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Sample records for samarium ions

  1. Synthesis of nano-pore samarium (III)-imprinted polymer for preconcentrative separation of samarium ions from other lanthanide ions via solid phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvani-Arani, Simindokht [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Tehran, P.O.Box:14155-6455, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jaber Ibne Hayan Research Laboratories, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box: 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadi, Seyed Javad [Jaber Ibne Hayan Research Laboratories, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box: 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: sjahmadi@aeoi.org.ir; Bahrami-Samani, Ali [Nuclear Engineering and Physics Department, Amir Kabir University, P.O.Box: 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jaber Ibne Hayan Research Laboratories, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box: 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghannadi-Maragheh, Mohammad [Jaber Ibne Hayan Research Laboratories, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box: 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-08-08

    A batch process was developed to separate samarium ions from some lanthanide ions by a novel solid phase which was prepared via the ion-imprinting technique. The samarium (III) ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) particles were synthesized by preparing the ternary complex of samarium ions with 5,7-dichloroquinoline-8-ol (DCQ) and 4-vinylpyridine (VP). Then, thermally copolymerization with styrene (functional monomer, STY) and divinylbenzene (cross-linking monomer, DVB) followed in the presence of 2-methoxy ethanol (porogen) and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (initiator, AIBN). The imprinted ion was removed by stirring the above particles with 50% (v/v) HCl to obtain the leached IIP particles. Moreover, control polymer (CP) particles were similarly prepared without the samarium ions. The unleached and leached IIP particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infra-red spectroscopy (IR), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, preconcentration and selectivity studies for samarium and the other lanthanide ions were carried out. The preconcentration of the samarium (III) traces was studied during rebinding with the leached IIP particles as a function of pH, the weight of the polymer material, the preconcentration and the elution times, the eluent volume and the aqueous phase volume. These studies indicated that the samarium (III) amount as low as 1 {mu}g, present in 200 mL, could be preconcentrated into 25 mL of 1.0 M HCl.

  2. Luminescence of trivalent samarium ions in silver and tin co-doped aluminophosphate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, José A.; Lysenko, Sergiy; Liu, Huimin; Sendova, Mariana

    2011-06-01

    This work presents the spectroscopic properties of trivalent samarium ions in a melt-quenched aluminophosphate glass containing silver and tin. Addition of 4 mol% of each Ag 2O and SnO into the glass system with 2 mol% Sm 2O 3 results in Sm 3+ ions luminescence under non-resonant UV excitation owing to energy transfer from single silver ions and/or twofold-coordinated Sn centers. Assessment of luminescence spectra and decay dynamics suggest the energy transfer mechanism to be essentially of the resonant radiative type. Moreover, a connection between the luminescent and structural properties of the rare-earth doped glass system was demonstrated. Raman spectroscopy characterization revealed that no significant variation in the glass matrix is induced by Sm 3+ doping at the concentration employed. A comparison was made with a structural study performed on the Eu 3+ doped system (containing 2 mol% Eu 2O 3 along with 4 mol% of each Ag 2O and SnO) where the radiative energy transfer mechanism was previously established. The data appears consistent regarding the lack of variation in glass structure upon the Eu 3+ and Sm 3+ doping in connection with the dominance of the radiative transfer in the matrix. Thermal treatment of the material leads to precipitation of Ag nanoparticles of a broad size range inside the dielectric as observed by transmission electron microspcopy. Assessment of 4G 5/2 excited state decay in Sm 3+ ions shows no influence from the silver particles.

  3. Co-reduction of aluminium and lanthanide ions in molten fluorides: Application to cerium and samarium extraction from nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibilaro, M. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique UMR 5503, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, Universite de Toulouse, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Massot, L. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique UMR 5503, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, Universite de Toulouse, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: massot@chimie.ups-tlse.fr; Chamelot, P.; Taxil, P. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique UMR 5503, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, Universite de Toulouse, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2009-09-01

    This work concerns the method of co-reduction process with aluminium ions in LiF-CaF{sub 2} medium (79-21 mol.%) on tungsten electrode for cerium and samarium extraction. Electrochemical techniques such as cyclic and square wave voltammetries, and potentiostatic electrolyses were used to study the co-reduction of CeF{sub 3} and SmF{sub 3} with AlF{sub 3}. For each of these elements, specific peaks of Al-Ce and Al-Sm alloys formation were observed by voltammetry as well as peaks of pure cerium and aluminium, and pure samarium and aluminium respectively. The difference of potential measured between the solvent reduction and the alloy formation suggests expecting an extraction efficiency of 99.99% of each lanthanide by the process. Different intermetallic compounds were obtained for different potentiostatic electrolysis and were characterised by Scanning Electron Microscopy with EDS probe. The validity of the process was verified by carrying out cerium and samarium extractions in the form of Al-Ln alloy; the extraction efficiency was 99.5% for Ce(III) and 99.4% for Sm(III)

  4. Yellow-green electroluminescence of samarium complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzad, Sara Karimi; Najafi, Ezzatollah [Department of Chemistry Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amini, Mostafa M., E-mail: m-pouramini@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Janghouri, Mohammad; Mohajerani, Ezeddin [Laser Research Institute Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ng, Seik Weng [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-12-15

    Four novel samarium complexes were prepared by reacting samarium(III) nitrate with 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline, and 1,10-phenanthroline and utilized as emitting materials in the electroluminescence device. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared, UV–vis and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopes and the molecular structure of a representative complex, [Sm{sub 2}(Me-HQ){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}] (1), was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Utilization of a π-conjugated (phenanthroline) ligand as a second ligand in the structure of the samarium complexes resulted in red shifts in both absorption and fluorescence spectra of complexes and moderately enhanced the photoluminescence intensity and the fluorescence quantum yield. The maximum emission peaks showed that a good correlation exists between the nature of the substituent group on the 8-hydroxyquinoline and the addition of the π-conjugated ligand in the structure of samarium complexes and emission wavelength. Devices with samarium(III) complexes with structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS (90 nm)/PVK:PBD:Sm(III) complexes (75 nm)/Al (180 nm) were fabricated. In the electroluminescence (EL) spectra of the devices, a strong ligand-centered emission and narrow bands arising from the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}→{sup 6}H{sub J} transitions (J=7/2, 9/2, and 11/2) of the samarium ion were observed for the complexes. The electroluminescent spectra of the samarium complexes were red-shifted as compared with the PVK:PBD blend. We believe that the electroluminescence performance of OLED devices based on samarium complexes relies on overlaps between the absorption of the samarium compounds and the emission of PVK:PBD. This revealed that it is possible to evaluate the electroluminescence performance of the samarium compounds-doped OLED devices based on the emission of PVK:PBD and the absorption of the dopants. - Highlights: • Four novel photoluminescence samarium complexes have been synthesized.

  5. Luminescent solutions and powders of new samarium complexes with N,N',O,O'-chelating ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharcheva, Anastasia V.; Nikolskiy, Kirill S.; Borisova, Nataliya E.; Ivanov, Alexey V.; Reshetova, Marina D.; Yuzhakov, Viktor I.; Patsaeva, Svetlana V.

    2016-04-01

    Imaging techniques in biology and medicine are crucial tools to obtain information on structural and functional properties of living cells and organisms. To fulfill the requirements associated with application of these techniques it appears necessary to design markers with specific characteristics. Luminescent complexes of trivalent lanthanide ions with chelating ligands are of increasing importance in biomedical applications because of their millisecond luminescence lifetime, narrow emission band, high signal-to-noise ratio and minimal photodamage to biological samples. In order to extend the available emission wavelength range the luminescent samarium chelates are highly desirable. In this study the ligands with diamides of 2,2'-bipyridin-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid were used to improve photophysical characteristics of samarium complexes. We report the luminescence characteristics of samarium complexes with novel ligands. All complexes exhibited the characteristic emission of Sm (III) ion with the lines at 565, 597, 605, 645 and 654 nm, the intensity strongly depended on the ligand. Absorption and luminescence excitation spectra of Sm (III) complexes showed main peaks in the UV range demonstrating lanthanide coordination to the ligand. The absolute lumenescence quantum yield was measured for solutions in acetonitrile with excitation at 350 nm. The largest luminescence quantum yield was found for the samarium complex Bipy 6MePy Sm (3%) being much higher that for samarium complexes reported in the literature earlier. These results prove as well that samarium chelates are potential markers for multiparametric imaging techniques.

  6. Ionization of Samarium by Chemical Releases in the Upper Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Holmes, J. M.; Pedersen, T. R.; Caton, R.; Miller, D.; Groves, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    The release of Samarium vapor into the upper atmosphere was studied using during the Air Force Research Laboratory sponsored Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) rocket launches in May 2009. The Naval Research Laboratory supported these experiments with 3-D photochemical modeling of the artificial plasma cloud including (1) reactions with atomic oxygen, (2) photo excitation, (3) photoionization, (4) dissociative recombination, and (5) ion and neutral diffusion. NRL provided the experimental diagnostic instrument on the rocket which was a dual frequency radio beacon on the rocket to measure changes in total electron content. The AFRL provided ground based diagnostics of incoherent scatter radar and optical spectroscopy and imagery. The NRL Chemical Release Model (CRM) has over 600 excited states of atomic Samarium neutrals, atomic ions, along with Samarium Oxide Ions and electrons. Diffusive transport of neutrals in cylindrical geometry and ions along magnetic field lines is computed along with the reactive flow to predict the concentrations of Sm, Sm-Ion, Sm0, and SmO Ion. Comparison of the CRM with observations demonstrates that Sm release into the upper atmosphere initially produces enhanced electron densities and SmO-Ions. The diatomic ions recombine with electrons to yield neutral Sm and O. Only the photo ionization of Sm yields a stable atomic ion that does not substantially recombine. The MOSC releases in sunlight yielded long duration ion clouds that can be replicated with the CRM. The CRM predicts that Sm releases in darkness would not produce long duration plasma clouds because of the lack of photo excitation and photoionization.

  7. A spectroscopic comparison of samarium-doped LiYF4 and KY3F10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, J. P. R.; Sugiyama, A.; Han, T. P. J.; Gallagher, H. G.

    2000-01-01

    Laser selective excitation and fluorescence has been performed on LiYF4 and KY3F10 doped with samarium ions. In LiYF4, a single, tetragonal symmetry center associated with isovalent substitution of Sm3+ with lattice yttrium ions is present. By contrast, three Sm2+ centres and a single, tetragonal

  8. Logarithmic temperature dependence of samarium ion valence in the heavy-fermion S mxL a1 -xO s4S b12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushiya, Kengo; Miyazaki, Ryoichi; Higashinaka, Ryuji; Yamada, Akira; Mizumaki, Masaichiro; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Nitta, Kiyofumi; Uruga, Tomoya; Suemitsu, Bunya; Sato, Hideyuki; Aoki, Yuji

    2015-08-01

    We have measured x-ray absorption spectra at the Sm L3 edge to investigate the Sm-ion valence of (S mxL a1 -x) O s4S b12 , in which field-insensitive heavy-fermion behavior appears at low temperatures for x =1 . It has been found that the Sm-ion valance shifts to 2 + with La ion substitution; from v =+2.78 (x =1 ) to v =+2.73 (x =0.2 ) at 10 K. For all x investigated, its temperature dependence shows a logT behavior, indicating that the valence change is caused by "an unconventional Kondo effect" associated with Sm 4 f -electron charge degrees of freedom. Almost x independence of "the associated Kondo temperature" (T˜K=56 ±10 K ) indicates that the Kondo effect has a local nature, attributable to the cage structure of the filled skutterudite.

  9. Mechanically induced strong red emission in samarium ions doped piezoelectric semiconductor CaZnOS for dynamic pressure sensing and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Peng, Dengfeng; Zhang, Hanlu; Yang, Xiaohong; Pan, Caofeng

    2017-07-01

    Piezoelectric semiconductor with optical, electrical and mechanical multifunctions has great potential applications in future optoelectronic devices. The rich properties and applications mainly encompass the intrinsic structures and their coupling effects. Here, we report that lanthanide ions doped piezoelectric semiconductor CaZnOS:Sm3+ showing strong red emission induced by dynamic mechanical stress. Under moderate mechanical load, the doped piezoelectric semiconductor exhibits strong visible red emission to the naked eyes even under the day light. A flexible dynamic pressure sensor device is fabricated based on the prepared CaZnOS:Sm3+ powders. The mechanical-induced emission properties of the device are investigated by the optical fiber spectrometer. The linear characteristic emissions are attributed to the 4G5/2→6H5/2 (566 nm), 4G5/2→6H7/2 (580-632 nm), 4G5/2→6H9/2 (653-673 nm) and 4G5/2→6H11/2 (712-735 nm) f-f transitions of Sm3+ ions. The integral emission intensity is proportional to the value of applied pressure. By using the linear relationship between integrated emission intensity and the dynamic pressure, the real-time pressure distribution is visualized and recorded. Our results highlight that the incorporation of lanthanide luminescent ions into piezoelectric semiconductors as smart materials could be applied into the flexible mechanical-optical sensor device without additional auxiliary power, which has great potential for promising applications such as mapping of personalized handwriting, smart display, and human machine interface.

  10. Synthesis of Samarium Cobalt Nanoblades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren M. Steele

    2010-08-25

    As new portable particle acceleration technologies become feasible the need for small high performance permanent magnets becomes critical. With particle accelerating cavities of a few microns, the photonic crystal fiber (PCF) candidate demands magnets of comparable size. To address this need, samarium cobalt (SmCo) nanoblades were attempted to be synthesized using the polyol process. Since it is preferable to have blades of 1-2 {micro}m in length, key parameters affecting size and morphology including method of stirring, reaction temperature, reaction time and addition of hydroxide were examined. Nanoparticles consisting of 70-200 nm spherical clusters with a 3-5 nm polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coating were synthesized at 285 C and found to be ferromagnetic. Nanoblades of 25nm in length were observed at the surface of the nanoclusters and appeared to suggest agglomeration was occurring even with PVP employed. Morphology and size were characterized using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis was conducted to determine composition but no supportive evidence for any particular SmCo phase has yet been observed.

  11. Synthesis of samarium binding bleomycin - a possible NCT radiosensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, B.M., E-mail: bmm@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mendes, T.M.; Campos, T.P.R., E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) is a drug that has attractive features for the development of a new radiopharmaceutical, particularly with regard to neutron capture therapy (NCT) sensitized by Sm-149. It has the ability to chelate many metal ions. In vitro studies have shown that up to 78% of BLM present in a cell is accumulated inside the nucleus or in the nuclear membrane. In addition, this drug has higher affinity for tumor tissues than for normal tissues. Radioactive isotopes carried by this antibiotic would be taken preferentially to one important cellular targets DNA. Besides, BLM displays intrinsic anti-tumor activity - it is a chemotherapic antibiotic clinically used against some cancers. This study aimed to obtain bleomycin molecules bound to samarium (BLM-Sm) for NCT studies in vitro and in vivo. The binding technique employed in this work has great simplicity and low cost. Thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, fast protein liquid chromatography and analysis by ICP-AES were applied to verify the binding molecule. ICP-AES results showed the presence of samarium in the sample peaks related to BLM-Sm. However, efficiency and stability of this bond needs to be investigated. (author)

  12. Electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides in pyrochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrillejo, Y., E-mail: ycastril@qa.uva.es [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Fernandez, P. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Medina, J. [Dept Fisica Materia Condensada Cristalografia y Mineralogia, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Hernandez, P. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, C.P. 42076 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Barrado, E. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    This work concerns the electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides. In this way, the electrochemical behaviour of samarium ions has been investigated in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at the surface of tungsten, aluminium and aluminium coated tungsten electrodes. On a W inert electrode the electro-reduction of Sm(III) takes place in only one soluble-soluble electrochemical step Sm(III)/Sm(II). The electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) has not been observed within the electrochemical window, because of the prior reduction of Li(I) ions from the solvent, which inhibits the electro-extraction of Sm species from the salt on such a substrate. Sm metal in contact with the melt react to give Li(0) according to the reaction: Sm(0) + 2Li(I) {r_reversible} Sm(II) + 2Li(0). On the contrary, on reactive Al electrodes the electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) was observed within the electroactive range. The potential shift of the redox couple is caused by the decrease of Sm activity in the metal phase due to the formation of Sm-Al alloys at the interface. The formation mechanism of the intermetallic compounds was studied in a melt containing: (i) both Sm(III) and Al(III) ions, using W and Al coated tungsten electrodes, and (ii) Sm(III) ions using an Al electrode. Analysis of the samples after potentiostatic electrolysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), allowed the identification of Al{sub 3}Sm and Al{sub 2}Sm.

  13. Particle-Size-Induced Valence Changes in Samarium Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, M. G.; Lee, S. -T.; Apai, G.; Davis, R. F.; Shirley, D. A.; Franciosi, A.; Weaver, J. H.

    1981-09-01

    Samarium clusters exhibit mixed-valence behavior which is sensitive to particle size. XPS and UPS data show samarium to be primarily divalent (4f{sup 6} ) at small particle size. The trivalent state (4f{sup 5} ) becomes progressively more abundant with increasing s1ze, becoming the dominant state for the bulk metal. These results are interpreted using a model in which band narrowing, due to reduced surface coordination, is more dominant than surface tension effects in establishing the valence of small samarium clusters.

  14. Optical analysis of samarium doped sodium bismuth silicate glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, V; Sofin, R G S; Allen, M; Thomas, H; Biju, P R; Jose, G; Unnikrishnan, N V

    2017-01-15

    Samarium doped sodium bismuth silicate glass was synthesized using the melt quenching method. Detailed optical spectroscopic studies of the glassy material were carried out in the UV-Vis-NIR spectral range. Using the optical absorption spectra Judd-Ofelt (JO) parameters are derived. The calculated values of the JO parameters are utilized in evaluating the various radiative parameters such as electric dipole line strengths (Sed), radiative transition probabilities (Arad), radiative lifetimes (τrad), fluorescence branching ratios (β) and the integrated absorption cross- sections (σa) for stimulated emission from various excited states of Sm3+‡ ion. The principal fluorescence transitions are identified by recording the fluorescence spectrum. Our analysis revealed that the novel glassy system has the optimum values for the key parameters viz. spectroscopic quality factor, optical gain, stimulated emission cross section and quantum efficiency, which are required for a high performance optical amplifier. Calculated chromaticity co-ordinates (0.61, 0.38) also confirm its application potential in display devices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biodistribution of samarium-153-EDTMP in rats treated with docetaxel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarim Neto, Arthur; Acucena, Maria Kadja Meneses Torres; Pereira, Kercia Regina Santos Gomes; Rego, Amalia Cinthia Meneses [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences; Azevedo, Italo Medeiros; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. of Surgery; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [State University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Biophysics and Biometry

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: Many patients with metastatic bone disease have to use radiopharmaceuticals associated with chemotherapy to relieve bone pain. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of docetaxel on the biodistribution of samarium-153-EDTMP in bones and other organs of rats. Methods: Wistar male rats were randomly allocated into 2 groups of 6 rats each. The DS (docetaxel/samarium) group received docetaxel (15 mg/kg) intraperitoneally in two cycles 11 days apart. The S (samarium/control) group rats were not treated with docetaxel. Nine days after chemotherapy, all the rats were injected with 0.1 ml of samarium-153-EDTMP via orbital plexus (25 {mu} Ci. After 2 hours, the animals were killed and samples of the brain, thyroid, lung, heart, stomach, colon, liver, kidney and both femurs were removed. The percentage radioactivity of each sample (% ATI / g) was determined in an automatic gamma-counter (Wizard-1470, Perkin-Elmer, Finland). Results: On the ninth day after the administration of the second chemotherapy cycle, the rats had a significant weight loss (314.50 +- 22.09 g) compared (p<0.5) to pre-treatment weight (353.66 {+-} 22.8). The % ATI/g in the samples of rats treated with samarium-153-EDTMP had a significant reduction in the right femur, left femur, kidney, liver and lungs of animals treated with docetaxel, compared to the control rats. Conclusion: The combination of docetaxel and samarium-153-EDTMP was associated with a lower response rate in the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical to targeted tissues. Further investigation into the impact of docetaxel on biodistribution of samarium-153-EDTMP would complement the findings of this study. (author)

  16. Fabrication of a new samarium(III) ion-selective electrode based on 3-{l_brace}[2-oxo-1(2h)-acenaphthylenyliden]amino{r_brace}-2-thioxo -1,3-thiazolidin-4-one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Hassan Ali [Islamic Azad University, Quchan (Iran, islamic Republic of). Quchan Branch. Dept. of Chemistry]. E-mail: haszamani@yahoo.com; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center; Adib, Mehdi [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Chemistry. Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry

    2007-07-01

    This paper introduces the development of an original PVC membrane electrode, based on 3-{l_brace}[2-oxo-1(2H)-acenaphthylenyliden]amino{r_brace}-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one (ATTO) which has revealed to be a suitable carrier for Sm{sup 3+} ions. The resulting data illustrated that the electrode shows a Nernstian slope of 19.3 {+-} 0.6 mV per decade for Sm{sup 3+} ions over a broad working concentration range of 1.0 X 10{sup -6} to 1.0 X 10{sup -1} mol L{sup -1}. The lower detection limit was found to be equal to (5.5{+-} 0.3) X 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -}'1 in the pH range of 3.5-7.5, and the response time was very short ({approx}10 s). The potentiometric sensor displayed good selectivities for a number of cations such as alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. (author)

  17. Effects of the atomic environment on the electron binding energies in samarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoyatov, A.Kh., E-mail: inoyatov@jinr.ru [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Institute of Applied Physics, National University, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan (Uzbekistan); Kovalík, A. [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Nuclear Physics Institute of the ASCR, CZ-25068 Řež near Prague (Czech Republic); Filosofov, D.V. [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Ryšavý, M.; Vénos, D. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the ASCR, CZ-25068 Řež near Prague (Czech Republic); Yushkevich, Yu.V.; Perevoshchikov, L.L. [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Zhdanov, V.S. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Eight different matrices (evaporated and implanted at 30 keV) used. • The greatest average difference in the binding energies amounted to 3.1 ± 0.1 eV. • The presence of trivalent and divalent Sm ions found in some implanted samples. • No significant differences in Sm natural atomic level widths were observed. - Abstract: Effects of the atomic environment on the L{sub 1}, L{sub 2}, L{sub 3}, M{sub 1}, M{sub 2}, M{sub 3}, and N{sub 1} electron binding energies in samarium generated in the electron capture decay of radioactive {sup 149}Eu were investigated by means of the internal conversion electron spectroscopy using the conversion electron spectrum of the 22.5 keV M1 + E2 nuclear transition in the daughter {sup 149}Sm. In this investigation, four pairs of {sup 149}Eu sources prepared by vacuum evaporation deposition and by ion implantation at 30 keV with the use of four different source backing materials, namely polycrystalline carbon, aluminium, gadolinium and platinum foils, were employed. The greatest average difference of (3.1 ± 0.1) eV in the L{sub 1}, L{sub 2}, L{sub 3}, and M{sub 1} subshell electron binding energies was observed between the {sup 149}Eu sources prepared by ion implantation into the aluminium and platinum substrates. On the other hand, minimal differences in the electron binding energies were generally found between samarium generated in the evaporated layer and in the bulk for the individual investigated source backings with the exception of the gadolinium foil. A doublet structure of all investigated conversion electron lines with the average values of 8.1 ± 0.2 eV and 1.5 ± 0.1 for the separation energy and the intensity ratio of the low-energy to high-energy components, respectively, was observed for the {sup 149}Eu sources prepared by ion implantation into the aluminium and carbon foils. This structure was presumably caused by the presence of both the trivalent and divalent Sm ions in the sources. No

  18. The Basis for Developing Samarium AMS for Fuel Cycle Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, B A; Biegalski, S R; Whitney, S M; Tumey, S J; Weaver, C J

    2008-10-13

    Modeling of nuclear reactor fuel burnup indicates that the production of samarium isotopes can vary significantly with reactor type and fuel cycle. The isotopic concentrations of {sup 146}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, and {sup 151}Sm are potential signatures of fuel reprocessing, if analytical techniques can overcome the inherent challenges of lanthanide chemistry, isobaric interferences, and mass/charge interferences. We review the current limitations in measurement of the target samarium isotopes and describe potential approaches for developing Sm-AMS. AMS sample form and preparation chemistry will be discussed as well as possible spectrometer operating conditions.

  19. Optical characteristics of transparent samarium oxide thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optical characteristics of transparent samarium oxide thin films deposited by the radio-frequency sputtering technique. A A ATTA M M EL-NAHASS KHALED M ELSABAWY M M ABD EL-RAHEEM A M HASSANIEN A ALHUTHALI ALI BADAWI AMAR MERAZGA. Regular Volume 87 Issue 5 November 2016 Article ID 72 ...

  20. Optical properties of zinc–vanadium glasses doped with samarium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zinc–vanadium glasses doped with samarium oxide having the chemical composition Sm2O3() ZnO(40-)V2O5(60) (where = 0.1–0.5 mol%) were prepared by melt quenching method. The density of these glasses was measured by Archimedes method; the corresponding molar volumes have also been calculated.

  1. Optical properties of samarium doped zinc–tellurite glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Optical properties of samarium doped zinc–tellurite glasses. B ERAIAH. Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003, India. Present address: Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560 056, India. MS received 20 March 2006; revised 13 June 2006. Abstract. Glasses with the composition, ...

  2. Effect of second ligand on the luminescence of Samarium (III ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of second ligand on the luminescence of Samarium (III) dibenzoylmethane complexes: Syntheses, crystal structures, thermal analysis and luminescence study. MUHAMMAD IDIRIS SALEH, MIN YEE CHOO, TAI WEI CHAN and MOHD R RAZALI. ∗. School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, ...

  3. Effect of second ligand on the luminescence of Samarium (III ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 12. Effect of second ligand on the luminescence of Samarium (III) dibenzoylmethane complexes: ... Muhammad Idiris Saleh1 Min Yee Choo1 Tai Wei Chan1 Mohd R Razali1. School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia ...

  4. Dependence of samarium-soil interaction on samarium concentration: Implications for environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Guinart, Oriol; Salaberria, Aitor; Vidal, Miquel; Rigol, Anna

    2018-03-01

    The sorption and desorption behaviour of samarium (Sm), an emerging contaminant, was examined in soil samples at varying Sm concentrations. The obtained sorption and desorption parameters revealed that soil possessed a high Sm retention capacity (sorption was higher than 99% and desorption lower than 2%) at low Sm concentrations, whereas at high Sm concentrations, the sorption-desorption behaviour varied among the soil samples tested. The fractionation of the Sm sorbed in soils, obtained by sequential extractions, allowed to suggest the soil properties (pH and organic matter solubility) and phases (organic matter, carbonates and clay minerals) governing the Sm-soil interaction. The sorption models constructed in the present work along with the sorption behaviour of Sm explained in terms of soil main characteristics will allow properly assessing the Sm-soil interaction depending on the contamination scenario under study. Moreover, the sorption and desorption K d values of radiosamarium in soils were strongly correlated with those of stable Sm at low concentrations (r = 0.98); indicating that the mobility of Sm radioisotopes and, thus, the risk of radioactive Sm contamination can be predicted using data from low concentrations of stable Sm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanism of the electrochemical deposition of samarium-based coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Edgar J. [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro Sanfandila, P.O. Box 064, Pedro Escobedo, 76700 Queretaro (Mexico); Ortega-Borges, Raul [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro Sanfandila, P.O. Box 064, Pedro Escobedo, 76700 Queretaro (Mexico); Godinez, Luis A. [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro Sanfandila, P.O. Box 064, Pedro Escobedo, 76700 Queretaro (Mexico); Chapman, Thomas W. [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro Sanfandila, P.O. Box 064, Pedro Escobedo, 76700 Queretaro (Mexico); Meas-Vong, Yunny [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro Sanfandila, P.O. Box 064, Pedro Escobedo, 76700 Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: yunnymeas@cideteq.mx

    2006-11-12

    Samarium-based films have been shown to form from aqueous solutions on the surfaces of metallic substrates such as steel or aluminum, and their presence has been reported to decrease substantially the corresponding corrosion rate of the underlying metallic substrate. Based on previous reports on the deposition of oxides or hydroxides of the closely related element cerium, this work demonstrates that samarium films are formed following a similar mechanism, which involves as the fundamental step an increase in interfacial pH resulting from cathodic oxygen-reduction or hydrogen-evolution reactions. With cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical quartz-crystal microbalance (EQCM) measurements, rotating-disk electrode (RDE) tests, and surface characterization techniques, namely, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray surface microanalysis (EDX), the postulated mechanism was verified, and the surface morphology of the resulting films was correlated with the nature of the reduction reaction that triggers film formation.

  6. Samarium Monosulfide (SmS): Reviewing Properties and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sousanis, Andreas; Smet, Philippe; Poelman, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we give an overview of the properties and applications of samarium monosulfide, SmS, which has gained considerable interest as a switchable material. It shows a pressure-induced phase transition from the semiconducting to the metallic state by polishing, and it switches back to the semiconducting state by heating. The material also shows a magnetic transition, from the paramagnetic state to an antiferromagnetically ordered state. The switching behavior between the semiconducti...

  7. Optical properties of zinc–vanadium glasses doped with samarium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Zinc–vanadium glasses doped with samarium oxide having the chemical composition Sm2O3(x). ZnO(40−x)V2O5(60)(where x = 0·1–0·5 mol%) were prepared by melt quenching method. The density of these glasses was measured by Archimedes method; the corresponding molar volumes have also been ...

  8. Sorption of samarium in iron (II) and (III) phosphates in aqueous systems; Sorcion de samario en fosfatos de hierro (II) y (III) en sistemas acuosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz F, J.C

    2006-07-01

    The radioactive residues that are stored in the radioactive confinements its need to stay isolated of the environment while the radioactivity levels be noxious. An important mechanism by which the radioactive residues can to reach the environment, it is the migration of these through the underground water. That it makes necessary the investigation of reactive materials that interacting with those radionuclides and that its are able to remove them from the watery resources. The synthesis and characterization of materials that can be useful in Environmental Chemistry are very important because its characteristics are exposed and its behavior in chemical phenomena as the sorption watery medium is necessary to use it in the environmental protection. In this work it was carried out the sorption study of the samarium III ion in the iron (II) and (III) phosphate; obtaining the sorption isotherms in function of pH, of the phosphate mass and of the concentration of the samarium ion using UV-visible spectroscopy to determine the removal percentage. The developed experiments show that as much the ferrous phosphate as the ferric phosphate present a great affinity by the samarium III, for what it use like reactive material in contention walls can be very viable because it sorption capacity has overcome 90% to pH values similar to those of the underground and also mentioning that the form to obtain these materials is very economic and simple. (Author)

  9. Structural and luminescence properties of samarium doped lead alumino borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Shaweta; Kaur, Simranpreet; Singh, D. P.; Kaur, Puneet

    2017-11-01

    The study reports the effect of samarium concentration on the physical, structural and spectroscopic characteristics of samarium doped lead alumino borate glasses having composition 20PbO-(10-x)Al2O3-70B2O3-xSm2O3; x = 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol %. The glasses were fabricated by conventional melt-quenching technique and then characterized by XRD, FTIR, optical absorption and fluorescence spectra. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the amorphous nature of the prepared glasses. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of BO3, BO4, AlO6 and a few other structural groups. Various physical properties such as density, molar volume, refractive index, rare earth ion concentration, boron-boron distance and polarizability etc. were determined using conventional methods and standard formulae. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied on the optical absorption spectra of the glasses to evaluate the three phenomenological intensity parameters Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6. The value of Ω2 was found to be highest for glass with 1 mol% Sm2O3 and attributed to the asymmetry of the ligand field at the rare earth ion site and the rare earth oxygen (Sm-O) covalency. The calculated intensity parameters and fluorescence spectra were further used to predict the radiative transition probability (A), radiative lifetime (τR), branching ratio (βR), peak wavelength (λp), effective line widths (Δλeff) and stimulated emission cross-section (σ) for the characteristic 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 6H7/2 and 6H9/2 transitions of the Sm3+ ion. Concentration quenching was observed for 2 mol% concentration of Sm2O3 and ascribed to energy transfer through various cross-relaxation channels between Sm3+ ions. Reasonably high values of branching ratios and stimulated emission cross-section for the prepared glasses points towards their utility in the development of visible lasers emitting in the reddish-orange spectral region. However, the glass with 1 mol% Sm2O3 was found to show better radiative properties.

  10. Reactive Materials for Evaporating Samarium (Pre-Print)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    SUBJECT TERMS energetic materials, heat sources, pyrotechnic charges, easily ionized metals 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...experiments.    Keywords:  energetic  materials, heat sources, pyrotechnic charges, easily ionized metals  1. Introduction Ejection of clouds of...results  were  negatively  affected  by  reduced  efficiency   of  release  and  ionization of samarium [8]. It is possible that not the entire charge of

  11. Implementation of an analytical technique for Samarium; Implementacion de una tecnica analitica para Samario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia G, N. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Since the Samarium presents the same chemical properties that the plutonium, it has been used as homologous in studies that allow us to know the behavior that the plutonium presents in solution, with the advantage of working with an inactive and not very dangerous element. At the moment studies of sorption of plutonium or samarium are made on some mineral matrices that present certain surface properties. Due to the low concentrations that are used in the studies of sorption of samarium on those reagent substrates, their detection becomes very difficult for the conventional analysis media. The luminescence is a technique that can detect lower concentrations, smaller at 1 X 10{sup -} {sup 2} M, but when fluorofors are used this limit of detection increases in several orders of magnitude. In this work it has been used the arsenazo-III as fluorofor agent since it reacts in a specific way with the samarium, forming a complex that presents a proportional luminescence to the concentration of the present samarium. The advantage of making the quantification of samarium by luminescence is that it can use the same instrumental equipment to determine the speciation of the samarium sipped in the zircon. (Author)

  12. X-ray Induced Luminescence Spectroscopy of Samarium Doped Barium Sulfate Prepared by Sintering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumeda, T.; Maeda, K.; Shirano, Y.; Fujiwara, K.; Sakai, K.; Ikari, T.

    2015-06-01

    X-ray induced luminescence (XL) properties of phosphor materials made of samarium doped barium sulfate have been investigated. The samples were prepared by sintering method heated at 900-1250 °C for 3 hours in air from the mixture of BaSO4 and Sm2O3. The concentration of Sm were prepared from 0.01-6 at.%. In as-prepared sample, the Sm3+ was detected by photoluminescence (PL). The PL intensity is maximum about 2 at.% with Sm, and then starts decreasing. The PL intensity showed concentration quenching. The XL observed Sm2+ and Sm3+ ions. The XL was shown from the sample sintered up to 1200 °C. The XL intensity increased with Sm concentration up to 1 at.%. The intensity was almost constant larger than 1 at.% Sm. These concentration dependences is different since the X-ray energy absorbed to the host material at once, and the energy transferred to both Sm3+ and Sm2+ ions. Sm doped BaSO4 is found a host for XL phosphor materials.

  13. Characterization of luminescent samarium doped HfO{sub 2} coatings synthesized by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon-Roa, C [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, C.P. 11500, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Guzman-Mendoza, J [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, C.P. 11500, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Aguilar-Frutis, M [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, C.P. 11500, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Garcia-Hipolito, M [Departamento de Materiales Metalicos y Ceramicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-360 Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Alvarez-Fragoso, O [Departamento de Materiales Metalicos y Ceramicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-360 Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Falcony, C [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, A. P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-01-07

    Trivalent samarium (Sm{sup 3+}) doped hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) films were deposited using the spray pyrolysis deposition technique. The films were deposited on Corning glass substrates at temperatures ranging from 300 to 550 deg. C using chlorides as raw materials. Films, mostly amorphous, were obtained when deposition temperatures were below 350 deg. C. However, for temperatures higher than 400 deg. C, the films became polycrystalline, presenting the HfO{sub 2} monoclinic phase. Scanning electron microscopy of the films revealed a rough surface morphology with spherical particles. Also, electron energy dispersive analysis was performed on these films. The photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence characteristics of the HfO{sub 2} : SmCl{sub 3} films, measured at room temperature, exhibited four main bands centred at 570, 610, 652 and 716 nm, which are due to the well-known intra-4f transitions of the Sm{sup 3+} ion. It was found that the overall emission intensity rose as the deposition temperature was increased. Furthermore, a concentration quenching of the luminescence intensity was also observed.

  14. Samarium (III) adsorption on bentonite modified with N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Chang, Xijun; Hu, Zheng; Wang, Qihui; Li, Ruijun; Chai, Xiaoli

    2011-02-15

    A new material has been synthesized using dry process to activate bentonite followed by N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine connecting chlorosilane coupling agent. The synthesized new material was characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and thermogravimetry which proved that bentonite was successfully modified. The most interesting trait of the new material was its selective adsorption for rare earth elements. A variety of conditions of the new material were investigated for adsorption. The optimal conditions were determined with respect to pH and shaking time. Samarium (Sm) was quantitatively adsorbed at pH 4 and shaking time of 2 min onto the new material. Under these conditions the maximum static adsorption capacity of Sm(III) was found to be 17.7 mg g(-1). The adsorbed Sm(III) ion were quantitatively eluted by 2.0 mL 0.1 mol L(-1) HCl and 5% CS (NH(2))(2) solution. According to IUPAC definition, the detection limit (3σ) of this method was 0.60 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) under optimum conditions was less than 3% (n=8). The new material also was applied for the preconcentration of trace Sm(III) in environmental samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Australian manufacture of Quadramet{sup TM} (Samarium-153 EDTMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, N.R.; Whitwell, J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Australian Radioisotopes

    1997-10-01

    Quadramet{sup T} (Samarium-153 EDTMP) has been shown overseas to be potentially useful in the palliation of painful osteoblastic skeletal metastases and has been approved this year for general marketing in the USA. Australian Radioisotopes (ARI) has licensed this product from the Australian patent holders, Dow Chemical. Within the facilities of ARI, a hot cell has been dedicated to this product and fitted out to manufacture it weekly on a cycle related to the operating cycle of the Australian reactor HIFAR. Due to neutron flux limitations of HIFAR, the local formulation has an elemental Samarium content up to 200{mu}g/mL whereas the overseas formulation has a level of 20-46{mu}g/mL. All other specifications of the two products are essentially the same. In 1995 and 1996 a small clinical trial with 19 patients was held which demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic behaviour was also essentially the same by measuring blood clearance rates and skeletal uptake dynamics. Soft tissue uptake was also qualitatively determined. The ARI version is now the subject of an application for general marketing within Australia. Some useful characteristics of this agent are: almost complete excretion or fixation in the skeleton within 6 hours, rapid onset of clinical effect, applicability in most cases where an abnormal diagnostic bone scan correlates with painful sites, dosage can be tailored to individual patient uptake due to easy dose measurement and retreatment is quite possible. The use of this class of agents in pain palliation continues to increase. Australian manufacture of Quadramet{sup TM} provides a further option in the management of these difficult cases

  16. Samarium Monosulfide (SmS): Reviewing Properties and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousanis, Andreas; Smet, Philippe F; Poelman, Dirk

    2017-08-16

    In this review, we give an overview of the properties and applications of samarium monosulfide, SmS, which has gained considerable interest as a switchable material. It shows a pressure-induced phase transition from the semiconducting to the metallic state by polishing, and it switches back to the semiconducting state by heating. The material also shows a magnetic transition, from the paramagnetic state to an antiferromagnetically ordered state. The switching behavior between the semiconducting and metallic states could be exploited in several applications, such as high density optical storage and memory materials, thermovoltaic devices, infrared sensors and more. We discuss the electronic, optical and magnetic properties of SmS, its switching behavior, as well as the thin film deposition techniques which have been used, such as e-beam evaporation and sputtering. Moreover, applications and possible ideas for future work on this material are presented. Our scope is to present the properties of SmS, which were mainly measured in bulk crystals, while at the same time we describe the possible deposition methods that will push the study of SmS to nanoscale dimensions, opening an intriguing range of applications for low-dimensional, pressure-induced semiconductor-metal transition compounds.

  17. Excitation induced spectroscopic study and quenching effect in cerium samarium codoped lithium aluminoborate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Parvinder; Kaur, Simranpreet [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Singh, Gurinder Pal [Department of Physics, Khalsa College, Amritsar 143002 (India); Arora, Deepawali; Kumar, Sunil [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Singh, D.P., E-mail: dpsinghdr@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

    2016-08-15

    Lithium aluminium borate host has been codoped with cerium and samarium to prepare glass by conventional melt quench technique. Their structural and spectroscopic investigation has been carried out using XRD, FTIR and density measurements. The UV‐Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra (λ{sub exc}.=380 nm and 400 nm) have been studied for spectroscopic analysis. The amorphous nature of the prepared samples is shown by XRD. The density is increasing with addition of cerium at the expense of aluminium, keeping other components constant. FTIR study also shows the presence of compact and stable tetrahedral BO{sub 4} units thus supporting the density results. The UV‐ Vis absorption spectra show a shift of optical absorption edge towards longer wavelength along with an increase in intensity of peaks with rising samarium concentration. The fluorescence spectra show a blue shift and subsequent suppression of cerium peaks with addition of samarium.

  18. Effect of samarium doping on the dielectric behavior of barium zircomium titanate ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badapanda, T., E-mail: badapanda.tanmaya@gmail.com [Department of Physics, C.V. Raman College of Engineering, Bhubaneswar, Odisha-752054 (India); Sarangi, S.; Behera, B. [School of Physics, Sambalpur University, Jyoti Vihar Sambalpur, Odisha-768019 (India); Anwar, S. [Colloids and Materials Chemistry, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha-751013 (India); Sinha, T. P. [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, Kolkata-700009 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Samarium doped Barium Zirconium Titanate ceramic with general formula Ba{sub 1−x}Sm{sub 2x/3}Zr{sub 0.05}Ti{sub 0.95}O{sub 3} [x=0.0,0.01,0.02,0.03,0.04] has been prepared by high energy ball milling. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed that these ceramics have a single phase with perovskite-type upto x≤0.03 and a small secondary phase exist at x=0.04. The temperature dependent dielectric study shows a ferroelectric phase transition and transition temperature decreases with an increase in the Samarium content.

  19. Lithium Bromide/Water as Additives in Dearomatizing Samarium-Ketyl (Hetero)Arene Cyclizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chintada Nageswara; Bentz, Christoph; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-11-02

    New conditions for dearomatizing samarium-ketyl (hetero)arene cyclizations are reported. In many examples of these samarium diiodide-mediated reactions, lithium bromide and water can be used as additives instead of the carcinogenic and mutagenic hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA). The best results were obtained for the cyclizations of N-acylated indole derivatives delivering the expected indolines in good yields and excellent diastereoselectivities. A new type of cyclization delivering indolyl-substituted allene derivatives is also described. The scope and limitations of the lithium bromide/water system are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. One-step synthesis of samarium-doped ceria and its CO catalysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The samarium-doped ceria (SDC) nanospheres were prepared by the one-step hydrothermal method and characterized by transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometer and Raman spectra. According to the ...

  1. Optical response and magnetic characteristic of samarium doped zinc phosphate glasses containing nickel nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmi, Siti Amlah M.; Sahar, M.R., E-mail: mrahim057@gmail.com

    2015-11-01

    A magnetic glass of composition 40ZnO–(58−x) P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–1Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}–xNiO, with x=0.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mol% is prepared by melt-quenching technique. The glass is characterized by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis. The X-rays diffraction confirms the amorphous nature of the glass while the HRTEM analysis reveals the presence of nickel nanoparticles in the glass samples. High-resolution TEM reveals that the lattice spacing of nickel nanoparticles is 0.35 nm at (100) plane. Photoluminescence emission shows the existence of four peaks that correspond to the transition from the upper level of {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} to the lower level of {sup 6}H{sub 5/2}, {sup 6}H{sub 7/2}, {sup 6}H{sub 9/2,} and {sup 6}H{sub 11/2.} It is observed that all peaks experience significant quenching effect with the increasing concentration of nickel nanoparticles, suggesting a strong energy transfer from excited samarium ions to the nickel ions. The glass magnetization and susceptibility at 12 kOe at room temperature are found to be in the range of (3.87±0.17×10{sup −2}–7.19±0.39×10{sup −2}) emu/g and (3.24±0.16×10{sup −6}–5.99±0.29×10{sup −6}) emu/Oe g respectively. The obtained hysteresis curve indicates that the glass samples are paramagnetic materials. The studied glass can be further used towards the development of magneto-optical functional glass. - Highlights: • Sm{sup 3+} doped zinc phosphate glass embedded with Ni NPs has been prepared. • The Laue pattern and lattice spacing of Ni NPs are confirmed by HRTEM image. • The magnetic response of glasses has been studied through VSM analysis. • Enhancement factor and decay half-lifetime are investigated.

  2. The Use of a Flexible Calix[4]arene Template to Stabilize a Cyclooctatetraindiyl Samarium-Potassium Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffroy Guillemot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sandwich compound of cyclooctatetraendiyl (COT2− samarium-potassium was synthesized and analyzed using a flexible calix[4]arene dianion. This compound, [p-tBu-calix[4]-(OMe2(O2]arenediyl-samarium-(η8-cyclooctatetraendiyl-potassium (tetrahydrofurane3, is constructed as a linear sequence L-Sm--K-, where L, , and are specific ligands with L = O,O-dimethyl-calix[4]arene2−, = cyclo-octatetraendiyl, and = tetrahydrofurane templates.

  3. Formation of a new adduct based on fullerene tris-malonate samarium salt C60-[C60(=C(COO)2)3]Sm2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, A. A.; Keskinov, V. A.; Semenov, K. N.; Charykov, N. A.; Letenko, D. G.; Nikitin, V. A.

    2017-03-01

    Gram quantities of a new adduct based on light fullerene tris-malonate samarium salt C60 [C60(=C(COO)2)3]Sm2 are obtained via the reaction of ion exchange. The obtained adduct is studied by means of electron and infrared spectroscopy, X-ray and elemental analysis, electron microscopy, and thermogravimetry. The polythermal solubility of [C60(=C(COO)2)3]Sm2 in water is determined in ampoules via saturation within 20-70°C. The composition of crystalline hydrate [C60(=C(COO)2)3]Sm2 · 36H2O, which exists in equilibrium with the saturated solution, is estimated.

  4. Solar nebula heterogeneity in p-process samarium and neodymium isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Rasmus; Sharma, Mukul

    2006-11-03

    Bulk carbonaceous chondrites display a deficit of approximately 100 parts per million (ppm) in 144Sm with respect to other meteorites and terrestrial standards, leading to a decrease in their 142Nd/144Nd ratios by approximately 11 ppm. The data require that samarium and neodymium isotopes produced by the p process associated with photodisintegration reactions in supernovae were heterogeneously distributed in the solar nebula. Other samarium and neodymium isotopes produced by rapid neutron capture (r process) in supernovae and by slow neutron capture (s process) in red giants were homogeneously distributed. The supernovae sources supplying the p- and r-process nuclides to the solar nebula were thus disconnected or only weakly connected.

  5. Samarium(II) iodide-mediated reductive annulations of ketones bearing a distal vinyl epoxide moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molander, G.A.; Shakya, S.R. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-08-23

    It was found that samarium (II) iodide promotes the intramolecular coupling of ketones with distal epoxy olefins while in the presence of hexamethylphosphoramide (HPMA). A number of epoxide compounds (1 a-k) fragment to form carbocycles with allylic alcohol side chains with high diastereoselectivity (2 a-k). Substituting tetramethylguanidine for HPMA reduces the diastereoselectivity. Adding Pd(0) as a catalyst reverses the diastereoselective sense. 40 refs., 1 tab.

  6. A temporal three-dimensional simulation of samarium release in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Sheng; Feng, Jie; Xu, Zheng-Wen; Wu, Jian; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Xu, Bin; Xue, Kun; Xu, Tong; Hu, Yan-Li

    2016-10-01

    For understanding plasma processes of the ionosphere and magnetosphere, the alkali and alkaline-earth metals are usually released in space for artificially increasing the electron density. However, it is a limitation that these releases must be in sunlight where the photoionization can take place. In recent years, the lanthanide metals, such as samarium, have been released to produce electrons in reaction with atomic oxygen in the upper space. The reaction could proceed without sunlight so that the restriction on experimental periods is broken. Unfortunately, any sophisticated models even preliminary ones are unavailable yet in the literature. A temporal three-dimensional model is presented for the samarium release in detail with respect to various altitudes and mass. Especially, the plasma diffusion equation is remarkably extended from 2-D to 3-D by importing the influence of geomagnetic declination, which could be also useful for other chemical releases. The field-aligned terms are brought so as to the presented model can describe the diffusion along the geomagnetic field subtly. On the basis of the presented model, behaviors of radio waves propagating through the release area are simulated by using ray tracing. This model could be as the theoretical support for samarium releases, and it also helpful for the research on the generation and evolution of the ionosphere irregularities.

  7. Optical properties of lead–tellurite glasses doped with samarium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The optical properties of a new family of Sm2O3–(40–)PbO–60TeO2 glasses are investigated. The optical absorption spectra were recorded at ... The refractive index, molar refraction and polarizability of oxide ions have been calculated by using Lorentz–Lorentz relations. The non-linear variations of the above optical ...

  8. Lithium samarium polyphosphate, LiSm(PO34

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The mixed-metal rare-earth polyphosphate LiSm(PO34 consists of a three-dimensional framework in which zigzag [(PO3n]n− chains with a periodicity of four PO4 tetrahedra are connected through Li+ and Sm3+ ions (both with 2. symmetry.

  9. Optical properties of samarium doped zinc–tellurite glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Glasses with the composition, (Sm2O3)(ZnO)(40–)(TeO2)(60), were prepared by conventional melt quenching method. The density, molar volume, and optical energy band gap of these glasses have been measured. The refractive index, molar refraction and polarizability of oxide ion have been calculated by using ...

  10. Liquid–liquid anion exchange extraction studies of samarium(III from salicylate media using high molecular weight amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha M. Mandhare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Liquid–liquid extraction and separation of samarium(III were carried out by using 0.025 mol dm−3 2-octylaminopyridine(2-OAP in xylene at 298 K. The extraction behavior of samarium was studied as a function of pH, weak acid concentration, extractant concentration, diluent, and equilibration time. Samarium was quantitatively extracted at pH 7.5 to 10.0 from 0.01 mol dm−3 sodium salicylate solution with 0.025 mol dm−3 2-OAP. The possible composition of the extracted species in organic phase has been determined by using model of slope analysis method and extraction mechanism was found to proceed via an anion exchange mechanism. The stripping efficiency was found to be quantitative in HNO3, HCl and CH3COOH. The robustness of the procedure was demonstrated by the average recoveries obtained (>99.6% for samarium(III extraction in the presence of several cations and anions which are commonly associated with it. The proposed method facilitates the separation and determination of samarium(III from binary and synthetic mixtures. The various thermodynamic functions like free energy (ΔG, enthalpy (ΔH and entropy (ΔS of extraction mechanism were discussed.

  11. Neutron Activated Samarium-153 Microparticles for Transarterial Radioembolization of Liver Tumour with Post-Procedure Imaging Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashikin, Nurul Ab. Aziz; Yeong, Chai-Hong; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet; Ng, Kwan-Hoong; Chung, Lip-Yong; Dahalan, Rehir; Perkins, Alan Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Samarium-153 (153Sm) styrene divinylbenzene microparticles were developed as a surrogate for Yttrium-90 (90Y) microspheres in liver radioembolization therapy. Unlike the pure beta emitter 90Y, 153Sm possess both therapeutic beta and diagnostic gamma radiations, making it possible for post-procedure imaging following therapy. Methods The microparticles were prepared using commercially available cation exchange resin, Amberlite IR-120 H+ (620–830 μm), which were reduced to 20–40 μm via ball mill grinding and sieve separation. The microparticles were labelled with 152Sm via ion exchange process with 152SmCl3, prior to neutron activation to produce radioactive 153Sm through 152Sm(n,γ)153Sm reaction. Therapeutic activity of 3 GBq was referred based on the recommended activity used in 90Y-microspheres therapy. The samples were irradiated in 1.494 x 1012 n.cm-2.s-1 neutron flux for 6 h to achieve the nominal activity of 3.1 GBq.g-1. Physicochemical characterisation of the microparticles, gamma spectrometry, and in vitro radiolabelling studies were carried out to study the performance and stability of the microparticles. Results Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of the Amberlite IR-120 resins showed unaffected functional groups, following size reduction of the beads. However, as shown by the electron microscope, the microparticles were irregular in shape. The radioactivity achieved after 6 h neutron activation was 3.104 ± 0.029 GBq. The specific activity per microparticle was 53.855 ± 0.503 Bq. Gamma spectrometry and elemental analysis showed no radioactive impurities in the samples. Radiolabelling efficiencies of 153Sm-Amberlite in distilled water and blood plasma over 48 h were excellent and higher than 95%. Conclusion The laboratory work revealed that the 153Sm-Amberlite microparticles demonstrated superior characteristics for potential use in hepatic radioembolization. PMID:26382059

  12. Samarium(II) iodide-mediated intramolecular conjugate additions of alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molander, Gary A; St Jean, David J

    2002-05-31

    Samarium(II) iodide, in the presence of catalytic amounts of nickel(II) iodide, has been used to promote intramolecular conjugate additions of alkyl halides onto alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones. This process has been shown to be applicable to a number of alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones, including tetrasubstituted olefins, and has been demonstrated to be quite general for the formation of saturated bicyclic and tricyclic lactones. The method presented herein provides a mild, efficient process to form structurally complex lactones from simple precursors.

  13. Ekstraksi Pemisahan Neodimium dari Samarium, Itrium dan Praseodimium Memakai Tri Butil Fosfat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Veronica Purwani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of Nd(OH3 (neodymium hydroxide concentrate containing Y (yttrium, Sm (samarium and Pr (praseodymium as product of monazite processed has been done. The purpose of this study is to determine the separation of Nd from Y, Pr and Nd Sm in Nd concentrate. The aqueous phase was concentrated Nd (OH3 in HNO3 and extractant while organic phase was Tri Butyl Phosphate (TBP in kerosene. Parameters studied were pH and concentration feed, concentration of TBP in kerosene, extraction time and stirring speed. The result showed that the optimization of separation extraction neodymium from samarium, yttrium and praseodymium in Nd(OH3 concentrated with TBP, obtained the optimum condition of pH = 0.2, concentration of feed 100 g /L, concentration of TBP in kerosene 5%, extraction time 15 minutes and stirring speed 150 rpm. With the conditions, Separation Factor (SF obtained for Nd-Y, Nd-Pr, Nd-Sm are 2.242, 4.811, 4.002 respectively, while D and extraction efficiency of Nd are 0.236 and 19.07%.

  14. X-Band Microwave Reflection Properties of Samarium/Bismuth-Substituted Barium Lanthanum Titanate Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahel, Shalini; Pubby, Kunal; Narang, Sukhleen Bindra

    2017-03-01

    Samarium/bismuth-substituted barium lanthanum titanate ceramics with chemical composition Ba4 (La_{1 - y - z} Smy Biz )_{9.33} Ti_{18} O_{54} ( y = 0.5, 0.7; z = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15), intended as microwave reflecting materials, have been investigated in microwave X-band (8.2 GHz to 12.4 GHz) and the effect of substitution on their dielectric properties, i.e., dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent, has been studied by vector network analyzer. Dielectric analysis showed that the dielectric constant increased with increasing samarium as well as bismuth content. Dielectric relaxation was observed for all samples in the scanned frequency range. Microwave reflection and transmission analysis of ceramic pellets of thickness 4 mm was carried out using two methods, i.e., open- and short-circuit approach, both indicating very high values of reflected power and very low values of transmitted power for all the doped materials in comparison with the base composition. The doped compositions are therefore potential microwave shielding materials for use in anechoic chambers, microwave laboratories, and radar equipment. Double-layer reflectors are also proposed, having better reflection properties (˜99% reflection) compared with single-layer reflectors.

  15. Microstructure and hysteresis curves of samarium-holmium-iron garnet synthesized by coprecipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caffarena Valeska da Rocha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was made into the synthesis and magnetic properties of Sm(3-xHo xFe5O12 (samarium-holmium-iron garnet ferrite, as yet absent from the literature. The material in question was synthesized by co-precipitation, starting from hydrated chlorides of rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate, and the mixed hydroxide co-precipitate was calcined at 1000 °C. Using PVA as a binder, rectangular cross section-shaped compacts were produced by means of steel-die pressing, drying and sintering from 1200 to 1450 °C. The main conclusions of this study were that the coercive force decreases as the sintering temperature increases, and that the effect of substituting holmium for samarium in SmIG is entirely different from that provided by replacing yttrium by gadolinium in YIG, which is the most important result of this work. An in-depth investigation will be necessary to determine the correlation between microstructure/magnetic properties and ceramic processing variables.

  16. Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals as targeted agents of osteosarcoma: samarium-153-EDTMP and radium-223.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter M; Subbiah, Vivek; Rohren, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a cancer characterized by formation of bone by malignant cells. Routine bone scan imaging with Tc-99m-MDP is done at diagnosis to evaluate primary tumor uptake and check for bone metastases. At time of relapse the Tc-99m-MDP bone scan also provides a specific means to assess formation of bone by malignant osteosarcoma cells and the potential for bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals to deliver radioactivity directly into osteoblastic osteosarcoma lesions. This chapter will review and compare a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical that emits beta-particles, samarium-153-EDTMP, with an alpha-particle emitter, radium-223. The charged alpha particles from radium-223 have far more mass and energy than beta particles (electrons) from Sm-153-EDTMP. Because radium-223 has less marrow toxicity and more radiobiological effectiveness, especially if inside the bone forming cancer cell than samarium-153-EDTMP, radium-223 may have greater potential to become widely used against osteosarcoma as a targeted therapy. Radium-223 also has more potential to be used with chemotherapy against osteosarcoma and bone metastases. Because osteosarcoma makes bone and radium-223 acts like calcium, this radiopharmaceutical could possibly become a new targeted means to achieve safe and effective reduction of tumor burden as well as facilitate better surgery and/or radiotherapy for difficult to resect large, or metastatic tumors.

  17. Polypyrrole-coated samarium oxide nanobelts: fabrication, characterization, and application in supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Yunjiao; Wang, Xue; Yang, Chao; Yi, Yanfeng

    2012-11-01

    Polypyrrole-coated samarium oxide nanobelts were synthesized by the in situ chemical oxidative surface polymerization technique based on the self-assembly of pyrrole on the surface of the amine-functionalized Sm2O3 nanobelts. The morphologies of the polypyrrole/samarium oxide (PPy/Sm2O3) nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscope. The UV-vis absorbance of these samples was also investigated, and the remarkable enhancement was clearly observed. The electrochemical behaviors of the PPy/Sm2O3 composites were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge. The results indicated that the PPy/Sm2O3 composite electrode was fully reversible and achieved a very fast Faradaic reaction. After being corrected into the weight percentage of the PPy/Sm2O3 composite at a current density of 20 mA cm-2 in a 1.0 M NaNO3 electrolyte solution, a maximum discharge capacity of 771 F g-1 was achieved in a half-cell setup configuration for the PPy/Sm2O3 composites electrode with the potential application to electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors.

  18. Polypyrrole-coated samarium oxide nanobelts: fabrication, characterization, and application in supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Peng, E-mail: pliu@lzu.edu.cn; Wang Yunjiao; Wang Xue; Yang Chao; Yi Yanfeng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province and State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry (China)

    2012-11-15

    Polypyrrole-coated samarium oxide nanobelts were synthesized by the in situ chemical oxidative surface polymerization technique based on the self-assembly of pyrrole on the surface of the amine-functionalized Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanobelts. The morphologies of the polypyrrole/samarium oxide (PPy/Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscope. The UV-vis absorbance of these samples was also investigated, and the remarkable enhancement was clearly observed. The electrochemical behaviors of the PPy/Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge. The results indicated that the PPy/Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite electrode was fully reversible and achieved a very fast Faradaic reaction. After being corrected into the weight percentage of the PPy/Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite at a current density of 20 mA cm{sup -2} in a 1.0 M NaNO{sub 3} electrolyte solution, a maximum discharge capacity of 771 F g{sup -1} was achieved in a half-cell setup configuration for the PPy/Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites electrode with the potential application to electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors.

  19. Behavior of Samarium III during the sorption process; Comportamiento del Samario-III durante el proceso de sorcion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez R, E.; Garcia G, N.; Garcia R, G. [ININ, Carr. Mexico-Toluca Km 36.5, Salazar, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: edo@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    In this work the results of the behavior of samarium in solution are presented, in front of a fine powder of zirconium silicate (zircon). For that which is necessary to characterize the zircon, studying the crystallinity, the morphology, the surface area and the isoelectric point. The behavior of samarium in solution is studied by means of the elaboration of isotherm of sorption, using the technique by lots. One observes that to pH values of nearer to the isoelectric point (pH = 7.23) the process of sorption of the samarium begins, reaching a maximum to near pH at 9. The technique of luminescence is used to determine the concentration of the sipped samarium (phosphorescence) and also to make the speciation of the species formed in the surface of the zircon (phosphorescence). The results can be extrapolated with the plutonium when making the modeling of the migration of alpha emitting coming from the repositories of radioactive waste since both they have similar chemical properties (they are homologous). (Author)

  20. Neutron and Charged-Particle Induced Cross Sections for Radiochemistry in the Region of Samarium, Europium, and Gadolinium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, R D; Kelley, K; Dietrich, F S; Bauer, R; Mustafa, M

    2004-11-30

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron and proton induced nuclear reaction cross sections in the mass region of samarium, europium and gadolinium (62 {le} Z {le} 64, 82 {le} N {le} 96).

  1. Pemisahan Unsur Samarium dan Yttrium dari Mineral Tanah Jarang dengan Teknik Membran Cair Berpendukung (Supported Liquid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amri Amin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available he increasing use of rare earth elements in high technology industries needs to be supported by developmental work for the separation of elements. The research objective is fiercely attracting and challenging considering the similarity of bath physical and chemical properties among these elements. The rate separation of samarium and yttrium elements using supported liquid membrane has been studied. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE with pore size of 0.45 µm has been used as the membrane and di(2-ethylhexyl phosphate (D2EHP in hexane has been used as a carrier and nitric acid solution has been used as receiving phase. Result of experiments showed that the best separation rate of samarium and yttrium elements could be obtained at feeding phase of pH 3.0, di(2-ethylhexyl phosphate (D2EHP concentration of 0.3 M, agitation rate of 700 rpm, agitation time of 2 hours, and nitric acid and its solution concentrations of 1.0 M and 0.1 M, respectively. At this condition, separation rates of samarium and yttrium were 64.4 and 67.6%, respectively.   Keywords: liquid membrane, rare earth elements, samarium, yttrium

  2. Pyrolysis result of polyethylene waste as fuel for solid oxide fuel cell with samarium doped-ceria (SDC)-carbonate as electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahputra, R. J. E.; Rahmawati, F.; Prameswari, A. P.; Saktian, R.

    2017-02-01

    In this research, the result of pyrolysis on polyethylene was used as fuel for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The pyrolysis result is a liquid which consists of hydrocarbon chains. According to GC-MS analysis, the hydrocarbons mainly consist of C7 to C20 hydrocarbon chain. Then, the liquid was applied to a single cell of NSDC-L | NSDC | NSDC-L. NSDC is a composite SDC (samarium doped-ceria) with sodium carbonate. Meanwhile, NSDC-L is a composite of NSDC with LiNiCuO (LNC). NSDC and LNC were analyzed by X-ray diffraction to understand their crystal structure. The result shows that presence of carbonate did not change the crystal structure of SDC. SEM EDX analysis for fuel cell before and after being loaded with polyethylene oil to get information of element diffusion to the electrolyte. Meanwhile, the conductivity properties were investigated through impedance measurement. The presence of carbonate even increases the electrical conductivity. The single cell test with the pyrolysis result of polyethylene at 300 - 600 °C, found that the highest power density is at 600 °C with the maximum power density of 0.14 mW/cm2 and open circuit voltage of 0.4 Volt. Elemental analysis at three point spots of single cell NDSC-L |NSDC|NSDC-L found that a migration of ions was occurred during fuel operation at 300 - 600 °C.

  3. Multiphoton laser wave-mixing absorption spectroscopy for samarium using a graphite furnace atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniaci, Michael J.; Tong, William G. E-mail: william.tong@sdsu.edu

    2004-07-30

    Nonlinear laser wave-mixing optical technique is presented as a sensitive atomic spectroscopic method for the analysis of rare earth elements using an unmodified commercially available graphite furnace (GF) atomizer. A simple nonplanar backward-scattering degenerate four-wave mixing optical arrangement offers sub-picogram detection sensitivity with sub-Doppler Lorentzian-broadened resolution. Nonlinear wave mixing is an unusually sensitive absorption-based optical method that offers both excellent detection sensitivity and sub-Doppler spectral resolution. A mass detection limit of 0.7 pg and a concentration detection limit of 70 pg/ml are determined for a rare earth element, samarium, using the 429.7-nm excitation line.

  4. Samarium Doped Cerium Oxide Clusters: a Study on the Modulation of Electronic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolski, Josey E.; Kafader, Jared O.; Marrero-Colon, Vicmarie; Chick Jarrold, Caroline

    2017-06-01

    Cerium oxide is known for its use in solid oxide fuel cells due to its high ionic conductivity. The doping of trivalent samarium atoms into cerium oxide is known to enhance the ionic conductivity through the generation of additional oxygen vacancies. This study probes the electronic structure of Sm_{x}Ce_{y}O_{z} (x+y=3, z=2-4) anion and neutral clusters. Anion photoelectron spectra of these mixed metal clusters exhibit additional spectral features not present in the previously studied cerium oxide clusters. Density functional theory calculations have been used to aid interpretation of collected spectra. The results of this work can be used to inform the design of materials used for solid oxide fuel cells.

  5. Chelating Ligand-Mediated Hydrothermal Synthesis of Samarium Orthovanadate with Decavanadate as Vanadium Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanguo Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid- (EDTA- mediated hydrothermal route to prepare chrysanthemum-shaped samarium orthovanadate (SmVO4 nanocrystals with decavanadate (K6V10O28·9H2O as vanadium source has been developed. The present hydrothermal approach is simple and reproducible and employs a relatively mild reaction temperature. The EDTA, pH value, and temperature of the reaction systems play important roles in determining the morphologies and growth process of the SmVO4 products. The products have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, photoluminescence spectra (PL, and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

  6. The Magnetocaloric Effect and Heat Capacity of Suspensions of High-Dispersity Samarium Ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, V. V.; Aref'ev, I. M.; Ramazanova, A. G.

    2008-02-01

    The magnetocaloric effect and specific heat capacity of an aqueous suspension of samarium ferrite were determined calorimetrically over the temperature range 288-343 K in magnetic fields of 0-0.7 T. The data obtained were used to calculate changes in the magnetic component of the molar heat capacity and entropy of the magnetic phase and changes in the enthalpy of the process under an applied magnetic field. The magnetocaloric effect was found to increase nonlinearly as the magnetic field induction grew. The corresponding temperature dependences contained a maximum at 313 K related to the second-order magnetic phase transition at the Curie point. The field and temperature dependences of heat capacity contained a maximum in fields of 0.4 T and a minimum at the magnetic phase transition temperature.

  7. Preparation of hollow core/shell microspheres of hematite and its adsorption ability for samarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sheng-Hui; Yao, Qi-Zhi; Zhou, Gen-Tao; Fu, Sheng-Quan

    2014-07-09

    Hollow core/shell hematite microspheres with diameter of ca. 1-2 μm have been successfully achieved by calcining the precursor composite microspheres of pyrite and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in air. The synthesized products were characterized by a wide range of techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) gas sorptometry. Temperature- and time-dependent experiments unveil that the precursor pyrite-PVP composite microspheres finally transform into hollow core/shell hematite microspheres in air through a multistep process including the oxidation and sulfation of pyrite, combustion of PVP occluded in the precursor, desulfation, aggregation, and fusion of nanosized hematite as well as mass transportation from the interior to the exterior of the microspheres. The formation of the hollow core/shell microspheres dominantly depends on the calcination temperature under current experimental conditions, and the aggregation of hematite nanocrystals and the core shrinking during the oxidation of pyrite are responsible for the formation of the hollow structures. Moreover, the adsorption ability of the hematite for Sm(III) was also tested. The results exhibit that the hematite microspheres have good adsorption activity for trivalent samarium, and that its adsorption capacity strongly depends on the pH of the solution, and the maximum adsorption capacity for Sm(III) is 14.48 mg/g at neutral pH. As samarium is a typical member of the lanthanide series, our results suggest that the hollow hematite microspheres have potential application in removal of rare earth elements (REEs) entering the water environment.

  8. The influence of the technological parameters on the ionic conductivity of samarium doped ceria thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Sriubas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sm0,20Ce0,80O2 powder was used for the formation of samarium doped cerium oxide (SDC thin films using e-beam. Surface area of powder was 34.9 m2/g and particle size – 0.3-0.5 μm. Thin films were deposited using physical vapor deposition system on SiO2 and Alloy 600 substrates. 2 Å/s – 16 Å/s growth rate and 20 °C – 600 °C substrate temperature were used during the deposition. Ionic conductivity investigation revealed that the maximum ionic conductivity (1.67 S/m has the thin film deposited on 300 °C temperature substrate using 4 Å/s growth rate. Minimum ionic conductivity (0.26 S/m has thin film which was deposited on 20 °C temperature substrate using 8 Å/s growth rate. Vacancy activation energies vary in 0.87 eV – 0.97 eV range. Furthermore the calculations of crystallite size revealed that crystallite size increases with increasing substrate temperature: from 7.50 nm to 46.23 nm on SiO2 substrate and from 9.30 nm to 44.62 nm on Alloy 600 substrate. Molar concentration of samarium in initial evaporated material is 19.38 mol% and varies from 11.37 mol% to 21 mol% in formed thin films depending on technological parameters.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5700

  9. Formation of Core-Shell Nanoparticles Composed of Magnetite and Samarium Oxide in Magnetospirillum magneticum Strain RSS-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoshige, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Yoshikata; Kobayashi, Hideki; Yanagisawa, Keiichi; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Shimamura, Shigeru; Mizuki, Toru; Inoue, Akira; Maekawa, Toru

    2017-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) synthesize magnetosomes composed of membrane-enveloped magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) particles in the cells. Recently, several studies have shown some possibilities of controlling the biomineralization process and altering the magnetic properties of magnetosomes by adding some transition metals to the culture media under various environmental conditions. Here, we successfully grow Magnetospirillum magneticum strain RSS-1, which are isolated from a freshwater environment, and find that synthesis of magnetosomes are encouraged in RSS-1 in the presence of samarium and that each core magnetic crystal composed of magnetite is covered with a thin layer of samarium oxide (Sm2O3). The present results show some possibilities of magnetic recovery of transition metals and synthesis of some novel structures composed of magnetic particles and transition metals utilizing MTB.

  10. High-κ Samarium-Based Metal-Organic Framework for Gate Dielectric Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Abhishek; Chiou, Guan Ru; Gade, Narsinga Rao; Usman, Muhammad; Mendiratta, Shruti; Luo, Tzuoo-Tsair; Tseng, Tien Wen; Chen, Jenq-Wei; Chen, Fu-Rong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong; Lu, Kuang-Lieh

    2017-07-05

    The self-assembly of a samarium-based metal-organic framework [Sm2(bhc)(H2O)6]n (1) in good yield was achieved by reacting Sm(NO3)3·6H2O with benzenehexacarboxylic acid (bhc) in a mixture of H2O-EtOH under hydrothermal conditions. A structural analysis showed that compound 1 crystallized in a space group of Pnmn and adopted a 3D structure with (4,8) connected nets. Temperature dependent dielectric measurements showed that compound 1 behaves as a high dielectric material with a high dielectric constant (κ = 45.1) at 5 kHz and 310 K, which is comparable to the values for some of the most commonly available dielectric inorganic metal oxides such as Sm2O3, Ta2O5, HfO2, and ZrO2. In addition, electrical measurements of 1 revealed an electrical conductivity of about 2.15 × 10-7 S/cm at a frequency of 5 kHz with a low leakage current (Ileakage = 8.13 × 10-12 Amm-2). Dielectric investigations of the Sm-based MOF provide an effective path for the development of high dielectric materials in the future.

  11. Pyroelectric properties and electrical conductivity in samarium doped BiFeO 3 ceramics

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yingbang

    2012-06-01

    Samarium (Sm 3+) doped BiFeO 3 (BFO) ceramics were prepared by a modified solid-state-reaction method which adopted a rapid heating as well as cooling during the sintering process. The pyroelectric coefficient increased from 93 to 137 μC/m 2 K as the Sm 3+ doping level increased from 1 mol% to 8 mol%. Temperature dependence of the pyroelectric coefficient showed an abrupt decrease above 80 °C in all samples, which was associated with the increase of electrical conductivity with temperature. This electrical conduction was attributed to oxygen vacancy existing in the samples. An activation energy of ∼0.7 eV for the conduction process was found to be irrespective of the Sm 3+ doping level. On the other hand, the magnetic Néel temperature (T N) decreased with increasing Sm 3+ doping level. On the basis of our results, the effects of Sm doping level on the pyroelectric and electrical properties of the BFO were revealed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Samarium-153 EDTMP for metastatic bone pain palliation: the impact of europium impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalef-Ezra, J A; Valakis, S T; Pallada, S

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the impact on the radiation protection policies of the radiocontaminants in Samarium-153 ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonate ((153)Sm-EDTMP). The internal contamination of patients treated with (153)Sm-EDMTP for palliation of painful disseminated multiple bone metastases due to long-lived impurities was assessed by direct measurements. These measurements were coupled with dose-rate measurements close to their bodies and spectroscopic analysis of the residual activity in post-treatment radiopharmaceutical vials. Whole-body counting carried out in six patients showed a 30-81-kBq europium -152 plus europium-154 contamination. The 0.85 mean (152)Eu- to -(154)Eu activity ratio obtained by direct counting was similar to that assessed by analysis of post-treatment residual activities in twelve radiopharmaceutical vials following radiopharmaceutical injection. The long-lived radiocontaminants in the patient's bodies and the treatment wastes require modifications of the applicable radiation protection policies. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Samarium oxide as a radiotracer to evaluate the in vivo biodistribution of PLGA nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandiwana, Vusani, E-mail: VMandiwana@csir.co.za; Kalombo, Lonji, E-mail: LKalombo@csir.co.za [Centre of Polymers and Composites, CSIR (South Africa); Venter, Kobus, E-mail: Kobus.Venter@mrc.ac.za [South African Medical Research Council (South Africa); Sathekge, Mike, E-mail: Mike.Sathekge@up.ac.za [University of Pretoria and Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine (South Africa); Grobler, Anne, E-mail: Anne.Grobler@nwu.ac.za; Zeevaart, Jan Rijn, E-mail: zeevaart@necsa.co.za [North-West University, DST/NWU Preclinical Drug Development Platform (South Africa)

    2015-09-15

    Developing nanoparticulate delivery systems that will allow easy movement and localization of a drug to the target tissue and provide more controlled release of the drug in vivo is a challenge in nanomedicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biodistribution of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing samarium-153 oxide ([{sup 153}Sm]Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in vivo to prove that orally administered nanoparticles alter the biodistribution of a drug. These were then activated in a nuclear reactor to produce radioactive {sup 153}Sm-loaded-PLGA nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized for size, zeta potential, and morphology. The nanoparticles were orally and intravenously (IV) administered to rats in order to trace their uptake through imaging and biodistribution studies. The {sup 153}Sm-loaded-PLGA nanoparticles had an average size of 281 ± 6.3 nm and a PDI average of 0.22. The zeta potential ranged between 5 and 20 mV. The [{sup 153}Sm]Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} loaded PLGA nanoparticles, orally administered were distributed to most organs at low levels, indicating that there was absorption of nanoparticles. While the IV injected [{sup 153}Sm]Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-loaded PLGA nanoparticles exhibited the highest localization of nanoparticles in the spleen (8.63 %ID/g) and liver (3.07 %ID/g), confirming that nanoparticles are rapidly removed from the blood by the RES, leading to rapid uptake in the liver and spleen. From the biodistribution data obtained, it is clear that polymeric nanoscale delivery systems would be suitable for improving permeability and thus the bioavailability of therapeutic compounds.

  14. Samarium oxide as a radiotracer to evaluate the in vivo biodistribution of PLGA nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandiwana, Vusani; Kalombo, Lonji; Venter, Kobus; Sathekge, Mike; Grobler, Anne; Zeevaart, Jan Rijn

    2015-09-01

    Developing nanoparticulate delivery systems that will allow easy movement and localization of a drug to the target tissue and provide more controlled release of the drug in vivo is a challenge in nanomedicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biodistribution of poly( d, l-lactide- co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing samarium-153 oxide ([153Sm]Sm2O3) in vivo to prove that orally administered nanoparticles alter the biodistribution of a drug. These were then activated in a nuclear reactor to produce radioactive 153Sm-loaded-PLGA nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized for size, zeta potential, and morphology. The nanoparticles were orally and intravenously (IV) administered to rats in order to trace their uptake through imaging and biodistribution studies. The 153Sm-loaded-PLGA nanoparticles had an average size of 281 ± 6.3 nm and a PDI average of 0.22. The zeta potential ranged between 5 and 20 mV. The [153Sm]Sm2O3 loaded PLGA nanoparticles, orally administered were distributed to most organs at low levels, indicating that there was absorption of nanoparticles. While the IV injected [153Sm]Sm2O3-loaded PLGA nanoparticles exhibited the highest localization of nanoparticles in the spleen (8.63 %ID/g) and liver (3.07 %ID/g), confirming that nanoparticles are rapidly removed from the blood by the RES, leading to rapid uptake in the liver and spleen. From the biodistribution data obtained, it is clear that polymeric nanoscale delivery systems would be suitable for improving permeability and thus the bioavailability of therapeutic compounds.

  15. Fabrication and properties of samarium doped calcium sulphate thin films using spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reghima, Meriem [Université Tunis El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Département de Physique, LR99ES13 Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée (LPMC), 2092 Tunis, Tunisie (Tunisia); Institut d' Electronique et des systèmes, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5214 UM2-CNRS (ST2i) – Université Montpellier, 860 rue de Saint Priest, Bâtiment 5, 34097 Montpellier (France); Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, Zarzouna 7021 (Tunisia); Guasch, Cathy [Institut d' Electronique et des systèmes, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5214 UM2-CNRS (ST2i) – Université Montpellier, 860 rue de Saint Priest, Bâtiment 5, 34097 Montpellier (France); Azzaza, Sonia; Alleg, Safia [Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Spectroscopie des Solides (LM2S), Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Badji Mokhtar Annaba, B.P. 12, 23000 Annaba (Algeria); Kamoun-Turki, Najoua [Université Tunis El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Département de Physique, LR99ES13 Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée (LPMC), 2092 Tunis, Tunisie (Tunisia)

    2016-10-01

    Using low cost spray pyrolysis technique, polycrystalline CaSO{sub 4} thin films were successfully grown on a glass substrate with a thickness of about 1 μm. Samarium doping has been performed on CaSO{sub 4} thin films to explore luminescence properties. The characterizations of these films were carried out using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and optical measurements. The structural analyses reveal the existence of hexagonal CaSO{sub 4} phase with a (200) preferred orientation belonging to CaS compound for substrate temperatures below 350 °C. It is shown that the crystallinity of the sprayed thin films can be improved by increasing substrate temperature up to 250 °C. Warren-Averbach analysis has been applied on X-ray diffractogram to determine structural parameters involving the phase with its amount, the grain size and the lattice parameters using Maud software. The surface topography shows a rough surface covered by densely packed agglomerated clusters having faceted and hexagonal shapes. Energy dispersive microscopy measurements confirm the presence of calcium and sulfur in equal proportions as well as high percentage of oxygen. Photoluminescence at room temperature revealed that luminescence peaks are attributed to the intrinsic emission of pure CaSO{sub 4} phase. - Highlights: • Warren Averbach analysis reveal the presence of hcp structure of CaSO{sub 4} phase. • A mixture of CaSO{sub 4} and CaHO{sub 4.5}S phases has been detected for lower T{sub s}. • For increasing T{sub s}, the CaHO{sub 4.5}S phase has been disappeared. • The origin of PL peaks has been identified.

  16. Optical properties and electronic transitions of zinc oxide, ferric oxide, cerium oxide, and samarium oxide in the ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauly, N; Yubero, F; Espinós, J P

    2017-01-01

    Optical properties and electronic transitions of four oxides, namely zinc oxide, ferric oxide, cerium oxide, and samarium oxide, are determined in the ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy using primary electron energies in the range 0.3-2.0 keV. This...

  17. Treatment of bone pain secondary to metastases using samarium-153-EDTMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Cristina Sá de Camargo Etchebehere

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: More than 50% of patients with prostate, breast or lung cancer will develop painful bone metastases. The purpose of treating bone metastases is to relieve pain, reduce the use of steroids and to maintain motion. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of samarium-153-EDTMP (153Sm-EDTMP for the treatment of bone pain secondary to metastases that is refractory to clinical management. TYPE OF STUDY: Retrospective. SETTING: Division of Nuclear Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients were studied (34 males with mean age 62 years; 31 patients had prostate cancer, 20 had breast cancer, three had lung cancer, one had lung hemangioendothelioma, one had parathyroid adenocarcinoma, one had osteosarcoma and one had an unknown primary tumor. All patients had multiple bone metastases demonstrated by bone scintigraphy using 99mTc-MDP,and were treated with 153Sm-EDTMP. Response to treatment was graded as good (pain reduction of 50-100%, intermediate (25-49% and poor (0-24%. RESULTS: All patients showed good uptake of 153Sm-EDTMP by bone metastases. Among the patients with prostate cancer, intermediate or good response to therapy occurred in 80.6% (25 patients and poor response in 19.4% (6. Among the patients with breast cancer, 85% (17 showed intermediate or good response to therapy while 15% (3 showed poor response. All three patients with lung cancer showed poor response to treatment. The lung hemangioendothelioma and unknown primary lesion patients showed intermediate response to treatment; the osteosarcoma and parathyroid adenocarcinoma patients showed good response to treatment. No significant myelotoxicity occurred. DISCUSSION: Pain control is important for improving the quality of life of patients with advanced cancers. The mechanism by which pain is relieved with the use of radionuclides is still not yet completely understood, however, the treatment is simple and provides a low risk of mielotoxicity

  18. Anchoring samarium oxide nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide for high-performance supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezfuli, Amin Shiralizadeh [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: ganjali@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology & Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naderi, Hamid Reza [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Samarium oxide nanoparticles have been anchored on the surface of reduced graphene oxide for the first time. • Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO nanocomposite show high capacitance, good rate and cycling performance. • Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO nanocomposite can serve as efficient electrode material for energy storage. • The best composite electrode exhibits specific capacitance of 321 F g{sup −1} in 2 mV s{sup −1}. - Abstract: We have synthesized Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (SmNs) and anchored them onto the surface of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) through a self-assembly thereof by utilizing a facile sonochemical procedure. The nanomaterials were characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As the next step, the supercapacitive behavior of the resulting nanocomposites were investigated when used as electrode material, through with cyclic voltammetric (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The SmNs decorated RGO (SmN-RGO) nanocomposites were found to possess a specific capacitance (SC) of 321 F g{sup −1} when used in a 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution as an electrolyte, in a scan rate of 2 mV s{sup −1}. The SC of the SmN-RGO based electrodes were also found to be 268 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 2 A g{sup −1} through galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The outstanding properties of the SmN-RGOs were attributed to synergy of the high charge mobility of SmNs and the flexibility of the sheets of RGOs. Additionally, the nano-composite revealed a unique cycling durability (maintaining 99% of its SC even after 4000 cycles).

  19. Effect of Current Density on Thermodynamic Properties of Nanocrystalline Palladium Capped Samarium Hydride Thin Film Switchable Mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 55 nm samarium film capped with a 10 nm palladium overlayer switched from a metallic reflecting to a semiconducting, transparent in visible state during ex-situ hydrogen loading via electrochemical means in 1 M KOH electrolytic aqueous solution at room temperature. The switching between metal to semiconductor was accompanied by measurement of transmittance during hydrogen loading/unloading. The effect of current density on switching and thermodynamic properties was studied between dihydride state (FCC phase and trihydride state (hexagonal phase. From the plateau of partial pressure of hydrogen at x=2.6, enthalpy of formation was calculated at different current densities. The diffusion coefficients and switching kinetics are shown to depend on applied current density.

  20. Targeted bone marrow radioablation with 153Samarium-lexidronam promotes allogeneic hematopoietic chimerism and donor-specific immunologic hyporesponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inverardi, Luca; Linetsky, Elina; Pileggi, Antonello; Molano, R Damaris; Serafini, Aldo; Paganelli, Giovanni; Ricordi, Camillo

    2004-03-15

    Transplantation tolerance, defined as acceptance of a graft by an otherwise fully immunocompetent host, has been an elusive goal. Although robust tolerance has been achieved by the induction of stable hematopoietic chimerism after bone marrow transplantation, lethal or sublethal radiation conditioning used to induce long-term chimerism precludes its clinical use. We studied whether targeted delivery of radiation to bone marrow could allow for bone marrow cell (BMC) engraftment, chimerism, and donor-specific tolerance in the absence of the side effects associated with external irradiation. We administered a radioactive bone-seeking compound (Samarium-Lexidronam, Quadramet, Berlex Laboratories, Wayne, NJ) together with transient T-cell costimulatory blockade to recipient mice. Allogeneic BMCs were given 7 or 14 days after preconditioning. Costimulatory blockade was obtained by the use of an anti-CD154 antibody for 4 weeks. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. Mice then received donor-specific and third-party skin grafts. Graft survival was analyzed with mechanisms of donor-specific hyporesponsiveness. High levels of stable chimerism across an allogeneic barrier were achieved in mice by a single administration of Samarium-Lexidronam, transient T-cell costimulatory blockade, and BMC transplantation. A large percentage of chimeric animals retained donor-derived skin grafts for more than 120 days without requiring additional immunosuppression, suggesting that harsh cytotoxic preconditioning is not necessary to achieve stable chimerism and donor specific hyporesponsiveness. Analysis of the T-cell repertoire in chimeras indicates T-cell deletional mechanisms. These data broaden the potential use of BMC transplantation for tolerance induction and argue for its potential in treating autoimmune diseases.

  1. Sorption of samarium in soils: influence of soil properties and Sm concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Guinart, Oriol; Salaberria, Aitor; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry department, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Due to the fact that barriers of Deep Geological Repositories (DGR) may lose efficiency before the radioisotopes present in the High Level Radioactive Waste (HLRW) completely decay, it is possible that, in the long-term, radioactive leachates may escape from the DGR and reach the soil and water compartments in the biosphere. Therefore, it is required to examine the interaction and mobility of radionuclides present in the HLRW, or their chemical analogues, to predict the impact of their eventual incorporation in the biosphere and to assess the derived risk. Although relevant data have been recently obtained for a few radionuclides in soils, there are still some important gaps for some radionuclides, such us for samarium (Sm). Sm is a lanthanide that, besides being considered as a natural analogue of actinides, may also be present in HLRW in the form of the radioactive isotope {sup 151}Sm. The main objective of this work was to obtain sorption data (K{sub d}) of {sup 151}Sm gathered from a set of soil samples physicochemical fully-characterized (pH, texture, cationic exchange capacity, soil solution cationic composition, organic matter, carbonate and metallic oxides content, etc.). Additionally, as an alternative for testing sorption capacity of radionuclides in soils is the use of the corresponding stable isotope or a chemical analogue, the influence of Sm concentration was also checked. To evaluate {sup 151}Sm sorption, batch assays were carried out for each soil sample, which consisted in a pre-equilibration step of 2 g of each soil with 50 ml of double deionised water, and a subsequent equilibration step with the same solution, but labelled with {sup 151}Sm. The activity of {sup 151}Sm in initial and final solutions was measured by liquid scintillation and K{sub d} ({sup 151}Sm) data were calculated. The reversibly sorbed fraction was estimated by the application of a single extraction test, with double deionised water, to soil residues coming from the previous

  2. Ion-exchange separation of the rare earth elements by means of solution of ammonium phthalate and chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubicki, W.; Ozga, W. (Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej, Lublin (Poland))

    1976-01-01

    A new method of ion exchange separation of lanthanons by the use of equimolar solution of ammonium phthalate and ammonium chloride as an eluent was elaborated. This method allows to separate light lanthanons and to obtain concentrate of samarium and heavy lanthanons. 99.99% Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was obtained from non-neodymium concentration with 47.4% efficiency. The influence of change in concentration and pH of eluent on the effectiveness of separation was examined. It was found that an increase in concentration of eluent and pH leads to quick separation of yttrium from samarium and heavy lanthanons. However, the efficiency of pure Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ decreases distinctly.

  3. Crystal growth of semiorganic complex- samarium chloride coordinated thiourea-L-tartaric acid and its studies on structure and optical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slathia, Goldy; Singh, Harjinder; Ramya, E.; Rao, D. Narayana; Bamzai, K. K.

    2017-05-01

    The semi-organic complex of samarium chloride coordinated thiourea-L-tartaric acid (SCTLT) has been grown as a single crystal by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. For structural studies, the grown crystal was subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. Low cut off wavelength and transparent characteristics were explored by UV-VIS optical characterization. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of grown crystal were investigated by Z-scan technique.

  4. Trace amounts of rare earth elements in high purity samarium oxide by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after separation by HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedreira, W.R. [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil) and Fundacao Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina do Trabalho (FUNDACENTRO), 05409-002 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: walter.pedreira@fundacentro.gov.br; Queiroz, C.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Abrao, A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rocha, S.M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vasconcellos, M.E. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Boaventura, G.R. [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Pimentel, M.M. [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2006-07-20

    Today there is an increasing need for high purity rare earth compounds in various fields, the optical, the electronics, the ceramic, the nuclear and geochemistry. Samarium oxide has special uses in glass, phosphors, lasers and thermoelectric devices. Calcium chloride crystals treated with samarium have been employed in lasers, which produce light beams intense enough to burn metal. In general, the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) presents some advantages for trace element analysis, due to high sensitivity and resolution, when compared with other analytical techniques such as ICP optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In this work, sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used. Sixteen elements (Sc, Y and 14 lanthanides) were determined selectively with the ICP-MS system using a concentration gradient method. The detection limits with the ICP-MS system were about 0.2 (La) pg mL{sup -1} to 8 (Gd) pg mL{sup -1}. The %R.S.D. of the methods varying between 0.9 and 1.5% for a set of five (n = 5) replicates was found for the IPEN's material and for the certificate reference sample. Determination of trace REEs in two high pure samarium oxides samples (IPEN and JMC) was performed. IPEN's material is highly pure (>99.99%) and was successfully analyzed without spectral interference (MO{sup +} and MOH{sup +})

  5. Trichloridotris{N-[phenyl(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene]hydroxylamine-κ2N,N′}samarium(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahong Li

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The SmIII ion in the title compound, [SmCl3(C12H10N2O3], shows a coordination number of nine with a slightly distorted tricapped trigonal prismatic geometry based on a Cl3N6 donor set. The molecular structure is stabilized by three intramolecular O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  6. Effectiveness of radiation synovectomy with samarium-{sup 153} particulate hydroxyapatite in rheumatoid arthritis patients with knee synovitis: a controlled randomized double-blind trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marla Francisca dos; Furtado, Rita Nely Vilar; Konai, Monique Sayuri; Natour, Jamil, E-mail: jnatour@unifesp.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Reumatologia; Castiglioni, Mario Luiz Vieira; Marchetti, Renata Rosa [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Medicina Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    Objectives: the aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of Samarium{sup 153}-particulate hydroxyapatite radiation synovectomy in rheumatoid arthritis patients with chronic knee synovitis. Methods: fifty-eight rheumatoid arthritis patients (60 knees) with chronic knee synovitis participated in a controlled double-blinded trial. Patients were randomized to receive either an intra-articular injection with 40 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide alone (TH group) or 40 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide combined with 15 mCi Samarium{sup 153}-particulate hydroxyapatite (Sm/TH group). Blinded examination at baseline (T0) and at 1 (T1), 4 (T4), 12 (T12), 32 (T32), and 48 (T48) weeks post-intervention were performed on all patients and included a visual analog scale for joint pain and swelling as well as data on morning stiffness, flexion, extension, knee circumference, Likert scale of improvement, percentage of improvement, SF-36 generic quality of life questionnaire, Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), Lequesne index, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or oral corticosteroids, events and adverse effects, calls to the physician, and hospital visits. Results: the sample was homogeneous at baseline, and there were no withdrawals. Improvement was observed in both groups in relation to T0, but no statistically significant differences between groups were observed regarding all variables at the time points studied. The Sm/TH group exhibited more adverse effects at T1 (p<0.05), but these were mild and transitory. No severe adverse effects were reported during follow-up. Conclusion: intra-articular injection of Samarium{sup 153}-particulate hydroxyapatite (15 mCi) with 40 mg of triamcinolone hexacetonide is not superior to triamcinolone hexacetonide alone for the treatment of knee synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at 1 y of follow-up. (author)

  7. The properties of samarium-doped zinc oxide/phthalocyanine structure for optoelectronics prepared by pulsed laser deposition and organic molecular evaporation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Michal; Marešová, Eva; Fitl, Přemysl; Vlček, Jan; Bergmann, M.; Vondráček, Martin; Yatskiv, Roman; Bulíř, Jiří; Hubík, Pavel; Hruška, Petr; Drahokoupil, Jan; Abdellaoui, N.; Vrňata, M.; Lančok, Ján

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2016), 1-8, č. článku 225. ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15050; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0958; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10279S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14FR010 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:67985882 Keywords : samarium-doped zinc oxide zinc/phthalocyanine deposition * evaporation * pulsed laser deposition * thin films Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.455, year: 2016

  8. Samarium(III) picrate tetraethylene glycol complex: Photoluminescence study and active material in monolayer electroluminescent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusrini, Eny, E-mail: ekusrini@che.ui.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, 16424 Depok (Indonesia); Saleh, Muhammad I. [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Yulizar, Yoki [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, 16424 Depok (Indonesia); Za' aba, Noor K.; Abd. Majid, W.H. [Solid State Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2011-09-15

    A mononuclear Sm(III) complex involving Pic and EO4 (where Pic=picrate anion and EO4=tetraethylene glycol) has been studied. It shows a bright-orange emission when used as active material in a monolayer electroluminescent device of ITO/EO4-Sm-Pic/Al. The crystal structure of the complex consists of [Sm(Pic){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)(EO4)]{sup +} cation and [Pic]{sup -} anion. The Sm(III) ion is coordinated with nine oxygen atoms from one EO4 ligand in a pentadentate mode, two Pic anions each in bidentate and monodentate modes, and one water molecule. Both the terminal alcohol groups of the acyclic EO4 ligand were involved in the O-H...O hydrogen bonding by infinite one-dimensional (1D) chain within a symmetry direction [0 1 0]. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the thin film shows the typical spectral features of the Sm(III) ion ({sup 4}G{sub 5/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub 7/2} transitions). The root-mean-square (rms) of the roughness of thin film is 30.605 nm and indicates that the formation of the monolayer electroluminescent device is not uniform and retains a high crystallinity. Typical semiconductor current-voltage (I-V) property was also observed in this device with threshold and turn voltages of 2.8 and 6.2 V, respectively. The [Sm(Pic){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)(EO4)](Pic).H{sub 2}O complex can be applied as a luminescent center in OLED for bright-orange emission. - Highlights: > The [Sm(Pic){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)(EO4)](Pic).H{sub 2}O complex is crystallized in triclinic with space group P-1. > The complex is applied as a emissive center in monolayer device structure of ITO/EO4-Sm-Pic/Al. > The photoluminescence spectrum of the crystalline and thin film shows a bright-orange emission. > The current-voltage property showed the turn on voltage of 6.2 V.

  9. Laser-Induced Luminescence Study of Samarium(III) Thiodiglycolate Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Dong Yong; Lee, Eil Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kimura, Takaumi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2003-09-15

    The hydration number of Sm(III) has been obtained by using the difference in the decay rate constants in H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O solutions. In general, k{sub obs}(H{sub 2}O) >> k{sub obs}(D{sub 2}O), k{sub obs}(D{sub 2}O) ≅ constant, and ligands are not as effective in causing non-radiative de-excitation of the excited state. For Sm(III), a relationship has been proposed in which the hydration number is related directly to the decay rate constant in H{sub 2}O. If there is no contribution from the ligand to the de-excitation of the luminescence excited state, the hydration of Sm(III) in the different complexes can be obtained directly from the values of k{sub obs} measured in H{sub 2}O. The number and the geometric distribution of solvent molecules around a metal ion in solution are an important factor in the structural and chemical behavior of cation. Indeed, such information has been utilized to design novel ionophores and receptors. However, there have been few studies of hydration structure for lanthanides. The fact that many f-element salts which have relatively large lattice energies are fairly soluble in water is a reflection of the strength of the interactions between the metal cations and water molecules.

  10. Preparation and examination of properties of samarium-153-EDTMP complex; Otrzymywanie chelatu kwasu etylenodiaminotetrametylenofosfonowego (EDTMP) z samarem-153 i badanie jego wlasciwosci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, M. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Garnuszek, P.; Lukasiewicz, A.; Wozniak, I.; Zulczyk, W. [Osrodek Badawczo-Rozwojowy Izotopow, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Licinska, I. [Instytut Lekow, Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Preparation and properties of ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonic acid (EDTMP) as well as some properties of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP chelate have been examined. The chelate formed by samarium-153 (46.3 h, {beta}{sup -}-decay) with EDTMP exhibits high bone uptake and can be used for treatment of disseminated, painful skeletal metastases. The purity and stability of solutions of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP chelate were examined in a broad range of samarium concentration and {sup 153}Sm specific activity. The complex under study was examined by radio-TLC, -electrophoresis and radio-HPLC. The results obtained suggest the small size of molecules of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP chelate as compared with molecules of ``free``EDTMP. The results of biodistribution of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP determined in rats indicate the quick blood clearance, high deposition of radioactivity in bone and quick excretion of radioactivity into urine. No specific uptake of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP in extra-skeletal organs was found. (author). 42 refs, 13 figs, 22 tabs.

  11. The Level of Europium-154 Contaminating Samarium-153-EDTMP Activates the Radiation Alarm System at the US Homeland Security Checkpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Najeeb Al Hallak

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available 153Sm-EDTMP is a radiopharmaceutical composed of EDTMP (ethylenediamine-tetramethylenephosphonate and Samarium-153 [1]. 153Sm-EDTMP has an affinity for skeletal tissue and concentrates in areas with increased bone turnover; thus, it is successfully used in relieving pain related to diffuse bone metastases [1]. The manufacturing process of 153Sm-EDTMP leads to contamination with 154Eu (Europium-154 [2]. A previous study only alluded to the retention of 154Eu in the bones after receiving treatment with 153Sm-EDTMP [2]. Activation of the alarm at security checkpoints after 153Sm-EDTMP therapy has not been previously reported. Two out of 15 patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer Center (Fargo, N. Dak., USA activated the radiation activity sensors while passing through checkpoints; one at a US airport and the other while crossing theAmerican-Canadian border. We assume that the 154Eu which remained in the patients’ bones activated the sensors. Methods: In order to investigate this hypothesis, we obtained the consent from 3 of our 15 patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP within the previous 4 months to 2 years, including the patient who had activated the radiation alarm at the airport. The patients were scanned with a handheld detector and a gamma camera for energies from 511 keV to 1.3 MeV. Results: All three patients exhibited identical spectral images, and further analysis showed that the observed spectra are the result of 154Eu emissions. Conclusion: Depending on the detection thresholds and windows used by local and federal authorities, the remaining activity of 154Eu retained in patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP could be sufficient enough to increase the count rates above background levels and activate the sensors. At Roger Maris Cancer Center, patients are now informed of the potential consequences of 153Sm-EDTMP therapy prior to initiating treatment. In addition, patients treated with 153Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer Center

  12. The Level of Europium-154 Contaminating Samarium-153-EDTMP Activates the Radiation Alarm System at the US Homeland Security Checkpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb Al Hallak, Mohammed; McCurdy, Matt; Zouain, Nicolas; Hayes, Justin

    2009-08-28

    (153)Sm-EDTMP is a radiopharmaceutical composed of EDTMP (ethylenediamine-tetramethylenephosphonate) and Samarium-153 [1]. (153)Sm-EDTMP has an affinity for skeletal tissue and concentrates in areas with increased bone turnover; thus, it is successfully used in relieving pain related to diffuse bone metastases [1]. The manufacturing process of (153)Sm-EDTMP leads to contamination with (154)Eu (Europium-154) [2]. A previous study only alluded to the retention of (154)Eu in the bones after receiving treatment with (153)Sm-EDTMP [2]. Activation of the alarm at security checkpoints after (153)Sm-EDTMP therapy has not been previously reported. Two out of 15 patients who received (153)Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer Center (Fargo, N. Dak., USA) activated the radiation activity sensors while passing through checkpoints; one at a US airport and the other while crossing the American-Canadian border. We assume that the (154)Eu which remained in the patients' bones activated the sensors. METHODS: In order to investigate this hypothesis, we obtained the consent from 3 of our 15 patients who received (153)Sm-EDTMP within the previous 4 months to 2 years, including the patient who had activated the radiation alarm at the airport. The patients were scanned with a handheld detector and a gamma camera for energies from 511 keV to 1.3 MeV. RESULTS: All three patients exhibited identical spectral images, and further analysis showed that the observed spectra are the result of (154)Eu emissions. CONCLUSION: Depending on the detection thresholds and windows used by local and federal authorities, the remaining activity of (154)Eu retained in patients who received (153)Sm-EDTMP could be sufficient enough to increase the count rates above background levels and activate the sensors. At Roger Maris Cancer Center, patients are now informed of the potential consequences of (153)Sm-EDTMP therapy prior to initiating treatment. In addition, patients treated with (153)Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer

  13. Biodistribution of samarium-153-EDTMP in rats treated with docetaxel Biodistribuição de EDTMP-153-samário em ratos tratados com docetaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Villarim Neto

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Many patients with metastatic bone disease have to use radiopharmaceuticals associated with chemotherapy to relieve bone pain. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of docetaxel on the biodistribution of samarium-153-EDTMP in bones and other organs of rats. METHODS: Wistar male rats were randomly allocated into 2 groups of 6 rats each. The DS (docetaxel/samarium group received docetaxel (15 mg/kg intraperitoneally in two cycles 11 days apart. The S (samarium/control group rats were not treated with docetaxel. Nine days after chemotherapy, all the rats were injected with 0.1ml of samarium-153-EDTMP via orbital plexus (25µCi. After 2 hours, the animals were killed and samples of the brain, thyroid, lung, heart, stomach, colon, liver, kidney and both femurs were removed. The percentage radioactivity of each sample (% ATI/g was determined in an automatic gamma-counter (Wizard-1470, Perkin-Elmer, Finland. RESULTS: On the 9th day after the administration of the 2nd chemotherapy cycle, the rats had a significant weight loss (314.50±22.09g compared (pOBJETIVO: Muitos pacientes com metástases ósseas são tratados com radiofármacos associados com quimioterapia para alívio da dor óssea. O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a influência do docetaxel na biodistribuição do EDTMP-153-samário nos ossos e outros órgãos de ratos. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar foram aleatoriamente alocados em 2 grupos de 6 animais cada. O grupo DS (docetaxel/samário recebeu docetaxel (15 mg/kg intraperitoneal em dois ciclos com 11 dias de intervalo. Os ratos do grupo S (samário/controle não foram tratados com docetaxel. Nove dias após a quimioterapia, todos os animais receberam 0,1ml de EDTMP-153-samário via plexo orbital (25µCi. Após 2 horas, os animais foram mortos e feitas biópsias de cérebro, tireóide, pulmão, coração, estômago, cólon, fígado, rim e fêmures. O percentual de radioatividade por grama (%ATI/g de tecido de cada bi

  14. ion with phenolate ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Photoinduced electron transfer (PET) reaction of homoleptic tris-chelated polypyridine ruthenium(II) complexes with phenolate ions is sensitive to the structure of the ligand of the Ru(II) complex as well as of the phenolate ions 1. In recent years 2 the photophysical and photochemical properties of Ru(II) complexes based on ...

  15. Marrow irradiation with high-dose 153Samarium-EDTMP followed by chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell infusion for acute myelogenous leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Vilmarie; Anderson, Peter M; Litzow, Mark R; Erlandson, Linda; Trotz, Barbara A; Arndt, Carola A S; Khan, Shakila P; Wiseman, Gregory A

    2006-08-01

    In four patients, aged 15 - 20 years, with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML), high-dose samarium 153-labelled ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonate (153Sm-EDTMP) was used for targeted marrow irradiation before preparative chemotherapy conditioning regimens and allogeneic (three patients) or autologous (one patient) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The dose of 153Sm-EDTMP was 703 MBq/kg (n = 1) or 1110 MBq/kg (n = 3). No side-effects occurred during the 30-min infusion of 153Sm-EDTMP. Samarium - melphalan regimens were given to three patients; one had 153Sm-EDTMP - busulfan + cyclophosphamide. Total body radioactivity was below the 133 MBq safe limit before infusion of stem cells (day 14 after 153Sm-EDTMP). No hemorrhagic cystitis, nephrotoxicity or serious infections occurred. Leukocyte engraftment (white blood cell count >0.5 x 10(9)/l) occurred between 12 and 23 days after stem cell infusion (mean of 17 days). Complete cytogenetic and morphologic remission of AML was evident on follow-up marrow aspirate and biopsy specimens from all patients. In two of the four study patients, the disease remains in complete remission and the patients have an excellent quality of life (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0; no medications) and no organ toxicity more than 2 years and more than 4 years, respectively, after their blood and bone marrow transplantations. Thus, in adolescents and adults, 153Sm-EDTMP may provide a relatively simple and effective means for using irradiation to eliminate AML within the marrow.

  16. Synthesis of samarium complexes with the derivative binder of Schiff Quinolinic base. Characterization and photophysical study; Sintesis de complejos de samario con el ligante derivado de base de Schiff Quinolinica. Caracterizacion y estudio fotofisico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas H, J.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we determined the metal: binder stoichiometry of the species formed during the UV/Vis spectrophotometric titration of the derivative binder of Schiff quinolinic base, L1 with the samarium nitrate pentahydrate in methanol. Statistical analysis of the data allowed proposing the metal: binder stoichiometry for the synthesis of the complexes which was one mole of samarium salt by 2.5 moles of binder and thus favor the formation of complexes with 1M: 1L and 1M: 2L stoichiometries. They were synthesized in aqueous-organic medium (water-ethanol), isolated and purified two complexes with stoichiometry 1 Sm: 1 L1, complex 1 and 1 Sm: 2 L1, complex 2. The overall yield of the reaction was 76%. The characterization of the formed complexes was performed by visible ultraviolet spectrometry (UV/Vis), nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XP S), thermal gravimetric analysis with differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC), and radial distribution function. These complexes were studied by fluorescence and emission phosphorescence at variable temperature. Spectroscopic techniques used in both solution and solid demonstrated the formation and stability of these complexes. In addition XP S indicated that in both complexes the samarium retains its oxidation state 3+. Luminescence studies indicated that there is intra-binding charge transfer which decreases the transfer of light energy from the binder to the samarium. Based on the experimental results, L1 binder molecules and complexes 1 and 2 were modeled that demonstrated the proposed Nc for each complex, as well as allowed to visualize the structural arrangement of the molecules, complexes and binder. (Author)

  17. Effects of some rare earth and carbonate-based co-dopants on structural and electrical properties of samarium doped ceria (SDC) electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Mustafa; Khan, Zuhair S.; Mustafa, Kamal; Rana, Akmal

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, samarium doped ceria (SDC) and SDC-based composite with the addition of K2CO3 were prepared by co-precipitation route and effects of pH of the solution and calcination temperature on microstructure of SDC and SDC-K2CO3, respectively, were investigated. Furthermore, experimentation was performed to investigate into the ionic conductivity of pure SDC by co-doping with yttrium i.e., YSDC, XRD and SEM studies show that the crystallite size and particle size of SDC increases with the increase in pH. The SEM images of all the samples of SDC synthesized at different pH values showed the irregular shaped and dispersed particles. SDC-K2CO3 was calcined at 600∘C, 700∘C and 800∘C for 4 h and XRD results showed that crystallite size increases while lattice strain, decreases with the increase in calcination temperature and no peaks were detected for K2CO3 as it is present in an amorphous form. The ionic conductivity of the electrolytes increases with the increase in temperature and SDC-K2CO3 shows the highest value of ionic conductivity as compared to SDC and YSDC. Chemical compatibility tests were performed between the co-doped electrolyte and lithiated NiO cathode at high temperature. It revealed that the couple could be used up to the temperature of 700∘C.

  18. Calculation of the Dose of Samarium-153-Ethylene Diamine Tetramethylene Phosphonate (153Sm-EDTMP as a Radiopharmaceutical for Pain Relief of bone Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Razghandi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the important applications of nuclear physics in medicine is the use of radioactive elements as radiopharmaceuticals. Metastatic bone disease is the most common form of malignant bone tumors. Samarium-153-ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate (153Sm-EDTMP as a radiopharmaceutical is used for pain palliation. This radiopharmaceutical usually emits beta particles, which have a high uptake in bone tissues. The purpose of this study was to calculate the radiation dose distribution of 153Sm-EDTMP in bone and other tissues, using MCNPX Monte Carlo code in the particle transport model. Materials and Methods Dose delivery to the bone was simulated by seeking radiopharmaceuticals on the bone surface. The phantom model had a simple cylindrical geometry and included bone, bone marrow, and soft tissue. Results The simulation results showed that a significant amount of radiation dose was delivered to the bone by the use of this radiopharmaceutical. Conclusion Thebone acted as a fine protective shield against rays for the bone marrow. Therefore, the trivial absorbed dose by the bone marrow caused less damage to bone-making cells. Also, the high absorbed dose of the bone could destroy cancer cells and relieve the pain in the bone.

  19. Synthesis, quality control and biological evaluation of tris[(1,10-phenanthroline)[{sup 153}Sm]samarium(III)]trithiocyanate complex as a therapeutic agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naseri, Z.; Kharat, A. Nemati [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Inorganic Chemistry Dept.; Hakimi, A. [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch; Jalilian, A.R.; Shirvani-Arani, S.; Bahrami-Samani, A.; Ghannadi-Maragheh, M. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (IR). Radiopharmaceutical Research and Development Lab (RRDL)

    2012-07-01

    Therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals are designed to deliver high doses of radiation to selected target organs or tissues with an aim of minimizing unwanted radiation to surrounding healthy tissue. In this work, [tris(1,10-phenanthroline)[{sup 153}Sm]samarium(III)]trithiocyanate ({sup 153}Sm-TPTTC) was developed for possible therapeutic properties. The cold compound, i.e. {sup nat}Sm-TPTTC was prepared and characterized by IR, UV, mass and {sup 1}H-NMR spectroscopy. {sup 153}Sm-TPTTC was prepared in two steps using [{sup 153}Sm]SmCl{sub 3}, obtained by neutron activation of an enriched {sup 152}Sm sample. Stability tests, partition coefficient determination, toxicity tests and biodistribution studies of the complex in wild-type and fibrosarcoma-bearing mice were determined. The radiolabeled complex was prepared in high radiochemical purity (> 99% precipitation method) and specific activity of 278 GBq/mmol and demonstrated significant stability at 4, 25 and 37 C (in presence of human serum). Initial complex biodistribution data showed significant liver accumulation in wild-type mice and significant tumor accumulation in fibrosarcoma-bearing mice with tumor:blood and tumor:muscle ratios of 3.55 (2 h) and 38.26 (96 h) respectively. {sup 153}Sm-TPTTC properties suggest an efficient tumor targeting agent with high tumor-avidity. Further investigation on the therapeutic properties must be conducted. (orig.)

  20. Retention capacity of samarium (III) in zircon for it possible use in retaining walls for confinement of nuclear residues; Capacidad de retencion de samario (III) en circon para su posible uso en barreras de contencion para confinamiento de residuos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia G, N

    2006-07-01

    Mexico, as country that produces part of its electric power by nuclear means, should put special emphasis in the development of technologies guided to the sure and long term confinement of the high level nuclear residuals. This work studies the capacity that has the natural zircon to retain to the samarium (III) in solution, by what due, firstly, to characterize the zircon for technical instrumental to determine the purity and characteristic of the mineral in study. The instrumental techniques that were used to carry out the physicochemical characterization were the neutron activation analysis (NAA), the infrared spectroscopy (IS), the thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), semiquantitative analysis, dispersive energy spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and luminescence technique. The characterization of the surface properties carries out by means of the determination of the surface area using the BET multipoint technique, acidity constants, hydration time, the determination of the point of null charge (pH{sub PCN}) and density of surface sites (D{sub s}). The luminescence techniques were useful to determine the optimal point hydration of the zircon and for the quantification of the samarium, for that here intends the development of both analysis techniques. With the adjustment of the titration curves in the FITEQL 4 package the constants of surface acidity in the solid/liquid interface were determined. To the finish of this study it was corroborated that the zircon is a mineral that presents appropriate characteristics to be proposed as a contention barrier for the deep geologic confinement. With regard to the study of adsorption that one carries out the samarium retention it is superior to 90% under the described conditions. This investigation could also be applicable in the confinement of dangerous industrial residuals. (Author)

  1. Optical studies of Sm3+ ions doped Zinc Alumino Bismuth Borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna, K.; Mahamuda, Sk.; Srinivasa Rao, A.; Shakya, S.; Sasikala, T.; Haranath, D.; Vijaya Prakash, G.

    Zinc Alumino Bismuth Borate (ZnAlBiB) glasses doped with different concentrations of samarium (Sm3+) ions were prepared by using melt quenching technique and characterized for their lasing potentialities in visible region by using the techniques such as optical absorption, emission and emission decay measurements. Radiative properties for various fluorescent levels of Sm3+ ions were estimated from absorption spectral information using Judd-Ofelt (JO) analysis. The emission spectra and con-focal photoluminescence images obtained by 410 nm laser excitation demonstrates very distinct and intense orange-red emission for all the doped glasses. The suitable concentration of Sm3+ ions in these glasses to act as an efficient lasing material has been discussed by measuring the emission cross-section and branching ratios for the emission transitions. The quantum efficiencies were also been estimated from emission decay measurements recorded for the 4G5/2 level of Sm3+ ions. From the measured emission cross-sections, branching ratios, strong photoluminescence features and CIE chromaticity coordinates, it was found that 1 mol% of Sm3+ ions doped ZnAlBiB glasses are most suitable for the development of visible orange-red lasers.

  2. Optical studies of Sm³⁺ ions doped zinc alumino bismuth borate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna, K; Mahamuda, Sk; Srinivasa Rao, A; Shakya, S; Sasikala, T; Haranath, D; Vijaya Prakash, G

    2014-05-05

    Zinc Alumino Bismuth Borate (ZnAlBiB) glasses doped with different concentrations of samarium (Sm(3+)) ions were prepared by using melt quenching technique and characterized for their lasing potentialities in visible region by using the techniques such as optical absorption, emission and emission decay measurements. Radiative properties for various fluorescent levels of Sm(3+) ions were estimated from absorption spectral information using Judd-Ofelt (JO) analysis. The emission spectra and con-focal photoluminescence images obtained by 410 nm laser excitation demonstrates very distinct and intense orange-red emission for all the doped glasses. The suitable concentration of Sm(3+) ions in these glasses to act as an efficient lasing material has been discussed by measuring the emission cross-section and branching ratios for the emission transitions. The quantum efficiencies were also been estimated from emission decay measurements recorded for the (4)G5/2 level of Sm(3+) ions. From the measured emission cross-sections, branching ratios, strong photoluminescence features and CIE chromaticity coordinates, it was found that 1 mol% of Sm(3+) ions doped ZnAlBiB glasses are most suitable for the development of visible orange-red lasers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fluorescence enhancement of samarium (III) perchlorate by 1,10-phenanthroline on Phenylnaphthoylmethyl sulfoxide complex and luminescence mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wen-Xian, E-mail: nmglwx@163.com; Feng, Shu-Yan; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Jing; Xin, Xiao-Dong; Ao, Bo-Yang; Li, Ying-Jie

    2013-11-15

    A novel ligand, Phenylnaphthoylmethyl sulfoxide, was synthesized by a new method. Its novel binary complex, SmL{sub 5}·(ClO{sub 4}){sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O, and the ternary complex, SmL{sub 4}·L′(ClO{sub 4}){sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O, had been synthesized (using Phenylnaphthoylmethyl sulfoxide as the first ligand L, 1,10-phenanthroline as the second ligand L′). The complexes were characterized by element analysis, coordination titration, molar conductivity, IR, TG-DSC, {sup 1}HNMR and UV spectra. Their fluorescence emission mechanism, fluorescence intensities and phosphorescence spectra of the two ligands were also investigated by comparison. Fluorescent spectra illustrated that the ternary rare-earth complex presented stronger fluorescence intensity than the binary rare-earth complex in such material. The strongest characteristic fluorescence emission intensity of the ternary system was 1.81 times as strong as that of the binary system. By the analysis of fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra, it was found that the Phenylnaphthoylmethyl sulfoxide and phen had the advantage to absorb and transfer energy to Sm (III) ions effectively, and then the complexes emitted the characteristic fluorescence of Sm (III) ions. The phosphorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime of the complexes were also measured. -- Highlights: • A novel ligand, Phenylnaphthoylmethyl sulfoxide, has been synthesized. • Its novel ternary complex and the binary complex have been synthesized. • The fluorescence emission intensity of ternary rare earth complex exhibit obvious enhancement. • The fluorescence emission mechanism and phosphorescence spectra are also investigated.

  4. SU-C-201-06: Utility of Quantitative 3D SPECT/CT Imaging in Patient Specific Internal Dosimetry of 153-Samarium with GATE Monte Carlo Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallahpoor, M; Abbasi, M [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Vali-Asr Hospital, Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sen, A [University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Parach, A [Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalantari, F [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Patient-specific 3-dimensional (3D) internal dosimetry in targeted radionuclide therapy is essential for efficient treatment. Two major steps to achieve reliable results are: 1) generating quantitative 3D images of radionuclide distribution and attenuation coefficients and 2) using a reliable method for dose calculation based on activity and attenuation map. In this research, internal dosimetry for 153-Samarium (153-Sm) was done by SPECT-CT images coupled GATE Monte Carlo package for internal dosimetry. Methods: A 50 years old woman with bone metastases from breast cancer was prescribed 153-Sm treatment (Gamma: 103keV and beta: 0.81MeV). A SPECT/CT scan was performed with the Siemens Simbia-T scanner. SPECT and CT images were registered using default registration software. SPECT quantification was achieved by compensating for all image degrading factors including body attenuation, Compton scattering and collimator-detector response (CDR). Triple energy window method was used to estimate and eliminate the scattered photons. Iterative ordered-subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) with correction for attenuation and distance-dependent CDR was used for image reconstruction. Bilinear energy mapping is used to convert Hounsfield units in CT image to attenuation map. Organ borders were defined by the itk-SNAP toolkit segmentation on CT image. GATE was then used for internal dose calculation. The Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs) and S-values were reported as MIRD schema. Results: The results showed that the largest SAFs and S-values are in osseous organs as expected. S-value for lung is the highest after spine that can be important in 153-Sm therapy. Conclusion: We presented the utility of SPECT-CT images and Monte Carlo for patient-specific dosimetry as a reliable and accurate method. It has several advantages over template-based methods or simplified dose estimation methods. With advent of high speed computers, Monte Carlo can be used for treatment planning

  5. Fabrication of catalytically active nanocrystalline samarium (Sm)-doped cerium oxide (CeO2) thin films using electron beam evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Subrata; Sutradhar, Narottam; Thangamuthu, R.; Subramanian, B.; Panda, Asit Baran; Jayachandran, M.

    2012-08-01

    Samarium (Sm)-doped cerium oxide (CeO2) thin films were fabricated using electron beam evaporation technique. The synthesized films were deposited either on glass or ITO substrates and studied their nature by annealing at different temperatures. The optical properties and other morphological studies were done by UV-Vis, XRD, XPS, SEM, EDS, and FT-IR analysis. XRD and XPS analysis clearly confirm the presence of Sm in the ceria site. From the SEM study, it was found that after annealing at high temperature ( 300 or 500 °C), the particles size was reduced due to breakdown of large aggregates of particles which is also confirmed from UV-Vis, XPS, and XRD analyses. The FT-IR study proves the presence of -COO-, -OH, or ammonium group on the particles surface. The deposition of Sm-doped CeO2 nanomaterials was found more feasible on ITO substrate compared to that of glass substrate in terms of stability and depth of film thickness. The Sm-doped CeO2 nanomaterial acts as a re-usable catalyst for the reduction of organic dye molecules in the presence of NaBH4. The catalysis rate was compared by considering the electron transfer process during the reduction. The synthesized Sm-doped CeO2 thin films might find wide variety of applications in various emerging fields like solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), oxygen sensor or as catalyst in different types of organic and inorganic catalytic reactions. The fabrication process is very simple, straightforward, less time consuming, and cost effective.

  6. Fabrication of catalytically active nanocrystalline samarium (Sm)-doped cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) thin films using electron beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Subrata, E-mail: skundu@cecri.res.in [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Electrochemical Materials Science (ECMS) Division, Central Electrochemical Research Institute - CECRI (India); Sutradhar, Narottam [G. B. Marg, Central Salt and Marine Chemical Research Institute - CSIR (India); Thangamuthu, R.; Subramanian, B. [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Electrochemical Materials Science (ECMS) Division, Central Electrochemical Research Institute - CECRI (India); Panda, Asit Baran [G. B. Marg, Central Salt and Marine Chemical Research Institute (CSIR) (India); Jayachandran, M., E-mail: mjayam54@yahoo.com [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Electrochemical Materials Science (ECMS) Division, Central Electrochemical Research Institute - CECRI (India)

    2012-08-15

    Samarium (Sm)-doped cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) thin films were fabricated using electron beam evaporation technique. The synthesized films were deposited either on glass or ITO substrates and studied their nature by annealing at different temperatures. The optical properties and other morphological studies were done by UV-Vis, XRD, XPS, SEM, EDS, and FT-IR analysis. XRD and XPS analysis clearly confirm the presence of Sm in the ceria site. From the SEM study, it was found that after annealing at high temperature ({approx}300 or 500 Degree-Sign C), the particles size was reduced due to breakdown of large aggregates of particles which is also confirmed from UV-Vis, XPS, and XRD analyses. The FT-IR study proves the presence of -COO-, -OH, or ammonium group on the particles surface. The deposition of Sm-doped CeO{sub 2} nanomaterials was found more feasible on ITO substrate compared to that of glass substrate in terms of stability and depth of film thickness. The Sm-doped CeO{sub 2} nanomaterial acts as a re-usable catalyst for the reduction of organic dye molecules in the presence of NaBH{sub 4}. The catalysis rate was compared by considering the electron transfer process during the reduction. The synthesized Sm-doped CeO{sub 2} thin films might find wide variety of applications in various emerging fields like solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), oxygen sensor or as catalyst in different types of organic and inorganic catalytic reactions. The fabrication process is very simple, straightforward, less time consuming, and cost effective.Graphical Abstract.

  7. Polypropylene oil as fuel for solid oxide fuel cell with samarium doped-ceria (SDC)-carbonate as electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahputra, R. J. E.; Rahmawati, F.; Prameswari, A. P.; Saktian, R.

    2017-03-01

    The research focusses on converting polypropylene oil as pyrolysis product of polypropylene plastic into an electricity. The converter was a direct liquid fuel-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with cerium oxide based material as electrolyte. The polypropylene vapor flowed into fuel cell, in the anode side and undergo oxidation reaction, meanwhile, the Oxygen in atmosphere reduced into oxygen ion at cathode. The fuel cell test was conducted at 400 - 600 °C. According to GC-MS analysis, the polypropylene oil consist of C8 to C27 hydrocarbon chain. The XRD analysis result shows that Na2CO3 did not change the crystal structure of SDC even increases the electrical conductivity. The maximum power density is 0.079 mW.cm-2 at 773 K. The open circuite voltage is 0.77 volt. Chemical stability test by analysing the single cell at before and after fuel cell test found that ionic migration occured during fuel cell operation. It is supported by the change of elemental composition in the point position of electrolyte and at the electrolyte-electrode interface

  8. Trial of obtaining a high-grade gadolinium concentrate using the fractional precipitation together with the ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozga, W.; Soltysiak, I. (Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej, Lublin (Poland))

    1980-01-01

    The modified fractional precipitation of lanthanon-potassium double chromate was used for preliminary separation of gadolinium concentrate containing 60% Gd/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 33.3% Sm/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The 1st fraction enriched with samarium (60% Sm/sub 2/O/sub 3/) and 2nd fraction enriched with gadolinium (80% Gd/sub 2/O/sub 3/ with efficiency of 82% recounting on Gd/sub 2/O/sub 3/) were obtained. Both fractions were separated by the elution with EDTA solution buffered with ammonium acetate. The good results were obtained by ion exchange separation only of the 1st fraction.

  9. Crystal structure of monoclinic samarium and cubic europium sesquioxides and bound coherent neutron scattering lengths of the isotopes {sup 154}Sm and {sup 153}Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlmann, Holger [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry; Hein, Christina; Kautenburger, Ralf [Saarland Univ., Saarbruecken (Germany). Inorganic Solid State Chemistry; Hansen, Thomas C.; Ritter, Clemens [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Doyle, Stephen [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Synchrotron Radiation (ISS)

    2016-11-01

    The crystal structures of monoclinic samarium and cubic europium sesquioxide, Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were reinvestigated by powder diffraction methods (laboratory X-ray, synchrotron, neutron). Rietveld analysis yields more precise structural parameters than previously known, especially for oxygen atoms. Interatomic distances d(Sm-O) in Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} range from 226.3(4) to 275.9(2) pm [average 241.6(3) pm] for the monoclinic B type Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} [space group C2/m, a = 1418.04(3) pm, b = 362.660(7) pm, c = 885.48(2) pm, β = 100.028(1) ], d(Eu-O) in Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} from 229.9(2) to 238.8(2) pm for the cubic bixbyite (C) type [space group Ia anti 3, a = 1086.87(1) pm]. Neutron diffraction at 50 K and 2 K did not show any sign for magnetic ordering in Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Isotopically enriched {sup 154}Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 153}Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} were used for the neutron diffraction work because of the enormous absorption cross section of the natural isotopic mixtures for thermal neutrons. The isotopic purity was determined by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry to be 98.9% for {sup 154}Sm and 99.8% for {sup 153}Eu. Advanced analysis of the neutron diffraction data suggest that the bound coherent scattering lengths of {sup 154}Sm and {sup 153}Eu need to be revised. We tentatively propose b{sub c}({sup 154}Sm) = 8.97(6) fm and b{sub c}({sup 153}Eu) = 8.85(3) fm for a neutron wavelength of 186.6 pm to be better values for these isotopes, showing up to 8% deviation from accepted literature values. It is shown that inaccurate scattering lengths may result in severe problems in crystal structure refinements causing erroneous structural details such as occupation parameters, which might be critically linked to physical properties like superconductivity in multinary oxides.

  10. Highly CO2-Tolerant Cathode for Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Samarium-Doped Ceria-Protected SrCo0.85Ta0.15O3-δ Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengran; Zhou, Wei; Zhu, Zhonghua

    2017-01-25

    Susceptibility to CO2 is one of the major challenges for the long-term stability of the alkaline-earth-containing cathodes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells. To alleviate the adverse effects from CO2, we incorporated samarium-stabilized ceria (SDC) into a SrCo0.85Ta0.15O3-δ (SCT15) cathode by either mechanical mixing or a wet impregnation method and evaluated their cathode performance stability in the presence of a gas mixture of 10% CO2, 21% O2, and 69% N2. We observed that the CO2 tolerance of the hybrid cathode outperforms the pure SCT15 cathode by over 5 times at 550 °C. This significant enhancement is likely attributable to the low CO2 adsorption and reactivity of the SDC protective layer, which are demonstrated through thermogravimetric analysis, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and electrical conductivity study.

  11. Ferrites Ni{sub 0,5}Zn{sub 0,5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} doped with samarium: structural analysis, morphological and electromagnetic; Ferritas Ni{sub 0,5}Zn{sub 0,5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} dopada com samario: analise estrutural, morfologica e eletromagnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A.C.F.M.; Diniz, A.P., E-mail: anacristina@dema.ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academinca de Engenharia de Materiais; Viana, K.M.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, PE (Brazil). Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia; Cornejo, D.R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Kiminami, R.H.G.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    This paper proposes to investigate the sintering at 1200 deg C/2h of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2-x}Sm{sub x}O{sub 4} ferrite doped with 0.05; 0.075 e 0.1 mol of Sm synthesized by combustion reaction to evaluate the performance materials as absorbers of electromagnetic radiation. The influence of the concentration of samarium on the structure, morphology and electromagnetic properties of ferrites was studied. The resulting samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), magnetic measurements and reflectivity measurements in the frequency range between 8-12 GHz. The results showed that increasing the concentration of samarium caused a decrease in particle size of the samples, encouraging, therefore, to obtain materials with better values of magnetization and reflectivity, allowing for use as absorbers in narrow-band frequency between 9-10 GHz. (author)

  12. From lattice ion ion-exchanger to ion memorizing ion-exchanger; Koshi ion ion kokantai kara ion kioku ion kokantai e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T. [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-05

    Introduced in this report is the lattice-ion ion exchanger and ion-memorizing ion exchanger that have of late developed into key words. The former is the name given to inorganic ion exchangers, such as hydroxyapatite (hereinafter to be shortened to HAp), which selectively exchange ions for other ions in a water solution, at the ordinary temperature and atmospheric pressure off the common knowledge in inorganic structural chemistry. HAp is an example different from the conventional counter-ion ion exchangers as represented by zeolite, in terms of the order of selectiveness it demonstrates when encountering various cations. HAp and the same with its PO4{sup 3-} ion group replaced with a CO3{sup 2-} or SiO4{sup 4-} group is effective in removing dangerous ions and in sterilizing. The ion-memorizing ion exchanger is a development from the lattice-ion ion exchanger, and is capable of very selectively collecting and removing specified ions as if it remembered the specified ions. The Li- or K-ion-memorizing ion exchanger is a typical example. 17 refs., 4 figs, 4 tabs.

  13. Infrared luminescence and thermoluminescence of lithium borate glasses doped with Sm3+ ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjaiah J.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermoluminescence (TL characteristics of X-ray irradiated pure and doped with Sm3+ ions Li2O-MO-B2O3 (where MO=ZnO, CaO, CdO glasses have been studied in the temperature range of 303 to 573 K. All the pure glasses exhibited single TL peaks at 382 K, 424 K and 466 K. When these glasses were doped with Sm3+ ions no additional peaks have been observed but the glow peak temperature of the existing glow peak shifted gradually towards higher temperatures with gain in intensity of TL light output. The area under the glow curve was found to be maximum for Sm3+ doped glasses mixed with cadmium oxide as a modifier. The trap depth parameters associated with the observed TL peaks have been evaluated using Chen’s formulae. The possible use of these glasses in radiation dosimetry has been described. The results clearly showed that samarium doped cadmium borate glass has a potential to be considered as a thermoluminescence dosimeter.

  14. Sol-gel-derived hybrid materials multi-doped with rare-earth metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazowska, E.; Rysiakiewicz-Pasek, E.; Borczuch-Laczka, M.; Cholewa-Kowalska, K.

    2012-06-01

    Four different hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on TiO2-SiO2 matrices with organic additives and doped with rare-earth metal ions (III) from the group of europium, cerium, terbium, neodymium, dysprosium and samarium, were synthesized by sol-gel method. Tetraethyl orthosilicate, titanium (IV) isopropoxide and organic compounds, such as butyl acrylate, butyl methacrylate, ethyl acetoacetate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, ethyl acetate, propylene carbonate, organic solvents and certain inorganic salts were used in the synthesis. The inorganic part of the sols, which were used in the synthesis of all the hybrid materials, was prepared separately and then the organic parts were added. The materials obtained were aged for three weeks at room temperature and then heated in an electric oven for three hours at temperatures of 80 °C-150 °C. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX); X-ray diffraction (XRD); Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (KBr technique); 29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance; and fluorescence spectroscopy were used for the examination of morphology, microstructure and luminescence properties, respectively. Photoluminescence properties with relatively intense narrow emission lines of Tb, Eu, Dy, Nd, Sm respectively to the RE-ions doping, were observed for all the hybrid materials.

  15. ION VATAMANU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    l. Povar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ion Vatamanu was a chemist, writer and public figure. He was equally passionate about both his chosen fields of activity: chemistry and poetry. Chemistry, with its perfect equilibrium of logic and precision, provided inspiration for lyrical creativity, whereas poetry writing enlivened his imagination and passion for chemistry. He loved his parents. He adored his wife Elena, whom he often gifted a sea of flowers. He loved his daughters Mihaela, Mariana, and Leontina. He loved life, and he loved people.

  16. Ion Beam Extraction by Discrete Ion Focusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus (900) and methods are disclosed for ion beam extraction. In an implementation, the apparatus includes a plasma source (or plasma) (802) and an ion extractor (804). The plasma source is adapted to generate ions and the ion extractor is immersed in the plasma source to extract a fraction...... of the generated ions. The ion extractor is surrounded by a space charge (810) formed at least in part by the extracted ions. The ion extractor includes a biased electrode (806) forming an interface with an insulator (808). The interface is customized to form a strongly curved potential distribution (812......) in the space-charge surrounding the ion extractor. The strongly curved potential distribution focuses the extracted ions towards an opening (814) on a surface of the biased electrode thereby resulting in an ion beam....

  17. Retrospective evaluation of bone pain palliation after samarium-153-EDTMP therapy Avaliação retrospectiva do tratamento da dor óssea metastática com Samário-153-EDTMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Tatit Sapienza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of metastatic bone pain palliation and medullar toxicity associated with samarium-153-EDTMP treatment. METHODS: Seventy-three patients with metastatic bone pain having previously undergone therapy with samarium-153-EDTMP (1 mCi/kg were retrospectively evaluated. Routine follow-up included pain evaluation and blood counts for 2 months after treatment. Pain was evaluated using a subjective scale (from 0 to 10 before and for 8 weeks after the treatment. Blood counts were obtained before treatment and once a week for 2 months during follow-up. Dosimetry, based upon the urinary excretion of the isotope, was estimated in 41 individuals, and the resulting radiation absorbed doses were correlated with hematological data. RESULTS: Reduction in pain scores of 75% to 100% was obtained in 36 patients (49%, with a decrease of 50% to 75%, 25% to 50%, and 0% to 25% in, respectively, 20 (27%, 10 (14%, and 7 (10% patients. There was no significant relationship between the pain response and location of the primary tumor (breast or prostate cancer. Mild to moderate myelosuppression was noted in 75.3% of patients, usually with hematological recovery at 8 weeks. The mean bone marrow dose was 347 ± 65 cGy, and only a weak correlation was found between absorbed dose and myelosuppression (Pearson coefficient = .4. CONCLUSIONS: Samarium-153-EDTMP is a valuable method for metastatic bone pain palliation. A mild to moderate and transitory myelosuppression is the main toxicity observed after samarium therapy, showing a weak correlation with dosimetric measures.OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito paliativo da dor e a toxicidade medular associados ao tratamento com Samário-153-EDTMP em pacientes com metástases ósseas. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado de forma retrospectiva, a partir do levantamento de prontuário de 178 pacientes submetidos a tratamento com 1mCi/kg de 153Sm

  18. The dynamics of the laser-induced metal-semiconductor phase transition of samarium sulfide (SmS); Die Dynamik des laserinduzierten Metall-Halbleiter-Phasenuebergangs von Samariumsulfid (SmS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaempfer, Tino

    2009-12-15

    The present thesis is dedicated to the experimental study of the metal-semiconductor phase transition of samarium sulfide (SmS): Temperature- and time-resolved experiments on the characterization of the phase transition of mixed-valence SmS samples (M-SmS) are presented. The measurement of the dynamics of the laser-induced phase transition pursues via time-resolved ultrashort-time microscopy and by X-ray diffraction with sub-picosecond time resolution. The electronic and structural processes, which follow an excitation of M-SmS with infrared femtosecond laser pulses, are physically interpreted on the base of the results obtained in this thesis and model imaginations. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit ist der experimentellen Untersuchung des Metall-Halbleiter-Phasenuebergangs von Samariumsulfid (SmS) gewidmet. Es werden temperatur- und zeitaufgeloeste Experimente zur Charakterisierung des Phasenuebergangs gemischt-valenter SmS Proben (M-SmS) vorgestellt. Die Messung der Dynamik des laserinduzierten Phasenuebergangs erfolgt ueber zeitaufgeloeste Ultrakurzzeit-Mikroskopie und durch Roentgenbeugung mit subpikosekunden Zeitaufloesung. Die elektronischen und strukturellen Prozesse, welche einer Anregung von M-SmS mit infraroten Femtosekunden-Laserpulsen folgen, werden auf der Basis der in dieser Arbeit gewonnenen Ergebnisse und Modellvorstellungen physikalisch interpretiert. (orig.)

  19. Tunable transport property of oxygen ion in metal oxide thin film: Impact of electrolyte orientation on conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, P; Ramaseshan, R; Dash, S; Babu, K Suresh

    2017-06-14

    Quest for efficient ion conducting electrolyte thin film operating at intermediate temperature (~600 °C) holds promise for the real-world utilization of solid oxide fuel cells. Here, we report the correlation between mixed as well as preferentially oriented samarium doped cerium oxide electrolyte films fabricated by varying the substrate temperatures (100, 300 and 500 °C) over anode/ quartz by electron beam physical vapor deposition. Pole figure analysis of films deposited at 300 °C demonstrated a preferential (111) orientation in out-off plane direction, while a mixed orientation was observed at 100 and 500 °C. As per extended structural zone model, the growth mechanism of film differs with surface mobility of adatom. Preferential orientation resulted in higher ionic conductivity than the films with mixed orientation, demonstrating the role of growth on electrochemical properties. The superior ionic conductivity upon preferential orientation arises from the effective reduction of anisotropic nature and grain boundary density in highly oriented thin films in out-of-plane direction, which facilitates the hopping of oxygen ion at a lower activation energy. This unique feature of growing an oriented electrolyte over the anode material opens a new approach to solving the grain boundary limitation and makes it as a promising solution for efficient power generation.

  20. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 1 covers papers on the advances of gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the advances in flow tubes and the measurement of ion-molecule rate coefficients and product distributions; the ion chemistry of the earth's atmosphere; and the classical ion-molecule collision theory. The text also describes statistical methods in reaction dynamics; the state selection by photoion-photoelectron coincidence; and the effects of temperature and pressure in the kinetics of ion-molecule reactions. The energy distribution in the unimolecular decomposition of ions, as well

  1. Microfabricated ion frequency standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Peter; Biedermann, Grant; Blain, Matthew G.; Stick, Daniel L.; Serkland, Darwin K.; Olsson, III, Roy H.

    2010-12-28

    A microfabricated ion frequency standard (i.e. an ion clock) is disclosed with a permanently-sealed vacuum package containing a source of ytterbium (Yb) ions and an octupole ion trap. The source of Yb ions is a micro-hotplate which generates Yb atoms which are then ionized by a ultraviolet light-emitting diode or a field-emission electron source. The octupole ion trap, which confines the Yb ions, is formed from suspended electrodes on a number of stacked-up substrates. A microwave source excites a ground-state transition frequency of the Yb ions, with a frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity laser (VECSEL) then exciting the Yb ions up to an excited state to produce fluorescent light which is used to tune the microwave source to the ground-state transition frequency, with the microwave source providing a precise frequency output for the ion clock.

  2. Radioactive Ion Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Stora, T

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the basic requirements for ion sources designed and operated in radioactive ion beam facilities. The facilities where these sources are operated exploit the isotope separation online (ISOL) technique, in which a target is combined with an ion source to maximize the secondary beam intensity and chemical element selectivity. Three main classes of sources are operated, namely surface-type ion sources, arc discharge-type ion sources, and finally radio-frequenc...

  3. Ion recombination correction in carbon ion beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossomme, S; Hopfgartner, J; Lee, N D; Delor, A; Thomas, R A S; Romano, F; Fukumura, A; Vynckier, S; Palmans, H

    2016-07-01

    In this work, ion recombination is studied as a function of energy and depth in carbon ion beams. Measurements were performed in three different passively scattered carbon ion beams with energies of 62 MeV/n, 135 MeV/n, and 290 MeV/n using various types of plane-parallel ionization chambers. Experimental results were compared with two analytical models for initial recombination. One model is generally used for photon beams and the other model, developed by Jaffé, takes into account the ionization density along the ion track. An investigation was carried out to ascertain the effect on the ion recombination correction with varying ionization chamber orientation with respect to the direction of the ion tracks. The variation of the ion recombination correction factors as a function of depth was studied for a Markus ionization chamber in the 62 MeV/n nonmodulated carbon ion beam. This variation can be related to the depth distribution of linear energy transfer. Results show that the theory for photon beams is not applicable to carbon ion beams. On the other hand, by optimizing the value of the ionization density and the initial mean-square radius, good agreement is found between Jaffé's theory and the experimental results. As predicted by Jaffé's theory, the results confirm that ion recombination corrections strongly decrease with an increasing angle between the ion tracks and the electric field lines. For the Markus ionization chamber, the variation of the ion recombination correction factor with depth was modeled adequately by a sigmoid function, which is approximately constant in the plateau and strongly increasing in the Bragg peak region to values of up to 1.06. Except in the distal edge region, all experimental results are accurately described by Jaffé's theory. Experimental results confirm that ion recombination in the investigated carbon ion beams is dominated by initial recombination. Ion recombination corrections are found to be significant and cannot be

  4. Origin of Blue-Green Emission in α-Zn2P2O7and Local Structure of Ln3+Ion in α-Zn2P2O7:Ln3+(Ln = Sm, Eu): Time-Resolved Photoluminescence, EXAFS, and DFT Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Santosh Kumar; Ghosh, Partha Sarathi; Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Jha, Shambhu Nath; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Kadam, Ramakant Mahadeo

    2017-01-03

    Considering the fact that pyrophosphate-based hosts are in high demand for making highly efficient luminescence materials, we doped two visible lanthanide ions, viz. Sm 3+ and Eu 3+ , in Zn 2 P 2 O 7 . Interestingly, it was oberved that pure Zn 2 P 2 O 7 displayed blue-green dual emission on irradiation with ultraviolet light. Emission and lifetime spectroscopy shows the presence of defects in pyrophosphate samples which are responsible for such emission. DFT calculations clearly pinpointed that the electronic transitions between defect states located at just below the conduction band minimum (arises due to V O 1+ and V O 2+ defects) and valence band maximum, as well as impurity states situated in the band gap, can lead to dual emission in the blue-green region, as is also indicated by emission and lifetime spectra. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) shows the stabilization of europium as well as samarium ion in the +3 oxidation state in α-Zn 2 P 2 O 7 . The fact that α-Zn 2 P 2 O 7 has two different coordination numbers for zinc ions, i.e. five- and six-coordinate, the study of dopant ion distribution in this particular matrix will be an important step in realizing a highly efficient europium- and samarium-based red-emitting phosphor. Time resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) shows that both of these ions are heterogeneously distributed between five- and six-coordinated Zn 2+ sites and it is the six-coordinated Zn 2+ site which is the most favorable for lanthanide ion doping. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements also suggested that a six-coordinated zinc ion is the preferred site occupied by trivalent lanthanide ions, which is in complete agreement with TRPL results. It was observed that there is almost complete transfer of photon energy from Zn 2 P 2 O 7 to Eu 3+ , whereas this transfer is inefficient and almost incomplete in case of Sm 3+ , which is indeed important information for the realization of pyrophosphate

  5. Ultra-Sensitive Nano Optical Sensor Samarium-Doxycycline Doped in Sol Gel Matrix for Assessment of Glucose Oxidase Activity in Diabetics Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat, Marwa M; Attia, M S; Alghamdi, M S; Mahros, Amr M

    2017-07-11

    A low cost and very sensitive method for the determination of the activity of glucose oxidase enzyme in different diabetics serum samples was developed. The method based on the assessment of the H2O2 concentration produced from the reaction of the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme with glucose as substrate in the serum of diabetics patients by nano optical sensor Sm-doxycycline doped in sol gel matrix. H2O2 enhances the luminescence intensity of all bands of the nano Sm-doxycycline complex [Sm-(DC)2](+) doped in sol-gel matrix, especially the 645 nm band at λex = 400 nm and pH 7.0 in water. The influence of the different analytical parameters that affect the luminescence intensity of the nano optical sensor, e.g. pH, H2O2 concentration and foreign ions concentrations were studied. The remarkable enhancement of the luminescence intensity of nano optical sensor [Sm-(DC)2](+) complex in water at 645 nm by the addition of various concentrations of H2O2 was successfully used as an optical sensor for the assessment of the activity of the glucose oxidase enzyme in different diabetics serum samples. The calibration plot was achieved over the activity range 0.1-240 U/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 and a detection limit of 0.05 U/L.

  6. Ions and light

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 3: Ions and Light discusses how ions are formed by electron impact, ion-molecule reactions, or electrical discharge. This book discusses the use of light emitted by excited molecules to characterize either the chemistry that formed the excited ion, the structure of the excited ion, or both.Organized into 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the extension of the classical flowing afterglow technique to include infrared and chemiluminescence and laser-induced fluorescence detection. This text then examines the experiments involving molecules that ar

  7. Radioactive Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Stora, T

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the basic requirements for ion sources designed and operated in radioactive ion beam facilities. The facilities where these sources are operated exploit the isotope separation online (ISOL) technique, in which a target is combined with an ion source to maximize the secondary beam intensity and chemical element selectivity. Three main classes of sources are operated, namely surface-type ion sources, arc discharge-type ion sources, and finally radio-frequency-heated plasma-type ion sources.

  8. Processing of composites based on NiO, samarium-doped ceria and carbonates (NiO-SDCC as anode support for solid oxide fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Siong Mahmud

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available NiO-SDCC composites consisting of NiO mixed with Sm-doped ceria (SDC and carbonates (Li2CO3 and Na2CO3 were sintered at different temperatures and reduced at 550 °C. The influence of reduction on structure of the NiO-SDCC anode support for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs was investigated. Raman spectra of the NiO-SDCC samples sintered at 500, 600 and 700 °C showed that after reducing at 550 °C NiO was reduced to Ni. In addition, SDC and carbonates (Li2CO3 and Na2CO3 did not undergo chemical transformation after reduction and were still detected in the samples. However, no Raman modes of carbonates were identified in the NiO-SDCC pellet sintered at 1000 °C and reduced at 550 °C. It is suspected that carbonates were decomposed at high sintering temperature and eliminated due to the reaction between the CO32– and hydrogen ions during reduction in humidified gases at 550 °C. The carbonate decomposition increased porosity in the Ni-SDCC pellets and consequently caused formation of brittle and fragile structure unappropriated for SOFC application. Because of that composite NiO-SDC samples without carbonates were also analysed to determine the factors affecting the crack formation. In addition, it was shown that the different reduction temperatures also influenced the microstructure and porosity of the pellets. Thus, it was observed that Ni-SDC pellet reduced at 800 °C has higher electrical conductivity of well-connected microstructures and sufficient porosity than the pellet reduced at 550 °C.

  9. IBC - ION BEAM CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes von Borany

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Ion Beam Center (IBC, various set-ups – electrostatic accelerators, ion implanters, plasma-based ion implantation equipment, low-energy ion tools, an ion microscope etc. – are combined into a unique facility for research and applications using ion beams. Almost all ions from stable chemical nuclides are available in the ion energy range from 10 eV to about 60 MeV. In addition to broad beams, also focused (down to 1 nm and highly-charged (charge state up to 45+ ion beams, or ions extracted from a plasma can be provided. In total, the IBC operates more than 30 dedicated tools or beamline end-stations. The specific expertise of IBC is the modification and analysis of solids by energetic ions aimed to develop novel materials for information technology, electronics or energy systems. In addition, ion beam analysis techniques became of increasing importance for interdisciplinary fields like geochemistry, climate or environmental research and resources technology. Special add-on services offered ensure a successful realization of user experiments. Based on a long-term expertise, specific equipment and common commercial procedures, the IBC is strongly active in the use of ion beam techniques for industrial applications aimed to initiate valuable product innovation.

  10. Ion mobility spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eiceman, GA

    2005-01-01

    Key Developments for Faster, More Precise Detection Capabilities Driven by the demand for the rapid and advanced detection of explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and narcotics, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) undergone significant refinements in technology, computational capabilities, and understanding of the principles of gas phase ion chemistry and mobility. Beginning with a thorough discussion of the fundamental theories and physics of ion mobility, Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Second Edition describes the recent advances in instrumentation and newly

  11. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  12. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-12-18

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas.

  13. Ion-kill dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

    2001-01-01

    Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

  14. Enhanced ion acoustic fluctuations and ion outflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. E. Forme

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of observations showing enhanced ion acoustic echoes observed by means of incoherent scatter radars have been reported in the literature. The received power is extremely enhanced by up to 1 or 2 orders of magnitude above usual values, and it is mostly contained in one of the two ion acoustic lines. This spectral asymmetry and the intensity of the received signal cannot be resolved by the standard analysis procedure and often causes its failure. As a result, and in spite of a very clear spectral signature, the analysis is unable to fit the plasma parameters inside the regions of ion acoustic turbulence. We present European Incoherent Scatter radar (EISCAT observations of large ion outflows associated with the simultaneous occurrence of enhanced ion acoustic echoes. The ion fluxes can reach 1014 m-2 s-1 at 800 km altitude. From the very clear spectral signatures of these echoes, a method is presented to extract estimates of the electron temperature and the ion drift within the turbulent regions. It is shown that the electron gas is strongly heated up to 11 000 K. Also electron temperature gradients of about 0.02 K/m exist. Finally, the estimates of the electron temperature and of the ion drift are used to study the possible implications for the plasma transport inside turbulent regions. It is shown that strong electron temperature gradients cause enhancement of the ambipolar electric field and can account for the observed ion outflows.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere · magnetosphere interactions; plasma waves and instabilities.

  15. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, I.

    2013-12-16

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved into a more or less standard laboratory tool for the production of high-current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. Applications include primarily ion implantation for material surface modification research, and good performance has been obtained for the injection of high-current beams of heavy-metal ions, in particular uranium, into particle accelerators. As the use of the source has grown, so also have the operational characteristics been improved in a variety of different ways. Here we review the principles, design, and performance of vacuum arc ion sources.

  16. Ion cyclotron resonance cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, R.R.

    1995-02-14

    An ion cyclotron resonance cell is disclosed having two adjacent sections separated by a center trapping plate. The first section is defined by the center trapping plate, a first end trapping plate, and excitation and detector electrodes. The second section includes a second end trapping plate spaced apart from the center plate, a mirror, and an analyzer. The analyzer includes a wavelength-selective light detector, such as a detector incorporating an acousto-optical device (AOD) and a photodetector. One or more ion guides, grounded plates with holes for the ion beam, are positioned within the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer between the ion source and the cell. After ions are trapped and analyzed by ion cyclotron resonance techniques in the first section, the ions of interest are selected according to their mass and passed into the second section for optical spectroscopic studies. The trapped ions are excited by light from a laser and caused thereby to fluoresce. The fluorescent light emitted by the excited ions is reflected by the mirror and directed onto the detector. The AOD is scanned, and the photodetector output is recorded and analyzed. The ions remain in the second section for an extended period, enabling multiple studies to be carried out on the same ensemble of ions. 5 figs.

  17. Crater formation by single ions, cluster ions and ion "showers"

    CERN Document Server

    Djurabekova, Flyura; Timko, Helga; Nordlund, Kai; Calatroni, Sergio; Taborelli, Mauro; Wuensch, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The various craters formed by giant objects, macroscopic collisions and nanoscale impacts exhibit an intriguing resemblance in shapes. At the same time, the arc plasma built up in the presence of sufficiently high electric fields at close look causes very similar damage on the surfaces. Although the plasma–wall interaction is far from a single heavy ion impact over dense metal surfaces or the one of a cluster ion, the craters seen on metal surfaces after a plasma discharge make it possible to link this event to the known mechanisms of the crater formations. During the plasma discharge in a high electric field the surface is subject to high fluxes (~1025 cm-2s-1) of ions with roughly equal energies typically of the order of a few keV. To simulate such a process it is possible to use a cloud of ions of the same energy. In the present work we follow the effect of such a flux of ions impinging the surface in the ‘‘shower’’ manner, to find the transition between the different mechanisms of crater formati...

  18. Microfabricated ion trap array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Matthew G [Albuquerque, NM; Fleming, James G [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  19. Single ion TRICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, J.A.; Anderson, G.A.; Hofstadler, S.A.; Smith, R.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer has been used to trap individual, multiply charged ions of high molecular weight polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) (PEG). Accurate mass measurements of electrosprayed ions, or other multiply charge ions, requires determination of charge state. Trapping two or more large individual ions with the same mass, differing only by one additional charge is highly unlikely. Thus, exact mass assignments based on the measurement of charge state spacing to determine molecular weight is not feasible. Therefore, a new scheme was required to determine the mass of individual ions based on the observation of m/z shifts (i.e., cyclotron frequency shifts) resulting from reactions such as charge exchange or the adduction of a substance of a known mass. A new technique for mass determination of individual ions has been developed based on the observation of cyclotron frequency shifts during the time-domain acquisition period. This Time Resolved Ion Correlation (TRIC) technique allows reactant and product ions to be correlated with confidence by segmented Fourier transformation and comparison of extracted time-domain signals, and provides the basis for simultaneously studying a moderate number of ions.

  20. Macromolecular ion accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yun-Fei; Lin, Jung-Lee; Lai, Szu-Hsueh; Chu, Ming-Lee; Wang, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2012-07-03

    Presented herein are the development of macromolecular ion accelerator (MIA) and the results obtained by MIA. This new instrument utilizes a consecutive series of planar electrodes for the purpose of facilitating stepwise acceleration. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is employed to generate singly charged macromolecular ions. A regular Z-gap microchannel plate (MCP) detector is mounted at the end of the accelerator to record the ion signals. In this work, we demonstrated the detection of ions with the mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio reaching 30,000,000. Moreover, we showed that singly charged biomolecular ions can be accelerated with the voltage approaching 1 MV, offering the evidence that macromolecular ions can possess much higher kinetic energy than ever before.

  1. Ion photon emission microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Barney L.

    2003-04-22

    An ion beam analysis system that creates microscopic multidimensional image maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the ion-induced photons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted photons are collected in the lens system of a conventional optical microscope, and projected on the image plane of a high resolution single photon position sensitive detector. Position signals from this photon detector are then correlated in time with electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these photons initially.

  2. Materials analysis fast ions

    CERN Document Server

    Denker, A; Rauschenberg, J; Röhrich, J; Strub, E

    2006-01-01

    Materials analysis with ion beams exploits the interaction of ions with the electrons and nuclei in the sample. Among the vast variety of possible analytical techniques available with ion beams we will restrain to ion beam analysis with ion beams in the energy range from one to several MeV per mass unit. It is possible to use either the back-scattered projectiles (RBS – Rutherford Back Scattering) or the recoiled atoms itself (ERDA – Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis) from the elastic scattering processes. These techniques allow the simultaneous and absolute determination of stoichiometry and depth profiles of the detected elements. The interaction of the ions with the electrons in the sample produces holes in the inner electronic shells of the sample atoms, which recombine and emit X-rays characteristic for the element in question. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) has shown to be a fast technique for the analysis of elements with an atomic number above 11.

  3. Lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshio, Masaki; Kozawa, Akiya

    2010-01-01

    This book is a compilation of up-to-date information relative to Li-Ion technology. It provides the reader with a single source covering all important aspects of Li-Ion battery operations. It fills the gap between the old original Li-Ion technology and present state of the technology that has developed into a high state of practice. The book is designed to provide a single source for an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful to researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrica

  4. Correlation ion mobility spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B [Los Lunas, NM; Rohde, Steven B [Corrales, NM

    2008-08-26

    Correlation ion mobility spectrometry (CIMS) uses gating modulation and correlation signal processing to improve IMS instrument performance. Closely spaced ion peaks can be resolved by adding discriminating codes to the gate and matched filtering for the received ion current signal, thereby improving sensitivity and resolution of an ion mobility spectrometer. CIMS can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio even for transient chemical samples. CIMS is especially advantageous for small geometry IMS drift tubes that can otherwise have poor resolution due to their small size.

  5. Ion-beam technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams reviews processes for depositing diamond/diamond-like carbon films. Processes addressed are chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD, PACVD, etc.), plasma vapor deposition (plasma sputtering, ion beam sputtering, evaporation, etc.), low-energy ion implantation, and hybrid processes (biased sputtering, IBAD, biased HFCVD, etc.). The tribological performance of coatings produced by different means is discussed.

  6. Classification of Ion Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Scrivens, R.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, the anatomy of an ion source is briefly described, as well as a few features of particle motion in electric and magnetic fields, and of particle dynamics and plasmas. Using this information, different types of ion sources are described, highlighting their main mode of operation.

  7. Cooperativity in ion hydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielrooij, K.J.; Garcia-Araez, N.; Bonn, M.; Bakker, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite prolonged scientific efforts to unravel the effects of ions on the structure and dynamics of water, many open questions remain, in particular concerning the spatial extent of this effect (i.e., the number of water molecules affected) and the origin of ion-specific effects. A combined

  8. CLASSICS The Ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation, viz., in general, salts in solution dissociate to give ions. Ostwald, in 1888 gave a quantitative description of the dissociation, which was very useful in understanding the physical chemistry of solutions. The following portion 'The Ions' is from the book The Fundamental Principles of.

  9. Ion mobility sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  10. Lipid Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Heimburg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The interpretation electrical phenomena in biomembranes is usually based on the assumption that the experimentally found discrete ion conduction events are due to a particular class of proteins called ion channels while the lipid membrane is considered being an inert electrical insulator. The particular protein structure is thought to be related to ion specificity, specific recognition of drugs by receptors and to macroscopic phenomena as nerve pulse propagation. However, lipid membranes in their chain melting regime are known to be highly permeable to ions, water and small molecules, and are therefore not always inert. In voltage-clamp experiments one finds quantized conduction events through protein-free membranes in their melting regime similar to or even undistinguishable from those attributed to proteins. This constitutes a conceptual problem for the interpretation of electrophysiological data obtained from biological membrane preparations. Here, we review the experimental evidence for lipid ion channels...

  11. Ion Implantation of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The current paper presents a state-of-the-art review in the field of ion implantation of polymers. Numerous published studies of polymers modified by ion beams are analysed. General aspects of ion stopping, latent track formation and changes of structure and composition of organic materials...... are discussed. Related to that, the effects of radiothermolysis, degassing and carbonisation are considered. Specificity of depth distributions of implanted into polymers impurities is analysed and the case of high-fluence implantation is emphasised. Within rather broad topic of ion bombardment, the focus...... is put on the low-energy implantation of metal ions causing the nucleation and growth of nanoparticles in the shallow polymer layers. Electrical, optical and magnetic properties of metal/polymer composites are under the discussion and the approaches towards practical applications are overviewed....

  12. A NOVEL SAMARIUM COMPLEX WITH INTERESTING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Fluorescent materials, particularly blue fluorescent materials have gained strong interest because ... emitting complexes in different technical applications, such as emitting materials for organic light emitting ..... properties of three novel two-dimensional lanthanide coordination polymers with mixed aromatic ...

  13. Pyroelectric Ferroelectric and Resistivity Studies on Samarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barium Strontium Sodium Niobate (Ba1-xSrx)2NaNb5O15 (BSNN) belongs to tungsten bronze ferroelectric morphotrophic phase boundary (MPB) system at x = 0.6, having large spontaneous polarisation, pyroelectric coefficient and low dielectic constant and is expected to be applicable for piezoceramic filter and ...

  14. A NOVEL SAMARIUM COMPLEX WITH INTERESTING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emitting complexes in different technical applications, such as emitting materials for organic light emitting diodes, sensitizers in solar energy conversion, chemical sensors and so forth [6-9]. The ability of bipy to act as a rigid ..... properties of three-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrids based on α-metatungstate. Inorg. Chim.

  15. Ion channel pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Diana Conte; Tricarico, Domenico; Desaphy, Jean-François

    2007-04-01

    Because ion channels are involved in many cellular processes, drugs acting on ion channels have long been used for the treatment of many diseases, especially those affecting electrically excitable tissues. The present review discusses the pharmacology of voltage-gated and neurotransmitter-gated ion channels involved in neurologic diseases, with emphasis on neurologic channelopathies. With the discovery of ion channelopathies, the therapeutic value of many basic drugs targeting ion channels has been confirmed. The understanding of the genotype-phenotype relationship has highlighted possible action mechanisms of other empirically used drugs. Moreover, other ion channels have been pinpointed as potential new drug targets. With regards to therapy of channelopathies, experimental investigations of the intimate drug-channel interactions have demonstrated that channel mutations can either increase or decrease affinity for the drug, modifying its potential therapeutic effect. Together with the discovery of channel gene polymorphisms that may affect drug pharmacodynamics, these findings highlight the need for pharmacogenetic research to allow identification of drugs with more specific effects on channel isoforms or mutants, to increase efficacy and reduce side effects. With a greater understanding of channel genetics, structure, and function, together with the identification of novel primary and secondary channelopathies, the number of ion channel drugs for neurologic channelopathies will increase substantially.

  16. Ion optics of RHIC electron beam ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikin, A; Alessi, J; Beebe, E; Kponou, A; Okamura, M; Raparia, D; Ritter, J; Tan, Y; Kuznetsov, G

    2012-02-01

    RHIC electron beam ion source has been commissioned to operate as a versatile ion source on RHIC injection facility supplying ion species from He to Au for Booster. Except for light gaseous elements RHIC EBIS employs ion injection from several external primary ion sources. With electrostatic optics fast switching from one ion species to another can be done on a pulse to pulse mode. The design of an ion optical structure and the results of simulations for different ion species are presented. In the choice of optical elements special attention was paid to spherical aberrations for high-current space charge dominated ion beams. The combination of a gridded lens and a magnet lens in LEBT provides flexibility of optical control for a wide range of ion species to satisfy acceptance parameters of RFQ. The results of ion transmission measurements are presented.

  17. Ion dynamics during seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Valentino Raimondo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes in membrane voltage brought about by ion fluxes through voltage and transmitter-gated channels represent the basis of neural activity. As such, electrochemical gradients across the membrane determine the direction and driving force for the flow of ions and are therefore crucial in setting the properties of synaptic transmission and signal propagation. Ion concentration gradients are established by a variety of mechanisms, including specialised transporter proteins. However, transmembrane gradients can be affected by ionic fluxes through channels during periods of elevated neural activity, which in turn are predicted to influence the properties of on-going synaptic transmission. Such activity-induced changes to ion concentration gradients are a feature of both physiological and pathological neural processes. An epileptic seizure is an example of severely perturbed neural activity, which is accompanied by pronounced changes in intracellular and extracellular ion concentrations. Appreciating the factors that contribute to these ion dynamics is critical if we are to understand how a seizure event evolves and is sustained and terminated by neural tissue. Indeed, this issue is of significant clinical importance as status epilepticus – a type of seizure that does not stop of its own accord – is a life-threatening medical emergency. In this review we explore how the transmembrane concentration gradient of the six major ions (K+, Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, H+ and HCO3- is altered during an epileptic seizure. We will first examine each ion individually, before describing how multiple interacting mechanisms between ions might contribute to concentration changes and whether these act to prolong or terminate epileptic activity. In doing so, we will consider how the availability of experimental techniques has both advanced and restricted our ability to study these phenomena.

  18. Ion implantation technology

    CERN Document Server

    Downey, DF; Jones, KS; Ryding, G

    1993-01-01

    Ion implantation technology has made a major contribution to the dramatic advances in integrated circuit technology since the early 1970's. The ever-present need for accurate models in ion implanted species will become absolutely vital in the future due to shrinking feature sizes. Successful wide application of ion implantation, as well as exploitation of newly identified opportunities, will require the development of comprehensive implant models. The 141 papers (including 24 invited papers) in this volume address the most recent developments in this field. New structures and possible approach

  19. Effect of Bi2O3 on the structural and spectroscopic properties of Sm3+ ions doped sodiumfluoroborate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariyappan, M.; Arunkumar, S.; Marimuthu, K.

    2016-02-01

    Trivalent samarium ions doped bismuth sodiumfluoroborate glasses have been prepared with the chemical composition 40B2O3+(40-x)Na2CO3+xBi2O3+19CaF2+1Sm2O3 (where x = 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 in wt%) following the conventional melt quenching technique. The structural and spectroscopic characterizations have been carried out using XRD, FTIR and UV-Vis-NIR, luminescence and decay measurements. Judd-Ofelt (JO) theory has been used to study the effect of local field environment around the Sm3+ ion site to calculate the radiative properties. Bonding parameters and JO intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4, Ω6) were determined from the absorption spectra to explore the nature of bonding and symmetry around the Sm3+ ion site. The spectroscopic quality factor (χ = Ω4/Ω6) and asymmetry ratio (R/O) have been determined to elucidate the potential strength of the stimulated emission and asymmetry around the Sm3+ ion site in the prepared glasses. Using JO theory, various radiative properties like transition probability (A), effective bandwidth (Δλeff), stimulated emission cross-section (σpE) and branching ratio (βR) for the 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 6H7/2, 6H9/2 emission levels of the prepared glasses were determined and compared with the reported literature. The decay curves corresponding to the 4G5/2 level of the Sm3+ ions were measured and are found to be single exponential for lower Bi2O3 content and turn to become non-exponential for higher Bi2O3 content and is due to the donor to acceptor energy transfer through cross-relaxation process. Among the prepared glasses, 40BiNFBS glass exhibit higher A, βR, σpE and η values and is suggested for useful gain medium and reddish orange laser applications.

  20. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  1. Sensing with Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Martinac, Boris

    2008-01-01

    All living cells are able to detect and translate environmental stimuli into biologically meaningful signals. Sensations of touch, hearing, sight, taste, smell or pain are essential to the survival of all living organisms. The importance of sensory input for the existence of life thus justifies the effort made to understand its molecular origins. Sensing with Ion Channels focuses on ion channels as key molecules enabling biological systems to sense and process the physical and chemical stimuli that act upon cells in their living environment. Its aim is to serve as a reference to ion channel specialists and as a source of new information to non specialists who want to learn about the structural and functional diversity of ion channels and their role in sensory physiology.

  2. Multi-Ion Magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, G.; Glocer, A.; Ma, Y.; Najib, D.; Gombosi, T.

    2010-09-01

    We derive and numerically solve the full set of magnetohydrodynamic equations with multiple ion fluids. The numerical difficulties and the algorithmic solutions are discussed. We show some preliminary results for the interaction of Mars' ionosphere with the solar wind.

  3. Ion Mass Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus (100) is described for determining the mass of ions, the apparatus configured to hold a plasma (101 ) having a plasma potential. The apparatus (100) comprises an electrode (102) having a surface extending in a surface plane and an insulator (104) interfacing with the electrode (102......, and a processing unit (108) configured to interpret the detected impact locations in terms of the mass of the impacting ions....

  4. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  5. Miniaturized Ion Mobility Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, William J (Inventor); Stimac, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    By utilizing the combination of a unique electronic ion injection control circuit in conjunction with a particularly designed drift cell construction, the instantly disclosed ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) achieves increased levels of sensitivity, while achieving significant reductions in size and weight. The instant IMS is of a much simpler and easy to manufacture design, rugged and hermetically sealed, capable of operation at high temperatures to at least 250 degrees Centigrade, and is uniquely sensitive, particularly to explosive chemicals.

  6. Numerical Simulation of Multicomponent Ion Beam from Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, V S; Kazarinov, Yu M; Shevtsov, V P; Shirkov, G D

    1999-01-01

    A program library for numerical simulation of a multicomponent charged particle beam from ion sources is presented. The library is aimed for simulation of high current, low energy multicomponent ion beam from ion source through beamline and realized under the Windows user interface for the IBM PC. It is used for simulation and optimization of beam dynamics and based on successive and consistent application of two methods: the momentum method of distribution function (RMS technique) and particle in cell method. The library has been used to simulate and optimize the transportation of tantalum ion beam from the laser ion source (CERN) and calcium ion beam from the ECR ion source (JINR, Dubna).

  7. 2010 ion run: completed!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    After a very fast switchover from protons to lead ions, the LHC has achieved performances that allowed the machine to exceed both peak and integrated luminosity by a factor of three. Thanks to this, experiments have been able to produce high-profile results on ion physics almost immediately, confirming that the LHC was able to keep its promises for ions as well as for protons.   First direct observation of jet quenching. A seminar on 2 December was the opportunity for the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS collaborations to present their first results on ion physics in front of a packed auditorium. These results are important and are already having a major impact on the understanding of the physics processes that involve the basic constituents of matter at high energies. In the ion-ion collisions, the temperature is so high that partons (quarks and gluons), which are usually constrained inside the nucleons, are deconfined to form a highly dense and hot soup known as quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The existence of ...

  8. Radiative ion-ion neutralization: a new gas-phase atmospheric pressure ion transduction mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eric J; Siems, William F; Hill, Herbert H

    2012-06-05

    All atmospheric pressure ion detectors, including photo ionization detectors, flame ionization detectors, electron capture detectors, and ion mobility spectrometers, utilize Faraday plate designs in which ionic charge is collected and amplified. The sensitivity of these Faraday plate ion detectors are limited by thermal (Johnson) noise in the associated electronics. Thus approximately 10(6) ions per second are required for a minimal detection. This is not the case for ion detection under vacuum conditions where secondary electron multipliers (SEMs) can be used. SEMs produce a cascade of approximately 10(6) electrons per ion impinging on the conversion dynode. Similarly, photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) can generate approximately 10(6) electrons per photon. Unlike SEMs, however, PMTs are evacuated and sealed so that they are commonly used under atmospheric pressure conditions. This paper describes an atmospheric pressure ion detector based on coupling a PMT with light emitted from ion-ion neutralization reactions. The normal Faraday plate collector electrode was replaced with an electrode "needle" used to concentrate the anions as they were drawn to the tip of the needle by a strong focusing electric field. Light was emitted near the surface of the electrode when analyte ions were neutralized with cations produced from the anode. Although radiative-ion-ion recombination has been previously reported, this is the first time ions from separate ionization sources have been combined to produce light. The light from this radiative-ion-ion-neutralization (RIIN) was detected using a photon multiplier such that an ion mobility spectrum was obtained by monitoring the light emitted from mobility separated ions. An IMS spectrum of nitroglycerin (NG) was obtained utilizing RIIN for tranducing the mobility separated ions into an analytical signal. The implications of this novel ion transduction method are the potential for counting ions at atmospheric pressure and for obtaining ion

  9. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1983-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 5 is a collection of articles that covers ion-speciation. The book aims to present the advancements of the range and capabilities of selective ion-sensors. The topics covered in the selection are neutral carrier based ion-selective electrodes; reference electrodes and liquid junction effects in ion-selective electrode potentiometry; ion transfer across water/organic phase boundaries and analytical; and carbon substrate ion-selective electrodes. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  10. Ion optics of RHIC EBIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Kponou, A.; Okamura, M.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Tan, Y.; Kuznetsov, G.

    2011-09-10

    RHIC EBIS has been commissioned to operate as a versatile ion source on RHIC injection facility supplying ion species from He to Au for Booster. Except for light gaseous elements RHIC EBIS employs ion injection from several external primary ion sources. With electrostatic optics fast switching from one ion species to another can be done on a pulse to pulse mode. The design of an ion optical structure and the results of simulations for different ion species are presented. In the choice of optical elements special attention was paid to spherical aberrations for high-current space charge dominated ion beams. The combination of a gridded lens and a magnet lens in LEBT provides flexibility of optical control for a wide range of ion species to satisfy acceptance parameters of RFQ. The results of ion transmission measurements are presented.

  11. Silane Discharge Ion Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatham, Robert Hood, III

    We have studied silane dc, rf and dc proximity discharges, using mass spectroscopic measurements of the positive ions as a detailed diagnostic for the type of discharge used to produce hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar photovoltaic cells. The properties and quality of these films depends in a very complex way upon the interactions of the many reactive neutral and ion species in the discharge. We have developed qualitative models of the ion chemical processes in these discharges from our measurements. Knowledge of the ion-molecule and electron-molecule collision cross sections is important to any attempt at understanding silane discharge chemistry. Consequently, we have measured the electron impact ionization cross sections for silane and disilane, and for comparison purposes also for methane and ethane. In addition, we have measured the rate coefficients for charge exchange reactions of He('+), Ne('+), and Ar('+) with silane, disilane, methane, and ethane, as these are important to understanding discharges in inert gas-silane mixtures. We have developed a detailed quantitative model of the cathode sheath region of a silane dc discharge, by extending the best recent calculation of the electron motion in the sheath to a self-consistent form which includes the ion motion. This model is used with comparison of silane dc discharge data to diagnose the ion chemistry occurring in the sheath region of silane dc discharge. The understanding of the discharge ion chemical processes that we have gained in this study represent an important step toward understanding the chemical and physical processes leading to film growth.

  12. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1985-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 7 is a collection of papers that covers the applications of electrochemical sensors, along with the versatility of ion-selective electrodes. The coverage of the text includes solid contact in membrane ion-selective electrodes; immobilized enzyme probes for determining inhibitors; potentiometric titrations based on ion-pair formation; and application of ion-selective electrodes in soil science, kinetics, and kinetic analysis. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  13. The ion circus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minaya Ramirez, Enrique [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Lunney, David [CSNSM- IN2P3/CNRS, Universite de Paris-Sud, Orsay (France)

    2010-07-01

    The ability to prepare radioactive beams for experiments in nuclear structure has seen important developments in recent years. The use of ion traps and buffer-gas cooling now enables the accumulation and purification of even short-lived nuclides. This is a key point for future installations since higher intensity also brings increased isobaric contamination which can be disastrous for background. Until now, the development of beam cooler/bunchers has relied on linear (radiofrequency quadrupole) Paul traps. In this contribution we describe the progress in developing a novel circular Paul trap. The ion circus, so named for its ability to trap ions at different positions along the ring circumference and to eject them in either perpendicular or tangential direction, has also been designed to cool and mass separate the ions over a longer flight path. The resolving power is increased as the ions orbit in the ring and are cooled with buffer gas at a much lower pressure. The first prototype is now under test in Orsay. We report results of the first tests and the future program.

  14. Molecular ion photofragment spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamente, S.W.

    1983-11-01

    A new molecular ion photofragment spectrometer is described which features a supersonic molecular beam ion source and a radio frequency octapole ion trap interaction region. This unique combination allows several techniques to be applied to the problem of detecting a photon absorption event of a molecular ion. In particular, it may be possible to obtain low resolution survey spectra of exotic molecular ions by using a direct vibrational predissociation process, or by using other more indirect detection methods. The use of the spectrometer is demonstrated by measuring the lifetime of the O/sub 2//sup +/(/sup 4/..pi../sub u/) metastable state which is found to consist of two main components: the /sup 4/..pi../sub 5/2/ and /sup 4/..pi../sub -1/2/ spin components having a long lifetime (approx. 129 ms) and the /sup 4/..pi../sub 3/2/ and /sup 4/..pi../sub 1/2/ spin components having a short lifetime (approx. 6 ms).

  15. Laser ion source for isobaric heavy ion collider experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesue, T; Kumaki, M; Ikeda, S; Okamura, M

    2016-02-01

    Heavy-ion collider experiment in isobaric system is under investigation at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. For this experiment, ion source is required to maximize the abundance of the intended isotope. The candidate of the experiment is (96)Ru + (96)Zr. Since the natural abundance of particular isotope is low and composition of isotope from ion source depends on the composites of the target, an isotope enriched material may be needed as a target. We studied the performance of the laser ion source required for the experiment for Zr ions.

  16. Ion-selective electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N

    2013-01-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing I

  17. Magnetic ions in crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, K W

    2014-01-01

    There have been many demonstrations, particularly for magnetic impurity ions in crystals, that spin-Hamiltonians are able to account for a wide range of experimental results in terms of much smaller numbers of parameters. Yet they were originally derived from crystal field theory, which contains a logical flaw; electrons on the magnetic ions are distinguished from those on the ligands. Thus there is a challenge: to replace crystal field theory with one of equal or greater predictive power that is based on a surer footing. The theory developed in this book begins with a generic Hamiltonian, on

  18. Interferometry with Strontium Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jarom; Lambert, Enoch; Otterstrom, Nils; Jones, Tyler; Durfee, Dallin

    2014-05-01

    We describe progress on a cold ion matter-wave interferometer. Cold Strontium atoms are extracted from an LVIS. The atoms will be photo-ionized with a two-photon transition to an auto-ionizing state in the continuum. The ions will be split and recombined using stimulated Raman transitions from a pair of diode lasers injection locked to two beams from a master laser which have been shifted up and down by half the hyperfine splitting. We are developing laser instrumentation for this project including a method to prevent mode-hopping by analyzing laser frequency noise, and an inexpensive, robust wavelength meter. Supported by NSF Award No. 1205736.

  19. Potential energy surface for the reaction Sm+ + CO2 → SmO+ + CO: guided ion beam and theoretical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentrout, P B; Cox, Richard M

    2017-05-10

    The potential energy surface (PES) for the oxidation of samarium cations by carbon dioxide is explored both experimentally and theoretically. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, several reactions are examined as a function of kinetic energy. These include the title reaction as well as its reverse along with the collision-induced dissociation of Sm+(CO2) and OSm+(CO) with Xe. Analysis of the kinetic energy dependent cross sections yields barriers for the forward and reverse oxidation reaction of 1.77 ± 0.11 and 2.04 ± 0.13 eV, respectively, and Sm+-OCO and OSm+-CO bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of 0.42 ± 0.03 and 0.97 ± 0.07 eV, respectively. BDEs for Sm+(CO2)x for x = 2 and 3 are also determined as 0.40 ± 0.13 and 0.48 ± 0.12 eV, respectively. The PESs for the title reaction along the sextet and octet spin surfaces are also examined theoretically at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels using both effective core potential and all-electron basis sets. Reasonable agreement between theory and experiment is obtained for the experimentally characterized intermediates, although all-electron basis sets and spin-orbit effects are needed for quantitative agreement. The observed barrier for oxidation is shown to likely correspond to the energy of the crossing between surfaces corresponding to the ground state electronic configuration of Sm+ (8F,4f66s1) and an excited surface having two electrons in the valence space (excluding 4f), which are needed to form the strong SmO+ bond.

  20. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J

    1966-01-01

    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  1. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1982-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 3, provides a review of articles on ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). The volume begins with an article on methods based on titration procedures for surfactant analysis, which have been developed for discrete batch operation and for continuous AutoAnalyser use. Separate chapters deal with detection limits of ion-selective electrodes; the possibility of using inorganic ion-exchange materials as ion-sensors; and the effect of solvent on potentials of cells with ion-selective electrodes. Also included is a chapter on advances in calibration procedures, the d

  2. Ion-dust streaming instability with non-Maxwellian ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kählert, Hanno, E-mail: kaehlert@theo-physik.uni-kiel.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Leibnizstr. 15, 24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    The influence of non-Maxwellian ions on the ion-dust streaming instability in a complex plasma is investigated. The ion susceptibility employed for the calculations self-consistently accounts for the acceleration of the ions by a homogeneous background electric field and their collisions with neutral gas particles via a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision term [e.g., A. V. Ivlev et al., Phys. Rev. E 71, 016405 (2005)], leading to significant deviations from a shifted Maxwellian distribution. The dispersion relation and the properties of the most unstable mode are studied in detail and compared with the Maxwellian case. The largest deviations occur at low to intermediate ion-neutral damping. In particular, the growth rate of the instability for ion streaming below the Bohm speed is found to be lower than in the case of Maxwellian ions, yet remains on a significant level even for fast ion flows above the Bohm speed.

  3. Quadrupole Ion Traps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ), while in the Paul trap a RF potential is applied to the electrodes (Figure 4b). The Penning Trap. It is now clear that, the dc field provides confinement of the ions along the axial direction while there is a repulsive force in the .... _--.-----. Zo. Lr. o.

  4. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen; Liu, Changle; Xu, Kang; Skotheim, Terje A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  5. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.; Xu, K.; Skotheim, T.A.

    1999-10-05

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  6. Anodes sliced with ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukamp, Bernard A.

    2006-01-01

    A detailed image of a complex fuel-cell anode structure, obtained through ion-beam milling, SEM imaging and advanced digital reconstruction, yields an accurate description of the three-dimensional structure, and enables correct prediction of the electrode's properties

  7. Polyatomic ions from a high current ion implanter driven by a liquid metal ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, W; Laufer, P; Tajmar, M; Böttger, R; Bischoff, L

    2017-12-01

    High current liquid metal ion sources are well known and found their first application as field emission electric propulsion thrusters in space technology. The aim of this work is the adaption of such kind of sources in broad ion beam technology. Surface patterning based on self-organized nano-structures on, e.g., semiconductor materials formed by heavy mono- or polyatomic ion irradiation from liquid metal (alloy) ion sources (LMAISs) is a very promising technique. LMAISs are nearly the only type of sources delivering polyatomic ions from about half of the periodic table elements. To overcome the lack of only very small treated areas by applying a focused ion beam equipped with such sources, the technology taken from space propulsion systems was transferred into a large single-end ion implanter. The main component is an ion beam injector based on high current LMAISs combined with suited ion optics allocating ion currents in the μA range in a nearly parallel beam of a few mm in diameter. Different types of LMAIS (needle, porous emitter, and capillary) are presented and characterized. The ion beam injector design is specified as well as the implementation of this module into a 200 kV high current ion implanter operating at the HZDR Ion Beam Center. Finally, the obtained results of large area surface modification of Ge using polyatomic Bi 2 + ions at room temperature from a GaBi capillary LMAIS will be presented and discussed.

  8. Ion transport from plasma ion source at ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Steinsberger, Timo Pascal

    2017-01-01

    In this report, my work as CERN Summer Student at the ISOLTRAP experiment at ISOLDE is described. A new plasma ion source used as oine source for calibration and implemented before my arrival was commissioned and transportation settings for the produced ions to the ion traps were found. The cyclotron frequencies of 40Ar and the xenon isotopes 129-132Xe were measured using time-of-flight and phase-imaging ion-cyclotron-resonance mass spectroscopy.

  9. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1976-01-01

    Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field.......Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field....

  10. ECR ion source based low energy ion beam facility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mass analyzed highly charged ion beams of energy ranging from a few keV to a few MeV plays an important role in various aspects of research in modern physics. In this paper a unique low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) set up at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC) for providing low and medium energy multiply charged ion ...

  11. Unstable Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Waves Exited by an Ion Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1976-01-01

    Electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in a quiescent cesium plasma into which a low‐energy beam of sodium ions was injected. The instability appeared when the beam velocity was above 12 times the ion thermal velocity. The waves propagated along the magnetic field with a velocity somewhat...

  12. Using Ion Exchange Chromatography to Separate and Quantify Complex Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Ion exchange chromatography is an important technique in the separation of charged species, particularly in biological, inorganic, and environmental samples. In this experiment, students are supplied with a mixture of two substitution-inert complex ions. They separate the complexes by ion exchange chromatography using a "flash"…

  13. Prolonging coherence in trapped ions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Uys, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors study pulse sequences that dynamically decouple 9Be+ ions from their decohering environment. The noise environment the ions see is artificially synthesized to emulate a variety of physical systems. By incorporating measurement feedback...

  14. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  15. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  16. Determination of specific radioactivity of samarium-153 product. 1. Quantitative determination of samarium by spectrophotometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Mishiroku [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nemoto, Masahiro [Tokyo Nuclear Service Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    On the specific radioactivity of Sm-153 for the radiotherapy of cancers, a simple method for determination of the amount of Sm was described. The method used Arsenazo III as a colorimetric reagent. The sample irradiated in the reactor was dissolved in 1M HCl solution. A small part of it was taken and mixed with Arsenazo III at pH 3.2, and the amount of Sm was determined by the spectrophotometric method at a wavelength of 652 nm. The molar absorptivity of Sm at 652 nm was 6.6x10{sup 3} m{sup -1}{center_dot}mm{sup -1}. The error of measurement in the partial different conditions was about 2% of the value determined. The effects of impurities, Fe, Zn and Cu mixing in the Sm during operation, were clarified. (author)

  17. The Ion Conveyor. An ion focusing and conveying device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colburn, Alex W; Giannakopulos, A E; Derrick, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    The control and transmission of ions or small charged droplets in the intermediate to high-pressure regime is of primary importance in areas such as atmospheric pressure ionisation. Where small apertures separate differentially pumped vacuum regions in the inlet systems to mass spectrometers, a large proportion of the available ion current is lost to the surrounding electrode structures. A new ion-optical device, named the ion conveyor, incorporating electrodynamic focusing and conveying of charged entities is described. Results from ion-optical simulations are presented demonstrating the performance of the device in various operating modes and electrode configurations.

  18. Ion Accelerator Merges Several Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, G.

    1984-01-01

    Intense ion beam formed by merging multiple ion beamlets into one concentrated beam. Beamlet holes in graphite screen and focusing grids arranged in hexagonal pattern. Merged beam passes through single hole in each of aluminum accelerator and decelerator grids. Ion extraction efficiency, beam intensity, and focusing improved.

  19. Scanning ion microscopy with low energy lithium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twedt, Kevin A. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Maryland NanoCenter, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Chen, Lei [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); McClelland, Jabez J., E-mail: jabez.mcclelland@nist.gov [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Using an ion source based on photoionization of laser-cooled lithium atoms, we have developed a scanning ion microscope with probe sizes of a few tens of nanometers and beam energies from 500 eV to 5 keV. These beam energies are much lower than the typical operating energies of the helium ion microscope or gallium focused ion beam systems. We demonstrate how low energy can be advantageous in ion microscopy when detecting backscattered ions, due to a decreased interaction volume and the potential for surface sensitive composition analysis. As an example application that demonstrates these advantages, we non-destructively image the removal of a thin residual resist layer during plasma etching in a nano-imprint lithography process. - Highlights: • We use an ion source based on photoionization of laser-cooled lithium atoms. • The ion source makes possible a low energy (500 eV to 5 keV) scanning ion microscope. • Low energy is preferred for ion microscopy with backscattered ions. • We use the microscope to image a thin resist used in nano-imprint lithography.

  20. Ion bipolar junction transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tybrandt, Klas; Larsson, Karin C; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta; Berggren, Magnus

    2010-06-01

    Dynamic control of chemical microenvironments is essential for continued development in numerous fields of life sciences. Such control could be achieved with active chemical circuits for delivery of ions and biomolecules. As the basis for such circuitry, we report a solid-state ion bipolar junction transistor (IBJT) based on conducting polymers and thin films of anion- and cation-selective membranes. The IBJT is the ionic analogue to the conventional semiconductor BJT and is manufactured using standard microfabrication techniques. Transistor characteristics along with a model describing the principle of operation, in which an anionic base current amplifies a cationic collector current, are presented. By employing the IBJT as a bioelectronic circuit element for delivery of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, its efficacy in modulating neuronal cell signaling is demonstrated.

  1. Trapped Ion Qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm

    2017-04-01

    Qubits can be encoded in clock states of trapped ions. These states are well isolated from the environment resulting in long coherence times [1] while enabling efficient high-fidelity qubit interactions mediated by the Coulomb coupled motion of the ions in the trap. Quantum states can be prepared with high fidelity and measured efficiently using fluorescence detection. State preparation and detection with 99.93% fidelity have been realized in multiple systems [1,2]. Single qubit gates have been demonstrated below rigorous fault-tolerance thresholds [1,3]. Two qubit gates have been realized with more than 99.9% fidelity [4,5]. Quantum algorithms have been demonstrated on systems of 5 to 15 qubits [6–8].

  2. Improving Ion Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    -HIT, og de blev tilpasset eksperimentelle tværsnit. Modellerne passede godt med eksperimentelle målinger af kernefragmentation af kulstof i vand, hvorimod der var større afvigelser for neon. I tidligere undersøgelser af ion CT med ioner tungere end brint har dosis altid været meget høj, i flere tilfælde...

  3. Ion funnel device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Harrer, Marques B.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2017-11-21

    An ion funnel device is disclosed. A first pair of electrodes is positioned in a first direction. A second pair of electrodes is positioned in a second direction. The device includes an RF voltage source and a DC voltage source. A RF voltage with a superimposed DC voltage gradient is applied to the first pair of electrodes, and a DC voltage gradient is applied to the second pair of electrodes.

  4. Ion Acoustic Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    Murphy and L. C. Aamodt , "Signal Enhancement in Photothermal Imaging Produced by Three Dimensional Heat Flow", Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 519 (1981); L. C... Aamodt and J. C. Murphy, "Photothermal Measurements Using a Localized Excitation Source", J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4903 (1981) (9) R. L. Thomas, L. D. Favro...25 (23) J. C. Murphy, F. G. Satkiewicz and L. C. Aamodt , "Ion Acoustic Imaging of Buried Flaws in Aluminum", Review of Progress in Quantitative NDE

  5. Micro Ion Frequency Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Figure 6. (a) Fabricated VCSEL . (b) Emission spectrum of VCSEL at 1 mA drive current . As expected, our initial VCSEL wafers produced much less...light source at 369 nm. (a) (b) Figure 7. (a) 740-nm VCSEL output power and voltage versus current . (b) Periodically poled KTP crystal with...micro ion frequency standard and relevant current results. INTRODUCTION Vapor cell atomic clocks have seen extreme miniaturization within the past

  6. Superheated Water Ion-exchange Chromatography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SHIBUKAWA, Masami; MORINAGA, Ryota; SAITO, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    ... superheated water chromatography. The selectivity coefficient for a pair of identically charged inorganic ions, such as alkali metal ions and halide ions, approaches unity as the temperature increases, provided that the ions...

  7. Ion channeling revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Barney Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Corona, Aldo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nguyen, Anh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates accidental, or unintentional, ion channeling in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals or polycrystalline materials. This becomes an important issue when simulating the creation by energetic neutrons of point displacement damage and extended defects using beams of ions. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different powers of the argument. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles and minimum yield or dechanneling probabilities, effects on half-angles of amorphous overlayers, accidental channeling probabilities for randomly oriented crystals or crystallites, and finally a way to automatically generate stereographic projections of axial and planar channeling half-angles. The program can generate these projections and calculate these probabilities for axes and [hkl] planes up to (555).

  8. Novel laser ion sources

    CERN Document Server

    Fournier, P; Kugler, H; Lisi, N; Scrivens, R; Rodríguez, F V; Düsterer, S; Sauerbrey, R; Schillinger, H; Theobald, W; Veisz, L; Tisch, J W G; Smith, R A

    2000-01-01

    Development in the field of high-power laser systems with repetition rates of several Hz and energies of few joules is highly active and opening, giving new possibilities for the design of laser ions sources. Preliminary investigations on the use of four different laser and target configurations are presented: (1) A small CO/sub 2/ laser (100 mJ, 10.6 mu m) focused onto a polyethylene target to produce C ions at 1 Hz repetition rate (CERN). (2) An excimer XeCl laser (6 J, 308 nm) focused onto solid targets (Frascati). (3) A femtosecond Ti: sapphire laser (250 mJ, 800 nm) directed onto a solid targets (Jena). (4) A picosecond Nd: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (0.3 J, 532 nm) focused into a dense medium of atomic clusters and onto solid targets (London). The preliminary experimental results and the most promising schemes will be discussed with respect to the scaling of the production of high numbers of highly charged ions. Different lasers are compared in terms of current density at 1 m distance for each charge state...

  9. Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, B

    2013-01-01

    The application of the technique of laser resonance ionization to the production of singly charged ions at radioactive ion beam facilities is discussed. The ability to combine high efficiency and element selectivity makes a resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) an important component of many radioactive ion beam facilities. At CERN, for example, the RILIS is the most commonly used ion source of the ISOLDE facility, with a yearly operating time of up to 3000 hours. For some isotopes the RILIS can also be used as a fast and sensitive laser spectroscopy tool, provided that the spectral resolution is sufficiently high to reveal the influence of nuclear structure on the atomic spectra. This enables the study of nuclear properties of isotopes with production rates even lower than one ion per second and, in some cases, enables isomer selective ionization. The solutions available for the implementation of resonance laser ionization at radioactive ion beam facilities are summarized. Aspects such as the laser r...

  10. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boytsov, A. Yu.; Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Katagiri, K.; Noda, K.; Ponkin, D. O.; Ramzdorf, A. Yu.; Salnikov, V. V.; Shutov, V. B.

    2015-08-01

    The type of the Electron String Ion Sources (ESIS) is considered to be the appropriate one to produce pulsed C4+ and C6+ ion beams for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact, the new test ESIS Krion-6T already now provides more than 1010 C4+ ions per pulse and about 5 × 109 C6+ ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable to apply at synchrotrons. It has also been found that Krion-6T can provide more than 1011 C6+ ions per second at the 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. ESIS can be also a suitable type of ion source to produce the 11C radioactive ion beams. A specialized cryogenic cell was experimentally tested at the Krion-2M ESIS for pulse injection of gaseous species into the electron string. It has been shown in experiments with stable methane that the total conversion efficiency of methane molecules to C4+ ions reached 5%÷10%. For cancer therapy with simultaneous irradiation and precise dose control (positron emission tomography) by means of 11C, transporting to the tumor with the primary accelerated 11C4+ beam, this efficiency is preliminarily considered to be large enough to produce the 11C4+ beam from radioactive methane and to inject this beam into synchrotrons.

  11. STATUS OF ITEP DECABORANE ION SOURCE PROGRAM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KULEVOY,T.V.; PETRENKO, S.V.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; KOZLOV, A.V.; STASEVICH, YU.B.; SITNIKOV, A.L.; SHAMAILOV, I.M.; PERSHIN, V.I.; HERSHCOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; OKS, E.M.; POOLE, H.J.; MASUNOV, E.S.; POLOZOV, S.M.

    2007-08-26

    The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Both Freeman and Bemas ion sources for decaborane ion beam generation were investigated. Decaborane negative ion beam as well as positive ion beam were generated and delivered to the output of mass separator. Experimental results obtained in ITEP are presented.

  12. An ion trap-ion mobility-time of flight mass spectrometer with three ion sources for ion/ion reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Soyk, Matthew W; Schieffer, Gregg M; Fuhrer, Katrin; Gonin, Marc M; Houk, R S; Badman, Ethan R

    2009-08-01

    This instrument combines the capabilities of ion/ion reactions with ion mobility (IM) and time-of-flight (TOF) measurements for conformation studies and top-down analysis of large biomolecules. Ubiquitin ions from either of two electrospray ionization (ESI) sources are stored in a three dimensional (3D) ion trap (IT) and reacted with negative ions from atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization (ASGDI). The proton transfer reaction products are then separated by IM and analyzed via a TOF mass analyzer. In this way, ubiquitin +7 ions are converted to lower charge states down to +1; the ions in lower charge states tend to be in compact conformations with cross sections down to approximately 880 A(2). The duration and magnitude of the ion ejection pulse on the IT exit and the entrance voltage on the IM drift tube can affect the measured distribution of conformers for ubiquitin +7 and +6. Alternatively, protein ions are fragmented by collision-induced dissociation (CID) in the IT, followed by ion/ion reactions to reduce the charge states of the CID product ions, thus simplifying assignment of charge states and fragments using the mobility-resolved tandem mass spectrum. Instrument characteristics and the use of a new ion trap controller and software modifications to control the entire instrument are described.

  13. Electromagnetic ion/ion cyclotron instability - Theory and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winske, D.; Omidi, N.

    1992-01-01

    Linear theory and 1D and 2D hybrid simulations are employed to study electromagnetic ion/ion cyclotron (EMIIC) instability driven by the relative streaming of two field-aligned ion beams. The characteristics of the instability are studied as a function of beam density, propagation angle, electron-ion temperature ratios, and ion beta. When the propagation angle is near 90 deg the EMIIC instability has the characteristics of an electrostatic instability, while at smaller angles electromagnetic effects play a significant role as does strong beam coupling. The 2D simulations point to a narrowing of the wave spectrum and accompanying coherent effects during the linear growth stage of development. The EMIIC instability is an important effect where ion beta is low such as in the plasma-sheet boundary layer and upstream of slow shocks in the magnetotail.

  14. Ion-water clusters, bulk medium effects, and ion hydration

    CERN Document Server

    Merchant, Safir; Dean, Kelsey R; Asthagiri, D

    2011-01-01

    Thermochemistry of gas-phase ion-water clusters together with estimates of the hydration free energy of the clusters and the water ligands are used to calculate the hydration free energy of the ion. Often the hydration calculations use a continuum model of the solvent. The primitive quasichemical approximation to the quasichemical theory provides a transparent framework to anchor such efforts. Here we evaluate the approximations inherent in the primitive quasichemical approach and elucidate the different roles of the bulk medium. We find that the bulk medium can stabilize configurations of the cluster that are usually not observed in the gas phase, while also simultaneously lowering the excess chemical potential of the ion. This effect is more pronounced for soft ions. Since the coordination number that minimizes the excess chemical potential of the ion is identified as the optimal or most probable coordination number, for such soft ions, the optimum cluster size and the hydration thermodynamics obtained with...

  15. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  16. Cobalt alloy ion sources for focused ion beam implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehle, R.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zimmermann, P. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Cobalt alloy ion sources have been developed for silicide formation by focused ion beam implantation. Four eutectic alloys AuCo, CoGe, CoY and AuCoGe were produced by electron beam welding. The AuCo liquid alloy ion source was investigated in detail. We have measured the emission current stability, the current-voltage characteristics, and the mass spectrum as a function of the mission current. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  17. Carbon Ion Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Hansen, David Christoffer; Herrmann, Rochus

    On the importance of choice of target size for selective boosting of hypoxic tumor subvolumina in carbon ion therapy Purpose: Functional imaging methods in radiotherapy are maturing and can to some extent uncover radio resistant structures found within a tumour entity. Selective boost of identified...... hypoxic subvolumina with high-LET radiation may in principle lead to increased tumour control due to LET-dependence of the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER). Here, we demonstrate the importance of minimizing field sizes in order not to dilute the dose average LET by quantifying the OER as a function of PTV...

  18. Ion/neutral, ion/electron, ion/photon, and ion/ion interactions in tandem mass spectrometry: do we need them all? Are they enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLuckey, Scott A; Mentinova, Marija

    2011-01-01

    A range of strategies and tools have been developed to facilitate the determination of primary structures of analyte molecules of interest via tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The two main factors that determine the primary structural information present in an MS/MS spectrum are the type of ion generated from the analyte molecule and the dissociation method. The ion type subjected to dissociation is determined by the ionization method/conditions and ion transformation processes that might take place after initial gas-phase ion formation. Furthermore, the range of analyte-related ion types can be expanded via derivatization reactions prior to mass spectrometry. Dissociation methods include those that simply alter the population of internal states of the mass-selected ion (i.e., activation methods like collision-induced dissociation) as well as processes that rely on the transformation of the ion type prior to dissociation (e.g., electron capture dissociation). A variety of ion interactions have been studied for the purpose of ion dissociation and ion transformation, including ion/neutral, ion/photon, ion/electron, and ion/ion interactions. A wide range of phenomena have been observed, many of which have been explored/developed as means for structural analysis. The techniques arising from these phenomena are discussed within the context of the elements of structural determination in tandem mass spectrometry: ion-type definition and dissociation. Unique aspects of the various ion interactions are emphasized along with any barriers to widespread implementation. © American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 2011

  19. A novel planar ion funnel design for miniature ion optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, A; van Amerom, Friso H W; Short, R T

    2014-10-01

    The novel planar ion funnel (PIF) design presented in this article emphasizes simple fabrication, assembly, and operation, making it amenable to extreme miniaturization. Simulations performed in SIMION 8.0 indicate that ion focusing can be achieved by using a gradient of electrostatic potentials on concentric metal rings in a plane. A prototype was fabricated on a 35 × 35 mm custom-designed printed circuit board (PCB) with a center hole for ions to pass through and a series of concentric circular metal rings of increasing diameter on the front side of the PCB. Metal vias on the PCB electrically connected each metal ring to a resistive potential divider that was soldered on the back of the PCB. The PIF was tested at 5.5 × 10(-6) Torr in a vacuum test setup that was equipped with a broad-beam ion source on the front and a micro channel plate (MCP) ion detector on the back of the PIF. The ion current recorded on the MCP anode during testing indicated a 23× increase in the ion transmission through the PIF when electric potentials were applied to the rings. These preliminary results demonstrate the functionality of a 2D ion funnel design with a much smaller footprint and simpler driving electronics than conventional 3D ion funnels. Future directions to improve the design and a possible micromachining approach to fabrication are discussed in the conclusions.

  20. Enhanced life ion source for germanium and carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Tseh-Jen; Colvin, Neil; Kondratenko, Serguei [Axcelis Technologies, Inc. 108 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)

    2012-11-06

    Germanium and carbon ions represent a significant portion of total ion implantation steps in the process flow. Very often ion source materials that used to produce ions are chemically aggressive, especially at higher temperatures, and result in fast ion source performance degradation and a very limited lifetime [B.S. Freer, et. al., 2002 14th Intl. Conf. on Ion Implantation Technology Proc, IEEE Conf. Proc., p. 420 (2003)]. GeF{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} are commonly used to generate germanium and carbon beams. In the case of GeF{sub 4} controlling the tungsten deposition due to the de-composition of WF{sub 6} (halogen cycle) is critical to ion source life. With CO{sub 2}, the materials oxidation and carbon deposition must be controlled as both will affect cathode thermionic emission and anti-cathode (repeller) efficiencies due to the formation of volatile metal oxides. The improved ion source design Extended Life Source 3 (Eterna ELS3) together with its proprietary co-gas material implementation has demonstrated >300 hours of stable continuous operation when using carbon and germanium ion beams. Optimizing cogas chemistries retard the cathode erosion rate for germanium and carbon minimizes the adverse effects of oxygen when reducing gas is introduced for carbon. The proprietary combination of hardware and co-gas has improved source stability and the results of the hardware and co-gas development are discussed.

  1. Practical aspects of trapped ion mass spectrometry, 5 applications of ion trapping devices

    CERN Document Server

    March, Raymond E

    2009-01-01

    Examines ion/neutral and ion/ion reactions, ion spectroscopy, and the structural characterization of proteins and peptides using quadropole ion trap mass spectrometry, Fourier transform - ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry, and traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry.

  2. Proton and carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy is an up-to-date guide to using proton and carbon ion therapy in modern cancer treatment. The book covers the physics and radiobiology basics of proton and ion beams, dosimetry methods and radiation measurements, and treatment delivery systems. It gives practical guidance on patient setup, target localization, and treatment planning for clinical proton and carbon ion therapy. The text also offers detailed reports on the treatment of pediatric cancers, lymphomas, and various other cancers. After an overview, the book focuses on the fundamental aspects of proton and carbon ion therapy equipment, including accelerators, gantries, and delivery systems. It then discusses dosimetry, biology, imaging, and treatment planning basics and provides clinical guidelines on the use of proton and carbon ion therapy for the treatment of specific cancers. Suitable for anyone involved with medical physics and radiation therapy, this book offers a balanced and critical assessment of state-of-the-art...

  3. TOPICAL REVIEW: Highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillaspy, J. D.

    2001-10-01

    This paper reviews some of the fundamental properties of highly charged ions, the methods of producing them (with particular emphasis on table-top devices), and their use as a tool for both basic science and applied technology. Topics discussed include: charge dependence and scaling laws along isoelectronic or isonuclear sequences (for wavefunction size or Bohr radius, ionization energy, dipole transition energy, relativistic fine structure, hyperfine structure, Zeeman effect, Stark effect, line intensities, linewidths, strength of parity violation, etc), changes in angular momentum coupling schemes, selection rules, interactions with surfaces, electron-impact ionization, the electron beam ion trap (EBIT), ion accelerators, atomic reference data, cosmic chronometers, laboratory x-ray astrophysics, vacuum polarization, solar flares, ion implantation, ion lithography, ion microprobes (SIMS and x-ray microscope), nuclear fusion diagnostics, nanotechnology, quantum computing, cancer therapy and biotechnology.

  4. An ion displacement membrame model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladky, S B; Harris, J D

    1967-09-01

    The usual assumption in treating the diffusion of ions in an electric field has been that the movement of each ion is independent of the movement of the others. The resulting equation for diffusion by a succession of spontaneous jumps has been well stated by Parlin and Eyring. This paper will consider one simple case in which a different assumption is reasonable. Diffusion of monovalent positive ions is considered as a series of jumps from one fixed negative site to another. The sites are assumed to be full (electrical neutrality). Interaction occurs by the displacement of one ion by another. An ion leaves a site if and only if another ion, not necessarily of the same species, attempts to occupy the same site. Flux ratios and net fluxes are given as functions of the electrical potential, concentration ratios, and number of sites encountered in crossing the membrane. Quantitative comparisons with observations of Hodgkin and Keynes are presented.

  5. SUERC AMS ion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maden, C.; Anastasi, P. A. F.; Dougans, A.; Freeman, S. P. H. T.; Kitchen, R.; Klody, G.; Schnabel, C.; Sundquist, M.; Vanner, K.; Xu, S.

    2007-06-01

    In a short time Be, C, Al, Cl, Ca and I accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) have been established on the National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC) 5 MV pelletron system at the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC). While summarising the present performance of the system, this report will focus on the details of ion detection, which sample materials are used and the analytical procedures employed for each individual species during routine analysis. All rare isotope detection is with a single flexible detector and ion event analysis system, but switching of analysed species typically requires a detector reconfiguration. Configurations for routine 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca and 129I detection have been established and will be presented here. Notably, there has proven to be sufficient suppression of the isobaric interferences of 36Cl and 41Ca in the 5+ charge state using an argon gas stripper at a terminal voltage of 5.0 MV to allow for routine analysis of these isotopes.

  6. Electrically switched ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwartz, D.T.; Genders, D.

    1997-10-01

    A variety of waste types containing radioactive {sup 137}Cs are found throughout the DOE complex. These waste types include water in reactor cooling basins, radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in underground storage tanks, and groundwater. Safety and regulatory requirements and economics require the removal of radiocesium before these wastes can be permanently disposed of. Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is an approach for radioactive cesium separation that combines IX and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible, and economic separation method that also produces little or no secondary waste. In the ESIX process, an electroactive IX film is deposited electrochemically onto a high-surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. For cesium, the electroactive films under investigation are ferrocyanides, which are well known to have high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. When a cathode potential is applied to the film, Fe{sup +3} is reduced to the Fe{sup +2} state, and a cation must be intercalated into the film to maintain charge neutrality (i.e., Cs{sup +} is loaded). Conversely, if an anodic potential is applied, a cation must be released from the film (i.e., Cs{sup +} is unloaded). Therefore, to load the film with cesium, the film is simply reduced; to unload cesium, the film is oxidized.

  7. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2009-06-30

    Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long­ term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high

  8. Ion beam assisted film growth

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, T

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides up to date information on the experimental, theoretical and technological aspects of film growth assisted by ion beams.Ion beam assisted film growth is one of the most effective techniques in aiding the growth of high-quality thin solid films in a controlled way. Moreover, ion beams play a dominant role in the reduction of the growth temperature of thin films of high melting point materials. In this way, ion beams make a considerable and complex contribution to film growth. The volume will be essential reading for scientists, engineers and students working in thi

  9. ECR ion source based low energy ion beam facility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A nanogan type of ECR source based on a fully permanent magnet design was chosen for this purpose [3]. The ECR ion source along with all its peripheral electron- ics and vacuum components placed on a 200 kV high voltage platform provides multiply charged positive ions in a widely varying energy range from a few ...

  10. Energy landscapes for mobile ions in ion conducting solids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    demonstrated here for a range of metaphosphate and diborate glasses, the complete description of the energy landscape for mobile ions also provides an effective tool for achieving a more detailed understanding of ion transport in glasses. The investigation of time evolutions can be included, if the bond valence analysis is ...

  11. Cold atomic beam ion source for focused ion beam applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuffman, B.; Steele, A. V. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland Nanocenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); zeroK NanoTech, Montgomery Village, Maryland 20886 (United States); McClelland, J. J. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2013-07-28

    We report measurements and modeling of an ion source that is based on ionization of a laser-cooled atomic beam. We show a high brightness and a low energy spread, suitable for use in next-generation, high-resolution focused ion beam systems. Our measurements of total ion current as a function of ionization conditions support an analytical model that also predicts the cross-sectional current density and spatial distribution of ions created in the source. The model predicts a peak brightness of 2 × 10{sup 7} A m{sup −2} sr{sup −1} eV{sup −1} and an energy spread less than 0.34 eV. The model is also combined with Monte-Carlo simulations of the inter-ion Coulomb forces to show that the source can be operated at several picoamperes with a brightness above 1 × 10{sup 7} A m{sup −2} sr{sup −1} eV{sup −1}. We estimate that when combined with a conventional ion focusing column, an ion source with these properties could focus a 1 pA beam into a spot smaller than 1 nm. A total current greater than 5 nA was measured in a lower-brightness configuration of the ion source, demonstrating the possibility of a high current mode of operation.

  12. Ion trajectories in atom probe field ion microscopy and gas field ion sources

    CERN Document Server

    Castilho, C M C

    1999-01-01

    Trajectories of positive ions produced in a region close to a structured surface, modelled by spherical or spheroidal protrusions and kept at a positive electric potential with respect to a distant screen or detector are calculated. The results are discussed in comparison with similar practical situations produced by field ionization and field evaporation or desorption, such as those occurring in gas field ion sources, field ion microscopy and field desorption spectroscopy. (author)

  13. LEXUS heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Sang Yong Jeon

    1997-01-01

    We use a Glauber-like approach to describe very energetic nucleus- nucleus collisions as a sequence of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. No free parameters are needed: all the information comes from simple parametrizations of nucleon-nucleon collision data. Produced mesons are assumed not to interact with each other or with the original baryons. Comparisons are made to published experimental measurements of baryon rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, negative hadron rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, average multiplicities of pions, kaons, hyperons, and antihyperons, and zero degree energy distributions for sulfur-sulfur collisions at 200 GeV/c per nucleon and for lead-lead collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon. Good agreement is found except that the number of strange particles produced, especially antihyperons, is too small compared with experiment. We call this model LEXUS: Linear EXtrapolation of Ultrarelativistic nucleon-nucleon Scattering to heavy ion collisions. (11 refs).

  14. Optical Barium Ion Qubit

    CERN Document Server

    Yum, Dahyun; Dutta, Tarun; Mukherjee, Manas

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate an optical single qubit based on 6S1/2 to 5D5/2 quadrupole transition of a single Ba+ ion operated by diode based lasers only. The resonance wavelength of the 6S1/2 to 5D5/2 quadrupole transition is about 1762 nm which suitably falls close to the U-band of the telecommunication wavelength. Thus this qubit is a naturally attractive choice towards implementation of quantum repeater or quantum networks using existing telecommunication networks. We observe continuous bit-flip oscillations at a rate of about 250 kHz which is fast enough for the qubit operation as compared to the measured coherence time of over 3 ms. We also present a technique to quantify the bit-flip error in each qubit NOT gate operation.

  15. Fast ion atomic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, H.G.; Young, L.; Goodman, L.S.; Somerville, L.P.; Hardis, J.; Neek, D.

    1984-01-01

    We have set up two collinear fast beam/laser excitation systems, one at the Argonne Dynamitron Accelerator (0.5 to 5.0 MeV beam energy) and another at a small electrostatic accelerator (20 to 130 keV). Our objective is to study fine structure, hyperfine structure and QED effects in ions of a few electrons. Initial projects underway include studies of multi-excited transitions in Li/sup -/ and Li/sup 0/, and transitions to high Rydberg states in H/sup 0/ and He/sup 0/. We have simultaneously excited a sodium jet with a laser at the resonance wavelength (D/sub 1/ or D/sub 2/ lines) and a 1-MeV He/sup +/ beam to produce excitation to autoionizing Na and Na/sup +/ states. The Auger electron spectra are compared to spectra obtained without laser excitation, and indicate strong variations in final state populations. 17 references.

  16. Ion-conducting membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masel, Richard L.; Chen, Qingmei; Liu, Zengcai; Kutz, Robert

    2016-06-21

    An ion conducting polymeric composition mixture comprises a copolymer of styrene and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. R.sub.s is selected from the group consisting of imidazoliums and pyridiniums. The composition contains 10%-90% by weight of vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. The composition can further comprise a polyolefin comprising substituted polyolefins, a polymer comprising cyclic amine groups, a polymer comprising at least one of a phenylene group and a phenyl group, a polyamide, and/or the reaction product of a constituent having two carbon-carbon double bonds. The composition can be in the form of a membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  17. Miniature Lightweight Ion Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P.

    2010-01-01

    This design offers a larger surface area for pumping of active gases and reduces the mass of the pump by eliminating the additional vacuum enclosure. There are three main components to this ion pump: the cathode and anode pumping elements assembly, the vacuum enclosure (made completely of titanium and used as the cathode and maintained at ground potential) containing the assembly, and the external magnet. These components are generally put in a noble diode (or differential) configuration of the ion pump technology. In the present state of the art, there are two cathodes, one made of titanium and the other of tantalum. The anodes are made up of an array of stainless steel cylinders positioned between the two cathodes. All the elements of the pump are in a vacuum enclosure. After the reduction of pressure in this enclosure to a few microns, a voltage is applied between the cathode and the anode elements. Electrons generated by the ionization are accelerated toward the anodes that are confined in the anode space by the axial magnetic field. For the generation of the axial field along the anode elements, the magnet is designed in a C-configuration and is fabricated from rare earth magnetic materials (Nd-B-Fe or Sm-Co) possessing high energy product values, and the yoke is fabricated from the high permeability material (Hiperco-50A composed of Fe-Co-V). The electrons in this region collide with the gas molecules and generate their positive ions. These ions are accelerated into the cathode and eject cathode material (Ti). The neutral atoms deposit on the anode surfaces. Because of the chemical activity of Ti, the atoms combine with chemically active gas molecules (e.g. N2, O2, etc.) and remove them. New layers of Ti are continually deposited, and the pumping of active gases is thus accomplished. Pumping of the inert gases is accomplished by their burial several atomic layers deep into the cathode. However, they tend to re-emit if the entrapping lattice atoms are

  18. Ion-conducting membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masel, Richard I.; Chen, Qingmei; Liu, Zengcai; Kutz, Robert

    2017-02-28

    An ion conducting polymeric composition mixture comprises a copolymer of styrene and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. R.sub.s is selected from the group consisting of imidazoliums, pyridiniums, pyrazoliums, pyrrolidiniums, pyrroliums, pyrimidiums, piperidiniums, indoliums, and triaziniums. The composition contains 10%-90% by weight of vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. The composition can further comprise a polyolefin comprising substituted polyolefins, a polymer comprising cyclic amine groups, a polymer comprising at least one of a phenylene group and a phenyl group, a polyamide, and/or the reaction product of a constituent having two carbon-carbon double bonds. The composition can be in the form of a membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  19. Ion beams in materials processing and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    This book covers ion beam application in modern materials research, offering the basics of ion beam physics and technology and a detailed account of the physics of ion-solid interactions for ion implantation, ion beam synthesis, sputtering and nano-patterning.

  20. Holifield heavy ion research facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.M.; Alton, G.D.; Ball, J.B.; Biggerstaff, J.A.; Dowling, D.T.; Erb, K.A.; Haynes, D.L.; Hoglund, D.E.; Hudson, E.D.; Juras, R.C.

    1988-05-20

    Development of the Holifield facility has continued with resulting improvements in the number of ion species provided, in the ion energy for tandem-only operations, and in utilization efficiency. In this report, we describe our recent operational experience, development activities, and future development plans.

  1. Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....

  2. High Resolution Scanning Ion Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldo, V.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the thesis is the following. The first chapter is an introduction to scanning microscopy, where the path that led to the Focused Ion Beam (FIB) is described and the main differences between electrons and ion beams are highlighted. Chapter 2 is what is normally referred to (which I

  3. Quantum computing with trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The significance of quantum computation for cryptography is discussed. Following a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, an overview of the ion trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos is presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are analyzed and an assessment of the computational potential of the technology is made.

  4. SPS Ion Induced Desorption Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    This experiment will give a study about the induced desorption from heavy ion (Indium ion run from week 45 in SPS T4-H8 area) impacting LHC type graphite collimator. 4 different samples are located in the 4 chambers 90° one to each other: pure graphite, graphite with copper coating, graphite with NEG coating, 316LN stainless steal (reference).

  5. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  6. Lithium ion storage between graphenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we investigate the storage of lithium ions between two parallel graphene sheets using the continuous approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. The continuous approximation assumes that the carbon atoms can be replaced by a uniform distribution across the surface of the graphene sheets so that the total interaction potential can be approximated by performing surface integrations. The number of ion layers determines the major storage characteristics of the battery, and our results show three distinct ionic configurations, namely single, double, and triple ion forming layers between graphenes. The number densities of lithium ions between the two graphenes are estimated from existing semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations, and the graphene sheets giving rise to the triple ion layers admit the largest storage capacity at all temperatures, followed by a marginal decrease of storage capacity for the case of double ion layers. These two configurations exceed the maximum theoretical storage capacity of graphite. Further, on taking into account the charge-discharge property, the double ion layers are the most preferable choice for enhanced lithium storage. Although the single ion layer provides the least charge storage, it turns out to be the most stable configuration at all temperatures. One application of the present study is for the design of future high energy density alkali batteries using graphene sheets as anodes for which an analytical formulation might greatly facilitate rapid computational results.

  7. Anisotropic water reorientation around ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielrooij, K.J.; van der Post, S.T.; Hunger, J.; Bonn, M.; Bakker, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    We study the reorientation dynamics of water molecules around ions using terahertz dielectric relaxation spectroscopy and polarization-resolved femtosecond infrared pump-probe spectroscopy. The results are discussed in relation to the ion-specific Hofmeister series and the concomitant

  8. Nanofriction in cold ion traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, A; Vanossi, A; Tosatti, E

    2011-01-01

    Sliding friction between crystal lattices and the physics of cold ion traps are so far non-overlapping fields. Two sliding lattices may either stick and show static friction or slip with dynamic friction; cold ions are known to form static chains, helices or clusters, depending on the trapping conditions. Here we show, based on simulations, that much could be learnt about friction by sliding, through, for example, an electric field, the trapped ion chains over a corrugated potential. Unlike infinite chains, in which the theoretically predicted Aubry transition to free sliding may take place, trapped chains are always pinned. Yet, a properly defined static friction still vanishes Aubry-like at a symmetric-asymmetric structural transition, found for decreasing corrugation in both straight and zig-zag trapped chains. Dynamic friction is also accessible in ringdown oscillations of the ion trap. Long theorized static and dynamic one-dimensional friction phenomena could thus become accessible in future cold ion tribology.

  9. Logic gates with ion transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebel, H.

    2017-09-01

    Electronic logic gates are the basic building blocks of every computing and micro controlling system. Logic gates are made of switches, such as diodes and transistors. Ion-selective, ionic switches may emulate electronic switches [1-8]. If we ever want to create artificial bio-chemical circuitry, then we need to move a step further towards ion-logic circuitry. Here we demonstrate ion XOR and OR gates with electrochemical cells, and specifically, with two wet-cell batteries. In parallel to vacuum tubes, the batteries were modified to include a third, permeable and conductive mid electrode (the gate), which was placed between the anode and cathode in order to affect the ion flow through it. The key is to control the cell output with a much smaller biasing power, as demonstrated here. A successful demonstration points to self-powered ion logic gates.

  10. The ATLAS positive ion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the design, construction status, and beam tests to date of the positive ion injector (PII) which is replacing the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 KV platform injecting a very low velocity superconducting linac. The linac is composed of an independently-phased array of superconducting four-gap interdigital resonators which accelerate over a velocity range of .006 to .05c. In finished form, PII will be able to inject ions as heavy as uranium into the existing ATLAS linac. Although at the present time little more than 50% of the linac is operational, the indenpently-phased array is sufficiently flexible that ions in the lower half of the periodic table can be accelerated and injected into ATLAS. Results of recent operational experience will be discussed. 5 refs.

  11. Logic Gates with Ion Transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Grebel, Haim

    2016-01-01

    Electronic logic gates are the basic building blocks of every computing and micro controlling system. Logic gates are made of switches, such as diodes and transistors. Ion-selective, ionic switches may emulate electronic switches [1-8]. If we ever want to create artificial bio-chemical circuitry, then we need to move a step further towards ion-logic circuitry. Here we demonstrate ion XOR and OR gates with electrochemical cells, and specifically, with two wet-cell batteries. In parallel to vacuum tubes, the batteries were modified to include a third, permeable and conductive mid electrode (the gate), which was placed between the anode and cathode in order to affect the ion flow through it. The key is to control the cell output with a much smaller biasing power, as demonstrated here. A successful demonstration points to self-powered ion logic gates.

  12. Ion-Molecule Reaction Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jennifer; Wester, Roland

    2017-05-05

    We review the recent advances in the investigation of the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. During the past decade, the combination of single-collision experiments in crossed ion and neutral beams with the velocity map ion imaging detection technique has enabled a wealth of studies on ion-molecule reactions. These methods, in combination with chemical dynamics simulations, have uncovered new and unexpected reaction mechanisms, such as the roundabout mechanism and the subtle influence of the leaving group in anion-molecule nucleophilic substitution reactions. For this important class of reactions, as well as for many fundamental cation-molecule reactions, the information obtained with crossed-beam imaging is discussed. The first steps toward understanding micro-solvation of ion-molecule reaction dynamics are presented. We conclude with the presentation of several interesting directions for future research.

  13. Ions kinematics in an electrostatic ion beam trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, D

    2004-06-01

    In this study, I have tried to provide a better understanding of the dynamics of ions inside an electrostatic ion beam trap. The electrostatic ion trap allows to store ions moving between two electrostatic mirrors. Although the trap has been developed already seven years ago, no direct measurement of the transversal velocity distribution of the ions has been performed. Such quantity is central for understanding the conditions under which a beam should be produced (mainly emittance) in order to be trapped by such a device. The data I have obtained during the course of this work are based on an experimental technique which relies on the direct imaging of the particles exiting the trap, as well as on numerical simulations of the ion trajectories inside the trap. I have personally been involved in the hardware development of the imaging system, the data acquisition and analysis of the data as well as il all numerical calculations presented here. These results allow us to obtain, for the first time, experimental information on the transverse phase space of the trap, and contribute to the overall understanding of the ion motion in this system. (author)

  14. Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenly, John, B.

    2005-07-31

    This Final Technical Report presents the results of the program, Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion, which was carried out under Department of Energy funding during the period August, 1993 to January, 2005. The central objective of the program was to study the properties of field-reversed configurations formed by ion rings. In order to reach this objective, our experimental program, called the Field-reversed Ion Ring Experiment, FIREX, undertook to develop an efficient, economical technology for the production of field-reversed ion rings. A field-reversed configuration (FRC) in which the azimuthal (field-reversing) current is carried by ions with gyro-radius comparable to the magnetic separatrix radius is called a field-reversed ion ring. A background plasma is required for charge neutralization of the ring, and this plasma will be confined within the ring's closed magnetic flux. Ion rings have long been of interest as the basis of compact magnetic fusion reactors, as the basis for a high-power accelerator for an inertial fusion driver, and for other applications of high power ion beams or plasmas of high energy density. Specifically, the FIREX program was intended to address the longstanding question of the contribution of large-orbit ions to the observed stability of experimental FRCs to the MHD tilt mode. Typical experimental FRCs with s {approx} 2-4, where s is the ratio of separatrix radius to ion gyro-radius, have been stable to tilting, but desired values for a fusion reactor, s > 20, should be unstable. The FIREX ring would consist of a plasma with large s for the background ions, but with s {approx} 1 for the ring ions. By varying the proportions of these two populations, the minimum proportion of large-orbit ions necessary for stability could be determined. The incorporation of large-orbit ions, perhaps by neutral-beam injection, into an FRC has been advanced for the purpose of stabilizing, heating, controlling angular momentum, and aiding the formation

  15. Data acquisition for the HILI (Heavy Ion Light Ion) detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teh, K.M.; Shapira, D.; McConnell, J.W.; Kim, H.; Novotny, R.

    1987-01-01

    A large acceptance, multi-segmented detector system capable of the simultaneous detection of heavy and light ions has been constructed. The heavy ions are detected with a segmented gas ionization chamber and a multiwire proportional counter while the light ions are detected with a 192 element plastic phoswich hodoscope. Processing the large number of signals is accomplished through a combination of CAMAC and FASTBUS modules and preprocessors, and a Host minicomputer. Details of the data acquisition system and the reasons for adopting a dual standards system are discussed. In addition, a technique for processing signals from an individual hodoscope detector is presented. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P.J.; Chu, J.W.; Johnson, E.P.; Noorman, J.T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Sood, D.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  17. High Current Ion Sources and Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Joe W.

    2005-02-15

    Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion requires short ion beam pulses with high current and high brightness. Depending on the beam current and the number of beams in the driver system, the injector can use a large diameter surface ionization source or merge an array of small beamlets from a plasma source. In this paper, we review the scaling laws that govern the injector design and the various ion source options including the contact ionizer, the aluminosilicate source, the multicusp plasma source, and the MEVVA source.

  18. Rearrangement reactions in ion-ion and ion-atom collisions: results and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presnyakov, L.P. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tawara, H.

    1997-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical results are discussed for ionic collisions with large cross sections at intermediate and small energies of the relative motion. Single- and double-electron removal from H{sup -} ions in slow collisions with other ions is considered in more details. The theoretical methods are discussed from the viewpoint of general requirements of scattering theory. (author)

  19. Three-dimensional simulations of ion dynamics in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, J. P. M.; Mironov, V.

    We present a three-dimensional simulation of the ion dynamics in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. Ion trajectories in the min-B field of the source are calculated taking ion-ion and electron-ion collisions into account. The electrons are not tracked but considered as a neutralizing

  20. Behavior of Time-Resolved Ion Energy Distribution Functions during Ion-Ion Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Komori, Akio; Kawai, Yoshinobu

    1993-10-01

    When an external RF field is applied to an ion beam plasma system, ion-ion instability is suppressed at f/fii≳1, where f and fii are the frequency of the external RF field and the peak frequency of the instability, respectively. It is also observed that the time-averaged energy distribution function of the ion beam broadens when the instability is suppressed. In order to investigate the cause of this broadening, time-resolved energy distribution functions of ions are measured with a boxcar integrator. As a result, it is found that the energy distribution functions periodically change with the external RF field and the above broadening is apparently caused by the time-averaging of the energy distribution functions.

  1. Triple ion beam irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M.B.; Allen, W.R.; Buhl, R.A.; Packan, N.H.; Cook, S.W.; Mansur, L.K.

    1988-12-01

    A unique ion irradiation facility consisting of three accelerators is described. The accelerators can be operated simultaneously to deliver three ion beams on one target sample. The energy ranges of the ions are 50 to 400 keV, 200 keV to 2.5 MeV, and 1.0 to 5.0 MeV. Three different ions in the appropriate mass range can be simultaneously implanted to the same depth in a target specimen as large as 100 mm/sup 2/ in area. Typical depth ranges are 0.1 to 1.0 ..mu..m. The X-Y profiles of all three ion beams are measured by a system of miniature Faraday cups. The low-voltage accelerator can periodically ramp the ion beam energy during the implantation. Three different types of target chambers are in use at this facility. The triple-beam high-vacuum chamber can hold nine transmission electron microscopy specimens at elevated temperature during a irradiation by the three simultaneous beams. A second high-vacuum chamber on the medium-voltage accelerator beamline houses a low- and high-temperature translator and a two-axis goniometer for ion channeling measurements. The third chamber on the high-energy beamline can be gas-filled for special stressed specimen irradiations. Special applications for the surface modification of materials with this facility are described. Appendixes containing operating procedures are also included. 18 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  2. DIVALENT ION EXCHANGE WITH ALKALI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunge, A.L.; Klein, G.; Radke, C.J.

    1980-05-01

    Exchange of hardness ions is important in enhanced oil recovery with chemical additives. In both micellar-polymer and caustic flooding processes, multivalent ions released from rock surfaces can interact with anionic surfactants, rendering them preferentially oil soluble and/or insoluble in water. Because hardness cations are sparingly soluble and precipitate in alkaline solutions, such solutions may be more efficient as surfactant flood preflushes than are softened brines. Multivalent ion precipitation may also occur in alkaline waterflooding. To permit design of such processes, this paper presents a chromatographic theory for simultaneous ion exchange with precipitation of divalent ions. Theoretical effluent histories and concentration profiles are presented for the cases of finite pulses and continuous injection of hydroxide ions into linear cores. Complete capture of the insoluble salt particles is assumed. Results are given for the case of instantaneous equilibration of the solution with the precipitate, as well for the case of complete nonequilibrium, in which the solid precipitate does not redissolve. The efficiency of alklaine preflushing is shown to depend on the exchange isotherm, initial divalent loading of the rock, injected pH and salinity, the solubility product of the precipitated salt, and pulse size. The effect of slug size on complete equilibrium removal of hardness ions is reduced efficiency with increasing size until a critical volume approximating continuous injection is reached. Increasing injected pH and salinity provides a more favorable response. Experimental data for Berea sandstone and an argillaceous sand compare favorably with the proposed theory.

  3. Electrically Switched Cesium Ion Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JPH Sukamto; ML Lilga; RK Orth

    1998-10-23

    This report discusses the results of work to develop Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) for separations of ions from waste streams relevant to DOE site clean-up. ESIX combines ion exchange and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible method for radionuclide separation that lowers costs and minimizes secondary waste generation typically associated with conventional ion exchange. In the ESIX process, an electroactive ion exchange film is deposited onto. a high surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. As a result, the production of secondary waste is minimized, since the large volumes of solution associated with elution, wash, and regeneration cycles typical of standard ion exchange are not needed for the ESIX process. The document is presented in two parts: Part I, the Summary Report, discusses the objectives of the project, describes the ESIX concept and the approach taken, and summarizes the major results; Part II, the Technology Description, provides a technical description of the experimental procedures and in-depth discussions on modeling, case studies, and cost comparisons between ESIX and currently used technologies.

  4. Ultrarelativistic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, H.G.

    1980-12-01

    Studies with ultrarelativistic heavy ions combine aspects of cosmic ray physics, particle physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics and cosmogenesis. The leading theoretical concerns are the behavior of matter at very high-energy density and flux, the general behavior of space time in collisions, relativistic nuclear theory, and quantum chromodynamics. The field has developed over a period of more than thirty years, since the first observation of heavy nuclei in cosmic rays and the major developments of understanding of high-energy collisions made by Fermi and Landau in the early fifties. In the late sixties the discovery of the parton content of nucleons was rapidly followed by a great extension of high-energy collision phenomenology at the CERN ISR and subsequent confirmation of the QCD theory. In parallel the study of p-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at very high energies, especially at the CERN PS, Fermilab and the Bevalac, and in cosmic rays demonstrated that studies involving the nucleus opened up a new dimension in studies of the hadronic interaction. It is now at a high level of interest on an international scale, with major new accelerators being proposed to dedicate to this kind of study.

  5. LHC Report: Ion Age

    CERN Multimedia

    John Jowett for the LHC team

    2013-01-01

    The LHC starts the New Year facing a new challenge: proton-lead collisions in the last month before the shutdown in mid-February.    Commissioning this new and almost unprecedented mode of collider operation is a major challenge both for the LHC and its injector chain. Moreover, it has to be done very quickly to achieve a whole series of physics goals, requiring modifications of the LHC configuration, in a very short time. These include a switch of the beam directions halfway through the run, polarity reversals of the ALICE spectrometer magnet and Van der Meer scans.    The Linac3 team kept the lead source running throughout the end-of-year technical stop, and recovery of the accelerator complex was very quick. New proton and lead beams were soon ready, with a bunch filling pattern that ensures they will eventually match up in the LHC. The LEIR machine has even attained a new ion beam intensity record.  On Friday 11 January the first single bunches o...

  6. Laser induced fluorescence of trapped molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieman, F.J.

    1979-10-01

    An experimental apparatus for obtaining the optical spectra of molecular ions is described. The experimental technique includes the use of three dimensional ion trapping, laser induced fluorescence, and gated photon counting methods. The ions, which are produced by electron impact, are confined in a radio-frequency quadrupole ion trap of cylindrical design. Because the quadrupole ion trap allows mass selection of the molecular ion desired for study, the analysis of the spectra obtained is greatly simplified. The ion trap also confines the ions to a region easily probed by a laser beam. 18 references.

  7. Ion Exchange and Liquid Column Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Harold F.

    1980-01-01

    Emphasizes recent advances in principles and methodology in ion exchange and chromatography. Two tables list representative examples for inorganic ions and organic compounds. Cites 544 references. (CS)

  8. Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology inmicrofabrications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Lili [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 μm-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance (25

  9. Ion guiding in alumina capillaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhász, Z.; Sulik, B.; Biri, S.

    2009-01-01

    Transmission of a few keV impact energy Ne ions through capillaries in anodic alumina membranes has been studied with different ion counting methods using an energy dispersive electrostatic spectrometer, a multichannel plate (MCP) array and sensitive current-measurement. In the present work, we...... focus our attention to the measurements with the MCP array. The alumina capillaries were prepared by electro-chemical oxidation of aluminium foils. For the present experiments guiding of 3-6 keV Ne ions has been studied in two samples with capillary diameter of about 140 nm and 260 nm and with capillary...

  10. Intermediate ions in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammet, Hannes; Komsaare, Kaupo; Hõrrak, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Intermediate air ions are charged nanometer-sized aerosol particles with an electric mobility of about 0.03-0.5 cm2 V- 1 s- 1 and a diameter of about 1.5-7.5 nm. Intensive studies of new particle formation provided good knowledge about intermediate ions during burst events of atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Information about intermediate ions during quiet periods between the bursts remained poor. The new mobility analyzer SIGMA can detect air ions at concentrations of mobility fractions of about 1 cm- 3 and enables studying intermediate ions during quiet periods. It became evident that intermediate ions always exist in atmospheric air and should be considered an indicator and a mediator of aerosol nucleation. The annual average concentration of intermediate ions of one polarity in Tartu, Estonia, was about 40 cm- 3 while 5% of the measurements showed a concentration of less than 10 cm- 3. The fraction concentrations in logarithmic 1/8-decade mobility bins between 0.1 and 0.4 cm2 V- 1 s- 1 often dropped below 1 cm- 3. The bursts of intermediate ions at stations separated by around 100 km appeared to be correlated. The lifespan of intermediate ions in the atmosphere is a few minutes, and they cannot be carried by wind over long distances. Thus the observed long-range correlation of intermediate ions is explained by simultaneous changes in air composition in widely spaced stations. A certain amount of intermediate ion bursts, predominantly of negative polarity, are produced by the balloelectric effect at the splashing of water drops during rain. These bursts are usually excluded when speaking about new particle formation because the balloelectric particles are assumed not to grow to the size of the Aitken mode. The mobility distribution of balloelectric ions is uniform in shape in all measurements. The maximum is located at a mobility of about 0.2 cm2 V- 1 s- 1, which corresponds to the diameter of particles of about 2.5 nm.

  11. The emerging role of ion/ion reactions in biological mass spectrometry: considerations for reagent ion selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLuckey, Scott A

    2010-01-01

    The advent of ionization methods that can produce multiply charged gaseous ions has enabled the development of gas-phase ion/ion reactions in analytical mass spectrometry. Ion/ion chemistry has proved to be a particularly effective means for converting ions from one type to another and allows for a decoupling of the ionization method from the nature of the ion subjected to tandem mass spectrometry. A growing array of applications has been developed based on a variety of reaction types, including electron transfer, proton transfer, charge inversion, metal transfer, etc. Most ion/ion reactions take place following the formation of a stable bound orbit between the reactants. As reactants approach closely enough for chemistry to occur, they can react by small charged particle transfer (i.e. electron transfer and proton transfer) at crossing points in the interaction potential. Alternatively, the reactants can collide to form a relatively long-lived complex. A wide range of chemical reactions can result from the long-lived complex, which include multiple charged particle transfers and covalent bond formation. For a given analyte ion, the major reaction pathway is determined by the characteristics of the reagent ion. An appreciation of the factors that underlie the partitioning of ion/ion reaction products is important in the design and selection of reagent ions to effect transformations of interest. Important considerations for reagent ion selection are discussed here within the context of a generalized scheme for ion/ion reaction dynamics.

  12. Fully variational average atom model with ion-ion correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, C E; Saumon, D

    2012-02-01

    An average atom model for dense ionized fluids that includes ion correlations is presented. The model assumes spherical symmetry and is based on density functional theory, the integral equations for uniform fluids, and a variational principle applied to the grand potential. Starting from density functional theory for a mixture of classical ions and quantum mechanical electrons, an approximate grand potential is developed, with an external field being created by a central nucleus fixed at the origin. Minimization of this grand potential with respect to electron and ion densities is carried out, resulting in equations for effective interaction potentials. A third condition resulting from minimizing the grand potential with respect to the average ion charge determines the noninteracting electron chemical potential. This system is coupled to a system of point ions and electrons with an ion fixed at the origin, and a closed set of equations is obtained. Solution of these equations results in a self-consistent electronic and ionic structure for the plasma as well as the average ionization, which is continuous as a function of temperature and density. Other average atom models are recovered by application of simplifying assumptions.

  13. Negative Ions in Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Thomas J; Walsh, Catherine; Field, Thomas A

    2017-02-08

    Until a decade ago, the only anion observed to play a prominent role in astrophysics was H - . The bound-free transitions in H - dominate the visible opacity in stars with photospheric temperatures less than 7000 K, including the Sun. The H - anion is also believed to have been critical to the formation of molecular hydrogen in the very early evolution of the Universe. Once H 2 formed, about 500 000 years after the Big Bang, the expanding gas was able to lose internal gravitational energy and collapse to form stellar objects and "protogalaxies", allowing the creation of heavier elements such as C, N, and O through nucleosynthesis. Although astronomers had considered some processes through which anions might form in interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes, including the important role that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons might play in this, it was the detection in 2006 of rotational line emission from C 6 H - that galvanized a systematic study of the abundance, distribution, and chemistry of anions in the interstellar medium. In 2007, the Cassini mission reported the unexpected detection of anions with mass-to-charge ratios of up to ∼10 000 in the upper atmosphere of Titan; this observation likewise instigated the study of fundamental chemical processes involving negative ions among planetary scientists. In this article, we review the observations of anions in interstellar clouds, circumstellar envelopes, Titan, and cometary comae. We then discuss a number of processes by which anions can be created and destroyed in these environments. The derivation of accurate rate coefficients for these processes is an essential input for the chemical kinetic modeling that is necessary to fully extract physics from the observational data. We discuss such models, along with their successes and failings, and finish with an outlook on the future.

  14. Applications of ion beam technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelerinter, E.; Spielberg, N.

    1980-01-01

    Wire adhesion in steel belted radial tires; carbon fibers and composite; cold welding, brazing, and fabrication; hydrogen production, separation, and storage; membrane use; catalysis; sputtering and texture; and ion beam implantation are discussed.

  15. Ion bombardment in RF photoguns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozdeyev,E.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V. N.

    2009-05-04

    A linac-ring eRHIC design requires a high-intensity CW source of polarized electrons. An SRF gun is viable option that can deliver the required beam. Numerical simulations presented elsewhere have shown that ion bombardment can occur in an RF gun, possibly limiting lifetime of a NEA GaAs cathode. In this paper, we analytically solve the equations of motion of ions in an RF gun using the ponderomotive potential of the Rf field. We apply the method to the BNL 1/2-cell SRF photogun and demonstrate that a significant portion of ions produced in the gun can reach the cathode if no special precautions are taken. Also, the paper discusses possible mitigation techniques that can reduce the rate of ion bombardment.

  16. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Facility (ICR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — his facility is charged with developing and exploiting the unique capabilities of Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry, and leads the...

  17. Ion manipulation method and device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Gordon A.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.

    2017-11-07

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area.

  18. Hydrated interfacial ions and electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Charged particles such as hydrated ions and transient hydrated electrons, the simplest anionic reducing agents in water, and the special hydronium and hydroxide ions at water interfaces play an important role in many fields of science, such as atmospheric chemistry, radiation chemistry, and biology, as well as biochemistry. This article focuses on these species near hydrophobic interfaces of water, such as the air or vacuum interface of water or water protein/membrane interfaces. Ions at interfaces as well as solvated electrons have been reviewed frequently during the past decade. Although all species have been known for some time with seemingly familiar features, recently the picture in all cases became increasingly diffuse rather than clearer. The current account gives a critical state-of-the art overview of what is known and what remains to be understood and investigated about hydrated interfacial ions and electrons.

  19. Emissive Ion Thruster -EMIT Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A propulsion system is proposed that is based on acceleration of ions emitted from a thin, solid-state electrochemical ceramic membrane. This technology would...

  20. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  1. Ion association in natural brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Jones, B.F.

    1969-01-01

    Natural brines, both surface and subsurface, are highly associated aqueous solutions. Ion complexes in brines may be ion pairs in which the cation remains fully hydrated and the bond between the ions is essentially electrostatic, or coordination complexes in which one or more of the hydration water molecules are replaced by covalent bonds to the anion. Except for Cl-, the major simple ions in natural brines form ion pairs; trace and minor metals in brines form mainly coordination complexes. Limitations of the Debye-Hu??ckel relations for activity coefficients and lack of data on definition and stability of all associated species in concentrated solutions tend to produce underestimates of the degree of ion association, except where the brines contain a very high proportion of Cl-. Data and calculations on closed basin brines of highly varied composition have been coupled with electrode measurements of single-ion activities in an attempt to quantify the degree of ion association. Such data emphasize the role of magnesium complexes. Trace metal contents of closed basin brines are related to complexes formed with major anions. Alkaline sulfo- or chlorocarbonate brines (western Great Basin) carry significant trace metal contents apparently as hydroxides or hydroxy polyions. Neutral high chloride brines (Bonneville Basin) are generally deficient in trace metals. With a knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of a natural water, many possible reactions with other phases (solids, gases, other liquids) may be predicted. A knowledge of these reactions is particularly important in the study of natural brines which may be saturated with many solid phases (silicates, carbonates, sulfates, etc.), which may have a high pH and bring about dissolution of other phases (silica, amphoteric hydroxides, CO2, etc.), and which because of their high density may form relatively stable interfaces with dilute waters. ?? 1969.

  2. Principles of Magnetospheric Ion Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-17

    BOREAL ) OF SIANDARDS-1963-A REPRODUtCED AT GOVERNMENT EXPENSE REPORT SD-TR-84-57 IC) Principles of Magnetospheric Ion Composition M. SCHULZ Space...species by different amounts. Entry of ionospheric ions into the plasma sheet seems to occur primarily through afternoon- and evening-sector auroral arcs...rather than through the polar wind as had previously been postulated. Energization occurs through interaction with the auroral potential structure

  3. Ion currents in diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Rahul

    2017-01-01

    This thesis documents an experimental and modelling investigation into ion formation in diesel engines, its uses in the field of engine performance and emissions prediction and the mechanisms by which these uses are made possible. Ion sensors have been employed in engines for a variety of purposes, including estimation of air-fuel ratio, start of combustion and in-cylinder pressure, detection of knock, misfire and combustion resonance, prediction of soot formation, and control of spark ...

  4. Heavy ion therapy: Bevalac epoch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    An overview of heavy ion therapy at the Bevelac complex (SuperHILac linear accelerator + Bevatron) is given. Treatment planning, clinical results with helium ions on the skull base and uveal melanoma, clinical results with high-LET charged particles, neon radiotherapy of prostate cancer, heavy charged particle irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma, preliminary results in heavy charged particle irradiation of bone sarcoma, and irradiation of bile duct carcinoma with charged particles and-or photons are all covered. (GHH)

  5. Intracellular ion channels and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi eLeanza; Lucia eBiasutto; Antonella eManago; Erich eGulbins; Mario eZoratti; Ildikò eSzabò

    2013-01-01

    Several types of channels play a role in the maintenance of ion homeostasis in subcellular organelles including endoplasmatic reticulum, nucleus, lysosome, endosome, and mitochondria. Here we give a brief overview of the contribution of various mitochondrial and other organellar channels to cancer cell proliferation or death. Much attention is focused on channels involved in intracellular calcium signaling and on ion fluxes in the ATP-producing organelle mitochondria. Mitochondrial K+ channel...

  6. Dissociative Recombination of Complex Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. Brian A.

    1999-10-01

    The FALP-MS apparatus at the University of Rennes allows the measurement of rate coefficients for the recombination of molecular ions to be made (at 300K) even though several ions may be present in the afterglow. The recombination of a number of hydrocarbon ions derived from alkane ( Lehfaoui et al. J. Chem. Phys. 106, 5406, 1997.), alkene ( Rebrion-Rowe et al. J. Chem. Phys. 108, 7185, 1998.) and aromatic (Rebrion-Rowe et al. (Submitted to J. Chem. Phys.)) parent molecules has been studied. Despite the wide range of complexity of these compounds, the measured recombination rates are remarkably similar having values in the range of 4-10-7 cm^3.s-1. Plans are being laid for a new version of this apparatus that will allow pre-prepared ions to be injected into the inert buffer gas flow. This will allow reactive ions to be studied as well as halogen containing ions whose recombination rates would normally be masked by electron attachment to their parent gases in a conventional flowing afterglow apparatus. A high temperature modification to the CRESU supersonic flow apparatus (J.L. Le Garrec et al. J. Chem. Phys. 107, 54, 1997.) in our laboratory will allow electron attachment to radicals to be studied by means of the mass spectrometric detection of products, Langmuir probe measurement of the electron density in the flow and Laser Induced Fluorescent identification of the radical species. Such measurements are needed for the modeling of semiconductor processing plasmas.

  7. Ion Bernstein wave heating research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Masayuki.

    1992-03-01

    Ion Bernstein wave heating (IBWH) utilizes the ion Bernstein wave (IBW), a hot plasma wave, to carry the radio frequency (rf) power to heat tokamak reactor core. Earlier wave accessibility studies have shown that this finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) mode should penetrate into a hot dense reactor plasma core without significant attenuation. Moreover, the IBW's low phase velocity ({omega}/k{sub {perpendicular}} {approx} V{sub Ti} {much lt} V{sub {alpha}}) greatly reduces the otherwise serious wave absorption by the 3.5 MeV fusion {alpha}-particles. In addition, the property of IBW's that k{sub {perpendicular}} {rho}{sub i} {approx} 1 makes localized bulk ion heating possible at the ion cyclotron harmonic layers. Such bulk ion heating can prove useful in optimizing fusion reactivity. In another vein, with proper selection of parameters, IBW's can be made subject to strong localized electron Landau damping near the major ion cyclotron harmonic resonance layers. This property can be useful, for example, for rf current drive in the reactor plasma core. This paper discusses this research.

  8. Ion Bernstein wave heating research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Masayuki

    1992-03-01

    Ion Bernstein wave heating (IBWH) utilizes the ion Bernstein wave (IBW), a hot plasma wave, to carry the radio frequency (rf) power to heat tokamak reactor core. Earlier wave accessibility studies have shown that this finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) mode should penetrate into a hot dense reactor plasma core without significant attenuation. Moreover, the IBW`s low phase velocity ({omega}/k{sub {perpendicular}} {approx} V{sub Ti} {much_lt} V{sub {alpha}}) greatly reduces the otherwise serious wave absorption by the 3.5 MeV fusion {alpha}-particles. In addition, the property of IBW`s that k{sub {perpendicular}} {rho}{sub i} {approx} 1 makes localized bulk ion heating possible at the ion cyclotron harmonic layers. Such bulk ion heating can prove useful in optimizing fusion reactivity. In another vein, with proper selection of parameters, IBW`s can be made subject to strong localized electron Landau damping near the major ion cyclotron harmonic resonance layers. This property can be useful, for example, for rf current drive in the reactor plasma core. This paper discusses this research.

  9. Cyclotron transitions of bound ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezchastnov, Victor G.; Pavlov, George G.

    2017-06-01

    A charged particle in a magnetic field possesses discrete energy levels associated with particle rotation around the field lines. The radiative transitions between these levels are the well-known cyclotron transitions. We show that a bound complex of particles with a nonzero net charge displays analogous transitions between the states of confined motion of the entire complex in the field. The latter bound-ion cyclotron transitions are affected by a coupling between the collective and internal motions of the complex and, as a result, differ from the transitions of a "reference" bare ion with the same mass and charge. We analyze the cyclotron transitions for complex ions by including the coupling within a rigorous quantum approach. Particular attention is paid to comparison of the transition energies and oscillator strengths to those of the bare ion. Selection rules based on integrals of collective motion are derived for the bound-ion cyclotron transitions analytically, and the perturbation and coupled-channel approaches are developed to study the transitions quantitatively. Representative examples are considered and discussed for positive and negative atomic and cluster ions.

  10. Low Z impurity ion extraction from TFTR ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Newman, R.A.; O' Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.; Wright, K.E.

    1993-04-01

    TFTR deuterium neutral beams have been operated unintentionally with significant quantities of extracted water ions. Water has been observed with an Optical Multichannel Analyzer (OMA) during beam extraction when small water leaks were present within the arc chamber. These leaks were thermally induced with the contamination level increasing linearly with pulse length. 6% of the beam current was attributed to water ions for the worst leak, corresponding to an instantaneous value of 12% at the end of a 1.5 s pulse. A pre-calorimeter collimator was damaged as a result of this operation. A similar contamination is observed during initial operation of ion sources exposed to air. This latter contamination is attributed to the synthesis, from adsorbed air, of either D[sub 2]O or the indistinguishable ND[sub 3]. Initial operation of new ion sources typically produces a contamination level of [approximately]2%. These impurities are reduced to undetectable levels after 50 to 100 beam pulses. Once a water molecule is present in the plasma generator, it is predominantly ionized rather than dissociated, resulting in the extraction of only trace amounts of hydrogenated ions. The addition of water to the extracted beam also reduces the optimum perveance, moving the typical underdense operating point closer to optimum, causing the frequency of grid faults to increase. Close to 90% of the water extracted from ion sources with water leaks was deuterated, implying that the potential exists for the production of tritiated water during TFTR's forthcoming DT operation. Isotope exchange in the plasma generator takes place rapidly and is believed to be surface catalyzed. The primary concern is with O implanted into beam absorbers recombining with tritium, and the subsequent hold up of T[sub 2]O on cryopanels. Continuous surveillance with the OMA diagnostic during DT operation will ensure that ion sources with detectable water are not operated with tritium.

  11. Low Z impurity ion extraction from TFTR ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Newman, R.A.; O`Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.; Wright, K.E.

    1993-04-01

    TFTR deuterium neutral beams have been operated unintentionally with significant quantities of extracted water ions. Water has been observed with an Optical Multichannel Analyzer (OMA) during beam extraction when small water leaks were present within the arc chamber. These leaks were thermally induced with the contamination level increasing linearly with pulse length. 6% of the beam current was attributed to water ions for the worst leak, corresponding to an instantaneous value of 12% at the end of a 1.5 s pulse. A pre-calorimeter collimator was damaged as a result of this operation. A similar contamination is observed during initial operation of ion sources exposed to air. This latter contamination is attributed to the synthesis, from adsorbed air, of either D{sub 2}O or the indistinguishable ND{sub 3}. Initial operation of new ion sources typically produces a contamination level of {approximately}2%. These impurities are reduced to undetectable levels after 50 to 100 beam pulses. Once a water molecule is present in the plasma generator, it is predominantly ionized rather than dissociated, resulting in the extraction of only trace amounts of hydrogenated ions. The addition of water to the extracted beam also reduces the optimum perveance, moving the typical underdense operating point closer to optimum, causing the frequency of grid faults to increase. Close to 90% of the water extracted from ion sources with water leaks was deuterated, implying that the potential exists for the production of tritiated water during TFTR`s forthcoming DT operation. Isotope exchange in the plasma generator takes place rapidly and is believed to be surface catalyzed. The primary concern is with O implanted into beam absorbers recombining with tritium, and the subsequent hold up of T{sub 2}O on cryopanels. Continuous surveillance with the OMA diagnostic during DT operation will ensure that ion sources with detectable water are not operated with tritium.

  12. Radiolesão vascular como efeito deletério da braquiterapia intra-arterial com dose elevada de Samário-153 em coelhos hipercolesterolêmicos Vascular radiolesion as a deleterious effect of high-dose-rate intraarterial brachytherapy with Samarium-153 in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton Bertolim Précoma

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem por objetivo avaliar as alterações vasculares morfológicas e morfométricas induzidas pela braquiterapia com Samário-153 (153 Sm em coelhos hipercolesterolêmicos, com doses elevadas. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 43 coelhos hipercolesterolêmicos, brancos, da raça New Zealand, e o total de 86 artérias ilíacas submetidas a lesão por balão de angioplastia. Divididos em três grupos: dois (GI irradiados com as doses de 15Gy (n=14 e 60Gy (n=36 e um grupo controle (n=36. Foram realizadas avaliação histológica morfométrica e análise histológica qualitativa para análise tecidual. RESULTADOS: Foram observadas uma redução significativa da neoproliferação intimal (NPI no GI 15 Gy (pOBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate vascular morphological and morphometric changes induced by brachytherapy with samarium-153 (Sm-153 at high doses in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. METHODS: Forty-three New Zealand White hypercholesterolemic rabbits were analyzed, and the total of 86 iliac arteries underwent balloon angioplasty injury. The rabbits were divided into three different groups: two irradiation groups (IG assigned to 15 Gy (n=14 and 60 Gy (n=36 irradiation doses, respectively, and a control group (n = 36. Histomorphometric and qualitative histological analyses were performed for tissue evaluation. RESULTS: Significant reductions were found in neointimal proliferation (NIP (p< 0.0001, media area (MA (p<0.0001 and percent stenosis (p<0.0001 in the 15-Gy IG, compared to the other groups. The 60-Gy IG had the higher rate of NIP, increase in media and vessel areas (VA and percent stenosis. The 60-Gy IG also showed the greatest number of xanthomatous cells (60-Gy IG: 86.11% and 15-Gy IG: 14.29%, p<0.0001 and the highest amount of hyaline amorphous tissue (60-Gy IG:58.33% and 15-Gy IG:0%, p=0.0001 and vascular proliferation (60-Gy IG:30.56% and 15-Gy IG:0%, p=0.0221. No statistically significant differences were found

  13. On a cryogenic noble gas ion catcher

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dendooven, P; Purushothaman, S; Gloos, K

    2006-01-01

    In situ purification of the gas used as stopping medium in a noble gas ion catcher by operating the device at low temperatures of 60-150 K was investigated. Alpha-decay recoil ions from a Ra-223 source served as energetic probes. The combined ion survival and transport efficiencies for Rn-219 ions

  14. A sensitive fluorescent sensor of lanthanide ions

    CERN Document Server

    Bekiari, V; Lianos, P

    2003-01-01

    A fluorescent probe bearing a diazostilbene chromophore and a benzo-15-crown-5 ether moiety is a very efficient sensor of lanthanide ions. The ligand emits strong fluorescence only in the presence of specific ions, namely lanthanide ions, while the emission wavelength is associated with a particular ion providing high sensitivity and resolution.

  15. Scanning reflection ion microscopy in a helium ion microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Petrov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reflection ion microscopy (RIM is a technique that uses a low angle of incidence and scattered ions to form an image of the specimen surface. This paper reports on the development of the instrumentation and the analysis of the capabilities and limitations of the scanning RIM in a helium ion microscope (HIM. The reflected ions were detected by their “conversion” to secondary electrons on a platinum surface. An angle of incidence in the range 5–10° was used in the experimental setup. It was shown that the RIM image contrast was determined mostly by surface morphology but not by the atomic composition. A simple geometrical analysis of the reflection process was performed together with a Monte Carlo simulation of the angular dependence of the reflected ion yield. An interpretation of the RIM image formation and a quantification of the height of the surface steps were performed. The minimum detectable step height was found to be approximately 5 nm. RIM imaging of an insulator surface without the need for charge compensation was successfully demonstrated.

  16. Observations of strong ion-ion correlations in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, T.; Fletcher, L.; Pak, A.; Chapman, D. A.; Falcone, R. W.; Fortmann, C.; Galtier, E.; Gericke, D. O.; Gregori, G.; Hastings, J.; Landen, O. L.; Le Pape, S.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Neumayer, P.; Turnbull, D.; Vorberger, J.; White, T. G.; Wünsch, K.; Zastrau, U.; Glenzer, S. H.; Döppner, T.

    2014-05-01

    Using simultaneous spectrally, angularly, and temporally resolved x-ray scattering, we measure the pronounced ion-ion correlation peak in a strongly coupled plasma. Laser-driven shock-compressed aluminum at ~3× solid density is probed with high-energy photons at 17.9 keV created by molybdenum He-α emission in a laser-driven plasma source. The measured elastic scattering feature shows a well-pronounced correlation peak at a wave vector of k=4k=4Å-1. The magnitude of this correlation peak cannot be described by standard plasma theories employing a linear screened Coulomb potential. Advanced models, including a strong short-range repulsion due to the inner structure of the aluminum ions are however in good agreement with the scattering data. These studies have demonstrated a new highly accurate diagnostic technique to directly measure the state of compression and the ion-ion correlations. We have since applied this new method in single-shot wave-number resolved S(k) measurements to characterize the physical properties of dense plasmas.

  17. Ion beam analysis fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasi, Michael; Wang, Yongqiang

    2015-01-01

    Ion Beam Analysis: Fundamentals and Applications explains the basic characteristics of ion beams as applied to the analysis of materials, as well as ion beam analysis (IBA) of art/archaeological objects. It focuses on the fundamentals and applications of ion beam methods of materials characterization.The book explains how ions interact with solids and describes what information can be gained. It starts by covering the fundamentals of ion beam analysis, including kinematics, ion stopping, Rutherford backscattering, channeling, elastic recoil detection, particle induced x-ray emission, and nucle

  18. Modification of graphene by ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik, G.; Ciepielewski, P.; Jagielski, J.; Baranowski, J.

    2017-09-01

    Ion induced defect generation in graphene was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. A single layer graphene membrane produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on copper foil and then transferred on glass substrate was subjected to helium, carbon, nitrogen, argon and krypton ions bombardment at energies from the range 25 keV to 100 keV. A density of ion induced defects and theirs mean size were estimated by using Raman measurements. Increasing number of defects generated by ion with increase of ion mass and decrease of ion energy was observed. Dependence of ion defect efficiency (defects/ion) on ion mass end energy was proportional to nuclear stopping power simulated by SRIM. No correlation between ion defect efficiency and electronic stopping power was observed.

  19. Cyclotron axial ion-beam-buncher system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, R.W.; Swenson, D.A.; Wangler, T.P.

    1982-02-11

    Adiabatic ion bunching is achieved in a cyclotron axial ion injection system through the incorporation of a radio frequency quadrupole system, which receives ions from an external ion source via an accelerate-decelerate system and a focusing einzel lens system, and which adiabatically bunches and then injects the ions into the median plane of a cyclotron via an electrostatic quadrupole system and an inflection mirror.

  20. The ion pairs and superconducting bosons

    OpenAIRE

    Minasyan, V. N.

    2008-01-01

    First, it is shown that the creation of the spinless ion pairs in the lattice, which are hold by the binding with neighbor ion pairs together regarded as covalent. These ion pairs are created by the repulsive potential interaction of two ions which is bound as linear oscillator. The repulsive S-wave scattering between ion pairs and electrons is transformed to the attractive effective interaction between electrons which leads to a creation of electron pairs by a binding energy depending on the...

  1. Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Qing [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    As the dimensions of semiconductor devices are scaled down, in order to achieve higher levels of integration, optical lithography will no longer be sufficient for the needs of the semiconductor industry. Alternative next-generation lithography (NGL) approaches, such as extreme ultra-violet (EUV), X-ray, electron-beam, and ion projection lithography face some challenging issues with complicated mask technology and low throughput. Among the four major alternative NGL approaches, ion beam lithography is the only one that can provide both maskless and resistless patterning. As such, it can potentially make nano-fabrication much simpler. This thesis investigates a focused ion beam system for maskless, resistless patterning that can be made practical for high-volume production. In order to achieve maskless, resistless patterning, the ion source must be able to produce a variety of ion species. The compact FIB system being developed uses a multicusp plasma ion source, which can generate ion beams of various elements, such as O2+, BF2+, P+ etc., for surface modification and doping applications. With optimized source condition, around 85% of BF2+, over 90% of O2+ and P+ have been achieved. The brightness of the multicusp-plasma ion source is a key issue for its application to maskless ion beam lithography. It can be substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. Measured brightness of 2 keV He+ beam is as high as 440 A/cm2 • Sr, which represents a 30x improvement over prior work. Direct patterning of Si thin film using a focused O2+ ion beam has been investigated. A thin surface oxide film can be selectively formed using 3 keV O2+ ions with the dose of 1015 cm-2. The oxide can then serve as a hard mask for patterning of the Si film. The

  2. Marine Toxins Targeting Ion Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo R. Arias

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This introductory minireview points out the importance of ion channels for cell communication. The basic concepts on the structure and function of ion channels triggered by membrane voltage changes, the so-called voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs, as well as those activated by neurotransmitters, the so-called ligand-gated ion channel (LGICs, are introduced. Among the most important VGIC superfamiles, we can name the voltage-gated Na+ (NaV, Ca2+ (CaV, and K+ (KV channels. Among the most important LGIC super families, we can include the Cys-loop or nicotinicoid, the glutamate-activated (GluR, and the ATP-activated (P2XnR receptor superfamilies. Ion channels are transmembrane proteins that allow the passage of different ions in a specific or unspecific manner. For instance, the activation of NaV, CaV, or KV channels opens a pore that is specific for Na+, Ca2+, or K+, respectively. On the other hand, the activation of certain LGICs such as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, GluRs, and P2XnRs allows the passage of cations (e.g., Na+, K+, and/or Ca2+, whereas the activation of other LGICs such as type A γ-butyric acid and glycine receptors allows the passage of anions (e.g., Cl− and/or HCO3−. In this regard, the activation of NaV and CaV as well as ligand-gated cation channels produce membrane depolarization, which finally leads to stimulatory effects in the cell, whereas the activation of KV as well as ligand-gated anion channels induce membrane hyperpolarization that finally leads to inhibitory effects in the cell. The importance of these ion channel superfamilies is emphasized by considering their physiological functions throughout the body as well as their pathophysiological implicance in several neuronal diseases. In this regard, natural molecules, and especially marine toxins, can be potentially used as modulators (e.g., inhibitors or prolongers of ion channel functions to treat or to alleviate a specific

  3. THOR Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retinò, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) onboard THOR will provide the first high-time resolution measurements of mass-resolved ions in near-Earth space, focusing on hot ions in the foreshock, shock and magnetosheath turbulent regions. These measurements are required to study how kinetic-scale turbulent fluctuations heat and accelerate different ion species. IMS will measure the full three-dimensional distribution functions of main ion species (H+, He++, O+) in the energy range 10 eV/q to 30 keV/q with energy resolution DE/E down to 10% and angular resolution down to 11.25˚ . The time resolution will be 150 ms for O+, 300 ms for He++ and ˜ 1s for O+, which correspond to ion scales in the the foreshock, shock and magnetosheath regions. Such high time resolution is achieved by mounting four identical IMS units phased by 90˚ in the spacecraft spin plane. Each IMS unit combines a top-hat electrostatic analyzer with deflectors at the entrance together with a time-of-flight section to perform mass selection. Adequate mass-per-charge resolution (M/q)/(ΔM/q) (≥ 8 for He++ and ≥ 3 for O+) is obtained through a 6 cm long Time-of-Flight (TOF) section. IMS electronics includes a fast sweeping high voltage board that is required to make measurements at high cadence. Ion detection includes Micro Channel Plates (MCPs) combined with Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for charge amplification and discrimination and a discrete Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) to determine the ion time of flight. A processor board will be used to for ion events formatting and will interface with the Particle Processing Unit (PPU), which will perform data processing for THOR particle detectors. The IMS instrument is being designed and will be built and calibrated by an international consortium of scientific institutes from France, USA, Germany and Japan and Switzerland.

  4. Ionomers for Ion-Conducting Energy Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Ralph

    For ionic actuators and battery separators, it is vital to utilize single-ion conducting ionomers that avoid the detrimental polarization of other ions. Single-ion conducting ionomers are synthesized based on DFT calculations, with low glass transition temperatures (facile dynamics) to prepare ion-conducting membranes for battery separators that conduct Li+ or Na+. Characterization by X-ray scattering, dielectric spectroscopy, FTIR, NMR and linear viscoelasticity collectively develop a coherent picture of ionic aggregation and both counterion and polymer dynamics. 7Li NMR diffusion measurements find that diffusion is faster than expected by conductivity using the Nernst-Einstein equation, which means that the majority of Li diffusion occurs by ion pairs moving with the polymer segmental motion. Segmental motion only contributes to ionic conduction in the rare event that one of these ion pairs has an extra Li (a positive triple ion). This leads us to a new metric for ion-conducting soft materials, the product of the cation number density p0 and their diffusion coefficient D; p0D is the diffusive flux of lithium ions. This new metric has a maximum at intermediate ion content that corresponds to the overlap of ion pair polarizability volumes. At higher ion contents, the ion pairs interact strongly and form larger aggregation states that retard segmental motion of both mobile ion pairs and triple ions.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Ion Rings and Ion Beam Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankofsky, Alan

    This thesis presents the development of numerical simulation techniques for studying the physics of ion beams and rings in a background plasma as applicable to certain problems in magnetic and inertial confinement fusion. Two codes have been developed for these purposes: RINGA and CIDER. The 2 and 1/2-dimensional (r,z,v(,r),v(,(theta)),v(,z); (PAR-DIFF)/(PAR-DIFF)(theta) = 0) particle code RINGA follows the trajectories of ions in their self-consistent magnetic field. The code assumes strict charge neutrality and admits currents only in the azimuthal direction, i.e., (PHI) = J(,r) = J(,z) = 0. The injection and resistive trapping of ion rings has been studied with RINGA. The number of particles trapped as a fraction of the total number injected N is found to be strongly dependent upon (1) N (in the range 2.85 x 10('16) - 3.99 x 10('17)) and (2) mirror ratios in the system (1.05 -1.14), and more weakly dependent upon (3) wall resistance per unit length (0.72 (OMEGA)/cm - 1.80 (OMEGA)/cm) and (4) beam divergence (0(DEGREES)-6(DEGREES)). Fractions of trapped particles in excess of 0.9 have been observed. Modifications to RINGA to include finite pressure of confined plasma and beam ion-electron slowing down collisions are discussed. Finite plasma pressure leads to a diamagnetic current which increases the field reversal factor in ion ring equilibria, while causing the closed flux surfaces to expand outward. The ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability of the plasma is analyzed in the high toroidal mode number limit, where the beam ions are noninteracting. The existence of stable high-(beta) equilibria is demonstrated. One such equilibrium, stable to both ideal interchange and ballooning modes, has (TBOND) 8(pi) / (DBLTURN) 55%. In the CIDER hybrid code, ions are represented by particles and electrons by an inertialess thermal fluid which obeys a generalized Ohm's law. Fields are solved in the quasineutral Darwin approximation. Several collisional and atomic processes are

  6. Characterization of ISOLDE ion source and ion source chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Barbeau, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results of measurements made with the ISOLDE OFF-LINE mass separator [1]. The first part shows measurements of the ionization characteristics of noble gases in a VADIS ion source. The goal of the measurements was to determine the dependency of the extractable current of first and second noble gases ions with the electron energy. In the second part, investigation on in-target chemistry are presented. Here, the effect of injected sulfur hexafluoride ($SF_6$) on the release of oxygen from aluminium oxide ($Al_2 O_3$) was studied.

  7. Industrial ion sources broadbeam gridless ion source technology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhurin, Viacheslav V

    2012-01-01

    Due to the large number of uses of ion sources in academia and industry, those who utilize these sources need up to date and coherent information to keep themselves abreast of developments and options, and to chose ideal solutions for quality and cost-effectiveness. This book, written by an author with a strong industrial background and excellent standing, is the comprehensive guide users and developers of ion sources have been waiting for. Providing a thorough refresher on the physics involved, this resource systematically covers the source types, components, and the operational parameters.

  8. Heavy ion fusion--Using heavy ions to make electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celata, C.M.

    2004-03-15

    The idea of using nuclear fusion as a source of commercial electrical power has been pursued worldwide since the 1950s. Two approaches, using magnetic and inertial confinement of the reactants, are under study. This paper describes the difference between the two approaches, and discusses in more detail the heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion concept. A multibeam induction linear accelerator would be used to bring {approx}100 heavy ion beams to a few GeV. The beams would then heat and compress a target of solid D-T. This approach is unique among fusion concepts in its ability to protect the reaction chamber wall from neutrons and debris.

  9. Cholesterol binding to ion channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena eLevitan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies demonstrated that membrane cholesterol is a major regulator of ion channel function. The goal of this review is to discuss significant advances that have been recently achieved in elucidating the mechanisms responsible for cholesterol regulation of ion channels. The first major insight that comes from growing number of studies that based on the sterol specificity of cholesterol effects, show that several types of ion channels (nAChR, Kir, BK, TRPV are regulated by specific sterol-protein interactions. This conclusion is supported by demonstrating direct saturable binding of cholesterol to a bacterial Kir channel. The second major advance in the field is the identification of putative cholesterol binding sites in several types of ion channels. These include sites at locations associated with the well-known cholesterol binding motif CRAC and its reversed form CARC in nAChR, BK, and TRPV, as well as novel cholesterol binding regions in Kir channels. Notably, in the majority of these channels, cholesterol is suggested to interact mainly with hydrophobic residues in non-annular regions of the channels being embedded in between transmembrane protein helices. We also discuss how identification of putative cholesterol binding sites is an essential step to understand the mechanistic basis of cholesterol-induced channel regulation. Clearly, however, these are only the first few steps in obtaining a general understanding of cholesterol-ion channels interactions and their roles in cellular and organ functions.

  10. Heavy-ion nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, M A; Haque, S

    2003-01-01

    Heavy ion-nucleus scattering is an excellent laboratory to probe high spin phenomena, exotic nuclei and for the analysis of various exit channels. The Strong Absorption Model or the generalized diffraction models, which are semi-classical in nature, have been employed in the description of various heavy ion-nucleus scattering phenomena with reasonable success. But one needs to treat the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically in the Wave Mechanical picture for the appropriate description of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering phenomena. We have brought the mathematics for the cross-section of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering to an analytic expression taking account of the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically. sup 9 Be, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 2 sup 0 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 S heavy-ion beams elastic scattering from sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 2 sup 4 Mg and sup 4 sup 0 Ca target nuclei at various projectile energies over the range 20-151 MeV have been analysed in terms of the 2-paramet...

  11. Rotation sensing with trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W. C.; Hamilton, P.

    2017-03-01

    We present a protocol for rotation measurement via matter-wave Sagnac interferometry using trapped ions. The ion trap based interferometer encloses a large area in a compact apparatus through repeated round-trips in a Sagnac geometry. We show how a uniform magnetic field can be used to close the interferometer over a large dynamic range in rotation speed and measurement bandwidth without contrast loss. Since this technique does not require the ions to be confined in the Lamb-Dicke regime, Doppler laser cooling should be sufficient to reach a sensitivity of { S }=1.4× {10}-6 {{rad}} {{{s}}}-1 {{{H}}{{z}}}-1/2. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J. Phys. B. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Wes Campbell was selected by the Editorial Board of J. Phys. B as an Emerging Leader.

  12. Results of heavy ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, J.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    1994-04-01

    The potential of heavy ion therapy for clinical use in cancer therapy stems from the biological parameters of heavy charged particles, and their precise dose localization. Biologically, carbon, neon and other heavy ion beams (up to about silicon) are clinically useful in overcoming the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors, thus increasing biological effectiveness relative to low-LET x-ray or electron beams. Cells irradiated by heavy ions show less variation in cell-cycle related radiosensitivity and decreased repair of radiation injury. The physical parameters of these heavy charged particles allow precise delivery of high radiation doses to tumors while minimizing irradiation of normal tissues. Clinical use requires close interaction between radiation oncologists, medical physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers, computer scientists and radiation biologists.

  13. Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    The figure presents a concept of a bipolar miniature electrostatic ion thruster for maneuvering a small spacecraft. The ionization device in the proposed thruster would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several mega-volts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. In a thruster-based on this concept, one or more propellant gases would be introduced into such a membrane ionizer. Unlike in larger prior ion thrusters, all of the propellant molecules would be ionized. This thruster would be capable of bipolar operation. There would be two accelerator grids - one located forward and one located aft of the membrane ionizer. In one mode of operation, which one could denote the forward mode, positive ions leaving the ionizer on the backside would be accelerated to high momentum by an electric field between the ionizer and an accelerator grid. Electrons leaving the ionizer on the front side would be ejected into free space by a smaller accelerating field. The equality of the ion and electron currents would eliminate the need for an additional electron- or ion-emitting device to keep the spacecraft charge-neutral. In another mode of operation, which could denote the reverse mode, the polarities of the voltages applied to the accelerator grids and to the electrodes of the membrane ionizer would be the reverse of those of the forward mode. The reversal of electric fields would cause the ion and electrons to be ejected in the reverse of their forward mode directions, thereby giving rise to thrust in the direction opposite that of the forward mode.

  14. Ion Implantation and Synthesis of Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasi, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Ion implantation is one of the key processing steps in silicon integrated circuit technology. Some integrated circuits require up to 17 implantation steps and circuits are seldom processed with less than 10 implantation steps. Controlled doping at controlled depths is an essential feature of implantation. Ion beam processing can also be used to improve corrosion resistance, to harden surfaces, to reduce wear and, in general, to improve materials properties. This book presents the physics and materials science of ion implantation and ion beam modification of materials. It covers ion-solid interactions used to predict ion ranges, ion straggling and lattice disorder. Also treated are shallow-junction formation and slicing silicon with hydrogen ion beams. Topics important for materials modification, such as ion-beam mixing, stresses, and sputtering, are also described.

  15. Fast ion-atom and ion-molecule collisions

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The principal goal of this book is to provide state-of-the art coverage of the non-relativistic three- and four-body theories at intermediate and high energy ion-atom and ion-molecule collisions. The focus is on the most frequently studied processes: electron capture, ionization, transfer excitation and transfer ionization. The content is suitable both for graduate students and experienced researchers. For these collisions, the literature has seen enormous renewal of activity in the development and applications of quantum-mechanical theories. This subject is of relevance in several branches of science and technology, like accelerator-based physics, the search for new sources of energy and high temperature fusion of light ions. Other important applications are in life sciences via medicine, where high-energy ion beams are used in radiotherapy for which a number of storage ring accelerators are in full operation, under construction or planned to be built worldwide. Therefore, it is necessary to review this fiel...

  16. Ion-Beam-Excited, Electrostatic, Ion Cyclotron Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    The stability limits of the ion‐beam‐excited, electrostatic, ion cyclotron instability were investigated in a Q‐machine plasma where the electrons could be heated by microwaves. In agreement with theory, the beam energy necessary for excitation decreased with increasing electron temperature....

  17. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    The stability limits of the ion‐beam‐excited, electrostatic, ion cyclotron instability were investigated in a Q‐machine plasma where the electrons could be heated by microwaves. In agreement with theory, the beam energy necessary for excitation decreased with increasing electron temperature....

  18. Low Energy Ion Implanting of Silver Ion in Titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Elisa Demore Palandi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In modern medicine, biomaterials have been widely used as implants. Among biomaterials, titanium medical class is distinguished by its high degree of biocompatibility. However, orthoses and prostheses infected with post-implanted microorganisms require surgeries and medical interventions that are costly and treatment can take months. To combat infections associated with implants, the best strategy is to prevent them from occurring. One strategy is the silver ion implantation in titanium. In this work, silver ions were implanted at low energies (4 keV in medical titanium with the goal to take bactericide titanium surface and therefore, inhibit biofilm formation. The implantation was done using the Ion Plating equipment. After ion implantation, the samples were analyzing for Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry, Glow-Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction. The results show that the silver was implanted at depths up to 10 nm, corroborating simulation data. In addition, the strategy used in this work can be applied on an industrial scale due to the type of equipment used for the surface treatment.

  19. Heavy ions: Report from Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We review selected highlights from the experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) exploring the QCD phase diagram. A wealth of new results appeared recently from RHIC due to major recent upgrades, like for example the Υ suppression in central nucleus-nucleus collisions which has been discovered ...

  20. Ion composition variety and variability around perihelion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beth, Arnaud; Altwegg, Kathrin; Behar, Étienne; Broiles, Tom; Burch, Jim; Carr, Christopher; Eriksson, Anders; Galand, Marina; Goetz, Charlotte; Henri, Pierre; Heritier, Kévin; Nilsson, Hans; Odelstad, Elias; Richter, Ingo; Rubin, Martin; Vallieres, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    For two years, the Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer (DFMS), one of the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) onboard Rosetta probed the neutral gas and the plasma composition of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's coma (67P). Major ion species detected include water ions (e.g, H2O+, H3O+, HO+) observed throughout the escorting phase. The analysis of DFMS data revealed a large zoo of ion species near perihelion (summer 2015). In particular, protonated versions of high proton affinity neutrals (e.g., NH4+) were detected, but also hydrocarbon and organic ion species. Near perihelion, ion composition was also highly variable and showed interesting variations in the complexity of the observed ion species. We will first present an overview of the rich variety of ion species observed during perihelion. This study will be supported by ionospheric modeling of ion composition below the ion exobase. We will then show an intercomparison between DFMS data and Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) plasma and particle data to interpret the DFMS ion composition variability. Our primary goal is to highlight any correlation between observations from these different instruments (i.e. ion composition, ion and electron number density, energy distribution, magnetic field) and to find relevant signatures of physical processes which can affect the chemistry and dynamics (e.g., acceleration and deflection) of the involved neutral and ion species.

  1. Therapeutic approaches to ion channel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Diana Conte; Desaphy, Jean-François; Tricarico, Domenico; Pierno, Sabata; Liantonio, Antonella

    2008-01-01

    More than 400 genes are known that encode ion channel subunits. In addition, alternative splicing and heteromeric assembly of different subunits increase tremendously the variety of ion channels. Such many channels are needed to accomplish very complex cellular functions, whereas dysfunction of ion channels are key events in many pathological processes. The recent discovery of ion channelopathies, which, in its more stringent definition, encloses monogenic disorders due to mutations in ion channel genes, has largely contributed to our understanding of the function of the various channel subtypes and of the role of ion channels in multigenic or acquired diseases. Last but not least, ion channels are the main targets of many drugs already used in the clinics. Most of these drugs were introduced in therapy based on the experience acquired quite empirically, and many were discovered afterward to target ion channels. Now, intense research is being conducted to develop new drugs acting selectively on ion channel subtypes and aimed at the understanding of the intimate drug-channel interaction. In this review, we first focus on the pharmacotherapy of ion channel diseases, which includes many drugs targeting ion channels. Then, we describe the molecular pharmacology of ion channels, including the more recent advancement in drug development. Among the newest aspect of ion channel pharmacology, we draw attention to how polymorphisms or mutations in ion channel genes may modify sensitivity to drugs, opening the way toward the development of pharmacogenetics.

  2. Ion Heating in the Martian Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, C. M.; Ergun, R. E.; Andersson, L.; Peterson, W. K.; Hara, T.; Mcfadden, J.; Espley, J.; Halekas, J.; Mitchell, D. L.; Mazelle, C.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2017-10-01

    Energetic O+ and O2+ ions with energies of up to a few hundred eV are observed in the Martian ionosphere. Corresponding ion velocity distributions show ion conics, suggesting that the observed ion populations have been heated perpendicular to the local magnetic field before experiencing a magnetic mirror force. Magnetic field observations support these interpretations: wave power at the local O+ and O2+ gyrofrequencies in the spacecraft frame is observed coincident with the energetic ions, within an apparent magnetic field bottle-like topology. Analysis of the observed ion conics leads to estimates of ion temperatures of 10-30 eV. We suggest that the ion populations are initially heated perpendicular to the local magnetic field by wave power propagating inward from the Mars-solar wind interaction. The local magnetic field "balloons out" in response to these enhanced ion temperatures and pressures. The resultant magnetic field topology is bottle like; the transversely heated ions would subsequently experience a magnetic mirror force in the converging field regions, agreeing with the reported observations. Such strong heating events that significantly increase the ion temperature and pressure, thereby decreasing the net magnetic field, are rare and seem to occur under specific interplanetary magnetic field orientations. Events were observed to span the upper exobase region and just above, a region characterized by significant ion densities in an increasingly collisionless domain. Ion heating in this region has the potential to drive significant ion outflows, thus contributing to atmospheric loss from the planet.

  3. Understanding Molecular Ion-Neutral Atom Collisions for the Production of Ultracold Molecular Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    Understanding Molecular Ion-Neutral Atom Collisions for the Production of Utracold Molecular Ions In the last five years, the study of ultracold...U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 molecular ion, quantum chemistry, atom ion interaction...Molecular Ion-Neutral Atom Collisions for the Production of Utracold Molecular Ions Report Title In the last five years, the study of ultracold molecular

  4. Clotrimazole-triiodide ion association as an ion exchanger for a triiodide ion-selective electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Khalil; Maleki, Ramin

    2002-02-01

    A novel triiodide ion-selective electrode based on a clotrimazole-triiodide ion pair as a membrane carrier was prepared. It has a linear response to triiodide from 8 x 10(-6) to 5 x 10(-3) M with a slope of -68.9 mV per decade and a detection limit of 5 x 10(-6) M. The electrode response is independent of the pH of the solution in the pH range 2-9. It has a very short response time and can be used for at least 3 months without any considerable divergence in the potentials. The proposed sensor revealed very good selectivities for I3- over a variety of other anions. It was used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of triiodide ions and in an indirect potentiometric determination of clotrimazole in pharmaceutical preparations.

  5. A fast beam-ion instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupakov, G.V. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The ionization of residual gas by an electron beam in an accelerator generates ions that can resonantly couple to the beam through a wave propagating in the beam-ion system. Results of the study of a beam-ion instability are presented for a multi-bunch train taking into account the decoherence of ion oscillations due to the ion frequency spread and spatial variation of the ion frequency. It is shown that the combination of both effects can substantially reduce the growth rate of the instability. (author)

  6. Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rumpf, Arthur N.

    2010-11-23

    An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

  7. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY WASTEWATER TREATMENT OF NITRITE IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Morozov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main reason for high concentration of nitrite ions in water is the existence of sources of industrial and agricultural pollution. Contamination of drinking water, juices, wine and other liquids of nitrite ions as a result of improper use of nitrogen fertilizers has an adverse effect on living organism, because under the influence of enzymes nitrite ions in living organisms form high carcinogenic nitrosamines, and the interaction of nitrite ions from blood hemoglobin causes such toxicity that leads to disease cyanosis [1]. Therefore removal of nitrite ions from water has received increased attention. The paper discusses an innovative wastewater treatment technology from the nitrite ion with hypochlorite produced during electrolysis.

  8. Infrared spectroscopy of weakly bound molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Lisa I-Ching

    1988-11-01

    The infrared spectra of a series of hydrated hydronium cluster ions and of protonated ethane ion are presented. A tandem mass spectrometer is ideally suited to obtaining the spectra of such weakly bound molecular ions. Traditional absorption spectroscopy is not feasible in these situations, so the techniques described in this thesis make use of some consequence of photon absorption with higher sensitivity than simply attenuation of laser power. That consequence is dissociation. By first mass selecting the parent ion under study and then mass selecting the fragment ion formed from dissociation, the near unit detection efficiency of ion counting methods has been used to full advantage.

  9. Microfluidic ion-sensing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R Daniel; Gavalas, Vasilis G; Daunert, Sylvia; Bachas, Leonidas G

    2008-04-14

    Quantitative determinations of ions in a variety of media have been performed traditionally via one of three approaches: optical instrumental methods (e.g., atomic absorption, and inductively-coupled plasma-optical emission or mass spectrometry), "wet" methods, or ion-selective sensors. Each of the approaches, though, possesses limitations including: power/reagent consumption and lack of portability for instrumental techniques; laborious sample-treatment steps for wet methods; and lack of selectivity and sensitivity with sensors when employed with complex samples. Microfluidic device have emerged as a solution to some of these challenges associated with ion analysis. Such systems can integrate multiple sample handling, calibration, and detection steps ("lab-on-a-chip" concept) into a footprint amenable to portability, while requiring small amounts of sample and power. Furthermore, devices can be constructed for multi-analyte detection, either through multiple parallel fluidic architectures or by using arrays of detection elements. This paper reviews recent progress in the development of total-analysis systems for ionic species. Fabrication techniques and various fluid-handling operations are discussed briefly, followed by a number of more mature strategies for microfluidic ion analysis. A variety of approaches expected to comprise the next generation of devices are also presented.

  10. Microfluidic ion-sensing devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R. Daniel [Department of Chemistry, Murray State University, Murray, KY 42071-3346 (United States)], E-mail: daniel.johnson@murraystate.edu; Gavalas, Vasilis G.; Daunert, Sylvia [Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Bachas, Leonidas G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States)], E-mail: bachas@uky.edu

    2008-04-14

    Quantitative determinations of ions in a variety of media have been performed traditionally via one of three approaches: optical instrumental methods (e.g., atomic absorption, and inductively-coupled plasma-optical emission or mass spectrometry), 'wet' methods, or ion-selective sensors. Each of the approaches, though, possesses limitations including: power/reagent consumption and lack of portability for instrumental techniques; laborious sample-treatment steps for wet methods; and lack of selectivity and sensitivity with sensors when employed with complex samples. Microfluidic device have emerged as a solution to some of these challenges associated with ion analysis. Such systems can integrate multiple sample handling, calibration, and detection steps ('lab-on-a-chip' concept) into a footprint amenable to portability, while requiring small amounts of sample and power. Furthermore, devices can be constructed for multi-analyte detection, either through multiple parallel fluidic architectures or by using arrays of detection elements. This paper reviews recent progress in the development of total-analysis systems for ionic species. Fabrication techniques and various fluid-handling operations are discussed briefly, followed by a number of more mature strategies for microfluidic ion analysis. A variety of approaches expected to comprise the next generation of devices are also presented.

  11. Improved Ion-Channel Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Jay; White, Victor; Dougherty, Dennis; Maurer, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    An effort is underway to develop improved biosensors of a type based on ion channels in biomimetic membranes. These sensors are microfabricated from silicon and other materials compatible with silicon. As described, these sensors offer a number of advantages over prior sensors of this type.

  12. Future relativistic heavy ion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, H.G.

    1980-12-01

    Equations of state for nuclear matter and ongoing experimental studies are discussed. Relativistic heavy ion physics is the only opportunity to study in the laboratory the properties of extended multiquark systems under conditions such that quarks might run together into new arrangements previously unobserved. Several lines of further study are mentioned. (GHT)

  13. Doped to Rare Earth Ions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, we are interested by studying the spectroscopic properties for optical applications, mainly laser amplification, of MF2 crystals, where M is an alkaline earth (Ba, Sr) or Cadmium (Cd) doped with rare earth ions (Tb3+, Er3+, Ho3+. So far, we present the absorption and emission properties and also the ...

  14. Quantum Games in ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buluta, Iulia Maria [Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)]. E-mail: noa@lyman.q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Fujiwara, Shingo [Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)]. E-mail: fujiwara@lyman.q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Hasegawa, Shuichi [Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)]. E-mail: hasegawa@q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2006-10-09

    We propose a general, scalable framework for implementing two-choices-multiplayer Quantum Games in ion traps. In particular, we discuss two famous examples: the Quantum Prisoners' Dilemma and the Quantum Minority Game. An analysis of decoherence due to intensity fluctuations in the applied laser fields is also provided.

  15. Ion Channels in Brain Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Lukas; Sezgin, Efe C; Eckert, Franziska; Huber, Stephan M

    2016-09-08

    Breast cancer, lung cancer and melanoma exhibit a high metastatic tropism to the brain. Development of brain metastases severely worsens the prognosis of cancer patients and constrains curative treatment options. Metastasizing to the brain by cancer cells can be dissected in consecutive processes including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, evasion from the primary tumor, intravasation and circulation in the blood, extravasation across the blood-brain barrier, formation of metastatic niches, and colonization in the brain. Ion channels have been demonstrated to be aberrantly expressed in tumor cells where they regulate neoplastic transformation, malignant progression or therapy resistance. Moreover, many ion channel modulators are FDA-approved drugs and in clinical use proposing ion channels as druggable targets for future anti-cancer therapy. The present review article aims to summarize the current knowledge on the function of ion channels in the different processes of brain metastasis. The data suggest that certain channel types involving voltage-gated sodium channels, ATP-release channels, ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors and gap junction-generating connexins interfere with distinct processes of brain metastazation.

  16. Ion Channels in Brain Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Klumpp

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer, lung cancer and melanoma exhibit a high metastatic tropism to the brain. Development of brain metastases severely worsens the prognosis of cancer patients and constrains curative treatment options. Metastasizing to the brain by cancer cells can be dissected in consecutive processes including epithelial–mesenchymal transition, evasion from the primary tumor, intravasation and circulation in the blood, extravasation across the blood–brain barrier, formation of metastatic niches, and colonization in the brain. Ion channels have been demonstrated to be aberrantly expressed in tumor cells where they regulate neoplastic transformation, malignant progression or therapy resistance. Moreover, many ion channel modulators are FDA-approved drugs and in clinical use proposing ion channels as druggable targets for future anti-cancer therapy. The present review article aims to summarize the current knowledge on the function of ion channels in the different processes of brain metastasis. The data suggest that certain channel types involving voltage-gated sodium channels, ATP-release channels, ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors and gap junction-generating connexins interfere with distinct processes of brain metastazation.

  17. Studies of the hydroxyborohydride and triborohydride ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, J.

    1977-10-01

    Results of the following studies are reported: chemical synthesis of hydroxytrihydroborate and peroxynitrite; the reduction of organic compounds with the hydroxyborohydride ion; and a kinetic study of the hydrolysis of the octahydrotriborate ions. (LK)

  18. Scaling ion traps for quantum computing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Uys, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The design, fabrication and preliminary testing of a chipscale, multi-zone, surface electrode ion trap is reported. The modular design and fabrication techniques used are anticipated to advance scalability of ion trap quantum computing architectures...

  19. Divergent Field Annular Ion Engine Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work investigates an approach that would allow an annular ion engine geometry to achieve ion beam currents approaching the Child-Langmuir limit. In this...

  20. Additive Manufacturing of Ion Thruster Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Plasma Controls will manufacture and test a set of ion optics for electric propulsion ion thrusters using additive manufacturing technology, also known as 3D...

  1. Metal ions, Alzheimer's disease and chelation therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Budimir, Ana

    2011-01-01

    .... In contrast to the direct chelation approach in metal ion overload disorders, in neurodegeneration the goal seems to be a better and subtle modulation of metal ion homeostasis, aimed at restoring ionic balance...

  2. Lithium-Ion Battery Program Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, S.; Huang, C. K.; Smart, M.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Distefano, S.; Halpert, G.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop rechargeable Li-ion cells for future NASA missions. Applications that would benefit from this project are: new millenium spacecraft; rovers; landers; astronaut equipment; and planetary orbiters. The approach of this program is: select electrode materials and electrolytes; identify failure modes and mechanisms and enhance cycle life; demonstrate Li-ion cell technology with liquid electrolyte; select candidate polymer electrolytes for Li-ion polymer cells; and develop Li-ion polymer cell technology.

  3. From heavy ions to exotic atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Indelicato, Paul; Trassinelli, Martino

    2005-01-01

    We review a number of experiments and theoretical calculations on heavy ions and exotic atoms, which aim at providing informations on fundamental interactions. Among those are propositions of experiments for parity violation measurements in heavy ions and high-precision mesurements of He-like transition energies in highly charged ions. We also describe recent experiments on pionic atoms, that make use of highly-charged ion transitions to obtain accurate measurements of strong interaction shif...

  4. Ion-batterier - "The Next Generation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Martin; Becker, Jacob; Shen, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion batterier er strømkilden, der har revolutioneret vores transportable elektronik. Familien af ion-batterier er imidlertid større end som så og har meget, meget mere at byde på.......Lithium-ion batterier er strømkilden, der har revolutioneret vores transportable elektronik. Familien af ion-batterier er imidlertid større end som så og har meget, meget mere at byde på....

  5. Negative ions produced in multicharged ions and C60 collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S.; Salmoun, A.; Brédy, R.; Montagne, G.; Bernard, J.; Ma, X.; Chen, L.

    2011-06-01

    We have measured the differential cross-sections in F3+-C60 collisions at low velocity (v=0.18 a.u.). Using coincidence measurements between the ejected electron number and recoil ions, we have estimated the initial charge state of C60 parent ions associated with neutral outgoing projectiles to range from 4+ to 7+. We found that the formation of anions is correlated with the strong excitation of C60 (average excitation energy about 160 eV). The cross-section of the production of the anion has been found to be 25 a.u. This value is in agreement with the scenario of anion formation in two steps. In the first step, F3+ ions are neutralized by multicollision on the C60 surface. In the second step and at the exit part of the collision, the electron attachment process occurs. For the production of a stable anion, the capture of electrons on carbon must occur directly to the ground states of F-, giving many electron vacancies on C60. This process explains the observation of strong electronic and vibronic excitations of C60 leading to electron emission and multifragmentation processes.

  6. Ion-optically driven depth compensation for ion beam tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhri, Naved; Saito, Nami; Bert, Christoph; Franczak, Bernhard; Durante, Marco; Schardt, Dieter [GSI, Abt. Biophysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Rietzel, Eike [Siemens Healthcare, Particle Therapy, Erlangen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The beam delivery system for scanned carbon ion beam radiotherapy at GSI has been extended in research mode to irradiate moving targets. For beam tracking, the ion beam is adapted laterally as well as in range corresponding to the target's three dimensional (3D) motion. A beam tracking system with a motorized double wedge system for fast and accurate range adaptation has been developed. In addition to the current range adaptation system a much faster method for online energy modulation is being investigated where a fine focused ion beam is dynamically positioned, controlled by fast dipole magnets, on a small static wedge shaped absorber within the beam line. Experiments were performed at the therapy beam line to study the beam shift from central axis by the first dipole magnet up to the maximum limit where the beam can be deflected back to central axis by the second dipole magnet. Beam profiles were measured at different locations of the beam delivery system. The particle transmission was measured as well at the target position. Experiments were supported by Monte Carlo simulations for energy variation studies and for assessing the influence on beam profiles using MOCADI code.

  7. On ion escape from Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvinen, R.

    2011-04-01

    This doctoral thesis is about the solar wind influence on the atmosphere of the planet Venus. A numerical plasma simulation model was developed for the interaction between Venus and the solar wind to study the erosion of charged particles from the Venus upper atmosphere. The developed model is a hybrid simulation where ions are treated as particles and electrons are modelled as a fluid. The simulation was used to study the solar wind induced ion escape from Venus as observed by the European Space Agency's Venus Express and NASA's Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft. Especially, observations made by the ASPERA-4 particle instrument onboard Venus Express were studied. The thesis consists of an introductory part and four peer-reviewed articles published in scientific journals. In the introduction Venus is presented as one of the terrestrial planets in the Solar System and the main findings of the work are discussed within the wider context of planetary physics.Venus is the closest neighbouring planet to the Earth and the most earthlike planet in its size and mass orbiting the Sun. Whereas the atmosphere of the Earth consists mainly of nitrogen and oxygen, Venus has a hot carbon dioxide atmosphere, which is dominated by the greenhouse effect. Venus has all of its water in the atmosphere, which is only a fraction of the Earth's total water supply. Since planets developed presumably in similar conditions in the young Solar System, why Venus and Earth became so different in many respects?One important feature of Venus is that the planet does not have an intrinsic magnetic field. This makes it possible for the solar wind, a continuous stream of charged particles from the Sun, to flow close to Venus and to pick up ions from the planet's upper atmosphere. The strong intrinsic magnetic field of the Earth dominates the terrestrial magnetosphere and deflects the solar wind flow far away from the atmosphere. The region around Venus where the planet's atmosphere interacts with the

  8. Ion-exchange chromatographic protein refolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freydell, E.; Wielen, van der L.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Ottens, M.

    2010-01-01

    The application of ion-exchange (IEX) chromatography to protein refolding (IExR) has been successfully proven, as supported by various studies using different model proteins, ion-exchange media and flow configurations. Ion-exchange refolding offers a relatively high degree of process

  9. Superconducting heavy-ion accelerating structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.

    1996-08-01

    This paper briefly reviews the technical history of superconducting ion-accelerating structures. Various superconducting cavities currently used and being developed for use in ion linacs are discussed. Principal parameters and operational characteristics of superconducting structures in active use at various heavy-ion facilities are described.

  10. Drift wave in pair-ion plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ion plasma are discussed. It is shown that the temperature and/or mass difference of both species could produce drift wave in a pair-ion plasma. The results are discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiment.

  11. Trapping and Sympathetic Cooling of Boron Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Rugango, Rene; Shu, Gang; Brown, Kenneth R

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the trapping and sympathetic cooling of B$^{+}$ ions in a Coulomb crystal of laser-cooled Ca$^{+}$, We non-destructively confirm the presence of the both B$^+$ isotopes by resonant excitation of the secular motion. The B$^{+}$ ions are loaded by ablation of boron and the secular excitation spectrum also reveals features consistent with ions of the form B$_{n}^{+}$.

  12. Nanofabrication with a helium ion microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, D.; Van Veldhoven, E.; Chen, P.; Sidorkin, V.; Salemink, H.; Van der Drift, E.; Alkemade, P.

    2009-01-01

    The recently introduced helium ion microscope (HIM) is capable of imaging and fabrication of nanostructures thanks to its sub-nanometer sized ion probe [1,2]. The unique interaction of the helium ions with the sample material provides very localized secondary electron emission, thus providing a

  13. Ion heat transport studies in JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantica, P; Angioni, C; Baiocchi, B

    2011-01-01

    Detailed experimental studies of ion heat transport have been carried out in JET exploiting the upgrade of active charge exchange spectroscopy and the availability of multi-frequency ion cyclotron resonance heating with 3He minority. The determination of ion temperature gradient (ITG) threshold a...

  14. Negative Halogen Ions for Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisham, L.R.; Kwan, J.W.; Hahto, S.K.; Hahto, S.T.; Leung, K.N.; Westenskow, G.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past quarter century, advances in hydrogen negative ion sources have extended the usable range of hydrogen isotope neutral beams to energies suitable for large magnetically confined fusion devices. Recently, drawing upon this experience, negative halogen ions have been proposed as an alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers in inertial confinement fusion, because electron accumulation would be prevented in negative ion beams, and if desired, the beams could be photo-detached to neutrals. This paper reports the results of an experiment comparing the current density and beam emittance of Cl+ and Cl- extracted from substantially ion-ion plasmas with that of Ar+ extracted from an ordinary electron-ion plasma, all using the same source, extractor, and emittance scanner. At similar discharge conditions, the Cl- current was typically 85 – 90% of the positive chlorine current, with an e-/ Cl- ratio as low as seven without grid magnets. The Cl- was as much as 76% of the Ar+ current from a discharge with the same RF drive. The minimum normalized beam emittance and inferred ion temperatures of Cl+, Cl-, and Ar+ were all similar, so the current density and optical quality of Cl- appear as suitable for heavy ion fusion driver applications as a positive noble gas ion of similar mass. Since F, I, and Br should all behave similarly in an ion source, they should also be suitable as driver beams.

  15. The mean excitation energy of atomic ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Oddershede, Jens; Sabin, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A method for calculation of the mean excitation energies of atomic ions is presented, making the calculation of the energy deposition of fast ions to plasmas, warm, dense matter, and complex biological systems possible. Results are reported to all ions of helium, lithium, carbon, neon, aluminum, ...

  16. Improved Ion Optics for Introduction of Ions into a 9.4 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Leach, Franklin E.; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Dang, Xibei; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancements to the ion source and transfer optics of our 9.4 T FT-ICR mass spectrometer have resulted in improved ion transmission efficiency for more sensitive mass measurement of complex mixtures at the MS and MS/MS levels. The tube lens/skimmer has been replaced by a dual ion funnel and the following octopole by a quadrupole for reduced ion cloud radial expansion before transmission into a mass-selective quadrupole. The number of ions that reach the ICR cell is increased by an order of magnitude for the funnel/quadrupole relative to the tube lens/skimmer/octopole. PMID:25601704

  17. Na Cl-ion pair association in water-DMSO mixtures: Effect of ion pair ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The physical picturethat emerges is that there is a strong contact ion pair (CIP) and strong to moderate solvent separated ion pair(SSIP) in these solutions. Analysis of local ion clusters shows that ions are dominantly solvated by watermolecules. The 12-6-1 potential model predicts running coordination numbers closest to ...

  18. Na Cl ion pair association in water-DMSO mixtures: Effect of ion pair ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ion pair in water–dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixtures for three DMSO mole fractions have been computed using constrained Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and confirmed by dynamical trajectories and residence times of the ion pair at various inter-ionic separations. The three ion-ion direct potentials used are 12-6-1 ...

  19. Heavy Ion Injection Into Synchrotrons, Based On Electron String Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Donets, E E; Syresin, E M

    2004-01-01

    A possibility of heavy ions injection into synchrotrons is discussed on the base of two novel ion sources, which are under development JINR during last decade: 1) the electron string ion source (ESIS), which is a modified version of a conventional electron beam ion source (EBIS), working in a reflex mode of operation, and 2) the tubular electron string ion source (TESIS). The Electron String Ion Source "Krion-2" (VBLHE, JINR, Dubna) with an applied confining magnetic field of 3 T was used for injection into the superconducting JINR synchrotron - Nuclotron and during this runs the source provided a high pulse intensity of the highly charged ion beams: Ar16+

  20. Rechargeable Aluminum-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Liu, Hansan [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reports on the development of rechargeable aluminum-ion batteries. A possible concept of rechargeable aluminum/aluminum-ion battery based on low-cost, earth-abundant Al anode, ionic liquid EMImCl:AlCl3 (1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloroaluminate) electrolytes and MnO2 cathode has been proposed. Al anode has been reported to show good reversibility in acid melts. However, due to the problems in demonstrating the reversibility in cathodes, alternate battery cathodes and battery concepts have also been presented. New ionic liquid electrolytes for reversible Al dissolution and deposition are needed in the future for replacing corrosive EMImCl:AlCl3 electrolytes.

  1. Ion channelopathies and migraine pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albury, Cassie L; Stuart, Shani; Haupt, Larisa M; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2017-08-01

    Migraine is a common neurological disorder that affects approximately 12-20% of the general adult population. Migraine pathogenesis is complex and not wholly understood. Molecular genetic investigations, imaging and biochemical studies, have unveiled a number of interconnected neurological pathways which seem to have a cause and effect component integral to its cause. Much weight of migraine attack initiation can be placed on the initial trigger and the pathways involved in its neuronal counter reaction. Ion channels play a large role in the generation, portrayal and mitigation of the brains response to external triggers. Several genetic studies have identified and implicated a number of ion channelopathy genes which may contribute to this generalised process. This review will focus on the genetics of migraine with particular emphasis placed on the potentially important role genes HEPH (responsible for iron transport and homeostasis) and KCNK18 (important for the transport and homeostasis of potassium) play in migraine cause.

  2. Semiholography for heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2017-01-01

    The formation of QGP in heavy ion collisions gives us a great opportunity for learning about nonperturbative dynamics of QCD. Semiholography provides a new consistent framework to combine perturbative and non-perturbative effects in a coherent way and can be applied to obtain an effective description for heavy ion collisions. In particular, it allows us to include nonperturbative effects in existing glasma effective theory and QCD kinetic theory for the weakly coupled saturated degrees of freedom liberated by the collisions in the initial stages in a consistent manner. We argue why the full framework should be able to confront experiments with only a few phenomenological parameters and present feasibility tests for the necessary numerical computations. Furthermore, we discuss that semiholography leads to a new description of collective flow in the form of a generalised non-Newtonian fluid. We discuss some open questions which we hope to answer in the near future.

  3. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy, and Related Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Grisham and J.W. Kwan

    2008-08-12

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions [1] could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons -- can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion-ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  4. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy,and Related Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisham, L. R.; Kwan, J. W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons - can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion - ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  5. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy, and Related Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisham, L.R.; Kwan, J.W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions [1]could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons -- can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion-ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  6. Optical characteristics of transparent samarium oxide thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-07

    Oct 7, 2016 ... 1Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif 888, Saudi Arabia. 2Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy 11757, Cairo, Egypt. 3Materials Science Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, 31725 Tanta, Egypt. 4Department of ...

  7. Optical properties of lead–tellurite glasses doped with samarium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. The optical properties of a new family of xSm2O3–(40–x)PbO–60TeO2 glasses are investigated. The optical absorption spectra were recorded at room temperature in the UV-visible region. From the absorption edge studies, the values of optical bandgap energies have been evaluated. The refractive index, molar ...

  8. Measurement of radiative lifetime in atomic samarium using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-08

    Feb 8, 2014 ... In this paper, we report the investigations of lifetime measurement of odd-parity energy level 19009.52 cm. −1 .... introduced by an electronic delay generator between the two Q-switch pulses of Nd-YAG laser. The slope of the .... Our values of the lifetimes are free from the common systematic errors. Thus ...

  9. A novel samarium complex with interesting photoluminescence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 4,4'-Hbipy moieties, isolated nitrates and [Sm(H2O)4(NO3)3] species are held together via hydrogen bonds and p…p interactions to form a 3-D supramolecular framework. Luminescent investigation reveals a strong emission in blue region. Optical absorption spectrum of 1 reveals the presence of an optical gap of 3.60 ...

  10. Sodium samarium tetrakis(polyphosphate, NaSm(PO34

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhao

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available NaSm(PO34 has been prepared by solid state reactions. It belongs to type II of the structural family of MILnIII(PO34 compounds (MI = alkali metal and LnIII = rare earth metal and is composed of ∞(PO3n]n− polyphosphate chains with a repeating unit of four PO4 tetrahedra. The chains extend parallel to [100] and share O atoms with irregular SmO8 polyhedra, forming a three-dimensional framework which delimits tunnels occupied by Na+ cations in a distorted octahedral environment.

  11. Isotopic Ratios of Samarium by TIMS for Nuclear Forensic Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis Jean, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Inglis, Jeremy David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-08

    The isotopic ratio of Nd, Sm, and Gd can provide important information regarding fissile material (nuclear devices, reactors), neutron environment, and device yield. These studies require precise measurement of Sm isotope ratios, by either TIMS or MC-ICP-MS. There has been an increasing trend to measure smaller and smaller quantities of Sm bearing samples. In nuclear forensics 10-100 ng of Sm are needed for precise measurement. To measure sub-ng Sm samples using TIMS for nuclear forensic analysis.

  12. Synthesis of copper, silver, and samarium chalcogenides by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, T.; Maruyama, K.; Ohshima, K. [Okayama Univ. of Science (Japan). Lab. for Solid State Chemistry

    1997-03-01

    CuInX{sub 2} (X = S, Se, Te), Ag{sub 2}S, Ag{sub 2}Se, Ag{sub 3}Te{sub 2}, Ag{sub 1.9}Te, AgCuSe, Sm{sub 3}Se{sub 4}, Sm{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, and SmTe were synthesized by a mechanical alloying method, using a high-energy planetary ball mill. The compounds were obtained by milling mixtures of the elements with desired ratios in agate or Cu-Be vials for 60--180 min.

  13. Oriented growth of thin films of samarium oxide by MOCVD

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Thin films of Sm2O3 have been grown on Si(100) and fused quartz by low-pressure chemical va- pour deposition using an adducted β-diketonate precursor. The films on quartz are cubic, with no preferred orientation at lower growth temperatures (~ 550°C), while they grow with a strong (111) orientation as the.

  14. 150 KVA Samarium Cobalt VSCF Starter Generator Electrical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    considerable hand labor. Addition of a provision for suitable electrical connection by the SCR manufacturer wou;d be desirable for production runs. Predicted...licen- sing the holder or any other person or corporation, or conveying any rights or permission to manufacture , use, or sell any patented invent,’n...tesile strength to contain the magnets and pole pieces up through the overspeed rating of the rotor. The cho.;en process uses maraging steel as the

  15. Electrically controlled cesium ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Several sites within the DOE complex (Savannah River, Idaho, Oak Ridge and Hanford) have underground storage tanks containing high-level waste resulting from nuclear engineering activities. To facilitate final disposal of the tank waste, it is advantageous to separate and concentrate the radionuclides for final immobilization in a vitrified glass matrix. This task proposes a new approach for radionuclide separation by combining ion exchange (IX) and electrochemistry to provide a selective and economic separation method.

  16. Chromosome Aberrations by Heavy Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, Francesca; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    It is well known that mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation can show different types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) including dicentrics, translocations, rings, deletions and complex exchanges. Chromosome aberrations are a particularly relevant endpoint in radiobiology, because they play a fundamental role in the pathways leading either to cell death, or to cell conversion to malignancy. In particular, reciprocal translocations involving pairs of specific genes are strongly correlated (and probably also causally-related) with specific tumour types; a typical example is the BCR-ABL translocation for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia. Furthermore, aberrations can be used for applications in biodosimetry and more generally as biomarkers of exposure and risk, that is the case for cancer patients monitored during Carbon-ion therapy and astronauts exposed to space radiation. Indeed hadron therapy and astronauts' exposure to space radiation represent two of the few scenarios where human beings can be exposed to heavy ions. After a brief introduction on the main general features of chromosome aberrations, in this work we will address key aspects of the current knowledge on chromosome aberration induction, both from an experimental and from a theoretical point of view. More specifically, in vitro data will be summarized and discussed, outlining important issues such as the role of interphase death/mitotic delay and that of complex-exchange scoring. Some available in vivo data on cancer patients and astronauts will be also reported, together with possible interpretation problems. Finally, two of the few available models of chromosome aberration induction by ionizing radiation (including heavy ions) will be described and compared, focusing on the different assumptions adopted by the authors and on how these models can deal with heavy ions.

  17. Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.M.; Alton, G.D.; Ball, J.B.; Biggerstaff, J.A.; Dowling, D.T.; Erb, K.A.; Haynes, D.L.; Hoglund, D.E.; Hudson, E.D.; Juras, R.C.

    1986-02-15

    The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility has been in routine operation since July 1982. Beams have been provided using both the tandem accelerator alone and a coupled mode in which the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron is used as an energy booster for tandem beams. The coupled mode has proved to be especially effective and has allowed us to provide a wide range of energetic beams for scheduled experiments. In this report we discuss our operational experience and recent development activities.

  18. Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.M.; Alton, G.D.; Ball, J.B.; Biggerstaff, J.A.; Dowling, D.T.; Erb, K.A.; Haynes, D.L.; Hoglund, D.E.; Hudson, E.D.; Juras, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility has been in routine operation since July 1982. Beams have been provided using both the tandem accelerator alone and a coupled mode in which the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron is used as an energy booster for tandem beams. The coupled mode has proved to be especially effective and has allowed us to provide a wide range of energetic beams for scheduled experiments. In this report we discuss our operational experience and recent development activities.

  19. Optically pumped polarized ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenski, A.N.

    1995-12-31

    Polarization transfer collisions between protons, atomic hydrogen, or deuterium and optically pumped alkali-metal vapour are implemented in the high current optically pumped polarized ion source (OPPIS) and the laser driven source (LDS) of nuclear polarized atoms for target applications. The OPPIS technique overcomes the limitations on intensity of the conventional atomic beam source technique and meets the requirements of the new generation of polarization experiments at multi-GeV accelerators and colliders. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Asymmetric Ion-Pairing Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brak, Katrien

    2014-01-01

    Charged intermediates and reagents are ubiquitous in organic transformations. The interaction of these ionic species with chiral neutral, anionic, or cationic small molecules has emerged as a powerful strategy for catalytic, enantioselective synthesis. This review describes developments in the burgeoning field of asymmetric ion-pairing catalysis with an emphasis on the insights that have been gleaned into the structural and mechanistic features that contribute to high asymmetric induction. PMID:23192886

  1. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  2. Heavy-ion Physics (ATLAS)

    CERN Document Server

    Przybycien, Mariusz; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has undertaken a broad physics program to probe and characterize the hot nuclear matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. This talk presents recent results on production of electroweak bosons and quarkonium, charged particles and jets, bulk particle collectivity and electromagnetic processes in ultra-peripheral collisions, from Pb+Pb and p+Pb collisions.

  3. Intracellular ion channels and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leanza, Luigi; Biasutto, Lucia; Managò, Antonella; Gulbins, Erich; Zoratti, Mario; Szabò, Ildikò

    2013-09-03

    Several types of channels play a role in the maintenance of ion homeostasis in subcellular organelles including endoplasmatic reticulum, nucleus, lysosome, endosome, and mitochondria. Here we give a brief overview of the contribution of various mitochondrial and other organellar channels to cancer cell proliferation or death. Much attention is focused on channels involved in intracellular calcium signaling and on ion fluxes in the ATP-producing organelle mitochondria. Mitochondrial K(+) channels (Ca(2+)-dependent BKCa and IKCa, ATP-dependent KATP, Kv1.3, two-pore TWIK-related Acid-Sensitive K(+) channel-3 (TASK-3)), Ca(2+) uniporter MCU, Mg(2+)-permeable Mrs2, anion channels (voltage-dependent chloride channel VDAC, intracellular chloride channel CLIC) and the Permeability Transition Pore (MPTP) contribute importantly to the regulation of function in this organelle. Since mitochondria play a central role in apoptosis, modulation of their ion channels by pharmacological means may lead to death of cancer cells. The nuclear potassium channel Kv10.1 and the nuclear chloride channel CLIC4 as well as the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER)-located inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor, the ER-located Ca(2+) depletion sensor STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1), a component of the store-operated Ca(2+) channel and the ER-resident TRPM8 are also mentioned. Furthermore, pharmacological tools affecting organellar channels and modulating cancer cell survival are discussed. The channels described in this review are summarized on Figure 1. Overall, the view is emerging that intracellular ion channels may represent a promising target for cancer treatment.

  4. Intracellular ion channels and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eLeanza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Several types of channels play a role in the maintenance of ion homeostasis in subcellular organelles including endoplasmatic reticulum, nucleus, lysosome, endosome and mitochondria. Here we give a brief overview of the contribution of various mitochondrial and other organellar channels to cancer cell proliferation or death. Much attention is focused on channels involved in intracellular calcium signaling and on ion fluxes in the ATP-producing organelle mitochondria. Mitochondrial K+ channels (Ca2+-dependent BKCa and IKCa, ATP-dependent KATP, Kv1.3, two-pore TWIK-related Acid-Sensitive K+ channel-3 (TASK-3, Ca2+ uniporter MCU, Mg2+-permeable Mrs2, anion channels (voltage-dependent chloride channel VDAC, intracellular chloride channel CLIC and the Permeability Transition Pore (MPTP contribute importantly to the regulation of function in this organelle. Since mitochondria play a central role in apoptosis, modulation of their ion channels by pharmacological means may lead to death of cancer cells. The nuclear potassium channel Kv10.1 and the nuclear chloride channel CLIC4 as well as the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER-located inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 receptor, the ER-located Ca2+ depletion sensor STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1, a component of the store-operated Ca2+ channel and the ER-resident TRPM8 are also mentioned. Furthermore, pharmacological tools affecting organellar channels and modulating cancer cell survival are discussed. The channels described in this review are summarized on Figure 1. Overall, the view is emerging that intracellular ion channels may represent a promising target for cancer treatment.

  5. Ion-Pumping Microbial Rhodopsins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki eKandori

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhodopsins are light-sensing proteins used in optogenetics. The word rhodopsin originates from the Greek words rhodo and opsis, indicating rose and sight, respectively. Although the classical meaning of rhodopsin is the red-colored pigment in our eyes, the modern meaning of rhodopsin encompasses photoactive proteins containing a retinal chromophore in animals and microbes. Animal and microbial rhodopsins possess 11-cis and all-trans retinal, respectively, to capture light in seven transmembrane α-helices, and photoisomerizations into all-trans and 13-cis forms, respectively, initiate each function. Ion-transporting proteins can be found in microbial rhodopsins, such as light-gated channels and light-driven pumps, which are the main tools in optogenetics. Light-driven pumps, such as archaeal H+ pump bacteriorhodopsin (BR and Cl- pump halorhodopsin (HR, were discovered in the 1970s, and their mechanism has been extensively studied. On the other hand, different kinds of H+ and Cl- pumps have been found in marine bacteria, such as proteorhodopsin (PR and Fulvimarina pelagi rhodopsin (FR, respectively. In addition, a light-driven Na+ pump was found, Krokinobacter eikastus rhodopsin 2 (KR2. These light-driven ion-pumping microbial rhodopsins are classified as DTD, TSA, DTE, NTQ and NDQ rhodopsins for BR, HR, PR, FR and KR2, respectively. Recent understanding of ion-pumping microbial rhodopsins is reviewed in this paper.

  6. heavy ion acceleration at shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V. I.; Galinsky, V.

    2009-12-01

    The theoretical study of alpha particle acceleration at a quasi-parallel shock due to interaction with Alfven waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model [1]. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or dumped and hence particles will be pitch--angle scattered as well as the change of the wave energy due to instability or damping. It includes in consideration the total distribution function (the bulk plasma and high energy tail), so no any assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles) are required. In previous studies heavy ions were treated as perfect test particles, they only experienced the Alfven turbulence excited by protons and didn’t contribute to turbulence generation. In contrast to this approach, we consider the ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves. It is important for alpha particles with their relatively large mass-loading parameter that defines efficiency of the wave excitation by alpha particles. The energy spectra of alpha particles is found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation. [1] Galinsky, V.L., and V.I. Shevchenko, Astrophys. J., 669, L109, 2007.

  7. Influence of ion charge on primary defects creation in crystals irradiated by ions

    CERN Document Server

    Altynov, V A

    2002-01-01

    The model of primary defects formation under ion irradiation of crystals is described. The model is based on suggestion that defects are created as a result of Coulomb repulsion of neighbouring atoms at crystalline lattice ionized by bombarding ions. The changes of average charge of ions and the charge distribution of ions versus the depth of ion penetration to crystal are taken into account. The results of calculations are presented

  8. DETERMINATION OF STRONTIUM IONS IN WATERS WITH A HIGH CONTENT OF SODIUM IONS

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Mitina; Nadejda Bondarenco; Diana Grigoras; Elena Botizat; Tudor Lupascu

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the influence of sodium ions on experimental determination of strontium ions concentration in waters with a high content of sodium ions by using emission flame photometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. For the method of emission flame photometry it was shown that at a wavelength of 460.7 nm (spectral emission line of strontium) the emission is linearly dependent on the concentration of sodium ions. The greatest impact of high concentrations of sodium ions on the res...

  9. Experimental Observations of Ion Phase-Space Vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Armstrong, R. J.; Trulsen, J.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental observations of ion phase-space vortices are reported. The ion phase-space vortices form in the region of heated ions behind electrostatic ion acoustic shocks. The results are in qualitative agreement with numerical and analytic studies.......Experimental observations of ion phase-space vortices are reported. The ion phase-space vortices form in the region of heated ions behind electrostatic ion acoustic shocks. The results are in qualitative agreement with numerical and analytic studies....

  10. Ion Exchange Formation via Sulfonated Bicomponent Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, Hannah L.

    For many years ion exchange resins were used to: remove heavy metals from water, recover materials from wastewater, and eliminate harmful gases from the air. While use of these resin beads dominates the ion exchange industry, the beads have limitations that should be considered when decisions are made to employ them. For instance, officials must balance the inherent zero sum surface area and porosity of the materials. This series of studies investigates the use of bicomponent nonwovens as a base substrate for producing high surface area ion exchange materials for the removal of heavy metal ions. Functionalized materials were produced in a two-step process: (1) PET/PE spunbond bicomponent fibers were fractured completely, producing the high surface area nonwoven to be used as the base ion exchange material, and (2) the conditions for functionalizing the PET fibers of the nonwoven webs were investigated where an epoxy containing monomer was grafted to the surface followed by sulfonation of the monomer. The functionalization reactions of the PET fibers were monitored based on: weight gain, FTIR, TOF-SIMS, and SEM. Ion exchange properties were evaluated using titration and copper ion removal capacity from test solutions. The relationship between web structure and removal efficiency of the metal ions was defined through a comparison of the bicomponent and homocomponent nonwovens for copper ion removal efficiency. The investigation revealed that utilizing the high surface area, fractured bicomponent nonwoven ion exchange materials with capacities comparable to commercially available ion exchange resins could be produced.

  11. Laser Ion Acceleration Toward Future Ion Beam Cancer Therapy - Numerical Simulation Sudy-

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Shigeo; Nagashima, Toshihiro; Takano, Masahiro; Barada, Daisuke; Kong, Qing; Gu, Yan Jun; Wang, Ping Xiao; Ma, Yan Yun; Wang, Wei Ming

    2013-01-01

    Ion beam has been used in cancer treatment, and has a unique preferable feature to deposit its main energy inside a human body so that cancer cell could be killed by the ion beam. However, conventional ion accelerator tends to be huge in its size and its cost. In this paper a future intense-laser ion accelerator is proposed to make the ion accelerator compact. An intense femtosecond pulsed laser was employed to accelerate ions. The issues in the laser ion accelerator include the energy efficiency from the laser to the ions, the ion beam collimation, the ion energy spectrum control, the ion beam bunching and the ion particle energy control. In the study particle computer simulations were performed to solve the issues, and each component was designed to control the ion beam quality. When an intense laser illuminates a target, electrons in the target are accelerated and leave from the target; temporarily a strong electric field is formed between the high-energy electrons and the target ions, and the target ions ...

  12. Ion Elevators and Escalators in Multilevel Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Hamid, Ahmed M.; Cox, Jonathan T.; Garimella, Venkata BS; Smith, Richard D.

    2017-01-19

    We describe two approaches based upon ion ‘elevator’ and ‘escalator’ components that allow moving ions to different levels in structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM). Guided by ion motion simulations we designed elevator and escalator components providing essentially lossless transmission in multi-level designs based upon ion current measurements. The ion elevator design allowed ions to efficiently bridge a 4 mm gap between levels. The component was integrated in a SLIM and coupled to a QTOF mass spectrometer using an ion funnel interface to evaluate the m/z range transmitted as compared to transmission within a level (e.g. in a linear section). Mass spectra for singly-charged ions of m/z 600-2700 produced similar mass spectra for both elevator and straight (linear motion) components. In the ion escalator design, traveling waves (TW) were utilized to transport ions efficiently between two SLIM levels. Ion current measurements and ion mobility (IM) spectrometry analysis illustrated that ions can be transported between TW-SLIM levels with no significant loss of either ions or IM resolution. These developments provide a path for the development of multilevel designs providing e.g. much longer IM path lengths, more compact designs, and the implementation of much more complex SLIM devices in which e.g. different levels may operate at different temperatures or with different gases.

  13. Beam losses in heavy ion drivers

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafin, E R; Hofmann, I; Spiller, P J

    2002-01-01

    While beam loss issues have hardly been considered in detail for heavy ion fusion scenarios, recent heavy ion machine developments in different labs (European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC)) have shown the great importance of beam current limitations due to ion losses. Two aspects of beam losses in heavy ion accelerators are theoretically considered: (1) secondary neutron production due to lost ions, and (2) vacuum pressure instability due to charge exchange losses. Calculations are compared and found to be in good agreement with measured data. The application to a Heavy-Ion Driven Inertial Fusion (HIDIF) scenario is discussed. 12 Refs.

  14. Ion trap architectures and new directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siverns, James D.; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2017-12-01

    Trapped ion technology has seen advances in performance, robustness and versatility over the last decade. With increasing numbers of trapped ion groups worldwide, a myriad of trap architectures are currently in use. Applications of trapped ions include: quantum simulation, computing and networking, time standards and fundamental studies in quantum dynamics. Design of such traps is driven by these various research aims, but some universally desirable properties have lead to the development of ion trap foundries. Additionally, the excellent control achievable with trapped ions and the ability to do photonic readout has allowed progress on quantum networking using entanglement between remotely situated ion-based nodes. Here, we present a selection of trap architectures currently in use by the community and present their most salient characteristics, identifying features particularly suited for quantum networking. We also discuss our own in-house research efforts aimed at long-distance trapped ion networking.

  15. RF synchronized short pulse laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuwa, Yasuhiro, E-mail: fuwa@kyticr.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Tongu, Hiromu; Inoue, Shunsuke; Hashida, Masaki; Sakabe, Shuji [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Okamura, Masahiro [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Yamazaki, Atsushi [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A laser ion source that produces shortly bunched ion beam is proposed. In this ion source, ions are extracted immediately after the generation of laser plasma by an ultra-short pulse laser before its diffusion. The ions can be injected into radio frequency (RF) accelerating bucket of a subsequent accelerator. As a proof-of-principle experiment of the ion source, a RF resonator is prepared and H{sub 2} gas was ionized by a short pulse laser in the RF electric field in the resonator. As a result, bunched ions with 1.2 mA peak current and 5 ns pulse length were observed at the exit of RF resonator by a probe.

  16. Microvillar ion channels: cytoskeletal modulation of ion fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, K

    2000-10-21

    The recently presented theory of microvillar Ca(2+)signaling [Lange, K. (1999) J. Cell. Physiol.180, 19-35], combined with Manning's theory of "condensed counterions" in linear polyelectrolytes [Manning, G. S. (1969). J. Chem. Phys.51, 924-931] and the finding of cable-like ion conductance in actin filaments [Lin, E. C. & Cantiello, H. F. (1993). Biophys. J.65, 1371-1378], allows a systematic interpretation of the role of the actin cytoskeleton in ion channel regulation. Ion conduction through actin filament bundles of microvilli exhibits unique nonlinear transmission properties some of which closely resemble that of electronic semiconductors: (1) bundles of microfilaments display significant resistance to cation conduction and (2) this resistance is decreased by supply of additional energy either as thermal, mechanical or electromagnetic field energy. Other transmission properties, however, are unique for ionic conduction in polyelectrolytes. (1) Current pulses injected into the filaments were transformed into oscillating currents or even into several discrete charge pulses closely resembling that of single-channel recordings. Discontinuous transmission is due to the existence of counterion clouds along the fixed anionic charge centers of the polymer, each acting as an "ionic capacitor". (2) The conductivity of linear polyelectrolytes strongly decreases with the charge number of the counterions; thus, Ca(2+)and Mg(2+)are effective modulator of charge transfer through linear polyelectrolytes. Field-dependent formation of divalent cation plugs on either side of the microvillar conduction line may generate the characteristic gating behavior of cation channels. (3) Mechanical movement of actin filament bundles, e.g. bending of hair cell microvilli, generates charge translocations along the filament structure (mechano-electrical coupling). (4) Energy of external fields, by inducing molecular dipoles within the polyelectrolyte matrix, can be transformed into mechanical

  17. Dual-Polarity Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry: Dynamic Monitoring and Controlling Gas-phase Ion-Ion Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Muyi; Jiang, You; Guo, Dan; Xiong, Xingchuang; Fang, Xiang; Xu, Wei

    2017-07-01

    A dual-polarity linear ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometer was developed in this study, and the method for simultaneously controlling and detecting cations and anions was proposed and realized in the LIT. With the application of an additional dipolar DC field on the ejection electrodes of an LIT, dual-polarity mass spectra could be obtained, which include both the mass-to-charge ( m/z) ratio and charge polarity information of an ion. Compared with conventional method, the ion ejection and detection efficiency could also be improved by about one-fold. Furthermore, ion-ion reactions within the LIT could be dynamically controlled and monitored by manipulating the distributions of ions with opposite charge polarities. This method was then used to control and study the reaction kinetics of ion-ion reactions, including electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and charge inversion reactions. A dual-polarity collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiment was proposed and performed to enhance the sequence coverage of a peptide ion. Ion trajectory simulations were also carried out for concept validation and system optimization.

  18. Status report on electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba

    CERN Document Server

    Kitagawa, A; Sekiguchi, M; Yamada, S; Jincho, K; Okada, T; Yamamoto, M; Hattori, T G; Biri, S; Baskaran, R; Sakata, T; Sawada, K; Uno, K

    2000-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) is not only dedicated to cancer therapy, it is also utilized with various ion species for basic experiments of biomedical science, physics, chemistry, etc. Two electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are installed for production of gaseous ions. One of them, the NIRS-ECR, is a 10 GHz ECR ion source, and is mainly operated to produce C/sup 4+/ ions for daily clinical treatment. This source realizes good reproducibility and reliability and it is easily operated. The other source, the NIRS-HEC, is an 18 GHz ECR ion source that is expected to produce heavier ion species. The output ion currents of the NIRS-ECR and the NIRS-HEC are 430e mu A for C/sup 4+/ and 1.1e mA for Ar/sup 8+/, respectively. (14 refs).

  19. Effect of ion clouds micromotion on measured signal in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance: Computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, Gleb; Kostyukevich, Yury; Kharybin, Oleg; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2017-08-01

    Particle-in-cell-based realistic simulation of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance experiments could be used to generate ion trajectories and a signal induced on the detection electrodes. It has been shown recently that there is a modulation of "reduced" cyclotron frequencies in ion cyclotron resonance signal caused by Coulomb interaction of ion clouds. In this work it was proposed to use this modulation in order to determine frequency difference between an ion of known m/z and all other ions generating signal in ion cyclotron resonance cell. It is shown that with an increase of number of ions in ion cyclotron resonance trap, the modulation index increases, which lead to a decrease in the accuracy of determination of peak intensities by super Fourier transform resolution methods such as filter diagonalization method.

  20. Ion beam modification of solids ion-solid interaction and radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Wesch, Werner

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the method of ion beam modification of solids in realization, theory and applications in a comprehensive way. It provides a review of the physical basics of ion-solid interaction and on ion-beam induced structural modifications of solids. Ion beams are widely used to modify the physical properties of materials. A complete theory of ion stopping in matter and the calculation of the energy loss due to nuclear and electronic interactions are presented including the effect of ion channeling. To explain structural modifications due to high electronic excitations, different concepts are presented with special emphasis on the thermal spike model. Furthermore, general concepts of damage evolution as a function of ion mass, ion fluence, ion flux and temperature are described in detail and their limits and applicability are discussed. The effect of nuclear and electronic energy loss on structural modifications of solids such as damage formation, phase transitions and amorphization is reviewed for ins...

  1. Anthropogenic perturbations of tropospheric ion composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beig, G.; Brasseur, G.

    This paper presents a simple model of the vertical distribution of the most abundant positive ions in the troposphere. The model is based on a simple ion chemical scheme, measured rate constants, and observed or calculated atmospheric densities of parent neutral compounds. It suggests that in many cases the most abundant gaseous ions are heavy protonated water cluster ions of pyridine, picoline and lutidine with ammonia molecules attached (pyridinated cluster ions) in the lower troposphere (below 7 km altitude), acetone cluster ions in the upper troposphere (between 7 and 15 km) and methyl cyanide cluster ions above 15 km. The relative abundance of heavy clustered aerosol ions is predicted to be highest near the surface. The model suggests that ion composition could be perturbed as a result of human activities (i.e., increasing emissions of parent neutral species including alkaline compounds), and that in particular, the relative atmospheric abundance of pyridinated water cluster ions is increasing dramatically and should further increase in the future.

  2. Computational modeling of ion transport through nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Niraj; Winterhalter, Mathias; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich

    2012-09-01

    Nanoscale pores are ubiquitous in biological systems while artificial nanopores are being fabricated for an increasing number of applications. Biological pores are responsible for the transport of various ions and substrates between the different compartments of biological systems separated by membranes while artificial pores are aimed at emulating such transport properties. As an experimental method, electrophysiology has proven to be an important nano-analytical tool for the study of substrate transport through nanopores utilizing ion current measurements as a probe for the detection. Independent of the pore type, i.e., biological or synthetic, and objective of the study, i.e., to model cellular processes of ion transport or electrophysiological experiments, it has become increasingly important to understand the dynamics of ions in nanoscale confinements. To this end, numerical simulations have established themselves as an indispensable tool to decipher ion transport processes through biological as well as artificial nanopores. This article provides an overview of different theoretical and computational methods to study ion transport in general and to calculate ion conductance in particular. Potential new improvements in the existing methods and their applications are highlighted wherever applicable. Moreover, representative examples are given describing the ion transport through biological and synthetic nanopores as well as the high selectivity of ion channels. Special emphasis is placed on the usage of molecular dynamics simulations which already have demonstrated their potential to unravel ion transport properties at an atomic level.

  3. Spectroscopy with trapped highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P

    2008-01-23

    We give an overview of atomic spectroscopy performed on electron beam ion traps at various locations throughout the world. Spectroscopy at these facilities contributes to various areas of science and engineering, including but not limited to basic atomic physics, astrophysics, extreme ultraviolet lithography, and the development of density and temperature diagnostics of fusion plasmas. These contributions are accomplished by generating, for example, spectral surveys, making precise radiative lifetime measurements, accounting for radiative power emitted in a given wavelength band, illucidating isotopic effects, and testing collisional-radiative models. While spectroscopy with electron beam ion traps had originally focused on the x-ray emission from highly charged ions interacting with the electron beam, the operating modes of such devices have expanded to study radiation in almost all wavelength bands from the visible to the hard x-ray region; and at several facilities the ions can be studied even in the absence of an electron beam. Photon emission after charge exchange or laser excitation has been observed, and the work is no longer restricted to highly charged ions. Much of the experimental capabilities are unique to electron beam ion traps, and the work performed with these devices cannot be undertaken elsewhere. However, in other areas the work on electron beam ion traps rivals the spectroscopy performed with conventional ion traps or heavy-ion storage rings. The examples we present highlight many of the capabilities of the existing electron beam ion traps and their contributions to physics.

  4. Exploring Quantum Physics with Trapped Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibfried, Dietrich

    2017-04-01

    Trapped ions were among the first systems, where a single quantum particle can be confined and manipulated in almost perfect isolation from its environment. This makes ions prime candidates for high precision experiments and for demonstrating textbook quantum mechanical principles. Several ions in the same trap can couple strongly to each other through their Coulomb interaction. This enables entangling quantum logic gates and as a consequence, many experiments with trapped ions have concentrated on advancing quantum information processing in the last 20 years. While much work still needs to be done before a scalable, fault tolerant universal quantum processor can be realized in any system, the advances with ions have enabled exploration of new avenues, such as quantum simulation, quantum logic spectroscopy for ion clocks, and for molecular ion and highly charged ion spectroscopy. Lately, ion-based sensors and ideas for hybrid quantum systems that aim to couple trapped ions to photons, neutral atoms, superconducting circuits, micro-mechanical oscillators or other quantum coherent entities are gaining momentum.

  5. Novel electrostatic column for ion projection lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalupka, A.; Stengl, G.; Buschbeck, H.; Lammer, G.; Vonach, H.; Fischer, R.; Hammel, E.; Loeschner, H.; Nowak, R.; Wolf, P. (IMS - Ion Microfabrication Systems GmbH, A-1020 Vienna (Austria)); Finkelstein, W.; Hill, R.W. (Advanced Lithography Group, Columbia, Maryland 21045 (United States)); Berry, I.L. (Department of Defense, Microelectronics Research Laboratory, Columbia, Maryland 21045 (United States)); Harriott, L.R. (AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)); Melngailis, J. (University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)); Randall, J.N. (Texas Instruments, Dallas, Texas 75243 (United States)); Wolfe, J.C. (University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)); Stroh, H.; Wollnik, H. (University of Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Mondelli, A.A.; Petillo, J.J. (Science Applications International Corporation, McLean, Virginia 22102 (United States)); Leung, K. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of Californi

    1994-11-01

    Ion projection lithography (IPL) is being considered for high volume sub-0.25-[mu]m lithography. A novel ion-optical column has been designed for exposing 20[times]20 mm[sup 2] fields at 3[times] reduction from stencil mask to wafer substrates. A diverging lens is realized by using the stencil mask as the first electrode of the ion-optical column. The second and third electrode form an accelerating field lens. The aberrations of the first two lenses (diverging lens and field lens) are compensated by an asymmetric Einzel lens projecting an ion image of the stencil mask openings onto the wafer substrate with better than 2 mrad telecentricity. Less than 30 nm intrafield distortion was calculated within 20[times]20 mm[sup 2] exposure fields. The calculation uncertainty is estimated to be about 10 nm. The calculation holds for helium ions with [approx]10 keV ion energy at the stencil mask and 150 keV ion energy at the wafer plane. A virtual ion source size of 10 [mu]m has been assumed. The calculated chromatic aberrations are less than 60 nm, assuming 6 eV energy spread of the ions extracted from a duoplasmatron source. Recently a multicusp ion source has been developed for which preliminary results indicate an energy spread of less than 2 eV. Thus, with a multicusp source chromatic aberrations of less than 20 nm are to be expected. The ion energy at the crossover between the field lens and the asymmetric Einzel lens is 200 keV. Therefore, stochastic space charge induced degradations in resolution can be kept sufficiently low. The divergence of the ion image projected to the wafer plane is less than 2 mrad. Thus, the usable'' depth of focus for the novel ion optics is in the order of 10 [mu]m.

  6. IOOC Organizational Network (ION) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, H.

    2013-12-01

    In order to meet the growing need for ocean information, research communities at the national and international levels have responded most recently by developing organizational frameworks that can help to integrate information across systems of existing networks and standardize methods of data gathering, management, and processing that facilitate integration. To address recommendations and identified challenges related to the need for a better understanding of ocean observing networks, members of the U.S. Interagency Ocean Observation Committee (IOOC) supported pursuing a project that came to be titled the IOOC Organizational Network (ION). The ION tool employs network mapping approaches which mirror approaches developed in academic literature aimed at understanding political networks. Researchers gathered data on the list of global ocean observing organizations included in the Framework for Ocean Observing (FOO), developed in 2012 by the international Task Team for an Integrated Framework for Sustained Ocean Observing. At the international scale, researchers reviewed organizational research plans and documents, websites, and formal international agreement documents. At the U.S. national scale, researchers analyzed legislation, formal inter-agency agreements, work plans, charters, and policy documents. Researchers based analysis of relationships among global organizations and national federal organizations on four broad relationship categories: Communications, Data, Infrastructure, and Human Resources. In addition to the four broad relationship categories, researchers also gathered data on relationship instrument types, strength of relationships, and (at the global level) ocean observing variables. Using network visualization software, researchers then developed a series of dynamic webpages. Researchers used the tool to address questions identified by the ocean observing community, including identifying gaps in global relationships and the types of tools used to

  7. Ion Mobility Spectrometer Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Nicholas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; McLain, Derek [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Steeb, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-12-20

    The Morpho Saffran Itemizer 4DX Ion Mobility Spectrometer previously used to detect uranium signatures in FY16 was used at the former New Brunswick Facility, a past uranium facility located on site at Argonne National Laboratory. This facility was chosen in an attempt to detect safeguards relevant signatures and has a history of processing uranium at various enrichments, chemical forms, and purities; various chemicals such as nitric acid, uranium fluorides, phosphates and metals are present at various levels. Several laboratories were sampled for signatures of nuclear activities around the laboratory. All of the surfaces that were surveyed were below background levels of the radioanalytical instrumentation and determined to be radiologically clean.

  8. Mutation induction by ion beams in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The effect of ion beams such as C, He, and Ne ions was investigated on the mutation induction in plants with the expectation that ion beams of high linear energy transfer (LET) can frequently produce large DNA alternation such as inversion, translocation and large deletion rather than point mutation. Mutation frequency was investigated using Arabidopsis visible phenotype loci and was 8 to 33 fold higher for 220 MeV carbon ions than for electrons. Mutation spectrum was investigated on the flower color of chrysanthemum cv to find that flower mutants induced by ion beams show complex and stripe types rather than single color. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to investigate DNA alteration of mutations. In conclusion, the characteristics of ion beams for the mutation induction are 1) high frequency, 2) broad mutation spectrum, and 3) novel mutants. (S. Ohno)

  9. High-Resolution Ion Cyclotron Mobility Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merenbloom, Samuel I.; Glaskin, Rebecca S.; Henson, Zachary B.; Clemmer, David E.

    2009-01-01

    A novel ion mobility spectrometry instrument incorporating a cyclotron geometry drift tube is presented. The drift tube consists of eight regions, four curved drift tubes and four ion funnels. Packets of ions are propagated around the drift tube by changing the drift field at a frequency that is resonant with the ion’s drift time through each region. The approach trims each packet of ions as it leaves and enters each new region. An electrostatic gate allows ions to be kept in the drift tube for numerous cycles, increasing the ability to resolve specified ions. We demonstrate the approach by isolating the [M+2H]2+ or [M+3H]3+ charge state of substance P as well as individual trisaccharide isomers from a mixture of melezitose and raffinose. Resolving powers in excess of 300 are obtainable with this approach. PMID:19143495

  10. A Plasma Ion Source for ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Skov, Thomas Guldager

    2016-01-01

    In this report, my work testing the new Penning ion source as a summer student at ISOLTRAP is described. The project was composed of three stages: (1) Setting up a test laboratory in building 275, (2) characterizing the ion source, and (3) implementing and testing the source in the ISOLTRAP setup. After setting up the test laboratory, the ion source was tested in a constant pressure environment with produced ion currents in the range of nA . An extensive scan of the source ion current versus operating parameters (pressure, voltage) was performed. A setup with pulsed gas flow was also tested, allowing a reduction of the gas load on the vacuum system. The behavior of the ion source together with the ISOLTRAP setup was also investigated, allowing to understand current limitations and future directions of improvement.

  11. Binding of Ca Ions by Paramecium caudatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naitoh, Yutaka; Yasumasu, Ikuo

    1967-01-01

    Binding of 45Ca by live Paramecium caudatum was determined under various external ionic conditions. It was found that calcium uptake was separable into at least two components, a rapid and a slow one. The rapid component was influenced by the presence of certain other ions in a manner which agrees with the law of mass action. It appears that an ion exchange system may be involved in a binding equilibrium established between Paramecium, Ca++, and certain other ions. K+, Rb+, and Ba++ in the equilibrium medium are among those ions which inhibit calcium uptake. It is proposed that liberation of Ca++ from binding sites on Paramecium by an exchange reaction with competing ions is the first step in the mechanism of ciliary reversal in the response to external application of these ions. PMID:6033587

  12. Microsecond pulsed hydrogen/deuterium exchange of electrosprayed ubiquitin ions stored in a linear ion trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Khadijeh

    2015-02-07

    A pulse of D2O vapour on the order of microseconds is allowed to react with the +6 to +9 charge states of ubiquitin confined in a linear ion trap (LIT). Two envelopes of peaks are detected for the ions of ubiquitin, corresponding to the ions that exchange more quickly and more slowly. The deuterium uptake of the protonated sites on ubiquitin ions accounts for the ion population with the fast exchange. The hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) kinetics of ubiquitin ions trapped in the LIT for 200 ms showed comparable structural transitions to those trapped for 300 ms. When ions are trapped for longer, i.e. up to 2000 ms, mainly the slow exchanging ion population is detected. In all experiments the +7 ions exchange the most, suggesting a short distance between the surface protonated sites and nearby charged sites, and concomitantly high accessibility of surface protonated sites towards D2O. The +6 ions are more compact than the +7 ions but have one fewer protonated site, therefore fewer surface availabilities for D2O attack. The data suggest that the +6 ions keep most of their solution-phase contacts intact while the hydrophobic core is slightly interrupted in the +7 ions, possibly due to the exposure of charged His68 that is normally buried in the hydrophobic pocket. The +8 and +9 ions have more protonated sites but are less compact than the +7 ions because of Coulombic repulsion, resulting in a larger distance between the protonated sites and the basic sites. The data indicate that the HDX mechanism of ions with the slower exchange corresponding to the second envelope of peaks is primarily governed via a relay mechanism. The results suggest that the pulsed HDX MS method is sampling a population of ubiquitin ions with a similar backbone fold to the solution.

  13. LHC Report: Positive ion run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    The current LHC ion run has been progressing very well. The first fill with 358 bunches per beam - the maximum number for the year - was on Tuesday, 15 November and was followed by an extended period of steady running. The quality of the beam delivered by the heavy-ion injector chain has been excellent, and this is reflected in both the peak and the integrated luminosity.   The peak luminosity in ATLAS reached 5x1026 cm-2s-1, which is a factor of ~16 more than last year's peak of 3x1025 cm-2s-1. The integrated luminosity in each of ALICE, ATLAS and CMS is now around 100 inverse microbarn, already comfortably over the nominal target for the run. The polarity of the ALICE spectrometer and solenoid magnets was reversed on Monday, 28 November with the aim of delivering another sizeable amount of luminosity in this configuration. On the whole, the LHC has been behaving very well recently, ensuring good machine availability. On Monday evening, however, a faulty level sensor in the cooling towe...

  14. LHC Report: Ions cross protons

    CERN Multimedia

    Reyes Alemany Fernandez for the LHC team

    2013-01-01

    The LHC starts the New Year facing a new challenge: proton-lead collisions in the last month before the shutdown in mid-February.    The first stable beams were achieved on 20 January with 13 individual bunches per beam. In the next fill, the first bunch-trains were injected and stable beams were achieved with 96 proton on 120 ion bunches.  This fill was very important because we were able to study the so-called moving long-range beam-beam encounters. Long-range encounters, which are also seen in proton-proton runs, occur when the bunches in the two beams “see” each other as they travel in the same vacuum chamber at either side of the experiments.  The situation becomes more complicated with proton-lead ions because the two species have different revolution times (until the frequencies are locked at top energy- see “Cogging exercises”) and thus these encounters move. We found that this effect does not cause significant beam losses...

  15. Heavy Ion Physics at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Veres, Gabor

    2017-01-01

    In the present proceedings recent heavy ion results from the Compact Muon Solenoid collaboration at the LHC are presented. These contain comparisons between small and large collision systems, as well as studies of energy evolution, thus include data collected in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV (2015 and 2016), proton-proton and lead-lead collisions at 5 TeV (2015), and proton-lead collisions at 5 TeV and 8 TeV (2016) center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair. They provide new insights into the properties of the extremely high density and high temperature matter created in heavy ion collisions, while pointing out similarities and differences in comparison to smaller collision systems. These include gluon distribution functions in the lead nucleus; the azimuthal anisotropy of final state particle distributions in all the three different collision systems; charge separation signals from proton-lead collisions and consequences for the Chiral Magnetic Effect; new studies of parton energy loss and its dependence on...

  16. Multifunctional scanning ion conductance microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ashley; Perry, David; Unwin, Patrick R

    2017-04-01

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is a nanopipette-based technique that has traditionally been used to image topography or to deliver species to an interface, particularly in a biological setting. This article highlights the recent blossoming of SICM into a technique with a much greater diversity of applications and capability that can be used either standalone, with advanced control (potential-time) functions, or in tandem with other methods. SICM can be used to elucidate functional information about interfaces, such as surface charge density or electrochemical activity (ion fluxes). Using a multi-barrel probe format, SICM-related techniques can be employed to deposit nanoscale three-dimensional structures and further functionality is realized when SICM is combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), with simultaneous measurements from a single probe opening up considerable prospects for multifunctional imaging. SICM studies are greatly enhanced by finite-element method modelling for quantitative treatment of issues such as resolution, surface charge and (tip) geometry effects. SICM is particularly applicable to the study of living systems, notably single cells, although applications extend to materials characterization and to new methods of printing and nanofabrication. A more thorough understanding of the electrochemical principles and properties of SICM provides a foundation for significant applications of SICM in electrochemistry and interfacial science.

  17. Measurement of ultra-low ion energy of decelerated ion beam using a deflecting electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thopan, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2015-12-15

    In investigation on ultra-low-energy ion bombardment effect on DNA, an ion beam deceleration lens was developed for high-quality ultra-low-energy ion beam. Measurement of the ion energy after deceleration was necessary to confirm the ion beam really decelerated as theoretically predicted. In contrast to conventional methods, this work used a simple deflecting electrostatic field after the deceleration lens to bend the ion beam. The beam bending distance depended on the ion energy and was described and simulated. A system for the measurement of the ion beam energy was constructed. It consisted of a pair of parallel electrode plates to generate the deflecting electrical field, a copper rod measurement piece to detect ion beam current, a vernier caliper to mark the beam position, a stepping motor to translate the measurement rod, and a webcam-camera to read the beam bending distance. The entire system was installed after the ion-beam deceleration lens inside the large chamber of the bioengineering vertical ion beam line. Moving the measurement rod across the decelerated ion beam enabled to obtain beam profiles, from which the beam bending distance could be known and the ion beam energy could be calculated. The measurement results were in good agreement with theoretical and simulated results.

  18. Electrochemical ion separation in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoerke, Erik David; Ihlefeld, Jon; Waldrip, Karen; Wheeler, Jill S.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Small, Leo J.; Wheeler, David R.

    2017-12-19

    A purification method that uses ion-selective ceramics to electrochemically filter waste products from a molten salt. The electrochemical method uses ion-conducting ceramics that are selective for the molten salt cations desired in the final purified melt, and selective against any contaminant ions. The method can be integrated into a slightly modified version of the electrochemical framework currently used in pyroprocessing of nuclear wastes.

  19. The Aarhus Ion Micro-Trap Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Nielsen, Otto; Poulsen, Gregers

    and installed in an ultra high vacuum chamber, which includes an ablation oven for all-optical loading of the trap [2]. The next steps on the project are to demonstrate the operation of the micro-trap and the cooling of ions using fiber delivered light. [1] D. Grant, Development of Micro-Scale Ion traps, Master......As part of our involvement in the EU MICROTRAP project, we have designed, manufactured and assembled a micro-scale ion trap with integrated optical fibers. These prealigned fibers will allow delivering cooling laser light to single ions. Therefore, such a trap will not require any direct optical...

  20. Neutral beamline with improved ion energy recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinchoon

    1984-01-01

    A neutral beamline employing direct energy recovery of unneutralized residual ions is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell, and thus improves the overall neutral beamline efficiency. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beam direction in the neutral izer exit region. The ions which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be loosely coupled. As a result, the fractional energy ions exiting the cell are reflected onto and collected at an interior wall of the neutralizer formed by the modified end geometry, and thus do not detract from the energy recovery efficiency of full energy ions exiting the cell. Electrons within the neutralizer are prevented from exiting the neutralizer end opening by the action of crossed fields drift (ExB) and are terminated to a collector collar around the downstream opening of the neutralizer. The correct combination of the extended neutralizer end structure and the magnet region is designed so as to maximize the exit of full energy ions and to contain the fractional energy ions.

  1. Oxygen ions observed near Saturn's A ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, J H; Cravens, T E; Ip, W-H; Kasprzak, W T; Luhmann, J G; McNutt, R L; Niemann, H B; Yelle, R V; Mueller-Wodarg, I; Ledvina, S A; Scherer, S

    2005-02-25

    Ions were detected in the vicinity of Saturn's A ring by the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) instrument onboard the Cassini Orbiter during the spacecraft's passage over the rings. The INMS saw signatures of molecular and atomic oxygen ions and of protons, thus demonstrating the existence of an ionosphere associated with the A ring. A likely explanation for these ions is photoionization by solar ultraviolet radiation of neutral O2 molecules associated with a tenuous ring atmosphere. INMS neutral measurements made during the ring encounter are dominated by a background signal.

  2. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics: emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction lina; transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions; drift compression experiments on MBE-4 and related emittance; low emittance uniform- density C{sub s}+ sources for heavy ion fusion accelerator studies; survey of alignment of MBE-4; time-of-flight dependence on the MBE-4 quadrupole voltage; high order calculation of the multiple content of three dimensional electrostatic geometries; an induction linac injector for scaled experiments; induction accelerator test module for HIF; longitudinal instability in HIF beams; and analysis of resonant longitudinal instability in a heavy ion induction linac.

  3. 11. international conference on ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C.; Cheng, D.; Galloway, M.L.; Leitner, M.; Todd, D.S.; Ciavola, G.; Gammino, S.; Celona, L.; Ando, L.; Torrisi, L.; Cavenago, M.; Galata, A.; Spaedtke, P.; Tinschert, K.; Lang, R.; Iannucci, R.; Leroy, R.; Barue, C.; Hitz, D.; Koivisto, H.; Suominen, P.; Tarvainen, O.; Beijers, H.; Brandenburg, S.; Vanrooyen, D.; Hillo, C.; Kuchler, D.; Homeyer, H.; Rohrich, J.; Schachter, L.; Dobrescu, S.; Nakagawa, T.; Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Aihara, T.; Kase, M.; Goto, A.; Yang, Y.; Zhao, H.W.; Zhang, Z.M.; Zhang, X.Z.; Guo, X.H.; He, W.E.; Sun, L.T.; Yuan, P.; Song, M.T.; Xie, Z.Q.; Cao, Y.; Zhan, W.L.; Wei, B.W.; Bricault, P.; Lau, C.; Essabaa, S.; Cheikh Mhamed, M.; Bajeat, O.; Ducourtieux, M.; Lefort, H.; Panteleev, V.N.; Barzakh, A.E.; Fedorov, D.V.; Ionan, A.M.; Mezilev, K.A.; Moroz, F.V.; Orlov, S.Y.; Volkov, Y.M.; Andrighetto, A.; Lhersonneau, G.; Rizzi, V.; Tecchio, L.B.; Dubois, M.; Gaubert, G.; Jardins, P.; Lecesne, N.; Leroy, R.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Saint Laurent, M.G.; Villari, A.C.O.; Bajeat, O.; Essabaa, S.; Lau, C.; Menna, M.; Franberg, H.; Ammann, M.; Gdggeler, H.W.; Koster, U.; Allen, F.; Biedermann, C.; Radtke, R.; Ames, F.; Baartman, R.; Bricault, P.; Jayamanna, K.; Lamy, T.; McDonald, M.; Olivo, M.; Schmorl, P.; Yuan, D.H.L.; Asaji, T.; Sasaki, H.; Kato, Y.; Atabaev, B.; Radjabov, S.S.; Akhmadjanova, M.K.; Yuzikaeva, F.R.; Baoqun, Cui; Liqiang, Li; Yingjun, Ma; Shengyun, Zhu; Cong, Jiang

    2005-07-01

    This document gathers the summaries of the presentations made at ICIS05 (international conference on ion sources). It can be organized into 3 main topics: 1) 'fundamentals and theory' that deals with plasma, beam extraction, transport and emittance, diagnostics and simulation; 2) 'various types of ion sources' that include ECRIS, EBIS, microwave, negative, radioactive, polarized and laser ion sources, and charge breeders; and 3) 'ion sources and applications' in fields like accelerator injection, fusion energy, space propulsion, mass spectrometry, and neutron and cluster and rare nuclide production.

  4. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, B. A.; Weigand, A. J.; Van Kampen, C. L.; Babbush, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Electron bombardment ion thrusters used as ion sources have demonstrated a unique capability to vary the surface morphology of surgical implant materials. The microscopically rough surface texture produced by ion beam sputtering of these materials may result in improvements in the biological response and/or performance of implanted devices. Control of surface roughness may result in improved attachment of the implant to soft tissue, hard tissue, bone cement, or components deposited from blood. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam texturing discussed include: vascular prostheses, artificial heart pump diaphragms, pacemaker fixation, percutaneous connectors, orthopedic prosthesis fixation, and dental implants.

  5. Paper-based potentiometric ion sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Wen-Jie; Zou, Xu U; Hamedi, Mahiar M; Hu, Jinbo; Parolo, Claudio; Maxwell, E Jane; Bühlmann, Philippe; Whitesides, George M

    2014-10-07

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of ion-sensing electrochemical paper-based analytical devices (EPADs) in which a miniaturized paper reference electrode is integrated with a small ion-selective paper electrode (ISPE) for potentiometric measurements. Ion-sensing EPADs use printed wax barriers to define electrochemical sample and reference zones. Single-layer EPADs for sensing of chloride ions include wax-defined sample and reference zones that each incorporate a Ag/AgCl electrode. In EPADs developed for other electrolytes (potassium, sodium, and calcium ions), a PVC-based ion-selective membrane is added to separate the sample zone from a paper indicator electrode. After the addition of a small volume (less than 10 μL) of sample and reference solutions to different zones, ion-sensing EPADs exhibit a linear response, over 3 orders of magnitude, in ranges of electrolyte concentrations that are relevant to a variety of applications, with a slope close to the theoretical value (59.2/z mV). Ion-selective EPADs provide a portable, inexpensive, and disposable way of measuring concentrations of electrolyte ions in aqueous solutions.

  6. Spectroscopy of mobility-selected biomolecular ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Georgios; Svendsen, Annette; Boyarkin, Oleg V; Rizzo, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    We describe here experiments that combine differential ion mobility, which separates conformational isomers of biomolecular ions, with electronic spectroscopy in a cold, radio-frequency ion trap. Although the low temperature attainable in a cold ion trap greatly simplifies the electronic spectra of large molecules, conformational heterogeneity can still be a significant source of congestion, complicating spectroscopic analysis. We demonstrate here that using differential ion mobility to separate gas-phase peptide conformers before injecting them into a cold ion trap allows one to decompose a dense spectrum into contributions from different conformational families. In the inverse sense, cold ion spectroscopy can be used as a conformation-specific detector for ion mobility, allowing one to separate an unresolved peak into contributions from different conformational families. The doubly protonated peptide bradykinin serves as a good test case for the marriage of these two techniques as it exhibits a considerable degree of conformational heterogeneity that results in a highly congested electronic spectrum. Our results demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of directly coupling ion mobility with spectroscopy and provide a diagnostic of conformational isomerization of this peptide after being produced in the gas phase by electrospray.

  7. Neutral beamline with improved ion energy recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagenhart, William K.; Haselton, Halsey H.; Stirling, William L.; Whealton, John H.

    1984-01-01

    A neutral beamline generator with unneutralized ion energy recovery is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell of the beamline. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beamline in the cell exit region. The ions, which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage, are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be closely coupled. As a result, the fractional energy ions exiting the cell with the full energy ions are reflected back into the gas cell. Thus, the fractional energy ions do not detract from the energy recovery efficiency of full energy ions exiting the cell which can reach the ground potential interior surfaces of the beamline housing.

  8. Ion Sources for MedAustron

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J; Wallner, J; Sargsyan, E; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    The MedAustron Ion therapy center will be constructed in Wiener Neustadt (Austria) in the vicinity of Vienna. Its accelerator complex consists of four ion sources, a linear accelerator, a synchrotron and a beam delivery system to the three medical treatment rooms and to the research irradiation room. The ion sources shall deliver beams of H31+, C4+ and light ions with utmost reliability and stability. This paper describes the features of the ion sources presently planned for the MedAustron facility; such as ion source main parameters, gas injection, temperature control and cooling systems. A dedicated beam diagnostics technique is proposed in order to characterize ECR ions beams; in the first drift region after the ion source, a fraction of the mixed beam is selected via moveable aperture. With standard beam diagnostics, we then aim to produce position-dependant observables such as ion-current density, beam energy distribution and emittance for each charge states to be compared to simulations of ECR e-heating...

  9. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  10. Ion thruster charge-exchange plasma flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Gabriel, S. B.; Kitamura, S.

    1982-01-01

    The electron bombardment ion thruster has been under development for a number of years and during this time, studies of the plasmas produced by the thrusters and their interactions with spacecraft have been evaluated, based on available data. Due to diagnostic techniques used and facility effects, there is uncertainty as to the reliability of data from these early studies. This paper presents data on the flow of the charge-exchange plasma produced just downstream of the thruster's ion optics. The 'end-effect' of a cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to determine ion density and directed ion velocity. Results are compared with data obtained from a retarding potential analyzer-Faraday cup.

  11. Plasma immersion ion implantation for reducing metal ion release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, C.; Garcia, J. A.; Maendl, S.; Pereiro, R.; Fernandez, B.; Rodriguez, R. J. [Centro de Ingenieria Avanzada de Superficies AIN, 31191, Cordovilla-Pamplona (Spain); Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Universidad de Oviedo, Departamento Quimica Fisica y Analitica (Spain); Centro de Ingenieria Avanzada de Superficies AIN, 31191, Cordovilla-Pamplona (Spain)

    2012-11-06

    Plasma immersion ion implantation of Nitrogen and Oxygen on CoCrMo alloys was carried out to improve the tribological and corrosion behaviors of these biomedical alloys. In order to optimize the implantation results we were carried experiments at different temperatures. Tribocorrosion tests in bovine serum were used to measure Co, Cr and Mo releasing by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis after tests. Also, X-ray Diffraction analysis were employed in order to explain any obtained difference in wear rate and corrosion tests. Wear tests reveals important decreases in rate of more than one order of magnitude for the best treatment. Moreover decreases in metal release were found for all the implanted samples, preserving the same corrosion resistance of the unimplanted samples. Finally this paper gathers an analysis, in terms of implantation parameters and achieved properties for industrial implementation of these treatments.

  12. An ion guide laser ion source for isobar-suppressed rare isotope beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeder, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.raeder@fys.kuleuven.be; Ames, Friedhelm; Bishop, Daryl; Bricault, Pierre; Kunz, Peter; Mjøs, Anders [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Heggen, Henning, E-mail: heggen@triumf.ca [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Institute of Applied Physics, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstr. 7, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Lassen, Jens, E-mail: lassen@triumf.ca; Teigelhöfer, Andrea [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2014-03-15

    Modern experiments at isotope separator on-line (ISOL) facilities like ISAC at TRIUMF often depend critically on the purity of the delivered rare isotope beams. Therefore, highly selective ion sources are essential. This article presents the development and successful on-line operation of an ion guide laser ion source (IG-LIS) for the production of ion beams free of isobaric contamination. Thermionic ions from the hot ISOL target are suppressed by an electrostatic potential barrier, while neutral radio nuclides effusing out are resonantly ionized by laser radiation within a quadrupole ion guide behind this barrier. The IG-LIS was developed through detailed thermal and ion optics simulation studies and off-line tests with stable isotopes. In a first on-line run with a SiC target a suppression of surface-ionized Na contaminants in the ion beam of up to six orders of magnitude was demonstrated.

  13. Ion hole formation and nonlinear generation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves: THEMIS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Katoh, Yuto; Keika, Kunihiro; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Kasahara, Satoshi; Asamura, Kazushi; Nakamura, Satoko; Omura, Yoshiharu

    2017-09-01

    Electromagnetic plasma waves are thought to be responsible for energy exchange between charged particles in space plasmas. Such an energy exchange process is evidenced by phase space holes identified in the ion distribution function and measurements of the dot product of the plasma wave electric field and the ion velocity. We develop a method to identify ion hole formation, taking into consideration the phase differences between the gyromotion of ions and the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. Using this method, we identify ion holes in the distribution function and the resulting nonlinear EMIC wave evolution from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) observations. These ion holes are key to wave growth and frequency drift by the ion currents through nonlinear wave-particle interactions, which are identified by a computer simulation in this study.

  14. Motion of negative ion plasma near the boundary with electron−ion plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedev, Yu. V., E-mail: medve@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Processes occurring near the boundary between three-component plasma with negative ions and two-component electron−ion plasma are considered. The excited waves and instability are described. Stability condition at the boundary is determined.

  15. Production of High Energy Ions Near an Ion Thruster Discharge Hollow Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Ira; Mikellides, I. G.; Goebel, D. M.; Jameson, K. K.; Wirz, R.; Polk, James E.

    2006-01-01

    Several researchers have measured ions leaving ion thruster discharge chambers with energies far greater than measured discharge chamber potentials. Presented in this paper is a new mechanism for the generation of high energy ions and a comparison with measured ion spectra. The source of high energy ions has been a puzzle because they not only have energies in excess of measured steady state potentials, but as reported by Goebel et. al. [1], their flux is independent of the amplitude of time dependent plasma fluctuations. The mechanism relies on the charge exchange neutralization of xenon ions accelerated radially into the potential trough in front of the discharge cathode. Previous researchers [2] have identified the importance of charge exchange in this region as a mechanism for protecting discharge cathode surfaces from ion bombardment. This paper is the first to identify how charge exchange in this region can lead to ion energy enhancement.

  16. Hybrid Lithium-ion Capacitor / Lithium-ion Battery System for Extended Performance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The work focused on testing the Li-ion supercapacitors to confirm their performance and safety.  The li-ion supercaps were found to be safe under several...

  17. Simulation of Electric Potentials and Ion Motion in Planar Electrode Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM)

    OpenAIRE

    Garimella, Sandilya V.B.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Webb, Ian K.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Zhang, Xinyu; Prost, Spencer A; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    We report a conceptual study and computational evaluation of novel planar electrode Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM). Planar electrode SLIM devices were designed that allow for flexible ion confinement, transport and storage using a combination of RF and DC fields. Effective potentials can be generated that provide near ideal regions for confining and manipulating ions in the presence of a gas. Ion trajectory simulations using SIMION 8.1 demonstrated the capability for lossles...

  18. Carbon Mineralization Using Phosphate and Silicate Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokturk, H.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction from combustion of fossil fuels has become an urgent concern for the society due to marked increase in weather related natural disasters and other negative consequences of global warming. CO2 is a highly stable molecule which does not readily interact with other neutral molecules. However it is more responsive to ions due to charge versus quadrupole interaction [1-2]. Ions can be created by dissolving a salt in water and then aerosolizing the solution. This approach gives CO2 molecules a chance to interact with the hydrated salt ions over the large surface area of the aerosol. Ion containing aerosols exist in nature, an example being sea spray particles generated by breaking waves. Such particles contain singly and doubly charged salt ions including Na+, Cl-, Mg++ and SO4--. Depending on the proximity of CO2 to the ion, interaction energy can be significantly higher than the thermal energy of the aerosol. For example, an interaction energy of 0.6 eV is obtained with the sulfate (SO4--) ion when CO2 is the nearest neighbor [2]. In this research interaction between CO2 and ions which carry higher charges are investigated. The molecules selected for the study are triply charged phosphate (PO4---) ions and quadruply charged silicate (SiO4----) ions. Examples of salts which contain such molecules are potassium phosphate (K3PO4) and sodium orthosilicate (Na4SiO4). The research has been carried out with first principle quantum mechanical calculations using the Density Functional Theory method with B3LYP functional and Pople type basis sets augmented with polarization and diffuse functions. Atomic models consist of the selected ions surrounded by water and CO2 molecules. Similar to the results obtained with singly and doubly charged ions [1-2], phosphate and silicate ions attract CO2 molecules. Energy of interaction between the ion and CO2 is 1.6 eV for the phosphate ion and 3.3 eV for the silicate ion. Hence one can expect that the selected

  19. Anomalous ion thermal transport in hot ion plasmas by the ion temperature gradient mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies); Coppi, B. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Research Lab. of Electronics)

    1992-01-01

    Experiments show that the observed radial profiles of the ion thermal conductivity {chi}{sub i} have the opposite shapes with those obtained from the ion temperature gradient mode ({eta}{sub i} mode) turbulence model by the traditional mixing length estimate. In this work, this radial profile problem is reconsidered with an electromagnetic study of the linear stability of the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode and a new rule for choosing the mixing length. It is first shown that the electromagnetic effect gives a significant stabilizing effect on the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode, and that the observed reduction of {chi}{sub i}(r) in the core region can be explained by this electromagnetic effect. Secondly, in view of earlier numerical simulations showing the transfer of fluctuation energy to larger scales that those for the fastest growth rate, as well as fluctuation measurements indicating longer radial correlation lengths, a new mixing length formula is proposed to explain the radial increase of the {chi}{sub i}. It is shown the new formula fits well the observed {chi}{sub i}(r) profiles in two TFTR supershot discharges and also gives the scaling law in the current and the magnetic field which agrees better with experiment than the conventional formula.

  20. Anomalous ion thermal transport in hot ion plasmas by the ion temperature gradient mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Coppi, B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Research Lab. of Electronics

    1992-08-01

    Experiments show that the observed radial profiles of the ion thermal conductivity {chi}{sub i} have the opposite shapes with those obtained from the ion temperature gradient mode ({eta}{sub i} mode) turbulence model by the traditional mixing length estimate. In this work, this radial profile problem is reconsidered with an electromagnetic study of the linear stability of the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode and a new rule for choosing the mixing length. It is first shown that the electromagnetic effect gives a significant stabilizing effect on the toroidal {eta}{sub i} mode, and that the observed reduction of {chi}{sub i}(r) in the core region can be explained by this electromagnetic effect. Secondly, in view of earlier numerical simulations showing the transfer of fluctuation energy to larger scales that those for the fastest growth rate, as well as fluctuation measurements indicating longer radial correlation lengths, a new mixing length formula is proposed to explain the radial increase of the {chi}{sub i}. It is shown the new formula fits well the observed {chi}{sub i}(r) profiles in two TFTR supershot discharges and also gives the scaling law in the current and the magnetic field which agrees better with experiment than the conventional formula.

  1. ANALYSIS OF FERRIC AND FERROUS IONS IN SOIL EXTRACTS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method using ion chromatography (IC) for the analysis of ferrous (Fe 2+) and ferric (Fe 3+) ions in soil extracts has been developed. This method uses an ion exchange column with detection at 520 nm after post-column derivatization. Selectivity is achieved by using an anionic...

  2. Review on heavy ion radiotherapy facilities and related ion sources (invited)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kitagawa, A.; Fujita, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Biri, S.; Drentje, A. G.

    Heavy ion radiotherapy awakens worldwide interest recently. The clinical results obtained by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan have clearly demonstrated the advantages of carbon ion radiotherapy. Presently, there are four

  3. The use and development of ion dispensers for laser-cooled atomic ion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucul, David; Christensen, Justin E.; Hudson, Eric R.; Campbell, Wesley C.

    2017-04-01

    Fast, reliable, efficient loading of ions in ion traps is important for laser cooled ion trapping experiments. We utilize a simple surface ionization technique where ions are directly emitted from a platinum surface upon sublimation. This technique of direct ion production has wide applicability to ion trapping experiments and should apply to the direct production of positively charged atomic and molecular species as well as molecular anions. We experimentally demonstrate the ease and flexibility of this technique by directly producing calcium, strontium, cesium, barium, and potassium ions from a heated platinum surface. In addition, this technique is useful for loading rare isotopes into an ion trap. We experimentally demonstrate this by loading large numbers barium ions into an ion trap and distilling rare, isotopically pure ion chains through voltage control and laser heating and cooling. These techniques are directly applicable to the loading of 133Ba+ ions, a candidate qubit that combines the favorable atomic structure of 171Yb+, long-lived metastable states to ensure high fidelity detection, and visible optical transitions to leverage existing optical technologies.

  4. Nonplanar ion-acoustic shocks in electron–positron–ion plasmas ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 81; Issue 3. Nonplanar ion-acoustic shocks in ... The influence of other plasma parameters such as, ion kinematic viscosity and ion temperature, is discussed in the presence of superthermal electrons in nonplanar geometry. It is also seen that the IASWs propagating in ...

  5. Isotopic anomaly for carbon ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drentje, A. G.; Kitagawa, A.; Muramatsu, M.

    In many experiments methods were applied to increase the highly charged ion output from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source; the gas-mixing method is still generally being applied. The dominant role of the masses of the ions in the gas-mixture was apparent. Two basically differing mechanisms

  6. Stability of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in a multi-ion plasma†

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have studied the stability of the electrostatic ion cyclotron wave in a plasma consisting of isotropic hydrogen ions (H+) and temperature-anisotropic positively. (O+) and negatively (O−) charged oxygen ions, with the electrons drifting parallel to the magnetic field. Analytical expressions have been derived for the ...

  7. Indium Single-Ion Frequency Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagourney, Warren

    2001-01-01

    A single laser-cooled indium ion is a promising candidate for an ultimate resolution optical time or frequency standard. It can be shown that single ions from group IIIA of the periodic table (indium, thallium, etc.) can have extremely small systematic errors. In addition to being free from Doppler, transit-time and collisional shifts, these ions are also quite insensitive to perturbations from ambient magnetic and electric fields (mainly due to the use of a J=0-0 transition for spectroscopy). Of all group IIIA ions, indium seems to be the most practical, since it is heavy enough to have a tolerable intercombination cooling transition rate and (unlike thallium) has transitions which are easily accessible with frequency multiplied continuous-wave lasers. A single indium ion standard has a potential inaccuracy of one part in 10(exp 18) for integration times of 10(exp 6) seconds. We have made substantial progress during the grant period in constructing a frequency standard based upon a single indium ion. At the beginning of the grant period, single indium ions were being successfully trapped, but the lasers and optical systems were inadequate to achieve the desired goal. We have considerably improved the stability of the dye laser used to cool the ions and locked it to a molecular resonance line, making it possible to observe stable cooling-line fluorescence from a single indium ion for reasonable periods of time, as required by the demands of precision spectroscopy. We have substantially improved the single-ion fluorescence signal with significant benefits for the detection efficiency of forbidden transitions using the 'shelving' technique. Finally, we have constructed a compact, efficient UV 'clock' laser and observed 'clock' transitions in single indium ions using this laser system. We will elaborate on these accomplishments.

  8. Aligned ion implementation using scanning probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persaud, A.

    2006-12-12

    A new technique for precision ion implantation has been developed. A scanning probe has been equipped with a small aperture and incorporated into an ion beamline, so that ions can be implanted through the aperture into a sample. By using a scanning probe the target can be imaged in a non-destructive way prior to implantation and the probe together with the aperture can be placed at the desired location with nanometer precision. In this work first results of a scanning probe integrated into an ion beamline are presented. A placement resolution of about 120 nm is reported. The final placement accuracy is determined by the size of the aperture hole and by the straggle of the implanted ion inside the target material. The limits of this technology are expected to be set by the latter, which is of the order of 10 nm for low energy ions. This research has been carried out in the context of a larger program concerned with the development of quantum computer test structures. For that the placement accuracy needs to be increased and a detector for single ion detection has to be integrated into the setup. Both issues are discussed in this thesis. To achieve single ion detection highly charged ions are used for the implantation, as in addition to their kinetic energy they also deposit their potential energy in the target material, therefore making detection easier. A special ion source for producing these highly charged ions was used and their creation and interactions with solids of are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  9. Resonant ion transport in EBT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, D.E.; Jaeger, E.F.; Hedrick, C.L.; Tolliver, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    We use a model for the ELMO Bumpy Torus as a bumpy cylinder with a toroidally induced vertical drift imposed on the plasma. With this model we obtain the neoclassical plasma-transport coefficients for ions in both the banana and plateau resonant regimes. The problem of solving the linearized bounce-averaged drift kinetic equation is formulated as a variational principle, which is shown to be valid for both the banana and plateau regimes. We use limiting forms of this principle to obtain a continuous collisionality approximation to the energy-dependent flux. We then use this approximation to obtain analytic formulae for the particle- and energy-diffusion coefficients. These are shown to give excellent agreement with numerical results.

  10. Pervaporation with ion exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeddeker, K.W.; Wenzlaff, A.

    1986-01-01

    Sorption and pervaporation of aqueous-organic solvent systems (water-ethanol; water-carboxylic acids) with commercial ion exchange membranes are compared to obtain information on polymersolvent interaction vs. coupling. Close agreement between sorption selectivity and pervaporation selectivity indicates coupling. If pervaporation is less selective than sorption, polymer-solvent interaction overtakes coupling, the limit of de-coupling being phase separation within the sorbate as signaled by a sudden increase in permeability of the lesser interacting component. As long as sorption and pervaporation operate in parallel, favoring enrichment of the same component, coupling enhances the separation effect. If pervaporation counteracts sorption, coupling is detrimental to the separation effect. Potential applications include the dehydration of pre-concentrated water-ethanol using anion exchange membranes, and the enrichment of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solution by pervaporative removal of water through cation exchange membranes.

  11. QCD in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Iancu, Edmond

    2014-04-10

    These lectures provide a modern introduction to selected topics in the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions which shed light on the fundamental theory of strong interactions, the Quantum Chromodynamics. The emphasis is on the partonic forms of QCD matter which exist in the early and intermediate stages of a collision -- the colour glass condensate, the glasma, and the quark-gluon plasma -- and on the effective theories that are used for their description. These theories provide qualitative and even quantitative insight into a wealth of remarkable phenomena observed in nucleus-nucleus or deuteron-nucleus collisions at RHIC and/or the LHC, like the suppression of particle production and of azimuthal correlations at forward rapidities, the energy and centrality dependence of the multiplicities, the ridge effect, the limiting fragmentation, the jet quenching, or the dijet asymmetry.

  12. Ions in hyaluronic acid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkay, Ferenc; Basser, Peter J.; Londono, David J.; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik

    2009-11-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an anionic biopolymer that is almost ubiquitous in biological tissues. An attempt is made to determine the dominant features that account for both its abundance and its multifunctional role, and which set it apart from other types of biopolymers. A combination of osmotic and scattering techniques is employed to quantify its dynamic and static properties in near-physiological solution conditions, where it is exposed both to mono- and divalent counterions. An equation of state is derived for the osmotic pressure Π in the semidilute concentration region, in terms of two variables, the polymer concentration c and the ionic strength J of the added salt, according to which Π =1.4×103c9/4/J3/4 kPa, where c and J are expressed in mole. Over the physiological ion concentration range, the effect of the sodium chloride and calcium chloride on the osmotic properties of HA solutions is fully accounted for by their contributions to the ionic strength. The absence of precipitation, even at high CaCl2 concentrations, distinguishes this molecule from other biopolymers such as DNA. Dynamic light scattering measurements reveal that the collective diffusion coefficient in HA solutions exceeds that in aqueous solutions of typical neutral polymers by a factor of approximately 5. This property ensures rapid adjustment to, and recovery from, stress applied to HA-containing tissue. Small angle x-ray scattering measurements confirm the absence of appreciable structural reorganization over the observed length scale range 10-1000 Å, as a result of calcium-sodium ion exchange. The scattered intensity in the transfer momentum range q >0.03 Å-1 varies as 1/q, indicating that the HA chain segments in semidilute solutions are linear over an extended concentration range. The osmotic compression modulus c ∂Π/∂c, a high value of which is a prerequisite in structural biopolymers, is several times greater than in typical neutral polymer solutions.

  13. Ion mass and energy selective hyperthermal ion-beam assisted deposition setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, J. W.; Schumacher, P.; Mensing, M.; Rauschenbach, S.; Cermak, I.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2017-06-01

    For the synthesis of high-quality thin films, ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) is a frequently used technique providing precise control over several substantial film properties. IBAD typically relies on the use of a broad-beam ion source. Such ion sources suffer from the limitation that they deliver a blend of ions with different ion masses, each of them possessing a certain distribution of kinetic energy. In this paper, a compact experimental setup is presented that enables the separate control of ion mass and ion kinetic energy in the region of hyperthermal energies (few 1 eV - few 100 eV). This ion energy region is of increasing interest not only for ion-assisted film growth but also for the wide field of preparative mass spectrometry. The setup consists of a constricted glow-discharge plasma beam source and a tailor-made, compact quadrupole system equipped with entry and exit ion optics. It is demonstrated that the separation of monoatomic and polyatomic nitrogen ions (N+ and N2+) is accomplished. For both ion species, the kinetic energy is shown to be selectable in the region of hyperthermal energies. At the sample position, ion current densities are found to be in the order of 1 μA/cm2 and the full width at half maximum of the ion beam profile is in the order of 10 mm. Thus, the requirements for homogeneous deposition processes in sufficiently short periods of time are fulfilled. Finally, employing the described setup, for the first time in practice epitaxial GaN films were deposited. This opens up the opportunity to fundamentally study the influence of the simultaneous irradiation with hyperthermal ions on the thin film growth in IBAD processes and to increase the flexibility of the technique.

  14. Specific ion effects on membrane potential and the permselectivity of ion exchange membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2014-08-26

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. Membrane potential and permselectivity are critical parameters for a variety of electrochemically-driven separation and energy technologies. An electric potential is developed when a membrane separates electrolyte solutions of different concentrations, and a permselective membrane allows specific species to be transported while restricting the passage of other species. Ion exchange membranes are commonly used in applications that require advanced ionic electrolytes and span technologies such as alkaline batteries to ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis, but membranes are often only characterized in sodium chloride solutions. Our goal in this work was to better understand membrane behaviour in aqueous ammonium bicarbonate, which is of interest for closed-loop energy generation processes. Here we characterized the permselectivity of four commercial ion exchange membranes in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and ammonium bicarbonate. This stepwise approach, using four different ions in aqueous solution, was used to better understand how these specific ions affect ion transport in ion exchange membranes. Characterization of cation and anion exchange membrane permselectivity, using these ions, is discussed from the perspective of the difference in the physical chemistry of the hydrated ions, along with an accompanying re-derivation and examination of the basic equations that describe membrane potential. In general, permselectivity was highest in sodium chloride and lowest in ammonium bicarbonate solutions, and the nature of both the counter- and co-ions appeared to influence measured permselectivity. The counter-ion type influences the binding affinity between counter-ions and polymer fixed charge groups, and higher binding affinity between fixed charge sites and counter-ions within the membrane decreases the effective membrane charge density. As a result permselectivity decreases. The

  15. Ion Beams in Nanoscience and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hellborg, Ragnar

    2010-01-01

    Energetic ion beam irradiation is the basis of a wide plethora of powerful research- and fabrication-techniques for materials characterisation and processing on a nanometre scale. This book is suitable for practitioners, researchers and graduate students working in the field of ion beams and application

  16. METAL ION SEQUESTRATION: AN EXCITING DIMENSION FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The use of a tight binding macrocyclic ligand to complex a metal ion so that this serves as receptee on the Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP) receptor as described here affords a sequestration route for a targeted metal ion, with potential for environmental remediation and restoration applications. Ethylene ...

  17. High Rate Performing Li-ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-09

    permeable to lithium ions and efficient in transferring the electrons into/from the LVP surface to the corresponding current collector. a) b) c) d) e...PO4)3/C for High Rate Lithium-ion Battery Applications”, Lee Hwang Sheng, Nail Suleimanov, Vishwanathan Ramar, Mangayarkarasi Murugan, Kuppan

  18. The Holyfield heavy ion research facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. M.; Alton, G. D.; Ball, J. B.; Biggerstaff, J. A.; Dowling, D. T.; Erb, K. A.; Haynes, D. L.; Hoglund, D. E.; Hudson, E. D.; Juras, R. C.; Lane, S. N.; Ludemann, C. A.; Martin, J. A.; Meigs, M. J.; Mosko, S. W.; Olsen, D. K.; Ziegler, N. F.

    1988-05-01

    Development of the Holifield facility has continued with resulting improvements in the number of ion species provided, in the ion energy for tandem-only operations, and in utilization efficiency. In this report, we describe our recent operational experience, development activities, and future development plans.

  19. The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.M.; Alton, G.D.; Ball, J.B.; Biggerstaff, J.A.; Dowling, D.T.; Erb, K.A.; Haynes, D.L.; Hoglund, D.E.; Hudson, E.D.; Juras, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Development of the Holified facility has continued with resulting improvements in the number of ion species provided, ion energy for tandem-only operations, and utilization efficiency. In this report, we describe our recent operational experience, development activities, and future development plans.

  20. Resonant coherent excitation of channeled ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datz, S.; Moak, C.D.; Crawford, O.H.; Krause, H.F.; Dittner, P.F.; Gomez del Campo, J.; Biggerstaff, J.A.; Miller, P.D.; Hvelplund, P.; Knudsen, H.

    1978-03-27

    We have observed resonant excitation of swift channeled hydrogenlike ions (Z = 5 to Z = 9) and heliumlike F/sup 7 +/ which arises from a coherent periodic perturbation by the atoms in the bounding crystal rows. The resonance excitation was seen through the reduction in the transmission of fixed-charge-state ions through channels in thin crystals of Au and Ag.

  1. Scaffold Diversity from N-Acyliminium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Peng; Nielsen, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    N-Acyliminium ions are powerful reactive species for the formation of carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. Strategies relying on intramolecular reactions of N-acyliminium intermediates, also referred to as N-acyliminium ion cyclization reactions, have been employed for the construction of s......, covering the literature over the past 12 years (from 2004 to 2015)....

  2. Changes in ion transport in inflammatory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenhut Michael

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ion transport is essential for maintenance of transmembranous and transcellular electric potential, fluid transport and cellular volume. Disturbance of ion transport has been associated with cellular dysfunction, intra and extracellular edema and abnormalities of epithelial surface liquid volume. There is increasing evidence that conditions characterized by an intense local or systemic inflammatory response are associated with abnormal ion transport. This abnormal ion transport has been involved in the pathogenesis of conditions like hypovolemia due to fluid losses, hyponatremia and hypokalemia in diarrhoeal diseases, electrolyte abnormalites in pyelonephritis of early infancy, septicemia induced pulmonary edema, and in hypersecretion and edema induced by inflammatory reactions of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. Components of membranous ion transport systems, which have been shown to undergo a change in function during an inflammatory response include the sodium potassium ATPase, the epithelial sodium channel, the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator and calcium activated chloride channels and the sodium potassium chloride co-transporter. Inflammatory mediators, which influence ion transport are tumor necrosis factor, gamma interferon, interleukins, transforming growth factor, leukotrienes and bradykinin. They trigger the release of specific messengers like prostaglandins, nitric oxide and histamine which alter ion transport system function through specific receptors, intracellular second messengers and protein kinases. This review summarizes data on in vivo measurements of changes in ion transport in acute inflammatory conditions and in vitro studies, which have explored the underlying mechanisms. Potential interventions directed at a correction of the observed abnormalities are discussed.

  3. Formation of Ion Phase-Space Vortexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Trulsen, J.; Armstrong, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    for their initial evolution is derived. The results are supported by a numerical particle simulation. Also the possibility of vortex excitation by ion bursts and coalescence of two vortexes are demonstrated. The effects of finite ion temperature, particle trapping and charge exchange collisions are discussed...

  4. On Collisionless Damping of Ion Acoustic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vagn Orla; Petersen, P.I.

    1973-01-01

    Exact theoretical treatments show that the damping of ion acoustic waves in collisionless plasmas does not vanish when the derivative of the undisturbed distribution function at the phase velocity equals zero.......Exact theoretical treatments show that the damping of ion acoustic waves in collisionless plasmas does not vanish when the derivative of the undisturbed distribution function at the phase velocity equals zero....

  5. Dynamic electrochemical measurement of chloride ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement,

  6. Hopping models for ion conduction in noncrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Schrøder, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Ion conduction in noncrystals (glasses, polymers, etc) has a number of properties in common. In fact, from a purely phenomenological point of view, these properties are even more widely observed: ion conduction behaves much like electronic conduction in disordered materials (e.g., amorphous semic...

  7. Relativistic heavy-ion physics: Experimental overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The field of relativistic heavy-ion physics is reviewed with emphasis on new results and highlights from the first run of the relativistic heavy-ion collider at BNL and the 15 year research programme at the super proton synchrotron (SPS) at CERN and the AGS at BNL.

  8. Electron-cyclotron-resonance ion sources (review)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovanivskii, K.S.; Dougar-Jabon, V.D. [People`s Friendship Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1992-01-01

    The physical principles are described and a brief survey of the present state is given of ion sources based on electron-cyclotron heating of plasma in a mirror trap. The characteristics of ECR sources of positive and negative ions used chiefly in accelerator technology are presented. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. INFRARED AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF ION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infrared and Raman spectroscopy techniques have been used to study the ionic interactions of strontium(II) and barium(II) with thiocyanate ion in liquid ammonia. A number of bands were observed in both n (CN) and n (CS) regions of infrared and Raman spectra and these were assigned to 1:1 contact ion pair, ...

  10. Ion speciation in milk-like systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, R.

    2010-01-01

    The research described in this thesis is about ion behaviour in milk systems as a function of changing conditions (pH, ionic strength, addition of electrolytes and non-electrolytes). The focus was on (i) quantification of the ion equilibria in milk systems based on experimental conditions, (ii)

  11. The negative ions emission in nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, W. H.; Kunc, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    The contribution of negative atomic ions to continuum radiation in nitrogen plasma is discussed. It is shown that both unstable N(-)(3P) and metastable N(-)(1D) ions have a significant effect on the total production of the continuum radiation at electron temperatures below 12,000 K.

  12. OGO 6 ion concentration irregularity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclure, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Research is reported concerning the ionospheric F-region irregularities. The results are based on in-situ OGO-6 measurements of the total ion concentration N sub i. A proposed mechanism for the generation of equatorial F-region irregularities and the morphological results, and the occurrence of Fe(+) ions in the equatorial F-region are discussed. Related research papers are included.

  13. Beam halo collimation in heavy ion synchrotrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Strašík

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic study of the halo collimation of ion beams from proton up to uranium in synchrotrons. The projected Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research synchrotron SIS100 is used as a reference case. The concepts are separated into fully stripped (e.g., ^{238}U^{92+} and partially stripped (e.g., ^{238}U^{28+} ion collimation. An application of the two-stage betatron collimation system, well established for proton accelerators, is intended also for fully stripped ions. The two-stage system consists of a primary collimator (a scattering foil and secondary collimators (bulky absorbers. Interaction of the particles with the primary collimator (scattering, momentum losses, and nuclear interactions was simulated by using fluka. Particle-tracking simulations were performed by using mad-x. Finally, the dependence of the collimation efficiency on the primary ion species was determined. The influence of the collimation system adjustment, lattice imperfections, and beam parameters was estimated. The concept for the collimation of partially stripped ions employs a thin stripping foil in order to change their charge state. These ions are subsequently deflected towards a dump location using a beam optical element. The charge state distribution after the stripping foil was obtained from global. The ions were tracked by using mad–x.

  14. Ion exchange in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibler, J.P.

    1990-12-31

    Ion exchange is used in nearly every part of the nuclear fuel cycle -- from the purification of uranium from its ore to the final recovery of uranium and transmutation products. Ion exchange also plays a valuable role in the management of nuclear wastes generated in the fuel cycle.

  15. Ion exchange in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibler, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Ion exchange is used in nearly every part of the nuclear fuel cycle -- from the purification of uranium from its ore to the final recovery of uranium and transmutation products. Ion exchange also plays a valuable role in the management of nuclear wastes generated in the fuel cycle.

  16. Electrosorption of tetraalkylammonium ions on silver iodide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, de A.

    1981-01-01

    The object of the present investigations was to study the ef fect of the adsorption of charged organic ions on electrically charged, solid-liquid interfaces. To that end, symmetrical quater nary ammonium ions were adsorbed on a silver iodide-electrolyte interface at various

  17. Semiconductor applications of plasma immersion ion implantation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Many semiconductor integrated circuit manufacturing processes require high dose of implantation at very low energies. Conventional beam line ion implantation system suffers from low beam current at low energies, therefore, cannot be used economically for high dose applications. Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) ...

  18. Radioactive ions and atoms in superfluid helium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dendooven, P.G.; Purushothaman, S.; Gloos, K.; Aysto, J.; Takahashi, N.; Huang, W.; Harissopulos, S; Demetriou, P; Julin, R

    2006-01-01

    We are investigating the use of superfluid helium as a medium to handle and manipulate radioactive ions and atoms. Preliminary results on the extraction of positive ions from superfluid helium at temperatures close to 1 K are described. Increasing the electric field up to 1.2 kV/cm did not improve

  19. Metal Ion Controlled Polymorphism of a Peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Lars Bo Stegeager; Jancso, Attila; Szunyogh, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    , …) in the peptide, and the ligand and structural preferences of the metal ion (in our studies Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Cu+/2+). Simultaneously, new species such as metal ion bridged ternary complexes or even oligomers may be formed. In recent previous studies we have observed similar polymorphism of zinc finger model...

  20. Production of negatively charged radioactive ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Stracener, D. W.; Stora, T.

    2017-08-01

    Beams of short-lived radioactive nuclei are needed for frontier experimental research in nuclear structure, reactions, and astrophysics. Negatively charged radioactive ion beams have unique advantages and allow for the use of a tandem accelerator for post-acceleration, which can provide the highest beam quality and continuously variable energies. Negative ion beams can be obtained with high intensity and some unique beam purification techniques based on differences in electronegativity and chemical reactivity can be used to provide beams with high purity. This article describes the production of negative radioactive ion beams at the former holifield radioactive ion beam facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at the CERN ISOLDE facility with emphasis on the development of the negative ion sources employed at these two facilities. ).

  1. Parametric variations of ion transport in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, S.D. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ernst, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-03-18

    This paper is divided into three roughly independent sections. The first is a historical review of the twenty year history of experimental ion heat transport measurements from many tokamaks. The second is a study of ion heat transport in Ohmic TFTR plasmas which shows that {chi}i {approximately} {chi}e {approx} 15{chi}i{sup neo}. Thus, ion heat transport is demonstrated to be strongly anomalous even the absence of auxiliary heating. The third section describes the variation of {chi}i with local ion temperature in TFTR during auxiliary heating, with emphasis on characterizing the differecens between transport in the L-mode and supershot regimes. The results are consistent with the conjecture that improved ion energy confinement in supershot plasmas is caused by a high ratio of T{sub 1}/T{sub e}.

  2. High current pelletron for ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, James B.

    1989-04-01

    Since 1984, when the first production MeV ion implanter (an NEC model MV-T30) went on-line, interest in versatile electrostatic accelerator systems for MeV ion implantation has grown. The systems use a negative ion source to inject a tandem megavolt accelerator. In early systems the 0.4 mA of charging current from the two Pelletron charging chains in the accelerator was sufficient for the low intensity of beams from the ion source. This 2-chain system, however, is no longer adequate for the much higher beam intensities from today's improved ion sources. A 4-chain charging system, which delivers 1.3 mA to the high voltage terminal, was developed and is in operation in new models of NEC S Series Pelletron accelerators. This paper describes the latest beam performance of 1 MV and 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerators with this new 4-chain charging system.

  3. Characteristics of MINI ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Yuichi; Yokota, Watalu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    A very compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source (MINI ECR) was manufactured to extend available energy ranges of ion beams by applying multiply charged ions to electrostatic accelerators. The magnetic field to confine a plasma is formed only by small permanent magnets and the microwave power up to 15 W is generated by a compact transistor amplifier in order to install the ion source at a narrow high-voltage terminal where the electrical power feed is restricted. The magnet assembly is 12 cm in length and 11 cm in diameter, and forms a mirror field with the maximum strength of 0.55 T. The total power consumption of the source is below 160 W. The performance of the source was tested in a bench stand. The results of Ar, Xe, O, and N ion generation are reported in this paper. (author)

  4. Method and apparatuses for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-03-06

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber. The trapping electric field may comprise a field potential that, when taken in cross-section along the z-axis, includes at least one section that is concave down and at least one section that is concave up so that ions traversing the field potential experience a net magnetron effect on a cyclotron frequency of the ions that is substantially equal to zero. Other apparatuses and a method for performing ion cyclotron spectrometry are also disclosed herein.

  5. Method and apparatus for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-08-17

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber that includes at least a first section that induces a first magnetron effect that increases a cyclotron frequency of an ion and at least a second section that induces a second magnetron effect that decreases the cyclotron frequency of an ion. The cyclotron frequency changes induced by the first and second magnetron effects substantially cancel one another so that an ion traversing the at least first and second sections will experience no net change in cyclotron frequency.

  6. Ion implantation into concave polymer surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakudo, N. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Advanced Materials R and D Center, 3-1 Yatsukaho, Matto, Hakusan, Ishikawa 924-0838 (Japan)]. E-mail: sakudo@neptune.kanazawa-it.ac.jp; Shinohara, T. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Advanced Materials R and D Center, 3-1 Yatsukaho, Matto, Hakusan, Ishikawa 924-0838 (Japan); Amaya, S. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Advanced Materials R and D Center, 3-1 Yatsukaho, Matto, Hakusan, Ishikawa 924-0838 (Japan); Endo, H. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Advanced Materials R and D Center, 3-1 Yatsukaho, Matto, Hakusan, Ishikawa 924-0838 (Japan); Okuji, S. [Lintec Corp., 5-14-42 Nishiki-cho, Warabi, Saitama 335-0005 (Japan); Ikenaga, N. [Japan Science and Technology Corp., Nomigun, Ishikawa 923-1121 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    A new technique for ion implantation into concave surface of insulating materials is proposed and experimentally studied. The principle is roughly described by referring to modifying inner surface of a PET (polyethylene terephthalate) bottle. An electrode that is supplied with positive high-voltage pulses is inserted into the bottle. Both plasma formation and ion implantation are simultaneously realized by the same high-voltage pulses. Ion sheath with a certain thickness that depends on plasma parameters is formed just on the inner surface of the bottle. Since the plasma potential is very close to that of the electrode, ions from the plasma are accelerated in the sheath and implanted perpendicularly into the bottle's inner surface. Laser Raman spectroscopy shows that the inner surface of an ion-implanted PET bottle is modified into DLC (diamond-like carbon). Gas permeation measurement shows that gas-barrier property enhances due to the modification.

  7. Trapped individual ion at absolute zero temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nan; Dehmelt, Hans; Nagourney, Warren

    1989-01-01

    Laser cooling and ion trapping have progressed to such an extent that one can now speak of realizing a confined atom at absolute zero temperature. In this short publication, we analyze an experiment toward such realization using a single Ba+ ion in a miniature rf trap. The Ba+ ion is first laser-cooled to the limit where the ion spends most of its time in the zero-point energy state. Then a test sequence allows one to verify whether or not the ion is actually in its zero-point state. The test sequence may also serve as a device for state selection of an atom at absolute zero temperature. PMID:16594054

  8. Dendritic ion channelopathy in acquired epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolos, Nicholas P.; Johnston, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Summary Ion channel dysfunction or “channelopathy” is a proven cause of epilepsy in the relatively uncommon genetic epilepsies with Mendelian inheritance. But numerous examples of acquired channelopathy in experimental animal models of epilepsy following brain injury have also been demonstrated. Our understanding of channelopathy has grown due to advances in electrophysiology techniques that have allowed the study of ion channels in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in cortex and hippocampus. The apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons comprise the vast majority of neuronal surface membrane area, and thus the majority of the neuronal ion channel population. Investigation of dendritic ion channels has demonstrated remarkable plasticity in ion channel localization and biophysical properties in epilepsy, many of which produce hyperexcitability and may contribute to the development and maintenance of the epileptic state. Here we review recent advances in dendritic physiology and cell biology, and their relevance to epilepsy. PMID:23216577

  9. Ion beams in semiconductor physics and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalbitzer, S. (Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    The remarkable progress during the last two decades in semiconductor device technology is partly due to the introduction of ion beams as a key instrument for the modification and analysis of semiconductors. The basic reason is seen in the inherent electrical property of ion beams to be accurately controllable in energy, dose and species. The basic penetration and incorporation mechanisms in elemental and compound semiconductors have been explored and growing agreement between experiment and theory has rendered ion implantation a predictable tool. Similarly, the high analytic potential of nuclear reactions with ion beams has been steadily exploited and outstanding results have been achieved. Some basic milestones in the development of the ion beam techniques will be reviewed and future trends discussed. (orig.).

  10. ION SOURCE FOR A SINGLE PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Matlocha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to obtain very low beam current on the injection side of an particle accelerator. By using a combination of a well known ion source type and a short photo-emissive laser pulse, very low amount of ions can be created. The method could be used in the ion source of various types of the accelerators, where very low beam current is essential. The design is adapted to build a compact internal ion source and the dimensions of the device are adjusted to fit central region of the cyclotron U-120M. The functional parameters of the device are discussed and the ammount of the produced ions is estimated.

  11. Study on Coulomb explosions of ion mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Boella, E; D'Angola, A; Coppa, G; Silva, L O

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a theoretical work on the dynamics of Coulomb explosion for spherical nanoplasmas composed by two different ion species. Particular attention has been dedicated to study the energy spectra of the ions with the larger charge-to-mass ratio. The connection between the formation of shock shells and the energy spread of the ions has been the object of a detailed analysis, showing that under particular conditions the width of the asymptotic energy spectrum tends to become very narrow, which leads to a multi-valued ion phase-space. The conditions to generate a quasi mono-energetic ion spectrum have been rigorously demonstrated and verifed by numerical simulations, using a technique that, exploiting the spherical symmetry of the problem, allows one to obtain very accurate and precise results.

  12. Ion-induced electron emission microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Barney L.; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Weller, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    An ion beam analysis system that creates multidimensional maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the secondary electrons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted secondary electrons are collected in a strong electric field perpendicular to the sample surface and (optionally) projected and refocused by the electron lenses found in a photon emission electron microscope, amplified by microchannel plates and then their exact position is sensed by a very sensitive X Y position detector. Position signals from this secondary electron detector are then correlated in time with nuclear, atomic or electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these secondary electrons in the fit place.

  13. ECR ion source with electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1993-10-26

    An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source having an electron gun for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber of the ion source is described. The ion source has a injection enclosure and a plasma chamber tank. The plasma chamber is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets. The electron gun injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber such that ionization within the plasma chamber occurs in the presence of the additional electrons produced by the electron gun. The electron gun has a cathode for emitting electrons therefrom which is heated by current supplied from an AC power supply while bias potential is provided by a bias power supply. A concentric inner conductor and outer conductor carry heating current to a carbon chuck and carbon pusher which hold the cathode in place and also heat the cathode. In the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, the electron gun replaces the conventional first stage used in prior electron cyclotron resonance ion generators. 5 figures.

  14. Silicene for Na-ion battery applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2016-08-19

    Na-ion batteries are promising candidates to replace Li-ion batteries in large scale applications because of the advantages in natural abundance and cost of Na. Silicene has potential as the anode in Li-ion batteries but so far has not received attention with respect to Na-ion batteries. In this context, freestanding silicene, a graphene-silicene-graphene heterostructure, and a graphene-silicene superlattice are investigated for possible application in Na-ion batteries, using first-principles calculations. The calculated Na capacities of 954mAh/g for freestanding silicene and 730mAh/g for the graphenesilicene superlattice (10% biaxial tensile strain) are highly competitive and potentials of >0.3 V against the Na/Na potential exceed the corresponding value of graphite. In addition, the diffusion barriers are predicted to be <0.3 eV.

  15. Ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa, O. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Gresillon, D. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1994-07-01

    The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Logic gates based on ion transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tybrandt, Klas; Forchheimer, Robert; Berggren, Magnus

    2012-05-29

    Precise control over processing, transport and delivery of ionic and molecular signals is of great importance in numerous fields of life sciences. Integrated circuits based on ion transistors would be one approach to route and dispense complex chemical signal patterns to achieve such control. To date several types of ion transistors have been reported; however, only individual devices have so far been presented and most of them are not functional at physiological salt concentrations. Here we report integrated chemical logic gates based on ion bipolar junction transistors. Inverters and NAND gates of both npn type and complementary type are demonstrated. We find that complementary ion gates have higher gain and lower power consumption, as compared with the single transistor-type gates, which imitates the advantages of complementary logics found in conventional electronics. Ion inverters and NAND gates lay the groundwork for further development of solid-state chemical delivery circuits.

  17. Photoionisation of ions with synchrotron radiation: from ions in space to atoms in cages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schippers, Stefan; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Phaneuf, Ronald A.; Müller, Alfred

    2015-11-11

    Here, we introduce the photon-ion merged-beams technique for the photoionisation of mass/charge selected ionised atoms, molecules and clusters by x-rays from synchrotron radiation sources. Examples for photoionisation of atomic ions are discussed by going from outer shell ionisation of simple few electron systems to inner shell ionisation of complex many electron ions. Fundamental ionisation mechanisms are elucidated and the importance of the results for applications in astrophysics and plasma physics is pointed out. Finally, the unique capabilities of the photon-ion merged-beams technique for the study of photoabsorption by nanoparticles are demonstrated by the example of endohedral fullerene ions.

  18. GANIL Workshop on Ion Sources; Journees Sources d'Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, Renan [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)

    1999-07-01

    The proceedings of the GANIL Workshop on Ion Sources held at GANIL - Caen on 18-19 March 1999 contains 13 papers aiming at improving the old source operation and developing new types of sources for nuclear research and studies of ion physics. A number of reports are devoted to applications like surface treatment, ion implantation or fusion injection. The 1+{yields}n+ transformation, charged particle transport in ECR sources, addition of cesium and xenon in negative ion sources and other basic issues in ion sources are also addressed.

  19. Energetic ion leakage from foreshock transient cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Terry Z.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Hietala, Heli

    2017-07-01

    Earth's foreshock is filled with backstreaming particles that can interact with the ambient solar wind and its discontinuities to form foreshock transients. Many foreshock transients have a core with low dynamic pressure that can significantly perturb the bow shock and the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Foreshock transients have also been recently recognized as sites of particle acceleration, which may be important for seeding the parent shock with energetic particles. A relevant step of this seeding would be energetic ion leakage into the surrounding foreshock environment. On the other hand, such leakage would also suppress the energetic particle flux contrast across foreshock transients' boundaries masking their perceived contribution to ion energization. To further examine this hypothesis of ion leakage, we report on multipoint case studies of three foreshock transient events selected from a large database. The cases were selected to exemplify, in increasing complexity, the nature and consequences of energetic ion leakage. Ion energy dispersion, observed upstream and/or downstream of the foreshock transients, is explained with a simple, ballistic model of ions leaking from the foreshock transients. Larger energies are required for leaked ions to reach the spacecraft as the distance between the transient and spacecraft increases. Our model, which explains well the observed ion energy dispersion and velocity distributions, can also be used to reveal the shape of the foreshock transients in three dimensions. Our results suggest that ion leakage from foreshock transient cores needs to be accounted for both in statistical studies and in global models of ion acceleration under quasi-parallel foreshock conditions.

  20. Pengaruh Ion Na+, Ion Hg2+ dan Ion Cr3+ Terhadap Kinerja Sensor Potensiometri Ion Timbal (II Tipe Kawat Terlapis Berbasis Pirofilit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qanitah Fardiyah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Generally ionophores  (active materials in a potentiometric is derived from organic compounds. In this research used ionophores derived from ainorganic compounds that pyrophyllite. Potentiometric sensors lead (II ions based on pyrophyllite as ionofor has been developed. The electrode had  polyvinilchloride (PVC as polymer matrix and dioctylpthalate (DOP as plasticizer. It showed a good Nernstian slope of 29.33 mV/decade, a lead linear range concentration between 10-1- 10-5 M, and detection limit of 8.054 x10-6 M  (equal with 1.669 ppm of lead. By using the electrode, the objectives of this research were to investigate the effect of interfering ions  Na+, ion Hg2+ and ion Cr3+ to the performance of the potentiometric sensors lead(II ion based pyrophyllite coated wire type. The selective coefficients (kij were determined using the mix solution methode  at  10-3 M of interfering ion. The result showed that the potentiometric sensors lead(II ions based  on pyrophyllite coated wire type could be used optimally at  pH 5. The potentiometric sensors lead(II ion based pyrophyllite coated wire type showed a good selectivity for interfering ions (Na+, Hg2+, dan Cr3+ and showed no interference to the performance of the potentiometric sensors lead (II ion based pyrophyllite coated wire type with selectivity order of Pb2+> Hg2+> Cr3+> Na+. DOI :http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/jkv.v0i0.3144