Ocean Forecasting and Analysis code. The sampling strategies studied here include various combinations of eXpendable BathyThermograph (XBT profiles collected along Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS tracks, Airborne XBTs (AXBTs and sea surface temperatures. The actual sampling strategy adopted in the MFS Pilot Project during the Targeted Operational Period (TOP, winter-spring 2000 is also studied.

    The data impact is quantified by the error reduction relative to the free run. The most effective sampling strategies determine 25–40% error reduction, depending on the season, the geographic area and the depth range. A qualitative relationship can be recognized in terms of the spread of information from the data positions, between basin circulation features and spatial patterns of the error reduction fields, as a function of different spatial and seasonal characteristics of the dynamics. The largest error reductions are observed when samplings are characterized by extensive spatial coverages, as in the cases of AXBTs and the combination of XBTs and surface temperatures. The sampling strategy adopted during the TOP is characterized by little impact, as a consequence of a sampling frequency that is too low.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (marginal and semi-enclosed seas; numerical modelling

  5. Potential of Cognitive Computing and Cognitive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Ahmed K.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive computing and cognitive technologies are game changers for future engineering systems, as well as for engineering practice and training. They are major drivers for knowledge automation work, and the creation of cognitive products with higher levels of intelligence than current smart products. This paper gives a brief review of cognitive computing and some of the cognitive engineering systems activities. The potential of cognitive technologies is outlined, alo...

  6. High velocity penetrators used a potential means for attaining core sample for airless solar system objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, R. M.; Truitt, C.; Shibata, R.

    2017-08-01

    Sample return missions offer a greater science yield when compared to missions that only employ in situ or remote sensing observations. Such missions have high ΔV requirements, and the return yields to date have been typically only of a few grams for robotic missions. Planetary penetrators offer an alternative that significantly reduce a mission's ΔV, increase sample yields, and allow for the collection of subsurface materials. The following details the design, development, and testing of penetrator/sampler technology capable of surviving supersonic impact velocities that would enable the collection of a solid core of geologic materials, without the need for any drilling equipment,,thereby reducing the overall mass and propellant budget. It is shown through both modeling and field testing that penetrators at speeds between 300 and 600 m/s ( Mach 1-2) can penetrate into the ground to depths of 1-2 m with overall structural integrity maintained. The first flight tests demonstrated the potential for survivability at these speeds. The second flight series demonstrated core sample collection with partial ejection of the sample return canister. The 3rd flight series demonstrated self-ejection of the sample return system fully intact and with the core retaining the full stratigraphy of the rock bed. The recovered sample also shows the survivability of macro-organic structures. Possible mechanisms for the recovery of the ejected core sample are also discussed.

  7. Reducing the risk of fatal and disabling hypoglycaemia: a comparison of arterial blood sampling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, K A; Eapen, G; Turnbull, D

    2010-04-01

    In 2008, the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) published a report after 42 incidents and two deaths where glucose-containing flush solutions were attached to the arterial line. The molar concentration of 5% glucose is 277 mmol litre(-1). Only a tiny amount of sample contamination will lead to an artificially high glucose. As the NPSA sought a solution, a bench model was constructed to compare the performance of three open and three closed arterial line systems in limiting sample contamination. All arterial line systems were set up in a standard manner and pressurized to 300 mm Hg with 5% glucose used as the flush solution. This was connected to the 'radial artery' using an 18 G needle representing the radial cannula. The radial artery was simulated using a wide-bore extension set with 'blood' flow at 60 ml min(-1). Blood was simulated by the addition of red dye to Hartmann's solution. Increasing multiples of arterial line dead space were aspirated and discarded. Blood samples were then obtained and glucose concentration was measured. Significant glucose contamination (3 mmol litre(-1) +/-3.4) was detected in all open arterial line systems up to an aspiration volume of five times the dead space. No samples from the closed systems recorded glucose concentration >1 mmol litre(-1). Recommended minimal discard volumes are inadequate in the presence of glucose as the flush solution and can lead to high blood glucose readings, inappropriate insulin use, and iatrogenic neuroglycopaenia. Our study demonstrates that the closed-loop arterial sampling system could be the universal solution sought by the NPSA.

  8. A novel in-situ sampling and VFA sensor technique for anaerobic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    that has made it possible to monitor VFA on-line in one of the most difficult media: animal slurry or manure. A novel in-situ filtration technique has made it possible to perform microfiltration inside the reactor system. This filter enables sampling from closed reactor systems without large scale pumping...... and filtering. Using this filtration technique together with commercially available membrane filters we have constructed a VFA sensor system that can perform automatic analysis on animal slurry at a frequency as high as every 15 minutes. The VFA sensor has been tested for a period of more than 60 days with more...

  9. Designing to Sample the Unknown: Lessons from OSIRIS-REx Project Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, David; Mink, Ronald; Linn, Timothy; Wood, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    On September 8, 2016, the third NASA New Frontiers mission launched on an Atlas V 411. The Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) will rendezvous with asteroid Bennu in 2018, collect a sample in 2020, and return that sample to Earth in September 2023. The development team has overcome a number of challenges in order to design and build a system that will make contact with an unexplored, airless, low-gravity body. This paper will provide an overview of the mission, then focus in on the system-level challenges and some of the key system-level processes. Some of the lessons here are unique to the type of mission, like discussion of operating at a largely-unknown, low-gravity object. Other lessons, particularly from the build phase, have broad implications. The OSIRIS-REx risk management process was particularly effective in achieving an on-time and under-budget development effort. The systematic requirements management and verification and the system validation also helped identify numerous potential problems. The final assessment of the OSIRIS-REx performance will need to wait until the sample is returned in 2023, but this post-launch assessment will capture some of the key systems-engineering lessons from the development team.

  10. The search for and analysis of direct samples of early Solar System aqueous fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Itoh, Shoichi; Fries, Marc; Steele, Andrew; Chan, Queenie H.-S.; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Kebukawa, Yoko; Ito, Motoo

    2017-04-01

    We describe the current state of the search for direct, surviving samples of early, inner Solar System fluids-fluid inclusions in meteorites. Meteoritic aqueous fluid inclusions are not rare, but they are very tiny and their characterization is at the state of the art for most analytical techniques. Meteoritic fluid inclusions offer us a unique opportunity to study early Solar System brines in the laboratory. Inclusion-by-inclusion analyses of the trapped fluids in carefully selected samples will, in the immediate future, provide us detailed information on the evolution of fluids as they interacted with anhydrous solid materials. Thus, real data can replace calculated fluid compositions in thermochemical calculations of the evolution of water and aqueous reactions in comets, asteroids, moons and the terrestrial planets. This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'.

  11. RoboHound:developing sample collection and preconcentration hardware for a remote trace explosives detection system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David J. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Denning, David J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Lenz, Michael C.; Anderson, Robert J.; Carlson, Dennis L.; Hunter, John Anthony; Gladwell, T. Scott; Mitchell, Mary-Anne; Hannum, David W.; Baumann, Mark J.

    2005-09-01

    The RoboHound{trademark} Project was a three-year, multiphase project at Sandia National Laboratories to build and refine a working prototype trace explosive detection system as a tool for a commercial robot. The RoboHound system was envisioned to be a tool for emergency responders to test suspicious items (i.e., packages or vehicles) for explosives while maintaining a safe distance. The project investigated combining Sandia's expertise in trace explosives detection with a wheeled robotic platform that could be programmed to interrogate suspicious items remotely for the presence of explosives. All of the RoboHound field tests were successful, especially with regards to the ability to collect and detect trace samples of RDX. The project has gone from remote sampling with human intervention to a fully automatic system that requires no human intervention until the robot returns from a sortie. A proposal is being made for additional work leading towards commercialization.

  12. The search for and analysis of direct samples of early Solar System aqueous fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael E; Bodnar, Robert J; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Itoh, Shoichi; Fries, Marc; Steele, Andrew; Chan, Queenie H-S; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Kebukawa, Yoko; Ito, Motoo

    2017-05-28

    We describe the current state of the search for direct, surviving samples of early, inner Solar System fluids-fluid inclusions in meteorites. Meteoritic aqueous fluid inclusions are not rare, but they are very tiny and their characterization is at the state of the art for most analytical techniques. Meteoritic fluid inclusions offer us a unique opportunity to study early Solar System brines in the laboratory. Inclusion-by-inclusion analyses of the trapped fluids in carefully selected samples will, in the immediate future, provide us detailed information on the evolution of fluids as they interacted with anhydrous solid materials. Thus, real data can replace calculated fluid compositions in thermochemical calculations of the evolution of water and aqueous reactions in comets, asteroids, moons and the terrestrial planets.This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Path integral molecular dynamics with surface hopping for thermal equilibrium sampling of nonadiabatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianfeng; Zhou, Zhennan

    2017-04-21

    In this work, a novel ring polymer representation for a multi-level quantum system is proposed for thermal average calculations. The proposed representation keeps the discreteness of the electronic states: besides position and momentum, each bead in the ring polymer is also characterized by a surface index indicating the electronic energy surface. A path integral molecular dynamics with surface hopping (PIMD-SH) dynamics is also developed to sample the equilibrium distribution of the ring polymer configurational space. The PIMD-SH sampling method is validated theoretically and by numerical examples.

  14. Presence of enteric viruses in water samples for consumption in Colombia: Challenges for supply systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Dioselina; Guzmán, Blanca Lisseth; Rodríguez, Johanna; Acero, Felipe; Nava, Gerardo

    2016-04-15

    Since drinking water can be a vehicle for the transmission of pathogens, the detection of enteric viruses in these water samples is essential to establish the appropriate measures to control and prevent associated diseases.  To analyze the results obtained for enteric viruses in water samples for human consumption received at the Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud and establish their association with the data on water quality in Colombian municipalities.  We conducted a descriptive-retrospective analysis of the results obtained in the detection of rotavirus, enterovirus, hepatitis A virus and adenovirus in water samples received for complementary studies of enteric hepatitis, acute diarrheal disease and foodborne diseases. Data were correlated with the results of water quality surveillance determined by the national human consumption water quality index (IRCA).  Of the 288 samples processed from 102 Colombian municipalities, 50.7% were positive for viruses: 26.73% for hepatitis A virus, 20.48% for enterovirus and rotavirus and 18.05% for adenovirus. Viruses were detected in 48.26% of non-treated water samples and in 45.83% of treated water samples. The IRCA index showed no correlation with the presence of viruses.  The presence of viruses in water represents a public health risk and, therefore, the prevention of virus transmission through water requires appropriate policies to reinforce water supply systems and improve epidemiological surveillance.

  15. Automated system for sampling, counting, and biological analysis of rotifer populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Claus-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Zooplankton organisms with short generation times, such as rotifers, are ideal models to study general ecological and evolutionary questions on the population level, because meaningful experiments can often be completed within a couple of weeks. Yet biological analysis of such populations is often extremely time consuming, owing to abundance estimation by counting, measuring body size, or determining the investment into sexual versus asexual reproduction. An automated system for sampling and analyzing experimental rotifer populations is described. It relies on image analysis of digital photographs taken from subsamples of the culture. The system works completely autonomously for up to several weeks and can sample up to 12 cultures at time intervals down to a few hours. It allows quantitative analysis of female population density at a precision equivalent to that of conventional methods (i.e., manual counts of samples fixed in Lugol solution), and it can also recognize males, which allows detecting temporal variation of sexual reproduction in such cultures. Another parameter that can be automatically measured with the image analysis system is female body size. This feature may be useful for studies of population productivity and/or in competition experiments with clones of different body size. In this article, I describe the basic setup of the system and tests on the efficiency of data collection, and show some example data sets on the population dynamics of different strains of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. PMID:21151824

  16. Comparing the Asthma APGAR system and the Asthma Control Test™ in a multicenter primary care sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Matthew A; Bertram, Susan; Wollan, Peter; Yawn, Roy A; Yawn, Barbara P

    2014-07-01

    To compare asthma control assessment using the Asthma APGAR system, a tool developed by primary care clinicians, in a multicenter primary care sample with the Asthma Control Test (ACT™)/Childhood Asthma Control Test (CACT™), a tool developed by asthma specialists. This is a substudy of a multicenter, randomized, controlled pragmatic trial that tests the effectiveness of the Asthma APGAR system in primary care practices. As part of the study, enrolled patients completed both the ACT™/CACT™ and the Asthma APGAR system between March 1, 2011, and December 31, 2011. Kappa and McNemar statistics were used to compare the results of questionnaires. Of the 468 patients in our sample, 306 (65%) were classified as not controlled by the ACT™/CACT™ or the Asthma APGAR system. The overall agreement was 84.4%, with a kappa value of .68 (substantial agreement) and a McNemar test P value of .35 (suggesting no significant difference in the direction of disagreement). Of those with poor control as defined by the Asthma APGAR system, 23.8% (73) had no controller medications and 76.5% (234) were seldom or sometimes able to avoid identified triggers for their asthma. Of those who stated that they had been prescribed controller medications, 116 of 332 (35%) stated that they did not use the controller medication on a daily basis. The Asthma APGAR system and the ACT™/CACT™ similarly assess asthma control in a multicenter primary care-based sample. The Asthma APGAR system identified an "actionable item" in more than 75% (234) of the individuals with poor asthma control, thus linking an assessment of poor asthma control with a management strategy. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiscale simulations of patchy particle systems combining Molecular Dynamics, Path Sampling and Green's Function Reaction Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Peter

    Important reaction-diffusion processes, such as biochemical networks in living cells, or self-assembling soft matter, span many orders in length and time scales. In these systems, the reactants' spatial dynamics at mesoscopic length and time scales of microns and seconds is coupled to the reactions between the molecules at microscopic length and time scales of nanometers and milliseconds. This wide range of length and time scales makes these systems notoriously difficult to simulate. While mean-field rate equations cannot describe such processes, the mesoscopic Green's Function Reaction Dynamics (GFRD) method enables efficient simulation at the particle level provided the microscopic dynamics can be integrated out. Yet, many processes exhibit non-trivial microscopic dynamics that can qualitatively change the macroscopic behavior, calling for an atomistic, microscopic description. The recently developed multiscale Molecular Dynamics Green's Function Reaction Dynamics (MD-GFRD) approach combines GFRD for simulating the system at the mesocopic scale where particles are far apart, with microscopic Molecular (or Brownian) Dynamics, for simulating the system at the microscopic scale where reactants are in close proximity. The association and dissociation of particles are treated with rare event path sampling techniques. I will illustrate the efficiency of this method for patchy particle systems. Replacing the microscopic regime with a Markov State Model avoids the microscopic regime completely. The MSM is then pre-computed using advanced path-sampling techniques such as multistate transition interface sampling. I illustrate this approach on patchy particle systems that show multiple modes of binding. MD-GFRD is generic, and can be used to efficiently simulate reaction-diffusion systems at the particle level, including the orientational dynamics, opening up the possibility for large-scale simulations of e.g. protein signaling networks.

  18. Sampled-Data Consensus of Linear Multi-agent Systems With Packet Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbing; Tang, Yang; Huang, Tingwen; Kurths, Jurgen

    In this paper, the consensus problem is studied for a class of multi-agent systems with sampled data and packet losses, where random and deterministic packet losses are considered, respectively. For random packet losses, a Bernoulli-distributed white sequence is used to describe packet dropouts among agents in a stochastic way. For deterministic packet losses, a switched system with stable and unstable subsystems is employed to model packet dropouts in a deterministic way. The purpose of this paper is to derive consensus criteria, such that linear multi-agent systems with sampled-data and packet losses can reach consensus. By means of the Lyapunov function approach and the decomposition method, the design problem of a distributed controller is solved in terms of convex optimization. The interplay among the allowable bound of the sampling interval, the probability of random packet losses, and the rate of deterministic packet losses are explicitly derived to characterize consensus conditions. The obtained criteria are closely related to the maximum eigenvalue of the Laplacian matrix versus the second minimum eigenvalue of the Laplacian matrix, which reveals the intrinsic effect of communication topologies on consensus performance. Finally, simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed results.In this paper, the consensus problem is studied for a class of multi-agent systems with sampled data and packet losses, where random and deterministic packet losses are considered, respectively. For random packet losses, a Bernoulli-distributed white sequence is used to describe packet dropouts among agents in a stochastic way. For deterministic packet losses, a switched system with stable and unstable subsystems is employed to model packet dropouts in a deterministic way. The purpose of this paper is to derive consensus criteria, such that linear multi-agent systems with sampled-data and packet losses can reach consensus. By means of the Lyapunov function

  19. Measurement of peak impact loads differ between accelerometers - Effects of system operating range and sampling rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebart, Christina; Giangregorio, Lora M; Gibbs, Jenna C; Levine, Iris C; Tung, James; Laing, Andrew C

    2017-06-14

    A wide variety of accelerometer systems, with differing sensor characteristics, are used to detect impact loading during physical activities. The study examined the effects of system characteristics on measured peak impact loading during a variety of activities by comparing outputs from three separate accelerometer systems, and by assessing the influence of simulated reductions in operating range and sampling rate. Twelve healthy young adults performed seven tasks (vertical jump, box drop, heel drop, and bilateral single leg and lateral jumps) while simultaneously wearing three tri-axial accelerometers including a criterion standard laboratory-grade unit (Endevco 7267A) and two systems primarily used for activity-monitoring (ActiGraph GT3X+, GCDC X6-2mini). Peak acceleration (gmax) was compared across accelerometers, and errors resulting from down-sampling (from 640 to 100Hz) and range-limiting (to ±6g) the criterion standard output were characterized. The Actigraph activity-monitoring accelerometer underestimated gmax by an average of 30.2%; underestimation by the X6-2mini was not significant. Underestimation error was greater for tasks with greater impact magnitudes. gmax was underestimated when the criterion standard signal was down-sampled (by an average of 11%), range limited (by 11%), and by combined down-sampling and range-limiting (by 18%). These effects explained 89% of the variance in gmax error for the Actigraph system. This study illustrates that both the type and intensity of activity should be considered when selecting an accelerometer for characterizing impact events. In addition, caution may be warranted when comparing impact magnitudes from studies that use different accelerometers, and when comparing accelerometer outputs to osteogenic impact thresholds proposed in literature. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Set Up of an Automatic Water Quality Sampling System in Irrigation Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Emanuel; Kraft, Philipp; Buchen, Caroline; Frede, Hans-Georg; Aquino, Eugenio; Breuer, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has already a large impact on the availability of water resources. Many regions in South-East Asia are assumed to receive less water in the future, dramatically impacting the production of the most important staple food: rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice is the primary food source for nearly half of the World's population, and is the only cereal that can grow under wetland conditions. Especially anaerobic (flooded) rice fields require high amounts of water but also have higher yields than aerobic produced rice. In the past different methods were developed to reduce the water use in rice paddies, like alternative wetting and drying or the use of mixed cropping systems with aerobic (non-flooded) rice and alternative crops such as maize. A more detailed understanding of water and nutrient cycling in rice-based cropping systems is needed to reduce water use, and requires the investigation of hydrological and biochemical processes as well as transport dynamics at the field scale. New developments in analytical devices permit monitoring parameters at high temporal resolutions and at acceptable costs without much necessary maintenance or analysis over longer periods. Here we present a new type of automatic sampling set-up that facilitates in situ analysis of hydrometric information, stable water isotopes and nitrate concentrations in spatially differentiated agricultural fields. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water) in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS) for stable water isotope analysis (δ2H and δ18O), a reagentless hyperspectral UV photometer for monitoring nitrate content and various water level sensors for hydrometric information. The whole system is maintained with special developed software for remote control of the system via internet. We

  1. [Application of over sampling sigma-delta A/D in DOAS system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su-wen; Liu, Wen-qing; Xie, Pin-hua

    2006-12-01

    Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) has become a widely used method to measure trace gases in the atmosphere. Concentration of trace gases is retrieved using least-squares fits of reference spectra to the measurement spectra. The measurement precision not only depends on the measurement precision of spectra and the noise of instrument and disturbing of other gases in measuring band, but suffers the influence of signal sampling and pre-processing. The present paper simply introduced DOAS measuring principle and the setup of instrument and put forward improving method-the technology of over sampling sigma- deltaA/D. Using the sigma-delta modulator structure to shape noises together with the over sampling technology can doubly restrain quantifying noises, which can improve the signal-to-noise ratio within the measuring band. So the measurement precision of DOAS system is improved with this technology.

  2. The EnzymeTracker: an open-source laboratory information management system for sample tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplet, Thomas; Butler, Gregory

    2012-01-26

    In many laboratories, researchers store experimental data on their own workstation using spreadsheets. However, this approach poses a number of problems, ranging from sharing issues to inefficient data-mining. Standard spreadsheets are also error-prone, as data do not undergo any validation process. To overcome spreadsheets inherent limitations, a number of proprietary systems have been developed, which laboratories need to pay expensive license fees for. Those costs are usually prohibitive for most laboratories and prevent scientists from benefiting from more sophisticated data management systems. In this paper, we propose the EnzymeTracker, a web-based laboratory information management system for sample tracking, as an open-source and flexible alternative that aims at facilitating entry, mining and sharing of experimental biological data. The EnzymeTracker features online spreadsheets and tools for monitoring numerous experiments conducted by several collaborators to identify and characterize samples. It also provides libraries of shared data such as protocols, and administration tools for data access control using OpenID and user/team management. Our system relies on a database management system for efficient data indexing and management and a user-friendly AJAX interface that can be accessed over the Internet. The EnzymeTracker facilitates data entry by dynamically suggesting entries and providing smart data-mining tools to effectively retrieve data. Our system features a number of tools to visualize and annotate experimental data, and export highly customizable reports. It also supports QR matrix barcoding to facilitate sample tracking. The EnzymeTracker was designed to be easy to use and offers many benefits over spreadsheets, thus presenting the characteristics required to facilitate acceptance by the scientific community. It has been successfully used for 20 months on a daily basis by over 50 scientists. The EnzymeTracker is freely available online at http

  3. The EnzymeTracker: an open-source laboratory information management system for sample tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triplet Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many laboratories, researchers store experimental data on their own workstation using spreadsheets. However, this approach poses a number of problems, ranging from sharing issues to inefficient data-mining. Standard spreadsheets are also error-prone, as data do not undergo any validation process. To overcome spreadsheets inherent limitations, a number of proprietary systems have been developed, which laboratories need to pay expensive license fees for. Those costs are usually prohibitive for most laboratories and prevent scientists from benefiting from more sophisticated data management systems. Results In this paper, we propose the EnzymeTracker, a web-based laboratory information management system for sample tracking, as an open-source and flexible alternative that aims at facilitating entry, mining and sharing of experimental biological data. The EnzymeTracker features online spreadsheets and tools for monitoring numerous experiments conducted by several collaborators to identify and characterize samples. It also provides libraries of shared data such as protocols, and administration tools for data access control using OpenID and user/team management. Our system relies on a database management system for efficient data indexing and management and a user-friendly AJAX interface that can be accessed over the Internet. The EnzymeTracker facilitates data entry by dynamically suggesting entries and providing smart data-mining tools to effectively retrieve data. Our system features a number of tools to visualize and annotate experimental data, and export highly customizable reports. It also supports QR matrix barcoding to facilitate sample tracking. Conclusions The EnzymeTracker was designed to be easy to use and offers many benefits over spreadsheets, thus presenting the characteristics required to facilitate acceptance by the scientific community. It has been successfully used for 20 months on a daily basis by over 50

  4. LIIS: A web-based system for culture collections and sample annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Forster

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Lab Information Indexing System (LIIS is a web-driven database application for laboratories looking to store their sample or culture metadata on a central server. The design was driven by a need to replace traditional paper storage with an easier to search format, and extend current spreadsheet storage methods. The system supports the import and export of CSV spreadsheets, and stores general metadata designed to complement the environmental packages provided by the Genomic Standards Consortium. The goals of the LIIS are to simplify the storage and archival processes and to provide an easy to access library of laboratory annotations. The program will find utility in microbial ecology laboratories or any lab that needs to annotate samples/cultures.

  5. System and method for laser assisted sample transfer to solution for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2014-01-28

    A system and method for laser desorption of an analyte from a specimen and capturing of the analyte in a suspended solvent to form a testing solution are described. The method can include providing a specimen supported by a desorption region of a specimen stage and desorbing an analyte from a target site of the specimen with a laser beam centered at a radiation wavelength (.lamda.). The desorption region is transparent to the radiation wavelength (.lamda.) and the sampling probe and a laser source emitting the laser beam are on opposite sides of a primary surface of the specimen stage. The system can also be arranged where the laser source and the sampling probe are on the same side of a primary surface of the specimen stage. The testing solution can then be analyzed using an analytical instrument or undergo further processing.

  6. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emissions Units and Sampling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Brown, Jason H.; Walker, Brian A.

    2012-04-01

    Battelle–Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development (R&D) laboratories in Richland, WA, including those associated with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Hanford Site and PNNL Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all emission units that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually by PNNL staff members. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission unit system performance, operation, and design information. For sampled systems, a description of the buildings, exhaust units, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered emission unit. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided. Deregistered emission unit details are provided as necessary for up to 5 years post closure.

  7. A point-addressable transfer system for automated sampling, feeding, and expansion of hybridoma cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karu, A E; Miller, P L; Chase, C; Cornutt, W

    1985-01-21

    A Dynatech Autoprep liquid sampling system has been modified to perform fully automated aseptic sampling, feeding, and expansion of hybridoma cultures in standard 96- and 24-well culture plates. The system is controlled by an Apple IIe computer, and uses a single teflon probe to transfer culture medium from randomly located wells to EIA plates and deliver fresh medium to the sampled wells. An 'expansion mode' allows suspension of cells for transfer to another plate. The sampling probe may be washed with sterile medium, buffer, or water between each transfer. Any combination of up to 6 assay plates, sterile growth plates, and expansion plates may be operated on at one time, and each transaction is recorded on a floppy disk file. Experiments with various hybridoma cultures indicated that transfers were reproducible, sterility was maintained, and the washing procedure reduced cross-contamination of cultures with other cells or antibodies to negligible levels. The APPLE BASIC computer programs which perform the functions and record the transactions are described in the paper and the Appendix, and are available upon request.

  8. Representation of solid and nutrient concentrations in irrigation water from tailwater recovery systems by surface water grab samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailwater recovery (TWR) systems are being implemented on agricultural landscapes to create an additional source of irrigation water. Existing studies have sampled TWR systems using grab samples; however, the applicability of solids and nutrient concentrations in these samples to water being irrigat...

  9. Probabilistic techniques using Monte Carlo sampling for multi- component system diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumeier, S.E. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lee, J.C.; Akcasu, A.Z. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1995-06-01

    We outline the structure of a new approach at multi-component system fault diagnostics which utilizes detailed system simulation models, uncertain system observation data, statistical knowledge of system parameters, expert opinion, and component reliability data in an effort to identify incipient component performance degradations of arbitrary number and magnitude. The technique involves the use of multiple adaptive Kalman filters for fault estimation, the results of which are screened using standard hypothesis testing procedures to define a set of component events that could have transpired. Latin Hypercube sample each of these feasible component events in terms of uncertain component reliability data and filter estimates. The capabilities of the procedure are demonstrated through the analysis of a simulated small magnitude binary component fault in a boiling water reactor balance of plant. The results show that the procedure has the potential to be a very effective tool for incipient component fault diagnosis.

  10. Earth Entry Requirements for Mars, Europa and Enceladus Sample Return Missions: A Thermal Protection System Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Gage, Peter; Ellerby, Don; Mahzari, Milad; Peterson, Keith; Stackpoole, Mairead; Young, Zion

    2016-01-01

    This oral presentation will be given at the 13th International Planetary Probe Workshop on June 14th, 2016 and will cover the drivers for reliability and the challenges faced in selecting and designing the thermal protection system (TPS). In addition, an assessment is made on new emerging TPS related technologies that could help with designs to meet the planetary protection requirements to prevent backward (Earth) contamination by biohazardous samples.

  11. Dynamics and Robust Control of Sampled Data Systems for Large Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    ix LIST OF TABLES ....................................... xii CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION ............................... 1...7 The Effect of Different Sampling Periods on the Open and Closed Loop System Eigenvalues and Moduli 137 xii CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION The Solar...terms, g,, represent the gravitational force acting on the nt mode due to the elastic motion on the mth mode. gq- f Mcdm -Am L M- (51) vol M d The term

  12. Remote laser drilling and sampling system for the detection of concealed explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, D.; Pschyklenk, L.; Theiß, C.; Holl, G.

    2017-05-01

    The detection of hazardous materials like explosives is a central issue in national security in the field of counterterrorism. One major task includes the development of new methods and sensor systems for the detection. Many existing remote or standoff methods like infrared or raman spectroscopy find their limits, if the hazardous material is concealed in an object. Imaging technologies using x-ray or terahertz radiation usually yield no information about the chemical content itself. However, the exact knowledge of the real threat potential of a suspicious object is crucial for disarming the device. A new approach deals with a laser drilling and sampling system for the use as verification detector for suspicious objects. Central part of the system is a miniaturised, diode pumped Nd:YAG laser oscillator-amplifier. The system allows drilling into most materials like metals, synthetics or textiles with bore hole diameters in the micron scale. During the drilling process, the hazardous material can be sampled for further investigation with suitable detection methods. In the reported work, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is used to monitor the drilling process and to classify the drilled material. Also experiments were carried out to show the system's ability to not ignite even sensitive explosives like triacetone triperoxide (TATP). The detection of concealed hazardous material is shown for different explosives using liquid chromatography and ion mobility spectrometry.

  13. Automated MALDI Matrix Coating System for Multiple Tissue Samples for Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounfield, William P.; Garrett, Timothy J.

    2012-03-01

    Uniform matrix deposition on tissue samples for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is key for reproducible analyte ion signals. Current methods often result in nonhomogenous matrix deposition, and take time and effort to produce acceptable ion signals. Here we describe a fully-automated method for matrix deposition using an enclosed spray chamber and spray nozzle for matrix solution delivery. A commercial air-atomizing spray nozzle was modified and combined with solenoid controlled valves and a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to control and deliver the matrix solution. A spray chamber was employed to contain the nozzle, sample, and atomized matrix solution stream, and to prevent any interference from outside conditions as well as allow complete control of the sample environment. A gravity cup was filled with MALDI matrix solutions, including DHB in chloroform/methanol (50:50) at concentrations up to 60 mg/mL. Various samples (including rat brain tissue sections) were prepared using two deposition methods (spray chamber, inkjet). A linear ion trap equipped with an intermediate-pressure MALDI source was used for analyses. Optical microscopic examination showed a uniform coating of matrix crystals across the sample. Overall, the mass spectral images gathered from tissues coated using the spray chamber system were of better quality and more reproducible than from tissue specimens prepared by the inkjet deposition method.

  14. Quantitative Digital Autoradiography for Environmental Swipe Sample Prioritization: System design, Characterization, and Initial Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Benjamin S.; Zalavadia, Mital A.; Miller, Brian W.; Bliss, Mary; Olsen, Khris B.; Kasparek, Dustin M.; Clarke, Ardelia M.

    2017-07-17

    Environmental sampling and sample analyses by the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) is a critical technical tool used to detect facility misuse under a Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement and to verify the absence of undeclared nuclear material activities under an Additional Protocol. Currently all environmental swipe samples (ESS) are screened using gamma spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence to estimate the amount of U and/or Pu in the ESS, to guide further analysis, and to assist in the shipment of ESS to the NWAL. Quantitative Digital Autoradiography for Environmental Samples (QDARES) is being developed to complement existing techniques through the use of a portable, real-time, high-spatial-resolution camera called the Ionizing-radiation Quantum Imaging Detector (iQID). The iQID constructs a spatial map of radionuclides within a sample or surface in real-time as charged particles (betas) and photons (gamma/x-rays) are detected and localized on an event-by-event basis. Knowledge of the location and nature of radioactive hot spots on the ESS could provide information for subsequent laboratory analysis. As a nondestructive technique, QDARES does not compromise the ESS chain of custody or subsequent laboratory analysis. In this paper we will present the system design and construction, characterization measurements with calibration sources, and initial measurements of ESS.

  15. Method and apparatus for reducing sample dispersion in turns and junctions of microchannel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stewart K.; Nilson, Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of microchannel devices is improved by providing turns, wyes, tees, and other junctions that produce little dispersions of a sample as it traverses the turn or junction. The reduced dispersion results from contraction and expansion regions that reduce the cross-sectional area over some portion of the turn or junction. By carefully designing the geometries of these regions, sample dispersion in turns and junctions is reduced to levels comparable to the effects of ordinary diffusion. A numerical algorithm was employed to evolve low-dispersion geometries by computing the electric or pressure field within candidate configurations, sample transport through the turn or junction, and the overall effective dispersion. These devices should greatly increase flexibility in the design of microchannel devices by permitting the use of turns and junctions that do not induce large sample dispersion. In particular, the ability to fold electrophoretic and electrochrornatographic separation columns will allow dramatic improvements in the miniaturization of these devices. The low-lispersion devices are particularly suited to electrochromatographic and electrophoretic separations, as well as pressure-driven chromatographic separation. They are further applicable to microfluidic systems employing either electroosrnotic or pressure-driven flows for sample transport, reaction, mixing, dilution or synthesis.

  16. Sampling algorithms for validation of supervised learning models for Ising-like systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Nataliya; Tamblyn, Isaac

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we build and explore supervised learning models of ferromagnetic system behavior, using Monte-Carlo sampling of the spin configuration space generated by the 2D Ising model. Given the enormous size of the space of all possible Ising model realizations, the question arises as to how to choose a reasonable number of samples that will form physically meaningful and non-intersecting training and testing datasets. Here, we propose a sampling technique called ;ID-MH; that uses the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm creating Markov process across energy levels within the predefined configuration subspace. We show that application of this method retains phase transitions in both training and testing datasets and serves the purpose of validation of a machine learning algorithm. For larger lattice dimensions, ID-MH is not feasible as it requires knowledge of the complete configuration space. As such, we develop a new ;block-ID; sampling strategy: it decomposes the given structure into square blocks with lattice dimension N ≤ 5 and uses ID-MH sampling of candidate blocks. Further comparison of the performance of commonly used machine learning methods such as random forests, decision trees, k nearest neighbors and artificial neural networks shows that the PCA-based Decision Tree regressor is the most accurate predictor of magnetizations of the Ising model. For energies, however, the accuracy of prediction is not satisfactory, highlighting the need to consider more algorithmically complex methods (e.g., deep learning).

  17. Development of automated preparation system for isotopocule analysis of N2O in various air samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Sakae; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), an increasingly abundant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, is the most important stratospheric ozone-depleting gas of this century. Natural abundance ratios of isotopocules of N2O, NNO molecules substituted with stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen, are a promising index of various sources or production pathways of N2O and of its sink or decomposition pathways. Several automated methods have been reported to improve the analytical precision for the isotopocule ratio of atmospheric N2O and to reduce the labor necessary for complicated sample preparation procedures related to mass spectrometric analysis. However, no method accommodates flask samples with limited volume or pressure. Here we present an automated preconcentration system which offers flexibility with respect to the available gas volume, pressure, and N2O concentration. The shortest processing time for a single analysis of typical atmospheric sample is 40 min. Precision values of isotopocule ratio analysis are automated systems, but better than that of our previously reported manual measurement system.

  18. Evaluation of sampling systems in iron ore concentrating and pelletizing processes - quantification of total sampling error (TSE) vs. apparent process variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, Karin; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2018-01-01

    Process sampling is involved in grade control in all parts of the production value chain in mineral processing. Reliable sampling and assaying is essential to ensure final product quality, but the need for representative sampling is not always taken into account. By continuous control...... analyses will form a basis for suggestions of possible improvements. The results show that variographic analysis is a powerful tool to evaluate both process variations and the variability of the sampling systems employed. The extensive access to time series data allow variographic characterization (quality...... control) of all critical measurement systems and locations. At the same time, periodicity and small changes in process variation can be detected and counteracted early, minimizing the risk for producing products out of specification....

  19. Post-Flight Microbial Analysis of Samples from the International Space Station Water Recovery System and Oxygen Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmele, Michele N.

    2011-01-01

    The Regenerative, Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) on the International Space Station (ISS) includes the the Water Recovery System (WRS) and the Oxygen Generation System (OGS). The WRS consists of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and Water Processor Assembly (WPA). This report describes microbial characterization of wastewater and surface samples collected from the WRS and OGS subsystems, returned to KSC, JSC, and MSFC on consecutive shuttle flights (STS-129 and STS-130) in 2009-10. STS-129 returned two filters that contained fluid samples from the WPA Waste Tank Orbital Recovery Unit (ORU), one from the waste tank and the other from the ISS humidity condensate. Direct count by microscopic enumeration revealed 8.38 x 104 cells per mL in the humidity condensate sample, but none of those cells were recoverable on solid agar media. In contrast, 3.32 x lOs cells per mL were measured from a surface swab of the WRS waste tank, including viable bacteria and fungi recovered after S12 days of incubation on solid agar media. Based on rDNA sequencing and phenotypic characterization, a fungus recovered from the filter was determined to be Lecythophora mutabilis. The bacterial isolate was identified by rDNA sequence data to be Methylobacterium radiotolerans. Additional UPA subsystem samples were returned on STS-130 for analysis. Both liquid and solid samples were collected from the Russian urine container (EDV), Distillation Assembly (DA) and Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) for post-flight analysis. The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungus Chaetomium brasiliense were isolated from the EDV samples. No viable bacteria or fungi were recovered from RFTA brine samples (N= 6), but multiple samples (N = 11) from the DA and RFTA were found to contain fungal and bacterial cells. Many recovered cells have been identified to genus by rDNA sequencing and carbon source utilization profiling (BiOLOG Gen III). The presence of viable bacteria and fungi from WRS

  20. Evaluation of the Validity of Groundwater Samples Obtained Using the Purge Water Management System at SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardsley, C.C.

    1999-04-27

    As part of the demonstration testing of the Purge Water Management System (PWMS) technology at the Savannah River Site (SRS), four wells were equipped with PWMS units in 1997 and a series of sampling events were conducted at each during 1997-1998. Three of the wells were located in A/M Area while the fourth was located at the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground in the General Separations Area.The PWMS is a ''closed-loop'', non-contact, system used to collect and return purge water to the originating aquifer after a sampling event without having significantly altered the water quality. One of the primary concerns as to its applicability at SRS, and elsewhere, is whether the PWMS might resample groundwater that is returned to the aquifer during the previous sampling event. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare groundwater chemical analysis data collected at the four test wells using the PWMS vs. historical data collected using the standard monitoring program methodology to determine if the PWMS provides representative monitoring samples.The analysis of the groundwater chemical concentrations indicates that the PWMS sampling methodology acquired representative groundwater samples at monitoring wells ABP-1A, ABP-4, ARP-3 and BGO-33C. Representative groundwater samples are achieved if the PWMS does not resample groundwater that has been purged and returned during a previous sampling event. Initial screening calculations, conducted prior to the selection of these four wells, indicated that groundwater velocities were high enough under the ambient hydraulic gradients to preclude resampling from occurring at the time intervals that were used at each well. Corroborating evidence included a tracer test that was conducted at BGO-33C, the high degree of similarity between analyte concentrations derived from the PWMS samples and those obtained from historical protocol sampling, as well as the fact that PWMS data extend all previously

  1. Touch And Go Camera System (TAGCAMS) for the OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, B. J.; Ravine, M. A.; Caplinger, M.; Schaffner, J. A.; Ladewig, J. V.; Olds, R. D.; Norman, C. D.; Huish, D.; Hughes, M.; Anderson, S. K.; Lorenz, D. A.; May, A.; Jackman, C. D.; Nelson, D.; Moreau, M.; Kubitschek, D.; Getzandanner, K.; Gordon, K. E.; Eberhardt, A.; Lauretta, D. S.

    2018-02-01

    NASA's OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission spacecraft includes the Touch And Go Camera System (TAGCAMS) three camera-head instrument. The purpose of TAGCAMS is to provide imagery during the mission to facilitate navigation to the target asteroid, confirm acquisition of the asteroid sample, and document asteroid sample stowage. The cameras were designed and constructed by Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) based on requirements developed by Lockheed Martin and NASA. All three of the cameras are mounted to the spacecraft nadir deck and provide images in the visible part of the spectrum, 400-700 nm. Two of the TAGCAMS cameras, NavCam 1 and NavCam 2, serve as fully redundant navigation cameras to support optical navigation and natural feature tracking. Their boresights are aligned in the nadir direction with small angular offsets for operational convenience. The third TAGCAMS camera, StowCam, provides imagery to assist with and confirm proper stowage of the asteroid sample. Its boresight is pointed at the OSIRIS-REx sample return capsule located on the spacecraft deck. All three cameras have at their heart a 2592 × 1944 pixel complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detector array that provides up to 12-bit pixel depth. All cameras also share the same lens design and a camera field of view of roughly 44° × 32° with a pixel scale of 0.28 mrad/pixel. The StowCam lens is focused to image features on the spacecraft deck, while both NavCam lens focus positions are optimized for imaging at infinity. A brief description of the TAGCAMS instrument and how it is used to support critical OSIRIS-REx operations is provided.

  2. Discrete Multiwavelet Critical-Sampling Transform-Based OFDM System over Rayleigh Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer A. Dawood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrete multiwavelet critical-sampling transform (DMWCST has been proposed instead of fast Fourier transform (FFT in the realization of the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system. The proposed structure further reduces the level of interference and improves the bandwidth efficiency through the elimination of the cyclic prefix due to the good orthogonality and time-frequency localization properties of the multiwavelet transform. The proposed system was simulated using MATLAB to allow various parameters of the system to be varied and tested. The performance of DMWCST-based OFDM (DMWCST-OFDM was compared with that of the discrete wavelet transform-based OFDM (DWT-OFDM and the traditional FFT-based OFDM (FFT-OFDM over flat fading and frequency-selective fading channels. Results obtained indicate that the performance of the proposed DMWCST-OFDM system achieves significant improvement compared to those of DWT-OFDM and FFT-OFDM systems. DMWCST improves the performance of the OFDM system by a factor of 1.5–2.5 dB and 13–15.5 dB compared with the DWT and FFT, respectively. Therefore the proposed system offers higher data rate in wireless mobile communications.

  3. Evaluation of the HB&L system for the culture of prosthetic and osteoarticular origin samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostina Ronca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic and osteoarticular infections represent a complex condition to diagnose and resolve. In both cases, the eradication of microorganisms is difficult because of anatomical and physiological characteristics of the site of infection (bone.The best strategy for an effective pharmacological treatment is based on an early diagnosis confirmed by microbiological testing of bone, periprosthetic tissue or removed prostheses, to support clinicians to undertake prolonged targeted therapy. The purpose of this paper is to assess the clinical correlation between the results of the cultures performed with automated HB&L (ALIFAX system compared to the result of traditional methods. HB&L is a system to perform bacterial cultures, susceptibility and direct P.A.R. tests on biological materials based on detection of bacteria and fungi by laser light-scattering kinetics in liquid culture medium at 37°C. Samples get to laboratory are inoculated in rich broth and placed in the incubator. The next day are processed accordin to the following protocol: 500 ml of the broth are transferred in the vial of the instrument and 200 ml of supplement DEB for fastidious organisms are added.The cultures are incubated for 360 minutes in the same time PAR test (antimicrobial residual power is determined. In the first half of 2009 418 samples collected from prostheses and osteoarticular infections from 118 patients were analyzed.The tests showed 304 negative and 114 positive samples (27.30% from which were isolated Gram negative (17.5% and Gram positive (82.5% bacteria. Gram positive included 38.3% S. aureus, 33% coagulase negative Staphylococci and 26.6% Enterococci. Preliminary data obtained by the HB&L system for the culture of tissue sample, as well as the improvement of surgical techniques have led to a significant increase in correlation with the clinical data compared to traditional microbiological analysis.

  4. A pressure-driven capillary electrophoretic system with injection valve sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao; Sun, Jiannan; Liu, Jinhua; Cheng, Heyong; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-01-07

    To improve repeatability and efficiency and to simplify the operation procedure of capillary electrophoresis (CE), a pressurized CE system (p-CE) with injection valve sampling was developed. It consisted of one high-pressure pump, a six-port injection valve, a PEEK cross, a separation and back pressure capillary, an ultraviolet-visible detector and a high voltage power supply. The pressure-driven flow ranging from 4.5 nL min(-1) to 0.81 μL min(-1) in the separation capillary was produced by splitting to the flow from the high-pressure pumps (0.005-0.4 mL min(-1)). Nano-volume sample injection (system, the new commercial capillary could be directly used without any wash, and the capillary-flush process between runs was also eliminated. In this case, the analytes were driven toward the outlet of the separation capillary by the pressurized flow, the electric field force and minute electroosmotic flow, and they were separated owing to the electrophoretic mobility. The p-CE system allows for the independent variation of the pressurized flow rate and electrical field and electrophoretic separation of good repeatability (below 3%) under high electrical fields (500-1000 V cm(-1)) and flow rate gradient modes. The feasibility of the p-CE system in real analysis was demonstrated by iodate quantification in iodized table salts. The separation of iodide and iodate was realized within 0.3 min, proving its high analytical speed.

  5. SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) PROJECT CANISTER STORAGE BUILDING (CSB) MULTI CANISTER OVERPACK (MCO) SAMPLING SYSTEM VALIDATION (OCRWM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLACK, D.M.; KLEM, M.J.

    2003-11-17

    Approximately 400 Multi-canister overpacks (MCO) containing spent nuclear fuel are to be interim stored at the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Several MCOs (monitored MCOs) are designated to be gas sampled periodically at the CSB sampling/weld station (Bader 2002a). The monitoring program includes pressure, temperature and gas composition measurements of monitored MCOs during their first two years of interim storage at the CSB. The MCO sample cart (CART-001) is used at the sampling/weld station to measure the monitored MCO gas temperature and pressure, obtain gas samples for laboratory analysis and refill the monitored MCO with high purity helium as needed. The sample cart and support equipment were functionally and operationally tested and validated before sampling of the first monitored MCO (H-036). This report documents the results of validation testing using training MCO (TR-003) at the CSB. Another report (Bader 2002b) documents the sample results from gas sampling of the first monitored MCO (H-036). Validation testing of the MCO gas sampling system showed the equipment and procedure as originally constituted will satisfactorily sample the first monitored MCO. Subsequent system and procedural improvements will provide increased flexibility and reliability for future MCO gas sampling. The physical operation of the sampling equipment during testing provided evidence that theoretical correlation factors for extrapolating MCO gas composition from sample results are unnecessarily conservative. Empirically derived correlation factors showed adequate conservatism and support use of the sample system for ongoing monitored MCO sampling.

  6. Semi-automatic surface sediment sampling system - A prototype to be implemented in bivalve fishing surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, Marta M.; Baptista, Paulo; Pereira, Fábio; Gaspar, Miguel B.

    2018-01-01

    In the current work we propose a new method to sample surface sediment during bivalve fishing surveys. Fishing institutes all around the word carry out regular surveys with the aim of monitoring the stocks of commercial species. These surveys comprise often more than one hundred of sampling stations and cover large geographical areas. Although superficial sediment grain sizes are among the main drivers of benthic communities and provide crucial information for studies on coastal dynamics, overall there is a strong lack of this type of data, possibly, because traditional surface sediment sampling methods use grabs, that require considerable time and effort to be carried out on regular basis or on large areas. In face of these aspects, we developed an easy and un-expensive method to sample superficial sediments, during bivalve fisheries monitoring surveys, without increasing survey time or human resources. The method was successfully evaluated and validated during a typical bivalve survey carried out on the Northwest coast of Portugal, confirming that it had any interference with the survey objectives. Furthermore, the method was validated by collecting samples using a traditional Van Veen grabs (traditional method), which showed a similar grain size composition to the ones collected by the new method, on the same localities. We recommend that the procedure is implemented on regular bivalve fishing surveys, together with an image analysis system to analyse the collected samples. The new method will provide substantial quantity of data on surface sediment in coastal areas, using a non-expensive and efficient manner, with a high potential application in different fields of research.

  7. System to determine present elements in oily samples; Sistema para determinar elementos presentes en muestras oleosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza G, Y

    2004-11-01

    In the Chemistry Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Investigations of Mexico, dedicated to analyze samples of oleaginous material and of another origin, to determine the elements of the periodic table present in the samples, through the Neutron activation analysis technique (NAA). This technique has been developed to determine majority elements in any solid, aqueous, industrial and environmental sample, which consists basically on to irradiate a sample with neutrons coming from the TRIGA Mark III reactor and to carry out the analysis to obtain those gamma spectra that it emits, for finally to process the information, the quantification of the analysis it is carried out in a manual way, which requires to carry out a great quantity of calculations. The main objective of this project is the development of a software that allows to carry out the quantitative analysis of the NAA for the multielemental determination of samples in an automatic way. To fulfill the objective of this project it has been divided in four chapters: In the first chapter it is shortly presented the history on radioactivity and basic concepts that will allow us penetrate better to this work. In the second chapter the NAA is explained which is used in the sample analysis, the description of the process to be carried out, its are mentioned the characteristics of the used devices and an example of the process is illustrated. In the third chapter it is described the development of the algorithm and the selection of the programming language. The fourth chapter it is shown the structure of the system, the general form of operation, the execution of processes and the obtention of results. Later on the launched results are presented in the development of the present project. (Author)

  8. Optical biosensor system with integrated microfluidic sample preparation and TIRF based detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilli, Eduard; Scheicher, Sylvia R.; Suppan, Michael; Pichler, Heinz; Rumpler, Markus; Satzinger, Valentin; Palfinger, Christian; Reil, Frank; Hajnsek, Martin; Köstler, Stefan

    2013-05-01

    There is a steadily growing demand for miniaturized bioanalytical devices allowing for on-site or point-of-care detection of biomolecules or pathogens in applications like diagnostics, food testing, or environmental monitoring. These, so called labs-on-a-chip or micro-total analysis systems (μ-TAS) should ideally enable convenient sample-in - result-out type operation. Therefore, the entire process from sample preparation, metering, reagent incubation, etc. to detection should be performed on a single disposable device (on-chip). In the early days such devices were mainly fabricated using glass or silicon substrates and adapting established fabrication technologies from the electronics and semiconductor industry. More recently, the development focuses on the use of thermoplastic polymers as they allow for low-cost high volume fabrication of disposables. One of the most promising materials for the development of plastic based lab-on-achip systems are cyclic olefin polymers and copolymers (COP/COC) due to their excellent optical properties (high transparency and low autofluorescence) and ease of processing. We present a bioanalytical system for whole blood samples comprising a disposable plastic chip based on TIRF (total internal reflection fluorescence) optical detection. The chips were fabricated by compression moulding of COP and microfluidic channels were structured by hot embossing. These microfluidic structures integrate several sample pretreatment steps. These are the separation of erythrocytes, metering of sample volume using passive valves, and reagent incubation for competitive bioassays. The surface of the following optical detection zone is functionalized with specific capture probes in an array format. The plastic chips comprise dedicated structures for simple and effective coupling of excitation light from low-cost laser diodes. This enables TIRF excitation of fluorescently labeled probes selectively bound to detection spots at the microchannel surface

  9. Form Quality in Rorschach Comprehensive System and R-PAS: Sample of Psychiatric Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latife Yazigi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The creation of the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS requires research that allows its use in the Brazilian population. The Formal Quality (FQ category is essential both for clinic and research. The aim of this study was to compare form quality variables in Rorschach protocols from psychiatric patients and ratings coded in the Comprehensive System (CS and R-PAS. The sample comprised 206 Rorschach protocols from adult patients in psychiatric treatment, who were also assessed by SCID-I and SCID-II. Most protocols were administered in the CS and recoded according to the R-PAS. The kappa coefficient was calculated, and we compared the means of these variables in both systems. The kappa results varied from almost perfect to substantial consistency for all variables, however, the descriptive statistics confirmed that the R-PAS elicits more FQ Ordinary coding while the CS elicits more FQ minus coding.

  10. Policy Analysis Screening System (PASS) demonstration: sample queries and terminal instructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-16

    This document contains the input and output for the Policy Analysis Screening System (PASS) demonstration. This demonstration is stored on a portable disk at the Environmental Impacts Division. Sample queries presented here include: (1) how to use PASS; (2) estimated 1995 energy consumption from Mid-Range Energy-Forecasting System (MEFS) data base; (3) pollution projections from Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) data base; (4) diesel auto regulations; (5) diesel auto health effects; (6) oil shale health and safety measures; (7) water pollution effects of SRC; (8) acid rainfall from Energy Environmental Statistics (EES) data base; 1990 EIA electric generation by fuel type; sulfate concentrations by Federal region; forecast of 1995 SO/sub 2/ emissions in Region III; and estimated electrical generating capacity in California to 1990. The file name for each query is included.

  11. Engineering Task Plan for Development and Fabrication and Deployment of Nested Fixed Depth Fluidic Sampling and At Tank Analysis Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-10-30

    This engineering task plan identifies the resources, responsibilities, and schedules for the development and deployment of a mobile, variable depth sampling system and an at-tank analysis system. The mobile, variable depth sampling system concept was developed after a cost assessment indicated a high cost for multiple deployments of the nested, fixed-depth sampling system. The sampling will provide double-shell tank (DST) staging tank waste samples for assuring the readiness of the waste for shipment to the LAW/HLW plant for treatment and immobilization. The at-tank analysis system will provide ''real-time'' assessments of the samples' chemical and physical properties. These systems support the Hanford Phase 1B vitrification project.

  12. Sampling: the weak link in the sanitary quality control system of agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Michel

    2006-05-01

    To ensure a high level of consumer protection, the European Union has in the past years published several regulations setting very low limits for a given number of food contaminants (pesticides, mycotoxins, heavy metals) in many agricultural products (cereals, oilseeds, dry fruits, coffee, spices, etc). These new regulations regarding the sanitary quality of agricultural products, compel both economic operators and officials of different EU member states to set up sampling plans and rigorous analyses aimed at checking whether a product lot complies with the required standards prior to its release on the market. While the laboratory analysis management today is outstanding thanks to the validated and efficient detection methods and procedures available for quality assurance in laboratories (accreditation), this is not necessarily true of the sampling operation, which seems to be the weak link in the sanitary control system for agricultural products. The sampling operation is often the main source of error when assessing the sanitary quality of a lot of agricultural commodities, with both commercial (downgrading of the product) and sanitary (marketing of a product which poses a health risk for the consumer) consequences. Therefore, it is essential for the operators involved to be aware of the significance and difficulties of the sampling operation, which requires important equipment and human resources. Furthermore, drawing up specific standards and guidelines, as well as setting up quality assurance procedures, at the level in charge of carrying out this delicate and important operation, are necessary.

  13. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) privatization contractor samples waste envelope D material 241-C-106

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-04-14

    This report represents the Final Analytical Report on Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Contractor Samples for Waste Envelope D. All work was conducted in accordance with ''Addendum 1 of the Letter of Instruction (LOI) for TWRS Privatization Contractor Samples Addressing Waste Envelope D Materials - Revision 0, Revision 1, and Revision 2.'' (Jones 1996, Wiemers 1996a, Wiemers 1996b) Tank 241-C-1 06 (C-106) was selected by TWRS Privatization for the Part 1A Envelope D high-level waste demonstration. Twenty bottles of Tank C-106 material were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company using a grab sampling technique and transferred to the 325 building for processing by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). At the 325 building, the contents of the twenty bottles were combined into a single Initial Composite Material. This composite was subsampled for the laboratory-scale screening test and characterization testing, and the remainder was transferred to the 324 building for bench-scale preparation of the Privatization Contractor samples.

  14. A DNA pooling based system to detect Escherichia coli virulence factors in fecal and wastewater samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz María Chacón, J; Lizeth Taylor, C; Carmen Valiente, A; Irene Alvarado, P; Ximena Cortés, B

    2012-01-01

    The availability of a useful tool for simple and timely detection of the most important virulent varieties of Escherichia coli is indispensable. To this end, bacterial DNA pools which had previously been categorized were obtained from isolated colonies as well as selected in terms of utilized phenotype; the pools were assessed by two PCR Multiplex for the detection of virulent E. coli eaeA, bfpA, stx1, stx2, ipaH, ST, LT, and aatA genes, with the 16S gene used as DNA control. The system was validated with 66 fecal samples and 44 wastewater samples. At least one positive isolate was detected by a virulent gene among the 20 that were screened. The analysis of fecal samples from children younger than 6 years of age detected frequencies of 25% LT positive strains, 8.3% eae, 8.3% bfpA, 16.7% ipaH, as well as 12.5 % aatA and ST. On the other hand, wastewater samples revealed frequencies of 25.7% eaeA positive, 30.3% stx1, 15.1% LT and 19.7% aatA. This study is an initial step toward carrying out epidemiological field research that will reveal the presence of these bacterial varieties. PMID:24031959

  15. Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) system. Final report, October 1995--May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This report describes the results of Phase 2 efforts to develop a Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System for the detection of semivolatile organic contaminants on concrete, transite, and metal surfaces. The characterization of equipment and building surfaces for the presence of contaminants as part of building decontamination and decommissioning activities is an immensely large task of concern to both government and industry. Because of the high cost of hazardous waste disposal, old, contaminated buildings cannot simply be demolished and scrapped. Contaminated and clean materials must be clearly identified and segregated so that the clean material can be recycled or reused, if possible, or disposed of more cheaply as nonhazardous waste. DOE has a number of sites requiring surface characterization. These sites are large, contain very heterogeneous patterns of contamination (requiring high sampling density), and will thus necessitate an enormous number of samples to be taken and analyzed. Characterization of building and equipment surfaces will be needed during initial investigations, during cleanup operations, and during the final confirmation process, increasing the total number of samples well beyond that needed for initial characterization. This multiplicity of information places a premium on the ability to handle and track data as efficiently as possible.

  16. Rorschach Comprehensive System data for a sample of 141 adult nonpatients from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanouw, Jan

    2007-01-01

    A sample (n = 141) of Danish nonpatients 25-50 years of age, never hospitalized with a psychiatric diagnosis and currently employed, was demographically representative of two geographical areas of Copenhagen with different social strain. The sample, as well as 45 persons not currently employed, was tested with the Rorschach (Exner, 1995), MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989), Word Association Test (Ivanouw, 1999b), WAIS Comprehension subtest (Hess, 1974), and SCL-90-R (Olsen, Mortenson, & Bech, 2006). Half of the persons contacted volunteered for the study. There was no difference in rate of volunteering between a standard no-feedback condition and a feedback condition; the latter, however, tended to attract more psychologically resourceful persons. The employed persons tended to appear healthier than the not employed. Response style of the subjects, quality of the Rorschach protocols, reliability of scoring, and the effect of the data being grouped on geographical area and examiner were examined. Form level, color, texture, cooperative movement, and EA were lower than in the Comprehensive System (CS; n = 450) sample, but higher than in nine international nonpatient Rorschach studies. Unique for the Danish sample was a low number of animal movement answers. The Rorschach data showed women to be healthier than men. Differences in Rorschach variables based on educational level were small.

  17. Implementation of Wi-Fi Signal Sampling on an Android Smartphone for Indoor Positioning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hung-Huan; Liu, Chun

    2017-12-21

    Collecting and maintaining radio fingerprint for wireless indoor positioning systems involves considerable time and labor. We have proposed the quick radio fingerprint collection (QRFC) algorithm which employed the built-in accelerometer of Android smartphones to implement step detection in order to assist in collecting radio fingerprints. In the present study, we divided the algorithm into moving sampling (MS) and stepped MS (SMS), and describe the implementation of both algorithms and their comparison. Technical details and common errors concerning the use of Android smartphones to collect Wi-Fi radio beacons were surveyed and discussed. The results of signal sampling experiments performed in a hallway measuring 54 m in length showed that in terms of the amount of time required to complete collection of access point (AP) signals, static sampling (SS; a traditional procedure for collecting Wi-Fi signals) took at least 2 h, whereas MS and SMS took approximately 150 and 300 s, respectively. Notably, AP signals obtained through MS and SMS were comparable to those obtained through SS in terms of the distribution of received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and positioning accuracy. Therefore, MS and SMS are recommended instead of SS as signal sampling procedures for indoor positioning algorithms.

  18. Tank vapor sampling and analysis data package for tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval sluicing system process test phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LOCKREM, L.L.

    1999-08-13

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the March 28, 1999, vapor sampling of Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 during active sluicing. Samples were obtained from the 296-C-006 ventilation system stack and ambient air at several locations. Characterization Project Operations (CPO) was responsible for the collection of all SUMMATM canister samples. The Special Analytical Support (SAS) vapor team was responsible for the collection of all triple sorbent trap (TST), sorbent tube train (STT), polyurethane foam (PUF), and particulate filter samples collected at the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team used the non-electrical vapor sampling (NEVS) system to collect samples of the air, gases, and vapors from the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team collected and analyzed these samples for Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) and Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in accordance with the sampling and analytical requirements specified in the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Evaluation of Organic Emissions, Process Test Phase III, HNF-4212, Rev. 0-A, (LMHC, 1999). All samples were stored in a secured Radioactive Materials Area (RMA) until the samples were radiologically released and received by SAS for analysis. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) performed the radiological analyses. The samples were received on April 5, 1999.

  19. A tetra-layer microfluidic system for peptide affinity screening through integrated sample injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weizhi; Huang, Yanyan; Jin, Yulong; Liu, Guoquan; Chen, Yi; Ma, Huimin; Zhao, Rui

    2013-05-21

    A novel integrated microfluidic system was designed and fabricated for affinity peptide screening with in situ detection. A tetra-layer microfluidic hybrid chip containing two top eccentric diffluent layers, an inter-layer and a bottom screening layer, was developed as the core device of the system. The eccentric diffluent layers were ingeniously invented for the vertical sample delivery from 2 top-inlets into 12 bottom-inlets, which eliminated the use of excessive accessories and complicated pipelines currently used in other systems. By using six pH gradient generators, the magnetic bead-based screening in 36 parallel chambers was simultaneously carried out under 6 different pH conditions from 5.4 to 8.2. This allowed simultaneous screening of 6 compounds and each under 6 different pH conditions. The fabricated chip system was applied to screening of affinity peptides towards β-endorphin antibody. The affinities of the peptide ligands to the antibody were assessed by on-chip confocal detection. The results from the screening study using this system indicated that the pentapeptide with the sequence of YGGFL had the highest affinity towards β-endorphin antibody at pH 7.1, which was further confirmed by the ELISA assay using a 96-well plate format. This microfluidic screening system is automatic, low-cost and reusable for not only peptide screening but also other bioactive compounds screening towards target molecules.

  20. Sorbent Tube Sampling and an Automated Thermal Desorption System for Halocarbon Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anwar Hossain Khan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and deployment of the analytical sys tem, ATD-GC-ECD has been established to monitor a suite of halogenated com pounds found in the atmosphere at trace concentrations. The instrument has been used to monitor urban back ground emission flux levels in Bristol, UK as well as Yellow stone National Park, USA and an in door rain forest (Wild Walk@Bristol, UK. The newly established sorbent tube sampling system is small and easily portable and has been used for large volume sample collection from remote areas. Auto mated Thermal Desorption (ATD provides routine atmospheric measurements with out cryogenic pre-concentration. The instrument provides good precision where the detection limit was _T_n3 pptv for the species of interest and the reproducibility was within 4% for all of the selected halocarbons. The results from two field experiments have also pro vided insight about natural missing sources of some ozone depleting halocarbons.

  1. Signature verification by only single genuine sample in offline and online systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, Marcin; Saeed, Khalid

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents innovatory methods and algorithms with experimental results on signature verification. It is mainly focused on applications where there is only one reference signature available for comparison. Such restriction is often present in practice and requires selection of specific methods. In this context, both offline and online approaches are investigated. In offline approach, binary image of the signature is initially thinned to obtain a one pixel-wide line. Then, a sampling technique is applied in order to form the signature feature vector. The identification and verification processes are based on comparing the reference feature vector with the questioned samples using Shape Context algorithm. In the case of online data, the system makes use of dynamic information such as trajectory, pen pressure, pen azimuth and pen altitude collected at the time of signing. After further preprocessing, these functional features are verified by means of Dynamic Time Warping method.

  2. Low-flow purging and sampling of ground water monitoring wells with dedicated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puls, R.W.; Paul, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    A field study was conducted to assess purging requirement for dedicated sampling systems in conventional monitoring wells and for pumps encased in short screens and buried within a shallow sandy aquifer. Low-flow purging methods were used, and wells were purged until water quality indicator parameters (dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, turbidity) and contaminant concentrations (chromate, trichloroethylene, dichloroethylene) reached equilibrium. Eight wells, varying in depth from 4.6 to 15.2 m below ground surface, were studied. The data show that purge volumes were independent of well depth or casing volumes. Contaminant concentrations equilibrated with less than 7.5 L of purge volume in all wells. Initial contaminant concentration values were generally within 20 percent of final values. Water quality parameters equilibrated in less than 10 L in all wells and were conservative measures for indicating the presence of adjacent formation water. Water quality parameters equilibrated faster in dedicated sampling systems than in portable systems and initial turbidity levers were lower.

  3. Five commercial DNA extraction systems tested and compared on a stool sample collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Søren; de Boer, Richard F; Kooistra-Smid, Anna M D; Olsen, Katharina E P

    2011-03-01

    In this study, 5 different commercial DNA extraction systems were tested on a stool sample collection containing 81 clinical stool specimens that were culture-positive for diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica, or Clostridium difficile. The purified DNAs were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) directed toward the relevant organisms. The results showed that conventional PCR combined with the extraction systems BioRobot EZ1 (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany), Bugs'n Beads (Genpoint, Oslo, Norway), ChargeSwitch (Invitrogen, Paisley, UK), QIAamp Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen), and 2 protocols (generic and Specific A) for EasyMag (BioMérieux, Marcy I'Etoile, France) were able to identify 89%, 62%, 85%, 88%, 85%, and 91%, respectively, of the pathogens originally identified by conventional culture-based methods. When TaqMan PCR was combined with the EasyMag Specific A protocol, 99% of the samples were correctly identified. The results demonstrate that the extraction efficiencies can vary significantly among different extraction systems, careful optimization may have a significant positive effect, and the use of sensitive and specific detection methods like TaqMan PCR is an ideal choice for this type of analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Power and sample size determination for measures of environmental impact in aquatic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, L.P. [Univ. of Texas, Richardson, TX (United States); Dickson, K.L.; Waller, W.T.; Kennedy, J.H. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Mayer, F.L.; Lewis, M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    To effectively monitor the status of various freshwater and estuarine ecological systems, it is necessary to understand the statistical power associated with the measures of ecological health that are appropriate for each system. These power functions can then be used to determine sample sizes that are required to attain targeted change detection likelihoods. A number of different measures have been proposed and are used for such monitoring. these include diversity and evenness indices, richness, and organisms counts. Power functions can be estimated when preliminary or historical data are available for the region and system of interest. Unfortunately, there are a number of problems associated with the computation of power functions and sample sizes for these measures. These problems include the presence of outliers, co-linearity among the variables, and non-normality of count data. The problems, and appropriate methods to compute the power functions, for each of the commonly employed measures of ecological health will be discussed. In addition, the relationship between power and the level of taxonomic classification used to compute the measures of diversity, evenness, richness, and organism counts will be discussed. Methods for computation of the power functions will be illustrated using data sets from previous EPA studies.

  5. An experimental system for controlled exposure of biological samples to electrostatic discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovič, Igor; Kotnik, Tadej

    2013-12-01

    Electrostatic discharges occur naturally as lightning strokes, and artificially in light sources and in materials processing. When an electrostatic discharge interacts with living matter, the basic physical effects can be accompanied by biophysical and biochemical phenomena, including cell excitation, electroporation, and electrofusion. To study these phenomena, we developed an experimental system that provides easy sample insertion and removal, protection from airborne particles, observability during the experiment, accurate discharge origin positioning, discharge delivery into the sample either through an electric arc with adjustable air gap width or through direct contact, and reliable electrical insulation where required. We tested the system by assessing irreversible electroporation of Escherichia coli bacteria (15 mm discharge arc, 100 A peak current, 0.1 μs zero-to-peak time, 0.2 μs peak-to-halving time), and gene electrotransfer into CHO cells (7 mm discharge arc, 14 A peak current, 0.5 μs zero-to-peak time, 1.0 μs peak-to-halving time). Exposures to natural lightning stroke can also be studied with this system, as due to radial current dissipation, the conditions achieved by a stroke at a particular distance from its entry are also achieved by an artificial discharge with electric current downscaled in magnitude, but similar in time course, correspondingly closer to its entry. © 2013.

  6. A lab-on-a-chip system with integrated sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid and quantitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yi; Than Linh, Quyen; Hung, Tran Quang

    2015-01-01

    and usually take a few hours to days to complete. In response to the demand for rapid on line or at site detection of pathogens, in this study, we describe for the first time an eight-chamber lab-on-a-chip (LOC) system with integrated magnetic beads-based sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal...

  7. Vertical Sampling Scales for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Measurements from Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Hemingway

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The lowest portion of the Earth’s atmosphere, known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL, plays an important role in the formation of weather events. Simple meteorological measurements collected from within the ABL, such as temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind velocity, are key to understanding the exchange of energy within this region, but conventional surveillance techniques such as towers, radar, weather balloons, and satellites do not provide adequate spatial and/or temporal coverage for monitoring weather events. Small unmanned aircraft, or aerial, systems (sUAS provide a versatile, dynamic platform for atmospheric sensing that can provide higher spatio-temporal sampling frequencies than available through most satellite sensing methods. They are also able to sense portions of the atmosphere that cannot be measured from ground-based radar, weather stations, or weather balloons and have the potential to fill gaps in atmospheric sampling. However, research on the vertical sampling scales for collecting atmospheric measurements from sUAS and the variabilities of these scales across atmospheric phenomena (e.g., temperature and humidity is needed. The objective of this study is to use variogram analysis, a common geostatistical technique, to determine optimal spatial sampling scales for two atmospheric variables (temperature and relative humidity captured from sUAS. Results show that vertical sampling scales of approximately 3 m for temperature and 1.5–2 m for relative humidity were sufficient to capture the spatial structure of these phenomena under the conditions tested. Future work is needed to model these scales across the entire ABL as well as under variable conditions.

  8. Study of DNA damage with a new system for irradiation of samples in a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gual, Maritza R., E-mail: mrgual@instec.c [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas, InSTEC, Avenida Salvador Allende y Luaces, Quinta de Los Molinos, Plaza de la Revolucion, Havana, AP 6163 (Cuba); Milian, Felix M. [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, UESC (Brazil); Deppman, Airton [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Sao Paulo, IF-USP, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, no. 187, Ciudade Universitaria, Butanta, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Coelho, Paulo R.P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    In this paper, we report results of a quantitative analysis of the effects of neutrons on DNA, and, specifically, the production of simple and double breaks of plasmid DNA in aqueous solutions with different concentrations of free-radical scavengers. The radiation damage to DNA was evaluated by electrophoresis through agarose gels. The neutron and gamma doses were measured separately with thermoluminescent detectors. In this work, we have also demonstrated usefulness of a new system for positioning and removing samples in channel BH3 of the IEA-R1 reactor at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Brazil) without necessity of interrupting the reactor operation.

  9. Fast Sampling Control of Singularly Perturbed Systems with Actuator Saturation and L2 Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzi Miao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We will consider the problem of fast sampling control for singularly perturbed systems subject to actuator saturation and L2 disturbance. A sufficient condition for the existence of a state feedback controller is proposed. Under this controller, the boundedness of the trajectories in the presence of L2 disturbances is guaranteed for any singular perturbation parameter less than or equal to a predefined upper bound. To improve the capacity of disturbance tolerance and disturbance rejection, two convex optimization problems are formulated. Finally, a numerical example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the main results of this paper.

  10. Rorschach Comprehensive System data for a sample of 309 adult nonpatients from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, António Abel

    2007-01-01

    Three hundred and nine nonpatient adults, evenly distributed according to sex, age, educational level, and residence, took part in the Rorschach test study carried out in Portugal. The sample was drawn from selected regions of the country and was balanced for population density in urban and rural areas. Test administration was controlled through the services of psychologists familiar with the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 1993). Results indicate that, in Portugal (Pires, 2000), level of education is the variable that seems to have the largest effect on Rorschach responding.

  11. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System Data (1-second sampling, real-time streams) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) real-time 1 to multi-second sampled data available from the Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS). Global...

  12. Path-sampling strategies for simulating rare events in biomolecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Lillian T; Saglam, Ali S; Zuckerman, Daniel M

    2017-04-01

    Despite more than three decades of effort with molecular dynamics simulations, long-timescale (ms and beyond) biologically relevant phenomena remain out of reach in most systems of interest. This is largely because important transitions, such as conformational changes and (un)binding events, tend to be rare for conventional simulations (biomolecular energy landscapes. In contrast, path sampling approaches focus computing effort specifically on transitions of interest. Such approaches have been in use for nearly 20 years in biomolecular systems and enabled the generation of pathways and calculation of rate constants for ms processes, including large protein conformational changes, protein folding, and protein (un)binding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular beam sampling system with very high beam-to-background ratio: The rotating skimmer concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedikt, J.; Ellerweg, D.; von Keudell, A.

    2009-05-01

    A novel method of reducing the background pressure in a vacuum system used for sampling a molecular beam from a high pressure region is presented. A triple differential pumping stage is constructed with a chopper with rotating skimmer within the first pumping stage, which serves effectively as a valve separating periodically the vacuum system from the ambient environment. The mass spectrometry measurement of the species in the molecular beam show an excellent beam-to-background ratio of 14 and a detection limit below 1 ppm. The potential of this method for detection of low density reactive species in atmospheric pressure plasmas is demonstrated for the detection of oxygen atoms generated in an atmospheric pressure microplasma source.

  14. Importance of anthropogenic climate impact, sampling error and urban development in sewer system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, C; Maurer, M

    2015-04-15

    Urban drainage design relying on observed precipitation series neglects the uncertainties associated with current and indeed future climate variability. Urban drainage design is further affected by the large stochastic variability of precipitation extremes and sampling errors arising from the short observation periods of extreme precipitation. Stochastic downscaling addresses anthropogenic climate impact by allowing relevant precipitation characteristics to be derived from local observations and an ensemble of climate models. This multi-climate model approach seeks to reflect the uncertainties in the data due to structural errors of the climate models. An ensemble of outcomes from stochastic downscaling allows for addressing the sampling uncertainty. These uncertainties are clearly reflected in the precipitation-runoff predictions of three urban drainage systems. They were mostly due to the sampling uncertainty. The contribution of climate model uncertainty was found to be of minor importance. Under the applied greenhouse gas emission scenario (A1B) and within the period 2036-2065, the potential for urban flooding in our Swiss case study is slightly reduced on average compared to the reference period 1981-2010. Scenario planning was applied to consider urban development associated with future socio-economic factors affecting urban drainage. The impact of scenario uncertainty was to a large extent found to be case-specific, thus emphasizing the need for scenario planning in every individual case. The results represent a valuable basis for discussions of new drainage design standards aiming specifically to include considerations of uncertainty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A lab-on-a-chip system with integrated sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid and quantitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Quyen, Than Linh; Hung, Tran Quang; Chin, Wai Hoe; Wolff, Anders; Bang, Dang Duong

    2015-04-21

    Foodborne disease is a major public health threat worldwide. Salmonellosis, an infectious disease caused by Salmonella spp., is one of the most common foodborne diseases. Isolation and identification of Salmonella by conventional bacterial culture or molecular-based methods are time consuming and usually take a few hours to days to complete. In response to the demand for rapid on line or on site detection of pathogens, in this study, we describe for the first time an eight-chamber lab-on-a-chip (LOC) system with integrated magnetic bead-based sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for rapid and quantitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples. The whole diagnostic procedures including DNA isolation, isothermal amplification, and real-time detection were accomplished in a single chamber. Up to eight samples could be handled simultaneously and the system was capable to detect Salmonella at concentration of 50 cells per test within 40 min. The simple design, together with high level of integration, isothermal amplification, and quantitative analysis of multiple samples in short time, will greatly enhance the practical applicability of the LOC system for rapid on-site screening of Salmonella for applications in food safety control, environmental surveillance, and clinical diagnostics.

  16. New high temperature plasmas and sample introduction systems for analytical atomic emission and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaser, A.

    This research follows a multifaceted approach, from theory to practice, to the investigation and development of novel helium plasmas, sample introduction systems, and diagnostic techniques for atomic and mass spectrometries. During the period January 1994 - December 1994, four major sets of challenging research programs were addressed that each included a number of discrete but complementary projects: (1) The first program is concerned with fundamental and analytical investigations of novel atmospheric-pressure helium inductively coupled plasmas (He ICPS) that are suitable for the atomization-excitation-ionization of elements, especially those possessing high excitation and ionization energies, for the purpose of enhancing sensitivity and selectivity of analytical measurements. (2) The second program includes simulation and computer modeling of He ICPS. The aim is to ease the hunt for new helium plasmas by predicting their structure and fundamental and analytical properties, without incurring the enormous cost for extensive experimental studies. (3) The third program involves spectroscopic imaging and diagnostic studies of plasma discharges to instantly visualize their prevailing structures, to quantify key fundamental properties, and to verify predictions by mathematical models. (4) The fourth program entails investigation of new, low-cost sample introduction systems that consume micro- to nanoliter quantity of sample solution in plasma spectrometries. A portion of this research involves development and applications of novel diagnostic techniques suitable for probing key fundamental properties of aerosol prior to and after injection into high-temperature plasmas. These efforts, still in progress, collectively offer promise of solving singularly difficult analytical problems that either exist now or are likely to arise in the future in the various fields of energy generation, environmental pollution, material science, biomedicine and nutrition.

  17. Determination of progesterone (P4) from bovine serum samples using a microfluidic immunosensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, Fernando Javier; Messina, Germán Alejandro; Molina, Patricia Gabriela; Zón, María Alicia; Raba, Julio; Fernández, Héctor

    2010-03-15

    Progesterone (P4) is a steroidal hormone with a vital role in the maintenance of human and animal health. This paper describes the development of an immunosensor coupled to glassy carbon (GC) electrode and integrated to a microfluidic system to quantify P4 from bovine serum samples in a fast and sensitive way. The serum samples spiked with a given P4 concentration and a given P4 concentration bound to horseradish peroxide (HPR) were simultaneously added and, therefore, they competed immunologically with sheep monoclonal anti-P4 antibodies that were immobilized at a rotating disk. HRP in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) catalyzes the chatecol (H(2)Q) oxidation to benzoquinone (Q). Its reverse electrochemical reduction to H(2)Q can be detected at a GC electrode surface at -0.15 V by chronoamperometric measurements. These current responses are proportional to the enzyme activity and inversely proportional to the P4 amount present in bovine serum samples. This P4 immunosensor showed a linear working range from 0.5 to 12.5 ng mL(-1). The detection (DL) and quantification (QL) limits were 0.2 and 0.5 ng mL(-1), respectively. The electrochemical immunosensor had a higher sensitivity than the ELISA method using conventional spectrophotometric detections. However, both methods allowed us to obtain similar detection limits. The immunosensor allowed us to make up to 100 determinations on different samples without any previous pre-treatment. This behavior proved to be suitable to detect P4 in routine veterinary, clinical, biological, physiological, and analytical assays. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Road traffic related mortality in Vietnam: Evidence for policy from a national sample mortality surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Anh D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs are among the leading causes of mortality in Vietnam. However, mortality data collection systems in Vietnam in general and for RTIs in particular, remain inconsistent and incomplete. Underlying distributions of external causes and body injuries are not available from routine data collection systems or from studies till date. This paper presents characteristics, user type pattern, seasonal distribution, and causes of 1,061 deaths attributable to road crashes ascertained from a national sample mortality surveillance system in Vietnam over a two-year period (2008 and 2009. Methods A sample mortality surveillance system was designed for Vietnam, comprising 192 communes in 16 provinces, accounting for approximately 3% of the Vietnamese population. Deaths were identified from commune level data sources, and followed up by verbal autopsy (VA based ascertainment of cause of death. Age-standardised mortality rates from RTIs were computed. VA questionnaires were analysed in depth to derive descriptive characteristics of RTI deaths in the sample. Results The age-standardized mortality rates from RTIs were 33.5 and 8.5 per 100,000 for males and females respectively. Majority of deaths were males (79%. Seventy three percent of all deaths were aged from 15 to 49 years and 58% were motorcycle users. As high as 80% of deaths occurred on the day of injury, 42% occurred prior to arrival at hospital, and a further 29% occurred on-site. Direct causes of death were identified for 446 deaths (42% with head injuries being the most common cause attributable to road traffic injuries overall (79% and to motorcycle crashes in particular (78%. Conclusion The VA method can provide a useful data source to analyse RTI mortality. The observed considerable mortality from head injuries among motorcycle users highlights the need to evaluate current practice and effectiveness of motorcycle helmet use in Vietnam. The high number of

  19. New in vitro system to predict chemotherapeutic efficacy of drug combinations in fresh tumor samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Christian Kischkel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background To find the best individual chemotherapy for cancer patients, the efficacy of different chemotherapeutic drugs can be predicted by pretesting tumor samples in vitro via the chemotherapy-resistance (CTR-Test®. Although drug combinations are widely used among cancer therapy, so far only single drugs are tested by this and other tests. However, several first line chemotherapies are combining two or more chemotherapeutics, leading to the necessity of drug combination testing methods. Methods We established a system to measure and predict the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drug combinations with the help of the Loewe additivity concept in combination with the CTR-test. A combination is measured by using half of the monotherapy’s concentration of both drugs simultaneously. With this method, the efficacy of a combination can also be calculated based on single drug measurements. Results The established system was tested on a data set of ovarian carcinoma samples using the combination carboplatin and paclitaxel and confirmed by using other tumor species and chemotherapeutics. Comparing the measured and the calculated values of the combination testings revealed a high correlation. Additionally, in 70% of the cases the measured and the calculated values lead to the same chemotherapeutic resistance category of the tumor. Conclusion Our data suggest that the best drug combination consists of the most efficient single drugs and the worst drug combination of the least efficient single drugs. Our results showed that single measurements are sufficient to predict combinations in specific cases but there are exceptions in which it is necessary to measure combinations, which is possible with the presented system.

  20. Detecting extrasolar moons akin to solar system satellites with an orbital sampling effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, René, E-mail: rheller@physics.mcmaster.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University (Canada)

    2014-05-20

    Despite years of high accuracy observations, none of the available theoretical techniques has yet allowed the confirmation of a moon beyond the solar system. Methods are currently limited to masses about an order of magnitude higher than the mass of any moon in the solar system. I here present a new method sensitive to exomoons similar to the known moons. Due to the projection of transiting exomoon orbits onto the celestial plane, satellites appear more often at larger separations from their planet. After about a dozen randomly sampled observations, a photometric orbital sampling effect (OSE) starts to appear in the phase-folded transit light curve, indicative of the moons' radii and planetary distances. Two additional outcomes of the OSE emerge in the planet's transit timing variations (TTV-OSE) and transit duration variations (TDV-OSE), both of which permit measurements of a moon's mass. The OSE is the first effect that permits characterization of multi-satellite systems. I derive and apply analytical OSE descriptions to simulated transit observations of the Kepler space telescope assuming white noise only. Moons as small as Ganymede may be detectable in the available data, with M stars being their most promising hosts. Exomoons with the ten-fold mass of Ganymede and a similar composition (about 0.86 Earth radii in radius) can most likely be found in the available Kepler data of K stars, including moons in the stellar habitable zone. A future survey with Kepler-class photometry, such as Plato 2.0, and a permanent monitoring of a single field of view over five years or more will very likely discover extrasolar moons via their OSEs.

  1. Moonrise: Sampling the South Pole-Aitken Basin to Address Problems of Solar System Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.; Shearer, C. K.

    2016-01-01

    A mission to land in the giant South Pole-Aitken (SPA) Basin on the Moon's southern farside and return a sample to Earth for analysis is a high priority for Solar System Science. Such a sample would be used to determine the age of the SPA impact; the chronology of the basin, including the ages of basins and large impacts within SPA, with implications for early Solar System dynamics and the magmatic history of the Moon; the age and composition of volcanic rocks within SPA; the origin of the thorium signature of SPA with implications for the origin of exposed materials and thermal evolution of the Moon; and possibly the magnetization that forms a strong anomaly especially evident in the northern parts of the SPA basin. It is well known from studies of the Apollo regolith that rock fragments found in the regolith form a representative collection of many different rock types delivered to the site by the impact process (Fig. 1). Such samples are well documented to contain a broad suite of materials that reflect both the local major rock formations, as well as some exotic materials from far distant sources. Within the SPA basin, modeling of the impact ejection process indicates that regolith would be dominated by SPA substrate, formed at the time of the SPA basin-forming impact and for the most part moved around by subsequent impacts. Consistent with GRAIL data, the SPA impact likely formed a vast melt body tens of km thick that took perhaps several million years to cool, but that nonetheless represents barely an instant in geologic time that should be readily apparent through integrated geochronologic studies involving multiple chronometers. It is anticipated that a statistically significant number of age determinations would yield not only the age of SPA but also the age of several prominent nearby basins and large craters within SPA. This chronology would provide a contrast to the Imbrium-dominated chronology of the nearside Apollo samples and an independent test of

  2. Quantitative Caffeine Analysis Using a Surface Sampling Probe Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Michael J [ORNL; Deibel, Michael A. [Earlham College; Tomkins, Bruce A [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative determination of caffeine on reversed-phase C8 thin-layer chromatography plates using a surface sampling electrospray ionization system with tandem mass spectrometry detection is reported. The thin-layer chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method employed a deuterium-labeled caffeine internal standard and selected reaction monitoring detection. Up to nine parallel caffeine bands on a single plate were sampled in a single surface scanning experiment requiring 35 min at a surface scan rate of 44 {mu}m/s. A reversed-phase HPLC/UV caffeine assay was developed in parallel to assess the mass spectrometry method performance. Limits of detection for the HPLC/UV and thin-layer chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry methods determined from the calibration curve statistics were 0.20 ng injected (0.50 {mu}L) and 1.0 ng spotted on the plate, respectively. Spike recoveries with standards and real samples ranged between 97 and 106% for both methods. The caffeine content of three diet soft drinks (Diet Coke, Diet Cherry Coke, Diet Pepsi) and three diet sport drinks (Diet Turbo Tea, Speed Stack Grape, Speed Stack Fruit Punch) was measured. The HPLC/UV and mass spectrometry determinations were in general agreement, and these values were consistent with the quoted values for two of the three diet colas. In the case of Diet Cherry Coke and the diet sports drinks, the determined caffeine amounts using both methods were consistently higher (by 8% or more) than the literature values.

  3. Helga-Jane Scarwell et Isabelle Roussel (dir., 2010, Le changement climatique : Quand le climat nous pousse à changer d’ère, Presses Universitaire du Septentrion, Lille, 358 pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Rocher

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available L’ouvrage « Le changement climatique. Quand le climat nous pousse à changer d’ère », édité par les Presses Universitaire du Septentrion dans la collection Environnement et société, coordonné par Helga-Jane Scarwell et Isabelle Roussel, rassemble autour de la question du changement climatique plusieurs contributions de chercheurs en géographie, pour la plupart membres du laboratoire TVES de Lille. Ce livre apporte un éclairage original et intéressant, alliant des études de cas comportant un fo...

  4. Study of DNA damage with a new system for irradiation of samples in a nuclear reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual, Maritza R; Milian, Felix M; Deppman, Airton; Coelho, Paulo R P

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we report results of a quantitative analysis of the effects of neutrons on DNA, and, specifically, the production of simple and double breaks of plasmid DNA in aqueous solutions with different concentrations of free-radical scavengers. The radiation damage to DNA was evaluated by electrophoresis through agarose gels. The neutron and gamma doses were measured separately with thermoluminescent detectors. In this work, we have also demonstrated usefulness of a new system for positioning and removing samples in channel BH#3 of the IEA-R1 reactor at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (Brazil) without necessity of interrupting the reactor operation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Laser sampling system for an inductively-coupled atomic emission spectrometer. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-15

    A laser sampling system was attached to a Perkin Elmer Optima 3000 inductively-coupled plasma, atomic emission spectrometer that was already installed and operating in the Chemistry and Geochemistry Department at the Colorado School of Mines. The use of the spectrometer has been highly successful. Graduate students and faculty from at least four different departments across the CSM campus have used the instrument. The final report to NSF is appended to this final report. Appendices are included which summarize several projects utilizing this instrument: acquisition of an inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer for the geochemistry program; hydrogen damage susceptibility assessment for high strength steel weldments through advanced hydrogen content analysis, 1996 and 1997 annual reports; and methods for determination of hydrogen distribution in high strength steel welds.

  6. High Resolution Hydraulic Profiling and Groundwater Sampling using FLUTe™ System in a Fractured Limestone Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janniche, Gry Sander; Christensen, Anders G.; Grosen, Bernt

    innovative investi-gation methods for characterization of the source zone hydrogeology and contamination, including FLUTe system hydraulic profiling and Water-FLUTe multilevel groundwater sampling, in fractured bryo-zoan limestone bedrock. High resolution hydraulic profiling was conducted in three cored......Characterization of the contaminant source zone architecture and the hydraulics is essential to develop accurate site specific conceptual models, delineate and quantify contaminant mass, perform risk as-sessment, and select and design remediation alternatives. This characterization is particularly...... challeng-ing in deposit types as fractured limestone. The activities of a bulk distribution facility for perchloroe-thene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) at the Naverland site near Copenhagen, Denmark, has resulted in PCE and TCE DNAPL impacts to a fractured clay till and an underlying fractured limestone...

  7. Polymerase chain reaction system using magnetic beads for analyzing a sample that includes nucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasarabadi, Shanavaz [Livermore, CA

    2011-01-11

    A polymerase chain reaction system for analyzing a sample containing nucleic acid includes providing magnetic beads; providing a flow channel having a polymerase chain reaction chamber, a pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber, and a post pre polymerase magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber. The nucleic acid is bound to the magnetic beads. The magnetic beads with the nucleic acid flow to the pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position in the flow channel. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are washed with ethanol. The nucleic acid in the polymerase chain reaction chamber is amplified. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are separated into a waste stream containing the magnetic beads and a post polymerase chain reaction mix containing the nucleic acid. The reaction mix containing the nucleic acid flows to an analysis unit in the channel for analysis.

  8. Method and system for formation and withdrawal of a sample from a surface to be analyzed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2017-10-03

    A method and system for formation and withdrawal of a sample from a surface to be analyzed utilizes a collection instrument having a port through which a liquid solution is conducted onto the surface to be analyzed. The port is positioned adjacent the surface to be analyzed, and the liquid solution is conducted onto the surface through the port so that the liquid solution conducted onto the surface interacts with material comprising the surface. An amount of material is thereafter withdrawn from the surface. Pressure control can be utilized to manipulate the solution balance at the surface to thereby control the withdrawal of the amount of material from the surface. Furthermore, such pressure control can be coordinated with the movement of the surface relative to the port of the collection instrument within the X-Y plane.

  9. Estimation variance bounds of importance sampling simulations in digital communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, D.; Yao, K.

    1991-01-01

    In practical applications of importance sampling (IS) simulation, two basic problems are encountered, that of determining the estimation variance and that of evaluating the proper IS parameters needed in the simulations. The authors derive new upper and lower bounds on the estimation variance which are applicable to IS techniques. The upper bound is simple to evaluate and may be minimized by the proper selection of the IS parameter. Thus, lower and upper bounds on the improvement ratio of various IS techniques relative to the direct Monte Carlo simulation are also available. These bounds are shown to be useful and computationally simple to obtain. Based on the proposed technique, one can readily find practical suboptimum IS parameters. Numerical results indicate that these bounding techniques are useful for IS simulations of linear and nonlinear communication systems with intersymbol interference in which bit error rate and IS estimation variances cannot be obtained readily using prior techniques.

  10. Design and characterization of an aerodynamic shoe sampling system for screening trace explosive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staymates, Matthew; Gillen, Greg; Grandner, Jessica; Lukow, Stefan

    2011-11-01

    As part of an ongoing effort with the Transportation Security Laboratory, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has been developing a prototype shoe sampling system that relies on aerodynamic sampling as the primary mechanism for liberating, transporting, and collecting explosive contamination. This presentation will focus on the fluid dynamics associated with the current prototype design. This design includes several air jets and air blades that are used to dislodge particles from target areas of a shoe. A large blower then draws air and liberated particles into a collection device at several hundred liters per second. Experiments that utilize optical particle counting techniques have shown that the applied shear forces from these jets are capable of liberating particles efficiently from shoe surfaces. Results from real-world contamination testing also support the effectiveness of air jet impingement in this prototype. Many examples of flow visualization will be shown. The issues associated with air spillage, particle release efficiency, and particle transport will also be discussed.

  11. Sampling frequency for water quality variables in streams: Systems analysis to quantify minimum monitoring rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Nick A; Jones, Timothy D; Tych, Wlodek

    2017-10-15

    Insufficient temporal monitoring of water quality in streams or engineered drains alters the apparent shape of storm chemographs, resulting in shifted model parameterisations and changed interpretations of solute sources that have produced episodes of poor water quality. This so-called 'aliasing' phenomenon is poorly recognised in water research. Using advances in in-situ sensor technology it is now possible to monitor sufficiently frequently to avoid the onset of aliasing. A systems modelling procedure is presented allowing objective identification of sampling rates needed to avoid aliasing within strongly rainfall-driven chemical dynamics. In this study aliasing of storm chemograph shapes was quantified by changes in the time constant parameter (TC) of transfer functions. As a proportion of the original TC, the onset of aliasing varied between watersheds, ranging from 3.9-7.7 to 54-79 %TC (or 110-160 to 300-600 min). However, a minimum monitoring rate could be identified for all datasets if the modelling results were presented in the form of a new statistic, ΔTC. For the eight H(+), DOC and NO3-N datasets examined from a range of watershed settings, an empirically-derived threshold of 1.3(ΔTC) could be used to quantify minimum monitoring rates within sampling protocols to avoid artefacts in subsequent data analysis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. [Monitoring microbiological safety of small systems of water distribution. Comparison of two sampling programs in a town in central Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Paolo; Faustini, Annunziata; Manganello, Rosa; Borzacchi, Giancarlo; Spera, Domenico; Perucci, Carlo A

    2005-01-01

    To determine the frequency of sampling in small water distribution systems (distribution. We carried out two sampling programs to monitor the water distribution system in a town in Central Italy between July and September 1992; the Poisson distribution assumption implied 4 water samples, the assumption of negative binomial distribution implied 21 samples. Coliform organisms were used as indicators of water safety. The network consisted of two pipe rings and two wells fed by the same water source. The number of summer customers varied considerably from 3,000 to 20,000. The mean density was 2.33 coliforms/100 ml (sd= 5.29) for 21 samples and 3 coliforms/100 ml (sd= 6) for four samples. However the hypothesis of homogeneity was rejected (p-value network, determining the samples' size according to heterogeneity hypothesis strengthens the statement that water is drinkable compared with homogeneity assumption.

  13. Development of an automated multiple-target mask CD disposition system to enable new sampling strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Farnsworth, Jeff; Bassist, Larry; Cui, Ying; Mammen, Bobby; Padmanaban, Ramaswamy; Nadamuni, Venkatesh; Kamath, Muralidhar; Buckmann, Ken; Neff, Julie; Freiberger, Phil

    2006-03-01

    Traditional mask critical dimension (CD) disposition systems with only one or two targets is being challenged by the new requirements from mask-users as the wafer process control becomes more complicated in the newer generation of technologies. Historically, the mask shop does not necessarily measure and disposition off the same kind of CD structures that wafer fabs do. Mask disposition specifications and structures come from the frame-design and the tapeout, while wafer-level CD dispositions are mainly based on the historical process window established per CD-skew experiments and EOL (end of line) yield. In the current high volume manufacturing environment, the mask CDs are mainly dispositioned off their mean-to-target (MTT) and uniformity (6sigma) on one or two types of pre-determined structures. The disposition specification is set to ensure the printed mask will meet the design requirements and to ensure minimum deviation from them. The CD data are also used to adjust the dose of the mask exposure tools to control CD MTT. As a result, the mask CD disposition automation system was built to allow only one or two kinds of targets at most. In contrast, wafer-fabs measure a fairly wide range of different structures to ensure their process is on target and in control. The number of such structures that are considered critical is increasing due the growing complexity of the technology. To fully comprehend the wafer-level requirements, it is highly desirable to align the mask CD sample site and disposition to be the same as that of the wafer-fabs, to measure the OPC (optical proximity correction) structures or equivalent whenever possible, and to establish the true correlation between mask CD measurements vs. wafer CD measurement. In this paper, the development of an automated multiple-target mask CD disposition system with the goal of enabling new sampling strategy is presented. The pros and cons of its implementation are discussed. The new system has been inserted in

  14. Augmented switching linear dynamical system model for gas concentration estimation with MOX sensors in an open sampling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lello, Enrico; Trincavelli, Marco; Bruyninckx, Herman; De Laet, Tinne

    2014-07-11

    In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian time series model approach for gas concentration estimation using Metal Oxide (MOX) sensors in Open Sampling System (OSS). Our approach focuses on the compensation of the slow response of MOX sensors, while concurrently solving the problem of estimating the gas concentration in OSS. The proposed Augmented Switching Linear System model allows to include all the sources of uncertainty arising at each step of the problem in a single coherent probabilistic formulation. In particular, the problem of detecting on-line the current sensor dynamical regime and estimating the underlying gas concentration under environmental disturbances and noisy measurements is formulated and solved as a statistical inference problem. Our model improves, with respect to the state of the art, where system modeling approaches have been already introduced, but only provided an indirect relative measures proportional to the gas concentration and the problem of modeling uncertainty was ignored. Our approach is validated experimentally and the performances in terms of speed of and quality of the gas concentration estimation are compared with the ones obtained using a photo-ionization detector.

  15. Microcontroller-based system for estimate of calcium in serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelamegam, Periyaswmy; Jamaludeen, Abdul Sheriff; Ragendran, Annamalai; Murugrananthan, Krishanamoorthy

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a microcontroller-based control unit was designed and constructed for the estimation of serum calcium in blood samples. The proposed optoelectronic instrument used a red light emitting diode (LED) as a light source and photodiode as a sensor. The performance of the system was compared with that of a commercial instrument in measuring calcium ion. The quantitative analysis of calcium in a catalyst using arsenazo III as colorimetric reagent was used to test the device. The calibration curve for calcium binding with arsenazo III was drawn to check the range of linearity, which was between 0.1 to 4.5 mM L⁻¹. The limit of detection (LOD) is 0.05 mM L⁻¹. Absorbance changes over the pH range of 2-12 were determined to optimize the assay, with maximum absorption at pH 9.0. Interferences in absorbance from monovalent (K+ and Na+) and divalent (Mg²+) cations were also studied. The results show that the system works successfully.

  16. A new analogue sampling readout system for the COMPASS RICH-1 detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abbon, P; Dafni, T; Delagnes, E; Deschamps, H; Gerassimov, S; Ketzer, B; Konorov, I; Kravtchuk, N; Kunne, Fabienne; Magnon, A; Neyret, D; Panebianco, S; Paul, S; Rebourgeard, P

    2008-01-01

    A new electronic readout for CsI-coated multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC), used as photon detectors in the COMPASS ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector, is described. A prototype system comprising more than 5000 channels has been built and tested in high-intensity beam conditions. It is based on the APV25-S1 analogue sampling chip, and replaces the GASSIPLEX chip readout used previously. The APV25 chip, although originally designed for Silicon microstrip detectors, is shown to perform well even with “slow” signals from an MWPC, maintaining a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 9. For every trigger the system reads out three consecutive amplitudes in time, thus allowing to extract information on both the signal amplitude and its timing. This information is used to reduce pile-up events in a high-rate environment. Prototype tests of the new readout electronics on a central RICH photocathode in nominal COMPASS beam conditions showed that the effective time window is reduced from more than for the GASSIPLEX...

  17. Optical method and system for the characterization of laterally-patterned samples in integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, Humphrey J.

    2008-03-04

    Disclosed is a method for characterizing a sample having a structure disposed on or within the sample, comprising the steps of applying a first pulse of light to a surface of the sample for creating a propagating strain pulse in the sample, applying a second pulse of light to the surface so that the second pulse of light interacts with the propagating strain pulse in the sample, sensing from a reflection of the second pulse a change in optical response of the sample, and relating a time of occurrence of the change in optical response to at least one dimension of the structure.

  18. System design specification for rotary mode core sample trucks No. 2, 3, and 4 programmable logic controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, J.L.; Akers, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    The system this document describes controls several functions of the Core Sample Truck(s) used to obtain nuclear waste samples from various underground storage tanks at Hanford. The system will monitor the sampling process and provide alarms and other feedback to insure the sampling process is performed within the prescribed operating envelope. The intended audience for this document is anyone associated with rotary or push mode core sampling. This document describes the Alarm and Control logic installed on Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks (RMCST) {number_sign}2, 3, and 4. It is intended to define the particular requirements of the RMCST alarm and control operation (not defined elsewhere) sufficiently for detailed design to implement on a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC).

  19. GUIDE TO CALCULATING TRANSPORT EFFICIENCY OF AEROSOLS IN OCCUPATIONAL AIR SAMPLING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogue, M.; Hadlock, D.; Thompson, M.; Farfan, E.

    2013-11-12

    This report will present hand calculations for transport efficiency based on aspiration efficiency and particle deposition losses. Because the hand calculations become long and tedious, especially for lognormal distributions of aerosols, an R script (R 2011) will be provided for each element examined. Calculations are provided for the most common elements in a remote air sampling system, including a thin-walled probe in ambient air, straight tubing, bends and a sample housing. One popular alternative approach would be to put such calculations in a spreadsheet, a thorough version of which is shared by Paul Baron via the Aerocalc spreadsheet (Baron 2012). To provide greater transparency and to avoid common spreadsheet vulnerabilities to errors (Burns 2012), this report uses R. The particle size is based on the concept of activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). The AMAD is a particle size in an aerosol where fifty percent of the activity in the aerosol is associated with particles of aerodynamic diameter greater than the AMAD. This concept allows for the simplification of transport efficiency calculations where all particles are treated as spheres with the density of water (1g cm-3). In reality, particle densities depend on the actual material involved. Particle geometries can be very complicated. Dynamic shape factors are provided by Hinds (Hinds 1999). Some example factors are: 1.00 for a sphere, 1.08 for a cube, 1.68 for a long cylinder (10 times as long as it is wide), 1.05 to 1.11 for bituminous coal, 1.57 for sand and 1.88 for talc. Revision 1 is made to correct an error in the original version of this report. The particle distributions are based on activity weighting of particles rather than based on the number of particles of each size. Therefore, the mass correction made in the original version is removed from the text and the calculations. Results affected by the change are updated.

  20. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Observation Data (30-second sampling, daily, 24 hour files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Observation Data (30-second sampling, daily 24 hour files) from the NASA Crustal...

  1. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Compact Observation Data (30-second sampling, hourly files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Observation Data (30-second sampling, hourly files) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics...

  2. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Observation Data (1-second sampling, sub-hourly files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Observation Data (1-second sampling, sub-hourly files) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics...

  3. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Observation Data (30-second sampling, hourly files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Observation Data (30-second sampling, hourly files) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics...

  4. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System Observation Summary Data (30-second sampling, daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Observation Summary Data (30-second sampling, daily files of all distinct navigation...

  5. Leader-follower H∞ consensus of linear multi-agent systems with aperiodic sampling and switching connected topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Xu, Zhenhua; Wang, Qing-Guo; Zhao, Yun-Bo

    2017-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the distributed H∞ consensus of leader-follower multi-agent systems with aperiodic sampling interval and switching topologies. Under the assumption that the sampling period takes values from a given set, a new discrete-time model is proposed for the tracking error system. For the multi-agent systems with time-varying sampling period, switching topologies and external disturbance, the considered tracking problem is converted to a robust H∞ control problem. With help of the Lyapunov stability theory, a sufficient condition for the existence of mode-dependent controller is established and it guarantees the exponential stability of tracking error system and a prescribed H∞ disturbance attenuation level. The influence of sampling period on the overall control performance is also discussed. Two simulation examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Effects of coagulation temperature on measurements of complement function in serum samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Sturfelt, G; Junker, A

    1992-01-01

    Blood samples from 15 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 15 healthy blood donors were allowed to coagulate for one hour at room temperature, followed by one hour at 4 or 37 degrees C. The complement activity of the serum samples was assessed by three different functional assays...

  7. Application of binomial and multinomial probability statistics to the sampling design process of a global grain tracing and recall system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, coded, pill-sized tracers embedded in grain are proposed as a method for grain traceability. A sampling process for a grain traceability system was designed and investigated by applying probability statistics using a science-based sampling approach to collect an adequate number of tracers fo...

  8. ANALYSIS OF MONTE CARLO SIMULATION SAMPLING TECHNIQUES ON SMALL SIGNAL STABILITY OF WIND GENERATOR- CONNECTED POWER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEMITOPE RAPHAEL AYODELE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo simulation using Simple Random Sampling (SRS technique is popularly known for its ability to handle complex uncertainty problems. However, to produce a reasonable result, it requires huge sample size. This makes it to be computationally expensive, time consuming and unfit for online power system applications. In this article, the performance of Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS technique is explored and compared with SRS in term of accuracy, robustness and speed for small signal stability application in a wind generator-connected power system. The analysis is performed using probabilistic techniques via eigenvalue analysis on two standard networks (Single Machine Infinite Bus and IEEE 16–machine 68 bus test system. The accuracy of the two sampling techniques is determined by comparing their different sample sizes with the IDEAL (conventional. The robustness is determined based on a significant variance reduction when the experiment is repeated 100 times with different sample sizes using the two sampling techniques in turn. Some of the results show that sample sizes generated from LHS for small signal stability application produces the same result as that of the IDEAL values starting from 100 sample size. This shows that about 100 sample size of random variable generated using LHS method is good enough to produce reasonable results for practical purpose in small signal stability application. It is also revealed that LHS has the least variance when the experiment is repeated 100 times compared to SRS techniques. This signifies the robustness of LHS over that of SRS techniques. 100 sample size of LHS produces the same result as that of the conventional method consisting of 50000 sample size. The reduced sample size required by LHS gives it computational speed advantage (about six times over the conventional method.

  9. Electrofracturing test system and method of determining material characteristics of electrofractured material samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Glover, Steven F.; Pfeifle, Tom; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Broome, Scott Thomas; Gardner, William Payton

    2017-08-01

    A device for electrofracturing a material sample and analyzing the material sample is disclosed. The device simulates an in situ electrofracturing environment so as to obtain electrofractured material characteristics representative of field applications while allowing permeability testing of the fractured sample under in situ conditions.

  10. Data reduction in the ITMS system through a data acquisition model with self-adaptive sampling rate

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz González, Mariano; López Navarro, Juan Manuel; Arcas Castro, Guillermo de; Barrera Lopez de Turiso, Eduardo; Melendez, R.; Vega, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Long pulse or steady state operation of fusion experiments require data acquisition and processing systems that reduce the volume of data involved. The availability of self-adaptive sampling rate systems and the use of real-time lossless data compression techniques can help solve these problems. The former is important for continuous adaptation of sampling frequency for experimental requirements. The latter allows the maintenance of continuous digitization under limited memory conditions. Thi...

  11. Field sampling of loose erodible material: A new system to consider the full particle-size spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Martina; Gill, Thomas E.; Webb, Nicholas P.; Van Zee, Justin W.

    2017-10-01

    A new system is presented to sample and enable the characterization of loose erodible material (LEM) present on a soil surface, which may be susceptible for entrainment by wind. The system uses a modified MWAC (Modified Wilson and Cooke) sediment sampler connected to a corded hand-held vacuum cleaner. Performance and accuracy of the system was tested in the laboratory using five reference soil samples with different textures. Sampling was most effective for sandy soils, while effectiveness decreases were found for soils with high silt and clay contents in dry dispersion. This effectiveness decrease can be attributed to loose silt and clay-sized particles and particle aggregates adhering to and clogging a filter attached to the MWAC outlet. Overall, the system was found to be effective in collecting sediment for most soil textures and theoretical interpretation of the measured flow speeds suggests that LEM can be sampled for a wide range of particle sizes, including dust particles. Particle-size analysis revealed that the new system is able to accurately capture the particle-size distribution (PSD) of a given sample. Only small discrepancies (maximum cumulative difference vacuuming for all test soils. Despite limitations of the system, it is an advance toward sampling the full particle-size spectrum of loose sediment available for entrainment with the overall goal to better understand the mechanisms of dust emission and their variability.

  12. Nuclear thermal source transfer unit, post-blast soil sample drying system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ralph S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Valencia, Matthew J [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-03

    Los Alamos National Laboratory states that its mission is “To solve national security challenges through scientific excellence.” The Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) programs exists to engage undergraduate students in STEM work by providing opportunity to work at DOE facilities. As an undergraduate mechanical engineering intern under the SULI program at Los Alamos during the fall semester of 2016, I had the opportunity to contribute to the mission of the Laboratory while developing skills in a STEM discipline. I worked with Technology Applications, an engineering group that supports non-proliferation, counter terrorism, and emergency response missions. This group specializes in tool design, weapons engineering, rapid prototyping, and mission training. I assisted with two major projects during my appointment Los Alamos. The first was a thermal source transportation unit, intended to safely contain a nuclear thermal source during transit. The second was a soil drying unit for use in nuclear postblast field sample collection. These projects have given me invaluable experience working alongside a team of professional engineers. Skills developed include modeling, simulation, group design, product and system design, and product testing.

  13. Reconstruction of solar spectral resource using limited spectral sampling for concentrating photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsiankou, Viktar; Hinzer, Karin; Mohammed, Jafaru; Muron, Aaron; Wilkins, Matthew; Haysom, Joan; Schriemer, Henry; Myrskog, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    One of the challenges associated with forecasting and evaluating concentrating photovoltaic system (CPV) performance in diverse locations is the lack of high-quality spectral solar resource data. Various local atmospheric conditions such as air mass, aerosols, and atmospheric gases affect daily CPV module operation. A multi-channel filter radiometer (MFCR) can be used to quantify these effects at relatively low cost. The proposed method of selectively sampling the solar spectrum at specific wavelength channels to spectrally reconstruct incident irradiance is described and extensively analyzed. Field spectroradiometer (FSR) measurements at the University of Ottawa's CPV testing facility (45.42°N, 75.68°W) are fed into our model to mimic the outputs from the MCFR. The analysis is performed over a two year period (2011-2012), using 46,564 spectra. A recommendation is made to use four aerosols channels at 420, 500, 780, and 1050 nm, one ozone channel at 610 nm and one water vapour channel at 940 nm, all of which can be measured with ubiquitous Si photodiodes. A simulation of this MFCR channel configuration produces an RMS error under 1.5% over 96% of the 350-1830 nm range, when compared with the FSR, for the 2012 data set in Ottawa.

  14. Development of a Whole Slide Imaging System on Smartphones and Evaluation With Frozen Section Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Liren; Ma, Shuoxin

    2017-09-15

    The aim was to develop scalable Whole Slide Imaging (sWSI), a WSI system based on mainstream smartphones coupled with regular optical microscopes. This ultra-low-cost solution should offer diagnostic-ready imaging quality on par with standalone scanners, supporting both oil and dry objective lenses of different magnifications, and reasonably high throughput. These performance metrics should be evaluated by expert pathologists and match those of high-end scanners. The aim was to develop scalable Whole Slide Imaging (sWSI), a whole slide imaging system based on smartphones coupled with optical microscopes. This ultra-low-cost solution should offer diagnostic-ready imaging quality on par with standalone scanners, supporting both oil and dry object lens of different magnification. All performance metrics should be evaluated by expert pathologists and match those of high-end scanners. In the sWSI design, the digitization process is split asynchronously between light-weight clients on smartphones and powerful cloud servers. The client apps automatically capture FoVs at up to 12-megapixel resolution and process them in real-time to track the operation of users, then give instant feedback of guidance. The servers first restitch each pair of FoVs, then automatically correct the unknown nonlinear distortion introduced by the lens of the smartphone on the fly, based on pair-wise stitching, before finally combining all FoVs into one gigapixel VS for each scan. These VSs can be viewed using Internet browsers anywhere. In the evaluation experiment, 100 frozen section slides from patients randomly selected among in-patients of the participating hospital were scanned by both a high-end Leica scanner and sWSI. All VSs were examined by senior pathologists whose diagnoses were compared against those made using optical microscopy as ground truth to evaluate the image quality. The sWSI system is developed for both Android and iPhone smartphones and is currently being offered to the

  15. Development of a Whole Slide Imaging System on Smartphones and Evaluation With Frozen Section Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liren

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim was to develop scalable Whole Slide Imaging (sWSI), a WSI system based on mainstream smartphones coupled with regular optical microscopes. This ultra-low-cost solution should offer diagnostic-ready imaging quality on par with standalone scanners, supporting both oil and dry objective lenses of different magnifications, and reasonably high throughput. These performance metrics should be evaluated by expert pathologists and match those of high-end scanners. Objective The aim was to develop scalable Whole Slide Imaging (sWSI), a whole slide imaging system based on smartphones coupled with optical microscopes. This ultra-low-cost solution should offer diagnostic-ready imaging quality on par with standalone scanners, supporting both oil and dry object lens of different magnification. All performance metrics should be evaluated by expert pathologists and match those of high-end scanners. Methods In the sWSI design, the digitization process is split asynchronously between light-weight clients on smartphones and powerful cloud servers. The client apps automatically capture FoVs at up to 12-megapixel resolution and process them in real-time to track the operation of users, then give instant feedback of guidance. The servers first restitch each pair of FoVs, then automatically correct the unknown nonlinear distortion introduced by the lens of the smartphone on the fly, based on pair-wise stitching, before finally combining all FoVs into one gigapixel VS for each scan. These VSs can be viewed using Internet browsers anywhere. In the evaluation experiment, 100 frozen section slides from patients randomly selected among in-patients of the participating hospital were scanned by both a high-end Leica scanner and sWSI. All VSs were examined by senior pathologists whose diagnoses were compared against those made using optical microscopy as ground truth to evaluate the image quality. Results The sWSI system is developed for both Android and iPhone smartphones and

  16. Sample introduction systems for the analysis of liquid microsamples by ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoli, Jose L. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: jose.todoli@ua.es; Mermet, Jean M. [Spectroscopy Forever, 01390 Tramoyes (France)

    2006-03-15

    There are many fields in which the available sample volume is the limiting factor for an elemental analysis. Over the last ten years, sample introduction systems used in plasma spectrometry (i.e., Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry, ICP-AES, and Mass Spectrometry, ICP-MS) have evolved in order to expand the field of applicability of these techniques to the analysis of micro- and nanosamples. A full understanding of the basic processes occurring throughout the sample introduction system is absolutely necessary to improve analytical performance. The first part of the present review deals with fundamental studies concerning the different phenomena taking place from aerosol production to analyte excitation/ionization when the liquid consumption rate does not exceed 100 {mu}l/min. Existing sample introduction systems are currently far from the ideal and a significant effort has been made to develop new and efficient devices. Different approaches for continuously introducing small sample volumes (i.e., microsamples) have been reviewed and compared in the present work. Finally, applications as well as basic guidelines to select the best sample introduction system according to the sample particularities are given at the end of this review.

  17. Compact multipurpose sub-sampling and processing of in-situ cores with press (pressurized core sub-sampling and extrusion system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, E.; Muller, W.H. [Technical Univ. of Berlin, Berlin (Germany). Chair of Continuum Mechanics and Material Theory

    2008-07-01

    Climate change, declining resources and over-consumption result in a need for sustainable resource allocation, habitat conservation and claim for new technologies and prospects for damage-containment. In order to increase knowledge of the environment and to define potential hazards, it is necessary to get an understanding of the deep biosphere. In addition, the benthic conditions of sediment structure and gas hydrates, temperature, pressure and bio-geochemistry must be maintained during the sequences of sampling, retrieval, transfer, storage and downstream analysis. In order to investigate highly instable gas hydrates, which decomposes under pressure and temperature change, a suite of research technologies have been developed by the Technische Universitat Berlin (TUB), Germany. This includes the pressurized core sub-sampling and extrusion system (PRESS) that was developed in the European Union project called HYACE/HYACINTH. The project enabled well-defined sectioning and transfer of drilled pressure-cores obtained by a rotary corer and fugro pressure corer into transportation and investigation chambers. This paper described HYACINTH pressure coring and the HYACINTH core transfer. Autoclave coring tools and HYACINTH core logging, coring tools, and sub-sampling were also discussed. It was concluded that possible future applications include, but were not limited to, research in shales and other tight formations, carbon dioxide sequestration, oil and gas exploration, coalbed methane, and microbiology of the deep biosphere. To meet the corresponding requirements and to incorporate the experiences from previous expeditions, the pressure coring system would need to be redesigned to adapt it to the new applications. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  18. A Novel Method of Failure Sample Selection for Electrical Systems Using Ant Colony Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jian; Tian, Shulin; Yang, Chenglin; Liu, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The influence of failure propagation is ignored in failure sample selection based on traditional testability demonstration experiment method. Traditional failure sample selection generally causes the omission of some failures during the selection and this phenomenon could lead to some fearful risks of usage because these failures will lead to serious propagation failures. This paper proposes a new failure sample selection method to solve the problem. First, the method uses a directed graph and ant colony optimization (ACO) to obtain a subsequent failure propagation set (SFPS) based on failure propagation model and then we propose a new failure sample selection method on the basis of the number of SFPS. Compared with traditional sampling plan, this method is able to improve the coverage of testing failure samples, increase the capacity of diagnosis, and decrease the risk of using.

  19. Microwave heating of aqueous samples on a micro-optical-electro-mechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2015-03-03

    Apparatus for heating a sample includes a microchip; a microchannel flow channel in the microchip, the microchannel flow channel containing the sample; a microwave source that directs microwaves onto the sample for heating the sample; a wall section of the microchannel flow channel that receives the microwaves and enables the microwaves to pass through wall section of the microchannel flow channel, the wall section the microchannel flow channel being made of a material that is not appreciably heated by the microwaves; a carrier fluid within the microchannel flow channel for moving the sample in the microchannel flow channel, the carrier fluid being made of a material that is not appreciably heated by the microwaves; wherein the microwaves pass through wall section of the microchannel flow channel and heat the sample.

  20. Onco-STS: a web-based laboratory information management system for sample and analysis tracking in oncogenomic experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrielides, Mike; Furney, Simon J; Yates, Tim; Miller, Crispin J; Marais, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Whole genomes, whole exomes and transcriptomes of tumour samples are sequenced routinely to identify the drivers of cancer. The systematic sequencing and analysis of tumour samples, as well other oncogenomic experiments, necessitates the tracking of relevant sample information throughout the investigative process. These meta-data of the sequencing and analysis procedures include information about the samples and projects as well as the sequencing centres, platforms, data locations, results locations, alignments, analysis specifications and further information relevant to the experiments. The current work presents a sample tracking system for oncogenomic studies (Onco-STS) to store these data and make them easily accessible to the researchers who work with the samples. The system is a web application, which includes a database and a front-end web page that allows the remote access, submission and updating of the sample data in the database. The web application development programming framework Grails was used for the development and implementation of the system. The resulting Onco-STS solution is efficient, secure and easy to use and is intended to replace the manual data handling of text records. Onco-STS allows simultaneous remote access to the system making collaboration among researchers more effective. The system stores both information on the samples in oncogenomic studies and details of the analyses conducted on the resulting data. Onco-STS is based on open-source software, is easy to develop and can be modified according to a research group's needs. Hence it is suitable for laboratories that do not require a commercial system.

  1. Evaluating the biological potential in samples returned from planetary satellites and small solar system bodies: framework for decision making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff

    1998-01-01

    ... from Planetary Satellites and Small Solar System Bodies Framework for Decision Making Task Group on Sample Return from Small Solar System Bodies Space Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1998 i Copyrightthe true use are Please breaks...

  2. Development and evaluation of a lightweight sensor system for aerial emission sampling from open area sources (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new sensor system for mobile and aerial emission sampling was developed for open area pollutant sources, such as prescribed forest burns. The sensor system, termed “Kolibri”, consists of multiple low-cost air quality sensors measuring CO2, CO, samplers for particulate matter wi...

  3. Micro-Lid For Sealing Sample Reservoirs of micro-Extraction Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed µLid system is in effect an attempt to miniaturize an extraction system to a chip-cup system with integrated heaters capable extremley hot...

  4. Portable ultrahigh-vacuum sample storage system for polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Yoshihide; Nishimura, Yusaku F.; Suzuki, Ryo; Uehara, Hiromitsu; Nimura, Tomoyuki; Beniya, Atsushi; Isomura, Noritake; Asakura, Kiyotaka; Takakusagi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    A portable ultrahigh-vacuum sample storage system was designed and built to investigate the detailed geometric structures of mass-selected metal clusters on oxide substrates by polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (PTRF-XAFS). This ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) sample storage system provides the handover of samples between two different sample manipulating systems. The sample storage system is adaptable for public transportation, facilitat...

  5. Sample-based estimators used by the forest inventory and analysis national information management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles T. Scott; William A. Bechtold; Gregory A. Reams; William D. Smith; James A. Westfall; Mark H. Hansen; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2005-01-01

    This chapter outlines prescribed core procedures for deriving population estimates from attributes measured in conjunction with the Phase 1 and Phase 2 samples. These estimation procedures also apply to those Phase 3 attributes in common with Phase 2. Given the sampling frame and plot design described in the previous two chapters, many estimation approaches can be...

  6. 40 CFR 90.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... between the muffler and the sample probe. The mixing chamber is an optional component of the raw gas... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT... components or parts of components that are wetted by the sample or corrosive calibration gases must be either...

  7. 40 CFR 91.414 - Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exhaust gas probe must be located in a position which yields a well mixed, homogeneous sample of the... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES... components that are wetted by the sample or corrosive calibration gases shall be either chemically cleaned...

  8. Synchronization sampling method based on delta-sigma analog-digital converter for underwater towed array system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jia-Jia; Duan, Fa-Jie; Li, Yan-Chao; Hua, Xiang-Ning

    2014-03-01

    Synchronization sampling is very important in underwater towed array system where every acquisition node (AN) samples analog signals by its own analog-digital converter (ADC). In this paper, a simple and effective synchronization sampling method is proposed to ensure synchronized operation among different ANs of the underwater towed array system. We first present a master-slave synchronization sampling model, and then design a high accuracy phase-locked loop to synchronize all delta-sigma ADCs to a reference clock. However, when the master-slave synchronization sampling model is used, both the time-delay (TD) of messages traveling along the wired transmission medium and the jitter of the clocks will bring out synchronization sampling error (SSE). Therefore, a simple method is proposed to estimate and compensate the TD of the messages transmission, and then another effective method is presented to overcome the SSE caused by the jitter of the clocks. An experimental system with three ANs is set up, and the related experimental results verify the validity of the synchronization sampling method proposed in this paper.

  9. Data reduction in the ITMS system through a data acquisition model with self-adaptive sampling rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, M. [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 (Spain)], E-mail: mariano.ruiz@upm.es; Lopez, JM.; Arcas, G. de [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 (Spain); Barrera, E. [Departamento de Sistemas Electronicos y de Control, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 (Spain); Melendez, R. [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Crta. Valencia Km-7, Madrid 28031 (Spain); Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    Long pulse or steady state operation of fusion experiments require data acquisition and processing systems that reduce the volume of data involved. The availability of self-adaptive sampling rate systems and the use of real-time lossless data compression techniques can help solve these problems. The former is important for continuous adaptation of sampling frequency for experimental requirements. The latter allows the maintenance of continuous digitization under limited memory conditions. This can be achieved by permanent transmission of compressed data to other systems. The compacted transfer ensures the use of minimum bandwidth. This paper presents an implementation based on intelligent test and measurement system (ITMS), a data acquisition system architecture with multiprocessing capabilities that permits it to adapt the system's sampling frequency throughout the experiment. The sampling rate can be controlled depending on the experiment's specific requirements by using an external dc voltage signal or by defining user events through software. The system takes advantage of the high processing capabilities of the ITMS platform to implement a data reduction mechanism based in lossless data compression algorithms which are themselves based in periodic deltas.

  10. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System GLONASS (GLObal NAvigation Satellite System) Summary Data (30-second sampling, daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) GLONASS Observation Summary Data (30-second sampling, daily files of all distinct...

  11. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System GLONASS (GLObal NAvigation Satellite System) Compact Observation Data (30-second sampling, daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System GLONASS Compact Observation Data (30-second sampling, daily files) from the NASA Crustal...

  12. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System GLONASS (GLObal NAvigation Satellite System) Observation Data (30-second sampling, daily files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System GLONASS Observation Data (30-second sampling, daily files) from the NASA Crustal Dynamics...

  13. IGSN at Geoscience Australia: implementation and promotion of international sample identifiers system to forster collaboration in Australia and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrakova, I.; Car, N. J.

    2016-12-01

    The International Geo-Sample Number (IGSN) is a globally unique resolvable identifier for physical samples. It provides a mechanism for linking physical samples with analytical data derived from them and even related publications. Geoscience Australia (GA) is one of the largest Australian repositories of geoscientific samples and derived data. Since becoming an IGSN allocating agent in 2014, GA has put significant effort into adopting and promoting IGSN and its benefits internally and across Australia. Since August 2015, GA has registered 1,966,384 samples which represent approximately 1/3 of the international IGSN collection. GA supports the development of the Australian National Specimen Portal (ANSP) lead by the CSIRO aiming to enhance the discoverability of all Australian samples. GA is also collaborating with Curtin University in testing the assumptions of re-use of IGSN-registered sample metadata by linking GA samples with the new analytical data produced by the University. Future plans for GA include: implementing an IGSN minting service for Australian Geological Surveys; promoting wider IGSN use in Australia, particularly among universities; and integrating IGSN systems and metadata with Linked Data and Semantic Web systems including standardised vocabularies and ontologies. The IGSN project, given its standardised mechanisms and metadata and the collaborative way in which it is being conducted, enables a common approach across organisations in Australia for the unique identification and discovery of geoscience samples. It will bring physical sample identification and use into line with many electronic data initiatives allowing the standardised representation of information flows from samples through laboratory work and computation to publications.

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Total Dissolved Nitrogen on a Coupled High-Temperature Combustion Total Organic Carbon-Nitrogen Chemiluminescence Detection (HTC TOC-NCD) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xi; Sanders, Richard; Tappin, Alan D; Worsfold, Paul J; Achterberg, Eric P

    2005-01-01

    The marine biogeochemistries of carbon and nitrogen have come under increased scrutiny because of their close involvement in climate change and coastal eutrophication. Recent studies have shown that the high-temperature combustion (HTC) technique is suitable for routine analyses of dissolved organic matter due to its good oxidation efficiency, high sensitivity, and precision. In our laboratory, a coupled HTC TOC-NCD system with a sample changer was used for the automated and simultaneous determination of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) in seawater samples. TOC control software was used for TOC instrument control, DOC data acquisition, and data analysis. TDN data acquisition and manipulation was undertaken under LabVIEW. The combined system allowed simultaneous determination of DOC and TDN in the same sample using a single injection and provided low detection limits and excellent linear ranges for both DOC and TDN. The risk of contamination has been remarkably reduced due to the minimal sample manipulation and automated analyses. The optimised system provided a reliable tool for the routine determination of DOC and TDN in marine waters.

  15. Small-sample improvements in the statistical analysis of seasonally cointegrated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cubadda, G.; Omtzigt, P.H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes new iterative reduced-rank regression procedures for seasonal cointegration analysis. The suggested methods are motivated by the idea that modelling the cointegration restrictions jointly at different frequencies may increase efficiency in finite samples. Monte Carlo simulations

  16. A micromachined interface for airborne sample-to-liquid transfer and its application in a biosensor system

    OpenAIRE

    Frisk, Thomas; Rönnholm, David; van der Wijngaart, Wouter; Stemme, Göran

    2006-01-01

    A novel micromachined interface for airborne sample-to-liquid adsorption and droplet-to-liquid transfer was designed and fabricated. It enables a robust sheet liquid flow serving as an adsorption site. The interface was characterised for flow and pressure properties and tested successfully for the transfer/adsorption of different samples. A qualitative theoretical model of the device characteristics is presented. We also used the interface to introduce a novel method and system for fast detec...

  17. Robust Adaptive Stabilization of Linear Time-Invariant Dynamic Systems by Using Fractional-Order Holds and Multirate Sampling Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alonso-Quesada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a strategy for designing a robust discrete-time adaptive controller for stabilizing linear time-invariant (LTI continuous-time dynamic systems. Such systems may be unstable and noninversely stable in the worst case. A reduced-order model is considered to design the adaptive controller. The control design is based on the discretization of the system with the use of a multirate sampling device with fast-sampled control signal. A suitable on-line adaptation of the multirate gains guarantees the stability of the inverse of the discretized estimated model, which is used to parameterize the adaptive controller. A dead zone is included in the parameters estimation algorithm for robustness purposes under the presence of unmodeled dynamics in the controlled dynamic system. The adaptive controller guarantees the boundedness of the system measured signal for all time. Some examples illustrate the efficacy of this control strategy.

  18. Sampling based motion planning with reachable volumes: Application to manipulators and closed chain systems

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2014-09-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a geometric representation of the regions the joints of a robot can reach. They can be used to generate constraint satisfying samples for problems including complicated linkage robots (e.g. closed chains and graspers). They can also be used to assist robot operators and to help in robot design.We show that reachable volumes have an O(1) complexity in unconstrained problems as well as in many constrained problems. We also show that reachable volumes can be computed in linear time and that reachable volume samples can be generated in linear time in problems without constraints. We experimentally validate reachable volume sampling, both with and without constraints on end effectors and/or internal joints. We show that reachable volume samples are less likely to be invalid due to self-collisions, making reachable volume sampling significantly more efficient for higher dimensional problems. We also show that these samples are easier to connect than others, resulting in better connected roadmaps. We demonstrate that our method can be applied to 262-dof, multi-loop, and tree-like linkages including combinations of planar, prismatic and spherical joints. In contrast, existing methods either cannot be used for these problems or do not produce good quality solutions.

  19. Use of handheld computers with global positioning systems for probability sampling and data entry in household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Eng, Jodi L; Wolkon, Adam; Frolov, Anatoly S; Terlouw, Dianne J; Eliades, M James; Morgah, Kodjo; Takpa, Vincent; Dare, Aboudou; Sodahlon, Yao K; Doumanou, Yao; Hawley, William A; Hightower, Allen W

    2007-08-01

    We introduce an innovative method that uses personal digital assistants (PDAs) equipped with global positioning system (GPS) units in household surveys to select a probability-based sample and perform PDA-based interviews. Our approach uses PDAs with GPS to rapidly map all households in selected areas, choose a random sample, and navigate back to the sampled households to conduct an interview. We present recent field experience in two large-scale nationally representative household surveys to assess insecticide-treated bed net coverage as part of malaria control efforts in Africa. The successful application of this method resulted in statistically valid samples; quality-controlled data entry; and rapid aggregation, analyses, and availability of preliminary results within days of completing the field work. We propose this method as an alternative to the Expanded Program on Immunization cluster sample method when a fast, statistically valid survey is required in an environment with little census information at the enumeration area level.

  20. Identifying the origin of groundwater samples in a multi-layer aquifer system with Random Forest classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudron, Paul; Alonso-Sarría, Francisco; García-Aróstegui, José Luís; Cánovas-García, Fulgencio; Martínez-Vicente, David; Moreno-Brotóns, Jesús

    2013-08-01

    Accurate identification of the origin of groundwater samples is not always possible in complex multilayered aquifers. This poses a major difficulty for a reliable interpretation of geochemical results. The problem is especially severe when the information on the tubewells design is hard to obtain. This paper shows a supervised classification method based on the Random Forest (RF) machine learning technique to identify the layer from where groundwater samples were extracted. The classification rules were based on the major ion composition of the samples. We applied this method to the Campo de Cartagena multi-layer aquifer system, in southeastern Spain. A large amount of hydrogeochemical data was available, but only a limited fraction of the sampled tubewells included a reliable determination of the borehole design and, consequently, of the aquifer layer being exploited. Added difficulty was the very similar compositions of water samples extracted from different aquifer layers. Moreover, not all groundwater samples included the same geochemical variables. Despite of the difficulty of such a background, the Random Forest classification reached accuracies over 90%. These results were much better than the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Decision Trees (CART) supervised classification methods. From a total of 1549 samples, 805 proceeded from one unique identified aquifer, 409 proceeded from a possible blend of waters from several aquifers and 335 were of unknown origin. Only 468 of the 805 unique-aquifer samples included all the chemical variables needed to calibrate and validate the models. Finally, 107 of the groundwater samples of unknown origin could be classified. Most unclassified samples did not feature a complete dataset. The uncertainty on the identification of training samples was taken in account to enhance the model. Most of the samples that could not be identified had an incomplete dataset.

  1. A new functionalized resin and its application in preconcentration system with multivariate optimization for nickel determination in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Valfredo Azevedo; Baliza, Patrícia Xavier; Santos, Juracir Silva; Nunes, Luana Sena; Jesus, Adriana Alves de; Rocha, Marcelo Eça

    2005-03-31

    In this work, Amberlite XAD-2 resin functionalized with 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid was synthesized, characterized and applied as a new packing material for an on-line system to nickel preconcentration. The method is based on the sorption of Ni(II) ions in a minicolumn containing the synthesized resin, posterior desorption using an acid solution and measurement of the nickel by spectrophotometry (PAR method). The optimization of the system was performed using factorial design and Doehlert matrix considering five variables: eluent concentration, PAR solution pH, sample flow rate, PAR solution concentration and sample pH. Signals were measured as peak height by using an instrument software. Using the experimental conditions defined in the optimization, the method allowed nickel determination with achieved sampling rate of 25 samples per hour, detection limit (3s) of 2microgl(-1) and precision (assessed as the relative standard deviation) of 8.2-2.6%, for nickel solutions of 10.0-200.0microgl(-1) concentration, respectively. The experimental enrichment factor of the proposed system was 46, for 120s preconcentration time. The proposed procedure was applied for nickel determination in food samples. Recoveries of spike additions (5 or 10microgg(-1)) to food samples were quantitative (94-110%).

  2. Measurement of the Tracer Gradient and Sampling System Bias of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility Stack Air Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2011-07-20

    This report describes tracer gas uniformity and bias measurements made in the exhaust air discharge of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility at Idaho National Laboratory. The measurements were a follow-up on earlier measurements which indicated a lack of mixing of the two ventilation streams being discharged via a common stack. The lack of mixing is detrimental to the accuracy of air emission measurements. The lack of mixing was confirmed in these new measurements. The air sampling probe was found to be out of alignment and that was corrected. The suspected sampling bias in the air sample stream was disproved.

  3. Development of sampling systems and special analyses for pressurized gasification processes; Paineistettujen kaasutusprosessien naeytteenottomenetelmien ja erityisanalytiikan kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staahlberg, P.; Oesch, P.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Moilanen, A.; Nieminen, M.; Korhonen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The reliability of sampling methods used for measuring impurities contained in gasification gas were studied, and new methods were developed for sampling and sample analyses. The aim of the method development was to improve the representativeness of the samples and to speed up the analysis of gas composition. The study focused on tar, nitrogen and sulphur compounds contained in the gasification gas. In the study of the sampling reliability, the effects of probe and sampling line materials suitable for high temperatures and of the solids deposited in the sampling devices on gas samples drawn from the process were studied. Measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 250 - 850 deg C both in real conditions and in conditions simulating gasification gas. The durability of samples during storage was also studied. The other main aim of the study was to increase the amount of quick-measurable gas components by developing on-line analytical methods based on GC, FTIR and FI (flow injection) techniques for the measurements of nitrogen and sulphur compounds in gasification gas. As these methods are suitable only for the gases that do not contain condensing gas components disturbing the operation of analysers (heavy tar compounds, water), a sampling system operating in dilution principle was developed. The system operates at high pressures and temperatures and is suitable for gasification gases containing heavy tar compounds. The capabilities of analysing heavy tar compounds (mole weight >200 g mol) was improved by adding the amount of compounds identified and calibrated by model substances and by developing analytical methods based on the high-temperature-GC analysis and the thermogravimetric method. (author)

  4. How anonymous is ‘anonymous’? Some suggestions towards a coherent universal coding system for genetic samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Harald; Callier, Shawneequa

    2012-01-01

    So-called ‘anonymous’ tissue samples are widely used in research. Because they lack externally identifying information, they are viewed as useful in reconciling conflicts between the control, privacy and confidentiality interests of those from whom the samples originated and the public (or commercial) interest in carrying out research, as reflected in ‘consent or anonymise’ policies. High level guidance documents suggest that withdrawal of consent and samples and the provision of feedback are impossible in the case of anonymous samples. In view of recent developments in science and consumer-driven genomics the authors argue that such statements are misleading and only muddle complex ethical questions about possible entitlements to control over samples. The authors therefore propose that terms such as ‘anonymised’, ‘anonymous’ or ‘non-identifiable’ be removed entirely from documents describing research samples, especially from those aimed at the public. This is necessary as a matter of conceptual clarity and because failure to do so may jeopardise public trust in the governance of large scale databases. As there is wide variation in the taxonomy for tissue samples and no uniform national or international standards, the authors propose that a numeral-based universal coding system be implemented that focuses on specifying incremental levels of identifiability, rather than use terms that imply that the reidentification of research samples and associated actions are categorically impossible. PMID:22345546

  5. Food safety assurance systems: Microbiological testing, sampling plans, and microbiological criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwietering, M.H.; Ross, T.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological criteria give information about the quality or safety of foods. A key component of a microbiological criterion is the sampling plan. Considering: (1) the generally low level of pathogens that are deemed tolerable in foods, (2) large batch sizes, and (3) potentially substantial

  6. A portable methane sampling system for radiocarbon-based bioportion measurements and environmental CH4 sourcing studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palonen, V.; Uusitalo, J.; Seppälä, E.; Oinonen, M.

    2017-07-01

    Radiocarbon measurements can be used to deduce the proportion of renewable to fossil carbon in materials. While these biofraction measurements are performed routinely on solid and liquid substances, measurements of gaseous samples, such as methane, are still scarce. As a pioneering effort, we have developed a field-capable sampling system for the selective capture of CH4 for radiocarbon-concentration measurements. The system allows for biofraction measurements of methane by accelerator mass spectrometry. In environmental research, radiocarbon measurements of methane can be used for fingerprinting different sources of methane emissions. In metrology and industry, biofraction measurements can be utilized to characterize biogas/natural gas mixtures within gas-line networks. In this work, the portable sampling system is described in detail and reference measurements of biofractions of gaseous fuel samples are presented. Low-concentration (1-ppm-CH4) sampling for environmental applications appears feasible but has not been fully tested at present. This development allows for multitude of future applications ranging from Arctic methane emissions to biogas insertion to gas networks.

  7. Development of a Modified Smart System for Robust Transcriptome Library Preparation from Limited Quantities of Compromised Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Farmer, A.; Bostick, Magnolia

    2013-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing has revolutionized biomedical research by providing sequence data on millions of short DNA fragments, in parallel. In particular, NGS has enabled RNA expression analysis over the entire transcriptome with high sensitivity and dynamic range. Currently, the field is seeking methods to utilize challenging samples that are either compromised or are only available in limited amounts. Overcoming these constraints will demand highly sensitive and robust sample preparation methods. One powerful method for cDNA preparation is SMART™ technology (Switching Mechanism At the 5′ end of the RNA Template), which utilizes the template switching activity of reverse transcriptase to enable the direct addition of a PCR adaptor to the 3′ end of the first-strand cDNA, thus avoiding inefficient ligation steps. One drawback of SMART technology is its current inability to work with compromised samples, owing to its dependence on an oligo dT primer for first strand synthesis. A modified SMART system has been developed including the use of random primers to work with samples containing compromised or degraded RNA. Data (including gene body coverage, reproducibility, and mappability metrics) will be presented for both chemically degraded RNA samples and FFPE RNA prepared using the modified SMART system. This modified SMART protocol will be especially useful for small samples of degraded RNA. It is capable of generating cDNA libraries for transcriptome profiling from as little as 1 ng of total RNA.

  8. A system for sampling changes in blood pressure from a videotape, using Finapres(TM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Näring, G.W.B.; Wittebrood, J.; Staak, C. van der; DeMey, H.; Schaap, C.

    1996-01-01

    A system is described that measures blood pressure noninvasively and continuously during a videotaped verbal interaction. The system incorporates the use of the Finapres to nonintrusively and continuously measure BP during a verbal interaction. Segments from the interaction, in which blood pressure

  9. Low cost optical tweezers systems using double coil driving stepping motor to controlling sample stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laowattanatham, N.; Cheamanunkul, N.; Plaipichit, S.; Buranasiri, P.; Nuansri, R.

    2013-06-01

    In this research, the low cost optical tweezers systems using X-Y stage has been developed by using 5-phase stepping motor. By using sequential double coil driving, we can obtain the driving torque larger than using the single coil driving. The moving scale is fine resolution at 0.2 micrometer. The overall systems based on microcontroller PIC18F458 and joystick controller with LabView® graphical user interface (GUI). The mechanical damping has been included in the system for decreasing the vibrational noise. By using this method, our optical tweezers system is cheaper than the other commercial system that has been used the piezoelectric driving, and still has the same efficiency.

  10. Guaranteed cost consensus protocol design for linear multi-agent systems with sampled-data information: An input delay approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yadong; Zhang, Weidong

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the energy consumption involved in a sampled-data consensus process, the problem of guaranteed cost consensus for sampled-data linear multi-agent systems is considered. By using an input delay approach, an equivalent system is constructed to convert the guaranteed cost consensus problem to a guaranteed cost stabilization problem. A sufficient condition for guaranteed cost consensus is given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), based on a refined time-dependent Lyapunov functional analysis. Reduced-order protocol design methodologies are proposed, with further discussions on determining sub-optimal protocol gain and enlarging allowable sampling interval bound made as a complement. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Higher recovery rate of microorganisms from cerebrospinal fluid samples by the BACTEC culture system in comparison with agar culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderaro, Adriana; Martinelli, Monica; Montecchini, Sara; Motta, Federica; Covan, Silvia; Larini, Sandra; Medici, Maria Cristina; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Chezzi, Carlo; De Conto, Flora

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of the BACTEC FX blood culture (BC) system as compared to the agar culture (AC) of cerebrospinal fluid samples (CSF), evaluating the recovery rate and the time to detection of microorganisms in a 3.5-year period. From December 2011 to May 2015, 1326 CSF samples (694 patients) were submitted to both AC and BC. Among the 150 positive samples (96 patients), 165 microorganisms were detected: 81 by both the protocols, 77 by BC alone, and 7 by AC alone, demonstrating a higher detection rate of BC (95.8%) than AC (53.3%). Although BC presents some disadvantages, it is able to improve the yield of clinically significant microorganisms, and it could potentially reduce the reporting time as compared to AC. The results obtained highlighted the necessity of a combined approach for the successful detection of central nervous system microbial infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Game Changer: Linked Learning Detroit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ConnectEd: The California Center for College and Career, 2016

    2016-01-01

    JP Morgan Chase joins the Skillman Foundation, the Ford Foundation, and the Ford Motor Company Fund, whose grants total $7 million and will connect 10,000 Detroit high school students to career education and work experiences over the next three years through Linked Learning Detroit. Learn about Linked Learning Detroit through interviews with…

  13. El Nino: The climate changer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshBabu, V.

    continued effectiveness in EOR The polymer can however be modified by reducing its rate of biodegradation without altering its Theological properties At present, scientists from Stanford Research Institute, USA are study- ing ways to reduce biodegradation... of South Africa, the major food pro- ducer in the African continent, was forced to import corn from the USA to make up for production lost on account of drought. In addition to these effects, the 1982-83 El Nino was also responsible for the failure...

  14. Distance Learning: A Game Changer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Rodger; LaBrecque, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Previous research identified a variety of special populations which may be serviced through online learning activities. These have included the military, Native Americans, prisoners, remote occupations, and others. This paper focuses the growing role of distance learning opportunities for student and professional athletes. Special attention is…

  15. Item Calibration Samples and the Stability of Achievement Estimates and System Rankings: Another Look at the PISA Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Leslie; Rutkowski, David; Zhou, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Using an empirically-based simulation study, we show that typically used methods of choosing an item calibration sample have significant impacts on achievement bias and system rankings. We examine whether recent PISA accommodations, especially for lower performing participants, can mitigate some of this bias. Our findings indicate that standard…

  16. An historically consistent and broadly applicable MRV system based on LiDAR sampling and Landsat time-series

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Cohen; H. Andersen; S. Healey; G. Moisen; T. Schroeder; C. Woodall; G. Domke; Z. Yang; S. Stehman; R. Kennedy; C. Woodcock; Z. Zhu; J. Vogelmann; D. Steinwand; C. Huang

    2014-01-01

    The authors are developing a REDD+ MRV system that tests different biomass estimation frameworks and components. Design-based inference from a costly fi eld plot network was compared to sampling with LiDAR strips and a smaller set of plots in combination with Landsat for disturbance monitoring. Biomass estimation uncertainties associated with these different data sets...

  17. Sequential injection system incorporating a micro extraction column for automatic fractionation of metal ions in solid samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chomchoei, Roongrat; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2005-01-01

    Recently a novel approach to perform sequential extractions (SE) of elements in solid samples was developed by this group, based upon the use of a sequential injection (SI) system incorporating a specially designed extraction microcolumn. Entailing a number of distinct advantages as compared to c...

  18. Autosomal SNP typing of forensic samples with the GenPlex(TM) HID System: Results of a collaborative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, C.; Axler-DiPerte, G.; Budimlija, Z.M.

    2011-01-01

    in Europe and 5 in the US) in order to test the robustness and reliability of the GenPlex(TM) HID System on forensic samples. Three samples with partly degraded DNA and 10 samples with low amounts of DNA were analyzed in duplicates using various amounts of DNA. In order to compare the performance of the Gen......The GenPlex(TM) HID System (Applied Biosystems - AB) offers typing of 48 of the 52 SNPforID SNPs and amelogenin. Previous studies have shown a high reproducibility of the GenPlex(TM) HID System using 250-500 pg DNA of good quality. An international exercise was performed by 14 laboratories (9......Plex(TM) HID System with the most commonly used STR kits, 500 pg of partly degraded DNA from three samples was typed by the laboratories using one or more STR kits. The median SNP typing success rate was 92.3% with 500 pg of partly degraded DNA. Three of the fourteen laboratories counted for more than two...

  19. A sample design for globally consistent biomass estimation using lidar data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean P. Healey; Paul L. Patterson; Sassan S. Saatchi; Michael A. Lefsky; Andrew J. Lister; Elizabeth A. Freeman

    2012-01-01

    Lidar height data collected by the Geosciences Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) from 2002 to 2008 has the potential to form the basis of a globally consistent sample-based inventory of forest biomass. GLAS lidar return data were collected globally in spatially discrete full waveform "shots," which have been shown to be strongly correlated with aboveground forest...

  20. Relative humidity effects on water vapour fluxes measured with closed-path eddy-covariance systems with short sampling lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Gerardo; Ibrom, Andreas; Arriga, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    It has been formerly recognised that increasing relative humidity in the sampling line of closed-path eddy-covariance systems leads to increasing attenuation of water vapour turbulent fluctuations, resulting in strong latent heat flux losses. This occurrence has been analyzed for very long (50 m)...

  1. Analysis of s-triazine herbicides in model systems and samples of groundwater by gas and liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostadinović Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, residues of s-triazine herbicides (Simazine, Atrazine, Amethrine, Promethrine and Azyprothrine have been determined in samples of model systems and real groundwater samples by gas-chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. S-triazine herbicides were isolated from water samples by chloroform-methanol mixture (1:1, followed by purification of extract on the Al2O3 column. Gas-chromatographic determination the residues of s-triazines is performed on parallel capilar columns ULTRA I and ULTRA II, using specific NP detector. Liquid-chromatographic determination the s-triazines was performed on the column TSK ODS-120 A 5 mm 'LKB', using the mobile phase methanol-water (60:40. Total concentration of s-triazines in samples of Danube water was 3.54 mg dm-3. .

  2. A flow injection sampling resonance light scattering system for total protein determination in human serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lijun; Li, Ying; Zhang, Yaheng; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2007-04-01

    A novel flow injection method with resonance light scattering detection was developed for the determination of total protein concentrations. This method is based on the enhancement of RLS signals from Methyl Blue (MB) by protein. The enhanced RLS intensities at 333 nm, in a pH 4.1 acidic aqueous solution, were proportional to the protein concentration over the range 2.0-37.3 and 1.0-36.0 μg ml -1 for human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), respectively. The corresponding limits of detection (3 σ) of 45 ng ml -1 for HSA and 80 ng ml -1 for BSA were attained. The method was successfully applied to the quantification of total proteins in human serum samples, the maximum relative error is less than 1% and the recovery is between 98% and 102%. The sample throughput was 60 h -1.

  3. Diffraction on heavy samples at STRESS-SPEC using a robot system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdany, N.; Gan, W. M.; Randau, C.; Brokmeier, H.-G.; Hofmann, M.

    2015-04-01

    The material science diffractometer STRESS-SPEC has high flux and a high flexible monochromator arrangement to optimize the needed wavelength. Many specific sample handling stages and sample environments are available. One of them is a Staubli RX 160 robot with nominal load capacity of 20 kg and more freedom for texture mapping than the Huber 512 Eulerian type cradle. Demonstration experiments of non-destructive pole figures and strain measurements of Cu-tube segments weighing 12 kg weight and 250 mm in length and 140 mm diameter have been carried out. The residual strains measured by the robot and by the XYZ- stage fit quite well, that means the robot is reliable for strain measurements. The texture of the Cu-tube has dominant recrystallization texture components represented by the cube and the rotated cube.

  4. Dynamics of multirate sampled data control systems. [for space shuttle boost vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, J. R.; Hynes, R. J.; Molnar, D. O.

    1974-01-01

    The effect was investigated of the synthesis approach (single or multirate) on the machine requirements for a digital control system for the space shuttle boost vehicle. The study encompassed four major work areas: synthesis approach trades, machine requirements trades, design analysis requirements and multirate adaptive control techniques. The primary results are two multirate autopilot designs for the low Q and maximum Q flight conditions that exhibits equal or better performance than the analog and single rate system designs. Also, a preferred technique for analyzing and synthesizing multirate digital control systems is included.

  5. Variable Sampling Composite Observer Based Frequency Locked Loop and its Application in Grid Connected System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARUN, K.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A modified digital signal processing procedure is described for the on-line estimation of DC, fundamental and harmonics of periodic signal. A frequency locked loop (FLL incorporated within the parallel structure of observers is proposed to accommodate a wide range of frequency drift. The error in frequency generated under drifting frequencies has been used for changing the sampling frequency of the composite observer, so that the number of samples per cycle of the periodic waveform remains constant. A standard coupled oscillator with automatic gain control is used as numerically controlled oscillator (NCO to generate the enabling pulses for the digital observer. The NCO gives an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency making it suitable for power quality applications. Another observer with DC and second harmonic blocks in the feedback path act as filter and reduces the double frequency content. A systematic study of the FLL is done and a method has been proposed to design the controller. The performance of FLL is validated through simulation and experimental studies. To illustrate applications of the new FLL, estimation of individual harmonics from nonlinear load and the design of a variable sampling resonant controller, for a single phase grid-connected inverter have been presented.

  6. Miniaturized, Low Power Cryogenic Inlet System with Sampling Probes for Titan Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. has demonstrated feasibility in Phase 1 and now proposes a Phase 2 effort to develop a miniature, low power cryogenic inlet system with...

  7. Enhanced In Situ Sampling Capabilities with a Compact UV Laser System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A miniaturized, solid-state frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser system  will be tested for performance and mechnically packaged to support future mission-driven...

  8. Metodologi Pemecahan Masalah Analisis dan Evaluasi Open Source untuk Perusahaan: Sample Case E-Learning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win Ce

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High increment of information system needs for company goes in line with the high demands of increasingly competitive and rivalry of industry. Corporate investment needs automatically increase to meet the demanding needs of this system. New developments in systems and technology can not be ignored by companies because it gives a very high economic boost in the competition. On the other hand, in line with the development of information systems is the development of Open Source applications as a cheaper alternative for enterprise use. With so many alternative of Open Sources requires companies to be more observant of selecting the best applications that meet the company needs and can be quickly implemented. This study presents the best approaches to select the best Open Source applications for companies, such as literature review, implementation and evaluation of e-learning Open Source application. 

  9. The 3D reconstruction of greenhouse tomato plant based on real organ samples and parametric L-system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Longjiao; Xu, Lihong; Li, Dawei; Fu, Daichang

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, a fast and effective 3D reconstruction method for the growth of greenhouse tomato plant is proposed by using real organ samples and a parametric L-system. By analyzing the stereo structure of tomato plant, we extracts rules and parameters to assemble an L-system that is able to simulate the plant growth, and then the components of the L-system are translated into plant organ entities via image processing and computer graphics techniques. This method can efficiently and faithfully simulate the growing process of the greenhouse tomato plant.

  10. SAMPLING OF THE PLAN OF REPAIRS OF THE MAIN EQUIPMENT IN THE ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Alexandrov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aspects of creation of the formal-and-functional mathematical models supporting a system for prompt resolution of repair requires in a complex electric power system are considered in the article. In accordance with the standards of repairs, inspections, replacement of elements of the main equipment or devices of a system of automation, inclusion of spare capacity, various switches, as well as with the frequency of outages adopted in practice, the decisionmaking process is formalized and automated as the problem of scheduling optimal daily schedules of blackouts, functioning as a part of automated system of dispatching management of electric power system. The main problems that hinder mathematical modeling of decision-making concerning operational applications for the repair of the main power equipment of power system are: the need for a coherent account of a large number of limiting factors and indicators of effectiveness of the solutions; the need of information and algorithmic trade-offs with the objectives of adjacent levels of spatial, temporal and functional hierarchy; the lack of developments in the standardization of information structures that adequately reflect the process of finding solutions; the computational complexity of several restrictions of the optimization problem subject to mandatory registration. 

  11. A sample-to-answer, real-time convective polymerase chain reaction system for point-of-care diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bowen; Zhang, Chunsun; Xing, Da

    2017-11-15

    Timely and accurate molecular diagnostics at the point-of-care (POC) level is critical to global health. To this end, we propose a handheld convective-flow real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system capable of direct sample-to-answer genetic analysis for the first time. Such a system mainly consists of a magnetic bead-assisted photothermolysis sample preparation, a closed-loop convective PCR reactor, and a wireless video camera-based real-time fluorescence detection. The sample preparation exploits the dual functionality of vancomycin-modified magnetic beads (VMBs) for bacteria enrichment and photothermal conversion, enabling cell pre-concentration and lysis to be finished in less than 3min. On the presented system, convective thermocycling is driven by a single-heater thermal gradient, and its amplification is monitored in real-time, with an analysis speed of less than 25min, a dynamic linear range from 106 to 101 copies/µL and a detection sensitivity of as little as 1 copies/µL. Additionally, the proposed PCR system is self-contained with a control electronics, pocket-size and battery-powered, providing a low-cost genetic analysis in a portable format. Therefore, we believe that this integrated system may become a potential candidate for fast, accurate and affordable POC molecular diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of γ-hydroxybutyrate in human urine samples by ion exclusion and ion exchange two-dimensional chromatography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junwei; Deng, Zhifen; Zhu, Zuoyi; Wang, Yong; Wang, Guoqing; Sun, Yu-An; Zhu, Yan

    2017-12-15

    A two-dimensional ion chromatography system was developed for the determination of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in human urine samples. Ion exclusion chromatography was used in the first dimensional separation for elimination of urine matrices and detection of GHB above 10mgL-1, ion exchange chromatography was used in the second dimensional separation via column-switching technique for detection of GHB above 0.08mgL-1. Under the optimized chromatographic conditions, the ion exclusion and ion exchange chromatography separation system exhibited satisfactory repeatability (RSDion chromatography system was convenient and practical for the determination of GHB in human urine samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurement of Clozapine, Norclozapine, and Amisulpride in Plasma and in Oral Fluid Obtained Using 2 Different Sampling Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Danielle S; Beyer, Chad; van Schalkwyk, Gerrit; Seedat, Soraya; Flanagan, Robert J

    2017-04-01

    There is a poor correlation between total concentrations of proton-accepting compounds (most basic drugs) in unstimulated oral fluid and in plasma. The aim of this study was to compare clozapine, norclozapine, and amisulpride concentrations in plasma and in oral fluid collected using commercially available collection devices [Thermo Fisher Scientific Oral-Eze and Greiner Bio-One (GBO)]. Oral-Eze and GBO samples and plasma were collected in that order from patients prescribed clozapine. Analyte concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. There were 112 participants [96 men, aged (median, range) 47 (21-65) years and 16 women, aged 44 (21-65) years]: 74 participants provided 2 sets of samples and 7 provided 3 sets (overall 2 GBO samples not collected). Twenty-three patients were co-prescribed amisulpride, of whom 17 provided 2 sets of samples and 1 provided 3 sets. The median (range) oral fluid within the GBO samples was 52 (13%-86%). Nonadherence to clozapine was identified in all 3 samples in one instance. After correction for oral fluid content, analyte concentrations in the GBO and Oral-Eze samples were poorly correlated with plasma clozapine and norclozapine (R = 0.57-0.63) and plasma amisulpride (R = 0.65-0.72). Analyte concentrations in the 2 sets of oral fluid samples were likewise poorly correlated (R = 0.68-0.84). Mean (SD) plasma clozapine and norclozapine were 0.60 (0.46) and 0.25 (0.21) mg/L, respectively. Mean clozapine and norclozapine concentrations in the 2 sets of oral fluid samples were similar to those in plasma (0.9-1.8 times higher), that is, approximately 2- to 3-fold higher than those in unstimulated oral fluid. The mean (±SD) amisulpride concentrations (microgram per liter) in plasma (446 ± 297) and in the Oral-Eze samples (501 ± 461) were comparable and much higher than those in the GBO samples (233 ± 318). Oral fluid collected using either the GBO system or the Oral-Eze system cannot be used for

  14. A bench-top K X-ray fluorescence system for quantitative measurement of gold nanoparticles for biological sample diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricketts, K., E-mail: k.ricketts@ucl.ac.uk [Division of Surgery and Interventional Sciences, University College London, Royal Free Campus, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Guazzoni, C.; Castoldi, A. [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria Politecnico di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano P.za Leonardo da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy); Royle, G. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place Engineering Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-21

    Gold nanoparticles can be targeted to biomarkers to give functional information on a range of tumour characteristics. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques offer potential quantitative measurement of the distribution of such heavy metal nanoparticles. Biologists are developing 3D tissue engineered cellular models on the centimetre scale to optimise targeting techniques of nanoparticles to a range of tumour characteristics. Here we present a high energy bench-top K-X-ray fluorescence system designed for sensitivity to bulk measurement of gold nanoparticle concentration for intended use in such thick biological samples. Previous work has demonstrated use of a L-XRF system in measuring gold concentrations but being a low energy technique it is restricted to thin samples or superficial tumours. The presented system comprised a high purity germanium detector and filtered tungsten X-ray source, capable of quantitative measurement of gold nanoparticle concentration of thicker samples. The developed system achieved a measured detection limit of between 0.2 and 0.6 mgAu/ml, meeting specifications of biologists and being approximately one order of magnitude better than the detection limit of alternative K-XRF nanoparticle detection techniques. The scatter-corrected K-XRF signal of gold was linear with GNP concentrations down to the detection limit, thus demonstrating potential in GNP concentration quantification. The K-XRF system demonstrated between 5 and 9 times less sensitivity than a previous L-XRF bench-top system, due to a fundamental limitation of lower photoelectric interaction probabilities at higher K-edge energies. Importantly, the K-XRF technique is however less affected by overlying thickness, and so offers future potential in interrogating thick biological samples.

  15. Evaluation of GeneXpert® system for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus in clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Mencacci

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus strains (MRSA have reached epidemic proportions globally, being the major cause of nosocomial infections. Rapid identification of MRSA in nasal swabs or in clinical samples is considered a useful strategy for control and treatment of these infections. GeneXpert system (Cepheid Europe,Vira-Solelch, Maurence-Scopont-France can detect by real-time PCR in approximately one hour methicillin-resistant S. aureus or coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS in clinical samples, in comparison with 24 hours for the culture or 48 hours for the antimicrobial susceptibility testing. In this study GeneXpert system was compared with traditional tests for MRSA detection in nasal swabs, bloodcultures and surgical wound swabs. Materials and methods. Eighteen nasal swabs, 23 blood-cultures and 13 surgical wound swabs were tested. The samples were cultured on blood-agar and mannitol-salt agar. Identification of isolates was carried out with traditional tests (Gram staining, catalase, coagulase and automatic Phoenix system. Methicillin-susceptibility was evaluated according to 2010 CLSI guidelines. GeneXpert system was performed according to manufacturers instructions, by using the specific kits and methicillin-resistance was detected by amplification of the genic sequences spa, SCC e mecA. Results. The results showed a 100% accordance between GeneXpert system and traditional tests for detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococci. In particular, among 18 nasal swabs, no MRSA was detected, while 1 bloodculture (4.3% and 4 surgical wound swabs (30.7% were positive for MRSA. Conclusions. GeneXpert system allows a rapid detection of MRSA in clinical samples and shows the same sensitivity and specificity as traditional tests. Therefore, it represents a further effective diagnostic method for prevention and treatment of nosocomial infections due to methicillin-resistant staphylococci.

  16. Umbrella sampling of proton transfer in a creatine-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivchenko, Olga; Bachert, Peter; Imhof, Petra

    2014-04-01

    Proton transfer reactions are among the most common processes in chemistry and biology. Proton transfer between creatine and surrounding solvent water is underlying the chemical exchange saturation transfer used as a contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. The free energy barrier, determined by first-principles umbrella sampling simulations (EaDFT 3 kcal/mol) is in the same order of magnitude as the experimentally obtained activation energy. The underlying mechanism is a first proton transfer from the guanidinium group to the water pool, followed by a second transition where a proton is "transferred back" from the nearest water molecule to the deprotonated nitrogen atom of creatine.

  17. Event-Sampled Direct Adaptive NN Output- and State-Feedback Control of Uncertain Strict-Feedback System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, Nathan; Narayanan, Vignesh; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2017-04-12

    In this paper, a novel event-triggered implementation of a tracking controller for an uncertain strict-feedback system is presented. Neural networks (NNs) are utilized in the backstepping approach to design a control input by approximating unknown dynamics of the strict-feedback nonlinear system with event-sampled inputs. The system state vector is assumed to be unknown and an NN observer is used to estimate the state vector. By using the estimated state vector and backstepping design approach, an event-sampled controller is introduced. As part of the controller design, first, input-to-state-like stability for a continuously sampled controller that has been injected with bounded measurement errors is demonstrated, and subsequently, an event-execution control law is derived, such that the measurement errors are guaranteed to remain bounded. Lyapunov theory is used to demonstrate that the tracking errors, the observer estimation errors, and the NN weight estimation errors for each NN are locally uniformly ultimately bounded in the presence bounded disturbances, NN reconstruction errors, as well as errors introduced by event sampling. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

  18. Improved identification and quantitation of mature endogenous peptides in the rodent hypothalamus using a rapid conductive sample heating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Anapindi, Krishna D B; Romanova, Elena V; Rubakhin, Stanislav S; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2017-11-03

    Measurement, identification, and quantitation of endogenous peptides in tissue samples by mass spectrometry (MS) contribute to our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms of numerous biological phenomena. For accurate results, it is essential to arrest the postmortem degradation of ubiquitous proteins in samples prior to performing peptidomic measurements. Doing so ensures that the detection of endogenous peptides, typically present at relatively low levels of abundance, is not overwhelmed by protein degradation products. Heat stabilization has been shown to inactivate the enzymes in tissue samples and minimize the presence of protein degradation products in the subsequent peptide extracts. However, the efficacy of different heat treatments to preserve the integrity of full-length endogenous peptides has not been well documented; prior peptidomic studies of heat stabilization methods have not distinguished between the full-length (mature) and numerous truncated (possible artifacts of sampling) forms of endogenous peptides. We show that thermal sample treatment via rapid conductive heat transfer is effective for detection of mature endogenous peptides in fresh and frozen rodent brain tissues. Freshly isolated tissue processing with the commercial Stabilizor T1 heat stabilization system resulted in the confident identification of 65% more full-length mature neuropeptides compared to widely used sample treatment in a hot water bath. This finding was validated by a follow-up quantitative multiple reaction monitoring MS analysis of select neuropeptides. The rapid conductive heating in partial vacuum provided by the Stabilizor T1 effectively reduces protein degradation and decreases the chemical complexity of the sample, as assessed by determining total protein content. This system enabled the detection, identification, and quantitation of neuropeptides related to 22 prohormones expressed in individual rat hypothalami and suprachiasmatic nuclei.

  19. Test of the technology acceptance model for a Web-based information system in a Hong Kong Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Emily Yee Man; Sachs, John

    2006-12-01

    The modified technology acceptance model was used to predict actual Blackboard usage (a web-based information system) in a sample of 57 Hong Kong student teachers whose mean age was 27.8 yr. (SD = 6.9). While the general form of the model was supported, Application-specific Self-efficacy was a more powerful predictor of system use than Behavioural Intention as predicted by the theory of reasoned action. Thus in this cultural and educational context, it has been shown that the model does not fully mediate the effect of Self-efficacy on System Use. Also, users' Enjoyment exerted considerable influence on the component variables of Usefulness and Ease of Use and on Application-specific Self-efficacy, thus indirectly influencing system usage. Consequently, efforts to gain students' acceptance and, therefore, use of information systems such as Blackboard must pay adequate attention to users' Self-efficacy and motivational variables such as Enjoyment.

  20. A new system for the spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of nitrite in environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian Tom

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A selective and rapid spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrite is presented. It is based on the reaction of nitrite with p-nitroaniline in acid medium to form diazonium ion, which is coupled with ethoxyethylenemaleic ester or ethylcyanoacetate in basic medium to form azo dyes, showing absorption maxima at 439 and 465 nm respectively. The method obeys Beer's law in the concentration range of 0.5-16 µg mL-1 of nitrite with ethoxyethylenemaleic ester and 0.2-18 µg mL-1 of nitrite with ethylcyanoacetate. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of p-nitroaniline-ethoxyethylenemaleic ester and p-nitroaniline-ethylcyanoacetate azo dyes are 5.04 X 10(4 L mol-1cm-1, 0.98 X 10-2 µg cm-2 and 1.21 X 10(4 L mol-1 cm-1, 0.98 X 10-2 µg cm-2 respectively. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters were evaluated. The method was successfully applied to the determination of nitrite in various water samples and soil samples.

  1. On some genetic consequences of social structure, mating systems, dispersal, and sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Bárbara R; Chikhi, Lounès

    2015-06-30

    Many species are spatially and socially organized, with complex social organizations and dispersal patterns that are increasingly documented. Social species typically consist of small age-structured units, where a limited number of individuals monopolize reproduction and exhibit complex mating strategies. Here, we model social groups as age-structured units and investigate the genetic consequences of social structure under distinct mating strategies commonly found in mammals. Our results show that sociality maximizes genotypic diversity, which contradicts the belief that social groups are necessarily subject to strong genetic drift and at high risk of inbreeding depression. Social structure generates an excess of genotypic diversity. This is commonly observed in ecological studies but rarely reported in population genetic studies that ignore social structure. This heterozygosity excess, when detected, is often interpreted as a consequence of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms, but we show that it can occur even in the absence of such mechanisms. Many seemly contradictory results from ecology and population genetics can be reconciled by genetic models that include the complexities of social species. We find that such discrepancies can be explained by the intrinsic properties of social groups and by the sampling strategies of real populations. In particular, the number of social groups and the nature of the individuals that compose samples (e.g., nonreproductive and reproductive individuals) are key factors in generating outbreeding signatures. Sociality is an important component of population structure that needs to be revisited by ecologists and population geneticists alike.

  2. the distribution of enzyme group systems in a sample of south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R. L. KIRK, D.Sc., AND N. M. BLAKE, F.A.I.M.L.T., Department of Human Biology, John Curtin School of. Med:'cal Research, Canberra, Austra'ia, AND G. H. Vas, N atat Institute of Immunology, Durban. A considerable number of enzyme systems are now known which show polymorphic variation in at least some human.

  3. Rorschach Comprehensive System data for a sample of 506 adult nonpatients from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunazzi, Helena Ana; Urrutia, Maria Inés; de la Fuente, Marta García; Elias, Diana; Fernandez, Favia; de la Fuente, Soledad

    2007-01-01

    This study is composed of 506 nonpatient adults, ages 18 to 65, all from Argentina. The data were gathered by five examiners, who tested most of the participants at their work site. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are described and interrater reliability statistics at the response level are presented along with findings for the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 1994).

  4. DNA Profiling of Convicted Offender Samples for the Combined DNA Index System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Julie T

    2011-01-01

    The cornerstone of forensic chemistry is that a perpetrator inevitably leaves trace evidence at a crime scene. One important type of evidence is DNA, which has been instrumental in both the implication and exoneration of thousands of suspects in a wide range of crimes. The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), a network of DNA databases, provides…

  5. Qualification Tests for the Air Sampling System at the 296-Z-7 Stack, Addendum 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Maughan, A. D.

    2002-02-05

    This addendum report documents tests performed to verify that the stack flow monitoring system for the 296-Z-7 ventilation exhaust stack meets the applicable regulatory criteria regarding stack flow measurement accuracy. These criteria ensure that the stack flow measurements have sufficient accuracy for use in estimating stack emissions. The tests performed demonstrated that operability and accuracy requirements were met.

  6. 40 CFR 86.1207-96 - Sampling and analytical systems; evaporative emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrocarbon analyzer utilizing the hydrogen flame ionization principle (FID) shall be used to monitor the... equipment shall consist of a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. (3) The methanol... combination of fans. The control system shall be tuned and operated to provide a smooth and continuous fuel...

  7. Online Doppler Effect Elimination Based on Unequal Time Interval Sampling for Wayside Acoustic Bearing Fault Detecting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesai Ouyang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The railway occupies a fairly important position in transportation due to its high speed and strong transportation capability. As a consequence, it is a key issue to guarantee continuous running and transportation safety of trains. Meanwhile, time consumption of the diagnosis procedure is of extreme importance for the detecting system. However, most of the current adopted techniques in the wayside acoustic defective bearing detector system (ADBD are offline strategies, which means that the signal is analyzed after the sampling process. This would result in unavoidable time latency. Besides, the acquired acoustic signal would be corrupted by the Doppler effect because of high relative speed between the train and the data acquisition system (DAS. Thus, it is difficult to effectively diagnose the bearing defects immediately. In this paper, a new strategy called online Doppler effect elimination (ODEE is proposed to remove the Doppler distortion online by the introduced unequal interval sampling scheme. The steps of proposed strategy are as follows: The essential parameters are acquired in advance. Then, the introduced unequal time interval sampling strategy is used to restore the Doppler distortion signal, and the amplitude of the signal is demodulated as well. Thus, the restored Doppler-free signal is obtained online. The proposed ODEE method has been employed in simulation analysis. Ultimately, the ODEE method is implemented in the embedded system for fault diagnosis of the train bearing. The results are in good accordance with the bearing defects, which verifies the good performance of the proposed strategy.

  8. Online Doppler Effect Elimination Based on Unequal Time Interval Sampling for Wayside Acoustic Bearing Fault Detecting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Kesai; Lu, Siliang; Zhang, Shangbin; Zhang, Haibin; He, Qingbo; Kong, Fanrang

    2015-08-27

    The railway occupies a fairly important position in transportation due to its high speed and strong transportation capability. As a consequence, it is a key issue to guarantee continuous running and transportation safety of trains. Meanwhile, time consumption of the diagnosis procedure is of extreme importance for the detecting system. However, most of the current adopted techniques in the wayside acoustic defective bearing detector system (ADBD) are offline strategies, which means that the signal is analyzed after the sampling process. This would result in unavoidable time latency. Besides, the acquired acoustic signal would be corrupted by the Doppler effect because of high relative speed between the train and the data acquisition system (DAS). Thus, it is difficult to effectively diagnose the bearing defects immediately. In this paper, a new strategy called online Doppler effect elimination (ODEE) is proposed to remove the Doppler distortion online by the introduced unequal interval sampling scheme. The steps of proposed strategy are as follows: The essential parameters are acquired in advance. Then, the introduced unequal time interval sampling strategy is used to restore the Doppler distortion signal, and the amplitude of the signal is demodulated as well. Thus, the restored Doppler-free signal is obtained online. The proposed ODEE method has been employed in simulation analysis. Ultimately, the ODEE method is implemented in the embedded system for fault diagnosis of the train bearing. The results are in good accordance with the bearing defects, which verifies the good performance of the proposed strategy.

  9. A membrane inlet mass spectrometry system for noble gases at natural abundances in gas and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Ate; Singleton, Michael J; Hillegonds, Darren J; Velsko, Carol A; Moran, Jean E; Esser, Bradley K

    2013-11-15

    Noble gases dissolved in groundwater can reveal paleotemperatures, recharge conditions, and precise travel times. The collection and analysis of noble gas samples are cumbersome, involving noble gas purification, cryogenic separation and static mass spectrometry. A quicker and more efficient sample analysis method is required for introduced tracer studies and laboratory experiments. A Noble Gas Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry (NG-MIMS) system was developed to measure noble gases at natural abundances in gas and water samples. The NG-MIMS system consists of a membrane inlet, a dry-ice water trap, a carbon-dioxide trap, two getters, a gate valve, a turbomolecular pump and a quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electron multiplier. Noble gases isotopes (4)He, (22)Ne, (38)Ar, (84)Kr and (132)Xe are measured every 10 s. The NG-MIMS system can reproduce measurements made on a traditional noble gas mass spectrometer system with precisions of 2%, 8%, 1%, 1% and 3% for He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe, respectively. Noble gas concentrations measured in an artificial recharge pond were used to monitor an introduced xenon tracer and to reconstruct temperature variations to within 2 °C. Additional experiments demonstrated the capability to measure noble gases in gas and in water samples, in real time. The NG-MIMS system is capable of providing analyses sufficiently accurate and precise for introduced noble gas tracers at managed aquifer recharge facilities, groundwater fingerprinting based on excess air and noble gas recharge temperature, and field and laboratory studies investigating ebullition and diffusive exchange. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. BLOOD SMEAR EVALUATION OF BALI DUCKS SAMPLED FROM TRADITIONAL FARMING SYSTEMS IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Haryono Utama

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Research to confirm the abnormalities of blood corpuscles in Bali ducks based on blood smear examination has been conducted. The research samples consisted of 105 ducks from various regencies in Bali. The blood smear examination was conducted by the method described in this literature and the data was collected and tabulated by means of the descriptive method. Erythrocyte abnormalities were: polychromasia (61.9%, anisocytosis (17.1%, poikilocytosis (21.0%. Abnormalities associated with leukocyte composition were: Lymphopenic (46.7%; Heterophylic (44.8%; Heteropenic (3.8%, also Thrombocyto penia (2.9% was present in 105 ducks. In conclusion 61,9% ducks examined deal with regenerative anaemia. They also have some blood abnormalities such as basophylia, eosinophylia, heterophylia, heteropenia, lymphopenia, and monocytosis.

  11. Epidermal Microfluidic Electrochemical Detection System: Enhanced Sweat Sampling and Metabolite Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Aida; Kim, Jayoung; Kurniawan, Jonas F; Sempionatto, Juliane R; Moreto, Jose R; Tang, Guangda; Campbell, Alan S; Shin, Andrew; Lee, Min Yul; Liu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Joseph

    2017-12-22

    Despite tremendous recent efforts, noninvasive sweat monitoring is still far from delivering its early analytical promise. Here, we describe a flexible epidermal microfluidic detection platform fabricated through hybridization of lithographic and screen-printed technologies, for efficient and fast sweat sampling and continuous, real-time electrochemical monitoring of glucose and lactate levels. This soft, skin-mounted device judiciously merges lab-on-a-chip and electrochemical detection technologies, integrated with a miniaturized flexible electronic board for real-time wireless data transmission to a mobile device. Modeling of the device design and sweat flow conditions allowed optimization of the sampling process and the microchannel layout for achieving attractive fluid dynamics and rapid filling of the detection reservoir (within 8 min from starting exercise). The wearable microdevice thus enabled efficient natural sweat pumping to the electrochemical detection chamber containing the enzyme-modified electrode transducers. The fabricated device can be easily mounted on the epidermis without hindrance to the wearer and displays resiliency against continuous mechanical deformation expected from such epidermal wear. Amperometric biosensing of lactate and glucose from the rapidly generated sweat, using the corresponding immobilized oxidase enzymes, was wirelessly monitored during cycling activity of different healthy subjects. This ability to monitor sweat glucose levels introduces new possibilities for effective diabetes management, while similar lactate monitoring paves the way for new wearable fitness applications. The new epidermal microfluidic electrochemical detection strategy represents an attractive alternative to recently reported colorimetric sweat-monitoring methods, and hence holds considerable promise for practical fitness or health monitoring applications.

  12. Power-efficient high-speed parallel-sampling adcs for broadband multi-carrier systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Yu; Doris, Kostas; van Roermund, Arthur H M

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the challenges of designing high performance analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) based on the “smart data converters” concept, which implies context awareness, on-chip intelligence and adaptation. Readers will learn to exploit various information either a-priori or a-posteriori (obtained from devices, signals, applications or the ambient situations, etc.) for circuit and architecture optimization during the design phase or adaptation during operation, to enhance data converters performance, flexibility, robustness and power-efficiency. The authors focus on exploiting the a-priori knowledge of the system/application to develop enhancement techniques for ADCs, with particular emphasis on improving the power efficiency of high-speed and high-resolution ADCs for broadband multi-carrier systems.

  13. Rorschach Comprehensive System data for a sample of 249 adult nonpatients from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Adriana; Parolin, Laura; Salcuni, Silvia; Zennaro, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    This project provides information on how Italian adult nonpatients perform on the Rorschach test administered and scored following Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) guidelines (Exner, 1995). Lis, Zennaro, Calvo, and Salcuni (2001) reported previously initial data for 101 of the nonpatients who were administered this instrument between July 1998 and February 2001 by graduate and postgraduate students in a 2-year research course at the Psychotherapy School of the University of Padua. The current study extends that previous work and includes information on an additional 148 participants gathered between April 2001 and March 2004, for a total of 249 individuals. Exclusion criteria are described and interrater reliability statistics at the response level for scoring segments are reported using both percent of agreement and iota. Comprehensive System findings are presented.

  14. Measurements of Plutonium and Americium in Soil Samples from Project 57 using the Suspended Soil Particle Sizing System (SSPSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John L. Bowen; Rowena Gonzalez; David S. Shafer

    2001-05-01

    As part of the preliminary site characterization conducted for Project 57, soils samples were collected for separation into several size-fractions using the Suspended Soil Particle Sizing System (SSPSS). Soil samples were collected specifically for separation by the SSPSS at three general locations in the deposited Project 57 plume, the projected radioactivity of which ranged from 100 to 600 pCi/g. The primary purpose in focusing on samples with this level of activity is that it would represent anticipated residual soil contamination levels at the site after corrective actions are completed. Consequently, the results of the SSPSS analysis can contribute to dose calculation and corrective action-level determinations for future land-use scenarios at the site.

  15. A Multi-Decadal Sample Return Campaign Will Advance Lunar and Solar System Science and Exploration by 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C. R.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    There have been 11 missions to the Moon this century, 10 of which have been orbital, from 5 different space agencies. China became the third country to successfully soft-land on the Moon in 2013, and the second to successfully remotely operate a rover on the lunar surface. We now have significant global datasets that, coupled with the 1990s Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions, show that the sample collection is not representative of the lithologies present on the Moon. The M3 data from the Indian Chandrayaan-1 mission have identified lithologies that are not present/under-represented in the sample collection. LRO datasets show that volcanism could be as young as 100 Ma and that significant felsic complexes exist within the lunar crust. A multi-decadal sample return campaign is the next logical step in advancing our understanding of lunar origin and evolution and Solar System processes.

  16. Solar Deployment System (SolarDS) Model: Documentation and Sample Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Margolis, R.

    2009-09-01

    The Solar Deployment System (SolarDS) model is a bottom-up, market penetration model that simulates the potential adoption of photovoltaics (PV) on residential and commercial rooftops in the continental United States through 2030. NREL developed SolarDS to examine the market competitiveness of PV based on regional solar resources, capital costs, electricity prices, utility rate structures, and federal and local incentives. The model uses the projected financial performance of PV systems to simulate PV adoption for building types and regions then aggregates adoption to state and national levels. The main components of SolarDS include a PV performance simulator, a PV annual revenue calculator, a PV financial performance calculator, a PV market share calculator, and a regional aggregator. The model simulates a variety of installed PV capacity for a range of user-specified input parameters. PV market penetration levels from 15 to 193 GW by 2030 were simulated in preliminary model runs. SolarDS results are primarily driven by three model assumptions: (1) future PV cost reductions, (2) the maximum PV market share assumed for systems with given financial performance, and (3) PV financing parameters and policy-driven assumptions, such as the possible future cost of carbon emissions.

  17. SyPRID sampler: A large-volume, high-resolution, autonomous, deep-ocean precision plankton sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Andrew; Kaiser, Carl; Young, Craig M.; Hiebert, Laurel S.; Cole, Eli; Wagner, Jamie K. S.; Van Dover, Cindy Lee

    2017-03-01

    The current standard for large-volume (thousands of cubic meters) zooplankton sampling in the deep sea is the MOCNESS, a system of multiple opening-closing nets, typically lowered to within 50 m of the seabed and towed obliquely to the surface to obtain low-spatial-resolution samples that integrate across 10 s of meters of water depth. The SyPRID (Sentry Precision Robotic Impeller Driven) sampler is an innovative, deep-rated (6000 m) plankton sampler that partners with the Sentry Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) to obtain paired, large-volume plankton samples at specified depths and survey lines to within 1.5 m of the seabed and with simultaneous collection of sensor data. SyPRID uses a perforated Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight (UHMW) plastic tube to support a fine mesh net within an outer carbon composite tube (tube-within-a-tube design), with an axial flow pump located aft of the capture filter. The pump facilitates flow through the system and reduces or possibly eliminates the bow wave at the mouth opening. The cod end, a hollow truncated cone, is also made of UHMW plastic and includes a collection volume designed to provide an area where zooplankton can collect, out of the high flow region. SyPRID attaches as a saddle-pack to the Sentry vehicle. Sentry itself is configured with a flight control system that enables autonomous survey paths to low altitudes. In its verification deployment at the Blake Ridge Seep (2160 m) on the US Atlantic Margin, SyPRID was operated for 6 h at an altitude of 5 m. It recovered plankton samples, including delicate living larvae, from the near-bottom stratum that is seldom sampled by a typical MOCNESS tow. The prototype SyPRID and its next generations will enable studies of plankton or other particulate distributions associated with localized physico-chemical strata in the water column or above patchy habitats on the seafloor.

  18. System and method for measuring particles in a sample stream of a flow cytometer or the like

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Steven W.; Habberset, Robert C.

    2010-11-16

    A system and method for analyzing a particle in a sample stream of a flow cytometer or the like. The system has a light source, such as a laser pointer module, for generating a low powered light beam and a fluidics apparatus which is configured to transport particles in the sample stream at substantially low velocity through the light beam for interrogation. Detectors, such as photomultiplier tubes, are configured to detect optical signals generated in response to the light beam impinging the particles. Signal conditioning circuitry is connected to each of the detectors to condition each detector output into electronic signals for processing and is designed to have a limited frequency response to filter high frequency noise from the detector output signals.

  19. System and method for measuring particles in a sample stream of a flow cytometer using low-power laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Steven W.; Habbersett, Robert C.

    2016-11-15

    A system and method for analyzing a particle in a sample stream of a flow cytometer or the like. The system has a light source, such as a laser pointer module, for generating a low powered light beam and a fluidics apparatus which is configured to transport particles in the sample stream at substantially low velocity through the light beam for interrogation. Detectors, such as photomultiplier tubes, are configured to detect optical signals generated in response to the light beam impinging the particles. Signal conditioning circuitry is connected to each of the detectors to condition each detector output into electronic signals for processing and is designed to have a limited frequency response to filter high frequency noise from the detector output signals.

  20. System and method for measuring particles in a sample stream of a flow cytometer using low-power laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Steven W.; Habbersett, Robert C.

    2014-07-01

    A system and method for analyzing a particle in a sample stream of a flow cytometer or the like. The system has a light source, such as a laser pointer module, for generating a low powered light beam and a fluidics apparatus which is configured to transport particles in the sample stream at substantially low velocity through the light beam for interrogation. Detectors, such as photomultiplier tubes, are configured to detect optical signals generated in response to the light beam impinging the particles. Signal conditioning circuitry is connected to each of the detectors to condition each detector output into electronic signals for processing and is designed to have a limited frequency response to filter high frequency noise from the detector output signals.

  1. System and method for measuring particles in a sample stream of a flow cytometer using a low power laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Steven W; Habbersett, Robert C

    2013-10-22

    A system and method for analyzing a particle in a sample stream of a flow cytometer or the like. The system has a light source, such as a laser pointer module, for generating a low powered light beam and a fluidics apparatus which is configured to transport particles in the sample stream at substantially low velocity through the light beam for interrogation. Detectors, such as photomultiplier tubes, are configured to detect optical signals generated in response to the light beam impinging the particles. Signal conditioning circuitry is connected to each of the detectors to condition each detector output into electronic signals for processing and is designed to have a limited frequency response to filter high frequency noise from the detector output signals.

  2. Portable ultrahigh-vacuum sample storage system for polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshihide, E-mail: e0827@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Nishimura, Yusaku F.; Suzuki, Ryo; Beniya, Atsushi; Isomura, Noritake [Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc., Yokomichi 41-1, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Uehara, Hiromitsu; Asakura, Kiyotaka; Takakusagi, Satoru [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, Kita 21-10, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0021 (Japan); Nimura, Tomoyuki [AVC Co., Ltd., Inada 1450-6, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-0061 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    A portable ultrahigh-vacuum sample storage system was designed and built to investigate the detailed geometric structures of mass-selected metal clusters on oxide substrates by polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (PTRF-XAFS). This ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) sample storage system provides the handover of samples between two different sample manipulating systems. The sample storage system is adaptable for public transportation, facilitating experiments using air-sensitive samples in synchrotron radiation or other quantum beam facilities. The samples were transferred by the developed portable UHV transfer system via a public transportation at a distance over 400 km. The performance of the transfer system was demonstrated by a successful PTRF-XAFS study of Pt{sub 4} clusters deposited on a TiO{sub 2}(110) surface.

  3. Testing a discrete choice experiment including duration to value health states for large descriptive systems: addressing design and sampling issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansback, Nick; Hole, Arne Risa; Mulhern, Brendan; Tsuchiya, Aki

    2014-08-01

    There is interest in the use of discrete choice experiments that include a duration attribute (DCETTO) to generate health utility values, but questions remain on its feasibility in large health state descriptive systems. This study examines the stability of DCETTO to estimate health utility values from the five-level EQ-5D, an instrument with depicts 3125 different health states. Between January and March 2011, we administered 120 DCETTO tasks based on the five-level EQ-5D to a total of 1799 respondents in the UK (each completed 15 DCETTO tasks on-line). We compared models across different sample sizes and different total numbers of observations. We found the DCETTO coefficients were generally consistent, with high agreement between individual ordinal preferences and aggregate cardinal values. Keeping the DCE design and the total number of observations fixed, subsamples consisting of 10 tasks per respondent with an intermediate sized sample, and 15 tasks with a smaller sample provide similar results in comparison to the whole sample model. In conclusion, we find that the DCETTO is a feasible method for developing values for larger descriptive systems such as EQ-5D-5L, and find evidence supporting important design features for future valuation studies that use the DCETTO. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Method of analyzing multiple sample simultaneously by detecting absorption and systems for use in such a method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Edward S.; Gong, Xiaoyi

    2004-09-07

    The present invention provides a method of analyzing multiple samples simultaneously by absorption detection. The method comprises: (i) providing a planar array of multiple containers, each of which contains a sample comprising at least one absorbing species, (ii) irradiating the planar array of multiple containers with a light source and (iii) detecting absorption of light with a detetion means that is in line with the light source at a distance of at leaat about 10 times a cross-sectional distance of a container in the planar array of multiple containers. The absorption of light by a sample indicates the presence of an absorbing species in it. The method can further comprise: (iv) measuring the amount of absorption of light detected in (iii) indicating the amount of the absorbing species in the sample. Also provided by the present invention is a system for use in the abov metho.The system comprises; (i) a light source comrnpising or consisting essentially of at leaat one wavelength of light, the absorption of which is to be detected, (ii) a planar array of multiple containers, and (iii) a detection means that is in line with the light source and is positioned in line with and parallel to the planar array of multiple contiainers at a distance of at least about 10 times a cross-sectional distance of a container.

  5. Environmental sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckett, J.M.

    1998-12-31

    Environmental Sampling (ES) is a technology option that can have application in transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The basic process is to take a sample from the environment, e.g., soil, water, vegetation, or dust and debris from a surface, and through very careful sample preparation and analysis, determine the types, elemental concentration, and isotopic composition of actinides in the sample. The sample is prepared and the analysis performed in a clean chemistry laboratory (CCL). This ES capability is part of the IAEA Strengthened Safeguards System. Such a Laboratory is planned to be built by JAERI at Tokai and will give Japan an intrinsic ES capability. This paper presents options for the use of ES as a transparency measure for nuclear nonproliferation.

  6. A 15N-poor isotopic composition for the solar system as shown by Genesis solar wind samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, B; Chaussidon, M; Wiens, R C; Jurewicz, A J G; Burnett, D S

    2011-06-24

    The Genesis mission sampled solar wind ions to document the elemental and isotopic compositions of the Sun and, by inference, of the protosolar nebula. Nitrogen was a key target element because the extent and origin of its isotopic variations in solar system materials remain unknown. Isotopic analysis of a Genesis Solar Wind Concentrator target material shows that implanted solar wind nitrogen has a (15)N/(14)N ratio of 2.18 ± 0.02 × 10(-3) (that is, ≈40% poorer in (15)N relative to terrestrial atmosphere). The (15)N/(14)N ratio of the protosolar nebula was 2.27 ± 0.03 × 10(-3), which is the lowest (15)N/(14)N ratio known for solar system objects. This result demonstrates the extreme nitrogen isotopic heterogeneity of the nascent solar system and accounts for the (15)N-depleted components observed in solar system reservoirs.

  7. Automated system for simultaneous analysis of delta(13)C, delta(18)O and CO(2) concentrations in small air samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Carbo, Miquel; Still, Chris; Berry, Joe

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present an automated system for simultaneous measurement of CO(2) concentration, delta(13)C and delta(18)O from small (CMDL analyzed air samples was 0.08 ppm for the CO(2) concentration, 0.01 per thousand for delta(13)C and 0.00 per thousand for delta(18)O. A specific list of the parts and operation of the system is detailed as well as some of the applications for micrometeorological and ecophysiological applications. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Magnetically-induced solid-phase microextraction fiber actuation system for quantitative headspace and liquid sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Chris; Carter, Jerry; Chambers, David M.

    2017-05-23

    A magnetically-induced SPME fiber actuation system includes a SPME fiber holder and a SPME fiber holder actuator, for holding and magnetically actuating a SPME fiber assembly. The SPME fiber holder has a plunger with a magnetic material to which the SPME fiber assembly is connected, and the magnetic SPME fiber holder actuator has an elongated barrel with a loading chamber for receiving the SPME fiber assembly-connected SPME fiber holder, and an external magnet which induces axial motion of the magnetic material of the plunger to extend/retract the SPME fiber from/into the protective needle of the SPME fiber assembly.

  9. Prediction of Repair Work Duration for Gas Transport Systems Based on Small Data Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesnykh, Valery; Litvin, Yuri; Kozin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of the duration of a repair and maintenance project of a gas transport system is an important part of planning activities. There exist numerous sources of uncertainties that may result in time overruns possibly leading to multiple negative consequences. Our experience in planning....... To address the issue of the scarcity of observed data, we suggest using a bootstrap resampling procedure. Gram-Charlier functions and order statistics are employed to approximate the distributions. It is demonstrated how to derive them for a separate repair project and a larger project consisting of a number...

  10. Degradation of free tryptophan in a cookie model system and its application in commercial samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Francisco J; Açar, Ozge C; Serpen, Arda; Arribas-Lorenzo, Gema; Gökmen, Vural

    2007-08-08

    The stability of free tryptophan (Trp) was examined in five cookie-resembling models at varying baking temperatures and durations. Trp was measured by HPLC coupled with a fluorescent detector. Trp degradation was significantly greater in cookies formulated with glucose compared with sucrose, regardless of the temperatures and durations of baking. A lag period was clearly observed in cookies formulated with sucrose. The type of sugar used in the dough formulation affected not only the thermal destruction kinetics but also the degree of degradation of free Trp. However, the type of leavening agent (ammonium bicarbonate versus sodium bicarbonate) did not affect the rate of Trp destruction as happens in Maillard-driven reactions. In addition, the free Trp content was analyzed in nine different flours and sixty-two commercial cookies, and it was found that free Trp varied from 0.4 to 1287.9 mg/kg for rice and wheat bran, respectively. It was found that free Trp was significantly higher in dietetic commercial samples formulated with wheat bran compared with other flours.

  11. Unbiased Rare Event Sampling in Spatial Stochastic Systems Biology Models Using a Weighted Ensemble of Trajectories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory M Donovan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The long-term goal of connecting scales in biological simulation can be facilitated by scale-agnostic methods. We demonstrate that the weighted ensemble (WE strategy, initially developed for molecular simulations, applies effectively to spatially resolved cell-scale simulations. The WE approach runs an ensemble of parallel trajectories with assigned weights and uses a statistical resampling strategy of replicating and pruning trajectories to focus computational effort on difficult-to-sample regions. The method can also generate unbiased estimates of non-equilibrium and equilibrium observables, sometimes with significantly less aggregate computing time than would be possible using standard parallelization. Here, we use WE to orchestrate particle-based kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, which include spatial geometry (e.g., of organelles, plasma membrane and biochemical interactions among mobile molecular species. We study a series of models exhibiting spatial, temporal and biochemical complexity and show that although WE has important limitations, it can achieve performance significantly exceeding standard parallel simulation--by orders of magnitude for some observables.

  12. Elevating sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuz, Joseph M.; Takayama, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    Sampling – the process of collecting, preparing, and introducing an appropriate volume element (voxel) into a system – is often under appreciated and pushed behind the scenes in lab-on-a-chip research. What often stands in the way between proof-of-principle demonstrations of potentially exciting technology and its broader dissemination and actual use, however, is the effectiveness of sample collection and preparation. The power of micro- and nanofluidics to improve reactions, sensing, separation, and cell culture cannot be accessed if sampling is not equally efficient and reliable. This perspective will highlight recent successes as well as assess current challenges and opportunities in this area. PMID:24781100

  13. Titanium determination by multisyringe flow injection analysis system and a liquid waveguide capillary cell in solid and liquid environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quiles, David; Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Horstkotte, Burkhard

    2013-11-15

    A multisyringe flow injection analysis system using a liquid waveguide capillary cell (MSFIA-LWCC) has been used for the spectrophotometric determination of titanium (Ti) in marine environmental samples. Samples were previous digested using potassium peroxodisulfate (K2S2O8). The method showed to be linear over a range up to 1 μM with a detection limit of 9.2 nM. The analysis consumes little reagent (250 μL) and sample (600 μL). It had an adequate accuracy with high repeatability (RSD of 1.8%) for all marine samples. The proposed method was used to evaluate the concentration of Ti in natural samples collected in the coastal area of the Majorca Island (Western Mediterranean Sea). We report average concentrations of Ti in coastal surface microlayer of 510.7 ± 267.2 nM, in surface sediments of 2.72 ± 1.84 μmol/g, and in rhizomes and leaves of Posidonia oceanica of 310 ± 295 nmol/g and 157 ± 132 nmol/g, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genotyping of samples from German patients with ocular, cerebral and systemic toxoplasmosis reveals a predominance of Toxoplasma gondii type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Daland C; Maksimov, Pavlo; Hotop, Andrea; Groß, Uwe; Däubener, Walter; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Pleyer, Uwe; Conraths, Franz J; Schares, Gereon

    2014-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis transmitted from animals to humans world-wide. In order to determine Toxoplasma gondii genotypes in individuals living in Germany and to compare findings with those in animals, we analysed nine independent and unlinked genetic markers (nSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) by PCR-RFLP in 83 archived T. gondii-positive DNA samples from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (n=35), toxoplasmic encephalitis (n=32), systemic toxoplasmosis after bone-marrow transplantation (n=15) and congenital toxoplasmosis (n=1). In 46 of these 83 samples the presence of T. gondii DNA was confirmed by conventional end-point PCR. Among these, 17 T. gondii-positive samples were typed at all nine loci. The majority (15/17, 88.2%) of these samples were of T. gondii type II (i.e., including both, the Apico type II and Apico type I variants). In addition, in one sample a T. gondii type II/type III allele combination and in another sample a T. gondii genotype displaying type III alleles at all markers was observed. In the remaining 11 samples, in which T. gondii could only be partially typed, exclusively type II (n=10) or type III (n=1) alleles were observed. Results of the present study suggest that the majority of patients in Germany are infected with type II T. gondii regardless of the clinical manifestation of toxoplasmosis. This finding is in accord with the predominance of type II T. gondii in oocysts isolated from cats and in tissues of other intermediate hosts in Germany. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Lead Release in a Simulated Lead-Free Premise Plumbing System Using a Sequential Sampling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Quan Ng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study, a modified sampling protocol was evaluated for the detection of lead contamination and locating the source of lead release in a simulated premise plumbing system with one-, three- and seven-day stagnation for a total period of 475 days. Copper pipes, stainless steel taps and brass fittings were used to assemble the “lead-free” system. Sequential sampling using 100 mL was used to detect lead contamination while that using 50 mL was used to locate the lead source. Elevated lead levels, far exceeding the World Health Organization (WHO guideline value of 10 µg·L−1, persisted for as long as five months in the system. “Lead-free” brass fittings were identified as the source of lead contamination. Physical disturbances, such as renovation works, could cause short-term spikes in lead release. Orthophosphate was able to suppress total lead levels below 10 µg·L−1, but caused “blue water” problems. When orthophosphate addition was ceased, total lead levels began to spike within one week, implying that a continuous supply of orthophosphate was required to control total lead levels. Occasional total lead spikes were observed in one-day stagnation samples throughout the course of the experiments.

  16. Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in paired serum and urine samples using polymerase chain reaction-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, Camila; Brandão, Eduardo; Oliveira, Paula; Rocha, Abraham; Rego, Tamisa; Medeiros, Rafael; Aguiar-Santos, Ana; Ferraz, João; Reis, Christian; Araujo, Paulo; Carvalho, Luiz; Melo, Fabio L

    2014-12-01

    The Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) aims to eliminate this disease by the year 2020. However, the development of more specific and sensitive tests is important for the success of the GPELF. The present study aimed to standardise polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based systems for the diagnosis of filariasis in serum and urine. Twenty paired biological urine and serum samples from individuals already known to be positive for Wuchereria bancrofti were collected during the day. Conventional PCR and semi-nested PCR assays were optimised. The detection limit of the technique for purified W. bancrofti DNA extracted from adult worms was 10 fg for the internal systems (WbF/Wb2) and 0.1 fg by using semi-nested PCR. The specificity of the primers was confirmed experimentally by amplification of 1 ng of purified genomic DNA from other species of parasites. Evaluation of the paired urine and serum samples by the semi-nested PCR technique indicated only two of the 20 tested individuals were positive, whereas the simple internal PCR system (WbF/Wb2), which has highly promising performance, revealed that all the patients were positive using both samples. This study successfully demonstrated the possibility of using the PCR technique on urine for the diagnosis of W. bancrofti infection.

  17. Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in paired serum and urine samples using polymerase chain reaction-based systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ximenes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF aims to eliminate this disease by the year 2020. However, the development of more specific and sensitive tests is important for the success of the GPELF. The present study aimed to standardise polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based systems for the diagnosis of filariasis in serum and urine. Twenty paired biological urine and serum samples from individuals already known to be positive for Wuchereria bancrofti were collected during the day. Conventional PCR and semi-nested PCR assays were optimised. The detection limit of the technique for purified W. bancrofti DNA extracted from adult worms was 10 fg for the internal systems (WbF/Wb2 and 0.1 fg by using semi-nested PCR. The specificity of the primers was confirmed experimentally by amplification of 1 ng of purified genomic DNA from other species of parasites. Evaluation of the paired urine and serum samples by the semi-nested PCR technique indicated only two of the 20 tested individuals were positive, whereas the simple internal PCR system (WbF/Wb2, which has highly promising performance, revealed that all the patients were positive using both samples. This study successfully demonstrated the possibility of using the PCR technique on urine for the diagnosis of W. bancrofti infection.

  18. Particle system based adaptive sampling on spherical parameter space to improve the MDL method for construction of statistical shape models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Zhou, Xiangrong; Hirano, Yasushi; Tachibana, Rie; Hara, Takeshi; Kido, Shoji; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Minimum description length (MDL) based group-wise registration was a state-of-the-art method to determine the corresponding points of 3D shapes for the construction of statistical shape models (SSMs). However, it suffered from the problem that determined corresponding points did not uniformly spread on original shapes, since corresponding points were obtained by uniformly sampling the aligned shape on the parameterized space of unit sphere. We proposed a particle-system based method to obtain adaptive sampling positions on the unit sphere to resolve this problem. Here, a set of particles was placed on the unit sphere to construct a particle system whose energy was related to the distortions of parameterized meshes. By minimizing this energy, each particle was moved on the unit sphere. When the system became steady, particles were treated as vertices to build a spherical mesh, which was then relaxed to slightly adjust vertices to obtain optimal sampling-positions. We used 47 cases of (left and right) lungs and 50 cases of livers, (left and right) kidneys, and spleens for evaluations. Experiments showed that the proposed method was able to resolve the problem of the original MDL method, and the proposed method performed better in the generalization and specificity tests.

  19. Colorimetric biomimetic sensor systems based on molecularly imprinted polymer membranes for highly-selective detection of phenol in environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeyeva T. A.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Development of an easy-to-use colorimetric sensor system for fast and accurate detection of phenol in envi- ronmental samples. Methods. Technique of molecular imprinting, method of in situ polymerization of molecularly imprinted polymer membranes. Results. The proposed sensor is based on free-standing molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP membranes, synthesized by in situ polymerization, and having in their structure artificial binding sites capable of selective phenol recognition. The quantitative detection of phenol, selectively adsorbed by the MIP membranes, is based on its reaction with 4-aminoantipyrine, which gives a pink-colored product. The intensity of staining of the MIP membrane is proportional to phenol concentration in the analyzed sample. Phenol can be detected within the range 50 nM–10 mM with limit of detection 50 nM, which corresponds to the concentrations that have to be detected in natural and waste waters in accordance with environmental protection standards. Stability of the MIP-membrane-based sensors was assessed during 12 months storage at room temperature. Conclusions. The sensor system provides highly-selective and sensitive detection of phenol in both mo- del and real (drinking, natural, and waste water samples. As compared to traditional methods of phenol detection, the proposed system is characterized by simplicity of operation and can be used in non-laboratory conditions.

  20. Development of the RANCOR Rotary-Percussive Coring System for Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Gale; Indyk, Stephen; Zacny, Kris

    2014-01-01

    A RANCOR drill was designed to fit a Mars Exploration Rover (MER) class vehicle. The low mass of 3 kg was achieved by using the same actuator for three functions: rotation, percussions, and core break-off. Initial testing of the drill exposed an unexpected behavior of an off-the-shelf sprag clutch used to couple and decouple rotary-percussive function from the core break off function. Failure of the sprag was due to the vibration induced during percussive drilling. The sprag clutch would back drive in conditions where it was expected to hold position. Although this did not affect the performance of the drill, it nevertheless reduced the quality of the cores produced. Ultimately, the sprag clutch was replaced with a custom ratchet system that allowed for some angular displacement without advancing in either direction. Replacing the sprag with the ratchet improved the collected core quality. Also, premature failure of a 300-series stainless steel percussion spring was observed. The 300-series percussion spring was ultimately replaced with a music wire spring based on performances of previously designed rotary-percussive drill systems.

  1. Rorschach Comprehensive System data for a sample of 52 older adult nonpatients from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertchik, Kevin; Shaffer, Thomas W; Erdberg, Philip; Margolin, David Ira

    2007-01-01

    This study is composed of 52 older adults, ages 60 to 80, all from the United States. In addition to being administered the Rorschach (Rorschach, 1942), all participants also were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R; Weschler, 1981), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989), the Neuro Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE; Kiernan, Mueller, Langston, & Van Dyke, 1987), and the Trail Making Test Part B (Reitan, 1958; Reitan & Wolfson, 1993). Examiners included the principal author as well as three other trained examiners. Inclusion criteria are described. Interrater reliability statistics at the response level are presented along with scores for the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 1995).

  2. Study of the CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) samples from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kek-Heng; Puah, Suat-Moi; Chew, Ching-Hoong; Tan, Si-Yen; Lian, Lay-Hoong

    2010-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the polymorphisms of the exon 1 (+49A/G), promoter sites (-1722T/C, -1661A/G, -318C/T), and 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) (+6230 A/G) of the CTLA-4 gene in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) affected patients. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to determine genotypes of these five markers in 130 SLE patients and 130 healthy controls. Of the five tested polymorphisms, there was no statistical significant difference between the genotypic and allelic frequencies of patients with SLE and controls. Hence, we propose that the CTLA-4 gene does not play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to the development of SLE in the Malaysian population.

  3. Nonablative lightweight thermal protection system for Mars Aeroflyby Sample collection mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Aoki, Takuya; Ogasawara, Toshio; Fujita, Kazuhisa

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the concept of a nonablative lightweight thermal protection system (NALT) were proposed for a Mars exploration mission currently under investigation in Japan. The NALT consists of a carbon/carbon (C/C) composite skin, insulator tiles, and a honeycomb sandwich panel. Basic thermal characteristics of the NALT were obtained by conducting heating tests in high-enthalpy facilities. Thermal conductivity values of the insulator tiles as well as the emissivity values of the C/C skin were measured to develop a numerical analysis code for predicting NALT's thermal performance in flight environments. Finally, a breadboard model of a 600-mm diameter NALT aeroshell was developed and qualified through vibration and thermal vacuum tests.

  4. MANAGERIAL DECISION IN INNOVATIVE EDUCATION SYSTEMS STATISTICAL SURVEY BASED ON SAMPLE THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe SĂVOIU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Before formulating the statistical hypotheses and the econometrictesting itself, a breakdown of some of the technical issues is required, which are related to managerial decision in innovative educational systems, the educational managerial phenomenon tested through statistical and mathematical methods, respectively the significant difference in perceiving the current qualities, knowledge, experience, behaviour and desirable health, obtained through a questionnaire applied to a stratified population at the end,in the educational environment, either with educational activities, or with simultaneously managerial and educational activities. The details having to do with research focused on the survey theory, turning into a working tool the questionnaires and statistical data that are processed from those questionnaires, are summarized below.

  5. The Search for Surviving Direct Samples of Early Solar System Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We have become increasingly aware of the fundamental importance of water, and aqueous alteration, on primitive solar-system bodies. All classes of astromaterials studied show some degree of interaction with aqueous fluids. Nevertheless, we are still lacking fundamental information such as the location and timing of the aqueous alteration and the detailed nature of the aqueous fluids. Halite crystals in two meteorite regolith breccias were found to contain aqueous fluid inclusions (brines) trapped approx. 4.5 BYBP. Heating/freezing studies of the aqueous fluid inclusions in these halites demonstrated that they were trapped near 25 C. The initial results of our O and H isotopic measurements on these brine inclusions can be explained by a simple model mixing asteroidal and cometary water. We have been analyzing solids and organics trapped alongside the brines in the halites by FTIR, C-XANES, SXRD and Raman, as clues to the origin of the water. The organics show thermal effects that span the entire range witnessed by organics in all chondrite types. Since we identified water-soluble aromatics, including partially halogenated methanol, in some of the halite, we suspected amino acids were also present, but have thus far found that levels of amino acids were undetectable (which is very interesting). We have also been locating aqueous fluid inclusions in other astromaterials, principally carbonates in CI and CM chondrites. Although we have advanced slowly towards detailed analysis of these ancient brines, since they require techniques right at or just beyond current analytical capabilities, their eventual full characterization will completely open the window onto the origin and activity of early solar system water.

  6. MSFIA-LOV system for {sup 226}Ra isolation and pre-concentration from water samples previous radiometric detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Rogelio [Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory (LaboRA), University of the Balearic Islands, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122, Palma (Spain); Environment and Energy Department, Advanced Materials Research Center (CIMAV) S.C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih. 31136 (Mexico); Borràs, Antoni [Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory (LaboRA), University of the Balearic Islands, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122, Palma (Spain); Leal, Luz [Environment and Energy Department, Advanced Materials Research Center (CIMAV) S.C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih. 31136 (Mexico); Cerdà, Víctor [Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122, Palma (Spain); Ferrer, Laura, E-mail: laura.ferrer@uib.es [Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory (LaboRA), University of the Balearic Islands, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122, Palma (Spain)

    2016-03-10

    An automatic system based on multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) and lab-on-valve (LOV) flow techniques for separation and pre-concentration of {sup 226}Ra from drinking and natural water samples has been developed. The analytical protocol combines two different procedures: the Ra adsorption on MnO{sub 2} and the BaSO{sub 4} co-precipitation, achieving more selectivity especially in water samples with low radium levels. Radium is adsorbed on MnO{sub 2} deposited on macroporous of bead cellulose. Then, it is eluted with hydroxylamine to transform insoluble MnO{sub 2} to soluble Mn(II) thus freeing Ra, which is then coprecipitated with BaSO{sub 4}. The {sup 226}Ra can be directly detected in off-line mode using a low background proportional counter (LBPC) or through a liquid scintillation counter (LSC), after performing an on-line coprecipitate dissolution. Thus, the versatility of the proposed system allows the selection of the radiometric detection technique depending on the detector availability or the required response efficiency (sample number vs. response time and limit of detection). The MSFIA-LOV system improves the precision (1.7% RSD), and the extraction frequency (up to 3 h{sup −1}). Besides, it has been satisfactorily applied to different types of water matrices (tap, mineral, well and sea water). The {sup 226}Ra minimum detectable activities (LSC: 0.004 Bq L{sup −1}; LBPC: 0.02 Bq L{sup −1}) attained by this system allow to reach the guidance values proposed by the relevant international agencies e.g. WHO, EPA and EC. - Highlights: • Automatic, rapid and selective method for {sup 226}Ra extraction/pre-concentration from water. • MSFIA-LOV system performs a sample clean-up prior to {sup 226}Ra radiometric detection. • {sup 226}Ra sample preparation allows using two radiometric detectors (LBPC and LSC). • Environmental levels of {sup 226}Ra are easily quantified. • High sensitivity and selectivity are achieved, reaching the

  7. Reproducible, Quantitative, and Flexible Molecular Subtyping of Clinical DLBCL Samples Using the NanoString nCounter System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman-Jones, Margaret H; Lai, Zhongwu; Wappett, Mark; Harbron, Chris G; Barrett, J Carl; Harrington, Elizabeth A; Thress, Kenneth S

    2015-05-15

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous disease with distinct molecular subtypes. The most established subtyping approach, the "Cell of Origin" (COO) algorithm, categorizes DLBCL into activated B-cell (ABC) and germinal center B-cell (GCB)-like subgroups through gene expression profiling. Recently developed immunohistochemical (IHC) techniques and other established methodologies can deliver discordant results and have various technical limitations. We evaluated the NanoString nCounter gene expression system to address issues with current platforms. We devised a scoring system using 145 genes from published datasets to categorize DLBCL samples. After cell line validation, clinical tissue segmentation was tested using commercially available diagnostic DLBCL samples. Finally, we profiled biopsies from patients with relapsed/refractory DLBCL enrolled in the fostamatinib phase IIb clinical trial using three independent RNA expression platforms: NanoString, Affymetrix, and qNPA. Diagnostic samples showed a typical spread of subtypes with consistent gene expression profiles across matched fresh, frozen, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Results from biopsy samples across platforms were remarkably consistent, in contrast to published IHC data. Interestingly, COO segmentation of longitudinal fostamatinib biopsies taken at initial diagnosis and then again at primary relapse showed 88% concordance (15/17), suggesting that COO designation remains stable over the course of disease progression. DLBCL segmentation of patient tumor samples is possible using a number of expression platforms. However, we found that NanoString offers the most flexibility and fewest limitations in regards to robust clinical tissue subtype characterization. These subtype distinctions should help guide disease prognosis and treatment options within DLBCL clinical practice. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. GIBSI: an integrated modelling system for watershed management – sample applications and current developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Rousseau

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological and pollutant fate models have long been developed for research purposes. Today, they find an application in integrated watershed management, as decision support systems (DSS. GIBSI is such a DSS designed to assist stakeholders in watershed management. It includes a watershed database coupled to a GIS and accessible through a user-friendly interface, as well as modelling tools that simulate, on a daily time step, hydrological processes such as evapotranspiration, runoff, soil erosion, agricultural pollutant transport and surface water quality. Therefore, GIBSI can be used to assess a priori the effect of management scenarios (reservoirs, land use, waste water effluents, diffuse sources of pollution that is agricultural pollution on surface hydrology and water quality. For illustration purposes, this paper presents several management-oriented applications using GIBSI on the 6680 km2 Chaudière River watershed, located near Quebec City (Canada. They include impact assessments of: (i municipal clean water program; (ii agricultural nutrient management scenarios; (iii past and future land use changes, as well as (iv determination of achievable performance standards of pesticides management practices. Current and future developments of GIBSI are also presented as these will extend current uses of this tool and make it useable and applicable by stakeholders on other watersheds. Finally, the conclusion emphasizes some of the challenges that remain for a better use of DSS in integrated watershed management.

  9. Investigation to develop a multistage forest sampling inventory system using ERTS-1 imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, P. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Two strips of U-2 RC-10 images were analytically triangulated and adjusted. Control points and pass points were marked on glass plates made from B&W copy negatives of IR color transparencies. A wild PUG-3 and TA1/p monocomparator were used to mark and measure the points on the glass plates. Each plate was measured twice in the same orientation for a check on accuracy and operator error. The 22 photographs were adjusted to 41 ground control and tie points and the block adjustment was performed in a secant plane coordinate system to eliminate the effect of earth curvature. Standard deviations of the residuals of the control and tie points were 12.8 m, 10.8 m, and 4.5 m for the X, Y, and Z coordinates respectively. The 12.8 m and 10.8 m figures correspond to an identification accuracy of 0.1 mm on the U-2 RC-10 plates. The standard deviations of the residuals encountered in the ERTS-1 resectioning were: (1) 0.16 mm assuming uncorrected perspective geometry and (2) 0.12 mm when the polynomial adjustment was added in. These results indicate a reduction of 0.11 in the square error due to the polynomial adjustment.

  10. Rorschach Comprehensive System data for a sample of 190 Japanese nonpatient children at five ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mariko; Suzuki, Nobuko; Shirai, Hiromi; Nakabayashi, Mutsumi

    2007-01-01

    This study is a part of our series of studies of nonpatient, Japanese children. In total, 346 children were administered the Rorschach. Thirty-two children had fewer than 10 responses, 112 children had more than 10 but fewer than 14 responses, and 12 children were maladjusted or mentally retarded, for a total of 156. In this study, we analyzed the remaining 190 children not excluded by the above criteria in the following age groups: 5 years (n = 24), 8 years (n = 43), 9 years (n = 42), 12 years (n = 42), and 14 years (n = 39). Japanese children showed few responses generally, with an average of 18 ~ 20 responses. In addition to having fewer responses, other features of Japanese children are high Lambda, low EA, very high X-%, and low X+%. The fact that the Rorschach test depends on verbal expression may be one factor in all these features, and we should consider this study in view of these Japanese cultural factors. Interrater reliability findings and Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 1995; Matsumoto, 2003; Matsumoto et al., 2002) data are presented.

  11. High-pressure swing system for measurements of radioactive fission gases in air samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, W. R.; Vives-Battle, J.; Yoon, S. R.; Tobin, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Radionuclides emitted from nuclear reactors, fuel reprocessing facilities and nuclear weapons tests are distributed widely in the atmosphere but have very low concentrations. As part of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), identification and verification of the emission of radionuclides from such sources are fundamental in maintaining nuclear security. To detect underground and underwater nuclear weapons tests, only the gaseous components need to be analyzed. Equipment has now been developed that can be used to collect large volumes of air, separate and concentrate the radioactive gas constituents, such as xenon and krypton, and measure them quantitatively. By measuring xenon isotopes with different half-lives, the time since the fission event can be determined. Developments in high-pressure (3500 kPa) swing chromatography using molecular sieve adsorbents have provided the means to collect and purify trace quantities of the gases from large volumes of air automatically. New scintillation detectors, together with timing and pulse shaping electronics, have provided the low-background levels essential in identifying the gamma ray, X-ray, and electron energy spectra of specific radionuclides. System miniaturization and portability with remote control could be designed for a field-deployable production model.

  12. Development of Natural Flaw Samples for Evaluating Nondestructive Testing Methods for Foam Thermal Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.; Davis, Jason; Farrington, Seth; Walker, James

    2007-01-01

    Low density polyurethane foam has been an important insulation material for space launch vehicles for several decades. The potential for damage from foam breaking away from the NASA External Tank was not realized until the foam impacts on the Columbia Orbiter vehicle caused damage to its Leading Edge thermal protection systems (TPS). Development of improved inspection techniques on the foam TPS is necessary to prevent similar occurrences in the future. Foamed panels with drilled holes for volumetric flaws and Teflon inserts to simulate debonded conditions have been used to evaluate and calibrate nondestructive testing (NDT) methods. Unfortunately the symmetric edges and dissimilar materials used in the preparation of these simulated flaws provide an artificially large signal while very little signal is generated from the actual defects themselves. In other words, the same signal are not generated from the artificial defects in the foam test panels as produced when inspecting natural defect in the ET foam TPS. A project to create more realistic voids similar to what actually occurs during manufacturing operations was began in order to improve detection of critical voids during inspections. This presentation describes approaches taken to create more natural voids in foam TPS in order to provide a more realistic evaluation of what the NDT methods can detect. These flaw creation techniques were developed with both sprayed foam and poured foam used for insulation on the External Tank. Test panels with simulated defects have been used to evaluate NDT methods for the inspection of the External Tank. A comparison of images between natural flaws and machined flaws generated from backscatter x-ray radiography, x-ray laminography, terahertz imaging and millimeter wave imaging show significant differences in identifying defect regions.

  13. Data quality assessment in the routine health information system: an application of the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glèlè Ahanhanzo, Yolaine; Ouendo, Edgard-Marius; Kpozèhouen, Alphonse; Levêque, Alain; Makoutodé, Michel; Dramaix-Wilmet, Michèle

    2015-09-01

    Health information systems in developing countries are often faulted for the poor quality of the data generated and for the insufficient means implemented to improve system performance. This study examined data quality in the Routine Health Information System in Benin in 2012 and carried out a cross-sectional evaluation of the quality of the data using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling method. The results confirm the insufficient quality of the data based on three criteria: completeness, reliability and accuracy. However, differences can be seen as the shortcomings are less significant for financial data and for immunization data. The method is simple, fast and can be proposed for current use at operational level as a data quality control tool during the production stage. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  14. Automated on-line liquid–liquid extraction system for temporal mass spectrometric analysis of dynamic samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Kai-Ta; Liu, Pei-Han [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Rd, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Urban, Pawel L. [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Rd, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Rd, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China)

    2015-09-24

    Most real samples cannot directly be infused to mass spectrometers because they could contaminate delicate parts of ion source and guides, or cause ion suppression. Conventional sample preparation procedures limit temporal resolution of analysis. We have developed an automated liquid–liquid extraction system that enables unsupervised repetitive treatment of dynamic samples and instantaneous analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). It incorporates inexpensive open-source microcontroller boards (Arduino and Netduino) to guide the extraction and analysis process. Duration of every extraction cycle is 17 min. The system enables monitoring of dynamic processes over many hours. The extracts are automatically transferred to the ion source incorporating a Venturi pump. Operation of the device has been characterized (repeatability, RSD = 15%, n = 20; concentration range for ibuprofen, 0.053–2.000 mM; LOD for ibuprofen, ∼0.005 mM; including extraction and detection). To exemplify its usefulness in real-world applications, we implemented this device in chemical profiling of pharmaceutical formulation dissolution process. Temporal dissolution profiles of commercial ibuprofen and acetaminophen tablets were recorded during 10 h. The extraction-MS datasets were fitted with exponential functions to characterize the rates of release of the main and auxiliary ingredients (e.g. ibuprofen, k = 0.43 ± 0.01 h{sup −1}). The electronic control unit of this system interacts with the operator via touch screen, internet, voice, and short text messages sent to the mobile phone, which is helpful when launching long-term (e.g. overnight) measurements. Due to these interactive features, the platform brings the concept of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) to the chemistry laboratory environment. - Highlights: • Mass spectrometric analysis normally requires sample preparation. • Liquid–liquid extraction can isolate analytes from complex matrices. • The proposed system automates

  15. Systemic Metabolomic Changes in Blood Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Identified by Gas Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Miyamoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Metabolic alterations in tumor cells coupled with systemic indicators of the host response to tumor development have the potential to yield blood profiles with clinical utility for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. We report results from two separate studies using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS to profile metabolites in human blood samples that significantly differ from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC adenocarcinoma and other lung cancer cases. Metabolomic analysis of blood samples from the two studies yielded a total of 437 metabolites, of which 148 were identified as known compounds and 289 identified as unknown compounds. Differential analysis identified 15 known metabolites in one study and 18 in a second study that were statistically different (p-values <0.05. Levels of maltose, palmitic acid, glycerol, ethanolamine, glutamic acid, and lactic acid were increased in cancer samples while amino acids tryptophan, lysine and histidine decreased. Many of the metabolites were found to be significantly different in both studies, suggesting that metabolomics appears to be robust enough to find systemic changes from lung cancer, thus showing the potential of this type of analysis for lung cancer detection.

  16. Prediction uncertainty assessment of a systems biology model requires a sample of the full probability distribution of its parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon van Mourik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-parameter models in systems biology are typically ‘sloppy’: some parameters or combinations of parameters may be hard to estimate from data, whereas others are not. One might expect that parameter uncertainty automatically leads to uncertain predictions, but this is not the case. We illustrate this by showing that the prediction uncertainty of each of six sloppy models varies enormously among different predictions. Statistical approximations of parameter uncertainty may lead to dramatic errors in prediction uncertainty estimation. We argue that prediction uncertainty assessment must therefore be performed on a per-prediction basis using a full computational uncertainty analysis. In practice this is feasible by providing a model with a sample or ensemble representing the distribution of its parameters. Within a Bayesian framework, such a sample may be generated by a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm that infers the parameter distribution based on experimental data. Matlab code for generating the sample (with the Differential Evolution Markov Chain sampler and the subsequent uncertainty analysis using such a sample, is supplied as Supplemental Information.

  17. Prediction uncertainty assessment of a systems biology model requires a sample of the full probability distribution of its parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Simon; Ter Braak, Cajo; Stigter, Hans; Molenaar, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Multi-parameter models in systems biology are typically 'sloppy': some parameters or combinations of parameters may be hard to estimate from data, whereas others are not. One might expect that parameter uncertainty automatically leads to uncertain predictions, but this is not the case. We illustrate this by showing that the prediction uncertainty of each of six sloppy models varies enormously among different predictions. Statistical approximations of parameter uncertainty may lead to dramatic errors in prediction uncertainty estimation. We argue that prediction uncertainty assessment must therefore be performed on a per-prediction basis using a full computational uncertainty analysis. In practice this is feasible by providing a model with a sample or ensemble representing the distribution of its parameters. Within a Bayesian framework, such a sample may be generated by a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm that infers the parameter distribution based on experimental data. Matlab code for generating the sample (with the Differential Evolution Markov Chain sampler) and the subsequent uncertainty analysis using such a sample, is supplied as Supplemental Information.

  18. A new CF-IRMS system for quantifying stable isotopes of carbon monoxide from ice cores and small air samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new analysis technique for stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ18O of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO from ice core samples. The technique is an online cryogenic vacuum extraction followed by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS; it can also be used with small air samples. The CO extraction system includes two multi-loop cryogenic cleanup traps, a chemical oxidant for oxidation to CO2, a cryogenic collection trap, a cryofocusing unit, gas chromatography purification, and subsequent injection into a Finnigan Delta Plus IRMS. Analytical precision of 0.2‰ (±1δ for δ13C and 0.6‰ (±1δ for δ18O can be obtained for 100 mL (STP air samples with CO mixing ratios ranging from 60 ppbv to 140 ppbv (~268–625 pmol CO. Six South Pole ice core samples from depths ranging from 133 m to 177 m were processed for CO isotope analysis after wet extraction. To our knowledge, this is the first measurement of stable isotopes of CO in ice core air.

  19. Influence of the operating parameters and of the sample introduction system on time correlation of line intensities using an axially viewed CCD-based ICP-AES system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotti, Marco, E-mail: grotti@chimica.unige.i [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Todoli, Jose Luis [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Mermet, Jean Michel [Spectroscopy Forever, 01390 Tramoyes (France)

    2010-02-15

    The influence of the acquisition and operating parameters on time correlation between emission line intensities was investigated using axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-multichannel-based emission spectrometry and various sample introduction systems. It was found that to obtain flicker-noise limited signals, necessary to compensate for time-correlated signal fluctuations by internal standardization, the flicker-noise magnitude of the sample introduction system, the integration time and the emission line intensity had to be considered. The highest correlation between lines was observed for ultrasonic nebulization with desolvatation, the noisiest system among those considered, for which the contribution of the uncorrelated shot-noise was negligible. In contrast, for sample introduction systems characterized by lower flicker-noise levels, shot-noise led to high, non-correlated RSD values, making the internal standard method to be much less efficient. To minimize shot-noise, time correlation was improved by increasing the emission line intensities and the integration time. Improvement in repeatability did not depend only on time correlation, but also on the ratio between the relative standard deviations of the analytical and reference lines. The best signal compensation was obtained when RSD values of the reference and analytical lines were similar, which is usually obtained when the system is flicker-noise limited, while departure from similarity can lead to a degradation of repeatability when using the internal standard method. Moreover, the use of so-called robust plasma conditions, i.e. a high power (1500 W) along with a low carrier gas flow rate (0.8 L/min) improved also the compensation. Finally, high correlation and consequent improvement in repeatability by internal standardization was observed also in the presence of complex matrices (sediment and soil samples), although a matrix-induced degradation of the correlation between lines was generally

  20. A sample design for globally consistent biomass estimation using lidar data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Healey Sean P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lidar height data collected by the Geosciences Laser Altimeter System (GLAS from 2002 to 2008 has the potential to form the basis of a globally consistent sample-based inventory of forest biomass. GLAS lidar return data were collected globally in spatially discrete full waveform “shots,” which have been shown to be strongly correlated with aboveground forest biomass. Relationships observed at spatially coincident field plots may be used to model biomass at all GLAS shots, and well-established methods of model-based inference may then be used to estimate biomass and variance for specific spatial domains. However, the spatial pattern of GLAS acquisition is neither random across the surface of the earth nor is it identifiable with any particular systematic design. Undefined sample properties therefore hinder the use of GLAS in global forest sampling. Results We propose a method of identifying a subset of the GLAS data which can justifiably be treated as a simple random sample in model-based biomass estimation. The relatively uniform spatial distribution and locally arbitrary positioning of the resulting sample is similar to the design used by the US national forest inventory (NFI. We demonstrated model-based estimation using a sample of GLAS data in the US state of California, where our estimate of biomass (211 Mg/hectare was within the 1.4% standard error of the design-based estimate supplied by the US NFI. The standard error of the GLAS-based estimate was significantly higher than the NFI estimate, although the cost of the GLAS estimate (excluding costs for the satellite itself was almost nothing, compared to at least US$ 10.5 million for the NFI estimate. Conclusions Global application of model-based estimation using GLAS, while demanding significant consolidation of training data, would improve inter-comparability of international biomass estimates by imposing consistent methods and a globally coherent sample frame. The

  1. Gene expression data from acetaminophen-induced toxicity in human hepatic in vitro systems and clinical liver samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robim M. Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This data set is composed of transcriptomics analyses of (i liver samples from patients suffering from acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure (ALF and (ii hepatic cell systems exposed to acetaminophen and their respective controls. The in vitro systems include widely employed cell lines i.e. HepaRG and HepG2 cells as well as a novel stem cell-derived model i.e. human skin-precursors-derived hepatocyte-like cells (hSKP-HPC. Data from primary human hepatocytes was also added to the data set “Open TG-GATEs: a large-scale toxicogenomics database” (Igarashi et al., 2015 [1]. Changes in gene expression due to acetaminophen intoxication as well as comparative information between human in vivo and in vitro samples are provided. The microarray data have been deposited in NCBI׳s Gene Expression Omnibus and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GEO: GSE74000. The provided data is used to evaluate the predictive capacity of each hepatic in vitro system and can be directly compared with large-scale publically available toxicogenomics databases. Further interpretation and discussion of these data feature in the corresponding research article “Toxicogenomics-based prediction of acetaminophen-induced liver injury using human hepatic cell systems” (Rodrigues et al., 2016 [2].

  2. Improved Reference Sampling and Subtraction: A Technique for Reducing the Read Noise of Near-infrared Detector Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Arendt, Richard G.; Fixsen, D. J.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Lander, Matthew; Lindler, Don; Loose, Markus; Moseley, S. H.; Mott, D. Brent; Wen, Yiting; Wilson, Donna V.; Xenophontos, Christos

    2017-10-01

    Near-infrared array detectors, like the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) NIRSpec’s Teledyne’s H2RGs, often provide reference pixels and a reference output. These are used to remove correlated noise. Improved reference sampling and subtraction (IRS2) is a statistical technique for using this reference information optimally in a least-squares sense. Compared with the traditional H2RG readout, IRS2 uses a different clocking pattern to interleave many more reference pixels into the data than is otherwise possible. Compared with standard reference correction techniques, IRS2 subtracts the reference pixels and reference output using a statistically optimized set of frequency-dependent weights. The benefits include somewhat lower noise variance and much less obvious correlated noise. NIRSpec’s IRS2 images are cosmetically clean, with less 1/f banding than in traditional data from the same system. This article describes the IRS2 clocking pattern and presents the equations needed to use IRS2 in systems other than NIRSpec. For NIRSpec, applying these equations is already an option in the calibration pipeline. As an aid to instrument builders, we provide our prototype IRS2 calibration software and sample JWST NIRSpec data. The same techniques are applicable to other detector systems, including those based on Teledyne’s H4RG arrays. The H4RG’s interleaved reference pixel readout mode is effectively one IRS2 pattern.

  3. A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thien, Mike G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Barnes, Steve M. [URS, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-17

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described.

  4. A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests - 13342

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thien, Mike G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O Box 850, Richland WA, 99352 (United States); Barnes, Steve M. [Waste Treatment Plant, 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described. (authors)

  5. Pico-litre Sample Introduction and Acoustic Levitation Systems for Time Resolved Protein Crystallography Experiments at XFELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Docker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The system described in this work is a variant from traditional acoustic levitation first described by, Marzo et al. It uses multiple transducers eliminating the requirement for a mirror surface, allowing for an open geometry as the sound from multiple transducers combines to generate the acoustic trap which is configured to catch pico litres of crystal slurries. These acoustic traps also have the significant benefit of eliminating potential beam attenuation due to support structures or microfluidic devices. Additionally they meet the need to eliminate sample environments when experiments are carried out using an X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS as any sample environment would not survive the exposure to the X-Ray beam. XFELs generate Light a billion times brighter than the sun. The application for this system will be to examine turn over in Beta lactamase proteins which is responsible for bacteria developing antibiotic resistance and therefore of significant importance to future world health. The system will allow for diffraction data to be collected before and after turnover allowing for a better understanding of the underling processes. The authors first described this work at Nanotech 2017.

  6. Metabolite profiling on wheat grain to enable a distinction of samples from organic and conventional farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, Anja; Neuweger, Heiko; Goesmann, Alexander; Thonar, Cécile; Mäder, Paul; Langenkämper, Georg; Niehaus, Karsten

    2014-10-01

    Identification of biomarkers capable of distinguishing organic and conventional products would be highly welcome to improve the strength of food quality assurance. Metabolite profiling was used for biomarker search in organic and conventional wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.) of 11 different old and new bread wheat cultivars grown in the DOK system comparison trial. Metabolites were extracted using methanol and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Altogether 48 metabolites and 245 non-identified metabolites (TAGs) were detected in the cultivar Runal. Principal component analysis showed a sample clustering according to farming systems and significant differences in peak areas between the farming systems for 10 Runal metabolites. Results obtained from all 11 cultivars indicated a greater influence of the cultivar than the farming system on metabolite concentrations. Nevertheless, a t-test on data of all cultivars still detected 5 metabolites and 11 TAGs with significant differences between the farming systems. Based on individual cultivars, metabolite profiling showed promising results for the categorization of organic and conventional wheat. Further investigations are necessary with wheat from more growing seasons and locations before definite conclusions can be drawn concerning the feasibility to evolve a combined set of biomarkers for organically grown wheat using metabolite profiles. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Automated Sample Preparation (ASP): Development of a Rapid Method to Sequentially Isolate Nucleic Acids and Protein from Any Sample Type by a Cartridge-Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    by the buffer solution. For instance, the DNAPro appears to perform better when the diluent was Joint Portal Shield Buffer. This relationship did...spores and comparison of DNA yields from spores and spiked environmental samples. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 2009. 76(1): p. 30-37. 3...time PCR. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, 2008. 27(2): p. 109-114. 4. Boom, R., et al., Rapid and simple method

  8. Assessment of region, farming system, irrigation source and sampling time as food safety risk factors for tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagadala, Sivaranjani; Marine, Sasha C; Micallef, Shirley A; Wang, Fei; Pahl, Donna M; Melendez, Meredith V; Kline, Wesley L; Oni, Ruth A; Walsh, Christopher S; Everts, Kathryne L; Buchanan, Robert L

    2015-03-02

    In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, small- and medium-sized farmers use varied farm management methods and water sources to produce tomatoes. It is unclear whether these practices affect the food safety risk for tomatoes. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence, and assess risk factors for Salmonella enterica, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and bacterial indicators in pre-harvest tomatoes and their production areas. A total of 24 organic and conventional, small- to medium-sized farms were sampled for six weeks in Maryland (MD), Delaware (DE) and New Jersey (NJ) between July and September 2012, and analyzed for indicator bacteria, Salmonella and STEC. A total of 422 samples--tomato fruit, irrigation water, compost, field soil and pond sediment samples--were collected, 259 of which were tomato samples. A low level of Salmonella-specific invA and Shiga toxin genes (stx1 or stx2) were detected, but no Salmonella or STEC isolates were recovered. Of the 422 samples analyzed, 9.5% were positive for generic E. coli, found in 5.4% (n=259) of tomato fruits, 22.5% (n=102) of irrigation water, 8.9% (n=45) of soil, 3/9 of pond sediment and 0/7 of compost samples. For tomato fruit, farming system (organic versus conventional) was not a significant factor for levels of indicator bacteria. However, the total number of organic tomato samples positive for generic E. coli (1.6%; 2/129) was significantly lower than for conventional tomatoes (6.9% (9/130); (χ(2) (1)=4.60, p=0.032)). Region was a significant factor for levels of Total Coliforms (TC) (p=0.046), although differences were marginal, with western MD having the highest TC counts (2.6 log CFU/g) and NJ having the lowest (2.0 log CFU/g). Tomatoes touching the ground or plastic mulch harbored significantly higher levels of TC compared to vine tomatoes, signaling a potential risk factor. Source of irrigation water was a significant factor for all indicator bacteria (pfactors contributing

  9. STP Position Paper: Recommended Practices for Sampling and Processing the Nervous System (Brain, Spinal Cord, Nerve, and Eye) during Nonclinical General Toxicity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology charged a Nervous System Sampling Working Group with devising recommended practices to routinely screen the central and peripheral nervous systems in Good Laboratory Practice-type nonclinical general toxicity studies. Brains should be trimmed ...

  10. FLEXIBLE APPLICATION OF THE JLAB PANSOPHY INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR PROJECT REPORTS, PROCESS MONITORING, AND R&D SAMPLE TRACKING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie Bookwalter; Bonnie Madre; Charles Reece

    2008-02-12

    The use and features of the JLab SRF Institute IT system Pansophy1,2 continue to expand. In support of the cryomodule rework project for CEBAF a full set of web-based travelers has been implemented and an integrated set of live summary reports has been created. A graphical user interface within the reports enables navigation to either higher-level summaries or drill-down to the original source data. In addition to collection of episodic data, Pansophy is now used to capture, coordinate, and display continuously logged process parameter that relate to technical water systems and clean room environmental conditions. In a new expansion, Pansophy is being used to collect and track process and analytical data sets associated with SRF material samples that are part of the surface creation, processing, and characterization R&D program.

  11. An improved thin-layer chromatography/mass spectrometry coupling using a surface sampling probe electrospray ion trap system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Michael J [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2004-01-01

    A combined surface sampling probe/electrospray emitter coupled with an ion trap mass spectrometer was used for the direct read out of unmodified reversed-phase C18 thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The operation of the surface sampling electrospray ionization interface in positive and negative ionization modes was demonstrated through the direct analysis of TLC plates on which a commercial test mix comprised of four dye compounds viz., rhodamine B, fluorescein, naphthol blue black, and fast green FCF, and an extract of the caffeine-containing plant Ilex vomitoria, were spotted and developed. Acquisition of full-scan mass spectra and automated collection of MS/MS product ion spectra while scanning a development lane along the surface of a TLC plate demonstrated the advantages of using an ion trap in this combination. Details of the sampling system, benefits of analyzing a developed lane in both positive ion and negative ion modes, levels of detection while surface scanning, surface scan speed effects, and the utility of three-dimensional data display, are also discussed.

  12. Aqueous Two-Phase Systems: A New Approach for the Determination of Brilliant Blue FCF in Water and Food Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Shiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel, simple, and more sensitive spectrophotometric procedure has been developed for the determination of brilliant blue FCF in water and food samples by an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS. In this method, adequate amount of polyethylene glycol/ sodium carbonate (PEG-4000/Na2CO3 was added to aqueous solution for formation of a homogeneous solution. To the mixture solution, suitable amount of Na2CO3 was added, the mixture solution was shaken until the salt was dissolved, and then it was separated into two clear phases easily and rapidly. The target analyte in the water sample was extracted into the polyethylene glycol phase. After extraction, measuring the absorbance at 634 nm was done. The effects of different parameters such as polyethylene glycol (type and concentration, pH, salt (type and amount, centrifuge time, and temperature on the ATPS of dye was investigated and optimum conditions were established. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the range of 0.25–750 ng/mL for brilliant blue FCF under optimum conditions. Detection limit based on three times the standard deviation of the blank (3Sb was 0.12 ng/mL. The relative standard deviation (RSD for 400 ng/mL was 3.14%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of brilliant blue FCF in spiked samples with satisfactory results. The relative recovery was between 96.0 and 102.2%.

  13. A generic-tee-plenum mixing system for application to single point aerosol sampling in stacks and ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Taewon; O'Neal, Dennis L; Ortiz, Carlos A

    2007-01-01

    The ANSI/HPS-N13.1-1999 standard is based on the concept of obtaining a single point representative sample from a location where the velocity and contaminant profiles are relatively uniform. It is difficult to predict the level of mixing in an arbitrary stack or duct without experimental data to meet the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 requirements. The goal of this study was to develop experimental data for a range of conditions in "S" (S-shaped configuration) duct systems with different mixing elements and "S" systems having one or two mixing elements. Results were presented in terms of the coefficients of variation (COVs) for velocity, tracer gas, and 10-mum aerodynamic diameter (AD) aerosol particle profiles at different downstream locations for each mixing element. Five mixing elements were tested, including a 90 degrees elbow, a commercial static mixer, a Small-Horizontal Generic-Tee-Plenum (SH-GTP), a Small-Vertical Generic-Tee-Plenum (SV-GTP), and a Large-Horizontal Generic-Tee-Plenum (LH-GTP) system. The COVs for velocity, gas concentration, and aerosol particles for the three GTP systems were all determined to be less than 8%. Tests with two different sizes of GTPs were conducted, and the results showed the performance of the GTPs was relatively unaffected by either size or velocity as reflected by the Reynolds number. The pressure coefficients were 0.59, 0.57, and 0.65, respectively, for the SH-GTP, SV-GTP, and LH-GTP. The pressure drop for the GTPs was approximately twice that of the round elbow, but a factor of 5 less than a Type IV Air Blender. The GTP was developed to provide a sampling location less than 4-duct diameters downstream of a mixing element with low pressure drop condition. The object of the developmental effort was to provide a system that could be employed in new stack; however, the concept of GTPs could also be retrofitted onto existing system applications as well. Results from these tests show that the system performance is well within the ANSI

  14. Application of the BioMek 2000 Laboratory Automation Workstation and the DNA IQ System to the extraction of forensic casework samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspoon, Susan A; Ban, Jeffrey D; Sykes, Karen; Ballard, Elizabeth J; Edler, Shelley S; Baisden, Melissa; Covington, Brian L

    2004-01-01

    Robotic systems are commonly utilized for the extraction of database samples. However, the application of robotic extraction to forensic casework samples is a more daunting task. Such a system must be versatile enough to accommodate a wide range of samples that may contain greatly varying amounts of DNA, but it must also pose no more risk of contamination than the manual DNA extraction methods. This study demonstrates that the BioMek 2000 Laboratory Automation Workstation, used in combination with the DNA IQ System, is versatile enough to accommodate the wide range of samples typically encountered by a crime laboratory. The use of a silica coated paramagnetic resin, as with the DNA IQ System, facilitates the adaptation of an open well, hands off, robotic system to the extraction of casework samples since no filtration or centrifugation steps are needed. Moreover, the DNA remains tightly coupled to the silica coated paramagnetic resin for the entire process until the elution step. A short pre-extraction incubation step is necessary prior to loading samples onto the robot and it is at this step that most modifications are made to accommodate the different sample types and substrates commonly encountered with forensic evidentiary samples. Sexual assault (mixed stain) samples, cigarette butts, blood stains, buccal swabs, and various tissue samples were successfully extracted with the BioMek 2000 Laboratory Automation Workstation and the DNA IQ System, with no evidence of contamination throughout the extensive validation studies reported here.

  15. Conceptual Model of Clinical Governance Information System for Statistical Indicators by Using UML in Two Sample Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Farzandipoor, Mehrdad; Arabfard, Masoud; Hosseini, Azam Haj Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was investigating situation and presenting a conceptual model for clinical governance information system by using UML in two sample hospitals. However, use of information is one of the fundamental components of clinical governance; but unfortunately, it does not pay much attention to information management. A cross sectional study was conducted in October 2012- May 2013. Data were gathered through questionnaires and interviews in two sample hospitals. Face and content validity of the questionnaire has been confirmed by experts. Data were collected from a pilot hospital and reforms were carried out and Final questionnaire was prepared. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and SPSS 16 software. With the scenario derived from questionnaires, UML diagrams are presented by using Rational Rose 7 software. The results showed that 32.14 percent Indicators of the hospitals were calculated. Database was not designed and 100 percent of the hospital's clinical governance was required to create a database. Clinical governance unit of hospitals to perform its mission, do not have access to all the needed indicators. Defining of Processes and drawing of models and creating of database are essential for designing of information systems.

  16. The Five Planets in the Kepler-296 Binary System All Orbit the Primary: An Application of Importance Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Thomas; Quintana, Elisa; Adams, Fred; Ciardi, David; Huber, Daniel; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Montet, Benjamin Tyler; Caldwell, Douglas

    2015-08-01

    Kepler-296 is a binary star system with two M-dwarf components separated by 0.2 arcsec. Five transiting planets have been confirmed to be associated with the Kepler-296 system; given the evidence to date, however, the planets could in principle orbit either star. This ambiguity has made it difficult to constrain both the orbital and physical properties of the planets. Using both statistical and analytical arguments, this paper shows that all five planets are highly likely to orbit the primary star in this system. We performed a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo simulation using a five transiting planet model, leaving the stellar density and dilution with uniform priors. Using importance sampling, we compared the model probabilities under the priors of the planets orbiting either the brighter or the fainter component of the binary. A model where the planets orbit the brighter component, Kepler-296A, is strongly preferred by the data. Combined with our assertion that all five planets orbit the same star, the two outer planets in the system, Kepler-296 Ae and Kepler-296 Af, have radii of 1.53 ± 0.26 and 1.80 ± 0.31 R⊕, respectively, and receive incident stellar fluxes of 1.40 ± 0.23 and 0.62 ± 0.10 times the incident flux the Earth receives from the Sun. This level of irradiation places both planets within or close to the circumstellar habitable zone of their parent star.

  17. A Novel Pretreatment-Free Duplex Chamber Digital PCR Detection System for the Absolute Quantitation of GMO Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pengyu; Wang, Chenguang; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao

    2016-03-18

    Digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has developed rapidly since it was first reported in the 1990s. However, pretreatments are often required during preparation for digital PCR, which can increase operation error. The single-plex amplification of both the target and reference genes may cause uncertainties due to the different reaction volumes and the matrix effect. In the current study, a quantitative detection system based on the pretreatment-free duplex chamber digital PCR was developed. The dynamic range, limit of quantitation (LOQ), sensitivity and specificity were evaluated taking the GA21 event as the experimental object. Moreover, to determine the factors that may influence the stability of the duplex system, we evaluated whether the pretreatments, the primary and secondary structures of the probes and the SNP effect influence the detection. The results showed that the LOQ was 0.5% and the sensitivity was 0.1%. We also found that genome digestion and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites affect the detection results, whereas the unspecific hybridization within different probes had little side effect. This indicated that the detection system was suited for both chamber-based and droplet-based digital PCR. In conclusion, we have provided a simple and flexible way of achieving absolute quantitation for genetically modified organism (GMO) genome samples using commercial digital PCR detection systems.

  18. A Novel Pretreatment-Free Duplex Chamber Digital PCR Detection System for the Absolute Quantitation of GMO Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Zhu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR has developed rapidly since it was first reported in the 1990s. However, pretreatments are often required during preparation for digital PCR, which can increase operation error. The single-plex amplification of both the target and reference genes may cause uncertainties due to the different reaction volumes and the matrix effect. In the current study, a quantitative detection system based on the pretreatment-free duplex chamber digital PCR was developed. The dynamic range, limit of quantitation (LOQ, sensitivity and specificity were evaluated taking the GA21 event as the experimental object. Moreover, to determine the factors that may influence the stability of the duplex system, we evaluated whether the pretreatments, the primary and secondary structures of the probes and the SNP effect influence the detection. The results showed that the LOQ was 0.5% and the sensitivity was 0.1%. We also found that genome digestion and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP sites affect the detection results, whereas the unspecific hybridization within different probes had little side effect. This indicated that the detection system was suited for both chamber-based and droplet-based digital PCR. In conclusion, we have provided a simple and flexible way of achieving absolute quantitation for genetically modified organism (GMO genome samples using commercial digital PCR detection systems.

  19. Development of a thoracic personal sampler system for co-sampling of sulfuric acid mist and sulfur dioxide gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chih-Hsiang; Theodore, Alexandros; Zhou, Chufan; Wu, Chang-Yu; Hsu, Yu-Mei; Birky, Brian

    2017-07-01

    A novel personal sampler was designed to measure inorganic acid mists and gases for determining human exposure levels to these acids in workplaces. This sampler consists of (1) a parallel impactor for classifying aerosol by size following the ISO/CEN/ACGIH defined human thoracic fraction, (2) a cellulose filter to collect the residual acid mist but allowing penetration of sulfur dioxide gas, and (3) an accordion-shaped porous membrane denuder (aPMD) for adsorbing the penetrating sulfur dioxide gas. Acid-resistant PTFE was chosen as the housing material to minimize sampling interference. To test the performance of the parallel impactor, monodisperse aerosol was created by a vibrating orifice aerosol generator. The results showed that the penetration curve of the impactor run at 2 LPM flow rate agreed well with the defined thoracic fraction. Almost all sampling biases were within 10% for particle size distributions with MMAD between 1-25 µm and GSD between 1.75-4, which meets the criteria of the EN 13205 standard. To evaluate the performance of the aPMDs, sulfur dioxide gas was sourced directly from a cylinder. The aPMDs maintained a gas collection efficiency greater than 95% for 4 hr when sampling 8.6 ppm of sulfur dioxide gas. While the aPMD had similar performance to the commonly adopted annular or honeycomb denuders made of glass, this shatterproof aPMD is only half of the volume and 1/25 th the weight of the honeycomb denuder. Testing of the entire sampler with a mixture of sulfuric acid mist and sulfur dioxide gas showed the system could sample both with negligible interference. All the test results illustrate that the new sampler, which is flat, lightweight, and portable, is suitable for personal use and is capable of a more accurate assessment of human exposure to inorganic acid mist and SO 2 gas.

  20. Optimizing Frozen Sample Preparation for Laser Microdissection: Assessment of CryoJane Tape-Transfer System®.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena G Golubeva

    Full Text Available Laser microdissection is an invaluable tool in medical research that facilitates collecting specific cell populations for molecular analysis. Diversity of research targets (e.g., cancerous and precancerous lesions in clinical and animal research, cell pellets, rodent embryos, etc. and varied scientific objectives, however, present challenges toward establishing standard laser microdissection protocols. Sample preparation is crucial for quality RNA, DNA and protein retrieval, where it often determines the feasibility of a laser microdissection project. The majority of microdissection studies in clinical and animal model research are conducted on frozen tissues containing native nucleic acids, unmodified by fixation. However, the variable morphological quality of frozen sections from tissues containing fat, collagen or delicate cell structures can limit or prevent successful harvest of the desired cell population via laser dissection. The CryoJane Tape-Transfer System®, a commercial device that improves cryosectioning outcomes on glass slides has been reported superior for slide preparation and isolation of high quality osteocyte RNA (frozen bone during laser dissection. Considering the reported advantages of CryoJane for laser dissection on glass slides, we asked whether the system could also work with the plastic membrane slides used by UV laser based microdissection instruments, as these are better suited for collection of larger target areas. In an attempt to optimize laser microdissection slide preparation for tissues of different RNA stability and cryosectioning difficulty, we evaluated the CryoJane system for use with both glass (laser capture microdissection and membrane (laser cutting microdissection slides. We have established a sample preparation protocol for glass and membrane slides including manual coating of membrane slides with CryoJane solutions, cryosectioning, slide staining and dissection procedure, lysis and RNA extraction