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Sample records for samarium bromides

  1. Conductometric investigations on samarium soaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrotra, K.N.; Chauhan, Mithlesh; Shukla, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    The critical micelle concentration (CMC), degree of dissociation and dissociation constant of samarium soaps (valerate, caproate, caprylate and caprate) in a mixture of 60 per cent benzene and 40 per cent methanol were determined by using conductometric measurements. The soaps behaved as simple electrolyte in dilute solutions and the CMC was found to decrease with increasing chainlength of the fatty acid constituent of the soap. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Labeling fish with an activable element through their diet. [samarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michibata, Hitoshi (Toyama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1981-10-01

    Stable samarium, one of the rare earth elements, was fed to medaka (Oryzias latipes) and goldfish (Carassius auratus). The concentration of samarium in the labeled fish was determined by neutron activation analysis. In O. latipes, samarium was detectable even 1 yr after the labeled diet was eaten. In C. auratus, samarium was retained in the fifth brachial arch, scales, and gills.

  3. Implementation of an analytical technique for Samarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia G, N.

    2004-01-01

    Since the Samarium presents the same chemical properties that the plutonium, it has been used as homologous in studies that allow us to know the behavior that the plutonium presents in solution, with the advantage of working with an inactive and not very dangerous element. At the moment studies of sorption of plutonium or samarium are made on some mineral matrices that present certain surface properties. Due to the low concentrations that are used in the studies of sorption of samarium on those reagent substrates, their detection becomes very difficult for the conventional analysis media. The luminescence is a technique that can detect lower concentrations, smaller at 1 X 10 - 2 M, but when fluorofors are used this limit of detection increases in several orders of magnitude. In this work it has been used the arsenazo-III as fluorofor agent since it reacts in a specific way with the samarium, forming a complex that presents a proportional luminescence to the concentration of the present samarium. The advantage of making the quantification of samarium by luminescence is that it can use the same instrumental equipment to determine the speciation of the samarium sipped in the zircon. (Author)

  4. Laser spectroscopy of atomic samarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkov, L.M.; Melik-Pashaev, D.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Samarium spectrum was studied with a purpose to find transitions to be used in experiments on parity nonconservation. Macaluso-Corbino effect - Faraday rotation near resonance was used for the search and study of spectral lines. We have identified previously unknown energy levels belonging to the 4f 5 6s 2 5 D term: 15914.55(3) cm -4 (J=1), 17864.29(3) cm -4 (J=2), 20195.76(3) cm -4 (J=3). M1-transitions to these levels from the levels of the ground 4f 5 6s 2 7 F term were observed. There are several peculiarities of these transitions which are due to the fact that they occut within an inner 4f 5 -shell, particularly, a very small presuure broadening by inert gases. 44 refs.; 17 figs.; 7 tabs

  5. Synthesis of Samarium Cobalt Nanoblades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren M. Steele

    2010-08-25

    As new portable particle acceleration technologies become feasible the need for small high performance permanent magnets becomes critical. With particle accelerating cavities of a few microns, the photonic crystal fiber (PCF) candidate demands magnets of comparable size. To address this need, samarium cobalt (SmCo) nanoblades were attempted to be synthesized using the polyol process. Since it is preferable to have blades of 1-2 {micro}m in length, key parameters affecting size and morphology including method of stirring, reaction temperature, reaction time and addition of hydroxide were examined. Nanoparticles consisting of 70-200 nm spherical clusters with a 3-5 nm polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coating were synthesized at 285 C and found to be ferromagnetic. Nanoblades of 25nm in length were observed at the surface of the nanoclusters and appeared to suggest agglomeration was occurring even with PVP employed. Morphology and size were characterized using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis was conducted to determine composition but no supportive evidence for any particular SmCo phase has yet been observed.

  6. A NOVEL SAMARIUM COMPLEX WITH INTERESTING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    delocalized π-electrons of the pyridyl rings obtains increasing attention in ... BaSO4 plate was used as a reference (100% reflectance), on which the finely ground .... several are samarium-containing complex with bipy [41-45]. Figure 2.

  7. Optical isotope shifts for unstable samarium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Walker, P.M.; Griffith, J.A.R.; Evans, D.E.; Grant, I.S.; England, J.G.; Fawcett, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Using a tunable dye laser beam intersecting a thermal atomic beam, optical isotope shifts and hyperfine splittings have been measured for the four unstable samarium isotopes between 144 Sm and 154 Sm, covering the well known transition region from spherical to deformed shapes. (orig.)

  8. Nonlinear Faraday rotation in samarium vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkov, L.M.; Melik-Pashaev, D.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments on nonlinear magnetic optical (Faraday) rotation on resonance transitions of atomic samarium are described. Measurements were carried out on transitions with different angular momenta of upper and lower states: 1→0, 0→1 and 1→1. Qualitative explanations of observed phenomena are given

  9. Thermal diffusivity of samarium-gadolinium zirconate solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, W.; Wan, C.L.; Xu, Q.; Wang, J.D.; Qu, Z.X.

    2007-01-01

    We synthesized samarium-gadolinium zirconate solid solutions and determined their thermal diffusivities, Young's moduli and thermal expansion coefficients, which are very important for their application in thermal barrier coatings. Samarium-gadolinium zirconate solid solutions have extremely low thermal diffusivity between 20 and 600 deg. C. The solid solutions have lower Young's moduli and higher thermal expansion coefficients than those of pure samarium and gadolinium zirconates. This combination of characteristics is promising for the application of samarium and gadolinium zirconates in gas turbines. The mechanism of phonon scattering by point defects is discussed

  10. Investigation of samarium solubility in the magnesium based solid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokhlin, L.L.; Padezhnova, E.M.; Guzej, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    Electric resistance measurements and microscopic analysis were used to investigate the solubility of samarium in a magnesium-based solid solution. The constitutional diagram Mg-Sm on the magnesium side is of an eutectic type with the temperature of the eutectic transformation of 542 deg C. Samarium is partly soluble in solid magnesium, the less so, the lower is the temperature. The maximum solubility of samarium in magnesium (at the eutectic transformation point) is 5.8 % by mass (0.99 at. %). At 200 deg C, the solubility of samarium in magnesium is 0.4 % by mass (0.063 at. %)

  11. Anodic dissolution of samarium in acetonitrile solution of acetylacetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, N.N.; Dik, T.A.; Trebnikov, A.G.; Shirokij, V.L.

    2003-01-01

    Electrochemical dissolution of metal samarium in acetonitrile medium in the presence of 0.1 M tetraethylammoniumbromide and 0.9 M acetylacetone (HAA) in argon atmosphere under a voltage of 3 V was considered for studying feasibility of electrochemical synthesis of samarium β-diketonates. Using IR and mass spectrometry, thermal and elementary analyses it was ascertained that, depending on cathode and anode areas ratio, anodic dissolution of samarium can give rise to formation of complexes of bi- and trivalent samarium featuring the composition Sm 4 (AA) 8 · 3HAA, Sm(AA) 3 · HAA and Sm(AA) 3 · 4HAA [ru

  12. Crystallization of Yttrium and Samarium Aluminosilicate Glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Lago, Diana Carolina; Prado, Miguel Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Aluminosilicate glasses containing samarium and yttrium (SmAS and YAS glasses) exhibit high glass transition temperatures, corrosion resistance, and glass stability on heating which make them useful for technological applications. Yttrium aluminosilicate glass microspheres are currently being used for internal selective radiotherapy of liver cancer. During the preparation process, crystallization needs to be totally or partially avoided depending on the final application. Thus knowing the cry...

  13. Plasma sprayed samarium--cobalt permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, M.C.; Janowiecki, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Samarium--cobalt permanent magnets were fabricated by arc plasma spraying. This process involves the injection of relatively coarse powder particles into a high-temperature gas for melting and spraying onto a substrate. The technique is being investigated as an economical method for fabricating cobalt--rare earth magnets for advanced traveling wave tubes and cross-field amplifiers. Plasma spraying permits deposition of material at high rates over large areas with optional direct bonding to the substrate, and offers the ability to fabricate magnets in a variety of shapes and sizes. Isotropic magnets were produced with high coercivity and good reproducibility in magnetic properties. Post-spray thermal treatments were used to enhance the magnetic properties of sprayed deposits. Samarium--cobalt magnets, sprayed from samarium-rich powder and subjected to post-spray heat treatment, displayed energy products in excess of 9 million gauss-oersteds and coercive forces of approximately 6000 oersteds. Bar magnet arrays were constructed by depositing magnets on ceramic substrates. (auth)

  14. Synthesis of samarium, europium and ytterbium acetylenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochkarev, M.N.; Fedorova, E.A.; Glushkova, N.V.; Protchenko, A.V.; Druzhkov , O.N.; Khorshev, S.Ya.

    1995-01-01

    Ethynyl complexes of samarium, europium and ytterbium were prepared by interaction of naphthalinides of metals with acetylene in tetrahydrofuran. The compounds are isolated in the form of dark-coloured pyrophore powders. Data of magnetic measurements suggest that in the course of the reaction Sm(2) is oxidized completely to Sm(3), Yb(2) transforms into Yb(3) partially, whereas europium preserves its initial bivalent state. Hydrolysis of the compounds prepared provides acetylene, ethylene, ethane and hydrogen which indicates the presence of acethylenide Ln 2 C 2 and hydride LnH groupings (Ln = Sm, Eu, Yb). 9 refs., 2 tabs

  15. High purity samarium oxide from mixed rare earth carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Carlos A. da S.; Seneda, Jose A.; Vasconcellos, Mari E. de; Pedreira Filho, Walter dos R.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and economical chemical process for the production of highly pure samarium oxides is discussed. The raw material, which was used in the form of rare earth carbonates was produced industrially from the chemical treatment of Brazilian monazite. Ion exchange chromatography was performed using a strong cationic resin that is typically employed in water treatment processes to fractionate rare earth elements (REE) without the use of retention ions. Under these conditions, 99.9% pure Sm 2 O 3 was eluted using the ammonium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at a controlled pH. The EDTA-samarium complex was separated from EDTA and then precipitated as oxalate and fired to samarium oxide. Molecular absorption spectrophotometry was used to monitor the samarium content during the proposed process, and sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to certify the purity of the samarium oxide. Typical samarium oxide obtained from the proposed procedure contained the following contaminants in micrograms per gram: Sc (20.90); Y (11.80); La (8.4); Ce (4.3); Pr (2.5); Nd (5.1); Eu (94); Gd (114); Tb (3.6); Dy (2.5), Ho (2.3); Er (3.0); Tm (2.3); Yb (38,2); Lu (25.6). The high-purity samarium oxides produced in the present study can be used as an alternative to imported products in research and development applications. (author)

  16. Plasma sprayed samarium--cobalt permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, M.C.; Janowiecki, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Samarium--Co permanent magnets were fabricated by arc plasma spraying. This process involves the injection of relatively coarse powder particles into a high temperature gas for melting and spraying onto a substrate. The technique is being investigated as an economical method for fabricating Co--rare earth magnets for advanced traveling wave tubes and cross-field amplifiers. Plasma spraying permits deposition of material at high rates over large areas with optional direct bonding to the substrate, and offers the ability to fabricate magnets in a variety of shapes and sizes. Isotropic magnets were produced with high coercivity and good reproducibility in magnetic properties. Post-spray thermal treatments were used to enhance the magnetic properties of sprayed deposits. Samarium--Co magnets, sprayed from Sm-rich powder and subjected to post-spray heat treatment, displayed energy products in excess of 9 million G-Oe and coercive forces of approximately 6000 Oe. Bar magnet arrays were constructed by depositing magnets on ceramic substrates

  17. Physico-chemical studies on samarium soaps in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrotra, K.N.; Chauhan, M.; Shukla, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics of samarium soaps (caproate and caprate) in solid state were investigated by IR, X-ray diffraction and TGA measurements. The IR results revealed that the fatty acids exist in dimeric state through hydrogen bonding and samarium soaps possess partial ionic character. The X-ray diffraction measurements were used to calculate the long spacings and the results confirmed the double layer structure of samarium soaps. The decomposition reaction was found kinetically of zero order and the values of energy of activation for the decomposition process for caproate and caprate were found to be 8,0 and 7,8 kcal mol -1 , respectively. (Authors)

  18. The ion-exchange obtaining of high purity samarium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzyska, W.; Soltysiak, I.; Cygan, J.

    1987-01-01

    The use of lactic acid - EDTA mixture as an eluent for the obtaining of high purity samarium oxide was studied. The studies were carried out at room temperature on cation exchange resin Wofatit KPS X 8. The best results were obtained for lactic acid (0,26 mol/dm 3 ) - EDTA (0,013 mol/dm 3 ) mixture at pH 3,3. As the result of 57% samarium concentrate elution with column load 1:3 and flow rate 0,4 cm/min, over 99% pure samarium oxide with 73% yield has been obtained. The yield of spectrally pure Sm 2 O 3 exceeded 45%. (author)

  19. Yellow-green electroluminescence of samarium complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzad, Sara Karimi; Najafi, Ezzatollah [Department of Chemistry Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amini, Mostafa M., E-mail: m-pouramini@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Janghouri, Mohammad; Mohajerani, Ezeddin [Laser Research Institute Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ng, Seik Weng [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-12-15

    Four novel samarium complexes were prepared by reacting samarium(III) nitrate with 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline, and 1,10-phenanthroline and utilized as emitting materials in the electroluminescence device. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared, UV–vis and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopes and the molecular structure of a representative complex, [Sm{sub 2}(Me-HQ){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}] (1), was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Utilization of a π-conjugated (phenanthroline) ligand as a second ligand in the structure of the samarium complexes resulted in red shifts in both absorption and fluorescence spectra of complexes and moderately enhanced the photoluminescence intensity and the fluorescence quantum yield. The maximum emission peaks showed that a good correlation exists between the nature of the substituent group on the 8-hydroxyquinoline and the addition of the π-conjugated ligand in the structure of samarium complexes and emission wavelength. Devices with samarium(III) complexes with structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS (90 nm)/PVK:PBD:Sm(III) complexes (75 nm)/Al (180 nm) were fabricated. In the electroluminescence (EL) spectra of the devices, a strong ligand-centered emission and narrow bands arising from the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}→{sup 6}H{sub J} transitions (J=7/2, 9/2, and 11/2) of the samarium ion were observed for the complexes. The electroluminescent spectra of the samarium complexes were red-shifted as compared with the PVK:PBD blend. We believe that the electroluminescence performance of OLED devices based on samarium complexes relies on overlaps between the absorption of the samarium compounds and the emission of PVK:PBD. This revealed that it is possible to evaluate the electroluminescence performance of the samarium compounds-doped OLED devices based on the emission of PVK:PBD and the absorption of the dopants. - Highlights: • Four novel photoluminescence samarium complexes have been synthesized.

  20. Role of samarium additions on the shape memory behavior of iron based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakoor, R.A.; Khalid, F. Ahmad; Kang, Kisuk

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The effect of samarium contents on shape memory behavior has been studied. → Addition of samarium increases the strength, c/a ratio and ε (hcp martensite). → Addition of samarium retards the nucleation of α (bcc martensite). → Improvement in shape memory effect with the increase in samarium contents. - Abstract: The effect of samarium contents on shape memory behavior of iron based shape memory alloys has been studied. It is found that the strength of the alloys increases with the increase in samarium contents. This effect can be attributed to the solid solution strengthening of austenite by samarium addition. It is also noticed that the shape memory effect increases with the increase in samarium contents. This improvement in shape memory effect presumably can be regarded as the effect of improvement in strength, increase in c/a ratio and obstruction of nucleation of α in the microstructure.

  1. Samarium ion exchanged montmorillonite for high temperature cumene cracking reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binitha, N.N.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Nano material Montmorillonite clay is cation exchanged with samarium and its catalytic influence in cumene cracking reaction is investigated. Effect of exchange with sodium ions on further exchange with samarium ions is also noted. Acidity measurements are done using TPD of ammonia. The retention of basic structure is proved from FTIR spectra and XRD patterns. Elemental analysis result shows that samarium exchange has occurred, which is responsible for the higher catalytic activity. Surface area and pore volume remains more or less unaffected upon exchange. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates the enhanced thermal stability on exchanging. Cumene cracking reaction is carried out at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed glass reactor at 673 K. The predominance of Bronsted acidity is confirmed from high selectivity to benzene. (author)

  2. Basis for developing samarium AMS for fuel cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Bruce A.; Biegalski, Steven R.; Whitney, Scott M.; Tumey, Scott J.; Jordan Weaver, C.

    2010-01-01

    Modeling of nuclear reactor fuel burnup indicates that the production of samarium isotopes can vary significantly with reactor type and fuel cycle. The isotopic concentrations of 146 Sm, 149 Sm, and 151 Sm are potential signatures of fuel reprocessing, if analytical techniques can overcome the inherent challenges of lanthanide chemistry, isobaric interferences, and mass/charge interferences. We review the current limitations in measurement of the target samarium isotopes and describe potential approaches for developing Sm-AMS. AMS sample form and preparation chemistry will be discussed as well as possible spectrometer operating conditions.

  3. 4f and 5d magnetism in samarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stunault, A.; Bernhoeft, N.; Vettier, C.; Dumesnil, K.; Dufour, C.

    2001-01-01

    We report on resonant magnetic X-ray scattering studies of a samarium epitaxial film at the samarium L 3 edge. We observe one quadrupolar resonance below the edge, reflecting the polarization of the 4f electrons, and two dipolar resonances above the edge, related to the polarization of the 5d band. We demonstrate, by following the thermal evolution of resonant magnetic intensities of both types, that the polarization of the 4f and 5d electrons present exactly the same temperature dependence, even very close to the ordering temperature, in agreement with the RKKY model for long-range magnetic order in rare earths

  4. Methylnaltrexone bromide methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Zhou

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound [systematic name: (4R,4aS,7aR,12bS-3-cyclopropylmethyl-4a,9-hydroxy-7-oxo-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-3-ium bromide methanol monosolvate], C21H26NO4+·Br−·CH3OH, two of the three six-membered rings adopt chair conformations while the third, which contains a C=C double bond, adopts an approximate half-boat conformation. The 2,3-dihydrofuran ring adopts an envelope conformation. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H...O and O—H...Br hydrogen bonds. The absolute stereochemistry was inferred from one of the starting materials.

  5. Iron bromide vapor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, V. B.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Trigub, M. V.; Dimaki, V. A.; Evtushenko, G. S.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the characteristics of a pulsed gas-discharge laser on iron bromide vapor generating radiation with a wavelength of 452.9 nm at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 5-30 kHz. The maximum output power amounted to 10 mW at a PRF within 5-15 kHz for a voltage of 20-25 kV applied to electrodes of the discharge tube. Addition of HBr to the medium produced leveling of the radial profile of emission. Initial weak lasing at a wavelength of 868.9 nm was observed for the first time, which ceased with buildup of the main 452.9-nm line.

  6. Behavior of Samarium III during the sorption process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez R, E.; Garcia G, N.; Garcia R, G.

    2004-01-01

    In this work the results of the behavior of samarium in solution are presented, in front of a fine powder of zirconium silicate (zircon). For that which is necessary to characterize the zircon, studying the crystallinity, the morphology, the surface area and the isoelectric point. The behavior of samarium in solution is studied by means of the elaboration of isotherm of sorption, using the technique by lots. One observes that to pH values of nearer to the isoelectric point (pH = 7.23) the process of sorption of the samarium begins, reaching a maximum to near pH at 9. The technique of luminescence is used to determine the concentration of the sipped samarium (phosphorescence) and also to make the speciation of the species formed in the surface of the zircon (phosphorescence). The results can be extrapolated with the plutonium when making the modeling of the migration of alpha emitting coming from the repositories of radioactive waste since both they have similar chemical properties (they are homologous). (Author)

  7. Studies on ultrasonic velocity and electrical conductivity of samarium soaps in non-aqueous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrotra, K.N.; Chauhan, M.; Shukla, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    The ultrasonic velocity of solutions of samarium soaps in non-aqueous medium has been measured at a constant temperature and the results have been used to evaluate the various acoustic parameters. The pre-micellar association and the formation of micelles in samarium soap solutions have been determined by conductometric measurements. The molar conductance at infinite dilution, degree of ionisation and ionisation constant have been evaluated. The results show that samarium soaps behave as weak electrolyte in dilute solutions. (Authors)

  8. Solubility isotherms in ternary systems of samarium nitrate, water and nitrates of amidopyrine, benzotriazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starikova, L.I.

    1991-01-01

    Solubility in the system of samarium nitrate-amidopyrine nitrate-water at 25 and 50 deg C was studied. Solubility isotherms consist of three branches, corresponding to crystallization of samarium nitrate tetrahydrate, amidopyrine nitrate and congruently soluble compounds of Sm(NO 3 ) 3 · 2C 13 H 17 ON 3 ·HNO 3 composition. Its thermal behaviour was studied. The system of samarium nitrate-benzotriazole nitrate-water is referred to eutonic type

  9. Dependence of samarium-soil interaction on samarium concentration: Implications for environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Guinart, Oriol; Salaberria, Aitor; Vidal, Miquel; Rigol, Anna

    2018-03-01

    The sorption and desorption behaviour of samarium (Sm), an emerging contaminant, was examined in soil samples at varying Sm concentrations. The obtained sorption and desorption parameters revealed that soil possessed a high Sm retention capacity (sorption was higher than 99% and desorption lower than 2%) at low Sm concentrations, whereas at high Sm concentrations, the sorption-desorption behaviour varied among the soil samples tested. The fractionation of the Sm sorbed in soils, obtained by sequential extractions, allowed to suggest the soil properties (pH and organic matter solubility) and phases (organic matter, carbonates and clay minerals) governing the Sm-soil interaction. The sorption models constructed in the present work along with the sorption behaviour of Sm explained in terms of soil main characteristics will allow properly assessing the Sm-soil interaction depending on the contamination scenario under study. Moreover, the sorption and desorption K d values of radiosamarium in soils were strongly correlated with those of stable Sm at low concentrations (r = 0.98); indicating that the mobility of Sm radioisotopes and, thus, the risk of radioactive Sm contamination can be predicted using data from low concentrations of stable Sm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optical properties of zinc–vanadium glasses doped with samarium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Zinc–vanadium glasses doped with samarium oxide having the chemical composition Sm2O3(x). ZnO(40−x)V2O5(60)(where x = 0·1–0·5 mol%) were prepared by melt quenching method. The density of these glasses was measured by Archimedes method; the corresponding molar volumes have also been ...

  11. Chrome-free Samarium-based Protective Coatings for Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Legan; Cui, Xiufang; Yang, Yuyun; Lin, Lili; Xiao, Qiang; Jin, Guo

    The microstructure of chrome-free samarium-based conversion coating on magnesium alloy was investigated and the corrosion resistance was evaluated as well. The micro-morphology, transverse section, crystal structure and composition of the coating were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The corrosion resistance was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results reveal that the morphology of samarium conversion coating is of crack-mud structure. Tiny cracks distribute in the compact coating deposited by samarium oxides. XRD, EDS and XPS results characterize that the coating is made of amorphous and trivalent-samarium oxides. The potentiodynamic polarization curve, EIS and OCP indicate that the samarium conversion coating can improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys.

  12. Separation of lanthanum (3) and samarium (3) extraction with tributylphosphate in the solvent presence of solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkevich, I.B.; Kolesnikov, A.A.; Bomshtejn, V.E.

    1990-01-01

    Lanthanum (3) and samarium (3) extraction from nitric acid solutions by tributylphosphate in the presence of solid phase has been investigated. An increase in samarium α-nitrate distribution factor in the presence of solid phase with a decrease in its concentration in the initial solution and with lanthanum nitrate concentration increase is detected. The greatest effect of separation is observed in samarium nitrate microregion. The method of quantitative extraction of samarium from lanthanum nitrate solutions with samarium-lanthanum separation factor exceeding 50 has been suggested

  13. Bromide in some coastal and oceanic waters of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, F.P.; Dalal, V.N.K.

    Bromide concentration and bromide/chlorinity ratio are estimated in coastal waters of Goa, Minicoy Lagoon, Western Arabian Sea and Western Bay of Bengal. The influence of precipitation and river runoff on bromide and bromide/chlorinity ratio...

  14. Lanthanum (samarium) nitrate-4-aminoantipyrine nitrate-water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starikova, L.I.; Zhuravlev, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    Using the isothermal method of cross-sections at 50 deg C systems lanthanum nitrate-4-aminoantipyrine nitrate-water (1), samarium nitrate-4-aminoantipyrine nitrate-water (2), are studied. Isotherms of system 1 consist of two crystallization branches of initial salt components. In system 2 formation of congruently soluble compounds of the composition Sm(No) 3 ) 3 xC 11 H 13 ON 3 xHNO 3 is established. Analytical, X-ray phase and thermogravimetric analysis of the isolated binary salt are carried out

  15. Implementation of an analytical technique for Samarium; Implementacion de una tecnica analitica para Samario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia G, N. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Since the Samarium presents the same chemical properties that the plutonium, it has been used as homologous in studies that allow us to know the behavior that the plutonium presents in solution, with the advantage of working with an inactive and not very dangerous element. At the moment studies of sorption of plutonium or samarium are made on some mineral matrices that present certain surface properties. Due to the low concentrations that are used in the studies of sorption of samarium on those reagent substrates, their detection becomes very difficult for the conventional analysis media. The luminescence is a technique that can detect lower concentrations, smaller at 1 X 10{sup -} {sup 2} M, but when fluorofors are used this limit of detection increases in several orders of magnitude. In this work it has been used the arsenazo-III as fluorofor agent since it reacts in a specific way with the samarium, forming a complex that presents a proportional luminescence to the concentration of the present samarium. The advantage of making the quantification of samarium by luminescence is that it can use the same instrumental equipment to determine the speciation of the samarium sipped in the zircon. (Author)

  16. Synthesis of samarium binding bleomycin - a possible NCT radiosensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, B.M., E-mail: bmm@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mendes, T.M.; Campos, T.P.R., E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) is a drug that has attractive features for the development of a new radiopharmaceutical, particularly with regard to neutron capture therapy (NCT) sensitized by Sm-149. It has the ability to chelate many metal ions. In vitro studies have shown that up to 78% of BLM present in a cell is accumulated inside the nucleus or in the nuclear membrane. In addition, this drug has higher affinity for tumor tissues than for normal tissues. Radioactive isotopes carried by this antibiotic would be taken preferentially to one important cellular targets DNA. Besides, BLM displays intrinsic anti-tumor activity - it is a chemotherapic antibiotic clinically used against some cancers. This study aimed to obtain bleomycin molecules bound to samarium (BLM-Sm) for NCT studies in vitro and in vivo. The binding technique employed in this work has great simplicity and low cost. Thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, fast protein liquid chromatography and analysis by ICP-AES were applied to verify the binding molecule. ICP-AES results showed the presence of samarium in the sample peaks related to BLM-Sm. However, efficiency and stability of this bond needs to be investigated. (author)

  17. Synthesis of samarium binding bleomycin - a possible NCT radiosensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, B.M.; Mendes, T.M.; Campos, T.P.R.

    2011-01-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) is a drug that has attractive features for the development of a new radiopharmaceutical, particularly with regard to neutron capture therapy (NCT) sensitized by Sm-149. It has the ability to chelate many metal ions. In vitro studies have shown that up to 78% of BLM present in a cell is accumulated inside the nucleus or in the nuclear membrane. In addition, this drug has higher affinity for tumor tissues than for normal tissues. Radioactive isotopes carried by this antibiotic would be taken preferentially to one important cellular targets DNA. Besides, BLM displays intrinsic anti-tumor activity - it is a chemotherapic antibiotic clinically used against some cancers. This study aimed to obtain bleomycin molecules bound to samarium (BLM-Sm) for NCT studies in vitro and in vivo. The binding technique employed in this work has great simplicity and low cost. Thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, fast protein liquid chromatography and analysis by ICP-AES were applied to verify the binding molecule. ICP-AES results showed the presence of samarium in the sample peaks related to BLM-Sm. However, efficiency and stability of this bond needs to be investigated. (author)

  18. Preparation and examination of properties of samarium-153-EDTMP complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, M.; Garnuszek, P.; Lukasiewicz, A.; Wozniak, I.; Zulczyk, W.; Licinska, I.

    1995-01-01

    Preparation and properties of ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonic acid (EDTMP) as well as some properties of 153 Sm-EDTMP chelate have been examined. The chelate formed by samarium-153 (46.3 h, β - -decay) with EDTMP exhibits high bone uptake and can be used for treatment of disseminated, painful skeletal metastases. The purity and stability of solutions of 153 Sm-EDTMP chelate were examined in a broad range of samarium concentration and 153 Sm specific activity. The complex under study was examined by radio-TLC, -electrophoresis and radio-HPLC. The results obtained suggest the small size of molecules of 153 Sm-EDTMP chelate as compared with molecules of ''free''EDTMP. The results of biodistribution of 153 Sm-EDTMP determined in rats indicate the quick blood clearance, high deposition of radioactivity in bone and quick excretion of radioactivity into urine. No specific uptake of 153 Sm-EDTMP in extra-skeletal organs was found. (author). 42 refs, 13 figs, 22 tabs

  19. Influence of tellurite on lifetime for samarium doped lanthanum lead borate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, A.; Eraiah, B.

    2018-04-01

    Samarium substituted tellurium lanthanum lead borate glass is prepared using melt quenching technique. Luminescence spectra have been recorded upon excitation with 402 nm various transitions from 4G5/2 level, for samarium doped tellurite glasses are studied and also lifetime for all the samples exhibit single exponential behaviour of decay curve. Luminescence spectra of present glasses show quenching effect due to cross-relation channels of samarium ions. The lifetime of glass samples decrease as the tellurite concentration is decreased. So, it evidences that to attain longer lifetime for lasing material one can tune the host by selecting concentration of tellurite.

  20. Resonances of coherent population trapping in samarium vapours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolachevsky, Nikolai N; Akimov, A V; Kiselev, N A; Papchenko, A A; Sorokin, Vadim N; Kanorskii, S I

    2001-01-01

    Resonances of coherent population trapping were detected in atomic vapours of the rare-earth element samarium. The coherent population trapping was produced by two external-cavity diode lasers (672 and 686 nm) in a Λ-system formed by the three levels of 154 Sm: the 4f 6 6s 2 ( 7 F 0 ) ground state, the first fine-structure 4f 6 6s 2 ( 7 F 1 ) sublevel of the ground state and the 4f 6 ( 7 F)6s6p( 3 P o ) 9 F o 1 upper level. The dependence of the spectral shapes and resonance contrasts on the polarisation of the laser beams and the direction of the applied magnetic field was studied. The obtained results were analysed. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  1. Optical and physical properties of samarium doped lithium diborate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumantharaju, N.; Sardarpasha, K. R.; Gowda, V. C. Veeranna

    2018-05-01

    Sm3+ doped lithium di-borate glasses with composition 30Li2O-60B2O3-(10-x) PbO, (where 0 molar volume with samarium ion content indicates the openness of the glass structure. The gradual increase in average separation of boron-boron atoms with VmB clearly indicates deterioration of borate glass network, which in turn leads to decrease in the oxygen packing density. The replacements of Sm2O3 for PbO depolymerise the chain structure and that would increase the concentration of non-bridging oxygens. The marginal increase of optical band gap energy after 1.0 mol.% of Sm2O3 is explained by considering the structural modification in lead-borate. The influence of Sm3+ ion on physical and optical properties in lithium-lead-borate glasses is investigated and the results were discussed in view of the structure of borate glass network.

  2. Magnetic behavior study of samarium nitride using density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Narayan N.; Mankad, Venu H.; Dabhi, Shweta D.; Patel, Anjali; Jha, Prafulla K.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, the state-of-art density functional theory is employed to study the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of samarium nitride (SmN). We have performed calculation for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic states in rock-salt phase. The calculated results of optimized lattice parameter and magnetic moment agree well with the available experimental and theoretical values. From energy band diagram and electronic density of states, we observe a half-metallic behaviour in FM phase of rock salt SmN in while metallicity in AFM I and AFM III phases. We present and discuss our current understanding of the possible half-metallicity together with the magnetic ordering in SmN. The calculated phonon dispersion curves shows dynamical stability of the considered structures. The phonon density of states and Eliashberg functional have also been analysed to understand the superconductivity in SmN.

  3. New reduced variant in gadolinium and samarium monoxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bist, B M.S.; Kumar, J; Srivastava, O N [Banaras Hindu Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics

    1977-01-01

    A new reduced phase has been observed in the thin films of gadolinium and samarium monoxides. This phase results on imparting an annealing treatment to the monoxides and is formed as a result of the creation and ordering of vacancies in the oxygen sublattice. The new phase has been analysed to possess a rhombohedral unit cell with lattice parameters a/sub R/ = a/sub 0/ square root of (3/2) and c/sub R/ = a/sub 0/ square root of 3 (based on hexagonal axes, a/sub 0/ being the lattice parameter of the fundamental zinc blende type unit cell of the monoxide). Based on the proposed structure, the new phase can be assigned the solid state chemical formula RO/sub x/ where R = Gd, Sm and x = 0.66.

  4. Biodistribution study of 153Sm-EDTMP produced by irradiation of natural and enriched Samarium, in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meftahi, M.; Bahrami Samani, A.; Babaei, M. H.; Shamsaei Zafarghandi, M.; Ghannadi Maragheh, M.

    2010-01-01

    ''1 53 Sm-EDTMP is one of the well known radiopharmaceuticals for pain palliation of bone metastases. Despite that, it is used just in a few countries. It is due to some reasons like being costly enriched samarium that usually used as target for irradiation and short half-life of 153 Sm. In this investigation, certain amounts of radiopharmaceuticals prepared by irradiation of enriched and natural samarium were injected to some normal rats. Then, the rodents were sacrificed and some of their organs were removed. All of the mentioned stages were performed in order to consider the possibility of exploiting natural samarium instead of enriched samarium by study of biodistribution of both radiopharmaceuticals in various organs especially in bone as the target tissue. At the end, the acceptable results were obtained using natural samarium in comparison with the enriched samarium from the point of view of the biodistribution studies.

  5. Samarium-153-EDTMP in the metastatic bone pain treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lins Filho, M.L.M.; Santos, A.O.; Nappi, A.P.B.; Meirelles, M.B.; Arouca, P.T.; Ramos, C.D.; Etchebehere, E.C.S.C.; Teixeira, L.C.; Netto Junior, N.R.; D'Ancona Cal; Camargo, E.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Bone metastasis is the most reason of pain in prostate and mammary cancer patients. The Samarium-153-EDTMP has been showed as an alternative to the treatment of the metastasis bone pain. With the objective to evaluate the use of the Sm-153-EDTMP as a systemic therapy for the metastasis bone pain, 30 patients (19 male, 11 female, average age of 64,5 years) were studied. 19 patients with prostate cancer and 11 with mammary cancer. All the patients presented previous bone scintiscanning with multiple metastasis; interruption of the chemotherapy or radiotherapy for two or more weeks and leukocyte count higher than 2,000 leukocytes/mm 3 and platelets higher than 80,000/mm 3 . The patients were classified previously to the radioisotope therapy, as far the intensity of the pain in a scale from 0 to 10 is concerned. All the patients received 37 MBq/kg (1m Ci/kg) of weight of Sm-153-EDTMP by venous via. The evaluation 6 weeks after the therapy showed complete or partial pain relief in 22 patients (73,3%). Complete or partial pain relief has been obtained in 91,0% (10 in 11) of the patients with mammary cancer and in 62,2% (12 in 19) of the patients with prostate cancer. Transitory leukopenia (lower than 2,000 leukocytes/mm 3 ) and platelet count (lower than 80,000/mm 3 ) occurred in 33,3% of the patients. 8 patients (26,7%) did not responded to the therapy. The therapy with Samarium-153-EDTMP is a simple, safe and efficient method in the treatment of the bone pain caused by metastasis

  6. Electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides in pyrochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castrillejo, Y.; Fernandez, P.; Medina, J.; Hernandez, P.; Barrado, E.

    2011-01-01

    This work concerns the electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides. In this way, the electrochemical behaviour of samarium ions has been investigated in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at the surface of tungsten, aluminium and aluminium coated tungsten electrodes. On a W inert electrode the electro-reduction of Sm(III) takes place in only one soluble-soluble electrochemical step Sm(III)/Sm(II). The electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) has not been observed within the electrochemical window, because of the prior reduction of Li(I) ions from the solvent, which inhibits the electro-extraction of Sm species from the salt on such a substrate. Sm metal in contact with the melt react to give Li(0) according to the reaction: Sm(0) + 2Li(I) ↔ Sm(II) + 2Li(0). On the contrary, on reactive Al electrodes the electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) was observed within the electroactive range. The potential shift of the redox couple is caused by the decrease of Sm activity in the metal phase due to the formation of Sm-Al alloys at the interface. The formation mechanism of the intermetallic compounds was studied in a melt containing: (i) both Sm(III) and Al(III) ions, using W and Al coated tungsten electrodes, and (ii) Sm(III) ions using an Al electrode. Analysis of the samples after potentiostatic electrolysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), allowed the identification of Al 3 Sm and Al 2 Sm.

  7. Electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides in pyrochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrillejo, Y., E-mail: ycastril@qa.uva.es [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Fernandez, P. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Medina, J. [Dept Fisica Materia Condensada Cristalografia y Mineralogia, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Hernandez, P. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, C.P. 42076 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Barrado, E. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    This work concerns the electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides. In this way, the electrochemical behaviour of samarium ions has been investigated in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at the surface of tungsten, aluminium and aluminium coated tungsten electrodes. On a W inert electrode the electro-reduction of Sm(III) takes place in only one soluble-soluble electrochemical step Sm(III)/Sm(II). The electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) has not been observed within the electrochemical window, because of the prior reduction of Li(I) ions from the solvent, which inhibits the electro-extraction of Sm species from the salt on such a substrate. Sm metal in contact with the melt react to give Li(0) according to the reaction: Sm(0) + 2Li(I) {r_reversible} Sm(II) + 2Li(0). On the contrary, on reactive Al electrodes the electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) was observed within the electroactive range. The potential shift of the redox couple is caused by the decrease of Sm activity in the metal phase due to the formation of Sm-Al alloys at the interface. The formation mechanism of the intermetallic compounds was studied in a melt containing: (i) both Sm(III) and Al(III) ions, using W and Al coated tungsten electrodes, and (ii) Sm(III) ions using an Al electrode. Analysis of the samples after potentiostatic electrolysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), allowed the identification of Al{sub 3}Sm and Al{sub 2}Sm.

  8. Australian manufacture of QuadrametTM (Samarium-153 EDTMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, N.R.; Whitwell, J.

    1997-01-01

    Quadramet T (Samarium-153 EDTMP) has been shown overseas to be potentially useful in the palliation of painful osteoblastic skeletal metastases and has been approved this year for general marketing in the USA. Australian Radioisotopes (ARI) has licensed this product from the Australian patent holders, Dow Chemical. Within the facilities of ARI, a hot cell has been dedicated to this product and fitted out to manufacture it weekly on a cycle related to the operating cycle of the Australian reactor HIFAR. Due to neutron flux limitations of HIFAR, the local formulation has an elemental Samarium content up to 200μg/mL whereas the overseas formulation has a level of 20-46μg/mL. All other specifications of the two products are essentially the same. In 1995 and 1996 a small clinical trial with 19 patients was held which demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic behaviour was also essentially the same by measuring blood clearance rates and skeletal uptake dynamics. Soft tissue uptake was also qualitatively determined. The ARI version is now the subject of an application for general marketing within Australia. Some useful characteristics of this agent are: almost complete excretion or fixation in the skeleton within 6 hours, rapid onset of clinical effect, applicability in most cases where an abnormal diagnostic bone scan correlates with painful sites, dosage can be tailored to individual patient uptake due to easy dose measurement and retreatment is quite possible. The use of this class of agents in pain palliation continues to increase. Australian manufacture of Quadramet TM provides a further option in the management of these difficult cases

  9. Fluorimetric determination of samarium(III) and europium(III) in neodymium oxide by separation with a resin column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaorong Liu; Jian Meng (Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Engineering and Metallurgy (China)); Wenhua Liu (General Research Institute for Non-Ferrous Metals (China))

    1992-08-24

    When thenoyltrifluoroacetone-phenanthroline-Triton X-100 is used to determine samarium(III) and europium(III) fluorimetrically, only a limited amount of neodymium(III) can be tolerated. By using an on- line separation which can partially separate neodymium(III) from samarium(III), a practical and convenient method was developed to detect samarium(III) at concentrations >0.05% and europium(III) at concentrations >0.005% in neodymium oxide. (author). 7 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs.

  10. Fluorimetric determination of samarium(III) and europium(III) in neodymium oxide by separation with a resin column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaorong Liu; Jian Meng; Wenhua Liu

    1992-01-01

    When thenoyltrifluoroacetone-phenanthroline-Triton X-100 is used to determine samarium(III) and europium(III) fluorimetrically, only a limited amount of neodymium(III) can be tolerated. By using an on- line separation which can partially separate neodymium(III) from samarium(III), a practical and convenient method was developed to detect samarium(III) at concentrations >0.05% and europium(III) at concentrations >0.005% in neodymium oxide. (author). 7 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Sorption-desorption of samarium in Febex bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Guinart, O.; Rigol, A.; Vidal, M.; Fernandez-Poyatos, P.; Alba, M. D.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The chemical and physical nature of the clay is a key issue in the design of engineered barriers. The FEBEX bentonite is one of the clays candidates to be used in engineered barriers in deep geology repositories (DGR). Here, its performance was tested with respect to the sorption-desorption of samarium, which is a lanthanide that, besides being considered as a natural analogue of actinides, may also be present in high level radioactive waste in the form of the radioactive isotope 151 Sm. FEBEX bentonite was used in this study. This is a di-octahedral smectite, with isomorphic substitutions in tetrahedral and octahedral sheets. Its theoretical cation exchange capacity value is 1500 meq kg -1 . Sorption isotherms were obtained for Sm in the range of initial concentrations of 0.01 and 9 meq l -1 . Tests were carried out in deionized water and in a medium simulating the composition of interstitial water. Sorption tests were performed equilibrating 30 ml of the Sm solution with 0.2 g of clay. After a contact time of 24 hours, supernatants were decanted off after centrifugation. The quantification of the concentration of Sm in the initial and final solutions allowed us to quantify the Sm equilibrium concentration (C eq ), the fraction sorbed in the FEBEX bentonite (C sorb ) and to derive the sorption K d data. Desorption tests were applied to determine the desorption K d and the percentage of Sm reversibly sorbed. Desorption tests were performed with the bentonite residue from the sorption step, under the same experimental conditions, but without Sm. Powder X-ray diffractograms were obtained from 3 to 70 deg. 2θ with a step of 0.05 deg. and a counting time of 3 s. The crystalline phases were identified using the computer program X'Pert HighScore. The morphology of the samples was analyzed by SEM at 20 kV. An EDX system was fitted to the SEM equipment to perform chemical analyses of the samples using a Si/Li detector

  12. Determination of 0.01–0.1% of samarium in 40–100 mg of lead chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agterdenbos, J.; Jütte, B.A.H.G.; Schuring, J.

    1971-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of 5–25 μg of samarium in about 40 mg of lead chloride, based on the removal of the lead by electrolysis and determination of the samarium by extraction with PAN and measurement of the extinction of the complex at 552 nm.

  13. Samarium (III Selective Membrane Sensor Based on Tin (IV Boratophosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok S. K. Kumar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A number of Sm (III selective membranes of varying compositions using tin (IV boratophosphate as electroactive material were prepared. Polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and epoxy resin were used as binding materials. Membrane having composition of 40% exchanger and 60% epoxy resin exhibited best performance. This membrane worked well over a wide concentration range of 1x10-5M to 1x10-1 M of samarium ions with a Super-Nernstian slope of 40 mV/decade. It has a fast response time of less than 10 seconds and can be used for at least six months without any considerable divergence in potentials. The proposed sensor revealed good selectivities with respect to alkali, alkaline earth, some transition and rare earth metal ions and can be used in the pH range of 4.0-10.0. It was used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Sm (III ions against EDTA. Effect of internal solution was studied and the electrode was successfully used in non-aqueous media, too.

  14. Structural phase transition and electronic properties in samarium chalcogenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panwar, Y. S., E-mail: yspanwar2011@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. New Science College Dewas-455001 (India); Aynyas, Mahendra [Department of Physics, C.S.A. Govt. P.G. College, Sehore, 466001 (India); Pataiya, J.; Sanyal, Sankar P. [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, 462026 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The electronic structure and high pressure properties of samarium monochalcogenides SmS, SmSe and SmTe have been reported by using tight binding linear muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the local density approximation (LDA). The total energy as a function of volume is evaluated. It is found that these monochalcogenides are stable in NaCl-type structure under ambient pressure. We predict a structural phase transition from NaCl-type (B{sub 1}-phase) structure to CsCl-type (B{sub 2}-type) structure for these compounds. Phase transition pressures were found to be 1.7, 4.4 and 6.6 GPa, for SmS, SmSe and SmTe respectively. Apart from this, the lattice parameter (a{sub 0}), bulk modulus (B{sub 0}), band structure (BS) and density of states (DOS) are calculated. From energy band diagram we observed that these compounds exhibit metallic character. The calculated values of equilibrium lattice parameter and phase transition pressure are in general good agreement with available data.

  15. System of lithium, sodium, and strontium bromides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinova, G.N.; Yagub'yan, E.S.; Bukhalova, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The visual-polythermal and partially differential thermal methods of analysis have been applied to investigate the meltability diagram of the Li 2 Br 2 -Na 2 Br 2 -SrBr 2 ternary system. Three fields of crystallization belonging to strontium bromide, to the compound LiSr 2 Br 5 and solid solutions of lithium and sodium bromides are found. Two points complying with nonvariant equilibria are discovered

  16. Magnetoresistance of samarium in the 4.2-300 K range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trubitsyn, V.A.; Shalashov, V.F.

    1980-01-01

    Electric conductivity, transverse and longitudinal magnetoresistance of polycrystalline samarium with the purity of 99.9% in the 4.2-300 K temperature range and in magnetic fields up to 50 ke, are measured. The constituent of specific electric conductivity caused by spin disorder is 30.7 μOhmxcm, m*/m=2.6, the exchange parameter is G=3.1 eVxA 3 . Both transverse and longitudinal magnetoresistance are positive at 4.2 K; and the increase of temperature reveals a number of anomalies, evidently conditioned by the alteration of samarium magnetic structure

  17. Samarium oxide as a radiotracer to evaluate the in vivo biodistribution of PLGA nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mandiwana, V

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available the biodistribution of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing samarium-153 oxide ([(sup153)Sm]Sm(sub2)O(sub3)) in vivo to prove that orally administered nanoparticles alter the biodistribution of a drug. These were then activated in a nuclear...

  18. Expedient Method for Samarium(II) Iodide Preparation Utilizing a Flow Approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voltrová, Svatava; Šrogl, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2013), s. 394-396 ISSN 0936-5214 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12013 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : flow * samarium * iodide * reduction Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.463, year: 2013

  19. Collective effects in even-mass samarium isotopes by polarized-proton scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit, R.M.A.L.; Hall, van P.J.; Klein, S.S.; Moonen, W.H.L.; Nijgh, G.J.; Overveld, van C.W.A.M.; Poppema, O.J.

    1993-01-01

    The even-mass samarium isotopes 148,...,152Sm have been investigated by polarized proton scattering at 20.4 MeV beam energy. The data have been analysed with an 'extended' optical model, where the intensities of the first maxima of the main inelastic channels are fitted in a coupled-channels

  20. Identification of the lines in the L emission spectrum of cerium and samarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, B.D.; Singh, D.

    1992-01-01

    The occurrence of a line at 2.1556 A in the L emission spectrum of cerium and two lines at 1.6679 and 1.8379 A in the L emission spectrum of samarium, reported many years ago, has remained a puzzle. These have now been identified as EXAFS minima occurring at the L absorption edges of the respective elements. (author)

  1. ppt level detection of samarium(III) with a coated graphite sensor based on an antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Rezapour, Morteza; Pourjavid, Mohammad Reza; Haghgoo, Soheila

    2004-07-01

    N-[2-[4-[[[(Cyclohexylamino)carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]phenyl]ethyl]-5-methyl pyrazine carboxamide (glipizid) was explored as an electro-active material for preparing a polymeric membrane-based sensor selective to samarium ions. The membrane incorporated 30% poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), 53% benzyl acetate (BA), 11% glipizid and 6% sodium tetraphenyl borate. When coated on the surface of a graphite electrode, it exhibits Nernstian responses in the concentration range of 1.0 x 10(-5) to 1.0 x 10(-10) M, with a detection limit of 8.0 x 10(-11)M samarium. The electrode shows high selectivity towards samarium over several cations (alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions), and specially lanthanide ions. The proposed sensor has a very short response time (pH range for at least ten weeks. It was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of Sm(III) ions with an EDTA solution, and for determination of samarium in binary and ternary mixtures.

  2. Diffusion of samarium into cobalt in the reduction-diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas Nogueira, P. de; Neto, F.B.; Landgraf, F.J.G.

    1998-01-01

    The presence of metallic cobalt in samarium-cobalt powders is a major cause for low magnetic properties in magnets. This paper intends to investigate the effect of time and temperature in the microstructure of powders produced by reduction-diffusion. This process, developed for the production of rare earth-transition metal alloys, consists on the reduction of the rare earth oxide with metallic calcium (or calcium hydride) and its subsequent diffusion into the cobalt particle. In the present work, a mixture of samarium oxide, cobalt powder and metallic calcium was heated to 1100 or 1200 C for 2 or 4 hours in a tubular furnace under one atmosphere of purified argon. The material thereof obtained, a sintered mass is disintegrated by aqueous crepitation. The powder was evaluated in terms of its chemical composition, its samarium yield and the intermetallic compounds present. The samarium, oxygen and calcium content of the powders produced were adequate for magnet production. However, despite the massive formation of the SmCo 5 compound after 2 hours at 1100 C, final homogeneity is attained only after 4 hours at 1200 C, with the presence of SmCo 5 and Sm 2 Co 7 and the absence of the Sm 5 Co 19 compound. Also, metallic cobalt and Sm 2 Co 17 were observed in the materials produced after 2 hours at 1100 or 1200 C. (orig.)

  3. Pressure and irradiation effects on transport properties of samarium compounds with instable valence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morillo, J.

    1981-01-01

    Electron transport properties in samarium compounds with instable valence are studied in this thesis: from SmS in its integer valence phases at common pressure to SmB 6 compound IV at common pressure through SmSsub(1-x)Psub(x) (x 6 is presented [fr

  4. Adsorption and the initial stages of samarium condensation on iridium coated by graphite monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaev, R.M.; Tontegode, A.Ya.; Yusifov, F.K.

    1978-01-01

    Adsorption and the initial stages of vacuum samarium condensation on iridium coated by graphite monolayer (valent-saturated neutral substrate) were studied by the thermodesorption mass-spectrometry and thermoemission methods, and were compared with samarium adsorption and condensation on iridium. Desorption heat of samarium atoms with thin coating of Ir-C, equal to E approximately 1.9 eV has been determined. For desorption with Ir E is approximately 6 eV. Such a great difference in desorption heats is connected with the reduction of covalent constituent of adsorption bond in a neutral substrate. Samarium on Ir-C is found to be condensated in two states: loosely bound and tightly bound which sharply differ in properties. The tightly bound state is characterized by abnormally low vapour pressure. Possible nature of this state is discussed. Double effect on the condensation of the substrate valent saturation is noted. On the one hand, the reduction of the particle bond with the substrate decreases their concentration on the surface, preventing condensation. On the other hand, the release of the valent eloctrons of adatous brings about strong lateral interaction between them, which in its turn, promotes condensation during eased migration on the neutral substrate

  5. Samarium-153 Oksabifor in the treatment of metastatic bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodyannikova, O.; Voit, N.; Sukach, G.; Sagan, D.

    2015-01-01

    patients - reducing the number of foci and the level of radiopharmaceutical uptake in them. Conclusions: radionuclide therapy in patients with BM can effectively suppress pain and significantly reduce the number of analgesics. Post-treatment patients, life quality statistically significantly improved. Samarium-153 has the ability to reduce BM number and intensity of radiopharmaceutical accumulation in spots in the control study. (authors)

  6. Effect of ipratropium bromide in bronchial asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taskar V

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inhalation of ipratropium bromide was evaluated in 20 patients with bronchial asthma. It was observed that there was no significant improvement in the forced vital capacity and the forced expired volume in one second, while there was significant improvement in the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR measured at 9 pm, after inhalation of 2 puffs of ipratropium bromide aerosol (0.02mg/puff three to four times a day for 2 weeks. Since PEFR is a measure of large airway function and cholinergic mechanisms are primarily involved for airflow obstruction at large airways, improvement in PEFR by ipratropium bromide highlights its role as a useful bronchodilator in patients in whom vagal reflexes are responsible for the provocation of bronchoconstriction.

  7. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans with particular reference to inorganic bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1976-01-01

    Inorganic bromide residues and 14 C-labelled methylated products (expressed as CH 3 Br equivalent) in cocoa beans fumigated with [ 14 C]-methyl bromide have been determined by radiometric and chemical methods. Determination of 14 C by direct combustion in an oxygen chamber followed by liquid scintillation counting confirmed previous findings with respect to the magnitude, distribution and chemical nature of the residues. Although recovery of added bromide was good, the values of total bromide obtained by the chemical method were only half of those estimated from the total residual 14 C-activity. This is attributed to loss of organic (presumably, protein-bound) bromide. In agreement with the total 14 C-labelled residue contents, total bromide in shells was 20 times greater than that in nibs. The low levels of residues in the nib (12ppm as CH 3 Br equivalent, 10ppm Br) and the further reduction of organic residues by roasting suggest that no toxicological and nutritional hazards may be expected from fumigation of cocoa beans with methyl bromide. (author)

  8. The samarium Grignard reaction. In situ formation and reactions of primary and secondary alkylsamarium(III) reagents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curran, D.P.; Totleben, M.J. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1992-07-15

    This work shows that primary and secondary radicals are rapidly reduced in THF/HMPA to form primary- and secondary-alkylsamarium reagents. The primary- and secondary-radicals can be formed either by direct SmI{sup 2} reductions of primary- and secondary-halides or by a previous rapid radical cyclization. The samarium reagents have moderate stability in solution, and they react with a variety of typical electrophiles, including aldehydes and ketones. The work further shows that organosamarium intermediates can be involved in the traditional samarium Barbier reaction of aldehydes and ketones conducted in THF/HMPA. A new procedure called the {open_quotes}samarium Grignard{close_quotes} method is introduced, and it is suggested that this new procedure will have considerably more scope and generality than the samarium Barbier reaction. 37 refs., 4 tabs.

  9. A novel cetyltrimethyl ammonium silver bromide complex and silver bromide nanoparticles obtained by the surfactant counterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-Hao; Luo, Xiao-Hong; Lu, Shu-Xia; Zhang, Jing-Chang; Cao, Wei-Liang

    2007-03-01

    A novel cetyltrimethyl ammonium silver bromide (CTASB) complex has been prepared simply through the reaction of silver nitrate with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) in aqueous solution at room temperature by controlling the concentration of CTAB and the molar ratio of CTAB to silver nitrate in the reaction solution, in which halogen in CTAB is used as surfactant counterion. The structure and thermal behavior of cetyltrimethyl ammonium silver bromide have been investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV/vis spectroscopy, thermal analysis (TG-DTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the complex possesses a metastable layered structure. Upon heating the CTASB aqueous dispersion to above 80 degrees C, the structure change of the complex took place and CTAB-capped nanosized silver bromide particles further formed.

  10. Influence of pretreatment temperature cycling on the radiating defect formation in silicon doped by samarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurakhmanov, K.P.; Nazyrov, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The raise of thermal and radiation stability as it is known, is one of actual problems of physics semiconductors. Recently it is established, that the rare-earth elements (REE) raise a stability of silicon to exterior action. In this connection the investigation of silicon doped REE by samarium and influence on its properties of heat treatments and radiation exposure is important. In sectional operation the outcomes of investigations of influence of samarium on thermal (600 degree C are reduced; 600 deg. + 900 deg. C; 900 deg. C; 900 deg. C + 600 deg. C; 1100 deg. C; 600 deg. C + 900 deg. C + 1100 deg. C; 900 deg. C + 600 deg. C + 1100 deg. C) thermal defect formation and radiation defect formation (exposure of γ-quanta 60 Co) both in beforehand wrought, and in thermally unfinished samples. After each cycle of heat treatments samples cool fast (throwing off in oil) or slowly (together with the furnace). Doping n-silicon REE by gadolinium and samarium was carried out during cultivation. The concentration of gadolinium and samarium in silicon, on sectional of a neutron-activation analysis was equaled 10 14 - 10 18 cm -3 . As control is model monocrystal silicon such as KEP-15/50. Para-meters of deep levels originating in control and doped REE samples, both past heat treatment or temperature cycling, and irradiated by the γ-quanta are defined by methods of a capacity spectroscopy: DLTS and IRC. The obtained outcomes have shown, that in irradiated with the γ-quanta 60 Co deep levels samples are formed with energies: E C -0,17 eV, E C -0,32 eV, EC-0,41 eV. Thus the parameters of deep levels vary depending on requirements of prestress heat treatment. For example heat treatment at 600 deg. C essentially increments a velocity of introduction of and centre (deep level of E C -0,17 eV), in comparison with a velocity of introduction of this level in samples with prestress heat treatment at 900 deg. C. In samples n-Si doped by samarium effectiveness of formation

  11. 40 CFR 180.123 - Inorganic bromide residues resulting from fumigation with methyl bromide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., postharvest 30.0 Lemon, postharvest 30.0 Lime, postharvest 30.0 Mango, postharvest 20.0 Melon, honeydew... methyl bromide or from such fumigation in addition to the authorized use of methyl bromide on the source...

  12. Solar nebula heterogeneity in p-process samarium and neodymium isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Rasmus; Sharma, Mukul

    2006-11-03

    Bulk carbonaceous chondrites display a deficit of approximately 100 parts per million (ppm) in 144Sm with respect to other meteorites and terrestrial standards, leading to a decrease in their 142Nd/144Nd ratios by approximately 11 ppm. The data require that samarium and neodymium isotopes produced by the p process associated with photodisintegration reactions in supernovae were heterogeneously distributed in the solar nebula. Other samarium and neodymium isotopes produced by rapid neutron capture (r process) in supernovae and by slow neutron capture (s process) in red giants were homogeneously distributed. The supernovae sources supplying the p- and r-process nuclides to the solar nebula were thus disconnected or only weakly connected.

  13. Ultrasonic and viscosimetric studies of samarium laurate in benzene-dimethylsulfoxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrotra, K.N.; Anis, M.

    1995-01-01

    Ultrasonic and viscosity measurements of samarium laurate in benzene-DMSO mixtures of different compositions (7:3 and 1:1 V/V) have been used to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC), soap-solvent interaction, and various acoustic parameters of the system. The values of critical micelle concentration increase with increasing amount of DMSO in the solvent mixtures. The viscosity results have been explained on the basis of equations proposed by Einstein, Vand. Moulik, and Jones-Dole. The values of CMC for samarium laurate obtained from the viscosity measurements are in agreement with the results obtained from ultrasonic measurements. The results show that the soap molecules do not aggregate appreciably below CMC there is a marked change in the aggregation behaviour at CMC. (author)

  14. Removal of trivalent samarium from aqueous solutions by activated biochar derived from cactus fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Loukia Hadjittofi; Styliana Charalambous; Ioannis Pashalidis

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of activated biochar fibres obtained fromOpuntia Ficus Indica regarding the sorption of trivalent samarium (Sm(III)) from aqueous solutions was investigated by batch experiments. The effect of various physicochemical parameters (e.g. pH, initial metal concentration, ionic strength, temperature and contact time) on the Sm(III) adsorption was studied and the surface species were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy prior to and after the lanthanide sorption. The experimental results showed that the acti-vated biochar fibres possessed extraordinary sorption capacity for Sm(III) in acidic solutions (qmax=90 g/kg, pH 3.0) and near neutral solutions (qmax=350 g/kg, pH 6.5). This was attributed to the formation of samarium complexes with the surface carboxylic moieties, available in high density on the lamellar structures of the bio-sorbent.

  15. Enhanced electron-lattice coupling under uniaxial stress in layered double hydroxides intercalated with samarium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ta-Ryeong

    2004-01-01

    We have applied uniaxial stress to samarium complexes by intercalating them into the gallery of a layered material and by using a diamond-anvil cell at 28 K. Although uniaxial stress reduces symmetry and removes degeneracy, the overall number of photoluminescence (PL) peaks evidently decreased with the application of uniaxial stress. This contradictory observation is explained by an increased electron-lattice coupling strength under uniaxial stress. This behavior is also confirmed by time-resolved PL data.

  16. Synthesis of samarium complexes with the derivative binder of Schiff Quinolinic base. Characterization and photophysical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas H, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we determined the metal: binder stoichiometry of the species formed during the UV/Vis spectrophotometric titration of the derivative binder of Schiff quinolinic base, L1 with the samarium nitrate pentahydrate in methanol. Statistical analysis of the data allowed proposing the metal: binder stoichiometry for the synthesis of the complexes which was one mole of samarium salt by 2.5 moles of binder and thus favor the formation of complexes with 1M: 1L and 1M: 2L stoichiometries. They were synthesized in aqueous-organic medium (water-ethanol), isolated and purified two complexes with stoichiometry 1 Sm: 1 L1, complex 1 and 1 Sm: 2 L1, complex 2. The overall yield of the reaction was 76%. The characterization of the formed complexes was performed by visible ultraviolet spectrometry (UV/Vis), nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XP S), thermal gravimetric analysis with differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC), and radial distribution function. These complexes were studied by fluorescence and emission phosphorescence at variable temperature. Spectroscopic techniques used in both solution and solid demonstrated the formation and stability of these complexes. In addition XP S indicated that in both complexes the samarium retains its oxidation state 3+. Luminescence studies indicated that there is intra-binding charge transfer which decreases the transfer of light energy from the binder to the samarium. Based on the experimental results, L1 binder molecules and complexes 1 and 2 were modeled that demonstrated the proposed Nc for each complex, as well as allowed to visualize the structural arrangement of the molecules, complexes and binder. (Author)

  17. Radiolytic reduction reaction of colloidal silver bromide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Yasuhisa; Zushi, Takehiro; Hasegawa, Kunihiko; Matsuura, Tatsuo.

    1995-01-01

    The reduction reaction of colloidal silver bromide (AgBr 3 ) 2- in nitrous oxide gas saturated solution of some alcohols: methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol by γ-irradiation was studied spectrophotometrically in order to elucidate the mechanism of the formation of colloidal silver bromide (AgBr 3 ) 3- at ambient temperature. The amount of colloidal silver bromide formed increases in the order: i-PrOH, EtOH, MeOH. In t-BuOH, colloidal silver bromide did not form. The relative reactivities of alcohols for colloidal silver bromide was also studied kinetically. (author)

  18. Sorption of samarium in iron (II) and (III) phosphates in aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz F, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive residues that are stored in the radioactive confinements its need to stay isolated of the environment while the radioactivity levels be noxious. An important mechanism by which the radioactive residues can to reach the environment, it is the migration of these through the underground water. That it makes necessary the investigation of reactive materials that interacting with those radionuclides and that its are able to remove them from the watery resources. The synthesis and characterization of materials that can be useful in Environmental Chemistry are very important because its characteristics are exposed and its behavior in chemical phenomena as the sorption watery medium is necessary to use it in the environmental protection. In this work it was carried out the sorption study of the samarium III ion in the iron (II) and (III) phosphate; obtaining the sorption isotherms in function of pH, of the phosphate mass and of the concentration of the samarium ion using UV-visible spectroscopy to determine the removal percentage. The developed experiments show that as much the ferrous phosphate as the ferric phosphate present a great affinity by the samarium III, for what it use like reactive material in contention walls can be very viable because it sorption capacity has overcome 90% to pH values similar to those of the underground and also mentioning that the form to obtain these materials is very economic and simple. (Author)

  19. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1975-01-01

    The 14 C activity in unroasted [ 14 C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH 3 Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH 3 Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH 3 Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14 C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14 C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14 C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  20. Impact of educational strategies in positioning Samarium-153 EDTMP as a treatment for metastatic bone pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminario, C.; Morales, R.; Castro, M.; Cano, R.A.; Mendoza, G.

    2005-01-01

    To educate is a difficult task but its results make efforts worthwhile. Many patients in Peru suffer from intractable bone pain due to metastases. Since 1993 radionuclides were used to palliate bone pain due to metastases in Peru. First, with the help of the IAEA, Peru participated in a clinical trial using Phosphorus 32 and Strontium 89. Then, efforts were performed to produce Samarium 153 EDMTP locally, which was achieved in 1995. Nevertheless, years passed and Samarium use did not increase proportionally to the needs of people with cancer and bone pain, mainly the poor. Educational strategies have been proven useful for delivering solutions to many health problems in other diseases and also in cancer. Health education makes patients and their relatives assume responsible care of their problems. The purpose of this work was to increase Samarium EDTMP use as palliative treatment in patients with bone pain due to metastases, using educational strategies as means to change attitudes towards this health problem. In September 2003, a task group conducted studies in order to apply several methods to achieve the goal of increasing Samarium EDTMP use. Educational strategies employed were performed to provide verbal and written information to patients, physicians, medical students, residents, pain specialists, oncologists and neurologists, as well as general public. Verbal information included radio interviews, television spots and a phone number (in charge of two secretaries, prepared for answering and if not possible, a physician was in charge of attending patient consultation), e-mail and a web page for consultation. Written material was delivered to several newspapers, including clinical use of Samarium, possibilities of being elected for treatment, benefits and risks and a photography of the product. Politics of the institution producing Samarium changed, in order to achieve minimum cost of the product and it was delivered to all publics at the lowest cost for a year

  1. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry analysis of lanthanum, samarium and gadolinium oxides for rare earths impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reino, L.C.P.; Lordello, A.R.

    1990-09-01

    An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry method is described for the determination of Sm, Eu, La, Gd, Dy, Pr, Ho, Nd, Tb and Y in purified oxides of lanthanum, samarium and gadolinium. The method enables a simple, precise and readily available determination. Dissolution of the samples is achieved with diluted hydrochloric acid (1:1). The solutions are diluted to volume for a concentration of 1mg/ml. The lowest determination limit is 0,01% for most elements and 0,05 or 0,1% for a few rare earths in samarium and gadolinium matrices. Lanthanum, Samarium and Gadolinium concentrates with purity grade of 99,9%, 99,6% and 99,8%, respectively, can be analysed by this procedure. (author)

  2. Advanced hydrogen electrode for hydrogen-bromide battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, Jack A.; Laconti, Anthony B.

    1987-01-01

    Binary platinum alloys are being developed as hydrogen electrocatalysts for use in a hydrogen bromide battery system. These alloys were varied in terms of alloy component mole ratio and heat treatment temperature. Electrocatalyst evaluation, performed in the absence and presence of bromide ion, includes floating half cell polarization studies, electrochemical surface area measurements, X ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy analysis and corrosion measurements. Results obtained to date indicate a platinum rich alloy has the best tolerance to bromide ion poisoning.

  3. Synthesis and structure of unprecedented samarium complex with bulky bis-iminopyrrolyl ligand via intramolecular C=N bond activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Suman; Anga, Srinivas; Harinath, Adimulam; Panda, Tarun K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad (India); Pada Nayek, Hari [Department of Applied Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, (ISM) Dhanbad, Jharkhand (India)

    2017-12-29

    An unprecedentate samarium complex of the molecular composition [{κ"3-{(Ph_2CH)N=CH}{sub 2}C{sub 4}H{sub 2}N}{κ"3-{(Ph_2CHN=CH)(Ph_2CHNCH)C_4H_2N}Sm}{sub 2}] (2), which was isolated by the reaction of a potassium salt of 2,5-bis{N-(diphenylmethyl)-iminomethyl}pyrrolyl ligand [K(THF){sub 2}{(Ph_2CH)N=CH}{sub 2}C{sub 4}H{sub 2}N] (1) with anhydrous samarium diiodide in THF at 60 C through the in situ reduction of imine bond is presented. The homoleptic samarium complex [[κ{sup 3}-{(Ph_2CH)-N=CH}{sub 2}C{sub 4}H{sub 2}N]{sub 3}Sm] (3) can also be obtained from the reaction of compound 1 with anhydrous samarium triiodide (SmI{sub 3}) in THF at 60 C. The molecular structures of complexes 2 and 3 were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The molecular structure of complex 2 reveals the formation of a C-C bond in the 2,5-bis{N-(diphenylmethyl)iminomethyl}pyrrole ligand moiety (Ph{sub 2}Py{sup -}). However, complex 3 is a homoleptic samarium complex of three bis-iminopyrrolyl ligands. In complex 2, the samarium ion adopts an octahedral arrangement, whereas in complex 3, a distorted three face-centered trigonal prismatic mode of nine coordination is observed around the metal ion. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Studies on chlorinated bromide salt for microfouling control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satpathy, K.K.; Rajmohan, R.; Rao, T.S.; Nair, K.V.K.; Mathur, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    The Fast Breeder Test reactor (FBTR) at Kalpakkam has been facing various problems in cooling water systems in spite of intermittent chlorination.Effects of chlorinated-bromide mixture was evaluated against heterotrophic bacteria (TVC) and iron oxidising bacteria (IOB) vis-a-vis chlorine. Results indicated that chlorinated-bromide mixture was far superior (2 orders of magnitude for TVC and 2 times for IOB) to chlorine in microfouling control. Results also showed that at bromide to chlorine ratio of one effectiveness of chlorinated-bromide was at its maximum. (author). 9 refs., 1 tab

  5. X-ray spectrum in the range (6-12) A emitted by laser-produced plasma of samarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzon, Einat; Henis, Zohar; Levi, Izhak; Hurvitz, Gilad; Ehrlich, Yosi; Fraenkel, Moshe; Maman, Shlomo; Mandelbaum, Pinchas

    2009-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the x-ray spectrum emitted by laser-produced plasma of samarium (6-12 A) is presented, using ab initio calculations with the HULLAC relativistic code and isoelectronic considerations. Resonance 3d-nf (n=4 to 7), 3p-4d, 3d-4p, and 3p-4s transitions in Ni samarium ions and in neighboring ionization states (from Mn to Zn ions) were identified. The experiment results show changes in the fine details of the plasma spectrum for different laser intensities.

  6. Peculiarities of electronic, phonon and magnon subsystems of lanthanum and samarium tetraborides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, V.V., E-mail: vvnovikov@mail.ru; Mitroshenkov, N.V.; Matovnikov, A.V.

    2015-10-15

    Experimental research was carried out to study the temperature dependences of heat capacity C{sub p}(T = 2–300 K), lattice parameters a(T), and ≿(T), (5–300 K) of lanthanum and samarium tetraborides. A comparison with data obtained previously for LuB{sub 4} reveals the peculiar influence of lanthanide contraction and the rare-earths mass on the thermodynamic properties of rare earth tetraborides at low and high temperatures. Sharp anomalies were found in the heat capacity and thermal expansion for SmB{sub 4} at T{sub N} = 25.1 K, conditioned by the phase transition into antiferromagnetic state. The more poorly defined heat capacity anomaly around 7 K is referred to the quadrupole orbital fluctuation of the atomic magnetic moments for Sm{sup 3+} ions. The electronic, lattice, and magnetic contributions to the heat capacity and thermal expansion of samarium tetraboride were defined. Our approach makes it possible to adequately approximate the lattice components of heat capacity and thermal expansion by combining the Debye and Einstein contributions, which are based on the joint analysis of calorimetric and X-ray data. The influence of the frustration of the atomic magnetic moment system for Sm{sup 3+} ions on the thermodynamic characteristics of the samarium tetraboride magnetic phase transition was revealed. - Highlights: • The heat capacity and lattice parameters for LaB{sub 4} and SmB{sub 4} were determined at 2–300 K. • The anomalies of C{sub p}(T), a(T), c(T) for SmB{sub 4} due to the phase transition are revealed. • The lattice contributions to the thermal properties of LaB{sub 4} and SmB{sub 4} are analyzed.

  7. Separation of lanthanum from samarium on solid aluminum electrode in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De-Bin Ji; Mi-Lin Zhang; Xing Li; Xiao-Yan Jing; Wei Han; Yong-De Yan; Yun Xue; Zhi-Jian Zhang; Harbin Engineering University, Harbin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an electrochemical study on the separation of lanthanum from samarium on aluminum electrode at 773 K. The results from different electrochemical methods showed that Sm(III) and La(III) formed Al-Sm and Al-La intermetallic compounds on an aluminum electrode at electrode potential around -1.67 and -1.46 V, respectively. The electrochemical separation of lanthanum was carried out in LiCl-KCl-LaCl 3 -SmCl 3 melts on solid aluminum electrodes at 773 K by potentiostatic electrolysis at -1.45 V for 40 h and the separation efficiency was 99.1 %. (author)

  8. Determination of micro amounts of samarium and europium by analogue derivative spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, H.; Satoh, K.

    1982-01-01

    Derivative spectrophotometry using the analogue differentiation circuit was applied to the determination of samarium and europium at ppm levels. By measuring the second or the fourth derivative spectra of the characteristic absorption bands of both the rare earth ions around 400 nm, they can be determined directly and selectively in the presence of large amounts of most other rare earths without any prior separation. Further, aptly selecting conditions for the measurement of the derivative spectra, the simultaneous determination of both the rare earth elements was feasible. The principle and the characteristics of analogue derivative spectrophotometry are also described. (orig.) [de

  9. Evaluation of samarium-153 and holmium-166-EDTMP in the normal baboon model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louw, W.K.A.; Dormehl, I.C.; Rensburg, A.J. van; Hugo, N.; Alberts, A.S.; Forsyth, O.E.; Beverley, G.; Sweetlove, M.A.; Marais, J.; Loetter, M.G.; Aswegen, A. van

    1996-11-01

    Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals such as ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate (EDTMP) complexes of samarium-153 and holmium-166 are receiving considerable attention for therapeutic treatment of bone metastases. In this study, using the baboon experimental model, multicompartmental analysis revealed that with regard to pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and skeletal localisation, {sup 166}Ho-EDTMP was significantly inferior to {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP and {sup 99m}Tc-MDP. A more suitable {sup 166}Ho-bone-seeking agent should thus be sought for closer similarity to {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP to exploit fully the therapeutic potential of its shorter half-life and more energetic beta radiation.

  10. Body composition analysis by DEXA by using dynamically changing samarium filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, Arne; Baeksgaard, L; Hilsted, J

    1997-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has a high accuracy for body composition analysis but is influenced by beam hardening and other error sources in the extremes of measurement. To compensate for beam hardening, the Norland XR-36 introduces a dynamically changing samarium filtration system......). Scans of six healthy volunteers covered with combinations of beef and lard (approximately 5-15 kg) showed a good agreement (r = 0.99) between reference and DEXA values of added soft tissue mass and fat percentage. We conclude that the DEXA method (and, in particular, the Norland XR-36 using dynamic...

  11. Performance analysis of samarium cobalt P.M. synchronous motor fed from PWM inverters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.A.; Choudhury, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis and performance of samarium cobalt permanent magnet (P.M.) synchronous motors fed from two types of voltage source pulse width modulated (PWM) inverters. The analysis and test results on the steady state performance of a P.M. motor fed from PWM inverters are presented. PWM inverters are used in variable voltage variable frequency applications to avoid a double conversion process of ordinary inverters. In drives, they are used for voltage and speed regulation of motors. Use of modulation technique in inverters also allow to eliminate or minimize selected harmonics from the inverter output voltage

  12. Development of copper bromide laser master oscillator power

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... Development of master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system of copper bromide laser (CBL) operating at 110 W average power is reported. The spectral distribution of power at green (510.6 nm) and yellow (578.2 nm) components in the output of a copper bromide laser is studied as a function of ...

  13. Conduction bands and invariant energy gaps in alkali bromides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P.K. de; Groot, R.A. de

    1998-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations of the alkali bromides LiBr, NaBr, KBr, RbBr and CsBr are reported. It is shown that the conduction band has primarily bromine character. The size of the band gaps of bromides and alkali halides in general is reinterpreted.

  14. Production of SmCo5 alloy by calciothermic reduction of samarium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, T.S.; Gupta, C.K.

    1988-01-01

    Among the established permanent magnets, SmCo 5 magnet occupies the foremost position as it offers a unique combination of high energy product, coercivity and curie temperature. The SmCo 5 magnets are thus extensively used for high field applications. These are also best suited for use in environments where high demagnetizing field and high temperature are operative. Also, for applications where high performance and miniaturization are the over-riding considerations, the choice again falls on SmCo 5 magnets. The main deterrent to the widespread use of SmCo 5 magnet is its high cost. Both samarium and cobalt metals are high priced, and the magnets prepared from their directly melted alloy are thus naturally very expensive. An alternate process involving calcium reduction of their oxide intermediates has, therefore, been studied and the alloy prepared by this process has been evaluated and found satisfactory for magnet production. The process essentially involves compaction of the charge mix containing samarium oxide, cobalt oxide (or metal) and calcium metal and reduction of the charge compact at 1000-1300 degrees C in hydrogen atmosphere, followed by water and acid leaching, drying and classification

  15. Polypyrrole-coated samarium oxide nanobelts: fabrication, characterization, and application in supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Yunjiao; Wang, Xue; Yang, Chao; Yi, Yanfeng

    2012-11-01

    Polypyrrole-coated samarium oxide nanobelts were synthesized by the in situ chemical oxidative surface polymerization technique based on the self-assembly of pyrrole on the surface of the amine-functionalized Sm2O3 nanobelts. The morphologies of the polypyrrole/samarium oxide (PPy/Sm2O3) nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscope. The UV-vis absorbance of these samples was also investigated, and the remarkable enhancement was clearly observed. The electrochemical behaviors of the PPy/Sm2O3 composites were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge. The results indicated that the PPy/Sm2O3 composite electrode was fully reversible and achieved a very fast Faradaic reaction. After being corrected into the weight percentage of the PPy/Sm2O3 composite at a current density of 20 mA cm-2 in a 1.0 M NaNO3 electrolyte solution, a maximum discharge capacity of 771 F g-1 was achieved in a half-cell setup configuration for the PPy/Sm2O3 composites electrode with the potential application to electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors.

  16. Ekstraksi Pemisahan Neodimium dari Samarium, Itrium dan Praseodimium Memakai Tri Butil Fosfat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Veronica Purwani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of Nd(OH3 (neodymium hydroxide concentrate containing Y (yttrium, Sm (samarium and Pr (praseodymium as product of monazite processed has been done. The purpose of this study is to determine the separation of Nd from Y, Pr and Nd Sm in Nd concentrate. The aqueous phase was concentrated Nd (OH3 in HNO3 and extractant while organic phase was Tri Butyl Phosphate (TBP in kerosene. Parameters studied were pH and concentration feed, concentration of TBP in kerosene, extraction time and stirring speed. The result showed that the optimization of separation extraction neodymium from samarium, yttrium and praseodymium in Nd(OH3 concentrated with TBP, obtained the optimum condition of pH = 0.2, concentration of feed 100 g /L, concentration of TBP in kerosene 5%, extraction time 15 minutes and stirring speed 150 rpm. With the conditions, Separation Factor (SF obtained for Nd-Y, Nd-Pr, Nd-Sm are 2.242, 4.811, 4.002 respectively, while D and extraction efficiency of Nd are 0.236 and 19.07%.

  17. Thermomechanical behavior of Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni shape memory alloys modified with samarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakoor, R.A.; Khalid, F. Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    The deformation and training behavior of Fe-14Mn-3Si-10Cr-5Ni (wt.%) shape memory alloys containing samarium addition has been studied in the iron-based shape memory alloys. It is noticed that thermomechanical treatment (training) has significant influence on proof stress, critical stress and shape memory behavior of the alloys. The improvement in shape memory behavior can be attributed to the decrease in the proof stress and critical stress which facilitates the formation of ε (hcp martensite). It is also observed that alloy 2 containing samarium undergoes less softening as compared to alloy 1 with training which inhibits the formation of α (bcc martensite) and thus enhances the shape memory behavior. The excessive thermomechanical treatment with increase in the training cycle has led to the formation of α (bcc martensite) along with ε (hcp martensite) in the alloy 1 which appeared to have decline in the shape memory effect. This has been demonstrated by the examination of microstructure and identification of α (bcc martensite) martensite in the alloy 1 as compared to alloy 2

  18. Phase Composition of Samarium Niobate and Tantalate Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruncková, H.; Medvecký, Ľ.; Múdra, E.; Kovalčiková, A.; Ďurišin, J.; Šebek, M.; Girman, V.

    2017-12-01

    Samarium niobate SmNbO4 (SNO) and tantalate SmTaO4 (STO) thin films ( 100 nm) were prepared by sol-gel/spin-coating process on alumina substrates with PZT interlayer and annealing at 1000°C. The precursors of films were synthesized using Nb or Ta tartrate complexes. The improvement of the crystallinity of monoclinic M'-SmTaO4 phase via heating was observed through the coexistence of small amounts of tetragonal T-SmTa7O19 phase in STO precursor at 1000°C. The XRD results of SNO and STO films confirmed monoclinic M-SmNbO4 and M'-SmTaO4 phases, respectively, with traces of orthorhombic O-SmNbO4 (in SNO). In STO film, the single monoclinic M'-SmTaO4 phase was revealed. The surface morphology and topography of thin films were investigated by SEM and AFM analysis. STO film was smoother with roughness 3.2 nm in comparison with SNO (6.3 nm). In the microstructure of SNO film, small spherical ( 50 nm) and larger cuboidal particles ( 100 nm) of the SmNbO4 phase were observed. In STO, compact clusters composed of fine spherical SmTaO4 particles ( 20-50 nm) were found. Effect of samarium can contribute to the formation different polymorphs of these films for the application to environmental electrolytic thin film devices.

  19. Polypyrrole-coated samarium oxide nanobelts: fabrication, characterization, and application in supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Peng, E-mail: pliu@lzu.edu.cn; Wang Yunjiao; Wang Xue; Yang Chao; Yi Yanfeng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province and State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry (China)

    2012-11-15

    Polypyrrole-coated samarium oxide nanobelts were synthesized by the in situ chemical oxidative surface polymerization technique based on the self-assembly of pyrrole on the surface of the amine-functionalized Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanobelts. The morphologies of the polypyrrole/samarium oxide (PPy/Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscope. The UV-vis absorbance of these samples was also investigated, and the remarkable enhancement was clearly observed. The electrochemical behaviors of the PPy/Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge. The results indicated that the PPy/Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite electrode was fully reversible and achieved a very fast Faradaic reaction. After being corrected into the weight percentage of the PPy/Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite at a current density of 20 mA cm{sup -2} in a 1.0 M NaNO{sub 3} electrolyte solution, a maximum discharge capacity of 771 F g{sup -1} was achieved in a half-cell setup configuration for the PPy/Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites electrode with the potential application to electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors.

  20. Ion adsorption properties of molybdenum (II) bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganzerli-Valentini, M.T.; Meloni, S.; Caramella-Crespi, V.; Borroni, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    The adsorption of about 50 ions on molybdenum dibromide, (Mo 6 Br 8 )Br 4 .2H 2 O in nitric acid was investigated. The behaviour of the investigated elements on MDB in nitric acid, in the concentration range 10 -2 -8M is presented, where the distribution coefficients are given against the HNO 3 molarity. In some cases the elements were investigated in different oxidation states. Most of the elements are not adsorbed or poorly adsorbed, among these the stable anions, thus indicating that bromide ions substitution with other anions is not competitive. The preparation of the adsorber and its characterization is presented and discussed. Adsorption mechanism studies were carried out for some noble metals and chromium. Sorption cannot be ascribed to ion exchange mechanism but to formation of insoluble species, and to settlement of few ions into surface sorption sites or into a limited number of cavitites in the cluster crystal structure of the adsorber. (T.G.)

  1. Alkene- and alkyne- substituted methylimidazolium bromides: structural effects and Physical properties (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, Stefan; Drake, Gregory; Hall, Leslie; Hawkiins, Tommy; Rosander, Michael; Smith, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    .... X-ray structures of 1-(2-butynyl)-3-methylimidazolium bromide, 1-propargyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide as well as the X-ray structure of 1-allyl-3- methylimidazolium bromide which was previously identified as a room temperature ionic...

  2. Alkene- and Alkyne- Substituted Methylimidazolium Bromides: Structural Effects and Physical properties (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, Stefan; Drake, Gregory; Hall, Leslie; Hawkiins, Tommy; Rosander, Michael; Smith, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    .... X-ray structures of 1-(2-butynyl)-3-methylimidazolium bromide, 1-propargyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide as well as the X-ray structure of 1-allyl-3- methylimidazolium bromide which was previously identified as a room temperature ionic...

  3. Pemisahan Unsur Samarium dan Yttrium dari Mineral Tanah Jarang dengan Teknik Membran Cair Berpendukung (Supported Liquid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amri Amin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available he increasing use of rare earth elements in high technology industries needs to be supported by developmental work for the separation of elements. The research objective is fiercely attracting and challenging considering the similarity of bath physical and chemical properties among these elements. The rate separation of samarium and yttrium elements using supported liquid membrane has been studied. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE with pore size of 0.45 µm has been used as the membrane and di(2-ethylhexyl phosphate (D2EHP in hexane has been used as a carrier and nitric acid solution has been used as receiving phase. Result of experiments showed that the best separation rate of samarium and yttrium elements could be obtained at feeding phase of pH 3.0, di(2-ethylhexyl phosphate (D2EHP concentration of 0.3 M, agitation rate of 700 rpm, agitation time of 2 hours, and nitric acid and its solution concentrations of 1.0 M and 0.1 M, respectively. At this condition, separation rates of samarium and yttrium were 64.4 and 67.6%, respectively.   Keywords: liquid membrane, rare earth elements, samarium, yttrium

  4. Behavior of Samarium III during the sorption process; Comportamiento del Samario-III durante el proceso de sorcion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez R, E.; Garcia G, N.; Garcia R, G. [ININ, Carr. Mexico-Toluca Km 36.5, Salazar, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: edo@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    In this work the results of the behavior of samarium in solution are presented, in front of a fine powder of zirconium silicate (zircon). For that which is necessary to characterize the zircon, studying the crystallinity, the morphology, the surface area and the isoelectric point. The behavior of samarium in solution is studied by means of the elaboration of isotherm of sorption, using the technique by lots. One observes that to pH values of nearer to the isoelectric point (pH = 7.23) the process of sorption of the samarium begins, reaching a maximum to near pH at 9. The technique of luminescence is used to determine the concentration of the sipped samarium (phosphorescence) and also to make the speciation of the species formed in the surface of the zircon (phosphorescence). The results can be extrapolated with the plutonium when making the modeling of the migration of alpha emitting coming from the repositories of radioactive waste since both they have similar chemical properties (they are homologous). (Author)

  5. Neutron Capture and Transmission Measurements and Resonance Parameter Analysis of Samarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinweber, G.; Burke, J.A.; Knox, H.D.; Drindak, N.J.; Mesh, D.W.; Haines, W.T.; Ballad, R.V.; Block, R.C.; Slovacek, R.E.; Werner, C.J.; Trbovich, M.J.; Barry, D.P.; Sato, T.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to accurately measure the neutron cross sections of samarium. The most significant isotope is 149 Sm, which has a large neutron absorption cross section at thermal energies and is a 235 U fission product with a 1% yield. Its cross sections are thus of concern to reactor neutronics. Neutron capture and transmission measurements were performed by the time-of-flight technique at the Rensselaer Polytechnic institute (RPI) LINAC facility using metallic and liquid Sm samples. The capture measurements were made at the 25 meter flight station with a multiplicity-type capture detector, and the transmission total cross-section measurements were performed at 15- and 25-meter flight stations with 6 Li glass scintillation detectors. Resonance parameters were determined by a combined analysis of six experiments (three capture and three transmission) using the multi-level R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY version M2. The significant features of this work are as follows. Dilute samples of samarium nitrate in deuterated water (D 2 O) were prepared to measure the strong resonances at 0.1 and 8 eV without saturation. Disk-shaped spectroscopic quartz cells were obtained with parallel inner surfaces to provide a uniform thickness of solution. The diluent feature of the SAMMY program was used to analyze these data. The SAMMY program also includes multiple scattering corrections to capture yield data and resolution functions specific to the RPI facility. Resonance parameters for all stable isotopes of samarium were deduced for all resonances up to 30 eV. Thermal capture cross-section and capture resonance integral calculations were made using the resultant resonance parameters and were compared to results obtained using resonance parameters from ENDF/B-VI updated through release 3. Extending the definition of the capture resonance integral to include the strong 0.1 eV resonance in 149 Sm, present measurements agree within estimated uncertainties with En

  6. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2016-09-27

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  7. Growth and Characterization of Tetraphenylphosphonium Bromide Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangqiang Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-phenyl phosphorous compounds are a group of chemical materials that have been used as reactants, pharmaceutical intermediates, extractants, and catalysts in organic synthetic reactions. However, the crystal growth of bulk crystals of multiple-phenyl phosphorous compounds, which may expand their applications in photonics technology, have been largely overlooked. In this article, the crystal growth of tetraphenylphosphonium bromide (TPPB has been studied in organic solvents and water. The crystal structures and crystallization features are analyzed by X-ray diffraction data. By a slow temperature-lowering method, a single-crystal of TPPB (2H2O with the size of 27 × 20 × 20 mm3 has been obtained in water. The basic thermal and optical properties were characterized. We find that the TPPB (2H2O crystal shows excellent transparent property in the near-IR region. Large Raman shifts and strong Raman scattering intensity indicate that TPPB is a potential candidate in Raman-scattering-based nonlinearity applications.

  8. The systems cerium(3) (samarium) nitrate-quinoline nitrate-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khisaeva, D.A.; Zhuravlev, E.F.; Semenova, Eh.B.

    1982-01-01

    Using the method of cross sections at 25 and 50 deg C the solubility in the systems cerium (3) nitrate-quinoline nitrate-water and samarium nitrate-quinoline nitrate-water has been studied. It is established that in the systems during chemical interaction of components congruently melting compounds of the composition: Ce(NO 3 ) 2 x2[C 9 H 7 NxHNO 3 ]x6H 2 O and Sm(NO 3 ) 3 x2[C 9 H 7 NxHNO 3 ]x2H 2 O are formed. New solid phases are separated preparatively and are subjected to chemical, differential thermal and IR spectroscopic analyses. The investigation results are compared with similar ones for nitrates of other representatives of lanthanide group

  9. The systems lanthanum (cerium, samarium) nitrate-tetramethyl-ammonium nitrate-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, E.F.; Khisaeva, D.A.; Semenova, Eh.B.

    1984-01-01

    The method of cross sections at 25 and 50 deg C has been applied to study solubility in the systems lanthanum nitrate-tetramethyl ammonium nitrate-water (1), cesium (3) nitrate-tetramethyl ammonium nitrate-water (2) and samarium nitrate-tetramethyl ammonium nitrate-water (3). Crystallization fields of congruently dissolving compounds with 1:3 ratio of salt components (in system 1) and 1:2 ratio (in systems 2 and 3) are found in the systems. New solid phases are separated preparatively and subjected to chemical, differential thermal and IR spectroscopic analyses. Compositions of formed compounds are compared with the compositions known for nitrates of other representatives of light lanthanides

  10. Preparation and biological behaviour of samarium-153-hydroxyapatite particles for radiation synovectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrueelles, M.G.; Luppi Berlanga, I.S.; Torres, E.A.; Rutty Sola, G.A.; Rimoldi, G.

    1998-01-01

    The preparation and labelling procedures of 153 Sm-hydroxyapatite ( 153 Sm-HA) are described in this paper. Hydroxyapatite (HA) was prepared and studied as a radiosynovectomy agent. HA particles were prepared from the reaction of calcium nitrate and ammonia phosphate at high pH Samarium-153 labelling was done in two steps with citric acid. A serie of experimental conditions, such as specific activity, citric acid mass, radioactive solution volume, in-vitro stability, have been carried out. Radiolabelling efficiency was greater than 95%. In vitro studies showed high stability (≥99%). Animal studies showed a good retention in the synovium, with a very low extra-articular leakage over 6 days after administration. (author)

  11. Efficacy and toxicity of Samarium-153-EDTMP locally produced in the treatment of painful skeletal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olea, E.; Quintana, J.C.; Nagel, J.; Arenas, L.; Tomicic, M.; Gil, M.C.; Araya, G.

    2001-01-01

    Samarium-153 emits medium-energy beta particles an a gamma photon with a physical half-life of 46,3 hours. When chelated to ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonic acid (EDTMP), it is remarkably stable in vitro and in vivo. In this study we administered randomly 0,5 and 1,0 mCi/Kg body weight (two groups), to 30 patients with painful metastatic bone cancer. Slight and spontaneously reversible myelotoxicity was observed. A bigger leukocyte and platelet suppression was obtained with 1,0 mCi/kg than 0,5 mCi/Kg dose. Pain palliation was obtained in 66% of the treated patients. Our preliminary results indicate that 153 Sm-EDTMP is a promising radiotherapeutic agent for palliative treatment of metastatic bone cancer pain where a reactor is available and at a very affordable cost. (author)

  12. Studies on the structural, optical and dielectric properties of samarium coordinated with salicylic acid single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harjinder; Slathia, Goldy; Gupta, Rashmi; Bamzai, K. K.

    2018-04-01

    Samarium coordinated with salicylic acid was successfully grown as a single crystal by low temperature solution technique using mixed solvent of methanol and water in equal ratio. Structural characterization was carried out by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and it crystallizes in centrosymmetric space group P121/c1. FTIR and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy confirmed the compound formation and help to determine the mode of binding of the ligand to the rare earth-metal ion. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss have been measured over the frequency range 100 Hz - 30MHz. The decrease in dielectric constant with increases in frequency is due to the transition from interfacial polarization to dipolar polarization. The small value of dielectric constant at higher frequency ensures that the crystal is good candidate for NLO devices. Dielectric loss represents the resistive nature of the material.

  13. Use of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for simultaneous preconcentration of samarium, europium, gadolinium and dysprosium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallah, M.H.; Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran; Shemirani, F.; Ghannadi Maragheh, M.

    2008-01-01

    A new preconcentration method of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was developed for simultaneous preconcentration of samarium, europium, gadolinium and dysprosium. DLLME technique was successfully used as a sample preparation method. In this preconcentration method, an appropriate mixture of extraction solvent, disperser solvent was injected rapidly into an aqueous solution containing Sm, Eu, Gd and Dy after complex formation using chelating reagent of the 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN). After phase separation, 0.5 mL of the settled phase containing enriched analytes was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The main factors affected the preconcentration of Sm, Eu, Gd and Dy were extraction and dispersive solvent type and their volume, extraction time, volume of chelating agent (PAN), centrifuge speed and drying temperature of the samples. Under the best operating condition simultaneous preconcentration factors of 80, 100, 103 and 78 were obtained for Sm, Eu, Gd and Dy, respectively. (author)

  14. Europium and samarium doped calcium sulfide thin films grown by PLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoulakis, S.; Suchea, M; Katsarakis, N.; Koudoumas, E

    2007-01-01

    Europium and samarium doped calcium sulfide thin films (CaS:Eu,Sm) with different thickness were prepared by the pulsed laser deposition technique using sintered targets. A typical homemade deposition chamber and XeCl excimer laser (308 nm) were employed and the films were deposited in helium atmosphere onto silicon and corning glass substrates. Structural investigations carried out by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy showed a strong influence of the deposition parameters on the film properties. The films grown had an amorphous or polycrystalline structure depending on growth temperature and the number of pulses used, the same parameters affecting the film roughness, the grain shape and dimensions, the film thickness and the optical transmittance. This work indicates that pulsed laser deposition can be a suitable technique for the preparation of CaS:Eu,Sm thin films, the film characteristics being controlled by the growth conditions

  15. Effect of samarium in corrosion and microstructure of Al-5Zn-0.5Cu as low driving voltage sacrificial anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratesa, Yudha; Ferdian, Deni; Ramadhan, Fajar Yusya; Maulana, Bramuda

    2018-05-01

    Sacrificial Anode Low voltage is the latest generation of the sacrificial anode that can prevent the occurrence of Hydrogen Cracking (HIC) due to overprotection. The Al-5n-0.5Cu alloy showed the potential to be developed as the new sacrificial anode. However, the main problem is copper made Al2Cu intermetallic in grain boundary. Samarium is added to modify the shape of the intermetallic to make it finer and make the corrosion uniform. Several characterizations were conducted to analyze the effect of Samarium. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to analyzed the microstructure of the alloy. Metallography preparation was prepared for SEM analysis. Corrosion behavior was characterized by cyclic polarization in 3.5% NaCl solution. The results show samarium can change the shape of intermetallic and refine the grains. In addition, samarium makes better pitting resistance and exhibits a tendency for uniform corrosion. It is indicated by the loop reduction (ΔEpit-prot). Current density increased as an effect of samarium addition from 6x10-5 Ampere (Al-5Zn-0.5Cu) to 2.5x10-4 Ampere (Al-5Zn-0.5Cu-0.5Sm). Steel potential protection increased after addition of samarium which is an indication the possibility of Al-Zn-Cu-Sm to be used as low voltage sacrificial anode.

  16. Myelotoxicity of Samarium Sm153 lexidronam in patients with painful bony metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ghachem, T.; Mhiri, A.; Slim, I.; Bahloul, A.; Yeddes, I.; Elbez, I.; Meddeb, I.; Ben Slimene, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Introduction: the management of bone pain includes analgesia, radiation, hormones, radiofrequency (RF) ablation, chemotherapy, and surgery. Bone pain palliation therapy with radiopharmaceuticals is a cost-effective systemic therapy to relieve pain from skeletal metastases with a consequent decrease in morbidity and an improvement in quality of life. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of myelotoxicity of samarium lexidronam (Sm 153 ) in patients with painful bony metastasis. Methods: we reviewed 116 patients aged from 14 to 87 years old, 91 males (78%) and 25 females (22%), having received 1 to 4 treatments of Sm 153 (37 MBq/kg) for painful bony metastases from different primitive tumors: 67 cases of prostate cancer (57.7%), 22 cases of breast cancer (18.9%), 10 cases of pulmonary cancer (8.6%) and others in 14.6% of cases. Clinical follow-up was available for 159 treatments, consisting on blood count each week over at least two months, in order to evaluate myelotoxicity according to WHO classification. Results: no patients had grade 4 toxicity after its cures. A grade 2-3 myelotoxicity was observed after 52 treatments (34%) during the second week and after 50 treatments (32.6%) during the fourth week with a satisfactory reversibility. At 10 weeks of treatment, myelotoxicity was reclassified from 0 to 2 for 139 cures (90,8%). Moreover, we found that prior treatment with radiotherapy or chemotherapy did not affect the rates of myelotoxicity. Conclusion: multiple treatments with samarium Sm 153 lexidronam had no significant effect on myelotoxicity. Patients with bone predominant metastatic disease may survive for extended periods of time and may safely be treated with multiple modalities of therapy. (authors)

  17. Bromide space, total body water, and sick cell syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, O.; Hundeshagen, H.; Lehr, L.

    1982-01-01

    Displacements of the bromide space (Br-82-C, as a marker for the extracellular fluid compartment) are caused by an enhanced anatomical space and/or increased permeability of cells to bromide. The ratio Br-82-C: total body water (TBW) was evaluated to be 0.83 +- 0.17 in critically ill patients (n = 38) compared with the normal value of 0.46 +- 0.04 (n = 10). Because of normal TBW in critically ill patients (TBW = 505 +- 68 ml/kg), an increased bromide penetration into cells seems to be responsible for the enlarged ratio Br-82-C: TBW. Taking into consideration measurements in patients with malabsorption (Br-82-C: TBW = 0.56 +- 0.13; n = 13) and carcinoma of the rectum and colon (Br-82-C: TBW = 0.66 +- 0.24; n = 18) we think that the bromide space is a good measurement of the effective extracellular water. (orig.)

  18. Development of copper bromide laser master oscillator power ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... Development of master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system of copper bromide laser (CBL) operating at ... The spectral distribution of power at .... It is evident from the voltage waveforms that the breakdown voltage drops.

  19. Methyl Bromide Commodity Fumigation Buffer Zone Lookup Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Product labels for methyl bromide used in commodity and structural fumigation include requirements for buffer zones around treated areas. The information on this page will allow you to find the appropriate buffer zone for your planned application.

  20. Fluoride, bromide and iodide in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, F.P.

    Fluoride concentrations varying from 1.32 mg/l at the surface to 1.37 mg/l at depth showed an average of 1.35 + or - 0.004 mg/l with F/Cl of (6.65 + - 0.07) x 10/5. Average bromide was 70 mg/l with Br/Cl of 0.00347. Bromide was found to bear a...

  1. Disinfection byproduct regulatory compliance surrogates and bromide-associated risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Chelsea; Francis, Royce A; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2017-08-01

    Natural and anthropogenic factors can alter bromide concentrations in drinking water sources. Increasing source water bromide concentrations increases the formation and alters the speciation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed during drinking water treatment. Brominated DBPs are more toxic than their chlorinated analogs, and thus have a greater impact on human health. However, DBPs are regulated based on the mass sum of DBPs within a given class (e.g., trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids), not based on species-specific risk or extent of bromine incorporation. The regulated surrogate measures are intended to protect against not only the species they directly represent, but also against unregulated DBPs that are not routinely measured. Surrogates that do not incorporate effects of increasing bromide may not adequately capture human health risk associated with drinking water when source water bromide is elevated. The present study analyzes trihalomethanes (THMs), measured as TTHM, with varying source water bromide concentrations, and assesses its correlation with brominated THM, TTHM risk and species-specific THM concentrations and associated risk. Alternative potential surrogates are evaluated to assess their ability to capture THM risk under different source water bromide concentration conditions. The results of the present study indicate that TTHM does not adequately capture risk of the regulated species when source water bromide concentrations are elevated, and thus would also likely be an inadequate surrogate for many unregulated brominated species. Alternative surrogate measures, including THM 3 and the bromodichloromethane concentration, are more robust surrogates for species-specific THM risk at varying source water bromide concentrations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. On-line production of [11C]cyanogen bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerberg, G.; Laangstroem, B.

    1997-01-01

    The electrophilic labelling precursor [ 11 C]cyanogen bromide was produced in 95% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected) from hydrogen [ 11 C]cyanide within 3 min from the end of bombardment using a simple and convenient solid-phase on-line procedure. The [ 11 C]cyanogen bromide has been used in the synthesis of a number of labelled compounds for use in positron emission tomography. (author)

  3. Potentiometric study of samarium oxides formation from its chloride in a molten eutectic mixture of sodium and cesium chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolenskij, V.V.; Bove, A.L.; Del'mukhamedov, R.D.; Borodina, N.P.; Gavrilov, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    Interaction of trivalent samarium cations with oxide-ions in NaCl-2CsCl melt at 973 K has been studied by potentiometric method using electrochemical cell with two platinum-oxygen electrodes with a solid electrolyte membrane. The mechanism of the interaction and composition of the reaction products, depending on the medium oxyacidity, have been considered. Certain thermodynamic characteristics of the process have been calculated

  4. Interaction of cephalosporin drugs with dodecyltrimethylammonium Bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoque, Md. Anamul; Hossain, Mohammed Delwar; Khan, Mohammed Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We carry out the interaction of cephalosporin drugs with DTAB conductometrically. • We examine the effect of drugs on the critical micelle concentration of DTAB. • Three critical micelle concentrations are obtained for drug- DTAB system. • Electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between drugs and DTAB are proposed. • Drug supported micelle formation of DTAB is much favoured in aq. solution of K 2 SO 4 . -- Abstract: The interaction of three cephalosporin drugs namely cefadroxyl monohydrate (CFM), cephalexin monohydrate (CLM) and cephradine monohydrate (CDM) with dodecyltrimethylammonium Bromide (DTAB) has been carried out by conductance measurements in aqueous medium and in aqueous solution of K 2 SO 4 salt over temperature range of (303.15 to 318.15) K. For pure DTAB and drug-DTAB systems, three critical micelle concentrations were obtained. The third critical micelle concentration (c ∗ 3 ) indicates that the spherical micelle turns into rod shape that is sphere to rod transition. The c ∗ values of DTAB are changed due to the addition of cephalosporin drugs. In addition, the change of the values of c ∗ 1 , c ∗ 2 and c ∗ 3 with increase of the concentration of drugs indicate the presence of interaction between drug and DTAB. The c ∗ values indicate that micellization for the cephalosporins-surfactant systems in water follow the order: CFM-surfactant ∗ values for the cephalosporins - DTAB systems in aqueous K 2 SO 4 are lower in magnitude than those in pure water and the values decrease with increase of the concentrations of K 2 SO 4 at a particular temperature. A significant decrease of c ∗ values in the presence of K 2 SO 4 for cephalosporins-DTAB systems indicates that drug supported ionic micelle formation is much favoured in aqueous K 2 SO 4 solution compared to that in pure water. For cephalosporin-DTAB systems, ΔG 0 m values are negative which indicate that the drugs mediated ionic micelle formation processes are

  5. Thermodynamics of the interactions of some amino acids and peptides with dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide and tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talele, Paurnima; Kishore, Nand

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Interactions of amino acids and peptides were studied with two cationic surfactants. • Partial molar properties and hydration numbers did not change significantly. • Measured properties indicate balance of polar and non-polar interactions. • Peptide bonds did not strengthen the extent of polar interactions with surfactant. • Results provide quantitative fine details of cationic surfactant–amino acids/peptides interactions. -- Abstract: The values of apparent molar volume V 2,ϕ and apparent molar adiabatic compressibility K S,2,ϕ of amino acids glycine, L-alanine, DL-α-amino-n-butyric acid, L-valine, L-leucine and peptides glycyl-glycine, glycyl-glycyl-glycine and glycyl-leucine have been determined in aqueous solutions of cationic surfactants dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) by means of density and sound velocity measurements. The heat evolved or absorbed (q) during the course of interactions of amino acids and peptides with the aqueous solutions of surfactants were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry at T = 298.15 K. The values of standard partial molar volume V 2,m 0 and standard partial molar adiabatic compressibility K s,2,m 0 at infinite dilution were calculated from the values of V 2,ϕ and K S,2,ϕ . Similarly the values of limiting enthalpies of dilution (Δ dil H 0 ) of the amino acids/peptides were calculated from heat evolved or absorbed during calorimetric experiments. The standard partial molar quantities of transfer from water to aqueous surfactant solutions have been used to identify the interactions of amino acids and peptides with surfactants in terms of ionic–ionic, ionic–hydrophobic and hydrophobic–hydrophobic group interactions

  6. Structural and luminescence properties of samarium doped lead alumino borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Shaweta; Kaur, Simranpreet; Singh, D. P.; Kaur, Puneet

    2017-11-01

    The study reports the effect of samarium concentration on the physical, structural and spectroscopic characteristics of samarium doped lead alumino borate glasses having composition 20PbO-(10-x)Al2O3-70B2O3-xSm2O3; x = 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol %. The glasses were fabricated by conventional melt-quenching technique and then characterized by XRD, FTIR, optical absorption and fluorescence spectra. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the amorphous nature of the prepared glasses. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of BO3, BO4, AlO6 and a few other structural groups. Various physical properties such as density, molar volume, refractive index, rare earth ion concentration, boron-boron distance and polarizability etc. were determined using conventional methods and standard formulae. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied on the optical absorption spectra of the glasses to evaluate the three phenomenological intensity parameters Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6. The value of Ω2 was found to be highest for glass with 1 mol% Sm2O3 and attributed to the asymmetry of the ligand field at the rare earth ion site and the rare earth oxygen (Sm-O) covalency. The calculated intensity parameters and fluorescence spectra were further used to predict the radiative transition probability (A), radiative lifetime (τR), branching ratio (βR), peak wavelength (λp), effective line widths (Δλeff) and stimulated emission cross-section (σ) for the characteristic 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 6H7/2 and 6H9/2 transitions of the Sm3+ ion. Concentration quenching was observed for 2 mol% concentration of Sm2O3 and ascribed to energy transfer through various cross-relaxation channels between Sm3+ ions. Reasonably high values of branching ratios and stimulated emission cross-section for the prepared glasses points towards their utility in the development of visible lasers emitting in the reddish-orange spectral region. However, the glass with 1 mol% Sm2O3 was found to show better radiative properties.

  7. Fluorometric determination of samarium and europium in rare earth minerals with. beta. -diketoneternary complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H; Hiraki, K; Nishikawa, Y [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1981-07-01

    This communication reported the optimum conditions for the fluorometric determination of these ions, and the method was adopted in the simultaneous determination of samarium and europium in xenotime and monazite minerals. From the experimental results on the effect of diverse ions and the extraction pH of the aqueous phase, it became clear that TTA-TOPO hexane method was the best system for the determination of samarium and europium because of the highest fluorescence sensitivity of the ternary complex, and also because the lower extraction pH eliminated the effect of diverse ions. Moreover, the very high detection limit (2 ppb) of Sm was achieved by the use of a red sensitive photomultiplier. Which was used at 644 nm, and that of Eu (0.02 ppb) at 614 nm. The procedure was established as follows: The rare earth minerals (xenotime, monazite) sample was treated with hot conc. H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and twice precipitated with 0.5 mol dm/sup -3/ oxalic acid (pH was adjusted to 2.0 -- 2.2). Then the precipitate was filtered and ignited to give the rare earth oxide. Fifty milligrams of the oxide was dissolved in HCl and diluted with water in order to obtain the solution containing 5 ..mu..g cm/sup -3/ rare earth oxide. An aliquot of the solution ((1.0 -- 3.0) cm/sup 3/) was adjusted to pH 5.5 with sodium acetate and shaken with 1 x 10/sup -4/ mol dm/sup -3/ TTA- 2 x 10/sup -2/ mol dm/sup -3/ TOPO hexane solution. Then the fluorescence intensity of the organic layer was measured at 644 nm for Sm and 614 nm for Eu. In this procedure, the recovery of Sm and Eu was found to be about 96%. Xenotime contained 0.70% of Sm and 0.004% of Eu, and monazite contained 1.84% of Sm and 0.003% of Eu.

  8. Cross sections for d-{sup 3}H neutron interactions with samarium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Junhua; He, Long [Hexi Univ., Zhangye (China). School of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering; Wu, Chunlei; Jiang, Li [Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). Inst. of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry

    2016-11-01

    The cross sections for (n,x) reactions on samarium isotopes were measured at (d-T) neutron energies of 13.5 and 14.8 MeV with the activation technique. Samples were activated along with Nb and Al monitor foils to determine the incident neutron flux. Theoretical calculations of excitation functions were performed using the nuclear model codes TALYS-1.6 and EMPIRE-3.2 Malta with default parameters, at neutron energies varying from the reaction threshold to 20 MeV. The results were discussed and compared with experimental data found in the literature. At neutron energies 13.5 and 14.8 MeV, the cross sections of the {sup 149}Sm(n,p){sup 149}Pm reaction are reported for the first time. The cross sections of the {sup 150}Sm(n,p){sup 150}Pm, {sup 144}Sm(n,p){sup 144}Pm, {sup 152}Sm(n,α){sup 149}Nd and {sup 144}Sm(n,α){sup 141}Nd reactions at different neutron energies reported in the present work can be added as new data in the nuclear databases.

  9. Solar Hydrogen Production via a Samarium Oxide-Based Thermochemical Water Splitting Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Bhosale

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The computational thermodynamic analysis of a samarium oxide-based two-step solar thermochemical water splitting cycle is reported. The analysis is performed using HSC chemistry software and databases. The first (solar-based step drives the thermal reduction of Sm2O3 into Sm and O2. The second (non-solar step corresponds to the production of H2 via a water splitting reaction and the oxidation of Sm to Sm2O3. The equilibrium thermodynamic compositions related to the thermal reduction and water splitting steps are determined. The effect of oxygen partial pressure in the inert flushing gas on the thermal reduction temperature (TH is examined. An analysis based on the second law of thermodynamics is performed to determine the cycle efficiency (ηcycle and solar-to-fuel energy conversion efficiency (ηsolar−to−fuel attainable with and without heat recuperation. The results indicate that ηcycle and ηsolar−to−fuel both increase with decreasing TH, due to the reduction in oxygen partial pressure in the inert flushing gas. Furthermore, the recuperation of heat for the operation of the cycle significantly improves the solar reactor efficiency. For instance, in the case where TH = 2280 K, ηcycle = 24.4% and ηsolar−to−fuel = 29.5% (without heat recuperation, while ηcycle = 31.3% and ηsolar−to−fuel = 37.8% (with 40% heat recuperation.

  10. Charge and transition densities of samarium isotopes in the interacting Boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moinester, M.A.; Alster, J.; Dieperink, A.E.L.

    1982-01-01

    The interacting boson approximation (IBA) model has been used to interpret the ground-state charge distributions and lowest 2 + transition charge densities of the even samarium isotopes for A = 144-154. Phenomenological boson transition densities associated with the nucleons comprising the s-and d-bosons of the IBA were determined via a least squares fit analysis of charge and transition densities in the Sm isotopes. The application of these boson trasition densities to higher excited 0 + and 2 + states of Sm, and to 0 + and 2 + transitions in neighboring nuclei, such as Nd and Gd, is described. IBA predictions for the transition densities of the three lowest 2 + levels of 154 Gd are given and compared to theoretical transition densities based on Hartree-Fock calculations. The deduced quadrupole boson transition densities are in fair agreement with densities derived previously from 150 Nd data. It is also shown how certain moments of the best fit boson transition densities can simply and sucessfully describe rms radii, isomer shifts, B(E2) strengths, and transition radii for the Sm isotopes. (orig.)

  11. Development and evaluation of copper-67 and samarium-153 labeled conjugates for tumor radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Mausner, L.F.; Mease, R.C.; Meinken, G.E.; Joshi, V.; Kolsky, K.; Sweet, M.; Steplewski, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The potential of utilizing receptor-specific agents such as monoclonal antibodies (MAb), and MAb-derived smaller molecules, as carriers of radionuclides for the selective destruction of tumors has stimulated much research activity. The success of such applications depends on many factors, especially the tumor binding properties of the antibody reagent, the efficiency of labeling and in-vivo stability of the radioconjugate and, on the careful choice of the radionuclide best suited to treat the tumor under consideration. The radiolabeled antibody technique for radioimmunotherapy (RIT), however, has experienced many limitations, and its success has not matched the expectations that were raised more than a decade ago. The problems that have been identified include: (i) degradation of antibody immunoreactivity resulting from chemical manipulations required for labeling; (ii) lack of suitable radioisotopes and methods for stable attachment of the radiolabel; (iii) in-vivo instability of the radioimmunoconjugates; (iv) excessive accumulation of activity in non-target locations; and (v) lack of radioimmunoconjugate accessibility to cells internal to a tumor mass. A careful choice of the radionuclide(s) best suited to treat the tumor under consideration is one of the most important requirements for successful radioimmunotherapy. This study evaluates copper 67 and samarium 153 for tumor radioimmunotherapy

  12. Enhancement of the fluorescence of the samarium (III) complex by gadolinium (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun-Xiang, C.; Zhang-Hua, L.

    1988-01-01

    The increase in sensitivity and selectivity of reactions in which colored species are formed by the addition of different metal ions is an area of research that has recently been developed. This phenomenon, which is sometimes called cocolaration effect, has been explained by the formation of mixed metal complex. The authors found an analogous phenomenon of reactions forming fluorescent complexes. The complexes of Sm(III)-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA)-phenanthroline (Phen)-Triton-X-100 (TX-100) and Gd(III) (or La(III), Lu(III) and Y(III))-TTA-Phen-TX-100 had practically no fluorescence separately. Instead, a fluorescence-enhancement phenomenon caused by adding Gd or La, Lu and Y ions to the system was observed for the first time. The intensity of the enhanced fluorescence of Sm(III) complex was increased in the following order: La< Y< Lu< Gd. By analogy with cocoloration effect, the authors call this new fluorescence-enhancement phenomenon the co-fluorescence effect. The object of this work was to study the enhancement effect of Gd(III) on the fluorescence of the Sm(III)-TTA-Phen-TX-100 system. The recommended fluorimetric method has been applied to the determination of trace amounts of samarium in ytterbium oxide with satisfactory results. A general reaction mechanism for the system studied was proposed

  13. Pharmacokinetics of labelled compounds with technetium-99m and samarium-153

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borda O, L.B.; Torres L, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to establish the different pharmacokinetics parameters of the main radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and samarium-153. These parameters could be subsequently used as reference to compare other products with the same use. Mathematical models and a computerized pharmacokinetic program were used to this purpose. A biodistribution study in quadruplicate and/or quintuplicate was conducted for each radiopharmaceutical, data was was obtained in injection dose percentages. The biodistribution study involved the injection of a predetermined dose of the radiopharmaceutical into animals (rats or mice), which were subsequently put away at different time intervals, removing the relevant organs. Activity in each organ was read by means of a well-type NaI scintillation counter, data obtained in activity counts was transformed into injection dose percentages. Based on these percentages, the mathematical model was constructed and the pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained using the computerized program Expo 2 v. 1, which is written in C language and works in windows. Analyzing the results obtained, we can conclude that the use of the Expo 2 v. 1 program for a bi compartmental analysis allowed us to obtain reliable pharmacokinetic parameters which describe what happens in the organism when the radiopharmaceutical passes from the central compartment to the peripheral one and vice versa

  14. Memory effect of calcined layered samarium hydroxy chlorides in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Il; Byeon, Song Ho

    2015-01-01

    The decomposition and recovery behavior of layered samarium hydroxychloride (Sm 2 (OH) 5 Cl·nH 2 O, LSmH) has been closely studied in various conditions. Although the heat treatment of LSmH at 700 °C completely collapsed typical layered structure, the calcined LSmH (c-LSmH) recovered its layered characteristics and consequently its ability to intercalate anions into the interlayer space when it was rehydroxylated and rehydrated in aqueous solutions containing organic and inorganic anions. This phenomenon is similar to the memory effect observed in classical layered double hydroxides (LDHs), where LDHs calcined to a mixture of metal oxides can recover their layered structures in aqueous solutions. In contrast, the recovery reaction of c-LSmH in water without any counter anions was unsuccessful and instead resulted in the formation of Sm(OH) 3 . Such a difference was interpreted on the basis of the salt effect on Sm 2 (OH) 5 Cl·nH 2 O–Sm(OH) 3 phase equilibria in water

  15. Characterization of luminescent samarium doped HfO2 coatings synthesized by spray pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon-Roa, C; Guzman-Mendoza, J; Aguilar-Frutis, M; Garcia-Hipolito, M; Alvarez-Fragoso, O; Falcony, C

    2008-01-01

    Trivalent samarium (Sm 3+ ) doped hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) films were deposited using the spray pyrolysis deposition technique. The films were deposited on Corning glass substrates at temperatures ranging from 300 to 550 deg. C using chlorides as raw materials. Films, mostly amorphous, were obtained when deposition temperatures were below 350 deg. C. However, for temperatures higher than 400 deg. C, the films became polycrystalline, presenting the HfO 2 monoclinic phase. Scanning electron microscopy of the films revealed a rough surface morphology with spherical particles. Also, electron energy dispersive analysis was performed on these films. The photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence characteristics of the HfO 2 : SmCl 3 films, measured at room temperature, exhibited four main bands centred at 570, 610, 652 and 716 nm, which are due to the well-known intra-4f transitions of the Sm 3+ ion. It was found that the overall emission intensity rose as the deposition temperature was increased. Furthermore, a concentration quenching of the luminescence intensity was also observed

  16. Effect of Zinc Oxide Doping on Electroluminescence and Electrical Behavior of Metalloporphyrins-Doped Samarium Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janghouri, Mohammad; Amini, Mostafa M.

    2018-02-01

    Samarium complex [(Sm(III)] as a new host material was used for preparation of red organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Devices with configurations of indium-doped tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):(poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS (50 nm)/polyvinyl carbazole (PVK):[zinc oxide (ZnO)] (50 nm)/[(Sm(III)]:[zinc(II) 2,3-tetrakis(dihydroxyphenyl)-porphyrin and Pt(II) 2,3-dimethoxyporphyrin] (60 nm)/2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) (15 nm)/Al (150 nm) have been fabricated and investigated. An electroplex occurring at the (PVK/Sm: Pt(II) 2,3-dimethoxyporphyrin) interface has been suggested when ZnO nanoparticles were doped in PVK. OLED studies have revealed that the photophysical characteristics and electrical behavior of devices with ZnO nanoparticles are much better than those of devices with pure PVK. The efficiency of devices based on [(Sm(III)] was superior than that of known aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) and also our earlier reports on red OLEDs under the same conditions.

  17. Pyroelectric properties and electrical conductivity in samarium doped BiFeO 3 ceramics

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yingbang

    2012-06-01

    Samarium (Sm 3+) doped BiFeO 3 (BFO) ceramics were prepared by a modified solid-state-reaction method which adopted a rapid heating as well as cooling during the sintering process. The pyroelectric coefficient increased from 93 to 137 μC/m 2 K as the Sm 3+ doping level increased from 1 mol% to 8 mol%. Temperature dependence of the pyroelectric coefficient showed an abrupt decrease above 80 °C in all samples, which was associated with the increase of electrical conductivity with temperature. This electrical conduction was attributed to oxygen vacancy existing in the samples. An activation energy of ∼0.7 eV for the conduction process was found to be irrespective of the Sm 3+ doping level. On the other hand, the magnetic Néel temperature (T N) decreased with increasing Sm 3+ doping level. On the basis of our results, the effects of Sm doping level on the pyroelectric and electrical properties of the BFO were revealed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Detonation nanodiamond introduced into samarium doped ceria electrolyte improving performance of solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Kai; Li, Hongdong; Zou, Guangtian; Yu, Richeng; Zhao, Haofei; Shen, Xi; Wang, Liying; Song, Yanpeng; Qiu, Dongchao

    2017-02-01

    A novel electrolyte materials of introducing detonation nanodiamond (DNDs) into samarium doped ceria (SDC) is reported here. 1%wt. DNDs doping SDC (named SDC/ND) can enlarge the electrotyle grain size and change the valence of partial ceria. DNDs provide the widen channel to accelerate the mobility of oxygen ions in electrolyte. Larger grain size means that oxygen ions move easier in electrolyte, it can also reduce the alternating current (AC) impedance spectra of internal grains. The lower valence of partial Ce provides more oxygen vacancies to enhance mobility rate of oxygen ions. Hence all of them enhance the transportation of oxygen ions in SDC/ND electrolyte and the OCV. Ultimately the power density of SOFC can reach 762 mw cm-2 at 800 °C (twice higher than pure SDC, which is 319 mw cm-2 at 800 °C), and it remains high power density in the intermediate temperature (600-800 °C). It is relatively high for the electrolyte supported (300 μm) cells.

  19. The physicochemical properties of the low-temperature ionic liquid silver bromide-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishina, E. P.; Ramenskaya, L. M.; Pimenova, A. M.

    2009-11-01

    The physicochemical properties of the low-temperature ionic liquid based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (BMImBr) and silver bromide were studied. Differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, densimetry, viscometry, and conductometry measurements were performed to determine the dependences of the parameters under study on the concentration of AgBr. It was shown that the temperature and concentration behavior of the physicochemical properties of BMImBr-AgBr melts characterized the interaction between the system components with the formation of complex particles.

  20. Analysis of infiltration through mill tailings using a bromide tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.J.; Stephens, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Infiltration of precipitation into tailings impoundments as a means of recharge to underlying materials is often considered insignificant, particularly in arid and semi-arid environments. A series of experiments was performed to investigate the behavior of infiltrated precipitation into tailing soils, by the use of a bromide tracer. A bromide tracer was applied to the surface of columns driven into the tailings to monitor downward advancement of tracer-laden water. Controlled laboratory experiments on the behavior of the bromide tracer under varying precipitation events and initial soil moisture contents were also conducted. Results indicate that a definite downward migration of infiltrated precipitation occurs, particularly with large magnitude precipitation events, and that, eventually, some fraction of the infiltrated precipitation may continue downward below the zone affected by evaporation. The use of an artificially applied bromide tracer to monitor depth of infiltration of precipitation is a simple, safe technique that can provide valuable information for long-term tailings management strategies at low cost

  1. Exposure to methyl bromide during greenhouse fumigation on Crete, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreede, J.A.F. de; Boeft, J. den; Hemmen, J.J. van

    1998-01-01

    In agricultural areas where greenhouses and dwellings are intermixed, the general population as well as the professional applicators may be exposed to pesticides. In a field study on Crete, exposure to methyl bromide during soil fumigation was assessed. Exposure of applicators (both contractors and

  2. Revisiting the Kinetics and Mechanism of Bromate-Bromide Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Côrtes Carlos Eduardo S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The bromate-bromide reaction was investigated in an acidity range not studied yet. The reaction was followed at the Br2/Br3- isosbestic point (lambda = 446 nm. It was observed a first-order behavior for bromate and bromide ions and a second-order behavior for H+ ion that results in the rate law nu = k[BrO3-][Br- ][H+]². This rate law suggests a mechanism involving two successive protonation of bromate followed by the interaction of the intermediate species H2BrO3+ with bromide. These results disagree with the obtained by other authors who observed a second-order behavior for the bromide and first-order for H+, and have proposed intermediate species like H2Br2O3 and HBr2O3-. The second-order for [H+] observed in the range 0.005 <= [H+] <= 2.77 mol L-1 sets down that the pKa of bromic acid, HBrO3, must be lower than -0.5 (T = 25 °C, different from all other values for this pKa proposed in the literature.

  3. Ipratropium bromide delivered by metered-dose aerosol to infant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-08-21

    Aug 21, 1990 ... Two methods of administration of ipratropium bromide. (Atrovent; Boehringer Ingelheim) to wheezing children'< 25 months of age were compared: (I) the conventional nebulisa- tion (15 children); and (iI) a metered-dose aerosol plus spacer and mask (MDA group, 17 children). The drug induced a significant ...

  4. Ipratropium bromide delivered by metered-dose aerosol to infant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two methods of administration of ipratropium bromide (Atrovent; Boehringer Ingelheim) to wheezing children'< 25 months of age were compared: (i) the conventional nebulisation (15 children); and (ii) a metered-dose aerosol plus spacer and mask (MDA group, 17 children). The drug induced a significant and similar fall in ...

  5. 7 CFR 305.6 - Methyl bromide fumigation treatment schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 40 or above 16 8 T408-g-1 Chamber 60 or above 10 24 60 or above 20 15.5 T408-g-2 Tarpaulin 60 or..., fumigation with methyl bromide for sapote fruit fly. Regulated citrus fruits originating inside an area quarantined for sapote fruit fly that are to be moved outside the quarantined area may be treated with methyl...

  6. Study of methyl bromide reactivity with human and mouse hemoglobin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study has been carried out on in-vitro reactivity of human and mouse hemoglobin spectrophotometrically at physiological pH, using different protein to reagent ratios. Hemoglobin side chains were modified with different concentrations of methyl bromide on agro-soil fumigant. To ascertain if the site of alkylation was the ...

  7. Preparation of pyridostigmine bromide labeled with carbon-14 and tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepler, J.A.; Twine, C.E.; Austin, R.D. (Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

    1992-08-01

    [2-[sup 14]C]Pyridostigmine bromide was prepared in 17.6% radiochemical yield with specific activity of 18 mCi/mmol. The reaction sequence involved preparation of 2-furan[[sup 14]C]carboxylic acid by carbonation of 2-lithiofuran, followed by conversion to 2-amino[[sup 14]C]methylfuran by lithium aluminium hydride reduction of its carboxamide. Oxidative rearrangement of 2-amino[[sup 14]C]methylfuran gave 3-hydroxy[2-[sup 14]C]pyridine which was converted to [2-[sup 14]C]pyridostigmine bromide by reaction with dimethylcarbamyl chloride and quarternization with bromomethane. Pyridostigmine bromide labeled in the methyl group of the carbamate function was prepared in 73% yield with specific activity of 37.6 mCi/mmol by reaction of bis-3-pyridyl carbonate with [[sup 14]C]dimethylamine followed by quarternization with bromomethane. [6-[sup 3]H]-Pyridostigmine bromide with specific activity of 22.5 mCi/mmol was prepared by catalytic halogen-tritium replacement of 2,6-dibromo-3-dimethylcarbamyloxypyridine followed by quarternization with bromomethane and back-exchanging the labile 2-tritium. (author).

  8. Preparation of pyridostigmine bromide labeled with carbon-14 and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepler, J.A.; Twine, C.E.; Austin, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    [2- 14 C]Pyridostigmine bromide was prepared in 17.6% radiochemical yield with specific activity of 18 mCi/mmol. The reaction sequence involved preparation of 2-furan[ 14 C]carboxylic acid by carbonation of 2-lithiofuran, followed by conversion to 2-amino[ 14 C]methylfuran by lithium aluminium hydride reduction of its carboxamide. Oxidative rearrangement of 2-amino[ 14 C]methylfuran gave 3-hydroxy[2- 14 C]pyridine which was converted to [2- 14 C]pyridostigmine bromide by reaction with dimethylcarbamyl chloride and quarternization with bromomethane. Pyridostigmine bromide labeled in the methyl group of the carbamate function was prepared in 73% yield with specific activity of 37.6 mCi/mmol by reaction of bis-3-pyridyl carbonate with [ 14 C]dimethylamine followed by quarternization with bromomethane. [6- 3 H]-Pyridostigmine bromide with specific activity of 22.5 mCi/mmol was prepared by catalytic halogen-tritium replacement of 2,6-dibromo-3-dimethylcarbamyloxypyridine followed by quarternization with bromomethane and back-exchanging the labile 2-tritium. (author)

  9. Capacitive-discharge-pumped copper bromide vapour laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanov, V B; Fedorov, V F; Troitskii, V O; Gubarev, F A; Evtushenko, Gennadii S

    2007-01-01

    A copper bromide vapour laser pumped by a high-frequency capacitive discharge is developed. It is shown that, by using of a capacitive discharge, it is possible to built a sealed off metal halide vapour laser of a simple design allowing the addition of active impurities into the working medium. (letters)

  10. A study of bromide in the Mandovi-Zuari river system of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De; Dalal, V.N

    Bromide was the subject of detailed investigation in the Mandovi Zuari river system and information was compiled on its spatial and temporal distribution. A simple mixture relation of Carpenter et. al. was applied and seawater percentage and bromide...

  11. Retention capacity of samarium (III) in zircon for it possible use in retaining walls for confinement of nuclear residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia G, N.

    2006-01-01

    Mexico, as country that produces part of its electric power by nuclear means, should put special emphasis in the development of technologies guided to the sure and long term confinement of the high level nuclear residuals. This work studies the capacity that has the natural zircon to retain to the samarium (III) in solution, by what due, firstly, to characterize the zircon for technical instrumental to determine the purity and characteristic of the mineral in study. The instrumental techniques that were used to carry out the physicochemical characterization were the neutron activation analysis (NAA), the infrared spectroscopy (IS), the thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), semiquantitative analysis, dispersive energy spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and luminescence technique. The characterization of the surface properties carries out by means of the determination of the surface area using the BET multipoint technique, acidity constants, hydration time, the determination of the point of null charge (pH PCN ) and density of surface sites (D s ). The luminescence techniques were useful to determine the optimal point hydration of the zircon and for the quantification of the samarium, for that here intends the development of both analysis techniques. With the adjustment of the titration curves in the FITEQL 4 package the constants of surface acidity in the solid/liquid interface were determined. To the finish of this study it was corroborated that the zircon is a mineral that presents appropriate characteristics to be proposed as a contention barrier for the deep geologic confinement. With regard to the study of adsorption that one carries out the samarium retention it is superior to 90% under the described conditions. This investigation could also be applicable in the confinement of dangerous industrial residuals. (Author)

  12. Determination of the nuclear electric charge distribution of samarium isotopes 144, 148, 150, 152, 154 by the muonic atom method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreau, Pierre.

    1977-01-01

    The theory of the nucleus-negative muon system in the case of electrical interactions is discussed. The interactions of muons with the samarium isotopes 152, 154, 144, 148, 150 are investigated. After a description of the experimental device, from muon beam production to data acquisition (detection of the gamma spectra), the results are analyzed and the nuclear charge distribution parameters determined: for each isotope the absolute value of c (half-density radius) and t (skin thickness); for 152 Sm and 154 Sm the parameter β 2 (quadrupolar defomation). Nuclear polarization was accounted for throughout the analysis [fr

  13. Fabrication and properties of samarium doped calcium sulphate thin films using spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reghima, Meriem [Université Tunis El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Département de Physique, LR99ES13 Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée (LPMC), 2092 Tunis, Tunisie (Tunisia); Institut d' Electronique et des systèmes, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5214 UM2-CNRS (ST2i) – Université Montpellier, 860 rue de Saint Priest, Bâtiment 5, 34097 Montpellier (France); Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, Zarzouna 7021 (Tunisia); Guasch, Cathy [Institut d' Electronique et des systèmes, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5214 UM2-CNRS (ST2i) – Université Montpellier, 860 rue de Saint Priest, Bâtiment 5, 34097 Montpellier (France); Azzaza, Sonia; Alleg, Safia [Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Spectroscopie des Solides (LM2S), Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Badji Mokhtar Annaba, B.P. 12, 23000 Annaba (Algeria); Kamoun-Turki, Najoua [Université Tunis El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Département de Physique, LR99ES13 Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée (LPMC), 2092 Tunis, Tunisie (Tunisia)

    2016-10-01

    Using low cost spray pyrolysis technique, polycrystalline CaSO{sub 4} thin films were successfully grown on a glass substrate with a thickness of about 1 μm. Samarium doping has been performed on CaSO{sub 4} thin films to explore luminescence properties. The characterizations of these films were carried out using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and optical measurements. The structural analyses reveal the existence of hexagonal CaSO{sub 4} phase with a (200) preferred orientation belonging to CaS compound for substrate temperatures below 350 °C. It is shown that the crystallinity of the sprayed thin films can be improved by increasing substrate temperature up to 250 °C. Warren-Averbach analysis has been applied on X-ray diffractogram to determine structural parameters involving the phase with its amount, the grain size and the lattice parameters using Maud software. The surface topography shows a rough surface covered by densely packed agglomerated clusters having faceted and hexagonal shapes. Energy dispersive microscopy measurements confirm the presence of calcium and sulfur in equal proportions as well as high percentage of oxygen. Photoluminescence at room temperature revealed that luminescence peaks are attributed to the intrinsic emission of pure CaSO{sub 4} phase. - Highlights: • Warren Averbach analysis reveal the presence of hcp structure of CaSO{sub 4} phase. • A mixture of CaSO{sub 4} and CaHO{sub 4.5}S phases has been detected for lower T{sub s}. • For increasing T{sub s}, the CaHO{sub 4.5}S phase has been disappeared. • The origin of PL peaks has been identified.

  14. Samarium oxide as a radiotracer to evaluate the in vivo biodistribution of PLGA nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandiwana, Vusani, E-mail: VMandiwana@csir.co.za; Kalombo, Lonji, E-mail: LKalombo@csir.co.za [Centre of Polymers and Composites, CSIR (South Africa); Venter, Kobus, E-mail: Kobus.Venter@mrc.ac.za [South African Medical Research Council (South Africa); Sathekge, Mike, E-mail: Mike.Sathekge@up.ac.za [University of Pretoria and Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine (South Africa); Grobler, Anne, E-mail: Anne.Grobler@nwu.ac.za; Zeevaart, Jan Rijn, E-mail: zeevaart@necsa.co.za [North-West University, DST/NWU Preclinical Drug Development Platform (South Africa)

    2015-09-15

    Developing nanoparticulate delivery systems that will allow easy movement and localization of a drug to the target tissue and provide more controlled release of the drug in vivo is a challenge in nanomedicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biodistribution of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing samarium-153 oxide ([{sup 153}Sm]Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in vivo to prove that orally administered nanoparticles alter the biodistribution of a drug. These were then activated in a nuclear reactor to produce radioactive {sup 153}Sm-loaded-PLGA nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized for size, zeta potential, and morphology. The nanoparticles were orally and intravenously (IV) administered to rats in order to trace their uptake through imaging and biodistribution studies. The {sup 153}Sm-loaded-PLGA nanoparticles had an average size of 281 ± 6.3 nm and a PDI average of 0.22. The zeta potential ranged between 5 and 20 mV. The [{sup 153}Sm]Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} loaded PLGA nanoparticles, orally administered were distributed to most organs at low levels, indicating that there was absorption of nanoparticles. While the IV injected [{sup 153}Sm]Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-loaded PLGA nanoparticles exhibited the highest localization of nanoparticles in the spleen (8.63 %ID/g) and liver (3.07 %ID/g), confirming that nanoparticles are rapidly removed from the blood by the RES, leading to rapid uptake in the liver and spleen. From the biodistribution data obtained, it is clear that polymeric nanoscale delivery systems would be suitable for improving permeability and thus the bioavailability of therapeutic compounds.

  15. Study of samarium modified lead zirconate titanate and nickel zinc ferrite composite system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rani, Rekha [Department of Physics, SD PG College, Panipat 132103 (India); School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala 147004 (India); Juneja, J.K., E-mail: jk_juneja@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Hindu College, Sonepat 131001 (India); Singh, Sangeeta [Department of Physics, GVM Girls College, Sonepat 131001 (India); Raina, K.K. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala 147004 (India); Prakash, Chandra [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India)

    2015-03-15

    In the present work, composites of samarium substituted lead zirconate titanate and nickel zinc ferrite with compositional formula 0.95Pb{sub 1−3x/2} Sm{sub x}Zr{sub 0.65}Ti{sub 0.35}O{sub 3}–0.05Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03) were prepared by the conventional solid state route. X-ray diffraction analysis was carried out to confirm the coexistence of individual phases. Microstructural study was done by using scanning electron microscope. Dielectric constant and loss were studied as a function of temperature and frequency. To study ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the composite samples, corresponding P–E and M–H hysteresis loops were recorded. Change in magnetic properties of electrically poled composite sample (x=0.02) was studied to confirm the magnetoelectric (ME) coupling. ME coefficient (dE/dH) of the samples (x=0 and 0.02) was measured as a function of DC magnetic field. - Highlights: • We are reporting the effect of Sm substitution on PZT–NiZn ferrite composites. • Observation of both P–E and M–H loops confirms ferroelectric and magnetic ordering. • With Sm substitution, significant improvement in properties was observed. • Increase in magnetization for electrically poled sample is evidence of ME coupling. • Electric polarization is generated by applying magnetic field.

  16. The effectiveness of samarium-153 (153Sm) lexidronam (EDTMP) in treatment of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yubo; Huang Gang; Liu Jianjun

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of samarium-153 (153Sm) lexidronam (EDTMP) in treatment of bone metastases. Methods: 380 patients with bone metastases were studied (221 men, 159 women; average age 65.3 y; ranged 27-91 y; average weight 59.3 kg, ranged 39-95 kg). The tumor types were prostate carcinoma (n=155), pulmonary carcinoma (n=92), breast cancer (n=57), gastric carcinoma (n=12), colorectal carcinoma (n=22), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (n=8), lymphoma (n=8), hepatic carcinoma (n=6), ovary carcinoma (n=4) and others (n=16). All patients were received 135Sm-EDTMP 0.8 or 1.0 mCi/kg during 1 to 7 course of treatment. Patients and physician evaluations were used to assess pain relief. Numbers of metastatic foci and activity of ROIs were used to observe post-therapy change in bone scanning. Results: In 380 patients, pain relief was observed in 257 patients (67.6%). Persistence of pain relief was seen through 2 to 24 weeks. The mean relief time is 5.8±3.4 weeks. KPS score was higher 10% than pre-therapy (71.2%±9.6% Vs 80.9%±10.3%, p<0.001). Numbers of metastatic foci (11.2+8.8 Vs 8.4±5.7, p<0.001) and activity of ROIs (3.28±2.04 Vs 2.15±0.94, p<0.01) were less than pre-therapy. Bone marrow suppression was mild and reversible (5.87±1.56 Vs 4.94±1.16 x 109/L). Conclusions: 153Sm-EDTMP provided relief of pain associated with bone metastases and inhibition of metastatic foci. As a relief drug of painful bone metastases, 153Sm-EDTMP is safe and effective. (authors)

  17. Uptake of ozone to mixed sodium bromide/ citric acid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Tao; Steimle, Emilie; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Kato, Shunsuke; Lampimäki, Markus; Brown, Matthew; van Bokhoven, Jeroen; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Türler, Andreas; Ammann, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Sea-salt solution - air interfaces play an important role in the chemistry of the marine boundary layer. The reaction of ozone (O3) with bromide is of interest in the context of formation of photolabile halogens (Br2, BrCl) in the marine boundary layer. Recent experiments have suggested that the bromide oxidation rate is related to the surface concentration of bromide [1] and inversely related to the gas phase concentration of O3, an indication for a precursor mediated reaction at the surface [2]. So far, the effect of organics (such as those occurring at the ocean surface or in marine aerosols) on the reaction of O3 with bromide aerosols has not been studied yet. In our study we investigate the uptake kinetics of O3 to a mixed solution of sodium bromide (NaBr) and citric acid (CA), which represents highly oxidized organic compounds present in the environment, with a well-established coated wall flow tube technique, which leads to exposure of the film to O3 allowing the heterogeneous reactions to take place and the loss of O3 being measured. The results indicate that the uptake of O3 to the films with the higher bromide concentrations (0.34M and 4M) is independent of the gas phase concentration and roughly consistent with uptake limited by reaction in the bulk. For the lower bromide concentration (84mM), however, we observe a trend of the uptake coefficient to decrease with increasing O3 concentration, indicating an increasing importance of a surface reaction. In an attempt to constrain the kinetic data, we employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to get insight into the surface composition of the aqueous solution - air interface. Previous XPS studies have shown that halide ion concentrations are enhanced at the aqueous solution air interface [3-4], which likely promotes the surface reactions of bromide or iodide with O3. A first XPS study of ternary solutions of KI with butanol indicated the importance of specific interactions of the cation with the alcohol

  18. Comparison and Analysis of Lithium Bromide-water Absorption Chillers Using Plastic Heat Transfer Tubes and Traditional Lithium Bromide-water Absorption Chillers

    OpenAIRE

    Xue-dong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    There are extensive applications of lithium bromide-water absorption chillers in industry, but the heat exchangers corrosion and refrigerating capacity loss are very difficult to be solved. In this paper, an experiment was conducted by using plastic heat transfer tubes instead of copper tubes. As an example, for a lithium bromide-water absorption chiller of refrigerating capacity of 35kW, the correlative performance of the lithium bromide-water absorption chiller using pl...

  19. Aluminum electroplating on steel from a fused bromide electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Laura A. Wurth; Eric J. Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie J. Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven M. Frank; Guy L. Frederickson; J. Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr–KBr–CsBr–AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminum on steel substrates. The electrolytewas prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr–KBr–CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminum coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminum coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggested that the coatings did display a good corrosionresistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminum coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminumcoating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  20. Aluminium Electroplating on Steel from a Fused Bromide Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat Tripathy; Laura Wurth; Eric Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven Frank; Guy Fredrickson; J Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr-KBr-CsBr-AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminium on steel substrates. The electrolyte was prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr-KBr-CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminium coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminium coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggest that the coatings did display good corrosion-resistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminium coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminium coating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  1. Use of 82Br and 131I radionuclides in studies of goitrogenic effects of exogenous bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislav Pavelka

    2012-01-01

    The interference of excessive bromide intake with iodine metabolism in the rat was studied using 82 Br and 131 I radionuclides. Mainly lactating rat dams and their pups were used, in addition to adult male rats, in the present studies. Particularly, the influence of high bromide intake in lactating rat dams on the transfer of iodine and bromide to suckling young through breast milk was evaluated. The induction of hypothyroid status in the pups by high bromide intake in the mothers was proved unambiguously. Excessive bromide in lactating rat dams caused a marked decrease in plasma levels of thyroid hormones both, in the mothers and in their sucklings. The effects of an enhanced bromide intake on the thyroid function in relation to iodine status in the animals were also followed. Marked goitrogenic and thyrotoxic effects of excessive bromide in adult rats were significantly enhanced under the conditions of simultaneous iodine deficiency in the experimental animals. (author)

  2. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with a tantalum boat for the determination of yttrium, samarium, and dysprosium in a mish metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daidoji, Hidehiro; Tamura, Shohei

    1982-01-01

    The determination of yttrium, samarium, and dysprodium by means of graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was studied by a tantalum boat inserted into a graphite tube atomizer. These elements could not be determined by the use of a commercial graphite tube, In the atomization from a tantalum boat, better analytical sensitivities and negligible memory effects for these rare earths are obtained. The analytical sensitivities of yttrium, samarium, and dysprodium with the tantalum boat were 0.60 ng, 0.86 ng, and 0.17 ng respectively. This method was applied for the determination of yttrium, samarium, and dysprosium in a mish metal. The measurements were performed with slightly acidified solutions (0.01 mol dm 3 HCI or HNO 3 ). The sensitivities and the precisions for these elements decreased with increasing acid concentration. An enhancement in the sensitivities of yttrium and dysprosium upon the addition of a large excess of lanthanum, neodymium, and praseodymium salts were observed. The yttrium, samarium, and dysprosium in a mish metal were determined with both analytical curves of standard solutions containing an excess of lanthanum, cerium, and neodymium ions and of the standard addition. The precisions for this work were in the 3 - 9.3% range. (author)

  3. Optical properties and electronic transitions of zinc oxide, ferric oxide, cerium oxide, and samarium oxide in the ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauly, N; Yubero, F; Espinós, J P

    2017-01-01

    Optical properties and electronic transitions of four oxides, namely zinc oxide, ferric oxide, cerium oxide, and samarium oxide, are determined in the ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy using primary electron energies in the range 0.3-2.0 ke...

  4. Zinc Bromide Flow Battery Installation for Islanding and Backup Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-09

    demonstrates the energy security and cost benefits of implementing a Zn/Br Flow Battery-based ESS at the Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) located at...user will be realized through the system’s peak shaving mode. This benefit was also used to calculate the operational cost reductions when using the...EW-201242) Zinc Bromide Flow Battery Installation for Islanding and Backup Power August 2017 This document has been cleared for public release

  5. Multiple cutaneous leiomyomas: Pain relief with pulsed hysocine butyl bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliyadan Feroze

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male patient presented to our outpatient department, complaining of multiple, raised skin lesions on the forehead and back, associated with intermittent pain, especially on exposure to cold. A diagnosis of cutaneous leiomyoma (type 2 segmental was made, which was confirmed by skin biopsy. The patient was started on a trial of pulsed Hyoscine Butyl bromide tablets, following which the patient had significant relief from pain associated with the lesions.

  6. On the existence of 'L-alanine cadmium bromide'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R

    2013-12-01

    It is argued that the recently reported nonlinear optical crystal L-alanine cadmium bromide, grown by slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature [P. Ilayabarathi, J. Chandrasekaran, Spectrochim. Acta 96A (2012) 684-689] is the well-known L-alanine crystal. The isolation of L-alanine crystal is explained due to fractional crystallization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An estimation of influence of humic acid and organic matter originated from bentonite on samarium solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaji, Mariko; Sato, Haruo; Sasahira, Akira

    1999-10-01

    Organic acids in groundwater are considered to form complexes and increase the solubility of radionuclides released from vitrified waste in a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository. To investigate whether the solubility of samarium (Sm) is influenced by organic substances, we measured Sm solubility in the presence of different organic substances and compared those values with results from thermodynamic predictions. Humic acid (Aldrich) is commercially available and soluble organic matter originated from bentonite were used as organic substances in this study. Consequently, the solubility of Sm showed a tendency to apparently increase with increasing the concentration of humic acid, but in the presence of carbonate, thermodynamic predictions suggested that the dominant species are carbonate complexes and that the effect of organic substances are less than that of carbonate. Based on total organic carbon (TOC), the increase of Sm solubility measured with humic acid (Aldrich) was more significant than that in the case with soluble organic matter originated from bentonite. Since bentonite is presumed to include also simple organic matters of which stability constant for forming complexes is low, the effect of soluble organic matter originated from bentonite on the solubility of Sm is considered to be less effective than that of humic acid (Aldrich). Experimental values were compared with model prediction, proposed by Kim, based on data measured in a low pH region. Tentatively we calculated the increase in Sm solubility assuming complexation with humic acid. Trial calculations were carried out on the premise that the complexation reaction of metal ion with humic acid is based on neutralization process by 1-1 complexation. In this process, it was assumed that one metal ion coordinates with one unit of complexation sites which number of proton exchange sites is equal to ionic charge. Consequently, Kim's model indicated that carbonate complexes should be dominant

  8. Anchoring samarium oxide nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide for high-performance supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezfuli, Amin Shiralizadeh [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: ganjali@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology & Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naderi, Hamid Reza [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Samarium oxide nanoparticles have been anchored on the surface of reduced graphene oxide for the first time. • Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO nanocomposite show high capacitance, good rate and cycling performance. • Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO nanocomposite can serve as efficient electrode material for energy storage. • The best composite electrode exhibits specific capacitance of 321 F g{sup −1} in 2 mV s{sup −1}. - Abstract: We have synthesized Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (SmNs) and anchored them onto the surface of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) through a self-assembly thereof by utilizing a facile sonochemical procedure. The nanomaterials were characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As the next step, the supercapacitive behavior of the resulting nanocomposites were investigated when used as electrode material, through with cyclic voltammetric (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The SmNs decorated RGO (SmN-RGO) nanocomposites were found to possess a specific capacitance (SC) of 321 F g{sup −1} when used in a 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution as an electrolyte, in a scan rate of 2 mV s{sup −1}. The SC of the SmN-RGO based electrodes were also found to be 268 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 2 A g{sup −1} through galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The outstanding properties of the SmN-RGOs were attributed to synergy of the high charge mobility of SmNs and the flexibility of the sheets of RGOs. Additionally, the nano-composite revealed a unique cycling durability (maintaining 99% of its SC even after 4000 cycles).

  9. Fluorescence properties of europium and samarium. beta. -diketonates and their use in fluorometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H; Hiraki, K; Nishikawa, Y [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1981-01-01

    Several europium and samarium ..beta..-diketonates (tta, ntfa, bfa) complexed with 1, 10-phenanthroline, or with trioctylphosphine oxide (topo) were synthesized. The fluorescence properties of these compounds in benzene or hexane have been studied. Absorption and fluorescence spectra, fluorescence quantum yield, fluorescence sensitivity index (F.S.I.), and fluorescence lifetime were measured. From the measurement of fluorescence lifetime of the ..beta..-diketonates, the velocity of radiative process (k sub(f)/phi sub(f)) has almost the same value for benzene and hexane solvent. The red fluorescence (Em. max. : 619 nm) of Eu(III) in these chelates is attributed to transitions from /sup 5/D/sub 0/ ..-->.. /sup 7/F/sub 2/ levels of this ion, and the three-band spectrum (Em. max. : 569 nm, 606 nm, 650 nm) indicates the transitions from the /sup 4/G sub(5/2) ..-->.. /sup 6/H sub(5/2), /sup 4/G sub(5/2) ..-->.. /sup 6/H sub(7/2), and /sup 4/G sub(5/2) ..-->.. /sup 6/H sub(9/2) levels of Sm(III), respectively. These spectra are not changed by any solvents and ligands. From the results, the fluorescence of the ..beta..-diketonates in organic solvent has been attributed to m* ..-->.. m luminescence transition. The complexes of Eu(III) and Sm(III) show radiative transition within orbitals, composed exclusively of 4f orbitals of rare earth ions (m* ..-->.. m radiative transition). Fluorinated ligands show better sensitivity than unfluorinated ligands, and the best sensitivity is obtained with TTA-phen system, and/or TTA-topo system for the spectrofluorometric determination of the two metals. In the case of Eu determination, 619 nm emission wavelength is used (the determinable range : 0.2 -- 10 ppb Eu), and in the case of Sm determination, 650 nm emission wavelength is adopted (the determinable range : 0.1 -- 1 ppm Sm), because of much higher sensitivity than the other two peaks (569, 606 nm) without interference from europium complex.

  10. On the distribution of bromide and bromide/chlorinity ratios in the waters of the Arabian sea off central Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, F.P.; SenGupta, R.

    Water samples from surface to 2000 m depth at two stations in the Arabian Sea collected during the 82nd cruise of R V Gaveshani in November, 1980 were analysed for bromide. The average bromide concentration was 0.068 g/kg plus or minus 0...

  11. EFFICACY OF HYOSCINE BUTYL BROMIDE SUPPOSITORY FOR POSTOPERATIVE PAIN RELIEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soniya C. Alphonse

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Caesarean Section is on the rise all over the world. Women undergoing Caesarean section often wish to be awake post operatively and to avoid excessive medications affecting interactions with the new born infant. Multimodal pain therapy has been advocated for postoperative pain management after caesarean section. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study is a prospective randomized controlled study conducted at a tertiary care hospital to study the effect of Hyoscine Butyl Bromide Suppositories for postoperative analgesia following elective repeat caesarean section. The study included sixty patients divided into two groups- Group1 (study group were given Hyoscine Butyl Bromide Suppository (10 mg along with Injection. Tramadol 50 mg IM and Group II (control group were given Injection Tramadol IM only at the end of surgery. Pain score of the patient assessed at 1 hr, 2 hrs, 6hrs and 24 hrs post operatively. The total no of doses of injection tramadol needed in 24 hrs and the interval between 1st and 2nd dose of tramadol was also noted. The adverse effects of the drug and additional advantages of the drug if any were also assessed. RESULTS There was no statistically significant difference in pain score during the assessment intervals between the two groups. There was no difference in the number of doses of tramadol needed in the first 24 hrs. The mean interval between the 1st and 2nd dose of tramadol was found to be 7.6538 hours for group 1 patients and 6.9130 for group patients which was found to be statistically significant. There was no statistically significant side effects/ additional advantages for the drugs. CONCLUSION Concurrent administration of Hyoscine Butyl Bromide Suppository (10 mg and injection Tramadol 50 mg IM offers a longer postoperative analgesia without any increased adverse effects.

  12. The dynamics of the laser-induced metal-semiconductor phase transition of samarium sulfide (SmS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaempfer, Tino

    2009-01-01

    The present thesis is dedicated to the experimental study of the metal-semiconductor phase transition of samarium sulfide (SmS): Temperature- and time-resolved experiments on the characterization of the phase transition of mixed-valence SmS samples (M-SmS) are presented. The measurement of the dynamics of the laser-induced phase transition pursues via time-resolved ultrashort-time microscopy and by X-ray diffraction with sub-picosecond time resolution. The electronic and structural processes, which follow an excitation of M-SmS with infrared femtosecond laser pulses, are physically interpreted on the base of the results obtained in this thesis and model imaginations. [de

  13. Thermodynamics of coproportionation reactions of homogeneous samarium (3) and yttrium (3) nitrates solvates with neutral organic phosphorus compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyartman, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    Reaction heats of homogeneous samarium (3) and yttrium (3) nitrate solvates coproportionation with neutral organophosphoric compounds (tri-n.-butylphosphate, diisooctylmethylphosphonate, diisoamylmethylphosphonate) at T=298.15 K in hexane have been measured by thermochemical method. It has been ascertained that enthalpies of coproportionation reactions practically do not depend on the nature, concentration of rare earth metal (3) nitrate solvates in hexane, nature of neutral organophosphoric compound and constitute 1.1±-.2 kJ/mol. The Gibbs free energy of coproportionation reactions is -5.43 kJ/mol, while entropy of the reactions in 14.5±0.7 J/mol·K. 8 refs., 1 tab

  14. On the effects of pressure and irradiation on the transport properties of samarium compounds with unstable valence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morillo, J.

    1983-06-01

    We present the first extensive study of electronic transport properties of ''quasi-stoichiometric'' SmS as a function of pressure P, temperature T, magnetic field B and defect concentration C. SmS which is a semiconductor, undergoes with increasing P a first order transition towards an homogeneous intermediate valence state. In the semiconducting phase (s.c.), the energie epsilon(f) necessary to delocalize a 4f electron increases greatly with T and is about 250meV at 300K. The phase diagram for the first order electronic transition Sm 2 + →Smsup(2+epsilon) with P has been determined for T 6 has been investigated by resistivity measurements under irradiation at 21K. The threshold energy Ed for displacement of Sm in SmS has been determined: Ed(Sm) = 20 +- 2 eV, and the observed effects of irradiation have been associated to samarium displacements (vacancies and interstitials) [fr

  15. Methylation of food commodities during fumigation with methyl bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starratt, A.N.; Bond, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    Sites of methylation in several commodities (wheat, oatmeal, peanuts, almonds, apples, oranges, maize, alfalfa and potatoes) during fumigation with 14 C-methyl bromide were studied. Differences were observed in levels of the major volatiles: methanol, dimethyl sulphide and methyl mercaptan, products of O- and S-methylation, resulting from treatment of the fumigated materials with 1N sodium hydroxide. In studies of maize and wheat, histidine was the amino acid which underwent the highest level of N-methylation. (author). 24 refs, 3 tabs

  16. Tiotropium Bromide in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Bronchial Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Gonzalez, Alcibey; Arce, Isabel

    2015-11-01

    Inhaled bronchodilators are the mainstay of pharmacological treatment for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including β2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists. Tiotropium bromide, a long-acting antimuscarinic bronchodilator (LAMA), is a treatment choice for moderate-to-severe COPD; its efficacy and safety have been demonstrated in recent trials. Studies also point to a beneficial role of tiotropium in the treatment of difficult-to-control asthma and a potential function in the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). Combination of different bronchodilator molecules and addition of inhaled corticosteroids are viable therapeutic alternatives. A condensation of the latest trials and the rationale behind these therapies will be presented in this article.

  17. Transient anisocoria in a patient treated with nebulized ipratropium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Pejic

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions and importance: Presence of anisocoria may be a concerning neurological sign. If there are no other neurological or ophthalmological signs and symptoms and a recent ipratropium bromide inhalation treatment exists in the patient's history, we should consider iatrogenic side-effect of drugs as a possible reason of anisocoria and possibly spare the patient extensive and invasive diagnostic procedures that can also raise costs of treatment significantly. Observing neurological status and testing with 1% pilocarpine solution may be necessary to determine the etiology of this condition.

  18. Suicide by intravenous injection of rocuronium-bromide: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Slobodan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicides by intravenous injection of an overdose of medicaments are uncommon. In this paper, we present the case of a suicide by rocuronium-bromide injection in combination with an oral overdose of metoprolol. Unfortunately, in Belgrade, there is no toxicological laboratory capable of detecting rocuronium. The interpretation of autopsy and toxicological data in this case was made difficult due to the extreme putrefaction of the body of the deceased. So, by forensic investigation, the case was solved indirectly, through circumstantial evidence: an empty ampoule of rocuronium found near the body, as well as a plastic syringe and cloth-bandage found in the left hand of the deceased.

  19. Spectrophotometric determination of indium with chromazurol S and dimethyllaurylbenzylammonium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwapulinska, G.; Buhl, F.

    1988-01-01

    The ternary system: indium-chromazurol S (CHAS)-dimethyllaurylbenzylammonium bromide (ST) was applied for determination of microgramme amounts of indium. The addition of ST enhances the sensitivity of the method; at λ max =625 nm the molar absorptivity of In-CHAS-ST complex equals 1.74 x 10 5 . The system obeyes the Lambert-Beer law in the range of indium concentration from 0.04 to 0.48 ppm. The maximal absorbance was obtained at pH 6. The complex is formed immediately and is stable during 2 hours. 3 figs., 10 refs. (author)

  20. Sorption of samarium in soils: influence of soil properties and Sm concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Guinart, Oriol; Salaberria, Aitor; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry department, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Due to the fact that barriers of Deep Geological Repositories (DGR) may lose efficiency before the radioisotopes present in the High Level Radioactive Waste (HLRW) completely decay, it is possible that, in the long-term, radioactive leachates may escape from the DGR and reach the soil and water compartments in the biosphere. Therefore, it is required to examine the interaction and mobility of radionuclides present in the HLRW, or their chemical analogues, to predict the impact of their eventual incorporation in the biosphere and to assess the derived risk. Although relevant data have been recently obtained for a few radionuclides in soils, there are still some important gaps for some radionuclides, such us for samarium (Sm). Sm is a lanthanide that, besides being considered as a natural analogue of actinides, may also be present in HLRW in the form of the radioactive isotope {sup 151}Sm. The main objective of this work was to obtain sorption data (K{sub d}) of {sup 151}Sm gathered from a set of soil samples physicochemical fully-characterized (pH, texture, cationic exchange capacity, soil solution cationic composition, organic matter, carbonate and metallic oxides content, etc.). Additionally, as an alternative for testing sorption capacity of radionuclides in soils is the use of the corresponding stable isotope or a chemical analogue, the influence of Sm concentration was also checked. To evaluate {sup 151}Sm sorption, batch assays were carried out for each soil sample, which consisted in a pre-equilibration step of 2 g of each soil with 50 ml of double deionised water, and a subsequent equilibration step with the same solution, but labelled with {sup 151}Sm. The activity of {sup 151}Sm in initial and final solutions was measured by liquid scintillation and K{sub d} ({sup 151}Sm) data were calculated. The reversibly sorbed fraction was estimated by the application of a single extraction test, with double deionised water, to soil residues coming from the previous

  1. Power Plant Bromide Discharges and Downstream Drinking Water Systems in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Kelly D; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2017-10-17

    Coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems have been implicated in increasing bromide levels and subsequent increases in disinfection byproducts at downstream drinking water plants. Bromide was not included as a regulated constituent in the recent steam electric effluent limitations guidelines and standards (ELGs) since the U.S. EPA analysis suggested few drinking water facilities would be affected by bromide discharges from power plants. The present analysis uses a watershed approach to identify Pennsylvania drinking water intakes downstream of wet FGD discharges and to assess the potential for bromide discharge effects. Twenty-two (22) public drinking water systems serving 2.5 million people were identified as being downstream of at least one wet FGD discharge. During mean August conditions (generally low-flow, minimal dilution) in receiving rivers, the median predicted bromide concentrations contributed by wet FGD at Pennsylvania intake locations ranged from 5.2 to 62 μg/L for the Base scenario (including only natural bromide in coal) and from 16 to 190 μg/L for the Bromide Addition scenario (natural plus added bromide for mercury control); ranges depend on bromide loads and receiving stream dilution capacity.

  2. Transient neuromyopathy after bromide intoxication in a dog with idiopathic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmetz Sonja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A seven-year old Australian Shepherd, suffering from idiopathic epilepsy under treatment with phenobarbitone and potassium bromide, was presented with generalised lower motor neuron signs. Electrophysiology and muscle-nerve biopsies revealed a neuromyopathy. The serum bromide concentration was increased more than two-fold above the upper reference value. Clinical signs disappeared after applying diuretics and reducing the potassium bromide dose rate. This is the first case report describing electrophysiological and histopathological findings associated with bromide induced lower motor neuron dysfunction in a dog.

  3. Acute effect of methyl bromide on sleep-wakefulness and its

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S; Arito, H; Abuku, S; Imamiya, S

    1986-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify the acute effects of methyl bromide on the central nervous system, abnormal electrocorticographic activity and changes in sleep-wakefulness and its circadian rhythms were investigated after a single injection of methyl bromide. The effects of possible hydrolyzed products of methyl bromide, methanol and bromine ions on sleep and its rhythms were also examined. It was found that the hydrolyzed products of methyl bromide, bromine ions and methanol exerted little effect on the amounts of wakefulness (W), non-REM sleep (NREMS) and REM sleep (REMS) at the same molar dose as 45 mg methyl bromide/kg. Thus, it can be concluded that the methyl bromide-induced changes in sleep-wakefulness and its circadian rhythms are due to methyl bromide and not to the hydrolyzed products. It was also found that amounts of W, NREMS and REMS were changed dose-dependently after a single injection of methyl bromide and that methyl bromide significantly disrupted the circadian REMS rhythm. 17 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  4. Ferrites Ni0,5Zn0,5Fe2O4 doped with samarium: structural analysis, morphological and electromagnetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.F.M.; Diniz, A.P.; Viana, K.M.S.; Cornejo, D.R.; Kiminami, R.H.G.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes to investigate the sintering at 1200 deg C/2h of Ni 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2-x Sm x O 4 ferrite doped with 0.05; 0.075 e 0.1 mol of Sm synthesized by combustion reaction to evaluate the performance materials as absorbers of electromagnetic radiation. The influence of the concentration of samarium on the structure, morphology and electromagnetic properties of ferrites was studied. The resulting samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), magnetic measurements and reflectivity measurements in the frequency range between 8-12 GHz. The results showed that increasing the concentration of samarium caused a decrease in particle size of the samples, encouraging, therefore, to obtain materials with better values of magnetization and reflectivity, allowing for use as absorbers in narrow-band frequency between 9-10 GHz. (author)

  5. JAEA thermodynamic database for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level and TRU wastes. Refinement of thermodynamic data for trivalent actinoids and samarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akira; Fujiwara, Kenso; Yui, Mikazu

    2010-01-01

    Within the scope of the JAEA thermodynamic database project for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive and TRU wastes, the refinement of the thermodynamic data for the inorganic compounds and complexes of trivalent actinoids (actinium(III), plutonium(III), americium(III) and curium(III)) and samarium(III) was carried out. Refinement of thermodynamic data for these elements was based on the thermodynamic database for americium published by the Nuclear Energy Agency in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA). Based on the similarity of chemical properties among trivalent actinoids and samarium, complementary thermodynamic data for their species expected under the geological disposal conditions were selected to complete the thermodynamic data set for the performance assessment of geological disposal of radioactive wastes. (author)

  6. Vapour pressures, densities, and viscosities of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system and (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Antonio de; Donate, Marina; Rodriguez, Juan F.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of thermophysical properties (vapour pressure, density, and viscosity) of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system LiBr:CH 3 COOK = 2:1 by mass ratio and the (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system LiBr:CH 3 CH(OH)COONa = 2:1 by mass ratio were measured. The system, a possible new working fluid for absorption heat pump, consists of absorbent (LiBr + CH 3 COOK) or (LiBr + CH 3 CH(OH)COONa) and refrigerant H 2 O. The vapour pressures were measured in the ranges of temperature and absorbent concentration from T = (293.15 to 333.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.50, densities and viscosities were measured from T = (293.15 to 323.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.40. The experimental data were correlated with an Antoine-type equation. Densities and viscosities were measured in the same range of temperature and absorbent concentration as that of the vapour pressure. Regression equations for densities and viscosities were obtained with a minimum mean square error criterion

  7. Effective visible light-active nitrogen and samarium co-doped BiVO{sub 4} for the degradation of organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Min; Niu, Chao [College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shenyang Ligong University, Shenyang 110165 (China); Liu, Jun, E-mail: minwang62@msn.com [Shenyang Military General Hospital, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Qianwu; Yang, Changxiu; Zheng, Haoyan [College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shenyang Ligong University, Shenyang 110165 (China)

    2015-11-05

    Nitrogen and samarium co-doped BiVO{sub 4} (N–xSm–BiVO{sub 4}) nanoparticles were synthesized using a sol–gel method with a corn stem template. The physicochemical properties of the resultant N–xSm–BiVO{sub 4} particles were characterized using various methods: XPS, XRD, SEM, BET, and UV–Vis DRS analyses. The visible-light photocatalytic activity was successfully demonstrated by degrading a model dye, namely, methyl orange. The dopant content was optimized, and the nitrogen and samarium co-doped BiVO{sub 4} extended the light absorption spectrum toward the visible region, significantly enhancing the photodegradation of the model dye. The Sm and N co-doped BiVO{sub 4} exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity compared to materials with a single dopant or no dopant. The significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity of the N–Sm co-doped BiVO{sub 4} under visible-light irradiation can be attributed to the synergistic effects of the nitrogen and samarium. - Highlights: • The N–Sm codoped BiVO{sub 4} were synthesized using a sol–gel method with a corn stem template. • The N and Sm codoped BiVO{sub 4} has excellent photocatalytic activity of methyl orange degradation. • The maximum activity was observed when the molar ratio of Sm/Bi was 1.0. • The high photocatalytic activity was caused by the synergistic effects between N doping and Sm doping.

  8. Effective visible light-active nitrogen and samarium co-doped BiVO4 for the degradation of organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Min; Niu, Chao; Liu, Jun; Wang, Qianwu; Yang, Changxiu; Zheng, Haoyan

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen and samarium co-doped BiVO 4 (N–xSm–BiVO 4 ) nanoparticles were synthesized using a sol–gel method with a corn stem template. The physicochemical properties of the resultant N–xSm–BiVO 4 particles were characterized using various methods: XPS, XRD, SEM, BET, and UV–Vis DRS analyses. The visible-light photocatalytic activity was successfully demonstrated by degrading a model dye, namely, methyl orange. The dopant content was optimized, and the nitrogen and samarium co-doped BiVO 4 extended the light absorption spectrum toward the visible region, significantly enhancing the photodegradation of the model dye. The Sm and N co-doped BiVO 4 exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity compared to materials with a single dopant or no dopant. The significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity of the N–Sm co-doped BiVO 4 under visible-light irradiation can be attributed to the synergistic effects of the nitrogen and samarium. - Highlights: • The N–Sm codoped BiVO 4 were synthesized using a sol–gel method with a corn stem template. • The N and Sm codoped BiVO 4 has excellent photocatalytic activity of methyl orange degradation. • The maximum activity was observed when the molar ratio of Sm/Bi was 1.0. • The high photocatalytic activity was caused by the synergistic effects between N doping and Sm doping

  9. Sorption of samarium in iron (II) and (III) phosphates in aqueous systems; Sorcion de samario en fosfatos de hierro (II) y (III) en sistemas acuosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz F, J C

    2006-07-01

    The radioactive residues that are stored in the radioactive confinements its need to stay isolated of the environment while the radioactivity levels be noxious. An important mechanism by which the radioactive residues can to reach the environment, it is the migration of these through the underground water. That it makes necessary the investigation of reactive materials that interacting with those radionuclides and that its are able to remove them from the watery resources. The synthesis and characterization of materials that can be useful in Environmental Chemistry are very important because its characteristics are exposed and its behavior in chemical phenomena as the sorption watery medium is necessary to use it in the environmental protection. In this work it was carried out the sorption study of the samarium III ion in the iron (II) and (III) phosphate; obtaining the sorption isotherms in function of pH, of the phosphate mass and of the concentration of the samarium ion using UV-visible spectroscopy to determine the removal percentage. The developed experiments show that as much the ferrous phosphate as the ferric phosphate present a great affinity by the samarium III, for what it use like reactive material in contention walls can be very viable because it sorption capacity has overcome 90% to pH values similar to those of the underground and also mentioning that the form to obtain these materials is very economic and simple. (Author)

  10. Field-scale transport of water and bromide in a cracking clay soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, R.F.A.; Hamminga, W.; Oostindie, K.; Bronswijk, J.J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The transport of a bromide tracer was studied in a cracking heavy clay soil. The soil was sampled six times and the groundwater and drain discharge were sampled frequently. Samples were analysed for bromide content. Solutes were transported in three domains: macropores, such as large continuous

  11. 78 FR 36507 - Notice of Availability of a Treatment Evaluation Document; Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... treatment schedule for blueberries at a temperature of 60[emsp14][deg]F at a dosage rate of 2 lbs gas/1,000...] Notice of Availability of a Treatment Evaluation Document; Methyl Bromide Fumigation of Blueberries... and Quarantine Treatment Manual an additional treatment schedule for methyl bromide fumigation of...

  12. Thermochromatic investigation of some bromides and comparison with the corresponding chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim U Zin; Timokhin, S.N.; Zvara, I.

    1988-01-01

    The thermochromatographic behaviour of chlorides and bromides of La, Tb, Ag, Mn, Cs, Zn, Au, Zr, Hf, Nb ('carrier-free' nuclides) in quartz column was studied. From the experimental data a correlation was observed between the deposition temperature on the column and the enthalpy of sublimation of the chlorides and bromides. The enthalpy of adsortion of the halides were also evaluated. (author)

  13. Pancreatitis associated with potassium bromide/phenobarbital combination therapy in epileptic dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaskill, C L; Cribb, A E

    2000-01-01

    In a retrospective study, at least 10% of dogs receiving potassium bromide/phenobarbital combination therapy, compared with 0.3% of dogs receiving phenobarbital monotherapy, had probable pancreatitis. Pancreatitis may be a more frequent and more serious adverse effect of potassium bromide/phenobarbital combination therapy than has been reported previously.

  14. Rejection of Bromide and Bromate Ions by a Ceramic Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemi, Mohammadreza; Davies, Simon H; Masten, Susan J

    2012-12-01

    Effects of pH and the addition of calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) on bromate (BrO(3) (-)) and bromide (Br(-)) rejection by a ceramic membrane were investigated. Rejection of both ions increased with pH. At pH 8, the rejection of BrO(3) (-) and Br(-) was 68% and 63%, respectively. Donnan exclusion appears to play an important role in determining rejection of BrO(3) (-) and Br(-). In the presence of CaCl(2), rejection of BrO(3) (-) and Br(-) ions was greatly reduced, confirming the importance of electrostatic interactions in determining rejection of BrO(3) (-) and Br(-). The effect of Ca(2+) is so pronounced that in most natural waters, rejection of both BrO(3) (-) and Br(-) by the membrane would be extremely small.

  15. Hyoscine-N-Butyl-Bromide-Induced Hypotension and Myocardial Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Liang Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyoscine N-butyl bromide, also known as scopolamine, is a type of antimuscarinic agent. This drug is associated with numerous common side effects, including abdominal fullness, constipation, urinary retention, blurred vision, skin flushing, tachycardia, decreased sweating, and salivation. The most unfavorable side effect is hemodynamic instability. In the present case, hypotension and acute myocardial infarction developed after intravenous hyoscine injection as a premedication therapy for colonoscopy. It was difficult to differentiate the cause-effect relationship between myocardial infarction and hypotension. Because both conditions were present under drug effects, we considered 2 possible diagnoses. One was coronary spasm with cardiogenic shock, and the other was myocardial ischemic sequela due to shock status. The latter diagnosis was confirmed after a series of examinations.

  16. Irradiation as an alternative to methyl bromide: the Australian situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heather, N W [Gatton College, University of Queensland, Queensland (Australia)

    1999-05-01

    International agreement to phase out the fumigant Methyl bromide (MeBr) will have serious implications for pest and disease control in Australia, particularly grain pest control, quarantine usage on fresh horticultural produce and control of soil pathogens or nematodes. Irradiation is a practical alternative but is not currently approved for use in Australia. Other options are available but none of the viable methods except irradiation have the short application time needed for treatment of grams found to be infested during loading at export. This usage is vital, as Australian grain is exported at very high standards of freedom from insects, assured by Government regulatory requirements. Irradiation is contrasted against other alternatives including heat and cold, especially for fresh horticultural produce. (author) 4 refs, 5 tabs

  17. Irradiation as an alternative to methyl bromide: the Australian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heather, N.W.

    1999-01-01

    International agreement to phase out the fumigant Methyl bromide (MeBr) will have serious implications for pest and disease control in Australia, particularly grain pest control, quarantine usage on fresh horticultural produce and control of soil pathogens or nematodes. Irradiation is a practical alternative but is not currently approved for use in Australia. Other options are available but none of the viable methods except irradiation have the short application time needed for treatment of grams found to be infested during loading at export. This usage is vital, as Australian grain is exported at very high standards of freedom from insects, assured by Government regulatory requirements. Irradiation is contrasted against other alternatives including heat and cold, especially for fresh horticultural produce. (author)

  18. Results after therapy of pain from bone metastases with Samarium-153 in our centers in Lima, Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, N.; Eskenazi, S.; Valle, M.P.; Montoya, J.; Castro, M.; Montiel, L.; Velarde, V.; Jauregui, I.; Cueto, C.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: 105 patients with bone metastases from prostate and breast cancer; between 42 and 78 years age (median 61 years) were evaluated. Patients had intense pain that could not be managed with combinations of analgesic and anti tumoral drugs. All patients received 1.2 mCi/kg of Samarium-153 intravenously as treatment for pain due to bony metastases. The isotope obtained from atomic reactor placed in Lima - Peru, was provided by Peruvian Nuclear Energy Institute (IPEN). One week before therapy, all the patients had a bone scan study with Tc99m-MDP that showed the presence of multiple bone metastases with high blastic activity. Haematology and biochemical parameter checked were: Creatinine ( 150,000 mm3), Leukocytes (> 5,000 mm3), Red cells (>3,500,000 mm3). No problems were encountered during intravenous administration of the radioisotope. The side effects after treatment were: Primary effects: 16 cases of nausea, 2 of vomiting, 3 of headache, 28 had increment of pain, 6 had flushing. 50 patients did not have the primary symptoms. Secondary effects: 3 Patients showed drop in leukocyte count between 2nd and 3rd week of therapy. Red cells showed 10-15% decrease between 6th to 8th week. Platelets showed a decrease of about 15% with one peak between 1st and 2nd week post Samarium therapy. Data was analysed using an analogue visual scale of the pain with values from 0 - 10 (0-no pain; 10-maximum pain) and in the same way using the E.C.O.G. scale (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group) in relationship with the Karnofsky index in order to establish functional recovery for each patient. The decrease of pain was seen between 4th-7th days (average 8 days). A second dose was given after 60 days in 12 patients and a third dose in 3 cases.11 patients died due to different causes between 30 - 60 days post treatment. The analgesic dose came down significantly in 80% of patients. We conclude that palliative therapy of metastatic bone pain in Peru is possible with radionuclides. It

  19. Samarium-modified vanadium phosphate catalyst for the selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hua-Yi; Wang, Hai-Bo; Liu, Xin-Hua; Li, Jian-Hui; Yang, Mei-Hua; Huang, Chuan-Jing; Weng, Wei-Zheng; Wan, Hui-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The addition of a small amount of Sm into VPO catalyst brought about great changes in its physicochemical properties such as surface area, surface morphology, phase composition and redox property, thus leading to a higher catalytic performance in the selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride, as compared to the undoped VPO catalyst. - Highlights: • The addition of Sm leads to great changes in the structure of VPO catalyst. • Sm improves performance of VPO for oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride. • Catalytic performance is closely related to structure of VPO catalyst. - Abstract: A series of samarium-modified vanadium phosphate catalysts were prepared and studied in selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride. The catalytic evaluation showed that Sm modification significantly increased the overall n-butane conversion and intrinsic activity. N 2 -adsorption, XRD, SEM, Raman, XPS, EPR and H 2 -TPR techniques were used to investigate the intrinsic difference among these catalysts. The results revealed that the addition of Sm to VPO catalyst can increase the surface area of the catalyst, lead to a significant change in catalyst morphology from plate-like structure into rosette-shape clusters, and largely promote the formation of (VO) 2 P 2 O 7 . All of these were related to the different catalytic performance of Sm-doped and undoped VPO catalysts. The roles of the different VOPO 4 phases and the influence of Sm were also described and discussed

  20. Study of unstable valences of cadmium and samarium by pulse radiolysis. Influence of complexation by some synthetical ionophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerat-Parizot, O.

    1992-01-01

    Instable valences of cations in solution are evidenced by pulse radiolysis, in spite of a lifetime often lower than a milli-second they participate to electron transfer reactions, owing to their redox potential. In this work are studied Cd + and Sm 2+ obtained respectively by reduction of Cd 2+ and Sm 3+ by a solvated electron. The reactivity of Cd + in a cryptand and in a coronand is studied; it is a powerful reducing agent (redox potential -2V) going back to the stable valence by electron transfer to an acceptor. Transfer kinetics is studied by reduction of organic molecules, effect of solvents and ligands is also examined. For samarium the reduction kinetics by hydrated electrons is increased when the ion is in a cryptand in agreement with electrochemical observations, showing that the valence 2+ is stabilized in respect to the valence 3+ for lanthanides. The difference of behaviour between Cd + and Sm 2+ is probably due to the fact that for Cd the transferred electron comes from the external layer and for Sm it is a f electron protected by the 5s and 5p orbitals

  1. Fabrication of samarium strontium aluminate ceramic and deposition of thermal barrier coatings by air plasma spray process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran T

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal barrier coatings (TBC with the metallic NiCrAlY bond coat are often used in many aircraft engines to protect superalloy components from high-temperature corrosion thereby to improve the life of gas turbine components. The search for new TBC material has been intensified in recent years due to lack of thermo-physical properties of conventionally used Yttria stabilized Zirconia (YSZ TBCs. Recently, the rare earth containing Samarium Strontium Aluminate (SSA based ceramic was proposed as a new TBC material due to its matching thermo-physical properties with the substrate. The present work focused on the synthesis of SSA ceramics for TBCs application and its coatings development on Ni-based superalloy Inconel 718 substrate by air plasma spray process. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS result confirmed the formation of single phase SSA ceramic after synthesis. The surface morphology of SSA TBCs is mainly composed of melted splats, semi and un-melted particles. The cross-sectional SEM micrographs did not show any spallation at the interface which indicated good mechanical interlocking between the bond coat and ceramic top coat. The Young’s modulus and hardness of SSA TBCs were found to be 80 and 6.1 GPa, respectively. The load-depth curve of SSA TBC showed good elastic recovery about 47 %.

  2. Observation of near infrared and enhanced visible emissions from electroluminescent devices with organo samarium(III) complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, B [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16-Dong NanHu Road, Economic Development Area, Changchun, 130033 (China); Li, W L [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16-Dong NanHu Road, Economic Development Area, Changchun, 130033 (China); Hong, Z R [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16-Dong NanHu Road, Economic Development Area, Changchun, 130033 (China); Zang, F X [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16-Dong NanHu Road, Economic Development Area, Changchun, 130033 (China); Wei, H Z [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16-Dong NanHu Road, Economic Development Area, Changchun, 130033 (China); Wang, D Y [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16-Dong NanHu Road, Economic Development Area, Changchun, 130033 (China); Li, M T [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16-Dong NanHu Road, Economic Development Area, Changchun, 130033 (China); Lee, C S [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Lee, S T [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-11-07

    Samarium (dibenzoylmethanato){sub 3} bathophenanthroline (Sm(DBM){sub 3} bath) was employed as an emitting and electron transport layer in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), and narrow electroluminescent (EL) emissions of a Sm{sup 3+} ion were observed in the visible and near infrared (NIR) region, differing from those of the same devices with Eu{sup 3+}- or Tb{sup 3+}-complex EL devices with the same structure. The EL emissions of the Sm{sup 3+}-devices originate from transitions from {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} to the lower respective levels of Sm{sup 3+} ions. A maximum luminance of 490 cd m{sup -2} at 15 V and an EL efficiency of 0.6% at 0.17 mA cm{sup -2} were obtained in the visible region, and the improved efficiency should be attributed to introducing a transitional layer between the N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-diphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) film and the Sm(DBM){sub 3} bath film and the avoidance of interfacial exciplex emission in devices. Sharp emissions of Sm{sup 3+} ions in the NIR region were also observed under a lower threshold value less than 4.5 V.

  3. Effects of increasing doses of samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate on axial and appendicular skeletal growth in juvenile rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essman, Stephanie C.; Lewis, Michael R.; Fox, Derek B.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Targeted radiotherapy using samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate ( 153 Sm-EDTMP) is currently under investigation for treatment of osteosarcoma. Osteosarcoma often occurs in children, and previous studies on a juvenile rabbit model demonstrated that clinically significant damage to developing physeal cartilage may occur as a result of systemic 153 Sm-EDTMP therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the late effects of 153 Sm-EDTMP on skeletal structures during growth to maturity and to determine if there is a dose response of 153 Sm-EDTMP on growth of long bones. Methods: Female 8-week-old New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three treatment groups plus controls. Each rabbit was intravenously administered a predetermined dose of 153 Sm-EDTMP. Multiple bones of each rabbit were radiographed every 2 months until physeal closure, with subsequent measurements made to assess for abbreviated bone growth. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the differences in bone length between groups, with significance set at P 153 Sm-EDTMP. Further investigation regarding the effects of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals on bone growth and physeal cartilage is warranted

  4. Synthesis and characterization of samarium-doped ZnS nanoparticles: A novel visible light responsive photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanifehpour, Younes, E-mail: y_hanifehpour@yu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Soltani, Behzad; Amani-Ghadim, Ali Reza; Hedayati, Behnam [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khomami, Bamin [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Joo, Sang Woo, E-mail: swjoo1@gmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Sm-doped ZnS Nanomaterials were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • The as-prepared compounds were characterized by XRD, TEM, XPS, SEM and UV techniques. • The photocatalytic effect of compounds was determined by Reactive Red 43 degradation. • The degradation of RRed 43 followed the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetic model. - Abstract: We prepared pure and samarium-doped ZnS (Sm{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}S{sub 1+0.5x}) nanoparticles via hydrothermal process at 160 °C for 24 h. XRD analysis shows that the particles were well crystallized and corresponds to a cubic sphalerite phase. SEM and TEM images indicate that the sizes of the particles were in the range of 20–60 nm. The photocatalytic activity of Sm-doped ZnS nanoparticles was evaluated by monitoring the decolorization of Reactive Red 43 in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The color removal efficiency of Sm{sub 0.04}Zn{sub 0.96}S and pure ZnS was 95.1% and 28.7% after 120 min of treatment, respectively. Among the different amounts of dopant agent used, 4% Sm-doped ZnS nanoparticles indicated the highest decolorization. We found that the presence of inorganic ions such as Cl{sup −}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and other radical scavengers such as buthanol and isopropyl alcohol reduced the decolorization efficiency.

  5. Determination of the speciation and bioavailability of samarium to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the presence of natural organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Justine-Anne; Fillion, Marc-Alexandre; Smith, Scott; Wilkinson, Kevin J

    2018-06-01

    As technological interest and environmental emissions of the rare earth elements increase, it is becoming more important to assess their potential environmental impact. Samarium (Sm) is a lanthanide of intermediate molar mass that is used in numerous high-technology applications including wind turbines, solar panels, and electric vehicles. The present study relates the speciation of Sm determined in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) to its bioavailability to the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The free ion concentration was determined using a cation exchange resin (ion exchange technique) in dynamic mode and compared with thermodynamic modeling. Short-term biouptake experiments were performed in the presence of 4 types of NOM: Suwannee River fulvic acids, Pahokee Peat fulvic acids, Suwannee River humic acids, and a Luther Marsh dissolved organic matter isolate (90-95% humic acids). It was clearly shown that even a small amount of NOM (0.5 mg C L -1 ) resulted in a significant decrease (10 times) in the Sm internalization fluxes. Furthermore, complexation with humic acids (and the corresponding reduction in Sm bioavailability) was stronger than that with fulvic acids. The results showed that the experimentally measured (free) Sm was a better predictor of Sm internalization than either the total concentrations or the free ion concentrations obtained using thermodynamic modeling. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:1623-1631. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  6. Evaluation of alkali bromide salts for potential pyrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, P.K.; Gutknecht, T.Y.; Herrmann, S.D.; Fredrickson, G.L.; Lister, T.E.

    2013-01-01

    Transient techniques were employed to study the electrochemical behavior, reduction mechanism and transport properties of REBr 3 (RE - La, Nd and Gd) in pure LiBr, LiBr-KBr (eutectic) and LiBr-KBr-CsBr (eutectic) melts. Gd(III) showed a reversible single step soluble-insoluble exchange phenomenon in LiBr melt at 973 K. Although La (III), Nd(III) and Gd(III) ions showed reversible behavior in eutectic LiBr-KBr melts, these ions showed a combination of temperature dependent reversible and pseudo-reversible behavior. While both La(III) and Gd(III) showed one step reduction, the reduction of Nd(III) was observed to be a two step process. La metal could be electrodeposited from the ternary electrolyte at a temperature of 673 K. Various electrochemical measurements suggest that both binary and ternary bromide melts can potentially be used to electro-deposit high purity RE metals at comparatively lower operating temperatures. (authors)

  7. IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE FOR ACUTE ASTHMA IN CHILDREN: A RETROSPECTIVE TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Osamu; Morikawa, Yoshihiko; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Ihara, Takateru; Inoue, Nobuaki; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Akasawa, Akira

    Inhaled anticholinergics such as ipratropium bromide (IB), when administered with β2-agonists, are effective in reducing hospital admissions of children presenting to the emergency department with moderate to severe asthma. However, treatment of acute asthma with IB is still uncommon in Japan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of IB for the treatment of pediatric acute asthma. We conducted a retrospective study to compare the admission rate of patients who received IB with those who did not. Patients aged 4 years or older with a history of moderate to severe attacks were included. For analysis, propensity score matching was used to adjust the confounding factors related to IB use. Patients received IB by metered-dose inhaler (40μg per dose) with a spacer three times at 20-min intervals. Among 175 patients included in the analysis, 102 patients were treated with IB (IB group) and 73 patients were treated without IB (Non-IB group). A propensity score matching analysis extracted 63 patients from each group. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of admission rate (IB group 12.7% vs Non-IB group 9.5%; p=0.78). One patient (1.0%) treated with IB experienced dryness of the mouth, which resolved spontaneously. The admission rate did not decline with IB use. Several confounding factors could have influenced and limited our results. A prospective study is needed to investigate the effectiveness of IB in Japan.

  8. Agricultural soil fumigation as a source of atmospheric methyl bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, K; Williams, J; Wang, N Y; Cicerone, R J

    1993-09-15

    Methyl bromide (MeBr) is used increasingly as a biocidal fumigant, primarily in agricultural soils prior to planting of crops. This usage carries potential for stratospheric ozone reduction due to Br atom catalysis, depending on how much MeBr escapes from fumigated soils to the atmosphere and on details of atmospheric chemical reactions. We present direct field measurements of MeBr escape; 87% of the applied MeBr was emitted within 7 days after a commercial fumigation. Covering the field with plastic sheets retarded MeBr escape somewhat but first-day losses were still 40%; thicker sections of sheets were relatively more effective than thin sections. We also measured gaseous MeBr concentrations versus depth in the soil column; these profiles display diffusion-like evolution. In soil, MeBr is partitioned among gas, liquid, and adsorbed solid phases. Calculated soil inventories agreed only roughly with applied amounts, probably due to nonequilibrium partitioning (during the first 30 min) and to uncertainties in partitioning coefficients. Fumigated fields may release less MeBr if they are covered by more gas-tight plastic films, if injection techniques are improved and injection is deeper, and if soil moistures, organic amounts, and densities are greater than in the soil studied here.

  9. Factors affecting a cyanogen bromide-based assay of thiamin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, D T; Lee, M; Hillman, R E

    1989-11-01

    We analyzed extensively a modified thiochrome method for thiamin analysis. Acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) from potato was superior to either alpha-amylase or acid phosphatase from wheat germ as a dephosphorylating agent. Timing of cyanogen bromide exposure was important, but the assay had good precision and accuracy. The standard curve was linear from 10 to 3000 nmol/L. The within-run and between-run coefficients of variation for total thiamin in whole blood were 3.6% and 7.4%, respectively. Analytical recoveries for low, intermediate, and high additions of thiamin to whole blood were 93-109%. Sample yield was increased by 41% (+/- 29% SD) with pre-assay freezing. Samples were stable for two days at room temperature, for seven days when refrigerated, and for two years when frozen. Previously unreported interference was seen with penicillin derivatives, and with several commonly used diuretic and antiepileptic medications. This assay may be suitable for population screening; 200 samples could be analyzed weekly at a cost of +0.20 per sample.

  10. Evaluation of Alkali Bromide Salts for Potential Pyrochemical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Steven D. Herrmann; Guy L. Fredrickson; Tedd E. Lister; Toni Y. Gutknecht

    2013-10-01

    Transient techniques were employed to study the electrochemical behavior, reduction mechanism and transport properties of REBr3 (RE - La, Nd and Gd) in pure LiBr, LiBr-KBr (eutectic) and LiBr-KBr-CsBr (eutectic) melts. Gd(III) showed a reversible single step soluble-insoluble exchange phenomenon in LiBr melt at 973K. Although La (III), Nd(III) and Gd(III) ions showed reversible behavior in eutectic LiBr-KBr melts, these ions showed a combination of temperature dependent reversible and pseudo-reversible behavior. While both La(III) and Gd(III) showed one step reduction, the reduction of Nd(III) was observed to be a two step process. La metal could be electrodeposited from the ternary electrolyte at a temperature of 673K. Various electrochemical measurements suggest that both binary and ternary bromide melts can potentially be used to electrodeposit high purity RE metals at comparatively lower operating temperatures.

  11. Absorber performance of a water/lithium-bromide absorption chiller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Guozhen; Sheng Guogang; Bansal, Pradeep Kumar; Li, Guang

    2008-01-01

    An absorber is one of the most important components of a lithium-bromide absorption chiller (LBAC) as its absorbing characteristics directly influence the performance of the whole chiller. It has been indicated that the absorbing efficiency and cooling capacity could be improved by increasing the solution concentration. In this paper, based on the mechanism of falling film absorption on horizontal tubes, the theoretical models of falling film absorption on horizontal tubes have been established. A series of programs used for computing the theoretical mathematical models, including simulation of LBAC cycle and falling film absorption, have been programmed. The models have been validated reasonably by the experimental data. The results show that the cooling capacity of the LBAC varies in parabola shape of curve with the solution concentration from 52.5% to 58.5%, and that the best coefficient of performance (COP) occurs at concentration of 57%. The investigation proposes the absorbing process of sub-steady thermodynamic equilibrium for the duality solution under increase absorbing pressure

  12. Advanced crystal growth techniques for thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Amlan; Becla, Piotr; Guguschev, Christo; Motakef, Shariar

    2018-02-01

    Thallium Bromide (TlBr) is a promising room-temperature radiation detector candidate with excellent charge transport properties. Currently, Travelling Molten Zone (TMZ) technique is widely used for growth of semiconductor-grade TlBr crystals. However, there are several challenges associated with this type of crystal growth process including lower yield, high thermal stress, and low crystal uniformity. To overcome these shortcomings of the current technique, several different crystal growth techniques have been implemented in this study. These include: Vertical Bridgman (VB), Physical Vapor Transport (PVT), Edge-defined Film-fed Growth (EFG), and Czochralski Growth (Cz). Techniques based on melt pulling (EFG and Cz) were demonstrated for the first time for semiconductor grade TlBr material. The viability of each process along with the associated challenges for TlBr growth has been discussed. The purity of the TlBr crystals along with its crystalline and electronic properties were analyzed and correlated with the growth techniques. Uncorrected 662 keV energy resolutions around 2% were obtained from 5 mm x 5 mm x 10 mm TlBr devices with virtual Frisch-grid configuration.

  13. Improved spectrometric characteristics of thallium bromide nuclear radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hitomi, K; Shoji, T; Suehiro, T; Hiratate, Y

    1999-01-01

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a compound semiconductor with a high atomic number and wide band gap. In this study, nuclear radiation detectors have been fabricated from the TlBr crystals. The TlBr crystals were grown by the horizontal travelling molten zone (TMZ) method using the materials purified by many pass zone refining. The crystals were characterized by measuring the resistivity, the mobility-lifetime (mu tau) product and the energy required to create an electron-hole pair (the epsilon value). Improved energy resolution has been obtained by the TlBr radiation detectors. At room temperature the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) for the 59.5, 122 and 662 keV gamma-ray photo peak obtained from the detectors were 3.3, 8.8 and 29.5 keV, respectively. By comparing the saturated peak position of the TlBr detector with that of the CdTe detector, the epsilon value has been estimated to be about 5.85 eV for the TlBr crystal.

  14. Fabrication of double-sided thallium bromide strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitomi, Keitaro, E-mail: keitaro.hitomi@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Nagano, Nobumichi [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Onodera, Toshiyuki [Department of Electronics and Intelligent Systems, Tohoku Institute of Technology, Sendai 982-8577 (Japan); Kim, Seong-Yun; Ito, Tatsuya; Ishii, Keizo [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    Double-sided strip detectors were fabricated from thallium bromide (TlBr) crystals grown by the traveling-molten zone method using zone-purified materials. The detectors had three 3.4-mm-long strips with 1-mm widths and a surrounding electrode placed orthogonally on opposite surfaces of the crystals at approximately 6.5×6.5 mm{sup 2} in area and 5 mm in thickness. Excellent charge transport properties for both electrons and holes were observed from the TlBr crystals. The mobility-lifetime products for electrons and holes in the detector were measured to be ~3×10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V and ~1×10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V, respectively. The {sup 137}Cs spectra corresponding to the gamma-ray interaction position were obtained from the detector. An energy resolution of 3.4% of full width at half maximum for 662-keV gamma rays was obtained from one “pixel” (an intersection of the strips) of the detector at room temperature.

  15. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2014-08-26

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  16. A comparison of the effect of intranasal desmopressin and intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide combination with intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in acute renal colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol-Reza Kheirollahi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with acute renal colic usually require immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this clinical trial analgesic effect of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin combination in comparison with hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with acute renal colic induced by urinary stones was assessed. Methods: The study included 114 patients randomly allocated in two groups (A and B. Patients in group A received 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide at admission time and patients in group B received 20 μg of intranasal desmopressin in combination with 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide. A visual analogue scale (VAS; a 10-cm horizontal scale ranging from "zero or no pain" to "10 or unbearable pain" was hired to assess the patients′ pain severity at baseline, 30 and 60 minutes after the treatments. Results: On admission, the pain level was similar in both groups (group A: 8.95 ± 0.11 and group B: 8.95 ± 0.12. In group A, the mean of pain level showed a decrease after 30 minutes (group A: 7.26 ± 0.25 and group B: 5.95 ± 0.28 but further decreasing did not occur; however in group B, the pain consistently decreased and the mean after 60 minutes was significantly decreased (group A: 6.80 ± 0.31 and group B: 3.71 ± 0.31. No side effects were detected in this study. Conclusions: The combination of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin is more effective than hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with renal colic. Further studies are recommended to validate these findings and compare the different doses of desmopressin.

  17. CHLORPYRIFOS TRANSFORMATION BY AQUEOUS CHLORINE IN THE PRESENCE OF BROMIDE AND NATURAL ORGANIC MATTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aqueous chlorination of chlorpyrifos (CP) was investigated in the presence of bromide and natural organic matter (NOM), which were identified as naturally occurring aqueous constituents that could impact CP transformation rates to the toxic product chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO). Br...

  18. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Treatment Longer than 8 Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  19. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Treatment 8 Hours or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  20. Fabrication of a PVC membrane samarium(III) sensor based on N,N Prime ,N Double-Prime -tris(4-pyridyl)trimesic amide as a selectophore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Hassan Ali, E-mail: haszamani@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naghavi-Reyabbi, Fatemeh [Resident of General Surgery, Endoscopic and Minimaly Invasive Surgery Research Center, Ghaem Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridbod, Farnoush [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadhosseini, Majid [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Mohammad Reza [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tadjarodi, Azadeh; Rad, Maryam [Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-01

    A new ion-selective electrode for Sm{sup 3+} ion is described based on the incorporation of N,N Prime ,N Double-Prime -tris(4-pyridyl)trimesic amide (TPTA) in a poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) matrix. The membrane sensor comprises nitrobenzene (NB) as a plasticizer, and oleic acid (OA) as an anionic additive. The sensor with the optimized composition shows a Nernstian potential response of 19.8 {+-} 0.5 mV decade{sup -1} over a wide concentration range of 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} and 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1}, with a lower detection limit of 4.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1} and satisfactor applicable pH range of 3.6-9.2. Having a short response time of less than 10 s and a very good selectivity towards the Sm{sup 3+} over a wide variety of interfering cations (e.g. alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions) the sensor seemed to be a promising analytical tool for determination of the Sm{sup 3+}. Hence, it was used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of samarium ion with EDTA. It was also applied to the direct samarium recovery in binary mixtures. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new Sm{sup 3+}-PVC membrane sensor is introduced for determination of Sm{sup 3+} ions in the solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N,N Prime ,N Double-Prime -tris(4-pyridyl)trimesic amide was used as a suitable selectophore for samarium sensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection limit of the sensor is 4.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1} with a short response time of less than 10 s.

  1. Fabrication of a PVC membrane samarium(III) sensor based on N,N′,N″-tris(4-pyridyl)trimesic amide as a selectophore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamani, Hassan Ali; Naghavi-Reyabbi, Fatemeh; Faridbod, Farnoush; Mohammadhosseini, Majid; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Tadjarodi, Azadeh; Rad, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    A new ion-selective electrode for Sm 3+ ion is described based on the incorporation of N,N′,N″-tris(4-pyridyl)trimesic amide (TPTA) in a poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) matrix. The membrane sensor comprises nitrobenzene (NB) as a plasticizer, and oleic acid (OA) as an anionic additive. The sensor with the optimized composition shows a Nernstian potential response of 19.8 ± 0.5 mV decade −1 over a wide concentration range of 1.0 × 10 −2 and 1 × 10 −6 mol L −1 , with a lower detection limit of 4.7 × 10 −7 mol L −1 and satisfactor applicable pH range of 3.6–9.2. Having a short response time of less than 10 s and a very good selectivity towards the Sm 3+ over a wide variety of interfering cations (e.g. alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions) the sensor seemed to be a promising analytical tool for determination of the Sm 3+ . Hence, it was used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of samarium ion with EDTA. It was also applied to the direct samarium recovery in binary mixtures. - Highlights: ► A new Sm 3+ -PVC membrane sensor is introduced for determination of Sm 3+ ions in the solutions. ► N,N′,N″-tris(4-pyridyl)trimesic amide was used as a suitable selectophore for samarium sensor. ► Detection limit of the sensor is 4.7 × 10 −7 mol L −1 with a short response time of less than 10 s.

  2. Tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine: a new system for conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Vitor S.C. de; Mattos, Marcio C.S. de

    2014-01-01

    An efficient and facile method has been developed for the conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides under neutral conditions using tribromoisocyanuric acid and triphenylphosphine (molar ratio 1.0:0.7:2.0, alcohol/tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine) in dichloromethane at room temperature. This method can be applied for the conversion of primary, secondary, benzilic and allylic alcohols, and their corresponding bromides are obtained in 67-82 % yield. Tertiary alcohols do not react under these conditions. (author)

  3. Tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine: a new system for conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Vitor S.C. de; Mattos, Marcio C.S. de, E-mail: mmattos@iq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2014-05-15

    An efficient and facile method has been developed for the conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides under neutral conditions using tribromoisocyanuric acid and triphenylphosphine (molar ratio 1.0:0.7:2.0, alcohol/tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine) in dichloromethane at room temperature. This method can be applied for the conversion of primary, secondary, benzilic and allylic alcohols, and their corresponding bromides are obtained in 67-82 % yield. Tertiary alcohols do not react under these conditions. (author)

  4. Influence of bromide on the performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca in reconstituted waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Chris D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    Poor performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca has been observed in exposures using reconstituted waters. Previous studies have reported success in H. azteca water-only exposures with the addition of relatively high concentrations of bromide. The present study evaluated the influence of lower environmentally representative concentrations of bromide on the response ofH. azteca in 42-d water-only exposures. Improved performance of H. azteca was observed in reconstituted waters with >0.02 mg Br/L.

  5. Stabilized thallium bromide radiation detectors and methods of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leao, Cedric Rocha; Lordi, Vincenzo

    2015-11-24

    According to one embodiment, a crystal includes thallium bromide (TlBr), one or more positively charged dopants, and one or more negatively charged dopants. According to another embodiment, a system includes a monolithic crystal including thallium bromide (TlBr), one or more positively charged dopants, and one or more negatively charged dopants; and a detector configured to detect a signal response of the crystal.

  6. The theoretical basis and clinical methodology for stereotactic interstitial brain tumor irradiation using iododeoxyuridine as a radiation sensitizer and samarium-145 as a brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, J.H.; Gahbauer, R.A.; Kanellitsas, C.; Clendenon, N.R.; Laster, B.H.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    High grade astrocytomas have proven resistant to all conventional therapy. A technique to produce radiation enhancement during interstitial brain tumor irradiation by using a radiation sensitizer (IdUrd) and by stimulation of Auger electron cascades through absorption of low energy photons in iodine (Photon activation) is described. Clinical studies using IdUrd, 192 Ir as a brachytherapy source, and external radiation have produced promising results. Substituting samarium-145 for 192 Ir in this protocol is expected to produce enhanced results. 15 refs

  7. The properties of samarium-doped zinc oxide/phthalocyanine structure for optoelectronics prepared by pulsed laser deposition and organic molecular evaporation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Michal; Marešová, Eva; Fitl, Přemysl; Vlček, Jan; Bergmann, M.; Vondráček, Martin; Yatskiv, Roman; Bulíř, Jiří; Hubík, Pavel; Hruška, Petr; Drahokoupil, Jan; Abdellaoui, N.; Vrňata, M.; Lančok, Ján

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2016), 1-8, č. článku 225. ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15050; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0958; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10279S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14FR010 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:67985882 Keywords : samarium-doped zinc oxide zinc/phthalocyanine deposition * evaporation * pulsed laser deposition * thin films Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.455, year: 2016

  8. Control of insects with fumigants at low temperatures: toxicity of mixtures of methyl bromide and acrylonitrile to three species of insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, E.J.; Buckland, C.T.

    1976-12-15

    Acrylonitrile can be mixed with methyl bromide to increase toxicity so that the quantity of methyl bromide required for control of Sitophilus granarius (L.), Tenebrio molitor L., and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin duval is reduced by one half. Mixtures of methyl bromide and acrylonitrile are considerably more effective at low temperatures than methyl bromide alone.

  9. Monitoring of water movement in paddy field's soil using a bromide tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asiah Ahmad; Kouichi Yuita

    1994-01-01

    Water movement in soils at the lower course and the middle course of Sakawa River's paddy field was monitored over an 8 week period using a bromide tracer. The water of soil samples taken one day after bromide application contained high concentrations of bromide at 50 to 60 cm soil depth at lower course. The bromide was concentrated promarily within 20 to 80 cm depth. No downward movement below 80 cm depth was detected six weeks afetr the application. This might indicate the high water table of this area. On the other hand, bromide concentrations were high at 50 cm depth in water of the soils sample taken one day after application from the middle course of Sakawa River plot. However, the concentrations were nearly at background level in all samples taken from the middle course of sakawa River 3 weeks after application. The evidence from bromide's movement shows that water readily penetrate the soils at the middle course of Sakawa River. The downward movement was faster compared to that at lower course

  10. Partial molar volume and isentropic compressibility of symmetrical and asymmetrical quaternary ammonium bromides in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Nicolás; Buchner, Richard; Vargas, Edgar F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Structural effects of the cations on surrounding water molecules are discussed. • Alkyl-chain geometry determines the hydration of Bu 4 N + isomers. • The “compactness” in the hydration shells varies significantly among the isomers. - Abstract: Values of apparent molar volume and isentropic compressibility of symmetric and asymmetric isomers of tetrabutylammonium bromide, namely tetra-n-butylammonium bromide, tetra-iso-butylammonium bromide, tetra-sec-butylammonium bromide, di-n-butyl-di-iso-butylammonium bromide and di-n-butyl-di-sec-butylammonium bromide, in aqueous solution were determined from density and speed of sound measurements. These properties were obtained as a function of molal concentration within the range of 0.01 < m/mol · kg −1 < 0.1 covering temperatures from 278.15 ⩽ T/K ⩽ 293.15. The partial molar volumes and the apparent isentropic molar compressibility at infinite dilution were calculated and their dependence on temperature examined. The results show that cations with sec-butyl chains have larger structural volumes compared to those with iso-butyl chains. In addition, cations with sec-butyl chains induce smaller structural changes in their hydration shell than the others

  11. The killing of African trypanosomes by ethidium bromide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Roy Chowdhury

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduced in the 1950s, ethidium bromide (EB is still used as an anti-trypanosomal drug for African cattle although its mechanism of killing has been unclear and controversial. EB has long been known to cause loss of the mitochondrial genome, named kinetoplast DNA (kDNA, a giant network of interlocked minicircles and maxicircles. However, the existence of viable parasites lacking kDNA (dyskinetoplastic led many to think that kDNA loss could not be the mechanism of killing. When recent studies indicated that kDNA is indeed essential in bloodstream trypanosomes and that dyskinetoplastic cells survive only if they have a compensating mutation in the nuclear genome, we investigated the effect of EB on kDNA and its replication. We here report some remarkable effects of EB. Using EM and other techniques, we found that binding of EB to network minicircles is low, probably because of their association with proteins that prevent helix unwinding. In contrast, covalently-closed minicircles that had been released from the network for replication bind EB extensively, causing them, after isolation, to become highly supertwisted and to develop regions of left-handed Z-DNA (without EB, these circles are fully relaxed. In vivo, EB causes helix distortion of free minicircles, preventing replication initiation and resulting in kDNA loss and cell death. Unexpectedly, EB also kills dyskinetoplastic trypanosomes, lacking kDNA, by inhibiting nuclear replication. Since the effect on kDNA occurs at a >10-fold lower EB concentration than that on nuclear DNA, we conclude that minicircle replication initiation is likely EB's most vulnerable target, but the effect on nuclear replication may also contribute to cell killing.

  12. Inhalable Ipratropium Bromide Particle Engineering with Multicriteria Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinjamuri, Bhavani Prasad; Haware, Rahul V; Stagner, William C

    2017-08-01

    Spray-dried ipratropium bromide (IPB) microspheres for oral inhalation were engineered using Quality by Design. The interrogation of material properties, process parameters, and critical product quality attributes interplay enabled rational product design. A 2 7-3 screening design exhibited the Maillard reaction between L-leucine (LL) and lactose at studied outlet temperatures (OT) >130°C. A response surface custom design was used in conjunction with multicriteria optimization to determine the operating design space to achieve inhalable microparticles. Statistically significant predictive models were developed for volume median diameter (p = 0.0001, adjusted R 2   = 0.9938), span (p = 0.0278, adjusted R 2   = 0.7912), yield (p = 0.0020, adjusted R 2   = 0.9320), and OT (p = 0.0082, adjusted R 2   = 0.8768). An independent verification batch confirmed the model's predictive capability. The prediction and actual values were in good agreement. Particle size and span were 3.32 ± 0.09 μm and 1.71 ± 0.18, which were 4.7 and 5.3% higher than the predicted values. The process yield was 50.3%, compared to the predicted value of 65.3%. The OT was 100°C versus the predicted value of 105°C. The label strength of IPB microparticles was 99.0 to 105.9% w/w suggesting that enrichment occurred during the spray-drying process. The present study can be utilized to initiate the design of the first commercial IPB dry powder inhaler.

  13. Membrane electrodes for the determination of pyridostigmine bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kosasy, Amira M; Salem, Maissa Y; El-Bardicy, Mohamed G; Abd El-Rahman, Mohamed K

    2009-01-01

    Two pyridostigmine bromide (PB) selective electrodes were investigated with 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether as a plasticizer in a polymeric matrix of carboxylated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-COOH), based on the interaction between the drug solution and the dissociated COOH groups in the PVC-COOH. One of the sensors was fabricated by using PVC-COOH only as anionic site without incorporation of an ionophore (sensor 1). The second sensor was constructed by using 2-hydroxy propyl beta-cyclodextrin as an ionophore (sensor 2). Linear responses of PB within a concentration range of 10(-3)-10(-2) and 10(-5)-10(-2) M, with slopes of 51.9 +/- 0.31 and 56.7 +/- 0.40 mV/decade over pH range of 5-10 were obtained using sensors 2 and 1, respectively. The proposed method displayed useful analytical characteristics for determination of PB in tablets with average recoveries of 100.22 +/- 0.62, and 100.15 +/- 0.72, and in plasma with average recoveries of 99.14 +/- 1.19 and 99.79 +/- 0.72, for sensors 2 and 1, respectively. The utility of 2-hydroxy propyl beta-cyclodextrin as an ionophore has a significant influence on increasing both membrane sensitivity and selectivity of sensor 2 in comparison with sensor 1. The methods were also used to determine the intact drug in the presence of its degradate, and thus could be used as stability-indicating methods. The results obtained by the proposed procedures were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by the U.S. Pharmacopeia method. No significant difference for either accuracy or precision was observed.

  14. Fluorescence Decay Dynamics of Ethidium Bromide in Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Ah Young; Min Yung

    2010-01-01

    The fluorescence lifetimes of EB in five polymers covering LDPE, HDPE, PC, PS, and PAA were measured by picosecond time-correlated single photon counting. The lifetime change of EB has been previously described by hydrogen bonding ability. In this work, we have observed that the lifetime of EB depends strongly on the Young's modulus of medium. Thus, it is possible that the fluorescence decay dynamics of EB could be influenced by medium rigidity rather than hydrogen bonding ability in polymer. The medium influence on the fluorescence decay dynamics of ethidium bromide (EB) has been investigated in various environments. For example, Ohmstead and Kearns related the fluorescence lifetime of EB to the excited-state proton transfer process. In addition, they reported that the solvent viscosity plays a minor role in the excited state decay process of EB. Chirico et al. measured the fluorescence decay of EB as 1.7 ns in water and 6.5 ns in ethanol and concluded that hydrogen bonding ability is a key factor for the nonradiative relaxation. Pal et al. measured the fluorescence decay time of EB in acetone, acetonitrile, and their mixtures. They observed that the fluorescence decay processes were independent on the solvent polarity. These results show that the EB lifetime does not depend much on polarity or viscosity, but is mainly influenced by hydrogen bonding. Overall, EB is one of most widely used dyes for probing DNA. When EB is intercalated into the helical structure of DNA, a large increase in the fluorescence lifetime has been observed in comparison with water environment, and the fluorescence enhancement was attributed to the blocking of the excited-state proton transfer

  15. Stable room-temperature thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, A.; Fiala, J.; Becla, P.; Motakef, Shariar

    2017-10-01

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a highly efficient ionic semiconductor with excellent radiation detection properties. However, at room temperature, TlBr devices polarize under an applied electric field. This phenomenon not only degrades the charge collection efficiency of the detectors but also promotes chemical reaction of the metal electrodes with bromine, resulting in an unstable electric field and premature failure of the device. This drawback has been crippling the TlBr semiconductor radiation detector technology over the past few decades. In this exhaustive study, this polarization phenomenon has been counteracted using innovative bias polarity switching schemes. Here the highly mobile Br- species, with an estimated electro-diffusion velocity of 10-8 cm/s, face opposing electro-migration forces during every polarity switch. This minimizes the device polarization and availability of Br- ions near the metal electrode. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve longer device lifetimes spanning more than 17 000 h (five years of 8 × 7 operation) for planar and pixelated radiation detectors using this technique. On the other hand, at constant bias, 2500 h is the longest reported lifetime with most devices less than 1000 h. After testing several biasing switching schemes, it is concluded that the critical bias switching frequency at an applied bias of 1000 V/cm is about 17 μHz. Using this groundbreaking result, it will now be possible to deploy this highly efficient room temperature semiconductor material for field applications in homeland security, medical imaging, and physics research.

  16. Eudragit RS PO nanoparticles for sustained release of pyridostigmine bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoobakht, Fatemeh; Ganji, Fariba; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is an inhibitor of cholinesterase, which is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and administered for protection against exposure to toxic nerve agents. Tests were done to investigate prolonging the half-life of PB and improving its release behavior. PB was loaded in nanoparticles (NPs) of Eudragit RS PO (Eu-RS) prepared using the technique of quasi emulsion solvent diffusion. Variables of output power of the sonicator, bath temperature and mixing time, were chosen as the optimization factors to obtain the minimum sized NPs. In addition, emulsions were tested at different ratios of drug-to-polymer by dynamic light scattering to determine size and zeta potential of NPs. UV-spectroscopy was used to determine PB content of the NPs. Drug-loaded NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Results determined that mixing time had a significant impact on the size of Eu-RS NPs, but power output of sonicator and bath temperature had no significant effect. The particle size obtained at the optimum condition (power output of 70 W, bath temperature of 33 °C, and mixing time of 7 min) was less than 200 nm (optimum sizes were 138.9 and 179.5 nm for Eu-RS and PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs, respectively). The optimum PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs at the PB to Eu-RS weight ratio of 1–4 and 20 % of loaded PB released from the nanocarriers within 100 h

  17. Dicationic alkylammonium bromide gemini surfactants. Membrane perturbation and skin irritation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A S Almeida

    Full Text Available Dicationic alkylammonium bromide gemini surfactants represent a class of amphiphiles potentially effective as skin permeation enhancers. However, only a limited number of studies has been dedicated to the evaluation of the respective cytotoxicity, and none directed to skin irritation endpoints. Supported on a cell viability study, the cytotoxicity of gemini surfactants of variable tail and spacer length was assessed. For this purpose, keratinocyte cells from human skin (NCTC 2544 cell line, frequently used as a model for skin irritation, were employed. The impact of the different gemini surfactants on the permeability and morphology of model vesicles was additionally investigated by measuring the leakage of calcein fluorescent dye and analyzing the NMR spectra of ³¹P, respectively. Detail on the interaction of gemini molecules with model membranes was also provided by a systematic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and molecular dynamics (MD simulation. An irreversible impact on the viability of the NCTC 2544 cell line was observed for gemini concentrations higher than 25 mM, while no cytotoxicity was found for any of the surfactants in a concentration range up to 10 mM. A higher cytotoxicity was also found for gemini surfactants presenting longer spacer and shorter tails. The same trend was obtained in the calorimetric and permeability studies, with the gemini of longest spacer promoting the highest degree of membrane destabilization. Additional structural and dynamical characterization of the various systems, obtained by ³¹P NMR and MD, provide some insight on the relationship between the architecture of gemini surfactants and the respective perturbation mechanism.

  18. Stable room-temperature thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Datta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thallium bromide (TlBr is a highly efficient ionic semiconductor with excellent radiation detection properties. However, at room temperature, TlBr devices polarize under an applied electric field. This phenomenon not only degrades the charge collection efficiency of the detectors but also promotes chemical reaction of the metal electrodes with bromine, resulting in an unstable electric field and premature failure of the device. This drawback has been crippling the TlBr semiconductor radiation detector technology over the past few decades. In this exhaustive study, this polarization phenomenon has been counteracted using innovative bias polarity switching schemes. Here the highly mobile Br− species, with an estimated electro-diffusion velocity of 10−8 cm/s, face opposing electro-migration forces during every polarity switch. This minimizes the device polarization and availability of Br− ions near the metal electrode. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve longer device lifetimes spanning more than 17 000 h (five years of 8 × 7 operation for planar and pixelated radiation detectors using this technique. On the other hand, at constant bias, 2500 h is the longest reported lifetime with most devices less than 1000 h. After testing several biasing switching schemes, it is concluded that the critical bias switching frequency at an applied bias of 1000 V/cm is about 17 μHz. Using this groundbreaking result, it will now be possible to deploy this highly efficient room temperature semiconductor material for field applications in homeland security, medical imaging, and physics research.

  19. Eudragit RS PO nanoparticles for sustained release of pyridostigmine bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoobakht, Fatemeh; Ganji, Fariba, E-mail: fganji@modares.ac.ir; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim [Tarbiat Modares University, Biomedical Engineering Group, Chemical Engineering Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad [Tarbiat Modares University, Biotechnology Group, Chemical Engineering Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is an inhibitor of cholinesterase, which is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and administered for protection against exposure to toxic nerve agents. Tests were done to investigate prolonging the half-life of PB and improving its release behavior. PB was loaded in nanoparticles (NPs) of Eudragit RS PO (Eu-RS) prepared using the technique of quasi emulsion solvent diffusion. Variables of output power of the sonicator, bath temperature and mixing time, were chosen as the optimization factors to obtain the minimum sized NPs. In addition, emulsions were tested at different ratios of drug-to-polymer by dynamic light scattering to determine size and zeta potential of NPs. UV-spectroscopy was used to determine PB content of the NPs. Drug-loaded NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Results determined that mixing time had a significant impact on the size of Eu-RS NPs, but power output of sonicator and bath temperature had no significant effect. The particle size obtained at the optimum condition (power output of 70 W, bath temperature of 33 Degree-Sign C, and mixing time of 7 min) was less than 200 nm (optimum sizes were 138.9 and 179.5 nm for Eu-RS and PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs, respectively). The optimum PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs at the PB to Eu-RS weight ratio of 1-4 and 20 % of loaded PB released from the nanocarriers within 100 h.

  20. Effects of increasing doses of samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate on axial and appendicular skeletal growth in juvenile rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essman, Stephanie C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)], E-mail: essmans@missouri.edu; Lewis, Michael R. [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Service, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Fox, Derek B. [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Introduction: Targeted radiotherapy using samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate ({sup 153}Sm-EDTMP) is currently under investigation for treatment of osteosarcoma. Osteosarcoma often occurs in children, and previous studies on a juvenile rabbit model demonstrated that clinically significant damage to developing physeal cartilage may occur as a result of systemic {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the late effects of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP on skeletal structures during growth to maturity and to determine if there is a dose response of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP on growth of long bones. Methods: Female 8-week-old New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three treatment groups plus controls. Each rabbit was intravenously administered a predetermined dose of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP. Multiple bones of each rabbit were radiographed every 2 months until physeal closure, with subsequent measurements made to assess for abbreviated bone growth. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the differences in bone length between groups, with significance set at P<.05. Results: Significant differences in lengths of multiple bones were detected between the high-dose group and other treatment groups and controls at each time interval. A significant difference in lengths of the tibias was also noted in the medium-treatment group, compared to controls. Mean reduction of bone length was first detected at 4 months and did not increase significantly over time. Conclusions: These data suggest that clinically significant bone shortening may occur as a result of high-dosage administration of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP. Further investigation regarding the effects of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals on bone growth and physeal cartilage is warranted.

  1. Effect of samarium (Sm) addition on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Al–7Si–0.7Mg alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Hongxu; Yan, Hong; Hu, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Sm affected the secondary dendrite arm spacing of Al–7Si–0.7Mg alloy. •The coarse plate-like eutectic silicon was fully modified into a fine branched and particle structure when 0.6 wt.% Sm added. •The tensile properties were enhanced by the addition of Sm. •Sm has marked effects on eutectic temperature and the latent heat ΔH R on remelting behavior. •The morphology and chemical composition of Sm-rich intermetallics were studied. -- Abstract: The effects of samarium (Sm) additions (0–0.9 wt.%) on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Al–7Si–0.7Mg alloys have been studied in this article. The microstructures of the as-cast samples were examined by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results indicated that the rare earth Sm affected the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) of Al–7Si–0.7Mg alloy. And it was found that Sm had great modification effects on the microstructures of eutectic silicon. When 0.6 wt.% Sm was added to the alloy, the coarse plate-like eutectic silicon was fully modified into a fine fibrous structure; the dendrites of Al–7Si–0.7Mg alloy was best refined. The mechanical properties were investigated by tensile test. The findings indicate that the tensile properties and elongation were improved by the addition of Sm. And a good combination of ultimate tensile strength (215 MPa) and elongation (3.3%) was obtained when the Sm addition was up to 0.6 wt.%. Furthermore the results of thermal analysis reveal that Sm addition had marked effects on eutectic temperature and the latent heat ΔH R on remelting behavior

  2. 2,6-Bis(oxazolinyl)phenylnickel(II) Bromide and 2,6-Bis(ketimine)phenylnickel(II) Bromide: Synthesis, Structural Features, and Redox Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stol, M.; Snelders, D.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836257; Godbole, M.D.; Havenith, R.W.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/205279546; Haddleton, D.M.; Clarkson, G.; Lutz, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828971; Spek, A.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156517566; van Klink, G.P.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/170637964; van Koten, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073839191

    2007-01-01

    2,6-Bis(oxazolinyl)phenylnickel bromide complexes [NiBr(R,R'-Phebox)] (2) were synthesized via two synthetic routes (A and B). In route A, selective bis-ortho lithiation of [R,R'-PheboxBr], followed by a transmetalation reaction with [NiBr2(PEt3)2], yielded not only complexes 2 with an

  3. Residential proximity to methyl bromide use and birth outcomes in an agricultural population in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmill, Alison; Gunier, Robert B; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda; Harley, Kim G

    2013-06-01

    Methyl bromide, a fungicide often used in strawberry cultivation, is of concern for residents who live near agricultural applications because of its toxicity and potential for drift. Little is known about the effects of methyl bromide exposure during pregnancy. We investigated the relationship between residential proximity to methyl bromide use and birth outcomes. Participants were from the CHAMACOS (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas) study (n = 442), a longitudinal cohort study examining the health effects of environmental exposures on pregnant women and their children in an agricultural community in northern California. Using data from the California Pesticide Use Reporting system, we employed a geographic information system to estimate the amount of methyl bromide applied within 5 km of a woman's residence during pregnancy. Multiple linear regression models were used to estimate associations between trimester-specific proximity to use and birth weight, length, head circumference, and gestational age. High methyl bromide use (vs. no use) within 5 km of the home during the second trimester was negatively associated with birth weight (β = -113.1 g; CI: -218.1, -8.1), birth length (β = -0.85 cm; CI: -1.44, -0.27), and head circumference (β = -0.33 cm; CI: -0.67, 0.01). These outcomes were also associated with moderate methyl bromide use during the second trimester. Negative associations with fetal growth parameters were stronger when larger (5 km and 8 km) versus smaller (1 km and 3 km) buffer zones were used to estimate exposure. Residential proximity to methyl bromide use during the second trimester was associated with markers of restricted fetal growth in our study.

  4. Determination of trace amounts of rare earth elements in samarium, terbium and disprosium oxides by graphite furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, E.S.K.

    1990-01-01

    A graphite furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry method for the determination of neodymium, europium, terbium, dysprosium and yttrium at trace level in samarium oxide; of samarium, europium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium and yttrium in terbium oxide and of europium, terbium, holmium, erbium and yttrium in dysprosium oxide was established. The best pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were determined for each lanthanide considered. Calibration curves were obtained for the pure elements, for binary mixtures formed by the matrix and each of the lanthanides studied and, finally, for the complex mixtures constituted by the matrix and all the other lanthanide of the group under scrutiny. This study has been carried out to examine the interference of the presence of one lanthanide on the behaviour of the other, since a lack of linearity on the calibration curves has been observed in some cases. Detection and determination limits have been determined as well. The detection limits encountered were within the range 0.002 to 0.3% for different elements. The precision of the method expressed as the relative standard deviation was calculated for each element present in each of the matrices studied. The conclusion arrived at is that the method can be applied for determining the above mentioned lanthanides present in the matrices studied with purity up to 99.50%. (author)

  5. Preparation and examination of properties of samarium-153-EDTMP complex; Otrzymywanie chelatu kwasu etylenodiaminotetrametylenofosfonowego (EDTMP) z samarem-153 i badanie jego wlasciwosci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, M. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Garnuszek, P.; Lukasiewicz, A.; Wozniak, I.; Zulczyk, W. [Osrodek Badawczo-Rozwojowy Izotopow, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Licinska, I. [Instytut Lekow, Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Preparation and properties of ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonic acid (EDTMP) as well as some properties of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP chelate have been examined. The chelate formed by samarium-153 (46.3 h, {beta}{sup -}-decay) with EDTMP exhibits high bone uptake and can be used for treatment of disseminated, painful skeletal metastases. The purity and stability of solutions of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP chelate were examined in a broad range of samarium concentration and {sup 153}Sm specific activity. The complex under study was examined by radio-TLC, -electrophoresis and radio-HPLC. The results obtained suggest the small size of molecules of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP chelate as compared with molecules of ``free``EDTMP. The results of biodistribution of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP determined in rats indicate the quick blood clearance, high deposition of radioactivity in bone and quick excretion of radioactivity into urine. No specific uptake of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP in extra-skeletal organs was found. (author). 42 refs, 13 figs, 22 tabs.

  6. Fluorometric determination of ethidium bromide efflux kinetics in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Gabriel A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efflux pump activity has been associated with multidrug resistance phenotypes in bacteria, compromising the effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy. The development of methods for the early detection and quantification of drug transport across the bacterial cell wall is a tool essential to understand and overcome this type of drug resistance mechanism. This approach was developed to study the transport of the efflux pump substrate ethidium bromide (EtBr across the cell envelope of Escherichia coli K-12 and derivatives, differing in the expression of their efflux systems. Results EtBr transport across the cell envelope of E. coli K-12 and derivatives was analysed by a semi-automated fluorometric method. Accumulation and efflux of EtBr was studied under limiting energy supply (absence of glucose and low temperature and in the presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitor, chlorpromazine. The bulk fluorescence variations were also observed by single-cell flow cytometry analysis, revealing that once inside the cells, leakage of EtBr does not occur and that efflux is mediated by active transport. The importance of AcrAB-TolC, the main efflux system of E. coli, in the extrusion of EtBr was evidenced by comparing strains with different levels of AcrAB expression. An experimental model was developed to describe the transport kinetics in the three strains. The model integrates passive entry (influx and active efflux of EtBr, and discriminates different degrees of efflux between the studied strains that vary in the activity of their efflux systems, as evident from the calculated efflux rates: = 0.0173 ± 0.0057 min-1; = 0.0106 ± 0.0033 min-1; and = 0.0230 ± 0.0075 min-1. Conclusion The combined use of a semi-automated fluorometric method and an experimental model allowed quantifying EtBr transport in E. coli strains that differ in their overall efflux activity. This methodology can be used for the early detection of differences in

  7. Activity of aminotransferases in organs of rats during hypoxia of enclosed space of the action of thiamine bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сніжана Сергіївна Чернадчук

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is studied an aminotransferase activity during injection of thiamin bromide in rat tissues in normal and hypoxic enclosed space. After injection of thiamine bromide we have set reduction of AST and ALT activity, relative to control, except by the brain tissue, where there was an increase of investigated indicators. The decrease of activity of the investigated elements is occurred in animals which before hypoxia were injection of thiamine bromide

  8. Ethidium bromide resistance of L929 cells is accompanied by regular changes in karotype structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinchuk, T.M.; Novikova, I.Yu.; Sorokina, E.A.; Sal'nikov, K.V.

    1988-01-01

    Using the method of differential staining of chromosomes for G-bands a comparative karyological analysis of line L 929 mouse cells has been conducted, after the L 929 cells had been sequentially selected for resistance to ethidium bromide at concentrations of 1, 10, 25, and 50 μg/ml and had retained these levels of resistance for a number of cell generations. It was found that the resistant variants exhibited certain karyotypic changes. Only thirteen of the thirty six marker chromosomes typical of the original ethidium bromide-sensitive cells were preserved. Sixteen of the markers were specific for the resistant variants. The changes detected arose at the initial selection stage and were preserved unaltered as the concentration of the toxin was raised. The detection of similar karyotypic changes in cells of clone L 929 of independent origin selected for resistance of 3 μg/ml of ethidium bromide and also in cells of the clone selected for resistance to 25 μg/ml of ethidium bromide and studied previously by the present authors suggests that these changes are universal for L 929 cells resistant to ethidium bromide

  9. Profile of aclidinium bromide in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sims MW

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael W Sims, Reynold A Panettieri, Jr. Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Division, Airways Biology Initiative, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Bronchodilators provide the mainstay of pharmacologic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and anticholinergic bronchodilators, in particular, appear to be the most effective. There are currently two anticholinergic agents available in the US for the treatment of COPD (ipratropium bromide and tiotropium bromide, but several others are in various stages of development. Aclidinium bromide, a novel, long-acting, anticholinergic bronchodilator, is currently in Phase III trials for the management of COPD. Available evidence suggests that aclidinium is a safe and well tolerated drug with a relatively rapid onset and a sufficient duration of action to provide once-daily dosing. This article will provide a pharmacologic profile of aclidinium bromide and review the preclinical and clinical studies evaluating its safety and efficacy in the treatment of COPD. Keywords: aclidinium bromide, bronchodilators, pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive, muscarinic antagonists, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology

  10. Pharmacodynamic Comparison of Rocuronium Bromide between Patients from the Plateau Area and from the Plain Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Huang, Jianxin; Li, Peng; Ou, Zhiyan; Hou, Jing

    2016-06-23

    We aimed to conduct a pharmacodynamic comparison of rocuronium bromide between patients from the plateau area and from the plain area. A total of 104 patients who received laparoscopic cholecystectomy in Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital and Aba Autonomous Prefecture People's Hospital from October 2015 to December 2015 were included in this study. Among them, 46 patients were from the plateau area and 58 were from the plain area. Both groups received total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with a dose of 0.6mg/kg rocuronium bromide during induction. In the meantime, neuromuscular block was monitored using a train-of-four (TOF) stimulation mode. The onset time (time to achieve the lowest TOF value after the injection of rocuronium bromide), duration of maximal neuromuscular block (duration of lowest T1 value), time to 25% recovery, time to 75% recovery, recovery index (time from 25% recovery to 75% recovery), time to extubation, length of stay in Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) and muscle strength upon PACU discharge were all recorded. The onset time, time to 25% recovery, time to 75% recovery and time to extubation were all significantly prolonged in patients from the plateau area after receiving one single dose of rocuronium bromide (P0.05). Compared to patients from the plain area, patients from the plateau area showed prolonged onset time of rocuronium bromide, reduced metabolic capabilities and longer duration of muscular relaxation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization affected by highly transient flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zachara, John M.; Tonkin, Matthew

    2012-08-01

    A tracer test using both bromide and heat tracers conducted at the Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Hanford 300 Area (300A), Washington, provided an instrument for evaluating the utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization. The bromide tracer data were critical to improving the calibration of the flow model complicated by the highly dynamic nature of the flow field. However, most bromide concentrations were obtained from fully screened observation wells, lacking depth-specific resolution for vertical characterization. On the other hand, depth-specific temperature data were relatively simple and inexpensive to acquire. However, temperature-driven fluid density effects influenced heat plume movement. Moreover, the temperature data contained "noise" caused by heating during fluid injection and sampling events. Using the hydraulic conductivity distribution obtained from the calibration of the bromide transport model, the temperature depth profiles and arrival times of temperature peaks simulated by the heat transport model were in reasonable agreement with observations. This suggested that heat can be used as a cost-effective proxy for solute tracers for calibration of the hydraulic conductivity distribution, especially in the vertical direction. However, a heat tracer test must be carefully designed and executed to minimize fluid density effects and sources of noise in temperature data. A sensitivity analysis also revealed that heat transport was most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and porosity, less sensitive to thermal distribution factor, and least sensitive to thermal dispersion and heat conduction. This indicated that the hydraulic conductivity remains the primary calibration parameter for heat transport.

  12. A novel explicit approach to model bromide and pesticide transport in soils containing macropores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, J.; Zehe, E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study tests whether an explicit treatment of worm burrows is feasible for simulating water flow, bromide and pesticide transport in structured heterogeneous soils. The essence is to represent worm burrows as morphologically connected paths of low flow resistance in the spatially highly resolved model domain. A recent Monte Carlo study (Klaus and Zehe, 2010) revealed that this approach allowed successful reproduction of tile drain event discharge recorded during an irrigation experiment at a tile drained field site. However, several "hillslope architectures" that were all consistent with the available extensive data base allowed a good reproduction of tile drain flow response. Our second objective was thus to find out whether this "equifinality" in spatial model setups may be reduced when including bromide tracer data in the model falsification process. We thus simulated transport of bromide and Isoproturon (IPU) for the 13 spatial model setups, which performed best with respect to reproduce tile drain event discharge, without any further calibration. All model setups allowed a very good prediction of the temporal dynamics of cumulated bromide leaching into the tile drain, while only four of them matched the accumulated water balance and accumulated bromide loss into the tile drain. The number of behavioural model architectures could thus be reduced to four. One of those setups was used for simulating transport of IPU, using different parameter combinations to characterise adsorption according to the Footprint data base. Simulations could, however, only reproduce the observed leaching behaviour, when we allowed for retardation coefficients that were very close to one.

  13. Rocuronium Bromide Inhibits Inflammation and Pain by Suppressing Nitric Oxide Production and Enhancing Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis in Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sang Bin; Shin, Mal Soon; Han, Jin Hee; Moon, Sang Woong; Chang, Boksoon; Jeon, Jung Won; Yi, Jae Woo; Chung, Jun Young

    2016-12-01

    Rocuronium bromide is a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug and has been used as an adjunct for relaxation or paralysis of the skeletal muscles, facilitation of endotracheal intubation, and improving surgical conditions during general anesthesia. However, intravenous injection of rocuronium bromide induces injection pain or withdrawal movement. The exact mechanism of rocuronium bromide-induced injection pain or withdrawal movement is not yet understood. We investigated whether rocuronium bromide treatment is involved in the induction of inflammation and pain in vascular endothelial cells. For this study, calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells were used, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, Western blot, nitric oxide detection, and prostaglandin E 2 immunoassay were conducted. Rocuronium bromide treatment inhibited endothelial nitric oxide synthase and suppressed nitric oxide production in CPAE cells. Rocuronium bromide activated cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase and increased prostaglandin E 2 synthesis in CPAE cells. Rocuronium bromide induced inflammation and pain in CPAE cells. Suppressing nitric oxide production and enhancing prostaglandin E 2 synthesis might be associated with rocuronium bromide-induced injection pain or withdrawal movement.

  14. The effect of samarium doping on structure and enhanced thermionic emission properties of lanthanum hexaboride fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shenlin; Hu, Qianglin [College of Mathematics and Physics, Jinggangshan University, Jian (China); Zhang, Jiuxing; Liu, Danmin [Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing (China); Huang, Qingzhen [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, MD (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Single-phase polycrystalline solid solutions (La{sub 1-x}Sm{sub x})B{sub 6} (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1) are fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS). This study demonstrates a systematic investigation of structure-property relationships in Sm-doped LaB{sub 6} ternary rare-earth hexaborides. The microstructure, crystallographic orientation, electrical resistivity, and thermionic emission performance of these compounds are investigated. Analysis of the results indicates that samarium (Sm) doping has a noticeable effect on the structure and performance of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB{sub 6}). The analytical investigation of the electron backscatter diffraction confirms that (La{sub 0.6}Sm{sub 0.4})B{sub 6} exhibits a clear (001) texture that results in a low work function. Work functions are determined by pulsed thermionic diode measurements at 1500-1873 K. The (La{sub 0.6}Sm{sub 0.4})B{sub 6} possesses improved thermionic emission properties compared to LaB{sub 6}. The current density of (La{sub 0.6}Sm{sub 0.4})B{sub 6} is 42.4 A cm{sup -2} at 1873 K, which is 17.5% larger than that of LaB{sub 6}. The values of Φ{sub R} for (La{sub 0.6}Sm{sub 0.4})B{sub 6} and LaB{sub 6} are 1.98 ± 0.03 and 1.67 ± 0.03 eV, respectively. Furthermore, the Sm substitution of lanthanum (La) effectively increases the electrical resistivity. These results reveal that Sm doping lead to significantly enhanced thermionic emission properties of LaB{sub 6}. The compound (La{sub 0.6}Sm{sub 0.4})B{sub 6} appears most promising as a future emitter material. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. The Level of Europium-154 Contaminating Samarium-153-EDTMP Activates the Radiation Alarm System at the US Homeland Security Checkpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Najeeb Al Hallak

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available 153Sm-EDTMP is a radiopharmaceutical composed of EDTMP (ethylenediamine-tetramethylenephosphonate and Samarium-153 [1]. 153Sm-EDTMP has an affinity for skeletal tissue and concentrates in areas with increased bone turnover; thus, it is successfully used in relieving pain related to diffuse bone metastases [1]. The manufacturing process of 153Sm-EDTMP leads to contamination with 154Eu (Europium-154 [2]. A previous study only alluded to the retention of 154Eu in the bones after receiving treatment with 153Sm-EDTMP [2]. Activation of the alarm at security checkpoints after 153Sm-EDTMP therapy has not been previously reported. Two out of 15 patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer Center (Fargo, N. Dak., USA activated the radiation activity sensors while passing through checkpoints; one at a US airport and the other while crossing theAmerican-Canadian border. We assume that the 154Eu which remained in the patients’ bones activated the sensors. Methods: In order to investigate this hypothesis, we obtained the consent from 3 of our 15 patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP within the previous 4 months to 2 years, including the patient who had activated the radiation alarm at the airport. The patients were scanned with a handheld detector and a gamma camera for energies from 511 keV to 1.3 MeV. Results: All three patients exhibited identical spectral images, and further analysis showed that the observed spectra are the result of 154Eu emissions. Conclusion: Depending on the detection thresholds and windows used by local and federal authorities, the remaining activity of 154Eu retained in patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP could be sufficient enough to increase the count rates above background levels and activate the sensors. At Roger Maris Cancer Center, patients are now informed of the potential consequences of 153Sm-EDTMP therapy prior to initiating treatment. In addition, patients treated with 153Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer Center

  16. Methyl bromide: ocean sources, ocean sinks, and climate sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A D; Yung, Y L; Chavez, F P

    1996-03-01

    The oceans play an important role in the geochemical cycle of methyl bromide (CH3Br), the major carrier of O3-destroying bromine to the stratosphere. The quantity of CH3Br produced annually in seawater is comparable to the amount entering the atmosphere each year from natural and anthropogenic sources. The production mechanism is unknown but may be biological. Most of this CH3Br is consumed in situ by hydrolysis or reaction with chloride. The size of the fraction which escapes to the atmosphere is poorly constrained; measurements in seawater and the atmosphere have been used to justify both a large oceanic CH3Br flux to the atmosphere and a small net ocean sink. Since the consumption reactions are extremely temperature-sensitive, small temperature variations have large effects on the CH3Br concentration in seawater, and therefore on the exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean. The net CH3Br flux is also sensitive to variations in the rate of CH3Br production. We have quantified these effects using a simple steady state mass balance model. When CH3Br production rates are linearly scaled with seawater chlorophyll content, this model reproduces the latitudinal variations in marine CH3Br concentrations observed in the east Pacific Ocean by Singh et al. [1983] and by Lobert et al. [1995]. The apparent correlation of CH3Br production with primary production explains the discrepancies between the two observational studies, strengthening recent suggestions that the open ocean is a small net sink for atmospheric CH3Br, rather than a large net source. The Southern Ocean is implicated as a possible large net source of CH3Br to the atmosphere. Since our model indicates that both the direction and magnitude of CH3Br exchange between the atmosphere and ocean are extremely sensitive to temperature and marine productivity, and since the rate of CH3Br production in the oceans is comparable to the rate at which this compound is introduced to the atmosphere, even small

  17. Effects of caffeine on cleavage delay of sea urchin eggs induced by ethidium bromide or puromycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    The mitotic delay was induced when sea urchin eggs were treated with either ethidium bromide or puromycin, as observed with eggs fertilized with x- or UV-irradiated sperm. Treatment of these eggs with caffeine during the period of early prophase block resulted in the reduction of the mitotic delay. Protein synthesis of these eggs was not affected by x-irradiation but inhibited by ethidium bromide or puromycin. Caffeine was almost ineffective in changing the protein synthesis of eggs inseminated with x-irradiated sperm or treated with ethidium bromide. These facts mean that additive synthesis of protein is not required for the reduction by caffeine of the mitotic delay. Some role of protein synthesis in the reduction by caffeine of the cleavage delay is not excluded for puromycin treated eggs, since caffeine counteracted the inhibitory effect of puromycin on protein synthesis. (author)

  18. Temporary diplopia upon hyoscine-N-butyl bromide administration: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migliorini R

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available R Migliorini, R Malagola, M Mafrici, R Spena, L ArricoDepartment of Sense Organs, University of Rome "La Sapienza", Rome, ItalyAbstract: Hyoscine-N-butyl bromide is a widely used antispasmodic belonging to the belladonna alkaloid class of semisynthetic quaternary ammonium compounds. These compounds exert a spasmolytic action on the smooth muscles of the bile-gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, salivary glands (xerostomia, and also on the visual apparatus – in particular, the irido-ciliary complex. As a consequence, they provoke collateral effects such as mydriasis and accommodation disturbances. We report the case of a 23-year-old woman who complained of not only "dry mouth" but also "cloudy vision" and a "diplopia", both of temporary type, 2 hours after oral administration of hyoscine-N-butyl bromide.Keywords: hyoscine-N-butyl bromide, accommodation disorders, temporary diplopia, fusion alteration, vertical strabismus

  19. Chloride/bromide ratios in leachate derived from farm-animal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, P.F.

    2003-01-01

    Results have important implications for identifying animal sources of contaminated groundwater. - Ratios of conservative chemicals have been used to identify sources of groundwater contamination. While chloride/bromide ratios have been reported for several common sources of groundwater contamination, little work has been done on leachate derived from farm-animal waste. In this study, chloride/bromide ratios were measured in leachate derived from longhorn-cattle, quarter-horse, and pygme-goat waste at a farm in Abilene, Texas, USA. (Minimum, median, and maximum) chloride/bromide ratios of (66.5, 85.6, and 167), (119, 146, and 156), and (35.4, 57.8, and 165) were observed for cattle, horses, and goats, respectively. These ratios are below typical values for domestic wastewater and within the range commonly observed for oilfield brine. Results of this study have important implications for identifying sources of contaminated groundwater in settings with significant livestock and/or oil production

  20. Iodate and iodo-trihalomethane formation during chlorination of iodide-containing waters: role of bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criquet, Justine; Allard, Sebastien; Salhi, Elisabeth; Joll, Cynthia A; Heitz, Anna; von Gunten, Urs

    2012-07-03

    The kinetics of iodate formation is a critical factor in mitigation of the formation of potentially toxic and off flavor causing iodoorganic compounds during chlorination. This study demonstrates that the formation of bromine through the oxidation of bromide by chlorine significantly enhances the oxidation of iodide to iodate in a bromide-catalyzed process. The pH-dependent kinetics revealed species specific rate constants of k(HOBr + IO(-)) = 1.9 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1), k(BrO(-) + IO(-)) = 1.8 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1), and k(HOBr + HOI) < 1 M(-1) s(-1). The kinetics and the yield of iodate formation in natural waters depend mainly on the naturally occurring bromide and the type and concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM). The process of free chlorine exposure followed by ammonia addition revealed that the formation of iodo-trihalomethanes (I-THMs), especially iodoform, was greatly reduced by an increase of free chlorine exposure and an increase of the Br(-)/I(-) ratio. In water from the Great Southern River (with a bromide concentration of 200 μg/L), the relative I-incorporation in I-THMs decreased from 18 to 2% when the free chlorine contact time was increased from 2 to 20 min (chlorine dose of 1 mg Cl(2)/L). This observation is inversely correlated with the conversion of iodide to iodate, which increased from 10 to nearly 90%. Increasing bromide concentration also increased the conversion of iodide to iodate: from 45 to nearly 90% with a bromide concentration of 40 and 200 μg/L, respectively, and a prechlorination time of 20 min, while the I-incorporation in I-THMs decreased from 10 to 2%.

  1. Irradiation as a disinfestation method - update on methyl bromide phase out, regulatory action and emerging opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcotte, Michelle

    1998-01-01

    Methyl bromide (MeBr), is the most widely used agricultural fumigant in the world for the control of pests and plant diseases. It is used to control pests and diseases in food, agricultural and forestry commodities after harvest, before or during storage or transportation and/or at time of import to control quarantine or storage pests. Knowing MeBr will be phased out has spurred a search for alternative treatments and products, and has placed pressure on regulatory authorities to approve alternatives. Some of methyl bromide use could be replaced with irradiation. Methyl bromide is also used for soil and structural fumigation, and although there is some use of irradiation for packaged soil or greenhouse products, in general, these uses can not be replaced by irradiation. Some radiation processing facilities have either seen increased business to disinfest commodities, or have experienced more inquiries for service. There are many other processes and products competing for this market and irradiation will not win its share of the business without an improved regulatory picture, improved marketing to methyl bromide users and improved information to answer questions from commodity sectors. The United Nations Environment Program - Methyl Bromide Technical Options Committee (MBTOC) provides a venue for the publication or information about the use and availability of irradiation as an alternative to methyl bromide. It provides the technical base to the Montreal Protocol contributing to the setting of phase out dates; this committee is actively researching and assessing all alternatives and needs information about irradiation. The author is a member of the MBTOC committee

  2. Halide-mediated regioselective 6-O-glycosylation of unprotected hexopyranosides with perbenzylated glycosyl bromide donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niedbal, Dominika Alina; Madsen, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The regio- and stereoselective glycosylation at the 6-position in 2,3,4,6-unprotected hexopyranosides has been investigated with dibutyltin oxide as the directing agent. Perbenzylated hexopyranosyl bromides were employed as the donors and the glycosylations were promoted by tetrabutylammonium...... bromide. The couplings were completely selective for both glucose and galactose donors and acceptors as long as the stannylene acetal of the acceptor was soluble in dichloromethane. This gave rise to a number of 1,2-cis-linked disaccharides in reasonable yields. Mannose donors and acceptors, on the other...

  3. Kinetics of bromide catalysed oxidation of dextrose by cerium (IV) in aqueous sulphuric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, J.; Sah, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Kinetics of bromide catalysed oxidation of dextrose by Ce IV in aqueous sulphuric acid medium show first order dependence each in dextrose and cerium(IV). The reaction rate decreases on increasing the concentration of hydrogen ion. The increase in [HSO 4 - ] or [SO 4 2- ] decreases the rate. The bromide ion shows positive catalytic effect on the reaction rate. The value of activation energy has been calculated and a suitable mechanism confirming to the kinetic data is proposed. (author). 3 refs., 3 tabs

  4. Well-Defined Copper(I) Fluoroalkoxide Complexes for Trifluoroethoxylation of Aryl and Heteroaryl Bromides

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ronglu

    2015-03-17

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Copper(I) fluoroalkoxide complexes bearing dinitrogen ligands were synthesized and the structure and reactivity of the complexes toward trifluoroethoxylation, pentafluoropropoxylation, and tetrafluoropropoxylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides were investigated. Efficiency drive: A series of copper(I) fluoroalkoxide complexes bearing N,N ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized. These well-defined complexes serve as efficient reagents for the fluoroalkoxylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides to produce a wide range of trifluoroethyl, pentafluoropropyl, and tetrafluoropropyl (hetero)aryl ethers in good to excellent yields.

  5. COMPARISON OF ROCURONIUM BROMIDE AND SUCCINYLCHOLINE CHLORIDE FOR USE DURING RAPID SEQUENCE INTUBATION IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Penchalaiah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : The goal of rapid sequence intubation is to secure the patients airway smoothly and quickly, minimizing the chances of regurgitation and aspiration of gastric contents. Traditionally succinylcholine chloride has been the neuromuscular blocking drug of choi ce for use in rapid sequence intubation because of its rapid onset of action and profound relaxation. Succinylcholine chloride remains unsurpassed in providing ideal intubating conditions. However the use of succinylcholine chloride is associated with many side effects like muscle pain, bradycardia, hyperkalaemia and rise in intragastric and intraocular pressure. Rocuronium bromide is the only drug currently available which has the rapidity of onset of action like succinylcholine chloride. Hence the present study was undertaken to compare rocuronium bromide with succinylcholine chloride for use during rapid sequence intubation in adult patients. METHODOLOGY : The study population consisted of 90 patients aged between 18 - 60 years posted for various elective su rgeries requiring general anaesthesia . S tudy population was randomly divided into 3 groups with 30 patients in each sub group. 1. Group I : Intubated with 1 mg kg - 1 of succinylcholine chloride (n=30 . 2. Grou p II : Intubated with rocuronium bromide 0.6 mg kg - 1 (n=30 . 3. Group III : Intubated with rocuronium bromide 0.9 mg kg - 1 (n=30 . Intubating conditions were assessed at 60 seconds based on the scale adopted by Toni Magorian et al. 1993. The haemodynamic para meters in the present study were compared using p - value obtained from student t - test . RESULTS : It was noted that succinylcholine chloride 1 mg kg - 1 body weight produced excellent intubating conditions in all patients. Rocuronium bromide 0.6 mg kg - 1 body we ight produced excellent intubating conditions in 53.33% of patients but produced good to excellent intubating conditions in 96.67% of patients. Rocuronium bromide 0.9 mg kg - 1

  6. Temperature Dependence of Mineral Solubility in Water. Part 2. Alkaline and Alkaline Earth Bromides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumgalz, B. S.

    2018-03-01

    Databases of alkaline and alkaline earth bromide solubilities in water at various temperatures were created using experimental data from publications over about the last two centuries. Statistical critical evaluation of the created databases was produced since there were enough independent data sources to justify such evaluation. The reliable experimental data were adequately described by polynomial expressions over various temperature ranges. Using the Pitzer approach for ionic activity and osmotic coefficients, the thermodynamic solubility products for the discussed bromide minerals have been calculated at various temperature intervals and also represented by polynomial expressions.

  7. Part I. An investigation into the mechanism of the samarium (II)-promoted Barbier reaction: Sequential radical cyclization/organometallic addition. Part II. Conjugate addition reactions of organosamarium reagents by in situ transmetalation to cuprates. Part III. Approximate absolute rate constants for the reaction of tributyltin radicals with aryl and vinyl halides. Part IV. An investigation into the synthetic utility of tri-n-butylgermanium hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totleben, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation of the mechanism of the samarium diiodide mediated Barbier reaction was conducted. Through a series of alkyl halide-carbonyl coupling and deuterium labelling experiments, evidence supportive of an organometallic addition mechanism was collected. Further probing led to an expansion of the utility of SmI[sub 2] in synthesis. The author has shown that radical cyclization of aryl and alkyl radicals to olefins, followed by reduction to primary and secondary organosamarium species is feasible. Organosamarium (III) reagents, produced by the reduction of alkyl and select aryl halides with 2 equiv of SmI[sub 2] in THF/HMPA, were treated with copper (I) salts and complexes to effect in situ transmetalation to cuprates. This allowed the 1,4-addition to [alpha],[beta]-unsaturated ketones. This new methodology allows for the sequential formation of carbon-carbon bonds through a combination of free radical and cuprate chemistry. Absolute rate constants for the abstraction of bromine atoms (k[sub Br]) by tri-n-butyltin radicals from a series of vinyl and aryl bromides have been determined. Atom abstraction was modestly enhanced by proximity of the halogen to a substituent in the following order: para < meta < ortho. Tri-n-butyl germanium hydride is known to be a poorer hydrogen atom donor than its tin analog. This feature makes it attractive for use in slow radical cyclizations where tin hydride would provide mainly for reduction. A brief study was executed to improve on the utility of the reagent as current conditions do not yield desired products in high amounts. Initial investigations examined the effect of initiator on reduction by germanium hydride, and subsequent experiments probed solvent effects. t-Butyl alcohol was determined to be superior to benzene or acetonitrile, giving consistently higher yields of reduction products.

  8. Visible-Light-Initiated Na2-Eosin Y Catalyzed Highly Regio- and Stereoselective Difunctionalization of Alkynes with Alkyl Bromides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuai; Meng, Ling-Guo; Wang, Lei

    2016-08-19

    A highly regioselective and stereoselective addition of alkyl bromides (amino-brominated aromatic β,β-dicyanoalkenes) to arylacetylenes by photoredox catalysis was developed. This difunctionalization of arylacetylenes was accomplished under ambient and metal-free conditions to produce alkenyl bromides in high efficiency with a wide range of group tolerance.

  9. Synthesis of electrophilic 11C-synthons: 11C-cyanogen bromide and some 11C-cyano reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerberg, G.; Malmborg, P.; Langstroem, B.

    1990-01-01

    A fast, simple, and reliable method has been developed for the synthesis of carbon-11 labelled cyanogen bromide and several of its stabilized amine salts or cyanates. Preparation of cyanogen bromide is by bromination (bromine gas) of carbon-11 labelled hydrocyanic acid, followed by reaction with a tertiary amine or a phenol to yield the ammonium salts or cyanates

  10. Study for the determination of samarium, europium,terbium, dysprosium and yttrium in gadolinium oxide matrix by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a graphite furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caires, A.C.F.

    1985-01-01

    A study for determination of samarium, europium, terbium, dysprosium and yttrium in a gadolinium oxide matrix by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a graphite furnace is presented. The best charrring and atomization conditions were estabilished for each element, the most convenient ressonance lines being selected as well. The study was carried out for the mentioned lanthanides both when pure and when in binary mixtures with gadolinium, besides those where all for them were together with gadolinium. The determination limits for pure lanthanides were found to be between 1.3 and 9.6 ng assuming a 20% relative standard deviation as acceptable. The detection limits were in the range 0.51 and 7.5 ng, assuming as positive any answer higher than twofold the standard deviation. (author) [pt

  11. Biodistribution of samarium-153-EDTMP in rats treated with docetaxel Biodistribuição de EDTMP-153-samário em ratos tratados com docetaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Villarim Neto

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Many patients with metastatic bone disease have to use radiopharmaceuticals associated with chemotherapy to relieve bone pain. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of docetaxel on the biodistribution of samarium-153-EDTMP in bones and other organs of rats. METHODS: Wistar male rats were randomly allocated into 2 groups of 6 rats each. The DS (docetaxel/samarium group received docetaxel (15 mg/kg intraperitoneally in two cycles 11 days apart. The S (samarium/control group rats were not treated with docetaxel. Nine days after chemotherapy, all the rats were injected with 0.1ml of samarium-153-EDTMP via orbital plexus (25µCi. After 2 hours, the animals were killed and samples of the brain, thyroid, lung, heart, stomach, colon, liver, kidney and both femurs were removed. The percentage radioactivity of each sample (% ATI/g was determined in an automatic gamma-counter (Wizard-1470, Perkin-Elmer, Finland. RESULTS: On the 9th day after the administration of the 2nd chemotherapy cycle, the rats had a significant weight loss (314.50±22.09g compared (pOBJETIVO: Muitos pacientes com metástases ósseas são tratados com radiofármacos associados com quimioterapia para alívio da dor óssea. O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a influência do docetaxel na biodistribuição do EDTMP-153-samário nos ossos e outros órgãos de ratos. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar foram aleatoriamente alocados em 2 grupos de 6 animais cada. O grupo DS (docetaxel/samário recebeu docetaxel (15 mg/kg intraperitoneal em dois ciclos com 11 dias de intervalo. Os ratos do grupo S (samário/controle não foram tratados com docetaxel. Nove dias após a quimioterapia, todos os animais receberam 0,1ml de EDTMP-153-samário via plexo orbital (25µCi. Após 2 horas, os animais foram mortos e feitas biópsias de cérebro, tireóide, pulmão, coração, estômago, cólon, fígado, rim e fêmures. O percentual de radioatividade por grama (%ATI/g de tecido de cada bi

  12. Optimal Timing of Bisphosphonate Administration in Combination with Samarium-153 Oxabifore in the Treatment of Painful Metastatic Bone Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulova, Nigora; Lyubshin, Vladimir; Arybzhanov, Dauranbek; Sagdullaev, Sh.; Krylov, Valery; Khodjibekov, Marat

    2013-01-01

    While bisphosphonates are indicated for prevention of skeletal-related events, radionuclide therapy is widely used for treatment of painful bone metastases. Combined radionuclide therapy with bisphosphonates has demonstrated improved effectiveness in achieving bone pain palliation in comparison to mono therapy with radionuclides or bisphosphonates alone. However, there are conflicting reports as to whether bisphosphonates adversely influence skeletal uptake of the bone-seeking radiotracers used for therapy. Recent studies analyzing influence of Zoledronic acid on total bone uptake of Samarium-153 EDTMP (Sm-153 EDTMP) by measuring cumulative urinary activity of Sm-153 on baseline study, as well as in combination with bisphosphonates (administrated 48 hours prior to Sm-153) did not provide any statistically significant difference in urinary excretion of Sm-153 between the two groups. It may be noted that the exact temporal sequence of bisphosphonate administration vis a vis radionuclide therapy has not yet been studied. One of the side effects of bisphosphonates is transient flare effect on bone pain. Radionuclide therapy may also have similar side effect. Keeping in view the above the current study was designed with the main objective of determining the exact timing of bisphosphonate administration in patients receiving combined therapy so as to achieve optimal efficacy of bone pain palliation. Ninety-three patients suffering from metastatic bone pain who received combination therapy with Sm-153 oxabifore (an analog of Sm-153 EDTMP) and Zoledronic acid were divided into three groups according to the timing of Zoledronic acid administration: Group I: 39 patients who received Zoledronic acid 7 or more days prior to Sm-153 oxabifore treatment; Group II: 32 patients who received Zoledronic acid 48-72 hours prior to Sm-153 oxabifore treatment and Group III: 22 patients who received Zoledronic acid 7 days after Sm-153 oxabifore treatment. Sm-153 oxabifore was administered

  13. Distribution of bromine in mixed iodide-bromide organolead perovskites and its impact on photovoltaic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Yang; Wang, Feng; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Xie, Fang-Yan; Zhao, Ni; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Mixed iodide-bromide (I-Br) organolead perovskites are of great interest for both single junction and tandem solar cells since the optical bandgap of the materials can be tuned by varying the bromine to iodine ratio. Yet, it remains unclear how bromine incorporation modifies the properties of the

  14. Application of vacuum membrane distillation to lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zanshe; Feng, Shiyu; Li, Yun [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Gu, Zhaolin [School of Human Settlement and Civil Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Conventional generator in lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system is too bulky and heavy to be fitted into small scale device, and the temperature of the driving heater in the generator seems much higher than low grade energy such as regenerative energy or waste heat energy. In this paper, desorption of aqueous lithium bromide solution by vacuum membrane distillation process was presented. Hollow fiber membrane module made by polyvinylidene fluoride was used as desorption device of aqueous lithium bromide solution. Influencing factors of feed flux, feed temperature in lumen side and vacuum pressure in shell side were tested and analyzed with orthogonal test. The results showed that permeation flux of water vapor increased with the feed temperature increasing and the feed flux increasing in lumen side, and the permeation flux also went up along with absolute pressure drop in shell side. Feasibility and potential application analysis shows that the temperature of the driving heat was low and the volume and weight of the desorption device was light. In this study, vacuum membrane distillation to the lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system has proved to be an efficient and cheap desorption mode. (author)

  15. Once-daily glycopyrronium bromide, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2012-01-01

    Long-acting bronchodilators are central in the pharmacological management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the studies evaluating the safety and clinical efficacy of inhaled glycopyrronium bromide, a novel...... long-acting muscarinic antagonist, in patients with COPD....

  16. Valence photoelectron spectra of alkali bromides calculated within the propagator theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpenko, Alexander; Iablonskyi, Denys; Aksela, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The valence ionization spectra covering the binding energy range 0-45 eV of alkali bromide XBr (X = Li, Na, K, Rb) vapors are studied within the framework of the propagator theory. Relativistic Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction calculations have been carried out in order to investigate photoion...... photoionization processes and to describe molecular electronic structure. Theoretical results are compared with available experimental data....

  17. Methyl bromide fumigation and delayed mortality: safe trade of live pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C B; Iline, I I; Novoselov, M; McNeill, M R; Richards, N K; van Koten, C; Stephenson, B P

    Live organisms intercepted from treated commodities during phytosanitary inspections usually arouse suspicions of treatment failure, sub-standard treatment application, or post-treatment infestation. The additional possibility that some treatments could kill slowly, meaning commodities might be inspected before pests have succumbed, is seldom considered for treatments other than irradiation. We used a novel biochemical viability assay to measure delays between methyl bromide fumigation and mortality of dipteran eggs, and evaluated the correspondence between egg viability and egg morphological features. Our experimental conditions simulated shipping of rock melons from Australia to New Zealand by sea and air. No eggs survived fumigation, but they took 3-20 days to die, whereas phytosanitary inspections of rock melons occur within 2-7 days. Delays were not influenced by methyl bromide concentration, but were significantly lengthened by cooler storage temperatures. Methyl bromide's preservative effects delayed degradation of egg morphology, so the biochemical assay detected mortality long before morphological signs of egg death appeared. The results show that commodities subjected to effective methyl bromide treatments are at risk of being inspected before all pests have either died, or started to exhibit morphological signs of death. This could cause commodities to be unnecessarily rejected by quarantine authorities. Better methods than inspection for live pests are needed to assist authorities to gain assurance that treated commodities have been effectively disinfested. These could be developed by exploiting biochemical responses of pests and commodities to treatments.

  18. SYNTHESIS AND CATALYTIC PROPERTIES OF CROSS-LINKED HYDROPHOBICALLY ASSOCIATING POLY(ALKYLMETHYLDIALLYLAMMONIUM BROMIDES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WANG, GJ; ENGBERTS, JBFN

    1994-01-01

    Cross-linked, hydrophobically associating homo- and copolymers were synthesized by free-radical cyclo(co)polymerization of alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide monomers with a small amount of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in aqueous solution using ammonium persulfate as the initiator. The cross-linked

  19. Unilateral mydriasis secondary to ipratropium bromide in a critically ill patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Santana-Cabrera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral dilated pupil in a critical patient under sedation is an important clinical sign that requires prompt evaluation. An exhaustive assessment must be performed, including neurological examination and imaging tests, and pharmacological causes must be ruled out. We describe a case of unilateral fixed dilated pupil secondary to the administration of a nebulized cholinergic antagonist, ipratropium bromide, in an unconscious patient.

  20. Microwave-Enhanced Cross-Coupling Reactions Involving Alkynyltrifluoroborates with Aryl Bromides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Kabalka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Palladium-catalyzed alkynylation has emerged as one of the most reliable methods for the synthesis of alkynes which are often used in natural product syntheses and material science. An efficient method for coupling alkynyltrifluoroborates with various aryl bromides in the presence of a palladium catalyst has been developed using microwave irradiation. The microwave reactions are rapid and efficient.

  1. Gold micro- and nano-particles for surface enhanced vibrational spectroscopy of pyridostigmine bromide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolgov, Leonid; Fesenko, Olena; Kavelin, Vladyslav

    2017-01-01

    Triangular gold microprisms and spherical silica nanoparticles with attached gold nano-islands were examined as an active nanostructures for the surface enhanced Raman and infrared spectroscopy. These particles were probed for the detection of pyridostigmine bromide as a safe analog of military c...

  2. SYBR safeTM efficiently replaces ethidium bromide in Aspergillus fumigatus gene disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, H M S; Takami, L A; Ferreira, M E S

    2017-02-08

    Invasive aspergillosis is a disease responsible for high mortality rates, caused mainly by Aspergillus fumigatus. The available drugs are limited and this disease continues to occur at an unacceptable frequency. Gene disruption is essential in the search for new drug targets. An efficient protocol for A. fumigatus gene disruption was described but it requires ethidium bromide, a genotoxic agent, for DNA staining. Therefore, the present study tested SYBR safe TM , a non-genotoxic DNA stain, in A. fumigatus gene disruption protocol. The chosen gene was cipC, which has already been disrupted successfully in our laboratory. A deletion cassette was constructed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used in A. fumigatus transformation. There was no statistical difference between the tested DNA stains. The success rate of S. cerevisiae transformation was 63.3% for ethidium bromide and 70% for SYBR safe TM . For A. fumigatus gene disruption, the success rate for ethidium bromide was 100 and 97% for SYBR safe TM . In conclusion, SYBR safe TM efficiently replaced ethidium bromide, making this dye a safe and efficient alternative for DNA staining in A. fumigatus gene disruption.

  3. PHARMACOKINETICS OF ROCURONIUM BROMIDE IN PATIENTS WITH AND WITHOUT RENAL-FAILURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    COOPER, RA; MIRAKHUR, RK; WIERDA, JMKH; MADDINENI, VR

    We studied the onset and duration of action and pharmacokinetics of rocuronium bromide during anaesthesia with nitrous oxide, fentanyl and isoflurane after a single bolus dose of rocuronium (0.6 mg kg(-1)) in nine patients with chronic renal failure requiring regular haemodialysis, and in nine

  4. Comparison of bromide and nitrate transport in the Bainsvlei soil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bromide is commonly used to simulate the movement of nitrate fertilisers through the soil profile. However, there exists no comparative evaluation of the leaching properties of Br- and NO3-_N under local soil and rainfall conditions at Bloemfontein. The purpose of this work was to conduct a field experiment to evaluate the ...

  5. First Stabilization and Disposal of Radioactive Zinc Bromide at the SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    Facilities Disposition Projects (FDP) personnel at Savannah River Site (SRS) implement the Inactive Facility Risk Management Program to drive down risk and costs in SRS inactive facilities. The program includes cost-effective techniques to identify and dispose of hazardous chemicals and radioactive waste from inactive facilities, thereby ensuring adequate protection of the public, workers and the environment. In June 1998, FDP conducted an assessment of the inactive C-Reactor Facility to assure that chemical and radiological hazards had been identified and were being safely managed. The walkdown identified the need to mitigate a significant hazard associated with storing approximately 13,400 gallons of liquid radioactive Zinc Bromide in three aging railcar tankers outside of the facility. No preventive maintenance was being performed on the rusting tankers and a leak could send radioactive Zinc Bromide into an outfall and offsite to the Savannah River. In 2001, DOE-Savannah River (DOE- SR) funded the FDP to eliminate the identified hazard by disposing of the radioactive Zinc Bromide solution and the three contaminated railcar tankers. This paper describes the innovative, cost-effective approaches and technology used to perform the first stabilization and disposal of radioactive Zinc Bromide at SRS

  6. Iodine catalyzed and tertiary butyl ammonium bromide promoted p reparation of b enzoxazaphosphininyl phenylboronates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Kishore K. Reddy,

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Benzoxazaphosphininyl Phenylboronates were prepared by O-Phosphorylation of potassium salt ofphenylboronic acid with cyclic phosphoromonochloridates in the presence of stoichiometric amount of Iodineand catalytic amount of tertiary butyl ammonium bromide at 50-60 °C in dry toluene.

  7. Use of Br-82 and I-131 radionuclides in studies of goitrogenic effects of exogenous bromide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 291, č. 2 (2012), s. 379-383 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : bromide * goitrogenic effect * iodine radionuclides * thyroid hormone Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.467, year: 2012

  8. 77 FR 29341 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Request for Methyl Bromide Critical Use Exemption Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ...: The amount of fumigant gas used (both methyl bromide and alternatives), price per pound of the... practices organic producers are using for their commodity. Structures and Facilities (Flour Mills, Rice... methods. For the economic assessment applicants must provide the following: Price per pound of fumigant...

  9. Optical and structural characterization of KBr crystals doped cadmium bromide (CdBr2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensouici, A.; Plaza, J.L.; Dieguez, E.; Halimi, O.; Guerbous, L.; Sebais, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the presence of CdBr 2 and cadmium aggregates in KBr matrix during Czochralski growth of KBr crystals. The chemical decomposition of CdBr 2 due to high temperature of crystallisation and reformation of cadmium bromide seems to be responsible for this effect.

  10. Optical and structural characterization of KBr crystals doped cadmium bromide (CdBr{sub 2})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensouici, A., E-mail: bensouicia@yahoo.f [Laboratory of Crystallography (Saint Lucia), Department of Physics, Mentouri-Constantine University, Constantine (Algeria); Plaza, J.L., E-mail: joseluis.plaza@uam.e [Crystal Growth Laboratory (CGL), Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Dieguez, E. [Crystal Growth Laboratory (CGL), Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Halimi, O. [Laboratory of Crystallography (Saint Lucia), Department of Physics, Mentouri-Constantine University, Constantine (Algeria); Guerbous, L. [Centre de recherche nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), Alger 16000 (Algeria); Sebais, M. [Laboratory of Crystallography (Saint Lucia), Department of Physics, Mentouri-Constantine University, Constantine (Algeria)

    2010-04-15

    In this paper we demonstrate the presence of CdBr{sub 2} and cadmium aggregates in KBr matrix during Czochralski growth of KBr crystals. The chemical decomposition of CdBr{sub 2} due to high temperature of crystallisation and reformation of cadmium bromide seems to be responsible for this effect.

  11. A novel explicit approach to model bromide and pesticide transport in connected soil structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Klaus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study tests whether an explicit treatment of worm burrows and tile drains as connected structures is feasible for simulating water flow, bromide and pesticide transport in structured heterogeneous soils at hillslope scale. The essence is to represent worm burrows as morphologically connected paths of low flow resistance in a hillslope model. A recent Monte Carlo study (Klaus and Zehe, 2010, Hydrological Processes, 24, p. 1595–1609 revealed that this approach allowed successful reproduction of tile drain event discharge recorded during an irrigation experiment at a tile drained field site. However, several "hillslope architectures" that were all consistent with the available extensive data base allowed a good reproduction of tile drain flow response. Our second objective was thus to find out whether this "equifinality" in spatial model setups may be reduced when including bromide tracer data in the model falsification process. We thus simulated transport of bromide for the 13 spatial model setups that performed best with respect to reproduce tile drain event discharge, without any further calibration. All model setups allowed a very good prediction of the temporal dynamics of cumulated bromide leaching into the tile drain, while only four of them matched the accumulated water balance and accumulated bromide loss into the tile drain. The number of behavioural model architectures could thus be reduced to four. One of those setups was used for simulating transport of Isoproturon, using different parameter combinations to characterise adsorption according to the Footprint data base. Simulations could, however, only reproduce the observed leaching behaviour, when we allowed for retardation coefficients that were very close to one.

  12. A novel explicit approach to model bromide and pesticide transport in connected soil structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, J.; Zehe, E.

    2011-07-01

    The present study tests whether an explicit treatment of worm burrows and tile drains as connected structures is feasible for simulating water flow, bromide and pesticide transport in structured heterogeneous soils at hillslope scale. The essence is to represent worm burrows as morphologically connected paths of low flow resistance in a hillslope model. A recent Monte Carlo study (Klaus and Zehe, 2010, Hydrological Processes, 24, p. 1595-1609) revealed that this approach allowed successful reproduction of tile drain event discharge recorded during an irrigation experiment at a tile drained field site. However, several "hillslope architectures" that were all consistent with the available extensive data base allowed a good reproduction of tile drain flow response. Our second objective was thus to find out whether this "equifinality" in spatial model setups may be reduced when including bromide tracer data in the model falsification process. We thus simulated transport of bromide for the 13 spatial model setups that performed best with respect to reproduce tile drain event discharge, without any further calibration. All model setups allowed a very good prediction of the temporal dynamics of cumulated bromide leaching into the tile drain, while only four of them matched the accumulated water balance and accumulated bromide loss into the tile drain. The number of behavioural model architectures could thus be reduced to four. One of those setups was used for simulating transport of Isoproturon, using different parameter combinations to characterise adsorption according to the Footprint data base. Simulations could, however, only reproduce the observed leaching behaviour, when we allowed for retardation coefficients that were very close to one.

  13. Ease of intubation: A randomized, double-blind study to compare two doses of rocuronium bromide for endotracheal intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Aparna; Misra, Shilpi

    2016-01-01

    Clinical need for a nondepolarizing agent with a rapid onset time and a brief duration of action has led to the development of rocuronium bromide. The aim of this study was to evaluate optimal dose of rocuronium bromide for intubation and to compare the onset time, duration of action, intubating conditions, and hemodynamic effects of two doses of rocuronium bromide. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study. All the patients were divided in a randomized, double-blind fashion into two groups of twenty patients each. Group I patients received rocuronium bromide 0.6 mg/kg intravenously and intubated at 60 s, Group II patients received rocuronium bromide 0.9 mg/kg and intubated at 60 s. The neuromuscular block was assessed using single twitch stimulation of 0.1 Hz at adductor pollicis muscle of hand at every 10 s. The results were compiled and analyzed statistically using Chi-square test for qualitative data and Student's t -test for quantitative data. Time of onset was significantly shorter ( P Rocuronium bromide 0.9 mg/kg is a safer alternative to rocuronium bromide 0.6 mg/kg for endotracheal intubation with shorter time of onset and better intubating conditions.

  14. Synthesis of samarium complexes with the derivative binder of Schiff Quinolinic base. Characterization and photophysical study; Sintesis de complejos de samario con el ligante derivado de base de Schiff Quinolinica. Caracterizacion y estudio fotofisico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas H, J.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we determined the metal: binder stoichiometry of the species formed during the UV/Vis spectrophotometric titration of the derivative binder of Schiff quinolinic base, L1 with the samarium nitrate pentahydrate in methanol. Statistical analysis of the data allowed proposing the metal: binder stoichiometry for the synthesis of the complexes which was one mole of samarium salt by 2.5 moles of binder and thus favor the formation of complexes with 1M: 1L and 1M: 2L stoichiometries. They were synthesized in aqueous-organic medium (water-ethanol), isolated and purified two complexes with stoichiometry 1 Sm: 1 L1, complex 1 and 1 Sm: 2 L1, complex 2. The overall yield of the reaction was 76%. The characterization of the formed complexes was performed by visible ultraviolet spectrometry (UV/Vis), nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XP S), thermal gravimetric analysis with differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC), and radial distribution function. These complexes were studied by fluorescence and emission phosphorescence at variable temperature. Spectroscopic techniques used in both solution and solid demonstrated the formation and stability of these complexes. In addition XP S indicated that in both complexes the samarium retains its oxidation state 3+. Luminescence studies indicated that there is intra-binding charge transfer which decreases the transfer of light energy from the binder to the samarium. Based on the experimental results, L1 binder molecules and complexes 1 and 2 were modeled that demonstrated the proposed Nc for each complex, as well as allowed to visualize the structural arrangement of the molecules, complexes and binder. (Author)

  15. Comparison of phenobarbital with bromide as a first-choice antiepileptic drug for treatment of epilepsy in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, Dawn Merton; Dewey, Curtis; Carpenter, David Mark

    2012-05-01

    To compare efficacy and safety of treatment with phenobarbital or bromide as the first-choice antiepileptic drug (AED) in dogs. Double-blinded, randomized, parallel, clinical trial. 46 AED-naïve dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy. Study inclusion was based on age, history, findings on physical and neurologic examinations, and clinicopathologic test results. For either phenobarbital treatment (21 dogs) or bromide treatment (25), a 7-day loading dose period was initiated along with a maintenance dose, which was adjusted on the basis of monthly monitoring. Efficacy and safety outcomes were compared between times (baseline and study end [generally 6 months]) and between drugs. Phenobarbital treatment resulted in eradication of seizures (17/20 [85%]) significantly more often than did bromide (12/23 [52%]); phenobarbital treatment also resulted in a greater percentage decrease in seizure duration (88 ± 34%), compared with bromide (49 ± 75%). Seizure activity worsened in 3 bromide-treated dogs only. In dogs with seizure eradication, mean ± SD serum phenobarbital concentration was 25 ± 6 μg/mL (phenobarbital dosage, 4.1 ± 1.1 mg/kg [1.9 ± 0.5 mg/lb], p.o., q 12 h) and mean serum bromide concentration was 1.8 ± 0.6 mg/mL (bromide dosage, 31 ± 11 mg/kg [14 ± 5 mg/lb], p.o., q 12 h). Ataxia, lethargy, and polydipsia were greater at 1 month for phenobarbital-treated dogs; vomiting was greater for bromide-treated dogs at 1 month and study end. Both phenobarbital and bromide were reasonable first-choice AEDs for dogs, but phenobarbital was more effective and better tolerated during the first 6 months of treatment.

  16. Comparative microvascular exchange kinetics of [{sup 77}Br]bromide and {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, Claire [Department of Clinical Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Skehan, Stephen J.; Rolph, Susan M.; Flaxman, Mary E.; Ballinger, James R.; Bird, Nicholas J.; Barber, Robert W.; Peters, Michael A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    The plasma clearance curves of small hydrophilic solutes comprise three exponentials, consistent with a three-compartmental distribution model. A previous comparison between inulin and diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) suggested that these three compartments are in series, the first being plasma and the second and third representing compartments within the extravascular space. Moreover, whilst the total distribution volumes of these two indicators were similar, the volume of the second compartment was higher for DTPA. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether a solute smaller than DTPA, namely bromide, fits the hypothesis that the second space volume is an inverse function of the size of the solute. Two groups of subjects were studied: group A comprised eight patients undergoing routine diagnostic arteriography and group B, eight patients referred for routine measurement of glomerular filtration rate plus two normal volunteers. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and sodium [{sup 77}Br]bromide were intravenously administered simultaneously. In group A, frequent arterial samples were obtained up to 40 min after injection, and antecubital venous samples 30 s after each arterial sample. In group B, frequent venous samples were obtained up to 280 min after injection. Volume measurements based on bromide were corrected for erythrocyte bromide accumulation. In both subject groups, the normalised venous concentration ratio of bromide to DTPA, corrected for red cell bromide uptake, was significantly less than unity in the earliest blood samples, being 0.56 (SD 0.08) at 1 min, consistent with faster diffusion of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid. Furthermore, the extraction fraction of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid in the forearm was about 0.6, higher than that of DTPA (about 0.5) in spite of red cell bromide accumulation which equilibrated with plasma bromide within 20 s and resulted in a red cell to plasma concentration ratio of 0.51 (0

  17. Evaluation of the influence of base and alkyl bromide on synthesis of pyrazinoic acid esters through factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Joao Paulo dos Santos; Felli, Veni Maria Andres

    2009-01-01

    Pyrazinoic acid esters have been synthesized as prodrugs of pyrazinoic acid. In the literature, its preparation is reported through the reaction of pyrazinoyl chloride with alcohols and the reaction with DCC/DMAP. In this work, it is reported a 22 factorial design to evaluate the preparation of these esters through the substitution of alkyl bromides with carboxylate anion. The controlled factors were alkyl chain length of bromides (ethyl and hexyl) and the used base (triethylamine and DBU). Results revealed that the used base used has significant effect on yield, and alkyl bromide used has neither significant influence, nor its interaction effect with base. (author)

  18. Atmospheric volatilization of methyl bromide, 1,3-dichloropropene, and propargyl bromide through two plastic films: transfer coefficient and temperature effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Yates, S. R.; Gan, J.; Knuteson, J. A.

    Atmospheric emission of methyl bromide (MeBr) and its potential alternative chemicals such as 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and propargyl bromide (PrBr) can contribute to air pollution and ozone depletion (for MeBr). One of the main sources of these chemicals is from agricultural soil fumigation. To understand the volatilization dynamics, emission of MeBr, 1,3-D, and PrBr through a polyethylene-based high-barrier film (HBF) and a virtually impermeable film (VIF) was measured using an air flow and sampling system that produced >90% mass balance. The experiment was conducted outdoors and was subjected to ambient daily temperature variations. The HBF film was found to be very permeable to 1,3-D and PrBr, but somewhat less permeable to MeBr. The VIF film was very impermeable to 1,3-D, PrBr, or MeBr. Measured volatilization flux, in general, exhibited strong diurnal variations which were controlled by film temperature. Unlike the HBF film, a time lag (˜12 h) was observed between high-temperatures and high-emission flux values for the VIF film. An impermeable film may be used as an effective means of controlling the atmospheric emission of MeBr and its alternative chemicals.

  19. Photoluminescence and spectroscopic dependence of fluorophosphate glasses on samarium ions concentration and the induced defects by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzouk, M.A., E-mail: marzouk_nrc@yahoo.com [Glass Research Department, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth Street (former EL Tahrir), P.O. 12622, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Hamdy, Y.M. [Spectroscopy Department, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth Street (former EL Tahrir), P.O. 12622, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); ElBatal, H.A. [Glass Research Department, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth Street (former EL Tahrir), P.O. 12622, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Ezz ElDin, F.M. [National Institute for Radiation Research & Technology, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-10-15

    /2} and {sup 6}H{sub 11/2}, respectively. The intensity of the emission spectra is observed to increase with the increase of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. The optical spectra within the visible–near IR region and photoluminescence spectra of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped glasses are found to be stable and show almost no variations after gamma irradiation especially when rare-earth ions are present in noticeable contents (1–3%). FTIR spectra of all the studied glasses reveal repetitive and characteristic vibrational bands mainly due to phosphate groups with abundant of Q{sup 2} and Q{sup 3} groups due to the high content of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (70 mol%). The introduction of 10% NaF and 20% AlF{sub 3} is observed to cause formation of mixed fluorophosphate groups (PO{sub 3}F){sup 2−}. The formation of (AlPO){sub 4} and/or (AlPO{sub 6}) groups needs further justification by combined techniques. The increase of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} content to 3% causes obvious increase of the IR absorption bands within the wavenumbers range of about 850–1400 cm{sup −1} due to suggested depolymerization effect. Gamma irradiation causes no distinct variations in the FTIR spectra due to suggested compactness through the formation of additional structural groups from AlF{sub 4} or AlF{sub 6}. - Highlights: • Samarium ions doped in host fluorophosphate glasses were prepared. • Optical and FT infrared absorption techniques were applied to study the spectral properties of the glasses. • Photoluminescence properties were measured. • Collective spectroscopic variations generated by gamma irradiation were investigated.

  20. Indirect complexometric determination of mercury(II) using potassium bromide as selective masking agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, N.V.; Nazareth, R.A.; Narayana, B.; Hegde, P.; Manjunatha, B.R.

    2002-01-01

    A complexometric method for the determination of mercury in presence of other metal ions based on the selective masking ability of potassium bromide towards mercury is described. Mercury(II) present in a given sample solution is first complexed with a known excess of EDTA and the surplus EDTA is titrated against zinc sulfate solution at pH 5-6 using xylenol orange as the indicator. A known excess of 10 % solution of potassium bromide is then added and the EDTA released from Hg-EDTA complex is titrated against standard zinc sulfate solution. Reproducible and accurate results are obtained for 8 mg to 250 mg of mercury(II) with a relative error ±0.28 % and standard deviations /leg 0.5 mg. The interference of various ions is studied. This method was applied to the determination of mercury(II) in its alloys. (author)

  1. Temporary arrest of fetal movement with pancuronium bromide to enable antenatal magnetic resonance imaging of holoprosencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, L; Seeds, J W

    1989-10-01

    The well-known ability of real-time ultrasound to detect congenital abnormalities is often limited by acoustic artifact or fetal position or both. Magnetic resonance imaging can provide superior soft tissue resolution but is vulnerable to maternal and fetal motion artifact. Described and illustrated here is a case of fetal holoprosencephaly that was not of diagnostic clarity on ultrasound. The fetus was paralyzed with an intramuscular injection of pancuronium bromide before a resonance imaging study. Successful fetal paralysis with pancuronium bromide has been reported prior to a variety of fetal interventions for the temporary arrest of fetal movement. The resonance study illustrated here was of significantly superior clarity and improved the accuracy of prognosis and management counseling. It is concluded that in selected cases where ultrasound is not of diagnostic clarity due to acoustic artifact, fetal paralysis and magnetic resonance imaging may be considered.

  2. Apparent molal volumes of symmetrical and asymmetrical isomers of tetrabutylammonium bromide in water at several temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Nicolás; Malagón, Andrés; Buchner, Richard; Vargas, Edgar F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Apparent molal volumes of five isomers of Bu 4 NBr in water have been measured. • The structural effect of branched and linear chains is discussed. • The structural contributions to the ionic volume were calculated. -- Abstract: Apparent molal volumes of a series of differently substituted quaternary ammonium bromides, namely tetra-iso-butyl-, tetra-sec-butyl-, tetra-n-butyl-, di-n-butyl-di-sec-butyl- and di-n-butyl-di-iso-butylammonium bromide have been determined as a function of molal concentration at (298.15, 303.15 and 308.15) K. Partial molar volumes at infinite dilution and ionic molar volumes of these quaternary ammonium cations were determined. Structural volume contributions to the ionic molar volume were also calculated. The symmetric and asymmetric quaternary ammonium cations are “structure making” ions. The contribution of the branched butyl chains predominates over the linear butyl chains in the asymmetric cations

  3. Preparation and optical characteristics of layered perovskite-type lead-bromide-incorporated azobenzene chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Ryo; Shinomura, Hisashi

    2013-02-01

    Lead bromide-based layered perovskite powders with azobenzene derivatives were prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method. From the diffuse reflectance (DR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the hybrid powder materials, the present hybrids exhibited sharp absorption and PL peaks originating from excitons produced in the PbBr42- layer. When the present hybrid powder was irradiated with UV light at 350 nm, the absorption band from the trans-azobenzene chromophore, observed around 350 nm, decreased, while the absorption band from the cis-azobenzene chromophore, observed around 450 nm, increased. These results indicate that azobenzene chromophores in the present hybrid materials exhibit reversible photoisomerization. Moreover, it was found that the PL intensity from the exciton also varied due to photoisomerization of the azobenzene chromophores in the present hybrid. Thus, for the first time we succeeded in preparing the azobenzene derivative lead-bromide-based layered perovskite with photochromism before and after UV light irradiation.

  4. Mechanism of HERG potassium channel inhibition by tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Yan; Lin, Zuoxian; Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei; Li, Zhiyuan

    2013-01-01

    Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are synthetic quaternary ammonium salts that are widely used in hospitals and industries for the disinfection and surface treatment and as the preservative agent. Recently, the activities of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds have been found to have potential risks to induce the long QT syndrome and cardiac arrhythmia, although the mechanism of action is still elusive. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds by using whole-cell patch clamp experiments in a CHO cell line stably expressing HERG channels. Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitions of HERG channel currents with IC 50 values of 4 nM and 17 nM, respectively, which were also voltage-dependent and use-dependent. Both compounds shifted the channel activation I–V curves in a hyperpolarized direction for 10–15 mV and accelerated channel activation and inactivation processes by 2-fold. In addition, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide shifted the inactivation I–V curve in a hyperpolarized direction for 24.4 mV and slowed the rate of channel deactivation by 2-fold, whereas benzethonium chloride did not. The results indicate that tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are open-channel blockers that inhibit HERG channels in the voltage-dependent, use-dependent and state-dependent manners. - Highlights: ► Tetra-n-octylammonium and benzethonium are potent HERG channel inhibitors. ► Channel activation and inactivation processes are accelerated by the two compounds. ► Both compounds are the open-channel blockers to HERG channels. ► HERG channel inhibition by both compounds is use-, voltage- and state dependent. ► The in vivo risk of QT prolongation needs to be studied for the two compounds

  5. Bromidotetra?kis?(2-isopropyl-1H-imidazole-?N 3)copper(II) bromide

    OpenAIRE

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Socha, Joanna; Baranowska, Katarzyna; Do??ga, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The CuII atom in the title salt, [CuBr(C6H10N2)4]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four imidazole N atoms and one bromide anion that is located at the apex of the pyramid. The cations and the anions form a two-dimensional network parallel to (001) through N—H...Br hydrogen bonds.

  6. Bromide (Br) - Based Synthesis of Ag Nanocubes with High-Yield

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Fan; Wang, Wenhui; Xu, Zhongfeng; Li, Fuli

    2015-01-01

    The geometry of metal nanoparticles greatly affects the properties of the localized surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The synthesis of metal nanoparticles with controllable geometry has thus attracted extensive attentions. In this work, we report a modified polyol synthesis approach of silver (Ag) nanocubes through tuning the concentration of bromide ions (Br? ions). We have systematically investigated the effect of Br? ions in the polyol process, and find that ...

  7. Chemical effects of radiative thermal neutron capture. Part 5.- Potassium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddock, A. G.; Val Cob, M. del

    1961-01-01

    By the use of the bromine atom exchanging reagent CHBr: CHBr, it has been shown that the specific activity of the atomic bromine in pile-irradiated potassium bromide is greater than that of the total bromine. This result suggests that the inactive radiolytic bromine atoms and the ejected radioactive atoms occupy different defect sites, the latter most likely finding interstitial positrons. (Author) 6 refs

  8. Mechanism of HERG potassium channel inhibition by tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yan; Lin, Zuoxian [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China); Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei [National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, Zhiyuan, E-mail: li_zhiyuan@gibh.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China)

    2013-03-01

    Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are synthetic quaternary ammonium salts that are widely used in hospitals and industries for the disinfection and surface treatment and as the preservative agent. Recently, the activities of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds have been found to have potential risks to induce the long QT syndrome and cardiac arrhythmia, although the mechanism of action is still elusive. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds by using whole-cell patch clamp experiments in a CHO cell line stably expressing HERG channels. Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitions of HERG channel currents with IC{sub 50} values of 4 nM and 17 nM, respectively, which were also voltage-dependent and use-dependent. Both compounds shifted the channel activation I–V curves in a hyperpolarized direction for 10–15 mV and accelerated channel activation and inactivation processes by 2-fold. In addition, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide shifted the inactivation I–V curve in a hyperpolarized direction for 24.4 mV and slowed the rate of channel deactivation by 2-fold, whereas benzethonium chloride did not. The results indicate that tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are open-channel blockers that inhibit HERG channels in the voltage-dependent, use-dependent and state-dependent manners. - Highlights: ► Tetra-n-octylammonium and benzethonium are potent HERG channel inhibitors. ► Channel activation and inactivation processes are accelerated by the two compounds. ► Both compounds are the open-channel blockers to HERG channels. ► HERG channel inhibition by both compounds is use-, voltage- and state dependent. ► The in vivo risk of QT prolongation needs to be studied for the two compounds.

  9. Chemical effects of radiative thermal neutron capture. Part 5.- Potassium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddock, A G; Val Cob, M del

    1961-07-01

    By the use of the bromine atom exchanging reagent CHBr: CHBr, it has been shown that the specific activity of the atomic bromine in pile-irradiated potassium bromide is greater than that of the total bromine. This result suggests that the inactive radiolytic bromine atoms and the ejected radioactive atoms occupy different defect sites, the latter most likely finding interstitial positrons. (Author) 6 refs.

  10. The Effect of Ozonation Process on Bromide-Containing Groundwaters in Bandung Area and Its Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindriany Syafila

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection process was applied as the last step of the water treatment to kill pathogenic bacteria in the water. However, according to several studies, the ozonation disinfection process could form undesired by-products. One of the by-products potentially affecting human life is bromate produced from bromide ionic-containing water. This study was carried out to examine the effect of raw water characteristics and pH on bromate formation. Also, the performance of bromate formation for a period of exposure time was analyzed. Raw waters taken from four different areas around Bandung were exposed to ozone introduced to a reactor with a flow rate of 2 L/min. The pH of the raw waters varied from 4, 7 to 10. The results show that there was no evidence of an initial bromide ion concentration, whereas a change in pH value gives a significantly different outcome. In acidic condition (pH of 4 the bromate formation tends to decrease, whereas when the pH value increases to a pH of 10, the bromate formation increases. Therefore, for drinking water with a neutral pH, when bromide ions are detected in the raw water, the drinking water may be toxic due to the presence of bromate.

  11. The discovery and development of aclidinium bromide for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerba, Mario; Radaeli, Alessandro; Santini, Giuseppe; Morjaria, Jaymin; Mores, Nadia; Mondino, Chiara; Macis, Giuseppe; Montuschi, Paolo

    2018-06-01

    Bronchodilators, including long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs), are a mainstay of the pharmacological treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). LAMAs act as bronchodilators principally by antagonizing airway smooth muscle cells M 3 muscarinic receptors. Aclidinium bromide is a twice-daily LAMA which was developed to improve on the efficacy and/or safety of previous LAMAs. Area covered: Herein, the authors present the pharmacotherapeutic role of aclidinium in COPD and point out unmet need in this research area. The following aspects are covered: a) the discovery and medicinal chemistry of aclidinium bromide; b) an overview of the market; c) its mechanism of action; d) its pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile derived from pre-clinical studies; e) the clinical studies which led to its licensing; f) the evidence from meta-analyses; g) the aclidinium/formoterol fixed dose combination for COPD and h) priorities in this area of research. Expert opinion: Aclidinium bromide has the pharmacological properties, safety and efficacy profile and inhaler characteristics which makes it a valuable therapeutic option for pharmacological management of patients with COPD. Due to its rapid biotransformation into inactive metabolites, aclidinium is potentially one of the safest LAMAs. Further head-to-head randomized clinical trials are required to define efficacy and safety of aclidinium when compared to once-daily LAMAs. The clinical relevance of airway anti-remodeling effects of aclidinium has to be defined.

  12. Preparation and optical characteristics of layered perovskite-type lead-bromide-incorporated azobenzene chromophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasai, Ryo; Shinomura, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    Lead bromide-based layered perovskite powders with azobenzene derivatives were prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method. From the diffuse reflectance (DR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the hybrid powder materials, the present hybrids exhibited sharp absorption and PL peaks originating from excitons produced in the PbBr 4 2− layer. When the present hybrid powder was irradiated with UV light at 350 nm, the absorption band from the trans-azobenzene chromophore, observed around 350 nm, decreased, while the absorption band from the cis-azobenzene chromophore, observed around 450 nm, increased. These results indicate that azobenzene chromophores in the present hybrid materials exhibit reversible photoisomerization. Moreover, it was found that the PL intensity from the exciton also varied due to photoisomerization of the azobenzene chromophores in the present hybrid. Thus, for the first time we succeeded in preparing the azobenzene derivative lead-bromide-based layered perovskite with photochromism before and after UV light irradiation. - Graphical abstract: For the first time, we succeeded in preparing the azobenzene derivative lead-bromide-based layered perovskite with photochromism before and after UV light irradiation. Highlights: ► PbBr-based layered perovskite with azobenezene derivatives could be synthesized by a homogeneous precipitation method. ► Azobenzene derivatives incorporated the present hybrid that exhibited reversible photoisomerization under UV and/or visible light irradiation. ► PL property of the present hybrid could also be varied by photoisomerization.

  13. Toxic impact of bromide and iodide on drinking water disinfected with chlorine or chloramines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Komaki, Yukako; Kimura, Susana Y; Hu, Hong-Ying; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Mariñas, Benito J; Plewa, Michael J

    2014-10-21

    Disinfectants inactivate pathogens in source water; however, they also react with organic matter and bromide/iodide to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although only a few DBP classes have been systematically analyzed for toxicity, iodinated and brominated DBPs tend to be the most toxic. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine if monochloramine (NH2Cl) disinfection generated drinking water with less toxicity than water disinfected with free chlorine (HOCl) and (2) to determine the impact of added bromide and iodide in conjunction with HOCl or NH2Cl disinfection on mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genomic DNA damage induction. Water disinfected with chlorine was less cytotoxic but more genotoxic than water disinfected with chloramine. For both disinfectants, the addition of Br(-) and I(-) increased cytotoxicity and genotoxicity with a greater response observed with NH2Cl disinfection. Both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were highly correlated with TOBr and TOI. However, toxicity was weakly and inversely correlated with TOCl. Thus, the forcing agents for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were the generation of brominated and iodinated DBPs rather than the formation of chlorinated DBPs. Disinfection practices need careful consideration especially when using source waters containing elevated bromide and iodide.

  14. Room temperature synthesis of silver nanowires from tabular silver bromide crystals in the presence of gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suwen; Wehmschulte, Rudolf J.; Lian, Guoda; Burba, Christopher M.

    2006-03-01

    Long silver nanowires were synthesized at room temperature by a simple and fast process derived from the development of photographic films. A film consisting of an emulsion of tabular silver bromide grains in gelatin was treated with a photographic developer (4-(methylamino)phenol sulfate (metol), citric acid) in the presence of additional aqueous silver nitrate. The silver nanowires have lengths of more than 50 μm, some even more than 100 μm, and average diameters of about 80 nm. Approximately, 70% of the metallic silver formed in the reduction consists of silver nanowires. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) results indicate that the silver nanowires grow along the [111] direction. It was found that the presence of gelatin, tabular silver bromide crystals and silver ions in solution are essential for the formation of the silver nanowires. The nanowires appear to originate from the edges of the silver bromide crystals. They were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), SAED, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  15. Room temperature synthesis of silver nanowires from tabular silver bromide crystals in the presence of gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Suwen; Wehmschulte, Rudolf J.; Lian Guoda; Burba, Christopher M.

    2006-01-01

    Long silver nanowires were synthesized at room temperature by a simple and fast process derived from the development of photographic films. A film consisting of an emulsion of tabular silver bromide grains in gelatin was treated with a photographic developer (4-(methylamino)phenol sulfate (metol), citric acid) in the presence of additional aqueous silver nitrate. The silver nanowires have lengths of more than 50 μm, some even more than 100 μm, and average diameters of about 80 nm. Approximately, 70% of the metallic silver formed in the reduction consists of silver nanowires. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) results indicate that the silver nanowires grow along the [111] direction. It was found that the presence of gelatin, tabular silver bromide crystals and silver ions in solution are essential for the formation of the silver nanowires. The nanowires appear to originate from the edges of the silver bromide crystals. They were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), SAED, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD)

  16. Electrolytic coloration and spectral properties of hydroxyl-doped potassium bromide single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Lan; Song, Cuiying; Gu, Hongen

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyl-doped potassium bromide single crystals are colored electrolytically at various temperatures and voltages by using a pointed cathode and a flat anode. The characteristic OH − spectral band is observed in absorption spectrum of uncolored single crystal. The characteristic O − , OH − , U, V 2 , O 2− −V a + , M L1 , F and M spectral bands are observed simultaneously in absorption spectra of colored single crystals. Current–time curve for electrolytic coloration of hydroxyl-doped potassium bromide single crystal and its relationship with electrolytic coloration processes are given. Production and conversion of color centers are explained. - Highlights: ► We expanded the traditional electrolysis method. ► Hydroxyl-doped potassium bromide crystals were colored electrolytically for the first time. ► Useful V, F and F-aggregate color centers were produced in colored crystals. ► V color centers were produced directly and F as well as F-aggregate color centers indirectly.

  17. Trends in bromide wet deposition concentrations in the contiguous United States, 2001-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A; Lehmann, Christopher M B; Kerschner, Brian M; Ludtke, Amy S; Green, Lee A; Rhodes, Mark F

    2018-02-01

    Bromide (Br - ) and other solute concentration data from wet deposition samples collected and analyzed by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) from 2001 to 2016, were statistically analyzed for trends both geographically and temporally by precipitation type. Analysis was limited to NADP sites in the contiguous 48 United States. The Br - concentrations for this time period had a high number of values censored at the detection limits with greater than 86 percent of sample concentrations below analytical detection. Bromide was more frequently detected at NADP sites in coastal regions. Analysis using specialized statistical techniques for censored data revealed that Br - concentrations varied by precipitation type with higher concentrations usually observed in liquid versus precipitation containing snow. Negative temporal trends in Br - wet deposition concentrations were observed at a majority of NADP sites; approximately 25 percent of these trend values were statistically significant at less than 0.05 to 0.10 significance levels. Potential causes for the negative trends were explored, including annual and seasonal changes in precipitation depth, reduced emissions of methyl bromide (CH 3 Br) from coastal wetlands, and declining industrial use of bromine compounds. The results indicate that Br - in non-coastal wet-deposition comes mainly from long-range transport, not local sources. Correlations between Br - , chloride, and nitrate concentrations also were evaluated. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Pitting Corrosion Behavior of 304 SS and 316 SS Alloys in Aqueous Chloride and Bromide Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtehal Kareem Shakir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the present work falls on the pitting corrosion behavior investigation of 304 SS and 316 SS alloys in 3.5 wt% of aqueous solution bearing with chloride and bromide anion at different solutions temperature range starting from (20-50oC due to the pitting corrosion tremendous effect on the economic, safety and materials loss due to leakage. The impact of solution temperatures on the pitting corrosion resistance at 3.5wt% (NaCl and NaBr solutions for the 304 SS and 316 SS has been investigated utilizing the cyclic polarization techniques at the potential range -400 to1000 mV vs. SCE at 40 mV/sec scan rate followed by the surface characterization employing Scanning Electron Microscope. The results show that a significant decline in the pitting corrosion potential Ep values of both stainless steel alloys in chloride and bromide solution during temperature increase attributed to the pitting corrosion potential decreased arises from the modification of the passive film properties. The surface examination using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope prove the occurring of higher pitting density over 304 SS in chloride solution than that observed in bromide solution with a non-circular lacy cover pitfall out at the center and falls inside the pits hall in comparison to the isolated circular lacy cover pit formed on 316 SS in 3.5wt% NaBr solution at 50 oC.

  19. Once-daily glycopyrronium bromide (Seebri Breezhaler(®)) for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Long-acting bronchodilators are the mainstay of pharmacological therapy for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The choice of optimal bronchodilator therapy for COPD is increasingly difficult for clinicians as new treatments are marketed. AREAS COVERED: Inhaled...... glycopyrronium bromide (Seebri Breezhaler®) is a well-tolerated long-acting anti-muscarinic agent (LAMA) with a fast onset of action. In patients with moderate to severe COPD, glycopyrronium bromide has clinically important effects on level of FEV1, use of relief medication, day-time dyspnea scores, and probably...... also on health status. Furthermore, glycopyrronium bromide also has beneficial effects on dynamic hyperinflation and, probably by that, exercise tolerance. Glycopyrronium bromide has been shown to reduce the rate of exacerbations in patients with moderate to severe COPD, although as a secondary outcome...

  20. Estimating Potential Increased Bladder Cancer Risk Due to Increased Bromide Concentrations in Sources of Disinfected Drinking Waters - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public water systems are increasingly facing higher bromide levels in their source waters from anthropogenic contamination through coal-fired powerplants, conventional oil and gas extraction, and hydraulic fracturing. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this in coming years. W...

  1. Estimating Potential Increased Bladder Cancer Risk Due to Increased Bromide Concentrations in Sources of Disinfected Drinking Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public water systems are increasingly facing higher bromide levels in their source waters from anthropogenic contamination through coal-fired power plants, conventional oil and gas extraction, and hydraulic fracturing. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this in coming years. ...

  2. Comparative study on bromide and iodide ion-isotopic exchange reactions using strongly basic anion exchange resin Duolite A-113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, R.S.; Dole, M.H.; Singare, P.U.

    2006-01-01

    Kinetics of ion-isotopic exchange reaction was studied using industrial grade ion exchange resin Duolite A-113. The radioactive isotopes 131 I and 82 Br were used to trace the ion-isotopic exchange reaction. The experiments were performed in the temperature range of 26.0degC to 43.0degC and the concentration of external ionic solution varying from 0.005 M to 0.100 M. For bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction, the calculated values of specific reaction rate, initial rate of bromide ion exchange, and amount of bromide ions exchanged were obtained higher than that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction under identical experimental conditions. The observed variation in the results for two ion-isotopic exchange reactions was due to the difference in the ionic size of bromide and iodide ions. (author)

  3. GREEN CHEMISTRY APPLICATION FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF (1-N-4’-METHOXYBENZYL-1,10-PHENANTHROLINIUM BROMIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulidan Firdaus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple, energy-efficient, and relatively quick synthetic procedure for the synthesis of (1-N-4'-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide, based on green chemistry principles has been carried out. The synthesis was started by solvent-free reduction of p-anisaldehyde with NaBH4 to give 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol in 98% yield to be followed by solvent-free treatment of the resulted alcohol with PBr3 to yield 4-methoxybenzyl bromide (86%. Furthermore, the obtained bromide was reacted with 1,10-phenanthroline in acetone at reflux for 12 h to give the phenanthrolinium salt target in 68% yield.   Keywords: green chemistry, p-anisaldehyde, (1-N-4'-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide

  4. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, No Stack, More than 8 Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  5. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Horizontal Stacks, 8 Hours or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  6. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, No Stack, 8 Hours or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  7. Prostate cancer and toxicity from critical use exemptions of methyl bromide: Environmental protection helps protect against human health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budnik Lygia T

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ozone-depleting methyl bromide was destined for phase-out by 2005, it is still widely applied as a consequence of various critical-use-exemptions and mandatory international regulations aiming to restrict the spread of pests and alien species (e.g. in globalized transport and storage. The withdrawal of methyl bromide because of its environmental risk could fortuitously help in the containment of its human toxicity. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature, including in vitro toxicological and epidemiological studies of occupational and community exposure to the halogenated hydrocarbon pesticide methyl bromide. We focused on toxic (especially chronic or carcinogenic effects from the use of methyl bromide, on biomonitoring data and reference values. Eligible epidemiological studies were subjected to meta-analysis. Results Out of the 542 peer reviewed publications between 1990-2011, we found only 91 referring to toxicity of methyl bromide and 29 using the term "carcinogenic", "neoplastic" or "mutagenic". Several studies provide new additional data pertaining to the mechanistic aspects of methyl bromide toxicity. Few studies have performed a detailed exposure assessment including biomonitoring. Three evaluated epidemiological studies assessed a possible association between cancer and methyl bromide. Overall, exposure to methyl bromide is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer OR, 1.21; 95% CI (0,98-1.49, P = 0.076. Two epidemiological studies have analyzed environmental, non-occupational exposure to methyl bromide providing evidence for its health risk to the general public. None of the epidemiological studies addressed its use as a fumigant in freight containers, although recent field and case reports do refer to its toxic effects associated with its use in shipping and storage. Conclusions Both the epidemiological evidence and toxicological data suggest a possible link between methyl

  8. Structural and superconducting properties of (Y,Gd)Ba2Cu3O7-δ grown by MOCVD on samarium zirconate buffered IBAD-MgO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stan, L; Holesinger, T G; Maiorov, B; Feldmann, D M; Usov, I O; DePaula, R F; Civale, L; Foltyn, S R; Jia, Q X; Chen, Y; Selvamanickam, V

    2008-01-01

    Textured samarium zirconate (SZO) films have been grown by reactive cosputtering directly on an ion beam assisted deposited (IBAD) MgO template, without an intermediate homoepitaxial MgO layer. The subsequent growth of 0.9 μm thick (Y,Gd)Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ ((Y, Gd)BCO) films by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) yielded well textured films with a full width at half maximum of 1.9 0 and 3.4 0 for the out-of-plane and in-plane texture, respectively. Microstructural characterizations of the SZO buffered samples revealed clean interfaces. This indicates that the SZO not only provides a diffusion barrier, but also functions as a buffer for (Y, Gd)BCO grown by MOCVD. The achievement of self-field critical current densities (J c ) of over 2 MA cm -2 at 75.5 K is another proof of the effectiveness of SZO as a buffer on the IBAD-MgO template. The in-field measurements revealed an asymmetric angular dependence of J c and a shift of the ab-plane maxima due to the tilted nature of the template and (Y,Gd) 2 O 3 particles existing in the (Y, Gd)BCO matrix. The present results are especially important because they demonstrate that high temperature superconducting coated conductors with simpler architecture can be fabricated using commercially viable processes

  9. Pharmacokinetics of labelled compounds with technetium-99m and samarium-153; Farmacocinetica de compuestos marcados con tecnecio-99m y samario-153

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borda O, L B; Torres L, M N

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to establish the different pharmacokinetics parameters of the main radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and samarium-153. These parameters could be subsequently used as reference to compare other products with the same use. Mathematical models and a computerized pharmacokinetic program were used to this purpose. A biodistribution study in quadruplicate and/or quintuplicate was conducted for each radiopharmaceutical, data was was obtained in injection dose percentages. The biodistribution study involved the injection of a predetermined dose of the radiopharmaceutical into animals (rats or mice), which were subsequently put away at different time intervals, removing the relevant organs. Activity in each organ was read by means of a well-type NaI scintillation counter, data obtained in activity counts was transformed into injection dose percentages. Based on these percentages, the mathematical model was constructed and the pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained using the computerized program Expo 2 v. 1, which is written in C language and works in windows. Analyzing the results obtained, we can conclude that the use of the Expo 2 v. 1 program for a bi compartmental analysis allowed us to obtain reliable pharmacokinetic parameters which describe what happens in the organism when the radiopharmaceutical passes from the central compartment to the peripheral one and vice versa.

  10. Examining the interrelationship between DOC, bromide and chlorine dose on DBP formation in drinking water--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tom; Huang, Jin; Graham, Nigel J D; Templeton, Michael R

    2014-02-01

    During drinking water treatment aqueous chlorine and bromine compete to react with natural organic matter (NOM). Among the products of these reactions are potentially harmful halogenated disinfection by-products, notably four trihalomethanes (THM4) and nine haloacetic acids (HAAs). Previous research has concentrated on the role of bromide in chlorination reactions under conditions of a given NOM type and/or concentration. In this study different concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from U.K. lowland water were reacted with varying amounts of bromide and chlorine in order to examine the interrelationship between the three reactants in the formation of THM4, dihaloacetic acids (DHAAs) and trihaloacetic acids (THAAs). Results showed that, in general, molar yields of THM4 increased with DOC, bromide and chlorine concentrations, although yields did fluctuate versus chlorine dose. In contrast both DHAA and THAA yields were mainly independent of changes in bromide and chlorine dose at low DOC (1 mg·L(-1)), but increased with chlorine dose at higher DOC concentrations (4 mg·L(-1)). Bromine substitution factors reached maxima of 0.80, 0.67 and 0.65 for the THM4, DHAAs and THAAs, respectively, at the highest bromide/chlorine ratio studied. These results suggest that THM4 formation kinetics depend on both oxidation and halogenation steps, whereas for DHAAs and THAAs oxidation steps are more important. Furthermore, they indicate that high bromide waters may prove more problematic for water utilities with respect to THM4 formation than for THAAs or DHAAs. While mass concentrations of all three groups increased in response to increased bromide incorporation, only the THMs also showed an increase in molar yield. Overall, the formation behaviour of DHAA and THAA was more similar than that of THM4 and THAA. © 2013.

  11. Removal of bromide from aqueous solutions using the UV/ZnO process based on the multivariate analysis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolsoom Mohammad Moradi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bromide is found naturally in groundwater and surface water. The rapid growth of industrial activities, drainage of surface runoff, and use of methyl bromide in pesticides has increased bromide discharge to the environment. Disinfection of water-containing bromide causes the creation of additional products of organo-halogenated that are considered cancer-causing agents. In this study, the effect and optimization of factors in removal of this ion was evaluated by using the nano-photocatalytic UV/ZnO process. Methods: This analytical study was conducted in a batch system by the phenol-red method. The test design was performed through the analysis model of multi-factor variance with 99 subjects, while the main, interactive, and reciprocal effects of variables, such as reaction time, catalyst concentration, bromide concentration, and pH at different levels of each factor, were analysed by using SPSS version 16. Results: The main, interactive, and reciprocal effects of factors were significant in three different levels with P < 0.001, and the optimal level of the factors reaction time, catalyst concentration, bromide concentration, and pH were 120 minutes, 0.5, 0.1, and 7 mg/L, respectively, by using the Schaffer test. The highest removal efficiency of 95% was obtained at least 91.56 and a maximum of 94.76% was obtained under optimal conditions of all factors. Conclusion: The results show that by optimization of factors, this process can be effectively used to remove bromide from aquatic environments.

  12. Evaluation of bromide mass discharge in a sandy aquifer at Vandenberg AFB, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D. M.; Rasa, E.; Einarson, M.; Kaiser, P.; Chakraborty, I.; Scow, K. M.

    2009-12-01

    Side-by-side experiments were conducted by UC Davis research team at a former fuel station at Vandenberg Air Force Base (AFB) to evaluate the rate of transformation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) to tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) impacted by ethanol and to investigate evidence of TBA degradation under sulfate reducing conditions. On one side we injected groundwater amended with ethanol and MTBE. In the other lane we injected groundwater amended with TBA. On both sides, injected ground water was spiked with bromide tracer to provide estimates of groundwater flow direction variations, flow velocity, dispersion, and mobile mass loss resulting from diffusive sequestration into aquitards. 162 monitoring wells were aligned into seven transects located downgradient of the injection wells. The mass discharge approach was used to evaluate the natural attenuation of the injected constituents. In this talk we will focus on calculations of mass discharge of the bromide tracer at each of the seven monitoring well transects. The amount of bromide mass discharged through each transect was calculated for any sampling time using field measurements of break through curves. Cumulative mass discharges were estimated and, by iteration based on mass balance, the flow properties of the aquifer were estimated. The calibration process resulted in subtle but quantitatively important changes in our assumptions regarding key physical properties of the aquifer (thickness, porosity) which could be only approximately estimated by standard methods (coring, CPT, etc.). On the basis of this calibration, a more robust approach was devised for evaluating the source and fate of TBA in the aquifer.

  13. Overcoming beta-agonist tolerance: high dose salbutamol and ipratropium bromide. Two randomised controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haney Sarah

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthmatics treated with long-acting beta-agonists have a reduced bronchodilator response to moderate doses of inhaled short acting beta-agonists during acute bronchoconstriction. It is not known if the response to higher doses of nebulised beta-agonists or other bronchodilators is impaired. We assessed the effect of long-acting beta-agonist treatment on the response to 5 mg nebulised salbutamol and to ipratropium bromide. Methods Two double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies of inhaled formoterol 12 μg twice daily in patients with asthma. High-dose salbutamol: 36 hours after the last dose of 1 week of formoterol or placebo treatment, 11 subjects inhaled methacholine to produce a 20% fall in FEV1. Salbutamol 5 mg was then administered via nebuliser and the FEV1 was monitored for 20 minutes. Ipratropium: 36 hours after the last dose of 1 week of formoterol or placebo treatment, 11 subjects inhaled 4.5% saline to produce a 20% fall in FEV1. Salbutamol 200 μg or ipratropium bromide 40 μg was then inhaled and the FEV1 was monitored for 30 minutes. Four study arms compared the response to each bronchodilator after formoterol and placebo. Analyses compared the area under the bronchodilator response curves, adjusting for changes in pre-challenge FEV1, dose of provocational agent and FEV1 fall during the challenge procedure. Results The response to nebulised salbutamol was 15% lower after formoterol therapy compared to placebo (95% confidence 5 to 25%, p = 0.008. The response to ipratropium was unchanged. Conclusion Long-acting beta-agonist treatment induces tolerance to the bronchodilator effect of beta-agonists, which is not overcome by higher dose nebulised salbutamol. However, the bronchodilator response to ipratropium bromide is unaffected.

  14. Efficient SN2 fluorination of primary and secondary alkyl bromides by copper(I) fluoride complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yanpin; Chen, Chaohuang; Li, Huaifeng; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Tan, Jianwei; Weng, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    Copper(I) fluoride complexes ligated by phenanthroline derivatives have been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. These complexes adopt as either ionic or neutral forms in the solid state, depending on the steric bulkiness of the substituent groups on the phenanthroline ligands. These complexes react with primary and secondary alkyl bromides to produce the corresponding alkyl fluorides in modest to good yields. This new method is compatible with a variety of important functional groups such as ether, thioether, amide, nitrile, methoxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, ester, and heterocycle moieties. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. Effect of Urea on the Thermodynamics of Hexadecyltrimethylammonium Bromide Micelle Formation in Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikov, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of urea on the thermodynamics of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) micelle formation in aqueous urea solutions was studied by isothermal titration microcalorimetry. The thermodynamic functions of Δ H, Δ G, and Δ S of CTAB micelle formation were calculated. The critical micelle concentrations (CMC) were determined. The addition of urea to the solution decreased the micelle formation entropy. This was attributed to the "lowering" of the structural temperature of the solution, which led to an increased number of hydrogen bonds and structure formation of water.

  16. Thermal decomposition mechanism of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambreau, Steven D; Boatz, Jerry A; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L; Koh, Christine; Kostko, Oleg; Golan, Amir; Leone, Stephen R

    2012-06-21

    In order to better understand the volatilization process for ionic liquids, the vapor evolved from heating the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (EMIM(+)Br(-)) was analyzed via tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (VUV-PI-TOFMS) and thermogravimetric analysis mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). For this ionic liquid, the experimental results indicate that vaporization takes place via the evolution of alkyl bromides and alkylimidazoles, presumably through alkyl abstraction via an S(N)2 type mechanism, and that vaporization of intact ion pairs or the formation of carbenes is negligible. Activation enthalpies for the formation of the methyl and ethyl bromides were evaluated experimentally, ΔH(‡)(CH(3)Br) = 116.1 ± 6.6 kJ/mol and ΔH(‡)(CH(3)CH(2)Br) = 122.9 ± 7.2 kJ/mol, and the results are found to be in agreement with calculated values for the S(N)2 reactions. Comparisons of product photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves with literature data are in good agreement, and ab initio thermodynamics calculations are presented as further evidence for the proposed thermal decomposition mechanism. Estimates for the enthalpy of vaporization of EMIM(+)Br(-) and, by comparison, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (BMIM(+)Br(-)) from molecular dynamics calculations and their gas phase enthalpies of formation obtained by G4 calculations yield estimates for the ionic liquids' enthalpies of formation in the liquid phase: ΔH(vap)(298 K) (EMIM(+)Br(-)) = 168 ± 20 kJ/mol, ΔH(f, gas)(298 K) (EMIM(+)Br(-)) = 38.4 ± 10 kJ/mol, ΔH(f, liq)(298 K) (EMIM(+)Br(-)) = -130 ± 22 kJ/mol, ΔH(f, gas)(298 K) (BMIM(+)Br(-)) = -5.6 ± 10 kJ/mol, and ΔH(f, liq)(298 K) (BMIM(+)Br(-)) = -180 ± 20 kJ/mol.

  17. Aclidinium bromid forbedrer lungefunktionen og reducerer dyspnø hos patienter med KOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2014-01-01

    Long-acting bronchodilators are central for treatment of COPD. This short review provides an overview of studies evaluating the efficacy of aclidinium bromide, a long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator, for the treatment of COPD. Twice-daily dosing of aclidinium leads to clinically important...... improvements in forced expiratory volume in 1 second, health status, use of rescue medication, day-time dyspnoea and exercise tolerance. The available studies also suggest an effect on night-time dyspnoea and exacerbation rate in patients with COPD. Aclidinium seems to have potential for a significant role...

  18. Phase diagram of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) + water + octanol system with application of mechanical deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Aykut Evren; Masalci, Özgür; Kazanci, Nadide

    2014-11-01

    Morphological properties of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) + water + octanol system in different concentrations have been studied. In the process, isotropic phase (L1) and nematic calamitic (NC), nematic discotic (ND), hexagonal E and lamellar D anizotropic mesophases have been determined by polarizing microscopy method and partial ternary phase diagram of the system set up. Textural properties of the anisotropic mesophases of the system have been discussed and their birefringence values measured. Mechanical deformation has been applied to the mesophases. The textural properties and the birefringence values have been observed to be changed by the deformation, after and before which changes have been compared.

  19. Radiation Induced Formation of Acrylated Palm Oil Nanoparticles using Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide Microemulsion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Rida Tajau; Wan Mohd Zin Wan Yunus

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we report the preparation of Acrylated Palm Oil (APO) nanoparticles using aqueous Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) microemulsion system. This microemulsion system which contains the dispersed APO nano droplets was subjected to the gamma irradiation to induce the formation of the crosslinked APO nanoparticle. After irradiation at higher doses, the size of APO nanoparticles was transformed from a submicron-sized to a nano-sized of the particles. Size decreasing might be due to the intermolecular and the intramolecular crosslinking reactions of the APO nanoparticles during the irradiation process. (author)

  20. Research on Wheat Straw Pulping with Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazole Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the pulping process of wheat straw using ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Emim]Br as the digestion liquor is presented. The influence of pulping conditions on the pulp yield are analysed by single-factor and orthogonal experiments, and optimum pulping conditions are obtained. The average pulp yield reaches 44 %, and the average recovery rate of ionic liquid is 93.5 %. The XRD pattern shows no obvious change in the crystal structure of the wheat straw cellulose. Additionally, the SEM image illustrates that there are many fine fibres in the pulp and the spaces between the fibres are large.

  1. Emission characteristics of plasma based on xenon-rubidium bromide mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneral, A. A.; Avtaeva, S. V.

    2017-10-01

    Luminescence spectra of a longitudinal pulse-periodic discharge in xenon mixture with rubidium bromide vapors (Xe-RbBr) are studied experimentally at low pressures. The conditions leading to the appearance of intense bands of ultraviolet radiation of exciplex XeBr* molecules in the spectral interval between 200 and 400 nm are found. The highest yield of UV radiation of XeBr* molecules is achieved when the temperature of discharge-tube walls is equal to 750°C. A maximum power of UV radiation from the entire plasma volume as high as 4.8 W is obtained.

  2. Copper bromide vapour laser with an output pulse duration of up to 320 ns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubarev, F A; Fedorov, K V; Evtushenko, G S; Fedorov, V F; Shiyanov, D V

    2016-01-01

    We report the development of a copper bromide vapour laser with an output pulse duration of up to 320 ns. To lengthen the pulse, the discharge current was limited using a compound switch comprising a pulsed hydrogen thyratron and a tacitron. This technique permits limiting the excitation of the working levels at the initial stage of the discharge development to lengthen the inversion lifetime. The longest duration of a laser pulse was reached in tubes 25 and 50 mm in diameter for a pulse repetition rate of 2 – 4 kHz. (lasers and laser beams)

  3. Efficient SN2 fluorination of primary and secondary alkyl bromides by copper(I) fluoride complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yanpin

    2013-11-11

    Copper(I) fluoride complexes ligated by phenanthroline derivatives have been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. These complexes adopt as either ionic or neutral forms in the solid state, depending on the steric bulkiness of the substituent groups on the phenanthroline ligands. These complexes react with primary and secondary alkyl bromides to produce the corresponding alkyl fluorides in modest to good yields. This new method is compatible with a variety of important functional groups such as ether, thioether, amide, nitrile, methoxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, ester, and heterocycle moieties. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. Retention capacity of samarium (III) in zircon for it possible use in retaining walls for confinement of nuclear residues; Capacidad de retencion de samario (III) en circon para su posible uso en barreras de contencion para confinamiento de residuos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia G, N

    2006-07-01

    Mexico, as country that produces part of its electric power by nuclear means, should put special emphasis in the development of technologies guided to the sure and long term confinement of the high level nuclear residuals. This work studies the capacity that has the natural zircon to retain to the samarium (III) in solution, by what due, firstly, to characterize the zircon for technical instrumental to determine the purity and characteristic of the mineral in study. The instrumental techniques that were used to carry out the physicochemical characterization were the neutron activation analysis (NAA), the infrared spectroscopy (IS), the thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), semiquantitative analysis, dispersive energy spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and luminescence technique. The characterization of the surface properties carries out by means of the determination of the surface area using the BET multipoint technique, acidity constants, hydration time, the determination of the point of null charge (pH{sub PCN}) and density of surface sites (D{sub s}). The luminescence techniques were useful to determine the optimal point hydration of the zircon and for the quantification of the samarium, for that here intends the development of both analysis techniques. With the adjustment of the titration curves in the FITEQL 4 package the constants of surface acidity in the solid/liquid interface were determined. To the finish of this study it was corroborated that the zircon is a mineral that presents appropriate characteristics to be proposed as a contention barrier for the deep geologic confinement. With regard to the study of adsorption that one carries out the samarium retention it is superior to 90% under the described conditions. This investigation could also be applicable in the confinement of dangerous industrial residuals. (Author)

  5. Bromide Sources and Loads in Swiss Surface Waters and Their Relevance for Bromate Formation during Wastewater Ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltermann, Fabian; Abegglen, Christian; Götz, Christian; von Gunten, Urs

    2016-09-20

    Bromide measurements and mass balances in the catchments of major Swiss rivers revealed that chemical industry and municipal waste incinerators are the most important bromide sources and account for ∼50% and ∼20%, respectively, of the ∼2000 tons of bromide discharged in the Rhine river in 2014 in Switzerland. About 100 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) will upgrade their treatment for micropollutant abatement in the future to comply with Swiss regulations. An upgrade with ozonation may lead to unintended bromate formation in bromide-containing wastewaters. Measured bromide concentrations were industry). Wastewater ozonation formed little bromate at specific ozone doses of ≤0.4 mg O3/mg DOC, while the bromate yields were almost linearly correlated to the specific ozone dose for higher ozone doses. Molar bromate yields for typical specific ozone doses in wastewater treatment (0.4-0.6 mg O3/mg DOC) are ≤3%. In a modeled extreme scenario (in which all upgraded WWTPs release 10 μg L(-1) of bromate), bromate concentrations increased by major Swiss rivers and by several micrograms per liter in receiving water bodies with a high fraction of municipal wastewater.

  6. Impact of Wildfire Emissions on Chloride and Bromide Depletion in Marine Aerosol Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Rachel A; Dadashazar, Hossein; MacDonald, Alexander B; Aldhaif, Abdulamonam M; Maudlin, Lindsay C; Crosbie, Ewan; Aghdam, Mojtaba Azadi; Hossein Mardi, Ali; Sorooshian, Armin

    2017-08-15

    This work examines particulate chloride (Cl - ) and bromide (Br - ) depletion in marine aerosol particles influenced by wildfires at a coastal California site in the summers of 2013 and 2016. Chloride exhibited a dominant coarse mode due to sea salt influence, with substantially diminished concentrations during fire periods as compared to nonfire periods. Bromide exhibited a peak in the submicrometer range during fire and nonfire periods, with an additional supermicrometer peak in the latter periods. Chloride and Br - depletions were enhanced during fire periods as compared to nonfire periods. The highest observed %Cl - depletion occurred in the submicrometer range, with maximum values of 98.9% (0.32-0.56 μm) and 85.6% (0.56-1 μm) during fire and nonfire periods, respectively. The highest %Br - depletion occurred in the supermicrometer range during fire and nonfire periods with peak depletion between 1.8-3.2 μm (78.8% and 58.6%, respectively). When accounting for the neutralization of sulfate by ammonium, organic acid particles showed the greatest influence on Cl - depletion in the submicrometer range. These results have implications for aerosol hygroscopicity and radiative forcing in areas with wildfire influence owing to depletion effects on composition.

  7. Study of the Reaction 2-(p-Nitrophenylethyl Bromide + OH− in Dimeric Micellar Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Moyá

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The dehydrobromination reaction 2-(p-nitrophenylethyl bromide + OH− was investigated in several alkanediyl-a-w-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium bromide, 12-s-12,2Br− (with s = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 micellar solutions, in the presence of NaOH 5 × 10−3 M. The kinetic data were quantitatively rationalized within the whole surfactant concentration range by using an equation based on the pseudophase ion-exchange model and taking the variations in the micellar ionization degree caused by the morphological transitions into account. The agreement between the theoretical and the experimental data was good in all the dimeric micellar media studied, except for the 12-2-12,2Br− micellar solutions. In this case, the strong tendency to micellar growth shown by the 12-2-12,2Br− micelles could be responsible for the lack of accordance. Results showed that the dimeric micelles accelerate the reaction more than two orders of magnitude as compared to water.

  8. Sociology in Global Environmental Governance? Neoliberalism, Protectionism and the Methyl Bromide Controversy in the Montreal Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Gareau

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sociological studies of global agriculture need to pay close attention to the protectionist aspects of neoliberalism at the global scale of environmental governance. With agri-food studies in the social sciences broadening interrogations of the impact of neoliberalism on agri-food systems and their alternatives, investigating global environmental governance (GEG will help reveal its impacts on the global environment, global science/knowledge, and the potential emergence of ecologically sensible alternatives. It is argued here that as agri-food studies of neoliberalism sharpen the focus on these dimensions the widespread consequences of protectionism of US agri-industry in GEG will become better understood, and the solutions more readily identifiable. This paper illustrates how the delayed phase out of the toxic substance methyl bromide in the Montreal Protocol exemplifies the degree to which the US agri-industry may be protected at the global scale of environmental governance, thus prolonging the transition to ozone-friendly alternatives. Additionally, it is clear that protectionism has had a significant impact on the dissemination and interpretation of science/knowledge of methyl bromide and its alternatives. Revealing the role that protectionism plays more broadly in the agriculture/environmental governance interface, and its oftentimes negative impacts on science and potential alternatives, can shed light on how protectionism can be made to serve ends that are at odds with environmental protection.

  9. Comparison of inorganic inhibitors of copper, nickel and copper-nickels in aqueous lithium bromide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, A. Igual; Anton, J. Garcia; Guin-tilde on, J.L.; Herranz, V. Perez

    2004-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of copper, nickel and two copper-nickel (Cu90/Ni10 and Cu70/Ni30) alloys in 850 g/L LiBr solution in the absence and presence of three different inorganic inhibitors (chromate CrO 4 2- , molybdate MoO 4 2- , and tetraborate B 4 O 7 2- ) has been studied. Differences in inhibition efficiency are discussed in terms of potentiodynamic and cyclic measurements. The best protection is obtained by adding chromate to the 850 g/L LiBr solution while the inhibition efficiencies of molybdate and tetraborate ions were not markedly high. Very aggressive anions, such as bromides, in the present experimental conditions, notably reduce the action of the less efficient molecules (molybdate and tetraborate), but not that of the most efficient ones (chromate). The results of the investigation show that the inhibiting properties depend on the nickel content in the alloy; this element improves the general corrosion resistance of the material in the sense that it shifts free corrosion potential towards more noble values and density corrosion currents towards lower levels. The nickel content in the alloy also enlarges the passivating region of the materials in chromate and molybdate-containing solution; furthermore it decreases the current passivating values to lower values. Nickel addition improves the localized corrosion resistance in the bromide media

  10. Surface Electronic Structure of Hybrid Organo Lead Bromide Perovskite Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Komesu, Takashi

    2016-08-24

    The electronic structure and band dispersion of methylammonium lead bromide, CH3NH3PbBr3, has been investigated through a combination of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES), as well as theoretical modeling based on density functional theory. The experimental band structures are consistent with the density functional calculations. The results demonstrate the presence of a dispersive valence band in MAPbBr3 that peaks at the M point of the surface Brillouin zone. The results also indicate that the surface termination of the CH3NH3PbBr3 is the methylammonium bromide (CH3NH3Br) layer. We find our results support models that predict a heavier hole effective mass in the region of -0.23 to -0.26 me, along the Γ (surface Brillouin center) to M point of the surface Brillouin zone. The surface appears to be n-type as a result of an excess of lead in the surface region. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  11. Aclidinium bromide plus formoterol for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Chitra; Strange, Charlie

    2015-02-01

    Drugs that target dynamic hyperinflation such as long-acting β-2 agonists and long-acting antimuscarinic antagonists form a cornerstone of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management. The idea of combining these two medications in a single formulation, which may potentially improve patient compliance, is novel and attractive. The pharmacologic profiles of aclidinium bromide and formoterol fumarate are discussed. However, studies to define drug interactions and alterations in the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the fixed dose combination (FDC) of aclidinium bromide/formoterol fumarate in large populations remain unpublished. Results of Phase II and two Phase III pivotal trials, ACLIFORM/COPD and AUGMENT COPD, evaluating the FDC are discussed. Initial data for the aclidinium/formoterol inhaler appears to be promising for impacting the lung function. To define if this benefit translates into improved long-term outcomes of decreased exacerbation frequency, improved quality of life and decreased disease-specific mortality are important. The introduction of this combination will likely have a significant impact on the prescribing habits of physicians across the world.

  12. Preparation and evaluation of a novel hybrid monolithic column based on pentafluorobenzyl imidazolium bromide ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Yuanhong; Qiao, Lizhen; Shi, Xianzhe; Xu, Guowang

    2015-01-02

    To develop a novel hybrid monolithic column based on pentafluorobenzyl imidazolium bromide ionic liquid, a new ionic liquid monomer was synthesized from 1-vinylimidazole and pentafluorobenzyl bromide. By employing a facile one-step copolymerization of polyhedral-oligomeric-silsesquioxane-type (POSS) cross-linking agent and the home-made ionic liquid monomer, the hybrid monolithic columns were in situ fabricated in fused-silica capillary. The morphology of monolithic column was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the chemical composition was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and elemental analysis. Excellent mechanical stability and slight swelling propensity were exhibited which was ascribed to the rigid hybrid monolithic skeleton. Reproducibility results of run-to-run, column-to-column, batch-to-batch and day-to-day were investigated and the RSDs were less than 0.46%, 1.84%, 3.96% and 3.17%, respectively. The mixed-mode retention mechanism with hydrophobic interaction, π-π stacking, ion-exchange, electrostatic interaction and dipole-dipole interaction was explored systematically using analytes with different structure types. Satisfied separation capability and column efficiency were achieved for the analysis of small molecular compounds such as alkylbenzenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nucleosides and halogenated compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Numerical simulation of bubbles motion in lifting pipe of bubble pump for lithium bromide absorption chillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Hongtao; Liu, Bingbing; Yan, Yuying

    2017-01-01

    A bubble pump is proposed to replace the traditional mechanical solution pump in lithium bromide absorption chillers, for its advantageous feature that can be driven by industrial waste heat or solar energy or other low-grade energy. In two-stage bubble pump driven lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system, flow patterns in lifting pipe have significant effects on the performance of bubble pump. In this paper, the single bubble motion and the double bubbles coalescence in vertical ascending pipe are simulated by an improved free energy model of lattice Boltzmann method, in which the two-phase liquid to gas density ratio is 2778. The details of bubbles coalescence process are studied. Density and velocity of bubbles have been obtained. The computational results show that the initial radius of each bubble has a great influence on the coalescence time. The larger the initial bubble radius, the shorter the coalescence time. The pipe diameter has a little effect on the two bubbles coalescence time while it has a significant effect on the bubble velocity. As the pipe diameter increases, the bubble velocity increases. The obtained results are helpful for studying the transition mechanisms of two-phase flow patterns and useful for improving the bubble pump performance by controlling the flow patterns in lifting pipe.

  14. Prolonged release matrix tablet of pyridostigmine bromide: formulation and optimization using statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolourchian, Noushin; Rangchian, Maryam; Foroutan, Seyed Mohsen

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to design and optimize a prolonged release matrix formulation of pyridostigmine bromide, an effective drug in myasthenia gravis and poisoning with nerve gas, using hydrophilic - hydrophobic polymers via D-optimal experimental design. HPMC and carnauba wax as retarding agents as well as tricalcium phosphate were used in matrix formulation and considered as independent variables. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique and the percentage of drug released at 1 (Y(1)), 4 (Y(2)) and 8 (Y(3)) hours were considered as dependent variables (responses) in this investigation. These experimental responses were best fitted for the cubic, cubic and linear models, respectively. The optimal formulation obtained in this study, consisted of 12.8 % HPMC, 24.4 % carnauba wax and 26.7 % tricalcium phosphate, had a suitable prolonged release behavior followed by Higuchi model in which observed and predicted values were very close. The study revealed that D-optimal design could facilitate the optimization of prolonged release matrix tablet containing pyridostigmine bromide. Accelerated stability studies confirmed that the optimized formulation remains unchanged after exposing in stability conditions for six months.

  15. Structural, vibrational and thermal characterization of phase transformation in L-histidinium bromide monohydrate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, G.M. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Pará, ICEN, Marabá, PA 68505-080 (Brazil); Carvalho, J.O. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil); Instituto Federal do Tocantins, Araguaína, TO, 77.826-170 (Brazil); Silva, M.C.D.; Façanha Filho, P.F. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil); Santos, A.O. dos, E-mail: adenilson1@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil)

    2015-09-01

    L-Histidinium bromide monohydrate (LHBr) single crystal is a nonlinear optical material. In this work the high temperature phase transformation and the thermal stability of single crystals of LHBr was investigated by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed the LHBr phase transformation of orthorhombic (P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}) to monoclinic system (P 1 2 1) at 120 °C, with the lattice parameters a = 12.162(1) Å, b = 16.821(2) Å, c = 19.477(2) Å and β = 108.56(2)°. These techniques are complementary and confirm the structural phase transformation due to loss water of crystallization. - Highlights: • -histidinium bromide single crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. • X-ray diffraction characterize the high-temperature phase transformation. • The structural phase transformation occur due to loss of water of crystallization. • The LHBr thermal expansion coefficients exhibit an anisotropic behavior.

  16. Effect of chronic administration of phenobarbital, or bromide, on pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam in dogs with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñana, K R; Nettifee-Osborne, J A; Papich, M G

    2015-01-01

    Levetiracetam (LEV) is a common add-on antiepileptic drug (AED) in dogs with refractory seizures. Concurrent phenobarbital administration alters the disposition of LEV in healthy dogs. To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of LEV in dogs with epilepsy when administered concurrently with conventional AEDs. Eighteen client-owned dogs on maintenance treatment with LEV and phenobarbital (PB group, n = 6), LEV and bromide (BR group, n = 6) or LEV, phenobarbital and bromide (PB-BR group, n = 6). Prospective pharmacokinetic study. Blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after LEV administration. Plasma LEV concentrations were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. To account for dose differences among dogs, LEV concentrations were normalized to the mean study dose (26.4 mg/kg). Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on adjusted concentrations, using a noncompartmental method, and area-under-the-curve (AUC) calculated to the last measured time point. Compared to the PB and PB-BR groups, the BR group had significantly higher peak concentration (Cmax ) (73.4 ± 24.0 versus 37.5 ± 13.7 and 26.5 ± 8.96 μg/mL, respectively, P phenobarbital in dogs. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Integration of Bromine and Cyanogen Bromide Generators for the Continuous-Flow Synthesis of Cyclic Guanidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotz, Gabriel; Lebl, René; Dallinger, Doris; Kappe, C Oliver

    2017-10-23

    A continuous-flow process for the in situ on-demand generation of cyanogen bromide (BrCN) from bromine and potassium cyanide that makes use of membrane-separation technology is described. In order to circumvent the handling, storage, and transportation of elemental bromine, a continuous bromine generator using bromate-bromide synproportionation can optionally be attached upstream. Monitoring and quantification of BrCN generation was enabled through the implementation of in-line FTIR technology. With the Br 2 and BrCN generators connected in series, 0.2 mmol BrCN per minute was produced, which corresponds to a 0.8 m solution of BrCN in dichloromethane. The modular Br 2 /BrCN generator was employed for the synthesis of a diverse set of biologically relevant five- and six-membered cyclic amidines and guanidines. The set-up can either be operated in a fully integrated continuous format or, where reactive crystallization is beneficial, in semi-batch mode. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers; Bromid als Tracer zur Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung und der Nitratverlagerung in Boeden: Vergleich mit stabilisotopen Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russow, R.; Knappe, S. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). Sektion Bodenforschung

    1999-02-01

    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and {sup 15}N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D{sub 2}O, bromide and [{sup 15}N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers. [Deutsch] Fuer die Untersuchung der Wasserbewegung sowie der daran gekoppelten Nitrat-Verlagerung ist der Einsatz von Tracern das Mittel der Wahl. Dabei wird Bromid als Tracer haeufig bevorzugt, da es allgemein als ein repraesentativer Tracer fuer Wasser und als konservativer Tracer (nicht involviert in chemische und biologische Bodenprozesse) zur Untersuchung des Anionentransportes in Boeden angesehen wird und es gegenueber den stabilen Isotopen Deuterium und {sup 15}N billiger und einfacher zu bestimmen ist. Gegenueber den radioaktiven Tracern (z.B. Tritium), die zwar sehr empfindlich und einfach messbar sind, besteht der grosse Vorteil, dass, wie bei den stabilen Isotopen, keine Strahlenschutzmassnahmen ergriffen werden muessen. Es gibt jedoch auch einschraenkende Hinweise fuer die Verwendung von Bromid als Tracer im System Boden

  19. The Research on Programmable Control System of Lithium-Bromide Absorption Refrigerating Air Conditioner Based on the Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lunan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article regard the solar lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system as the research object, and it was conducting adequate research of the working principle of lithium bromide absorption refrigerating machine, also it was analyzing the requirements of control system about solar energy air conditioning. Then the solar energy air conditioning control system was designed based on PLC, this system was given priority to field bus control system, and the remote monitoring is complementary, which was combining the network remote monitoring technology. So that it realized the automatic control and intelligent control of new lithium bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system with solar energy, also, it ensured the control system can automatically detect and adjust when the external conditions was random changing, to make air conditioning work effectively and steadily, ultimately ,it has great research significance to research the air conditioning control system with solar energy.

  20. Characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel in acidic medium with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide as corrosion inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, N., E-mail: tnava@imp.mx; Likhanova, N. V. [Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Olivares-Xometl, O. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica (Mexico); Flores, E. A. [Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Lijanova, I. V. [CIITEC, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel SAE 1018 after 2 months exposure in aqueous sulfuric acid with and without corrosion inhibitor N-octadecylpyridinium bromide has been carried out by means of transmission {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The major constituent of the rust formed in this environment without corrosion inhibitor is goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH). The samples with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide contain rozenite and large amounts of melanterite in the corrosion layers.

  1. Studies on nitrile rubber degradation in zinc bromide completion fluid and its prevention by surface fluorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Cantu, Yadira Itzel

    Poly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene) or nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) is frequently used as an O-ring material in the oil extraction industry due to its excellent chemical properties and resistance to oil. However, degradation of NBR gaskets is known to occur during the well completion and oil extraction process where packers are exposed to completion fluids such as ZnBr2 brine. Under these conditions NBR exhibits accelerated chemical degradation resulting in embrittlement and cracking. Samples of NBR, poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) and poly(butadiene) (PB) have been exposed to ZnBr2 based completion fluid, and analyzed by ATR and diffuse reflectance IR. Analysis shows the ZnBr2 based completion fluid promotes hydrolysis of the nitrile group to form amides and carboxylic groups. Analysis also shows that carbon-carbon double bonds in NBR are unaffected after short exposure to zinc bromide based completion fluid, but are quickly hydrolyzed in acidic bromide mixtures. Although fluoropolymers have excellent chemical resistance, their strength is less than nitrile rubber and replacing the usual gasket materials with fluoroelastomers is expensive. However, a fluoropolymer surface on a nitrile elastomer can provide the needed chemical resistance while retaining their strength. In this study, we have shown that this can be achieved by direct fluorination, a rather easy and inexpensive process. Samples of NBR O-rings have been fluorinated by exposure to F2 and F2/HF mixtures at various temperatures. Fluorination with F 2 produces the desired fluoropolymer layer; however, fluorination by F2/HF mixtures gave a smoother fluorinated layer at lower temperatures and shorter times. Fluorinated samples were exposed to ZnBr2 drilling fluid and solvents. Elemental analysis shows that the fluorinated layer eliminates ZnBr2 diffusion into the NBR polymeric matrix. It was also found that surface fluorination significantly retards the loss of mechanical properties such as elasticity, tensile

  2. COPD patient satisfaction with ipratropium bromide/albuterol delivered via Respimat: a randomized, controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson GT

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gary T Ferguson,1 Mo Ghafouri,2 Luyan Dai,2 Leonard J Dunn31Pulmonary Research Institute of Southeast Michigan, Livonia, MI, USA; 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Ridgefield, CT, USA; 3Clinical Research of West Florida, Inc, Clearwater, FL, USABackground: Ipratropium bromide/albuterol Respimat inhaler (CVT-R was developed as an environmentally friendly alternative to ipratropium bromide/albuterol metered-dose inhaler (CVT-MDI, which uses a chlorofluorocarbon propellant.Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate patient satisfaction, device usage, and long-term safety of CVT-R compared to CVT-MDI, and to the simultaneous administration of ipratropium bromide hydrofluoroalkane (HFA; I and albuterol HFA (A metered-dose inhalers as dual monotherapies (I + A.Design: This is a 48-week, open-label, randomized, active-controlled, parallel-group study (n = 470 comparing CVT-R to CVT-MDI and to I + A.Participants: Patients were at least 40 years of age, diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and current or exsmokers.Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive: (1 CVT-R, one inhalation four times daily (QID; or (2 CVT-MDI, two inhalations QID; or (3 I + A two inhalations of each inhaler QID.Main measures: Patient Satisfaction and Preference Questionnaire (PASAPQ performance score (primary endpoint and adverse events.Key results: PASAPQ performance score was significantly higher (CVT-R versus CVT-MDI, 9.6; and CVT-R versus I + A, 6.2; both P < 0.001 when using CVT-R compared to CVT-MDI or I + A at all visits starting from week 3, while CVT-MDI and I + A treatment groups were similar. Time to first COPD exacerbation was slightly longer in the CVT-R group compared to the other treatment groups, although it did not reach statistical significance (CVT-R versus CVT-MDI, P = 0.57; CVT-R versus I + A, P = 0.22. Rates of withdrawal and patient refusal to continue treatment were lower in CVT-R compared with CVT

  3. Determination of critical micelle concentration of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide: Different procedures for analysis of experimental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goronja Jelena M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conductivity of two micellar systems was measured in order to determine critical micelle concentration (CMC of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB. Those systems were: CTin water and CTin binary mixture acetonitrile (ACN-water. Conductivity (κ-concentration (c data were treated by four different methods: conventional method, differential methods (first and second derivative and method of integration (methods A-D, respectively. As CTin water micellar system shows a sharp transition between premicellar and postmicellar part of the κ/c curve, any of the applied methods gives reliable CMC values and there is no statistically significant difference between them. However, for CTin ACN-water mixture micellar system the integration method for CMC determination is recommended due to a weak curvature of κ/c plot.

  4. Purification of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts from opossum (Didelphis virginiana) using potassium bromide discontinuous density gradient centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Murphy, Alice J; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Mansfield, Linda S; Massey, Jeffrey P; Saeed, Mahdi A

    2003-06-01

    This report describes a new, inexpensive procedure for the rapid and efficient purification of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts from opossum small intestine. S. neurona sporocysts were purified using a discontinuous potassium bromide density gradient. The procedure provides a source of sporocyst wall and sporozoites required for reliable biochemical characterization and for immunological studies directed at characterizing antigens responsible for immunological responses by the host. The examined isolates were identified as S. neurona using random amplified polymorphic DNA primers and restriction endonuclease digestion assays. This method allows the collection of large numbers of highly purified S. neurona sporocysts without loss of sporocyst viability as indicated by propidium iodide permeability and cell culture infectivity assays. In addition, this technique might also be used for sporocyst purification of other Sarcocystis spp.

  5. Characterization of potassium bromide crystals grown in the aqueous solution of picric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheswari, J. Uma, E-mail: umak.anand@gmail.com [Department of Physics, The M.D.T.Hindu College, Tirunelveli 627010, Tamilnadu (India); Krishnan, C. [Department of Physics, Arignar Anna College, Aralvoymoli 629301, Tamilnadu (India); Kalyanaraman, S. [Physics Research Centre, Sri Paramakalyani College, Alwarkurichi 627412, Tamilnadu (India); Selvarajan, P. [Department of Physics, Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur 628216, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-12-01

    Potassium bromide crystals were grown in the aqueous solution of picric acid by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis ensures that the grown sample is in Fm3m space group and FCC structure. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) reveals the presence of elements in the title compound. UV–Vis-NIR spectrum reveals that the grown sample is a promising nonlinear optical (NLO) material. FTIR analysis confirms the functional groups present in the sample. The thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (DTA) analyses ensure that the sample material is thermally stable up to 160 °C. The second harmonic efficiency of the sample is 1.3 times greater than that of standard KDP. The mechanical strength of the grown sample is estimated by Vickers microhardness tester. The electrical properties were investigated by impedance analysis and the results of various studies of the grown crystals are discussed.

  6. Investigation of thermodynamic parameters of cetyl pyridinium bromide sorption onto ZSM-5 and natural clinoptilolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiaci, M.; Kia, R.; Kalbasi, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the influence of temperature and surfactant concentration on the adsorption of cetyl pyridinium bromide on two ZSM-5 zeolites, and on natural clinoptilolite. The effect of temperature on adsorption and thermodynamic properties was investigated by making measurements at (297, 303, 307, 313) K. The results show that the calculated curves from the general isotherm equation can represent the experimental data very well up to T=313 K. Based on the calculation of the thermodynamics of adsorption, it is evident that the principle contribution to the ΔG compfn hm of negative value is the large positive value of ΔS compfn hm (36 to 52 J · mol -1 ), whereas ΔH compfn hm is positive and in the range of 1 to 7 kJ · mol -1 . Therefore, similar to the micellisation in bulk solution, the second step of surfactant adsorption is an entropy-driven process

  7. Interaction between dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide-modified PLGA microspheres and hyaluronic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, Kamarza; Devi, Krisanti, Elsa

    2017-02-01

    In application of intravitreal injection, an extended drug delivery system is desired so that the frequency of injection to treat diabetic retinopathy may be reduced. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymer (PLGA) was used to encapsulate a model drug in the form of microspheres. The zeta potential of dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DDAB)-modified PLGA microspheres in water was proportional to the DDAB concentration used in the preparation step, up to +57.8 mV. The scanning electron microscope pictures and the zeta potential data (SEM) confirmed that the surface of the PLGA has been modified by the cationic surfactant and that electrostatic interaction between the positively charged microspheres and the negatively charged vitreous were present.

  8. Bromide (Br)--Based Synthesis of Ag Nanocubes with High-Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Wang, Wenhui; Xu, Zhongfeng; Li, Fuli

    2015-06-09

    The geometry of metal nanoparticles greatly affects the properties of the localized surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The synthesis of metal nanoparticles with controllable geometry has thus attracted extensive attentions. In this work, we report a modified polyol synthesis approach of silver (Ag) nanocubes through tuning the concentration of bromide ions (Br(-) ions). We have systematically investigated the effect of Br(-) ions in the polyol process, and find that higher concentration of Br(-) ions can enhance oxidative etching effect, which is the dominative factor in determining nanostructure geometry. Therefore, one can realize control over nanostructure geometry by manipulating the concentration of Br(-) ions. Our work provides an effective approach to control the shape of metallic nanostructures for potential applications.

  9. Bromide (Br) - Based Synthesis of Ag Nanocubes with High-Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Wang, Wenhui; Xu, Zhongfeng; Li, Fuli

    2015-01-01

    The geometry of metal nanoparticles greatly affects the properties of the localized surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The synthesis of metal nanoparticles with controllable geometry has thus attracted extensive attentions. In this work, we report a modified polyol synthesis approach of silver (Ag) nanocubes through tuning the concentration of bromide ions (Br− ions). We have systematically investigated the effect of Br− ions in the polyol process, and find that higher concentration of Br− ions can enhance oxidative etching effect, which is the dominative factor in determining nanostructure geometry. Therefore, one can realize control over nanostructure geometry by manipulating the concentration of Br− ions. Our work provides an effective approach to control the shape of metallic nanostructures for potential applications. PMID:26058050

  10. Ammonia-hydrogen bromide and ammonia-hydrogen iodide complexes: anion photoelectron and ab initio studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustis, S N; Whiteside, A; Wang, D; Gutowski, M; Bowen, K H

    2010-01-28

    The ammonia-hydrogen bromide and ammonia-hydrogen iodide, anionic heterodimers were studied by anion photoelectron spectroscopy. In complementary studies, these anions and their neutral counterparts were also investigated via ab initio theory at the coupled cluster level. In both systems, neutral NH(3)...HX dimers were predicted to be linear, hydrogen-bonded complexes, whereas their anionic dimers were found to be proton-transferred species of the form, (NH(4)(+)X(-))(-). Both experimentally measured and theoretically predicted vertical detachment energies (VDE) are in excellent agreement for both systems, with values for (NH(4)(+)Br(-))(-) being 0.65 and 0.67 eV, respectively, and values for (NH(4)(+)I(-))(-) being 0.77 and 0.81 eV, respectively. These systems are discussed in terms of our previous study of (NH(4)(+)Cl(-))(-).

  11. Self-made silver-bromide-based emulsions for users in holography: manufacturing, processing, and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duenkel, Lothar; Eichler, Juergen; Ackermann, Gerhard; Schneeweiss, Claudia

    2004-06-01

    Holography is the most fascinating technology for three-dimensional imaging. But despite of many decades of research, the seek for an ideal recording material has never been given up. From all ultra-fine materials, silver bromide emulsions with very small grain sizes have the highest sensitivity. In recent years however, many traditional manufacturers discontinued their production. Meanwhile, newcomers succeeded in manufacturing emulsions which are very suitable for holography, concerning extremely high resolution, brigthness and sensitivity1. But two problems may still linger: First, the deficient market situation for production and application on this field. Second, the reputation of the system of being extremely complicated for laboratory preparation. In such a crucial situation, the authors have succeeded in presenting a laboratory procedure for making do-it-yourself materials available to any expert who is well versed in holography, and who disposes of normal darkroom equipment2. The methodology is based on precipitation using the traditional double-jet method according to Thiry and predecessors3. But sensitization is carried out by a diffusion process according to the procedure as proposed by Blyth et al.4 Thus, precipitation and coating on one side and sensitization on the other one are separated strictly from one another. Efficient desaltation is an important process too, warranting the high opto-mechanical quality of the layer. The material has been sensitzed for HeNe-Laser radiation (632,8 nm) only up to now. The mean diameter of the silver bromide grains is about 15 nm, as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Phillips-Bjelkhagen Ultimate (PBU) or Fe3+ rehalogenation bleach are applied successfully5-6. In final result, a new generation of holograms with ultra-high resolution, proper contrast, excellent sharpness and light brightness has been obtained. Holography belongs to an advancing technology where the search for an ideal recording

  12. Efficient loading of primary alcohols onto a solid phase using a trityl bromide linker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Ottesen, Lars Korsgaard; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Witold

    2008-01-01

    The Letter describes an improved, rapid and mild strategy for the loading of primary alcohols onto a polystyrene trityl resin via a highly reactive trityl bromide linker. This protocol facilitates an efficient resin loading even of acid-sensitive or heat-labile alcohols, which otherwise require...... expensive or non-commercial resin types. Secondary alcohols were only attached in moderate to low yields, while attempts to load a tertiary alcohol expectedly failed. Importantly, selective attachment of diols via a primary alcohol group in the presence of more hindered alcohol groups proved possible....... The effects of activation time and reagent excess as well as alcohol structure were investigated. This improved method provides a convenient access to O-linked resin-bound N-Fmoc-protected amino alcohols that may be employed in SPS of peptides with C-terminal alcohol functionalities. In the case...

  13. A copper bromide vapour laser with a high pulse repetition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiyanov, D V; Evtushenko, Gennadii S; Sukhanov, V B; Fedorov, V F

    2002-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of a copper bromide vapour laser with a discharge-channel diameter above 2.5 cm and a high pump-pulse repetition rate are presented. A TGU1-1000/25 high-power tacitron used as a switch made it possible to obtain for the first time a fairly high output radiation power for pump-pulse repetition rates exceeding 200 kHz. At a maximum pump-pulse repetition rate of 250 kHz achieved in a laser tube 2.6 cm in diameter and 76 cm long, the output power was 1.5 W. The output powers of 3 and 10.5 W were reached for pump-pulse repetition rates of 200 and 100 kHz, respectively. These characteristics were obtained without circulating a buffer gas and (or) low-concentration active impurities through the active volume. (active media. lasers)

  14. Enhancement of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells Performances Using Cetyltrimethylammonium-Bromide Modified ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Kai Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance and stability of inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ polymer solar cells (PSCs is enhanced by doping zinc oxide (ZnO with 0–6 wt % cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB in the sol-gel ZnO precursor solution. The power conversion efficiency (PCE of the optimized 3 wt % CTAB-doped ZnO PSCs was increased by 9.07%, compared to a PCE of 7.31% for the pristine ZnO device. The 0–6 wt % CTAB-doped ZnO surface roughness was reduced from 2.6 to 1 nm and the number of surface defects decreased. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy binding energies of Zn 2p3/2 (1021.92 eV and 2p1/2 (1044.99 eV shifted to 1022.83 and 1045.88 eV, respectively, which is related to strong chemical bonding via bromide ions (Br− that occupy oxygen vacancies in the ZnO lattice, improving the PCE of PSCs. The concentration of CTAB in ZnO significantly affected the work function of PSC devices; however, excessive CTAB increased the work function of the ZnO layer, resulting from the aggregation of CTAB molecules. In addition, after a 120-hour stability test in the atmosphere with 40% relative humidity, the inverted device based on CTAB-doped ZnO retained 92% of its original PCE and that based on pristine ZnO retained 68% of its original PCE. The obtained results demonstrate that the addition of CTAB into ZnO can dramatically influence the optical, electrical, and morphological properties of ZnO, enhancing the performance and stability of BHJ PSCs.

  15. Bromide supplementation exacerbated the renal dysfunction, injury and fibrosis in a mouse model of Alport syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Tsubasa; Omachi, Kohei; Suico, Mary Ann; Kojima, Haruka; Kamura, Misato; Teramoto, Keisuke; Kaseda, Shota; Kuwazuru, Jun; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Kai, Hirofumi

    2017-01-01

    A seminal study recently demonstrated that bromide (Br-) has a critical function in the assembly of type IV collagen in basement membrane (BM), and suggested that Br- supplementation has therapeutic potential for BM diseases. Because salts of bromide (KBr and NaBr) have been used as antiepileptic drugs for several decades, repositioning of Br- for BM diseases is probable. However, the effects of Br- on glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease such as Alport syndrome (AS) and its impact on the kidney are still unknown. In this study, we administered daily for 16 weeks 75 mg/kg or 250 mg/kg (within clinical dosage) NaBr or NaCl (control) via drinking water to 6-week-old AS mice (mouse model of X-linked AS). Treatment with 75 mg/kg NaBr had no effect on AS progression. Surprisingly, compared with 250 mg/kg NaCl, 250 mg/kg NaBr exacerbated the progressive proteinuria and increased the serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen in AS mice. Histological analysis revealed that glomerular injury, renal inflammation and fibrosis were exacerbated in mice treated with 250 mg/kg NaBr compared with NaCl. The expressions of renal injury markers (Lcn2, Lysozyme), matrix metalloproteinase (Mmp-12), pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-6, Il-8, Tnf-α, Il-1β) and pro-fibrotic genes (Tgf-β, Col1a1, α-Sma) were also exacerbated by 250 mg/kg NaBr treatment. Notably, the exacerbating effects of Br- were not observed in wild-type mice. These findings suggest that Br- supplementation needs to be carefully evaluated for real positive health benefits and for the absence of adverse side effects especially in GBM diseases such as AS.

  16. Designing the lithium bromide air conditioning absorption system for a bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusoff Ali; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Hariadi

    2006-01-01

    A system of air-conditioning using Lithium Bromide absorption system is used as an alternative refrigerant that will not pollute the atmosphere. Lithium Bromide is a chemical salt soluble in water. There is a big difference between vapour compression system and LiBr 2 absorption system. The absorption air conditioning system is made of a generator, a condenser, an evaporator and an absorber with necessary pumps and piping. When LiBr 2 solution is heated under low pressure, water will evaporate first, while LiBr 2 will remain in the solution and will become more concentrated. The water is the refrigerant in this system. The generator, where the water is vapourised, is heated using an electric heater or solar energy. The LiBr 2 weak solution under low pressure in the generator is heated and the water evaporate into vapour. The vapour produced is then cooled in the condenser and then expanded into the evaporator. The refrigerant (water) in evaporator change phase from liquid to vapour by absorbing heat from cooling water, which flow in the coil in the evaporator. The chilled water obtained is then pumped into the fan coil, which will be used in conditioning the passenger area of the bus. The water vapour from the evaporator is absorbed into LiBr 2 solution in the absorber, forming a weak solution of LiBr 2 . the weak solution from the absorber is then pumped back to the generator to regenerate. The absorption system does not use compressor, but requires pumps that need lower input power compared to that of a compressor. The system is considered as a new application for the bus. This will have great potential and will be environmentally friendly. The model in this study will be used for calculation of the cooling load for the bus

  17. Multimetallic catalysed cross-coupling of aryl bromides with aryl triflates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Laura K. G.; Lovell, Matthew M.; Weix, Daniel J.

    2015-08-01

    The advent of transition-metal catalysed strategies for forming new carbon-carbon bonds has revolutionized the field of organic chemistry, enabling the efficient synthesis of ligands, materials, and biologically active molecules. In cases where a single metal fails to promote a selective or efficient transformation, the synergistic cooperation of two distinct catalysts--multimetallic catalysis--can be used instead. Many important reactions rely on multimetallic catalysis, such as the Wacker oxidation of olefins and the Sonogashira coupling of alkynes with aryl halides, but this approach has largely been limited to the use of metals with distinct reactivities, with only one metal catalyst undergoing oxidative addition. Here, we demonstrate that cooperativity between two group 10 metal catalysts--(bipyridine)nickel and (1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane)palladium--enables a general cross-Ullmann reaction (the cross-coupling of two different aryl electrophiles). Our method couples aryl bromides with aryl triflates directly, eliminating the use of arylmetal reagents and avoiding the challenge of differentiating between multiple carbon-hydrogen bonds that is required for direct arylation methods. Selectivity can be achieved without an excess of either substrate and originates from the orthogonal reactivity of the two catalysts and the relative stability of the two arylmetal intermediates. While (1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane)palladium reacts preferentially with aryl triflates to afford a persistent intermediate, (bipyridine)nickel reacts preferentially with aryl bromides to form a transient, reactive intermediate. Although each catalyst forms less than 5 per cent cross-coupled product in isolation, together they are able to achieve a yield of up to 94 per cent. Our results reveal a new method for the synthesis of biaryls, heteroaryls, and dienes, as well as a general mechanism for the selective transfer of ligands between two metal catalysts. We anticipate that this

  18. Ethidium bromide stimulated hyper laccase production from bird's nest fungus Cyathus bulleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, S; Lal, R; Kuhad, R C

    2003-01-01

    Effect of ethidium bromide, a DNA intercalating agent, on laccase production from Cyathus bulleri was studied. The bird's nest fungus, Cyathus bulleri was grown on 2% (w/v) malt extract agar (MEA) supplemented with 1.5 microg ml(-1) of the phenanthridine dye ethidium bromide (EtBr) for 7 d and when grown subsequently in malt extract broth (MEB), produced a 4.2-fold increase in laccase production as compared to the untreated fungus. The fungal cultures following a single EtBr treatment, when regrown on MEA devoid of EtBr, produced a sixfold increase in laccase in MEB. However, on subsequent culturing on MEA in the absence of EtBr, only a 2.5-fold increase in laccase production could be maintained. In another attempt, the initial EtBr-treated cultures, when subjected to a second EtBr treatment (1.5 microg ml(-1)) on MEA for 7 d, produced a 1.4-fold increase in laccase production in MEB. The white-rot fungus Cyathus bulleri, when treated with EtBr at a concentration of 1.5 microg ml(-1) and regrown on MEA devoid of EtBr, produced a sixfold increase in laccase production in MEB. The variable form of C. bulleri capable of hyper laccase production can improve the economic feasibility of environmentally benign processes involving use of fungal laccases in cosmetics (including hair dyes), food and beverages, clinical diagnostics, pulp and paper industry, industrial effluent treatment, animal biotechnology and biotransformations.

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphism discrimination with and without an ethidium bromide intercalator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenati, Renzo A.; Connolly, Ashley R.; Ellis, Amanda V.

    2017-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is an important aspect in understanding genetic variations. Here, we discriminate SNPs using toe-hold mediated displacement reactions. The biological target is an 80 nucleotide long double-stranded–DNA from the mtDNA HV1 region, associated with maternal ancestry. This target has been specially designed with a pendant toehold and a cationic fluorophore, ATTO 647N, as a reporter, produced in a polymerase chain reaction. Rates of reaction for the toehold-polymerase chain reaction products (TPPs) with their corresponding complementary displacing sequences, labelled with a Black Hole Quencher 1, followed the order TPP–Cytosine > TPP–Thymine > TPP–Adenine ≥ TPP–Guanine. Non-complementary rates were the slowest with mismatches involving cytosine. These reactions, operating in a static/or contact mode, gave averaged readouts between SNPs within 15 min (with 80–90% quenching), compared to 25–30 min in previous studies involving fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Addition of an intercalating agent, ethidium bromide, retarded the rate of reaction in which cytosine was involved, presumably through stabilization of the base pairing, which resulted in markedly improved discrimination of cytosine containing SNPs. - Highlights: • Fluorophores and DNA intercalators effect the rate of toehold-mediated strand displacement. • Ethidium bromide had a destabilizing effect on mismatches that contained cytosine. • A cationic fluorophore and Black Hole Quencher 1 strand displacement system was 2–3 times faster than a FRET system. • This enabled SNP detection using toehold-mediated strand displacement in 15 min.

  20. Modeling bromide effects on yields and speciation of dihaloacetonitriles formed in chlorinated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccaro, Paolo; Chang, Hyun-shik; Vagliasindi, Federico G A; Korshin, Gregory V

    2013-10-15

    This study examined effects of bromide on yields and speciation of dihaloacetonitrile (DHAN) species that included dichloro-, bromochloro- and dibromoacetonitriles generated in chlorinated water. Experimental data obtained using two water sources, varying concentrations and characters of Natural Organic Matter (NOM), bromide concentrations, reaction times, chlorine doses, temperatures and pHs were interpreted using a semi-phenomenological model that assumed the presence of three kinetically distinct sites in NOM (denoted as sites S1, S2 and S3) and the occurrence of sequential incorporation of bromine and chlorine into them. One site was found to react very fast with the chlorine and bromine but its contribution in the DHAN generation was very low. The site with the highest contribution to the yield of DHAN (>70%) has the lowest reaction rates. The model introduced dimensionless coefficients (denoted as φ1(DHAN), φ2(DHAN) and φ3(DHAN)) applicable to the initial DHAN generation sites and their monochlorinated and monobrominated products, respectively. These parameters were used to quantify the kinetic preference to bromine incorporation over that of chlorine. Values of these coefficients optimized for DHAN formation were indicative of the strongly preferential incorporation of bromine into the engaged NOM sites. The same set of φ(i)(DHAN) coefficients could be used to model the speciation of DHAN released from their kinetically different precursors. The dimensionless speciation coefficients φ(i)(DHAN) were determined to be site specific and dependent on the NOM content and character as well as pH. The presented model of DHAN formation and speciation can help quantify in more detail the generation of DHAN and provide more insight necessary for further assessment of their potential health effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of once-daily glycopyrronium bromide (NVA237 in the management of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Urzo A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthony D'UrzoDepartment of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Progressive airflow limitation is a hallmark feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD that ultimately leads to breathlessness, impaired quality of life, and reduced exercise capacity. Pharmacotherapy is used in patients with COPD to prevent and control symptoms, reduce both the frequency and severity of exacerbations, improve health status, and increase exercise tolerance. These strategies are intended to address management issues which promote both current disease control and a reduction in the risk of disease deterioration in the future. At the present time, long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs are available for maintenance therapy in patients with persistent symptoms. Tiotropium was the first LAMA to be approved for management of COPD, and many studies have described its beneficial effects on multiple clinically relevant outcomes. Glycopyrronium bromide (NVA237, a new LAMA, has been developed and received regulatory approval for management of COPD in a number of countries around the world. Results from pivotal Phase III trials suggest that NVA237 is safe and well tolerated in patients with moderate to severe COPD, and provides rapid and sustained improvements in lung function. Further, these changes are associated with statistically and clinically meaningful improvements in dyspnea, health-related quality of life, and exercise tolerance. Treatment with NVA237 also results in a significant reduction in risk of exacerbations and the need for rescue medication, and has been comparable with tiotropium with respect to safety and efficacy outcomes. Finally, emerging data indicate that NVA237 is efficacious both as monotherapy and in combination with indacaterol.Keywords: glycopyrronium bromide, NVA237, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inhaled long-acting bronchodilators

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphism discrimination with and without an ethidium bromide intercalator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenati, Renzo A.; Connolly, Ashley R. [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 (Australia); Ellis, Amanda V., E-mail: amanda.ellis@flinders.edu.au [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 (Australia); Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2017-02-15

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is an important aspect in understanding genetic variations. Here, we discriminate SNPs using toe-hold mediated displacement reactions. The biological target is an 80 nucleotide long double-stranded–DNA from the mtDNA HV1 region, associated with maternal ancestry. This target has been specially designed with a pendant toehold and a cationic fluorophore, ATTO 647N, as a reporter, produced in a polymerase chain reaction. Rates of reaction for the toehold-polymerase chain reaction products (TPPs) with their corresponding complementary displacing sequences, labelled with a Black Hole Quencher 1, followed the order TPP–Cytosine > TPP–Thymine > TPP–Adenine ≥ TPP–Guanine. Non-complementary rates were the slowest with mismatches involving cytosine. These reactions, operating in a static/or contact mode, gave averaged readouts between SNPs within 15 min (with 80–90% quenching), compared to 25–30 min in previous studies involving fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Addition of an intercalating agent, ethidium bromide, retarded the rate of reaction in which cytosine was involved, presumably through stabilization of the base pairing, which resulted in markedly improved discrimination of cytosine containing SNPs. - Highlights: • Fluorophores and DNA intercalators effect the rate of toehold-mediated strand displacement. • Ethidium bromide had a destabilizing effect on mismatches that contained cytosine. • A cationic fluorophore and Black Hole Quencher 1 strand displacement system was 2–3 times faster than a FRET system. • This enabled SNP detection using toehold-mediated strand displacement in 15 min.

  3. Nanosized sustained-release pyridostigmine bromide microcapsules: process optimization and evaluation of characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qunyou; Jiang, Rong; Xu, Meiling; Liu, Guodong; Li, Songlin; Zhang, Jingqing

    2013-01-01

    Background Pyridostigmine bromide (3-[[(dimethylamino)-carbonyl]oxy]-1-methylpyridinium bromide), a reversible inhibitor of cholinesterase, is given orally in tablet form, and a treatment schedule of multiple daily doses is recommended for adult patients. Nanotechnology was used in this study to develop an alternative sustained-release delivery system for pyridostigmine, a synthetic drug with high solubility and poor oral bioavailability, hence a Class III drug according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. Novel nanosized pyridostigmine-poly(lactic acid) microcapsules (PPNMCs) were expected to have a longer duration of action than free pyridostigmine and previously reported sustained-release formulations of pyridostigmine. Methods The PPNMCs were prepared using a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method to achieve sustained-release characteristics for pyridostigmine. The preparation process for the PPNMCs was optimized by single-factor experiments. The size distribution, zeta potential, and sustained-release behavior were evaluated in different types of release medium. Results The optimal volume ratio of inner phase to external phase, poly(lactic acid) concentration, polyvinyl alcohol concentration, and amount of pyridostigmine were 1:10, 6%, 3% and 40 mg, respectively. The negatively charged PPNMCs had an average particle size of 937.9 nm. Compared with free pyridostigmine, PPNMCs showed an initial burst release and a subsequent very slow release in vitro. The release profiles for the PPNMCs in four different types of dissolution medium were fitted to the Ritger-Peppas and Weibull models. The similarity between pairs of dissolution profiles for the PPNMCs in different types of medium was statistically significant, and the difference between the release curves for PPNMCs and free pyridostigmine was also statistically significant. Conclusion PPNMCs prepared by the optimized protocol described here were in the nanometer range and had good uniformity

  4. 78 FR 14508 - Notice of Affirmation of Addition of a Treatment Schedule for Methyl Bromide Fumigation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... contacting the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Manuals Unit, 92... the Plant Protection and Quarantine Treatment Manual a treatment schedule for methyl bromide..., 2013, we are affirming the addition to the Plant Protection and Quarantine Treatment Manual of the...

  5. FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE FORMATION OF HYDROPHOBIC MICRODOMAINS IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTIONS OF POLY(ALKYLMETHYLDIALLYLAMMONIUM BROMIDES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    YANG, YJ; Engberts, Jan B F N

    The conformational state of poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromides) was studied in aqueous solutions using pyrene as a fluorescence probe. The results are indicative for the formation of hydrophobic microdomains in the case of several copolymers which possess sufficiently hydrophobic alkyl side

  6. FLUORESCENCE PROBING OF THE FORMATION OF HYDROPHOBIC MICRODOMAINS BY CROSS-LINKED POLY(ALKYLMETHYLDIALLYLAMMONIUM BROMIDES) IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WANG, GJ; ENGBERTS, J B F N

    Pyrene has been used as a fluorescence probe to investigate the conformational behavior of cross-linked poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromides) in aqueous solutions. Binding of pyrene to hydrophobic microdomains, formed by the polysoaps, is reflected by a change in the ratio I-1/I-3 of the

  7. Measurement of properties of a lithium bromide aqueous solution for the determination of the concentration for a prototype absorption machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labra, L.; Juárez-Romero, D.; Siqueiros, J.; Coronas, A.; Salavera, D.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Determination of concentration of absorption mixture for absorption heat transformers. • Measurement of physical properties for heat transformer assessment. • Comparative behavior of Electric conductivity, Refractive index, and density of LiBr-H_2O. - Abstract: An electrolyte solution of Lithium Bromide (LiBr) water was chosen for study because of its wide use in prototype absorption machines. The LiBr must be operated close to the temperature and mass fraction at which lithium bromide achieves the highest efficiency. For the purpose of establishing the concentration in a prototype absorption machines, measurements were made of the properties that vary with temperature and concentration. The selected properties are electrical conductivity, density, refractive indexes and sound velocity. The resulting measured properties values were compared with some values found in previous works. The properties of aqueous lithium bromide solutions were measured at the concentration range of 45–65% of LiBr and temperatures range of 20–80 °C. Semi-empirical correlations that determine the properties of lithium bromide are also proposed. The methods for measuring the properties of aqueous solutions were considered taking into account their reliability, simplicity and sampling time.

  8. Suzuki coupling reactions catalyzed by poly(N-ethyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide stabilized palladium nanoparticles in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available InIn this work, it was investigated to use of poly(N-ethyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide stabilized palladium nanoparticles in the Suzuki reaction between phenylboronic acid and aryl halides in aqueous solution. The nanoparticles were isolated and re-used several times with low loss of activity.

  9. Influence of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide on Gold Nanocrystal Formation Studied by in Situ Liquid Cell Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canepa, Silvia A.; Sneed, Brian T.; Sun, Hongyu

    2018-01-01

    The synthesis of monodisperse size- and shape-controlled Au nanocrystals is often achieved with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant; however, its role in the growth of such tailored nanostructures is not well understood. To elucidate the formation mechanism(s) and evolution of the mo...

  10. Substituent Effects Dehalogenation of Aryl Bromides with NaAlH2(OCH2CH2OCH3)2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czakoová, Marie; Hetflejš, Jiří; Včelák, Jaroslav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 2 (2001), s. 277-287 ISSN 0133-1736 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/97/1173 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : substituent effects * aryl bromides * Co-assisted debromination Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.475, year: 2001

  11. Elimination of nonspecific radioactivity from [{sup 76}Br]bromide in PET study with [{sup 76}Br]bromodeoxyuridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Lu; Bergstroem, Mats E-mail: Mats.Bergstroem@pet.uu.se; Fasth, Karl-Johan; Wu Feng; Eriksson, Barbro; Laangstroem, Bengt

    1999-10-01

    [{sup 76}Br]Bromodeoxyuridine ([{sup 76}Br]BrdU) might allow a determination of proliferation in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET), but only with consideration of organ nonspecific radioactivity constituted by [{sup 76}Br]bromide. A first study assessed the potential of diuretics to eliminate [{sup 76}Br]bromide. [{sup 76}Br]Bromide was injected in the vein of rats and different diuretic combinations were given. Urine was collected and radioactivity measured. Torasemide plus sodium chloride gave better {sup 76}Br elimination than the other diuretics. In a second experiment, rats were given [{sup 76}Br]BrdU. After the radioactivity injection, the rats of the treatment group were given torasemide plus NaCl. At 44 h after the radioactivity injection, the radioactivity concentration and the fraction incorporated into DNA were measured in different organs. Using diuretics, the elimination of [{sup 76}Br]bromide was increased. The radioactivity decreased 30-50% in most of the organs but the highest radioactivity uptake was found in the organs with more active DNA synthesis. This method may facilitate the use of [{sup 76}Br]BrdU as a tracer for DNA synthesis using PET.

  12. Elimination of nonspecific radioactivity from [76Br]bromide in PET study with [76Br]bromodeoxyuridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lu; Bergstroem, Mats; Fasth, Karl-Johan; Wu Feng; Eriksson, Barbro; Laangstroem, Bengt

    1999-01-01

    [ 76 Br]Bromodeoxyuridine ([ 76 Br]BrdU) might allow a determination of proliferation in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET), but only with consideration of organ nonspecific radioactivity constituted by [ 76 Br]bromide. A first study assessed the potential of diuretics to eliminate [ 76 Br]bromide. [ 76 Br]Bromide was injected in the vein of rats and different diuretic combinations were given. Urine was collected and radioactivity measured. Torasemide plus sodium chloride gave better 76 Br elimination than the other diuretics. In a second experiment, rats were given [ 76 Br]BrdU. After the radioactivity injection, the rats of the treatment group were given torasemide plus NaCl. At 44 h after the radioactivity injection, the radioactivity concentration and the fraction incorporated into DNA were measured in different organs. Using diuretics, the elimination of [ 76 Br]bromide was increased. The radioactivity decreased 30-50% in most of the organs but the highest radioactivity uptake was found in the organs with more active DNA synthesis. This method may facilitate the use of [ 76 Br]BrdU as a tracer for DNA synthesis using PET

  13. Visible light-photocatalysed carbazole synthesis via a formal (4+2) cycloaddition of indole-derived bromides and alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhi-Guang; Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Ang; Zhang, Kai; Lu, Liang-Qiu; Tang, Zilong; Xiao, Wen-Jing

    2016-04-14

    We successfully developed an unprecedented route to carbazole synthesis through a visible light-photocatalysed formal (4+2) cycloaddition of indole-derived bromides and alkynes. This novel protocol features extremely mild conditions, a broad substrate scope and high reaction efficiency.

  14. Biological half-life of bromide in the rat depends primarily on the magnitude of sodium intake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav; Babický, Arnošt; Vobecký, Miloslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 6 (2005), s. 639-644 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : biological half-life * bromide * sodium Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2005

  15. Analysis of genotoxic activity of ketamine and rocuronium bromide using the somatic mutation and recombination test in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koksal, Pakize Muge; Gürbüzel, Mehmet

    2015-03-01

    The present study evaluated the mutagenic and recombinogenic effects of two commonly used anesthetic agents, ketamine and rocuronium bromide, in medicine using the wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila. The standard (ST) cross and the high-bioactivation (HB) cross with high sensitivity to procarcinogens and promutagens were used. The SMART test is based on the loss of heterozygosity, which occurs via various mechanisms, such as chromosome loss and deletion, half-translocation, mitotic recombination, mutation, and non-disjunction. Genetic alterations occurring in the somatic cells of the wing's imaginal discs result in mutant clones in the wing blade. Three-day-old trans-heterozygous larvae with two recessive markers, multiple wing hairs (mwh) and flare (flr(3)), were treated with ketamine and rocuronium bromide. Analysis of the ST cross indicated that ketamine exhibited genotoxicity activity and that this activity was particularly dependent on homologous mitotic recombination at concentrations of 250 μg/ml and above. Rocuronium bromide did not exert mutagenic and/or recombinogenic effects. In the HB cross, ketamine at a concentration of 1000 μg/ml and rocuronium bromide at all concentrations, with the exception of 250 μg/ml (inconclusive), exerted genotoxic effects, which could also be associated with the increase in mitotic recombination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. tBuLi-Mediated One-Pot Direct Highly Selective Cross-Coupling of Two Distinct Aryl Bromides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vila, Carlos; Cembellin, Sara; Hornillos, Valentin; Giannerini, Massimo; Fananas-Mastral, Martin; Feringa, Ben L.

    2015-01-01

    A Pd-catalyzed direct cross-coupling of two distinct aryl bromides mediated by tBuLi is described. The use of [Pd-PEPPSI-IPr] or [Pd-PEPPSI-IPent] as catalyst allows for the efficient one-pot synthesis of unsymmetrical biaryls at room temperature. The key for this selective cross-coupling is the use

  17. Bromide as a tracer for studying water movement and nitrate displacement in soils: comparison with stable isotope tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russow, R.; Knappe, S.

    1999-01-01

    Tracers are an ideal means of studying water movement and associated nitrate displacement. Often bromide is preferred as a tracer because it is considered a representative tracer for water and because, being a conservative tracer (i.e. not involved in chemical and biological soil processes), it can be used for studying anion transport in soils. Moreover, it is less expensive and easier to measure than the stable isotopes deuterium and 15 N. Its great advantage over radioactive tracers (e.g. tritium), which outweighs their extreme sensitivity and ease of measurement and which it has in common with stable isotopes, is that it does not require radiation protection measures. However, there are also constraints on the use of bromide as a tracer in soil/water/plant systems. Our own studies on different soils using D 2 O, bromide and [ 15 N]-nitrate in lysimeters suggest that the above assumptions on bromide tracers need not always be valid under conditions as they prevail in biologically active soils. As the present paper shows, these studies permit a good assessment of the possibilities and limits to these tracers [de

  18. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli

    2007-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems

  19. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-07-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems.

  20. Multicentre trial on the efficacy and toxicity of single-dose samarium-153-ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate as a palliative treatment for painful skeletal metastases in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jia-he; Zhang Jin-ming; He Yi-jie; Hou Qing-tian; Oyang Qiao-hong; Wang Jian-min; Chuan Ling

    1999-01-01

    A multicentre trial was organized in China as part of an international coordinated research project to study the efficacy and toxicity of single-dose samarium-153 ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate (EDTMP) as a palliative treatment for painful skeletal metastases. One hundred and five patients with painful bone metastases from various primaries were treated with 153 Sm-EDTMP at a dose of 37 MBq/kg(group I) or 18.5 MBq/kg (group II). The effects were evaluated according to change in daily analgesic consumption, pain score, sum of effect product (SEP), Physician's Global Assessment (PGA), blood counts, and organ function tests conducted regularly for 16 weeks. Fifty-eight of 70 patients in group I and 30 of 35 in group II had a positive response, with SEPs of 22.29±14.47 and 20.13±13.90 respectively. Of 72 patients who had been receiving analgesics, 63 reduced their consumption. PGA showed that the Karnofsky score (KS) increased from 58.54±25.90 to 71.67±26.53, indicating improved general condition, but the difference was not significant. Among subgroups of patients, only those with breast cancer showed a significant change in the Karnofsky score after treatment. Inter-group differences were found for net change in KS between patients with lung and patients with breast cancer, and between patients with lung and patients with oesophageal cancer. Seventeen patients showed no response. No serious side-effects were noted, except for falls in the white blood cell (nadir 1.5 x 10 9 /l) and platelet (nadir 6.0 x 10 10 /l) counts in 44/105 and 34/105 cases, respectively. Ten patients had an abnormal liver function test. Response and side-effects were both independent of dose. In conclusion, 153 Sm-EDTMP provided effective palliation in 83.8% of patients with painful bone metastases; the major toxicity was temporary myelosuppression. Further studies are needed to identify better ways of determining the appropriate dose in the individual case and the efficacy of

  1. Effect of preconditioning on silver leaching and bromide removal properties of silver-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaeian, Babak; Allard, Sébastien; Joll, Cynthia; Heitz, Anna

    2018-07-01

    Silver impregnated activated carbon (SIAC) has been found to be effective in mitigating the formation of brominated-disinfection by products during drinking water treatment. However, there are still uncertainties regarding its silver leaching properties, and strategies for the prevention of silver leaching have remained elusive. This study focused on the evaluation of one type of commercially available SIAC for its ability to remove bromide while minimising silver leaching from the material. Both synthetic and real water matrices were tested. Depending on solution pH, it was found that changing the surface charge properties of SIAC, as measured by the point of zero charge pH, can result in additional bromide removal while minimising the extent of silver leaching. To better understand the mechanism of silver leaching from the SIAC, eight preconditioning environments, i.e. variable pH and ionic strength were tested for a fixed amount of SIAC and two preconditioning environments were selected for a more detailed investigation. Experiments carried out in synthetic water showed that preconditioning at pH 10.4 did not deteriorate the capacity of SIAC to remove bromide, but significantly decreased the release of silver in the form of ionic silver (Ag + ), silver bromide (AgBr) and silver chloride (AgCl) from 40% for the pristine to 3% for the treated SIAC. This was confirmed using a groundwater sample. These results suggest that preconditioned SIAC has the potential to be an effective method for bromide removal with minimised silver leaching in a long-term field application for drinking water production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of bromide on halogen incorporation into organic moieties in chlorinated drinking water treatment and distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J; Allard, S; Gruchlik, Y; McDonald, S; Joll, C A; Heitz, A

    2016-01-15

    The impact of elevated bromide concentrations (399 to 750 μg/L) on the formation of halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs), namely trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX), in two drinking water systems was investigated. Bromine was the main halogen incorporated into all of the DBP classes and into organic carbon, even though chlorine was present in large excess to maintain a disinfectant residual. Due to the higher reactivity of bromine compared to chlorine, brominated DBPs were rapidly formed, followed by a slower increase in chlorinated DBPs. Higher bromine substitution and incorporation factors for individual DBP classes were observed for the chlorinated water from the groundwater source (lower concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC)), which contained a higher concentration of bromide, than for the surface water source (higher DOC). The molar distribution of adsorbable organic bromine to chlorine (AOBr/AOCl) for AOX in the groundwater distribution system was 1.5:1 and almost 1:1 for the surface water system. The measured (regulated) DBPs only accounted for 16 to 33% of the total organic halogen, demonstrating that AOX measurements are essential to provide a full understanding of the formation of halogenated DBPs in drinking waters. In addition, the study demonstrated that a significant proportion (up to 94%) of the bromide in source waters can be converted AOBr. An evaluation of AOBr and AOCl through a second groundwater treatment plant that uses conventional treatment processes for DOC removal produced 70% of AOX as AOBr, with 69% of the initial source water bromide converted to AOBr. Exposure to organobromine compounds is suspected to result in greater adverse health consequences than their chlorinated analogues. Therefore, this study highlights the need for improved methods to selectively reduce the bromide content in source waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. CdTe quantum dots functionalized with 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxide as luminescent nanoprobe for the sensitive recognition of bromide ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adegoke, Oluwasesan; Hosten, Eric; McCleland, Cedric; Nyokong, Tebello

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A bromide ion-selective modified nanoprobe sensor based on 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxide (4AT)-functionalized CdTe quantum dots (QDs-4AT) showed a high selectivity and sensitivity for the determination of bromide ion using fluorescence recovery. Highlights: ► Water soluble CdTe quantum dots interact with tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxide. ► Quantum dots fluorescence is quenched by the radical. ► In the presence of bromide ions the fluorescence is restored. ► The sensor is more selective to bromine ions than other common ions. - Abstract: A novel bromide ion-selective modified nanoprobe sensor based on 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxide (4AT)-functionalized CdTe quantum dots (QDs-4AT) has been developed. Fluorescence quenching of the QDs by 4AT was observed. The functionalized QDs-4AT nanoprobe allowed a highly sensitive determination of bromide ion via analyte-induced change in the photoluminescence (fluorescence recovery) of the modified QDs. A detection limit of 0.6 nM of bromide ion was obtained, while the interfering effect of other inorganic cations and anions was investigated to examine the selectivity of the nanoprobe. The linear range was between 0.01 and 0.13 μM. Combined fluorescence lifetime and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements confirmed electron transfer processes between bromide ion and QDs-4AT.

  4. Persistent modification of Nav1.9 following chronic exposure to insecticides and pyridostigmine bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutter, Thomas J.; Cooper, Brian Y.

    2014-01-01

    Many veterans of the 1991 Gulf War (GW) returned from that conflict with a widespread chronic pain affecting deep tissues. Recently, we have shown that a 60 day exposure to the insecticides permethrin, chlorpyrifos, and pyridostigmine bromide (NTPB) had little influence on nociceptor action potential forming Na v 1.8, but increased K v 7 mediated inhibitory currents 8 weeks after treatment. Using the same exposure regimen, we used whole cell patch methods to examine whether the influences of NTPB could be observed on Na v 1.9 expressed in muscle and vascular nociceptors. During a 60 day exposure to NTPB, rats exhibited lowered muscle pain thresholds and increased rest periods, but these measures subsequently returned to normal levels. Eight and 12 weeks after treatments ceased, DRG neurons were excised from the sensory ganglia. Whole cell patch studies revealed little change in voltage dependent activation and deactivation of Na v 1.9, but significant increases in the amplitude of Na v 1.9 were observed 8 weeks after exposure. Cellular studies, at the 8 week delay, revealed that NTPB also significantly prolonged action potential duration and afterhyperpolarization (22 °C). Acute application of permethrin (10 μM) also increased the amplitude of Na v 1.9 in skin, muscle and vascular nociceptors. In conclusion, chronic exposure to Gulf War agents produced long term changes in the amplitude of Na v 1.9 expressed in muscle and vascular nociceptors. The reported increases in K v 7 amplitude may have been an adaptive response to increased Na v 1.9, and effectively suppressed behavioral pain measures in the post treatment period. Factors that alter the balance between Na v 1.9 and K v 7 could release spontaneous discharge and produce chronic deep tissue pain. - Highlights: • Rats were treated 60 days with permethrin, chlorpyrifos and pyridostigmine bromide. • 8 weeks after treatments, Nav1.9 activation and deactivation were unchanged. • The amplitude and

  5. Simultaneous determination of bromide and iodide as acetone derivatives by gas chromatography and electron capture detection in natural waters and biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maros, L.; Kaldy, M.; Igaz, S.

    1989-01-01

    Oxidation of bromide and iodide ions in acidic solutions in the presence of acetone forms the corresponding acetone derivatives. Iodate was reduced with thiosulfate prior to the determination. After extraction with benzene the bromo- and iodoacetone were measured by gas chromatography using electron capture detection. The bromide and iodide contents of rainwater, drinking water, river water, seawater, oil brine, common salt, cow milk, and human blood serum were determined. The relative standard deviations for bromide at 10/sup /minus/7/ M and for iodide at 10/sup /minus/8/ M concentration were 1.9% and 3.0%, respectively, using 10-mL sample for the determination without preconcentration

  6. Studies on the rare earth complexes with pyridine derivatives and their N-oxide(II) - Synthesis and properties of fluorescent solid complexes of samarium, europium, gadolium and terbium chlorides with 2,2'-bipyridine-N,N'-dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minyu, T.; Ning, T.; Yingli, Z.; Jiyuan, B.

    1985-01-01

    The solid complexes of rare earth nitrates perchlorates and thiocyanates with 2,2'-bipyridine-N,N'-dioxide (bipyO/sub 2/) have been reported. However, the corresponding complexes of other rear earth chlorides have not been investigated except lanthanum, cerium and yttrium. As an extension of our previous work on the synthesis of complexes of praseodymium and neodymium chlorides wiht bipoyO/sub 2/, the authors have now prepared fluorescent solid complexes of samarium, europium, gadolium and terbium chlorides with biphyO/sub 2/, using methanol as a reaction medium. The new synthesized compounds have been identified by means of elemental analysis, infrared spectrometry, conductometry, differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetry (TG) and X-ray powder diffraction

  7. Liposomes containing cationic dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide: formulation, quality control, and lipofection efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Crispin R; Walker, Todd L; Burton, Mark A

    2002-01-01

    This article describes a novel, simple, and relatively inexpensive method to prepare cationic liposomes using an ethanol injection/pressure extrusion method. The study also demonstrated that binding erythrosine dye to cationic liposomes results in a shift of the absorption maximum of the dye from 528 nm to 549 nm at pH 4.25, allowing quantification and visualization of these vesicles. In addition, a relatively simple Ficoll-based gradient centrifugation method for separation of lipoplexes from unbound molecules is presented. Laboratory-formulated dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDAB) containing liposomes were just as efficient in complexing nucleic acids as commercially available types, and binding increased as the positive to neutral lipid ratio was increased. Transfection efficiency of the DDAB-containing liposomes increased as the ratio of cationic to neutral lipid was increased from 1:1 to 4:1 with either PtdChol or DOPE as the neutral lipid. A concomitant increase in cytotoxicity of CSU-SA1 cancer cells was noted as the ratio of positive to neutral lipid of the liposomes was increased. Nevertheless, our present study showed that the 2:1 liposome is a good choice since it delivers functional plasmids at a comparable rate to commercial liposome formulations, has similar toxicities to the less harmful commercial liposomes, and is at least 1000-fold more economical to prepare inhouse, a major factor to be considered in preclinical and clinical studies with these carriers.

  8. Modification of carbon nanotube's dispersion using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as cancer drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulan, Praswati PDK.; Wulandari, Hanifia; Ulwan, Sekar H.; Purwanto, Widodo W.; Mulia, Kamarza

    2018-02-01

    Cancer is a disease that causes many deaths globally. Cancer treatments have side effects that can danger the human body. Carbon nanotube (CNT) becomes drug (anti-cancer) delivery towards cancer cells that have been targeted. Yet, CNT tends to aggregate. It could be overcome by functionalization (modification) of CNT using Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB). The variations we use were CNT-CTAB with a dose of CNT 100 mg and CTAB varied between 80, 90, 100, 110, and 120 mg. There were several stages of CNT modification process: dispersion, filtration, washing, and drying. The optimum condition obtained was on CNT-110 mg CTAB because it could be dispersed up to 70 hours better than pure CNT, Zeta Potential (ZP) ≥16 mV, and absorbance Uv-vis 1.05. Both the ZP value and the absorbance of Uv-vis showed the CNT dispersion modified to be better than the pure CNT. Furthermore, SEM-EDX did not produce structural damage to CNT modified surfaces, the percentage of the mass of Oxygen (O) elements as characteristic of increased hydrophilic properties, and Ni elements as toxic impurities become reduced. FTIR spectrum results showed the highest intensity occurred at CTAB CNT-110mg at 1221 m-1. This strong C-N vibration interaction suggests that CNTs CNT modification become readily dispersed in water.

  9. A microcalorimetry and binding study on interaction of dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide with wigeon hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordbar, A.K.; Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A.; Amini, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    The thermodynamic parameters for the binding of dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) with wigeon hemoglobin (Hb) in aqueous solution at various pH and 27 deg. C have been measured by equilibrium dialysis and titration microcalorimetry techniques. The Scatchard plots represent unusual features at neutral and alkaline pH and specific binding at acidic pH. This leads us to analyze the binding data by fitting the data to the Hill equation for multiclasses of binding sites. The best fit was obtained with the equation for one class at acidic pH and two classes at neutral and alkaline pH. The thermodynamic analysis of the binding process shows that the strength of binding at neutral pH is more than these at other pH values. This can be related to the more accessible hydrophobic surface area of wigeon hemoglobin at this pH. The endothermic enthalpy data which was measured by microcalorimetry confirms the binding data analysis and represents the more regular and stable structure of wigeon hemoglobin at neutral pH

  10. Insights into the energetics and mechanism underlying the interaction of tetraethylammonium bromide with proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Tuhina; Kishore, Nand

    2008-01-01

    Calorimetry has been employed to investigate the quantitative energetic aspects and mechanism underlying protein-tetraethylammonium bromide (TEAB) interactions. Differential scanning calorimetry and UV-Visible spectroscopy have been used to study the thermal unfolding of three proteins of different structure and function (bovine serum albumin, α-lactalbumin, and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A). The mode of interaction has been studied by using isothermal titration calorimetry, which demonstrates the absence of appreciable specific binding of TEAB to the protein. This suggests the involvement of solvent mediated effects and, possibly weak non-specific binding. The thermal unfolding transitions were found to be calorimetrically reversible for α-lactalbumin and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A and partially reversible in the case of bovine serum albumin. The results indicate protein destabilization promoted by the TEAB interaction. The preferential interaction parameters of TEAB with α-lactalbumin and ribonuclease A confirm that an increased interaction of the hydrophobic groups of the TEAB with that of the protein upon denaturation is responsible for the reduced thermal stability of the protein. The decrease in the thermal stability of proteins in the presence of TEAB is well supported by a red shift in the intrinsic fluorescence of these proteins leading to conformational change thereby shifting the native ↔ denatured equilibrium towards right. The forces responsible for the thermal denaturation of the proteins of different structure and function in the presence of TEAB are discussed

  11. Oxidative precipitation of ruthenium oxide for supercapacitors: Enhanced capacitive performances by adding cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-Li; Wei, Yu-Chen; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Hu, Chi-Chang; Lin, Tsang-Lang

    2014-12-01

    Thermally stable and porous RuO2·xH2O with superior rate-retention capability is prepared by the H2O2-oxidative precipitation method modified with the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) template. The specific capacitance and rate-retention of RuO2·xH2O are considerably enhanced by the CTAB modification and annealing at 200 °C because of extremely localized crystallization and pore opening of slightly sintered RuO2·xH2O nanoparticles trapped with CTAB. This unique structure, confirmed by the X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS), Raman spectroscopic, and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses, favors the utilization of RuO2·xH2O nanocrystals and increases the electrolyte accessibility in comparing with RuO2·xH2O without CTAB modification. The preferential orientation growth along the {101} facet of RuO2 nanocrystals in some local regions is acquired by the CTAB modification and annealing in air at temperatures ≥350 °C. Such preferential orientation growth of RuO2 crystallites is attributable to the oxidation of trapped surfactants during the thermal annealing process, which adsorb on the high surface energy planes of RuO2.

  12. Simulation of solar lithium bromide-water absorption cooling system with parabolic trough collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazloumi, M.; Naghashzadegan, M.; Javaherdeh, K.

    2008-01-01

    Ahwaz is one of the sweltering cities in Iran where an enormous amount of energy is being consumed to cool residential places in a year. The aim of this research is to simulate a solar single effect lithium bromide-water absorption cooling system in Ahwaz. The solar energy is absorbed by a horizontal N-S parabolic trough collector and stored in an insulated thermal storage tank. The system has been designed to supply the cooling load of a typical house where the cooling load peak is about 17.5 kW (5 tons of refrigeration), which occurs in July. A thermodynamic model has been used to simulate the absorption cycle. The working fluid is water, which is pumped directly to the collector. The results showed that the collector mass flow rate has a negligible effect on the minimum required collector area, but it has a significant effect on the optimum capacity of the storage tank. The minimum required collector area was about 57.6 m 2 , which could supply the cooling loads for the sunshine hours of the design day for July. The operation of the system has also been considered after sunset by saving solar energy

  13. Second law-based thermodynamic analysis of water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, Muhsin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Uludag University, TR 16059, Bursa (Turkey)]. E-mail: mkilic@uludag.edu.tr; Kaynakli, Omer [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Uludag University, TR 16059, Bursa (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    In this study, the first and the second law of thermodynamics are used to analyze the performance of a single-stage water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system (ARS) when some working parameters are varied. A mathematical model based on the exergy method is introduced to evaluate the system performance, exergy loss of each component and total exergy loss of all the system components. Parameters connected with performance of the cycle-circulation ratio (CR), coefficient of performance (COP), Carnot coefficient of performance (COP{sub c} ), exergetic efficiency ({xi}) and efficiency ratio ({tau})-are calculated from the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids at various operating conditions. Using the developed model, the effect of main system temperatures on the performance parameters of the system, irreversibilities in the thermal process and non-dimensional exergy loss of each component are analyzed in detail. The results show that the performance of the ARS increases with increasing generator and evaporator temperatures, but decreases with increasing condenser and absorber temperatures. Exergy losses in the expansion valves, pump and heat exchangers, especially refrigerant heat exchanger, are small compared to other components. The highest exergy loss occurs in the generator regardless of operating conditions, which therefore makes the generator the most important component of the cycle.

  14. Second law-based thermodynamic analysis of water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Muhsin; Kaynakli, Omer

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the first and the second law of thermodynamics are used to analyze the performance of a single-stage water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system (ARS) when some working parameters are varied. A mathematical model based on the exergy method is introduced to evaluate the system performance, exergy loss of each component and total exergy loss of all the system components. Parameters connected with performance of the cycle-circulation ratio (CR), coefficient of performance (COP), Carnot coefficient of performance (COP c ), exergetic efficiency (ξ) and efficiency ratio (τ)-are calculated from the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids at various operating conditions. Using the developed model, the effect of main system temperatures on the performance parameters of the system, irreversibilities in the thermal process and non-dimensional exergy loss of each component are analyzed in detail. The results show that the performance of the ARS increases with increasing generator and evaporator temperatures, but decreases with increasing condenser and absorber temperatures. Exergy losses in the expansion valves, pump and heat exchangers, especially refrigerant heat exchanger, are small compared to other components. The highest exergy loss occurs in the generator regardless of operating conditions, which therefore makes the generator the most important component of the cycle

  15. An investigation of the atmospheric sources and sinks of methyl bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.B.; Kanakidou, M.

    1993-01-01

    Methyl Bromide (CH 3 Br) is a ubiquitous component of the atmosphere and has been implicated as an important player in the depletion of stratospheric ozone. Atmospheric CH 3 Br abundances, interhemispheric gradients, oceanic concentrations, man-made emissions, and removal processes have been analyzed and interpreted with the help of a simple box model and a 2-D global photochemical model. Its calculated atmospheric lifetime (T) of 1.7-1.9 years, based on reaction with OH radicals, is consistent with a global source of 90-110 Gg (10 9 g)/year. Consequences of a much shorter lifetime of 1.2 years, due to possible deposition/hydrolysis losses, are also considered. Available data are used to estimate a CH 3 Br source that is 35% (20-50%) man-made and 65% (80-50%) natural. Oceans are substantially supersaturated and provide the most important natural source of ∼60 (40-80) Gg/year. Within the oceans 200-300 Gg/year of CH 3 Br may be produced. Indirect emissions from automobile exhaust and biomass burning can not be well quantified (1-10 Gg/year). A global trend of 0.1-0.2 ppt/year is predicted. Model results show significant vertical and seasonal variations in the atmospheric abundances and interhemispheric gradients of CH 3 Br. Substantial uncertainties in calibrations, source estimates, and deposition processes are present. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Phosphorescent quantum dots/ethidium bromide nanohybrids based on photoinduced electron transfer for DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Lin; Yu, Yuan-Hua

    2015-04-05

    Mercaptopropionic acid-capped Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots/ethidium bromide (EB) nanohybrids were constructed for photoinduced electron transfer (PIET) and then used as a room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) probe for DNA detection. EB could quench the RTP of Mn-doped ZnS QDs by PIET, thereby forming Mn-doped ZnS QDs/EB nanohybrids and storing RTP. Meanwhile, EB could be inserted into DNA and EB could be competitively desorbed from the surface of Mn-doped ZnS QDs by DNA, thereby releasing the RTP of Mn-doped ZnS QDs. Based on this mechanism, a RTP sensor for DNA detection was developed. Under optimal conditions, the detection limit for DNA was 0.045 mg L(-1), the relative standard deviation was 1.7%, and the method linear ranged from 0.2 to 20 mg L(-1). The proposed method was applied to biological fluids, in which satisfactory results were obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydrogen Storage Capacity of Tetrahydrofuran and Tetra-N-Butylammonium Bromide Hydrates Under Favorable Thermodynamic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T. Weissman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of employing binary hydrates as a medium for H2 storage. Two reagents, tetrahydrofuran (THF and tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB, which had been reported previously to have potential to form binary hydrates with H2 under favorable conditions (i.e., low pressures and high temperatures, were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy. A scale-up facility was employed to quantify the hydrogen storage capacity of THF binary hydrate. Gas chromatography (GC and pressure drop analyses indicated that the weight percentages of H2 in hydrate were less than 0.1%. The major conclusions of this investigation were: (1 H2 can be stored in binary hydrates at relatively modest pressures and temperatures which are probably feasible for transportation applications; and (2 the storage capacity of H2 in binary hydrate formed from aqueous solutions of THF over a concentration range extending from 2.78 to 8.34 mol % and at temperatures above 263 K and pressures below 11 MPa was <0.1 wt %.

  18. Sodium bromide electron-extraction layers for polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhi; Qu, Bo; Xiao, Lixin; Chen, Zhijian; Zhang, Lipei; Gong, Qihuang

    2014-01-01

    Inexpensive and non-toxic sodium bromide (NaBr) was introduced into polymer solar cells (PSCs) as the cathode buffer layer (CBL) and the electron extraction characteristics of the NaBr CBL were investigated in detail. The PSCs based on NaBr CBL with different thicknesses (i.e., 0 nm, 0.5 nm, 1 nm, and 1.5 nm) were prepared and studied. The optimal thickness of NaBr was 1 nm according to the photovoltaic data of PSCs. The open-circuit voltage (V oc ), short-circuit current density (J sc ), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSC with 1 nm NaBr were evaluated to be 0.58 V, 7.36 mA/cm 2 , 0.63, and 2.70%, respectively, which were comparable to those of the reference device with the commonly used LiF. The optimized photovoltaic performance of PSC with 1 nm NaBr was ascribed to the improved electron transport and extraction capability of 1 nm NaBr in PSCs. In addition, the NaBr CBL could prevent the diffusion of oxygen and water vapor into the active layer and prolong the lifetime of the devices to some extent. Therefore, NaBr layer could be considered as a promising non-toxic CBL for PSCs in future

  19. XRD, TEM, and thermal analysis of Arizona Ca-montmorillonites modified with didodecyldimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiming; Park, Yuri; Zheng, Shuilin; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L

    2013-10-15

    An Arizona SAz-2 calcium montmorillonite was modified by a typical dialkyl cationic surfactant (didodecyldimethylammonium bromide, abbreviated to DDDMA) through direct ion exchange. The obtained organoclays were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), high-resolution thermogravimetric analysis (HR-TG), and infrared emission spectroscopy (IES). The intercalation of surfactants greatly increased the basal spacing of the interlayers and the conformation arrangement of the loaded surfactant were assessed based on the XRD and TEM measurements. This work shows that the dialkyl surfactant can be directly intercalated into the montmorillonite without first undergoing Na(+) exchange. Moreover, the thermal stability of organoclays and the different arrangements of the surfactant molecules intercalated in the SAz-2 Ca-montmorillonite were determined by a combination of TG and IES techniques. The detailed conformational ordering of different intercalated surfactants under different conditions was also studied. The surfactant molecule DDDMA has proved to be thermally stable even at 400°C which indicates that the prepared organoclay is stable to significantly high temperatures. This study offers new insights into the structure and thermal stabilities of SAz-2 Ca-montmorillonite modified with DDDMA. The experimental results also confirm the potential applications of organic SAz-2 Ca-montmorillonites as adsorbents and polymer-clay nanocomposites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bromide as chemical tracer to measure the liquid effluent flow at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Douglas B.; Faustino, Mainara G.; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F.

    2013-01-01

    Due to recent changes in CONAMA Resolution 357, which occurred through the publication of Resolution 430, on May 13, 2011 that now set standards about the effluent release, IPEN-CNEN/SP initiated several actions to improve the Environmental Monitoring Program (PMA-Q) of stable chemical compounds. Besides various parameters (physical and chemical) established by CONAMA, the submission of an annual pollution inventory report became necessary. The liquid effluent flow measurement is required to implement this inventory. Thereby, this paper describes a study that uses bromide as a chemical tracer. This paper presents the results of 6 tracer releases in IPEN wastewater collection network between 2011 and 2012. Two tracer releases designs were performed: single pulse and continuous releases performed with 1 to 6 hours duration, done by using one single piston pump manufactured by DIONEX. After the release, one fraction of the effluent was collected every 15 minutes at IPEN effluent monitoring station. The tracer concentration in the effluent was analyzed by ion chromatography and flow was calculated considering the dilution in the system and pump flow set up for the release. The flow values were measured in 6 events were determined and evaluated as per Brazilian regulation requirements. Experimental designs to be implemented during 2013 monitoring were also discussed in this paper, contributing to legal compliance and to improve IPEN's Environmental Monitoring Program for stable chemical compounds (PMA-Q). (author)

  1. Electrical conductivity studies on Ammonium bromide incorporated with Zwitterionic polymer blend electrolyte for battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, V.; Nallamuthu, N.; Devendran, P.; Nagarajan, E. R.; Manikandan, A.

    2017-06-01

    Solid polymer blend electrolytes are widely studied due to their extensive applications particularly in electrochemical devices. Blending polymer makes the thermal stability, higher mechanical strength and inorganic salt provide ionic charge carrier to enhance the conductivity. In these studies, 50% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), 50% poly (N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and 2.5% L-Asparagine mixed with different ratio of the Ammonium bromide (NH4Br), have been synthesized using solution casting technique. The prepared PVA/PVP/L-Asparagine/doped-NH4Br polymer blend electrolyte films have been characterized by various analytical methods such as FT-IR, XRD, impedance spectroscopy, TG-DSC and scanning electron microscopy. FT-IR, XRD and TG/DSC analysis revealed the structural and thermal behavior of the complex formation between PVA/PVP/L-Asparagine/doped-NH4Br. The ionic conductivity and the dielectric properties of PVA/PVP/L-Asparagine/doped-NH4Br polymer blend electrolyte films were examined using impedance analysis. The highest ionic conductivity was found to be 2.34×10-4 S cm-1 for the m.wt. composition of 50%PVA:50%PVP:2.5%L-Asparagine:doped 0.15 g NH4Br at ambient temperature. Solid state proton battery is fabricated and the observed open circuit voltage is 1.1 V and its performance has been studied.

  2. Sodium Hypochlorite and Sodium Bromide Individualized and Stabilized Carbon Nanotubes in Water

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xuezhu

    2017-09-20

    Aggregation is a major problem for hydrophobic carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in water because it reduces the effective particle concentration, prevents particles from entering the medium, and leads to unstable electronic device performances when a colloidal solution is used. Molecular ligands such as surfactants can help the particles to disperse, but they tend to degrade the electrical properties of CNTs. Therefore, self-dispersed particles without the need for surfactant are highly desirable. We report here, for the first time to our knowledge, that CNT particles with negatively charged hydrophobic/water interfaces can easily self-disperse themselves in water via pretreating the nanotubes with a salt solution with a low concentration of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and sodium bromide (NaBr). The obtained aqueous CNT suspensions exhibit stable and superior colloidal performances. A series of pH titration experiments confirmed the presence and role of the electrical double layers on the surface of the salted carbon nanotubes and of functional groups and provided an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon.

  3. 76 FR 29238 - Methyl Bromide; Cancellation Order for Registration Amendments To Terminate Certain Soil Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ...This notice announces EPA's order for the amendments to terminate soil uses, voluntarily requested by the registrants and accepted by the Agency, of products containing methyl bromide, pursuant to section 6(f)(1) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. This cancellation order follows a February 9, 2011, Federal Register Notice of Receipt of Requests from the registrants listed in Table 2 of Unit II to voluntarily amend to terminate uses of these product registrations. These are not the last products containing this pesticide registered for use in the United States. In that notice, EPA indicated that it would issue an order implementing the amendments to terminate uses, unless the Agency received substantive comments within the 30-day comment period that would merit its further review of these requests, or unless the registrants withdrew their requests. The Agency did not receive any comments on the notice. Further, the registrants did not withdraw their requests. These amendments do not affect post-harvest fumigant uses. Any distribution, sale, or use of the products subject to this cancellation order is permitted only in accordance with the terms of this order, including any existing stocks provisions.

  4. Mathematical Model of a Lithium-Bromide/Water Absorption Refrigeration System Equipped with an Adiabatic Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem M. Osta-Omar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop a mathematical model for thermodynamic analysis of an absorption refrigeration system equipped with an adiabatic absorber using a lithium-bromide/water (LiBr/water pair as the working fluid. The working temperature of the generator, adiabatic absorber, condenser, evaporator, the cooling capacity of the system, and the ratio of the solution mass flow rate at the circulation pump to that at the solution pump are used as input data. The model evaluates the thermodynamic properties of all state points, the heat transfer in each component, the various mass flow rates, and the coefficient of performance (COP of the cycle. The results are used to investigate the effect of key parameters on the overall performance of the system. For instance, increasing the generator temperatures and decreasing the adiabatic absorber temperatures can increase the COP of the cycle. The results of this mathematical model can be used for designing and sizing new LiBr/water absorption refrigeration systems equipped with an adiabatic absorber or for optimizing existing aforementioned systems.

  5. Photocontrol of Voltage-Gated Ion Channel Activity by Azobenzene Trimethylammonium Bromide in Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheyda R Frolova

    Full Text Available The ability of azobenzene trimethylammonium bromide (azoTAB to sensitize cardiac tissue excitability to light was recently reported. The dark, thermally relaxed trans- isomer of azoTAB suppressed spontaneous activity and excitation propagation speed, whereas the cis- isomer had no detectable effect on the electrical properties of cardiomyocyte monolayers. As the membrane potential of cardiac cells is mainly controlled by activity of voltage-gated ion channels, this study examined whether the sensitization effect of azoTAB was exerted primarily via the modulation of voltage-gated ion channel activity. The effects of trans- and cis- isomers of azoTAB on voltage-dependent sodium (INav, calcium (ICav, and potassium (IKv currents in isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The experiments showed that azoTAB modulated ion currents, causing suppression of sodium (Na+ and calcium (Ca2+ currents and potentiation of net potassium (K+ currents. This finding confirms that azoTAB-effect on cardiac tissue excitability do indeed result from modulation of voltage-gated ion channels responsible for action potential.

  6. Removal of nitrate from aqueous solution using cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) modified zeolite as adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Yanhui; Lin Jianwei; Zhu Zhiliang

    2011-01-01

    Surfactant modified zeolites (SMZ) with different coverage types were prepared by loading the cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) onto the surface of the natural zeolites. The adsorption behavior of nitrate on SMZ was investigated. Natural zeolite and SMZ with monolayer CPB coverage were inefficient for the removal of nitrate from aqueous solution. However, SMZ with patchy bilayer or bilayer CPB coverage was efficient in nitrate removal, and the nitrate adsorption capacity of SMZ increased with its CPB loading. For typical SMZ with bilayer CPB coverage, the nitrate adsorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the experimental isotherm data fitted well with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Redushkevich isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and the results showed that the adsorption of nitrate on SMZ was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The presence of competing anions such as chloride, sulfate and bicarbonate ions slightly reduced the nitrate adsorption efficiency. Anionic exchange and electrostatic interaction were proven to be the main mechanisms that govern the adsorption of nitrate on SMZ.

  7. Permanganate-bromide-silver nanoparticles as a new chemiluminescence system and its application to captopril determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjadi, Mohammad; Manzoori, Jamshid L; Hassanzadeh, Javad; Sorouraddin, Mohammad H

    2013-10-15

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) system based on the oxidation of bromide by permanganate in sulfuric acid medium is introduced. The enhancing effect of silver nanoparticles (NPs), synthesized by chemical reduction method, on this reaction was studied. It was demonstrated that spherical silver nanoparticles with average size of 18 nm had a most remarkable catalytic effect on this reaction. CL emission wavelengths and UV-vis spectra were used to characterize the system and propose a possible mechanism. Furthermore, it was found that captopril inhibits the action of NPs and decreases the intensity of CL. Based on this phenomenon, a new CL method was developed for the determination of captopril in the 3.0 × 10(-10) to 1.0 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) concentration range with a detection limit (3s) of 0.12 nmol L(-1). The method was successfully applied to the determination of captopril in pharmaceutical formulations, human urine and serum samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of pyridostigmine bromide on human thermoregulation during cold-water immersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadarette, B.S.; Prusaczyk, W.K.; Sawka, M.N. (Army Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA (United States))

    1991-03-11

    This study examined the effects of an oral 30 mg dose of pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) on thermoregulatory and physiological responses during cold stress. Six men were immersed in chilled stirred water for up to 180 minutes; once 2 hours following ingestion of PYR and once 2 hours following ingestion of a placebo (CON). With PYR, mean ({plus minus} SD) red blood cell cholinesterase inhibition was 33 ({plus minus}12)% at 110 minutes post-ingestion. Cholinesterase inhibition was negatively related to lean body mass. Abdominal discomfort caused termination in 3 of 6 PYR experiments ({bar X} immersion time = 117 min) but in no CON experiments ({bar X} immersion time = 142 min, p > 0.05). During immersion, metabolic rate increased significantly over pre-immersion levels, and increased with duration of immersion, but did not differ between conditions. PYR had no significant effect on rectal temperature, mean body temperature, thermal sensation, heart rate, or plasma cortisol concentration. It was concluded that a 30 mg dose of PYR does not increase susceptibility to hypothermia in humans immersed in cold-water; however, in combination with cold-stress, PYR may result in marked abdominal cramping and limit cold tolerance.

  9. Removal of hexavalent chromium by using red mud activated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deliang; Ding, Ying; Li, Lingling; Chang, Zhixian; Rao, Zhengyong; Lu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    The removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solution by using red mud activated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was studied. The optimum operation parameters, such as CTAB concentration, pH values, contact time, and initial Cr(VI) concentration, were investigated. The best concentration of CTAB for modifying red mud was found to be 0.50% (mCTAB/VHCl,0.6 mol/L). The lower pH (mud activated with CTAB can greatly improve the removal ratio of Cr(VI) as high as four times than that of original red mud. Adsorption equilibrium was reached within 30 min under the initial Cr(VI) concentration of 100 mg L(-1). The isotherm data were analysed using Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorption of Cr(VI) on activated red mud fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was estimated as 22.20 mg g(-1) (Cr/red mud). The adsorption process could be well described using the pseudo-second-order model. The result shows that activated red mud is a promising agent for low-cost water treatment.

  10. A Facile Electrochemical Sensor for Nonylphenol Determination Based on the Enhancement Effect of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile electrochemical sensor for the determination of nonylphenol (NP was fabricated in this work. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, which formed a bilayer on the surface of the carbon paste (CP electrode, displayed a remarkable enhancement effect for the electrochemical oxidation of NP. Moreover, the oxidation peak current of NP at the CTAB/CP electrode demonstrated a linear relationship with NP concentration, which could be applied in the direct determination of NP. Some experimental parameters were investigated, such as external solution pH, mode and time of accumulation, concentration and modification time of CTAB and so on. Under optimized conditions, a wide linear range from 1.0 × 10−7 mol·L−1 to 2.5 × 10−5 mol·L−1 was obtained for the sensor, with a low limit of detection at 1.0 × 10−8 mol·L−1. Several distinguishing advantages of the as-prepared sensor, including facile fabrication, easy operation, low cost and so on, suggest a great potential for its practical applications.

  11. Prediction of strontium bromide laser efficiency using cluster and decision tree analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliev Iliycho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of investigation is a new high-powered strontium bromide (SrBr2 vapor laser emitting in multiline region of wavelengths. The laser is an alternative to the atom strontium lasers and electron free lasers, especially at the line 6.45 μm which line is used in surgery for medical processing of biological tissues and bones with minimal damage. In this paper the experimental data from measurements of operational and output characteristics of the laser are statistically processed by means of cluster analysis and tree-based regression techniques. The aim is to extract the more important relationships and dependences from the available data which influence the increase of the overall laser efficiency. There are constructed and analyzed a set of cluster models. It is shown by using different cluster methods that the seven investigated operational characteristics (laser tube diameter, length, supplied electrical power, and others and laser efficiency are combined in 2 clusters. By the built regression tree models using Classification and Regression Trees (CART technique there are obtained dependences to predict the values of efficiency, and especially the maximum efficiency with over 95% accuracy.

  12. Kinetics and mechanism of the pyridinolysis of phenacyl bromides in acetonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh; Han; Lee; Lee

    2000-07-28

    Kinetic studies of the reactions of substituted phenacyl bromides (YC6H4COCH2Br) with pyridines (XC5H4N) are carried out in acetonitrile at 45.0 degrees C. A biphasic Bronsted plot is obtained with a change in slope from a large (betaX approximately equals 0.65-0.80) to a small (betaX approximately 0.36-0.40) value at pKa = 3.2-3.6, which can be attributed to a change in the rate-determining step from breakdown to formation of a tetrahedral intermediate in the reaction path as the basicity of the pyridine nucleophile increases. This mechanism is supported by the faster rates with pyridines than with anilines and the change of cross-interaction constant rhoXY from a large positive (rhoXY = +1.4) to a small positive (rhoXY approximately +0.1) value. The large magnitude of Hammett rhoX (= -5.5 to -6.9) values for the pyridines with electron-withdrawing substituents and positive deviations of the pi-acceptors, p-CH3CO and p-CN, are quite similar to those for the pyridinium ion formation equilibria. The activation parameters are also in line with the proposed mechanism.

  13. Low-Dimensional Organic Tin Bromide Perovskites and Their Photoinduced Structural Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenkun; Tian, Yu; Wang, Mingchao; Rose, Alyssa; Besara, Tiglet; Doyle, Nicholas K; Yuan, Zhao; Wang, Jamie C; Clark, Ronald; Hu, Yanyan; Siegrist, Theo; Lin, Shangchao; Ma, Biwu

    2017-07-24

    Hybrid organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites possess exceptional structural tunability, with three- (3D), two- (2D), one- (1D), and zero-dimensional (0D) structures on the molecular level all possible. While remarkable progress has been realized in perovskite research in recent years, the focus has been mainly on 3D and 2D structures, with 1D and 0D structures significantly underexplored. The synthesis and characterization of a series of low-dimensional organic tin bromide perovskites with 1D and 0D structures is reported. Using the same organic and inorganic components, but at different ratios and reaction conditions, both 1D (C 4 N 2 H 14 )SnBr 4 and 0D (C 4 N 2 H 14 Br) 4 SnBr 6 can be prepared in high yields. Moreover, photoinduced structural transformation from 1D to 0D was investigated experimentally and theoretically in which photodissociation of 1D metal halide chains followed by structural reorganization leads to the formation of a more thermodynamically stable 0D structure. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Removal of bromide and bromate from drinking water using granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Qing; Wu, Qing-Ping; Zhang, Ju-Mei; Yang, Xiu-Hua

    2015-03-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) was used to remove bromide (Br⁻) and bromate (BrO(3)(-)) from drinking water in both bench- and pilot-scale experiments. The present study aims to minimize BrO(3)(-) formation and eliminate BrO(3)(-) generated during the ozonation of drinking water, particularly in packaged drinking water. Results show that the Br⁻ and BrO(3)(-) levels in GAC-treated water decreased in both bench- and pilot-scale experiments. In the bench-scale experiments, when the empty bed contact time (EBCT) was 5 min, the highest reduction rates of Br(-) in the mineral and ultrapure water were found to be 74.9% and 91.2%, respectively, and those of BrO(3)(-) were 94.4% and 98.8%, respectively. The GAC capacity for Br⁻ and BrO(3)(-) removal increased with the increase in EBCT. Reduction efficiency was better in ultrapure water than in mineral water. In the pilot-scale experiments, the minimum reduction rates of Br⁻ and BrO(3)(-) were 38.5% and 73.2%, respectively.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial properties of dihydroxy quaternary ammonium salts with long chain alkyl bromides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Shuai; Wang, Chun-Hua; Sun, Ju-Feng; Hou, Gui-Ge; Wang, Yu-Peng; Qu, Rong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Five N-methyl-N-R-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) ammonium bromides (R = -benzyl (chloride, BNQAS), -dodecyl (C12QAS), -tetradecyl (C14QAS), -hexadecyl (C16QAS), -octadecyl (C18QAS)) were prepared based on N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and halohydrocarbon. Five QAS were characterized by FTIR, NMR, and MS. BNQAS, C12QAS, C14QAS, and C16QAS were confirmed by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Their antibacterial properties indicated good antibacterial abilities against E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis, especially C12QAS with the best antibacterial ability (100% to E. coli, 95.65% to S. aureus, and 91.41% to B. subtilis). In addition, C12QAS also displayed the best antifungal activities than BNQAS and C18QAS against Cytospora mandshurica, Botryosphaeria ribis, Physalospora piricola, and Glomerella cingulata with the ratio of full marks. The strategy provides a facile way to design and develop new types of antibacterial drugs for application in preventing the fruit rot, especially apple. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Single nucleotide polymorphism discrimination with and without an ethidium bromide intercalator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenati, Renzo A; Connolly, Ashley R; Ellis, Amanda V

    2017-02-15

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is an important aspect in understanding genetic variations. Here, we discriminate SNPs using toe-hold mediated displacement reactions. The biological target is an 80 nucleotide long double-stranded-DNA from the mtDNA HV1 region, associated with maternal ancestry. This target has been specially designed with a pendant toehold and a cationic fluorophore, ATTO 647N, as a reporter, produced in a polymerase chain reaction. Rates of reaction for the toehold-polymerase chain reaction products (TPPs) with their corresponding complementary displacing sequences, labelled with a Black Hole Quencher 1, followed the order TPP-Cytosine > TPP-Thymine > TPP-Adenine ≥ TPP-Guanine. Non-complementary rates were the slowest with mismatches involving cytosine. These reactions, operating in a static/or contact mode, gave averaged readouts between SNPs within 15 min (with 80-90% quenching), compared to 25-30 min in previous studies involving fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Addition of an intercalating agent, ethidium bromide, retarded the rate of reaction in which cytosine was involved, presumably through stabilization of the base pairing, which resulted in markedly improved discrimination of cytosine containing SNPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Energetic and binding properties of DNA upon interaction with dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathaie, S Z; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Saboury, A A

    1999-02-15

    The interaction of dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), a cationic surfactant, with calf thymus DNA has been studied by various methods, including potentiometric technique using DTAB-selective plastic membrane electrode at 27 and 37 degreesC, isothermal titration microcalorimetry and UV spectrophotometry at 27 degreesC using 0.05 M Tris buffer and 0.01 M NaCl at pH 7.4. The free energy is calculated from binding isotherms on the basis of Wyman binding potential theory and the enthalpy of binding according to van't Hoff relation. The enthalpy of unfolding has been determined by subtraction of the enthalpy of binding from the microcalorimetric enthalpy. The results show that, after the interaction of first DTAB molecule to DNA (base molarity) through the electrostatic interaction, the second DTAB molecule also binds to DNA through electrostatic interaction. At this stage, the predom-inant DNA conformational change occurs. Afterwards up to 20 DTAB molecules, below the critical micelle concentration of DTAB, bind through hydrophobic interactions.

  18. Carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate/poly(4-vinyl-N-pentyl pyridinium bromide blends as antimicrobial coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Blachechen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Blends of carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB, a cellulose derivative, and poly(4-vinyl-N-pentyl pyridinium bromide (QPVP-C5, an antimicrobial polymer, were prepared by casting method and characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and contact angle measurements. Miscibility between CMCAB and QPVP-C5 was evidenced by DSC measurements of blends, which showed a single thermal event of Tg, and SEM images, which revealed homogenous morphology, regardless the blend composition. Moreover, thermal stability of QPVP-C5 was substantially enhanced, when it was mixed with CMCAB. Upon increasing the QPVP-C5 content in the blend the wettability and antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus increased, indicating the surface enrichment by pyridinium groups. In fact, blends with 70 wt% QPVP-C5 reduced 5 log and 4 log the colony-forming units of Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli, respectively.

  19. Reversal or protection by light of the ethidium bromide induced petite mutation in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hixon, S.C.; Burnham, A.D.; Irons, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    An intermediate in the ethidium bromide (EB) induced petite mutation pathway may be destabilized by daylight light to cause a reversion to the normal grande phenotype. Starved cells preincubated in the dark for up to 6 h with 100μg/ml EB could be reverted to grandes after one hour of light exposure, whereas similarly treated cells maintained in the dark expresse the petite mutation in more than 80 percent of the population. In addition, the production of petite mutants by EB in buffer could be prevented if cell suspensions were exposed to light immediately upon the addition of EB. Photoreversal of the EB-derived petite mutation in growing cells as less efficient presumably because the availability of an energy source caused a continuation of mutation events beyond the light revertible step to a non-reversible fixation of the mutation. Cells treated with EB in growth and reversal of the mutation. This may be due to the cold inhibition of an enzyme which comes into play beyond the light sensitive step in the mutation pathway. (orig.) [de

  20. The sorption behavior of DDT onto sediment in the presence of surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xiaoyan; Han Huayu; Yang Guipeng; Gong Xiaofei; Jing Jianning

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The sorption behavior of a complex system consists of DDT and CTAB onto marine sediment was studied. → Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the kinetics and thermodynamics. → The presence of CTAB could remarkably accelerate and enhance the sorption of DDT. → The sorption of DDT had relatively more negative ΔG 0 and ΔH 0 in the presence of CTAB. - Abstract: The sorption behavior of p,p'- and o,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in the presence of a cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on sediment was studied. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the kinetics and thermodynamics of the process. The kinetic behavior of these three chemicals on sediment was described by pseudo-second-order kinetic equations, and the isotherms followed the Freundlich model well. The presence of CTAB was able to remarkably accelerate and enhance the sorption of DDT, whereas DDT showed no effect on the sorption of CTAB in our considered concentration ranges. The thermodynamic parameters, such as standard enthalpy change (ΔH 0 ), standard entropy change (ΔS 0 ) and standard Gibbs free energy change (ΔG 0 ) showed that the sorption process of p,p'- and o,p'-DDT was physical, spontaneous and exothermic, and the randomness at the solid-liquid interface increased during the process. In the presence of CTAB, the sorption of DDT showed significantly negative ΔG 0 and ΔH 0 values.

  1. The effects of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant on alumina modified zinc oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gac, Wojciech, E-mail: wojciech.gac@umcs.lublin.pl [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 3 M. Curie-Sklodowska Sq., 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Zawadzki, Witold; Słowik, Grzegorz; Pawlonka, Justyna; Machocki, Andrzej [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 3 M. Curie-Sklodowska Sq., 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Lipke, Agnieszka; Majdan, Marek [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 2 M. Curie-Sklodowska Sq., 20-031 Lublin (Poland)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of novel ZnO−Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides in the presence of CTAB surfactant. • Determination of the structural, surface and optical properties. • Nanocrystalline, high-surface area ZnO−Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides. • ZnO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials of different gap energy. - Abstract: Novel alumina modified zinc oxide materials were prepared by co-precipitation method in the presence of different amounts of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. X-ray diffraction, {sup 27}Al magic-angle spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy studies evidenced formation of 10–15 nm zinc oxide nanoparticles in the presence of the small amounts of surfactant. Amorphous alumina and zinc aluminate phases of different coordination environment of Al sites were identified. An increase of surfactant concentration led to the elongation of nanoparticles and changes of the nature of hydroxyl groups. Precipitation in the high CTAB concentration conditions facilitated formation of mesoporous materials of high specific surface area. The materials were composed of very small (2–3 nm) zinc aluminate spinel nanoparticles. High concentration of CTAB induced widening of band gap energy.

  2. Stable bromine isotopic composition of methyl bromide released from plant matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Axel; Holmstrand, Henry; Andersson, Per; Thornton, Brett F.; Wishkerman, Asher; Keppler, Frank; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2014-01-01

    Methyl bromide (CH3Br) emitted from plants constitutes a natural source of bromine to the atmosphere, and is a component in the currently unbalanced global CH3Br budget. In the stratosphere, CH3Br contributes to ozone loss processes. Studies of stable isotope composition may reduce uncertainties in the atmospheric CH3Br budget, but require well-constrained isotope fingerprints of the source end members. Here we report the first measurements of stable bromine isotopes (δ81Br) in CH3Br from abiotic plant emissions. Incubations of both KBr-fortified pectin, a ubiquitous cell-stabilizing macromolecule, and of a natural halophyte (Salicornia fruticosa), yielded an enrichment factor (ε) of -2.00 ± 0.23‰ (1σ, n = 8) for pectin and -1.82 ± 0.02‰ (1σ, n = 4) for Salicornia (the relative amount of the heavier 81Br was decreased in CH3Br compared to the substrate salt). For short incubations, and up to 10% consumption of the salt substrate, this isotope effect was similar for temperatures from 30 up to 300 °C. For longer incubations of up to 90 h at 180 °C the δ81Br values increased from -2‰ to 0‰ for pectin and to -1‰ for Salicornia. These δ81Br source signatures of CH3Br formation from plant matter combine with similar data for carbon isotopes to facilitate multidimensional isotope diagnostics of the CH3Br budget.

  3. Precipitation, stabilization and molecular modeling of ZnS nanoparticles in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praus, Petr; Dvorský, Richard; Horínková, Petra; Pospíšil, Miroslav; Kovář, Petr

    2012-07-01

    ZnS nanoparticles were precipitated in aqueous dispersions of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The sphere radii of ZnS nanoparticles calculated by using band-gap energies steeply decreased from 4.5 nm to 2.2 nm within CTAB concentrations of 0.4-1.5 mmol L(-1). Above the concentration of 1.5 mmol L(-1), the radii were stabilized at R=2.0 nm and increased up to R=2.5 nm after 24 h. The hydrodynamic diameters of CTAB-ZnS structures observed by the dynamic light scattering (DLS) method ranged from 130 nm to 23 nm depending on CTAB concentrations of 0.5-1.5 mmol L(-1). The complex structures were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At the higher CTAB concentrations, ZnS nanoparticles were surrounded by CTA(+) bilayers forming positively charged micelles with the diameter of 10nm. The positive zeta-potentials of the micelles and their agglomerates were from 16 mV to 33 mV. Wurtzite and sphalerite nanoparticles with R=2.0 nm and 2.5 nm covered by CTA(+) were modeled with and without water. Calculated sublimation energies confirmed that a bilayer arrangement of CTA(+) on the ZnS nanoparticles was preferred to a monolayer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Nonhydrostatic Stress on Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of Methylammonium Lead Bromide Perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rong; Cai, Weizhao; Bi, Tiange; Zarifi, Niloofar; Terpstra, Tyson; Zhang, Chuang; Verdent, Z. Valy; Zurek, Eva; Deemyad, Shanti (Buffalo); (Utah)

    2017-07-13

    We report synchrotron X-ray diffraction, photoconductivity, and photoluminescence investigations of methylammonium-lead-bromide (MAPbBr3) under various stress conditions, supported by density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations. The properties of MAPbBr3 show substantial dependence on the hydrostatic conditions. While nonhydrostatic compression of MAPbBr3 leads to amorphization above 2.4 GPa, under quasi-hydrostatic (Ar) and hydrostatic (He) pressure, the sample remains in crystalline phases. A sequence of phase transitions between two cubic phases and orthorhombic Pnma phase is observed when using Ar, or no pressure-transmitting-medium (PTM). In helium-PTM only transitions between the two cubic structures and a new isostructural phase transition with a large volume collapse to a third cubic-phase at 2.7 GPa was observed. The photoluminescence measurements indicate a pressure-induced band gap-narrowing in the cubic phase I, and a blue-shift in the orthorhombic structure. DFT calculations illustrate that the dynamics of the organic molecules and the inorganic lattice, coupled via the N–H···Br hydrogen-bonding interactions, affect the Pb–Br distance and the bandgap evolution under pressure.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA depletion by ethidium bromide decreases neuronal mitochondrial creatine kinase: Implications for striatal energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Emily Booth; Aicher, Aidan Edward; Fessel, Joshua Patrick; Konradi, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the discrete genome which encodes subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, is present at highly variable copy numbers across cell types. Though severe mtDNA depletion dramatically reduces mitochondrial function, the impact of tissue-specific mtDNA reduction remains debated. Previously, our lab identified reduced mtDNA quantity in the putamen of Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients who had developed L-DOPA Induced Dyskinesia (LID), compared to PD patients who had not developed LID and healthy subjects. Here, we present the consequences of mtDNA depletion by ethidium bromide (EtBr) treatment on the bioenergetic function of primary cultured neurons, astrocytes and neuron-enriched cocultures from rat striatum. We report that EtBr inhibition of mtDNA replication and transcription consistently reduces mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and that neurons are significantly more sensitive to EtBr than astrocytes. EtBr also increases glycolytic activity in astrocytes, whereas in neurons it reduces the expression of mitochondrial creatine kinase mRNA and levels of phosphocreatine. Further, we show that mitochondrial creatine kinase mRNA is similarly downregulated in dyskinetic PD patients, compared to both non-dyskinetic PD patients and healthy subjects. Our data support a hypothesis that reduced striatal mtDNA contributes to energetic dysregulation in the dyskinetic striatum by destabilizing the energy buffering system of the phosphocreatine/creatine shuttle.

  6. Evaluation of methyl bromide alternatives efficacy against soil-borne pathogens, nematodes and soil microbial community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Xie

    Full Text Available Methyl bromide (MB and other alternatives were evaluated for suppression of Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Meloidogyne spp. and their influence on soil microbial communities. Both Fusarium spp. and Phytophthora spp. were significantly reduced by the MB (30.74 mg kg-1, methyl iodide (MI: 45.58 mg kg-1, metham sodium (MS: 53.92 mg kg-1 treatments. MS exhibited comparable effectiveness to MB in controlling Meloidogyne spp. and total nematodes, followed by MI at the tested rate. By contrast, sulfuryl fluoride (SF: 33.04 mg kg-1 and chloroform (CF: 23.68 mg kg-1 showed low efficacy in controlling Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Meloidogyne spp. MB, MI and MS significantly lowered the abundance of different microbial populations and microbial biomass in soil, whereas SF and CF had limited influence on them compared with the control. Diversity indices in Biolog studies decreased in response to fumigation, but no significant difference was found among treatments in PLFA studies. Principal component and cluster analyses of Biolog and PLFA data sets revealed that MB and MI treatments greatly influenced the soil microbial community functional and structural diversity compared with SF treatment. These results suggest that fumigants with high effectiveness in suppressing soil-borne disease could significantly influence soil microbial community.

  7. Thermochemistry of adducts of some bivalent transition metal bromides with aniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunstan, Pedro Oliver

    2006-01-01

    The compounds [MBr 2 (an) 2 ] (where M is Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) or Zn(II); an=aniline) were synthesized and characterized by melting points, elemental analysis, thermal studies, and electronic and IR spectroscopy. The enthalpies of dissolution of the adducts, metal(II) bromides and aniline in methanol, aqueous 1.2M HCl or 25% (v/v) aqueous 1.2M HCl in methanol were measured. The following thermochemical parameters for the adducts have been determined by thermochemical cycles: the standard enthalpies for the Lewis acid/base reactions (Δ r H o ), the standard enthalpies of formation (Δ f H o ), the standard enthalpies of decomposition (Δ D H o ), the lattice standard enthalpies (Δ M H o ) and the standard enthalpies of the Lewis acid/base reactions in the gaseous phase (Δ r H o (g)). The mean bond dissociation enthalpies of the M(II)-nitrogen bonds (D-bar (M?N) ) and the enthalpies of formation of the adducts from the ions in the gaseous phase: M 2+ (g) +Br - (g) +an (g) ->[MBr 2 (an) 2 ] (g) (Δ fi H o ) have been estimated

  8. Room temperature X- and gamma-ray detectors using thallium bromide crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Hitomi, K; Shoji, T; Suehiro, T; Hiratate, Y

    1999-01-01

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a compound semiconductor with wide band gap (2.68 eV) and high X- and gamma-ray stopping power. The TlBr crystals were grown by the horizontal travelling molten zone (TMZ) method using purified material. Two types of room temperature X- and gamma-ray detectors were fabricated from the TlBr crystals: TlBr detectors with high detection efficiency for positron annihilation gamma-ray (511 keV) detection and TlBr detectors with high-energy resolution for low-energy X-ray detection. The detector of the former type demonstrated energy resolution of 56 keV FWHM (11%) for 511 keV gamma-rays. Energy resolution of 1.81 keV FWHM for 5.9 keV was obtained from the detector of the latter type. In order to analyze noise characteristics of the detector-preamplifier assembly, the equivalent noise charge (ENC) was measured as a function of the amplifier shaping time for the high-resolution detector. This analysis shows that parallel white noise and 1/f noise were dominant noise sources in the detector...

  9. Binding of dyes to hydroxyapatite treated with cetylpyridinium chloride or cetrimonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J E

    1978-03-01

    The effect of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and cetrimonium bromide (CTAB) on the adsorption of some acidic food dyes to hydroxyapatite was studied. The dyes investigated were brilliant blue (FD&C Blue No. 1), tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No. 5), sunset yellow (FD&C Yellow No. 6) and amaranth (FD&C Red No. 2). The apatite had adsorbed 9.2 mumol CPC per g dry weight. The adsorbed CPC was in equilibrium with a free concentration of 20 microgram/ml (58 micrometer). The adsorption of CPC and CTAB to the apatite was followed by an increased ability of the crystals to bind the dyes. The dyes were very firmly adsorbed and were not released during a series of washings. Untreated apatite showed only a minor affinity for the dyes. The adsorbed dyes were easily washed out. CPC and CTAB showed the smae specific ability to increase the binding capacity of the apatite. The results are discussed and related to the formation of stains on the teeth in persons using quaternary ammonium compounds for mouthrinsing. A mechanism explaining the production of stains is proposed.

  10. Synthesis of zeolitic materials from volcanic ash in presence and absence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanhueza N, V. M.; Bennun T, L. D., E-mail: vsanhuez@udec.cl [Universidad de Concepcion, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Edmundo Larenas 129, Region del Biobio (Chile)

    2015-07-01

    Zeolitic materials as Na-phillipsite, Na-K-phillipsite-like zeolites and the mixtures of zeolites (phillipsite+analcime and phillipsite+chabazite+analcime) were synthesized from volcanic ash, either in presence and absence of cetiltrimetilamonium bromide (CTAB). The ash sample used in the laboratory experiments contains 75.36% SiO{sub 2} and 14.11% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, abundances. The reaction time as well as the influence of CTAB were studied in the zeolitic materials crystallization. The experiments were carried out under hydrothermal conditions, autogenic pressure and temperature of 150 grades C, as well as reaction time from 8 to 116 h. Products from this hydrothermal treatment were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and characterized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (Sem-EDS). Of the zeolitic materials obtained the Na-K-phillipsite-like zeolite was found to be the most effective for the retention of cations Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+}. (Author)

  11. Cervical spinal demyelination with ethidium bromide impairs respiratory (phrenic) activity and forelimb motor behavior in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L.; Punzo, Antonio M.; Duncan, Ian D.; Mitchell, Gordon S.; Johnson, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Although respiratory complications are a major cause of morbidity/mortality in many neural injuries or diseases, little is known concerning mechanisms whereby deficient myelin impairs breathing, or how patients compensate for such changes. Here, we tested the hypothesis that respiratory and forelimb motor function are impaired in a rat model of focal dorsolateral spinal demyelination (ethidium bromide, EB). Ventilation, phrenic nerve activity and horizontal ladder walking were performed 7-14 days post-C2 injection of EB or vehicle (SHAM). EB caused dorsolateral demyelination at C2-C3 followed by signficant spontaneous remyelination at 14 days post-EB. Although ventilation did not differ between groups, ipsilateral integrated phrenic nerve burst amplitude was significantly reduced versus SHAM during chemoreceptor activation at 7 days post-EB but recovered by 14 days. The ratio of ipsi- to contralateral phrenic nerve amplitude correlated with cross-sectional lesion area. This ratio was significantly reduced 7 days post-EB versus SHAM during baseline conditions, and versus SHAM and 14 day groups during chemoreceptor activation. Limb function ipsilateral to EB was impaired 7 days post-EB and partially recovered by 14 days post-EB. EB provides a reversible model of focal, spinal demyelination, and may be a useful model to study mechanisms of functional impairment and recovery via motor plasticity, or the efficacy of new therapeutic interventions to reduce severity or duration of disease. PMID:23159317

  12. Lithium bromide high-temperature absorption heat pump: coefficient of performance and exergetic efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, M [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (ES). Inst. de Optica; Aroca, S [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Valladolid (ES). Catedratico de Ingenieria Termica

    1990-04-01

    A theoretical study of a lithium bromide absorption heat pump, used as a machine type I and aimed to produce heat at 120{sup 0}C via waste heat sources at 60{sup 0}C, is given. Real performance conditions are stated for each component of the machine. By means of thermodynamic diagrams (p, t, x) and (h, x), the required data are obtained for calculation of the heat recovered in the evaporator Q{sub e}, the heat delivered to the absorber Q{sub a} and to the condenser Q{sub c}, and the heat supplied to the generator Q{sub g}. The heat delivered by the hot solution to the cold solution in the heat recovered Q{sub r}, and the work W{sub p} done by the solution pump are calculated. The probable COP is calculated as close to 1.4 and the working temperature in the generator ranges from 178 to 200{sup 0}C. The heat produced by the heat pump is 22% cheaper than that obtained from a cogeneration system comprising a natural gas internal combustion engine and high temperature heat pump with mechanical compression. Compared with a high temperature heat pump with mechanical compression, the heat produced by the absorption heat pump is 31% cheaper. From (h, x) and (s, x) diagrams, exergy losses for each component can be determined leading to an exergetic efficiency of 75% which provides the quality index of the absorption cycle. (author).

  13. The challenge of research and extension to define and implement alternatives to methyl bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noling, J W; Becker, J O

    1994-12-01

    Over the past 30 years, methyl bromide (MBr), a broad spectrum fumigant, has been used extensively for soilborne disease and pest control in the production of many fruit, vegetable, turf, and nursery crops. Recently, agricultural emissions of MBr were implicated as a potentially significant contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion. As a precautionary measure for global ozone protection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has enforced federal legislation which mandates a complete phase-out of MBr use within the United States by 1 January 2001. Thus, new cost effective, environmentally compatible strategies for control of nematodes and other soilborne pests and pathogens must be developed and tested in a relatively short time to avoid significant losses in crop productivity. The extent to which certain agricultural industries that are now heavily reliant on MBr are affected will depend on the development of sustainable, integrated tactics to pest control, such as combinations of cultural, chemical, and biological tactics. New muhidisciplinary research and extension programs must be developed to address and overcome major constraints and incompatibilities that have prevented such tactics from being widely adopted.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA depletion by ethidium bromide decreases neuronal mitochondrial creatine kinase: Implications for striatal energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Booth Warren

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, the discrete genome which encodes subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, is present at highly variable copy numbers across cell types. Though severe mtDNA depletion dramatically reduces mitochondrial function, the impact of tissue-specific mtDNA reduction remains debated. Previously, our lab identified reduced mtDNA quantity in the putamen of Parkinson's Disease (PD patients who had developed L-DOPA Induced Dyskinesia (LID, compared to PD patients who had not developed LID and healthy subjects. Here, we present the consequences of mtDNA depletion by ethidium bromide (EtBr treatment on the bioenergetic function of primary cultured neurons, astrocytes and neuron-enriched cocultures from rat striatum. We report that EtBr inhibition of mtDNA replication and transcription consistently reduces mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and that neurons are significantly more sensitive to EtBr than astrocytes. EtBr also increases glycolytic activity in astrocytes, whereas in neurons it reduces the expression of mitochondrial creatine kinase mRNA and levels of phosphocreatine. Further, we show that mitochondrial creatine kinase mRNA is similarly downregulated in dyskinetic PD patients, compared to both non-dyskinetic PD patients and healthy subjects. Our data support a hypothesis that reduced striatal mtDNA contributes to energetic dysregulation in the dyskinetic striatum by destabilizing the energy buffering system of the phosphocreatine/creatine shuttle.

  15. Sodium Hypochlorite and Sodium Bromide Individualized and Stabilized Carbon Nanotubes in Water

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Colombo, Veronica; Xin, Yangyang; Tao, Ran; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Aggregation is a major problem for hydrophobic carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in water because it reduces the effective particle concentration, prevents particles from entering the medium, and leads to unstable electronic device performances when a colloidal solution is used. Molecular ligands such as surfactants can help the particles to disperse, but they tend to degrade the electrical properties of CNTs. Therefore, self-dispersed particles without the need for surfactant are highly desirable. We report here, for the first time to our knowledge, that CNT particles with negatively charged hydrophobic/water interfaces can easily self-disperse themselves in water via pretreating the nanotubes with a salt solution with a low concentration of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and sodium bromide (NaBr). The obtained aqueous CNT suspensions exhibit stable and superior colloidal performances. A series of pH titration experiments confirmed the presence and role of the electrical double layers on the surface of the salted carbon nanotubes and of functional groups and provided an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon.

  16. Volumetric properties of the (tetrahydrofuran + water) and (tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide + water) systems: Experimental measurements and correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belandria, Veronica; Mohammadi, Amir H.; Richon, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    In this communication, we report experimental density data for the binary mixtures of (water + tetrahydrofuran) and (water + tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide) at atmospheric pressure and various temperatures. The densities were measured using an Anton Paar TM digital vibrating-tube densimeter. For the (tetrahydrofuran + water) system, excess molar volumes have been calculated using the experimental densities and correlated using the Redlich-Kister equation. The Redlich-Kister equation parameters have been adjusted on experimental results. The partial molar volumes and partial excess molar volumes at infinite dilution have also been calculated for each component. A simple density equation was finally applied to correlate the measured density of the (tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide + water) system.

  17. Vapor-liquid equilibria of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, S Y; Lee, H

    1999-12-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems were measured at 60, 160, 300, and 760 mmHg at temperatures ranging from 315 to 488 K. The apparatus used in this work is a modified still especially designed for the measurement of low-pressure VLE, in which both liquid and vapor are continuously recirculated. For the analysis of salt-containing solutions, a method incorporating refractometry and gravimetry was used. From the experimental measurements, the effect of lithium bromide on the VLE behavior of water + 1,3-propanediol was investigated. The experimental data of the salt-free system were successfully correlated using the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC models. In addition, the extended UNIQUAC model of Sander et al. was applied to the VLE calculation of salt-containing mixtures.

  18. Configuration optimization of series flow double-effect water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration systems by cost minimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussati, Sergio F.; Cignitti, Stefano; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil

    2018-01-01

    An optimal process configuration for double-effect water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration systems with series flow – where the solution is first passed through the high-temperature generator – is obtained by minimization of the total annual cost for a required cooling capacity. To this end......) takes place entirely at the high-temperature zone, and the sizes and operating conditions of the other process units change accordingly in order to meet the problem specification with the minimal total annual cost. This new configuration was obtained for wide ranges of the cooling capacity (150–450 k.......9%, respectively. Most importantly, the obtained optimal solution eliminates the low-temperature solution heat exchanger from the conventional configuration, rendering a new process configuration. The energy integration between the weak and strong lithium bromide solutions (cold and hot streams, respectively...

  19. Mitochondrial nucleoid clusters protect newly synthesized mtDNA during Doxorubicin- and Ethidium Bromide-induced mitochondrial stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alán, Lukáš; Špaček, Tomáš; Pajuelo-Reguera, David; Jabůrek, Martin; Ježek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 302, Jul 1 (2016), s. 31-40 ISSN 0041-008X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/12/1247; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Doxorubicin * Ethidium Bromide * nucleoid clusters * mitochondrial DNA stress * mitochondrial transcription factor A Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.791, year: 2016

  20. Density and surface tension of high-temperature stratifying mixtures of alkali metal bromides and lithium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rukavishnikova, I.V.; Lokett, V.N.; Burukhin, A.S.; Stepanov, V.P.

    2006-01-01

    The density and interphase tension of molten mixtures of lithium fluoride with potassium, rubidium, and cesium bromides were measured over the temperature range 1120-1320 K in the region of limited mutual solubility by the hydrostatic weighing and meniscus weight methods. The dependences of properties on the size ratio between the mixed ions were determined. The critical order parameters for systems with the predominantly ionic character of interparticle interactions were estimated [ru

  1. Bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-κN,N')(carbonato-κO,O')cobalt(III) bromide trihydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peng-Tao; Wang, Yu-Xia; Zhang, Guo-Qian; Li, Ming-Xue

    2007-12-06

    The title complex, [Co(CO(3))(C(10)H(8)N(2))(2)]Br·3H(2)O, is isostructural with the chloride analogue. The six-coordinated octahedral [Co(2,2'-bipy)(2)CO(3)](+) cation (2,2'-bipy is 2,2'-bipyrid-yl), bromide ion and water mol-ecules are linked together via O-H⋯Br and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating a one-dimensional chain.

  2. THE VALUE OF THE COMPOUND DRUGS FORMOTEROL AND IPRATROPIUM BROMIDE IN COMPLEX TREATMENT OF CHRONIC NONSPECIFIC LUNG DISEASES IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Simonova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex mechanism of development of bronchoobstructive bronchitis in chronic nonspecific lung diseases in children and its effective therapy with the compound bronchodilator berodual are discussed. Berodual comprises b2-adrenoreceptor agonist — fenoterol and anticholinergic drug — ipatropium bromide, that amplify bronchodilatory action of each other. Indications, contraindication and intake peculiarities are illustrated.Key words: chronic nonspecific lung diseases, bronchoob structive syndrome, bronchodilators, children.

  3. Palladium-Catalyzed Heck Coupling Reaction of Aryl Bromides in Aqueous Media Using Tetrahydropyrimidinium Salts as Carbene Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özdemir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and stereoselective catalytic system for the Heck cross coupling reaction using novel 1,3-dialkyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidinium salts (1, LHX and Pd(OAc2 loading has been reported. The palladium complexes derived from the salts 1a-f prepared in situ exhibit good catalytic activity in the Heck coupling reaction of aryl bromides under mild conditions.

  4. Evaluating equilibrium and non-equilibrium transport of bromide and isoproturon in disturbed and undisturbed soil columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousset, S.; Thevenot, M.; Pot, V.; Šimunek, J.; Andreux, F.

    2007-12-01

    In this study, displacement experiments of isoproturon were conducted in disturbed and undisturbed columns of a silty clay loam soil under similar rainfall intensities. Solute transport occurred under saturated conditions in the undisturbed soil and under unsaturated conditions in the sieved soil because of a greater bulk density of the compacted undisturbed soil compared to the sieved soil. The objective of this work was to determine transport characteristics of isoproturon relative to bromide tracer. Triplicate column experiments were performed with sieved (structure partially destroyed to simulate conventional tillage) and undisturbed (structure preserved) soils. Bromide experimental breakthrough curves were analyzed using convective-dispersive and dual-permeability (DP) models (HYDRUS-1D). Isoproturon breakthrough curves (BTCs) were analyzed using the DP model that considered either chemical equilibrium or non-equilibrium transport. The DP model described the bromide elution curves of the sieved soil columns well, whereas it overestimated the tailing of the bromide BTCs of the undisturbed soil columns. A higher degree of physical non-equilibrium was found in the undisturbed soil, where 56% of total water was contained in the slow-flow matrix, compared to 26% in the sieved soil. Isoproturon BTCs were best described in both sieved and undisturbed soil columns using the DP model combined with the chemical non-equilibrium. Higher degradation rates were obtained in the transport experiments than in batch studies, for both soils. This was likely caused by hysteresis in sorption of isoproturon. However, it cannot be ruled out that higher degradation rates were due, at least in part, to the adopted first-order model. Results showed that for similar rainfall intensity, physical and chemical non-equilibrium were greater in the saturated undisturbed soil than in the unsaturated sieved soil. Results also suggested faster transport of isoproturon in the undisturbed soil due

  5. Effect of phytosanitary irradiation and methyl bromide fumigation on the physical, sensory, and microbiological quality of blueberries and sweet cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Karen; Au, Kimberlee; Rakovski, Cyril; Prakash, Anuradha

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether irradiation could serve as a suitable phytosanitary treatment alternative to methyl bromide (MB) fumigation for blueberries and sweet cherry and also to determine the effect of phytosanitary irradiation treatment on survival of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes on these fruit. 'Bluecrop' blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) and 'Sweetheart' cherries (Prunus avium) were irradiated at 0.4 kGy or fumigated with methyl bromide and evaluated for quality attributes during storage. Irradiation caused an immediate decrease in firmness of both fruit without further significant change during storage. Fumigated fruit, in contrast, softened by 11-14% during storage. Irradiation did not adversely affect blueberry and cherry shelf-life. MB fumigation did not impact blueberry and cherry quality attributes initially; however, fumigated fruit exhibited greater damage and mold growth than the control and irradiated samples during storage. Irradiation at 400 Gy resulted in a ∼1 log CFU g(-1) reduction in Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes counts, indicating that this treatment cannot significantly enhance safety. This study indicates that irradiation at a target dose of 0.4 kGy for phytosanitary treatment does not negatively impact blueberry and cherry quality and can serve as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Delivery of albuterol and ipratropium bromide from two nebulizer systems in chronic stable asthma. Efficacy and pulmonary deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.A.; Newman, S.P.; Bloom, R.; Talaee, N.; Clarke, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Bronchodilator responses to both nebulized albuterol (salbutamol) and ipratropium bromide and aerosol delivery to the tracheobronchial tree have been assessed in eight patients with chronic stable asthma (mean baseline FEV1, 50 percent; reversibility greater than 20 percent). Two commercially available nebulizer systems were used, namely, a Turret nebulizer operated at a compressed gas flow rate of 12 L/min (droplet MMD, 3.3 mu) and an Inspiron nebulizer driven at 6 L/min (MMD, 7.7 mu). Albuterol was given as doses of 250 micrograms, 250 micrograms, 500 micrograms, and 1,000 micrograms (cumulative dose, 2 mg) and ipratropium bromide as doses of 50 micrograms, 50 micrograms, 100 micrograms, and 200 micrograms (cumulative dose, 400 micrograms) at intervals of 35 minutes. For albuterol, bronchodilatation was significantly (p less than 0.05) greater at all dosage levels with the Turret. For ipratropium, bronchodilatation was similar for both nebulizers. Measurements of aerosol deposition using 99m Tc-labelled pentetic acid (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid; DTPA) showed that 9.1 +/- 1.1 percent and 2.7 +/- 0.2 percent of the dose reached the lungs during nebulization to dryness for Turret and Inspiron, respectively (p less than 0.01); distribution within the lungs was similar for the two aerosols. Selection of nebulizer apparatus can influence delivery of aerosol and subsequent bronchodilator response to albuterol in patients with chronic stable asthma but is less important for aerosol delivery of ipratropium bromide in these patients

  7. Elastic silicone encapsulation of n-hexadecyl bromide by microfluidic approach as novel microencapsulated phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Zhenjin [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Su, Lin; Li, Jing; Yang, Ruizhuang; Zhang, Zhanwen; Liu, Meifang; Li, Jie [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Li, Bo, E-mail: LB6711@126.com [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2014-08-20

    Highlights: • n-Hexadecyl bromide was encapsuled in elastic silicone shell. • The surfaces of microcapsules were smooth and the cross sections were compact. • Latent heat of microcapsules was 76.35 J g{sup −1}. • The microencapsulation ratio was 49 wt.%. • The microcapsules had good thermal stability. - Abstract: The elastic silicone/n-hexadecyl bromide microcapsules were prepared as novel microencapsulated phase change materials by microfluidic approach with the co-flowing channels, where the double oil1-in-oil2-in-water (O1/O2/W) droplets with a core–shell geometry were fabricated. The thermal characterizations of the microcapsules were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The DSC results showed that the microcapsules had good energy storage capacity with melting and freezing enthalpies 76.35 J g{sup −1} and 78.67 J g{sup −1}, respectively. The TGA investigation showed that the microcapsules had good thermal stability. The surfaces of microcapsules were smooth and the cross sections were compact from the results of optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optical microscope showed that the silicone shell can provide expansion place due to its elastic property. Therefore, the silicone/n-hexadecyl bromide microcapsules showed good potential as thermal regulating textile and thermal insulation materials.

  8. Elastic silicone encapsulation of n-hexadecyl bromide by microfluidic approach as novel microencapsulated phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Zhenjin; Su, Lin; Li, Jing; Yang, Ruizhuang; Zhang, Zhanwen; Liu, Meifang; Li, Jie; Li, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • n-Hexadecyl bromide was encapsuled in elastic silicone shell. • The surfaces of microcapsules were smooth and the cross sections were compact. • Latent heat of microcapsules was 76.35 J g −1 . • The microencapsulation ratio was 49 wt.%. • The microcapsules had good thermal stability. - Abstract: The elastic silicone/n-hexadecyl bromide microcapsules were prepared as novel microencapsulated phase change materials by microfluidic approach with the co-flowing channels, where the double oil1-in-oil2-in-water (O1/O2/W) droplets with a core–shell geometry were fabricated. The thermal characterizations of the microcapsules were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The DSC results showed that the microcapsules had good energy storage capacity with melting and freezing enthalpies 76.35 J g −1 and 78.67 J g −1 , respectively. The TGA investigation showed that the microcapsules had good thermal stability. The surfaces of microcapsules were smooth and the cross sections were compact from the results of optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optical microscope showed that the silicone shell can provide expansion place due to its elastic property. Therefore, the silicone/n-hexadecyl bromide microcapsules showed good potential as thermal regulating textile and thermal insulation materials

  9. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  10. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  11. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  12. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  13. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  14. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  15. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  16. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 5 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  17. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  18. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  19. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  20. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 5 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  1. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  2. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  3. Determination of Residual Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Aqueous Sample Using Magnetic Nanoparticles Modified with Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Khoeini Sharifabadi, Malihe; Saber-Tehrani, Mohammad; Waqif Husain, Syed; Mehdinia, Ali; Aberoomand-Azar, Parviz

    2014-01-01

    A simple and sensitive solid-phase extraction method for separation and preconcentration of trace amount of four nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (naproxen, indomethacin, diclofenac, and ibuprofen) using Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles modified with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide has been developed. For this purpose, the surface of MNPs was modified with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant. Effects of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of dr...

  4. Electrochemical Study of Bromide in the Presence of 1,3-Indandione. Application to the Electrochemical Synthesis of Bromo Derivatives of 1,3-Indandione

    OpenAIRE

    Nematollahi, D.; Akaberi, N.

    2001-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of bromide in the presence of 1,3-indandione (1) in water/acetic acid and methanol/acetic acid mixtures has been studied by cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential coulometry. The results indicate the participation of 1,3-indandione in the bromination reaction. On the basis of the electroanalytical and preparative results a reaction mechanism including electron transfer, chemical reaction and regeneration of bromide was discussed. The electrochemical synthesi...

  5. Physicochemical and in vitro deposition properties of salbutamol sulphate/ipratropium bromide and salbutamol sulphate/excipient spray dried mixtures for use in dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Deirdre O; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2006-09-28

    The physicochemical and aerodynamic properties of spray dried powders of the drug/drug mixture salbutamol sulphate/ipratropium bromide were investigated. The in vitro deposition properties of spray dried salbutamol sulphate and the spray dried drug/excipient mixtures salbutamol sulphate/lactose and salbutamol sulphate/PEG were also determined. Spray drying ipratropium bromide monohydrate resulted in a crystalline material from both aqueous and ethanolic solution. The product spray dried from aqueous solution consisted mainly of ipratropium bromide anhydrous. There was evidence of the presence of another polymorphic form of ipratropium bromide. When spray dried from ethanolic solution the physicochemical characterisation suggested the presence of an ipratropium bromide solvate with some anhydrous ipratropium bromide. Co-spray drying salbutamol sulphate with ipratropium bromide resulted in amorphous composites, regardless of solvent used. Particles were spherical and of a size suitable for inhalation. Twin impinger studies showed an increase in the fine particle fraction (FPF) of spray dried salbutamol sulphate compared to micronised salbutamol sulphate. Co-spray dried salbutamol sulphate:ipratropium bromide 10:1 and 5:1 systems also showed an increase in FPF compared to micronised salbutamol sulphate. Most co-spray dried salbutamol sulphate/excipient systems investigated demonstrated FPFs greater than that of micronised drug alone. The exceptions to this were systems containing PEG 4000 20% or PEG 20,000 40% both of which had FPFs not significantly different from micronised salbutamol sulphate. These two systems were crystalline unlike most of the other spray dried composites examined which were amorphous in nature.

  6. Combination of selected enzymes with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in biofilm inactivation, removal and regrowth

    KAUST Repository

    Araujo, Paula Alexandra Da Silva; Machado, Idalina; Meireles, Ana; Leiknes, TorOve; Mergulhã o, Filipe; Melo, Luí s F.; Simõ es, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Enzymes are considered an innovative and environmentally friendly approach for biofilm control due to their lytic and dispersal activities. In this study, four enzymes (β-glucanase, α-amylase, lipase and protease) were tested separately and in combination with the quaternary ammonium compound cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to control flow-generated biofilms of Pseudomonas fluorescens. The four enzymes caused modest reduction of biofilm colony forming units (CFU). Protease, β-glucanase and α-amylase also caused modest biofilm removal. CTAB combined with either β-glucanase or α-amylase increased biofilm removal. Its combination with either β-glucanase or protease increased CFU reduction. However, CTAB−protease combination was antagonist in biofilm removal. Long-term effects in biofilm mass reduction were observed after protease exposure. In contrast, biofilms treated with β-glucanase were able to regrowth significantly after exposure. Moreover, short-term respirometry tests with planktonic cells were performed to understand the effects of enzymes and their combination with CTAB on P. fluorescens viability. Protease and lipase demonstrated antimicrobial action, while α-amylase increased bacterial metabolic activity. The combination of CTAB with either protease or α-amylase was antagonistic, decreasing the antimicrobial action of CTAB. The overall results demonstrate a modest effect of the selected enzymes in biofilm control, either when applied alone or each one in combination with CTAB. Total biofilm removal or CFU reduction was not achieved and, in some cases, the use of enzymes antagonized the effects of CTAB. The results also propose that complementary tests, to characterize biofilm integrity and microbial viability, are required when someone is trying to assess the role of novel biocide - enzyme mixtures for effective biofilm control.

  7. Spectroscopic study on the interaction of Bacillus subtilis α-amylase with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omidyan, R.; Kazemi, S.H.; Bordbar, A.K.; Zaynalpour, S.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) has been investigated at various temperature conditions using fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic methods. Fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence quenching of α-amylase by CTAB is the result of complex formation between CTAB and α-amylase. The thermodynamic analysis on the binding interaction data shows that the interactions are strongly exothermic (ΔH o =-17.92 kJ mol -1 ) accompanied with increase in entropy (ΔS o between 109 to 135 J mol -1 K -1 ). Thus the binding of CTAB to α-amylase is both enthalpic and entropic driven, which represent the predominate role of both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in complex formation process. The values of 2.17x10 -3 M -1 and 1.30 have been obtained from associative binding constant (K a ) and stoichiometry of binding number (n), from analysis of fluorescence data, respectively. Circular dichroism spectra showed the substantial conformational changes in secondary structure of α-amylase due to binding of CTAB, which represents the complete destruction of both secondary and tertiary structure of α-amylase by CTAB. - Research highlights: → The Fluorescence quenching effect of α-amylase by CTAB is a consequence of formation α-amylase-CTAB complex. → The α-helical analyzing from the CD spectra in the various concentration of CTAB shows strongly deformation of α-amylase. → Thermodynamic analysis of quenching verify that the interactions are both enthalpy and entropic driven.

  8. Ionization and dissociation dynamics of vinyl bromide probed by femtosecond extreme ultraviolet transient absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Ming-Fu; Neumark, Daniel M.; Gessner, Oliver; Leone, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Strong-field induced ionization and dissociation dynamics of vinyl bromide, CH 2 =CHBr, are probed using femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption spectroscopy. Strong-field ionization is initiated with an intense femtosecond, near infrared (NIR, 775 nm) laser field. Femtosecond XUV pulses covering the photon energy range of 50-72 eV probe the subsequent dynamics by measuring the time-dependent spectroscopic features associated with transitions of the Br (3d) inner-shell electrons to vacancies in molecular and atomic valence orbitals. Spectral signatures are observed for the depletion of neutral C 2 H 3 Br, the formation of C 2 H 3 Br + ions in their ground (X ~ ) and first excited (A ~ ) states, the production of C 2 H 3 Br ++ ions, and the appearance of neutral Br ( 2 P 3/2 ) atoms by dissociative ionization. The formation of free Br ( 2 P 3/2 ) atoms occurs on a timescale of 330 ± 150 fs. The ionic A ~ state exhibits a time-dependent XUV absorption energy shift of ∼0.4 eV within the time window of the atomic Br formation. The yield of Br atoms correlates with the yield of parent ions in the A ~ state as a function of NIR peak intensity. The observations suggest that a fraction of vibrationally excited C 2 H 3 Br + (A ~ ) ions undergoes intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution followed by the C–Br bond dissociation. The C 2 H 3 Br + (X ~ ) products and the majority of the C 2 H 3 Br ++ ions are relatively stable due to a deeper potential well and a high dissociation barrier, respectively. The results offer powerful new insights about orbital-specific electronic processes in high field ionization, coupled vibrational relaxation and dissociation dynamics, and the correlation of valence hole-state location and dissociation in polyatomic molecules, all probed simultaneously by ultrafast table-top XUV spectroscopy

  9. Comparison of Freezing and Hydrate Formation Methods in Removing Chloride and Bromide Ions from Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Fattahi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing population and enhanced industrial activities coupled with limitations on freshwater availability have led to efforts to desalinate salt water from the seas. Membrane and thermal technologies are the two commonly used for this purpose. In this study, the direct freezing and hydrate formation techniques were used for salt water desalination. Materials and Methods: Distilled water, sodium chloride, and sodium bromide were used as raw materials in the experiments. The experimental setup included a stationary reactor with two coaxial cylinders, in which ice crystals were deposited outside the cool inner cylinder to increase the salt concentration in the residual brine. An electrical conductivity instrument was used to measure sal removal. Results: Salt removal was shown to decrease with increasing salt concentration in the direct freeze method. A different trend was, however, observed in the hydrate formation method; salt removal was negligible at low concentrations in this method but increased at high concentrations before a constant value was reached. Overall, the hydrate formation recorded a higher salt removal efficiency than the other method. To investigate the effect of anion size on salt removal efficiency, experiments were carried out using NaCl and NaBr, which have the same cation but different anion sizes. Result showed that removal efficiency increased with increasing anion size. Conclusion: It was found that increasing ion radius leads to the lower likelihood of ion presence in the crystal lattice, thereby reducing salt removal efficiency. On the other hand, low concentrations of salt serve as site for the generation of cores, which naturally serve as removal accelerators.

  10. Spectroscopic study on the interaction of Bacillus subtilis {alpha}-amylase with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidyan, R., E-mail: r.omidyan@sci.ui.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemi, S.H. [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bordbar, A.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zaynalpour, S. [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The interaction between {alpha}-amylase from Bacillus subtilis and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) has been investigated at various temperature conditions using fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic methods. Fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence quenching of {alpha}-amylase by CTAB is the result of complex formation between CTAB and {alpha}-amylase. The thermodynamic analysis on the binding interaction data shows that the interactions are strongly exothermic ({Delta}H{sup o}=-17.92 kJ mol{sup -1}) accompanied with increase in entropy ({Delta}S{sup o} between 109 to 135 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}). Thus the binding of CTAB to {alpha}-amylase is both enthalpic and entropic driven, which represent the predominate role of both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in complex formation process. The values of 2.17x10{sup -3} M{sup -1} and 1.30 have been obtained from associative binding constant (K{sub a}) and stoichiometry of binding number (n), from analysis of fluorescence data, respectively. Circular dichroism spectra showed the substantial conformational changes in secondary structure of {alpha}-amylase due to binding of CTAB, which represents the complete destruction of both secondary and tertiary structure of {alpha}-amylase by CTAB. - Research highlights: {yields} The Fluorescence quenching effect of {alpha}-amylase by CTAB is a consequence of formation {alpha}-amylase-CTAB complex. {yields} The {alpha}-helical analyzing from the CD spectra in the various concentration of CTAB shows strongly deformation of {alpha}-amylase. {yields} Thermodynamic analysis of quenching verify that the interactions are both enthalpy and entropic driven.

  11. Extraction spectrophotometric determination of rare earth with trioctylethylammonium bromide and Xylenol Orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shijo, Yoshio

    1976-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method of determination of the rare earth was studied by the solvent extraction of rare earth-Xylenol Orange chelate into xylene solution of trioctylethylammonium bromide(TOEA). The rare earth-XO-TOEA complexes are extracted into aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and xylene, but not into polar solvents such as n-butanol ethylacetate, methylisobutylketone, and nitrobenzene. The optimum pH range for the extraction were 6.3 -- 6.7, 6.3 -- 6.5, 5.8 -- 6.9, 5.7 -- 6.9, and 5.5 -- 6.8 for lanthanum, praseodymium, cerium, gadolinium, and dysprosium, respectively. The absorption maximum of the complexes extracted into xylene were found at 605 nm for lanthanum, praseodymium, and cerium, 596 nm for gadolinium, and 590 nm for dysprosium. Beer's law held for about 0 -- 4.5 μg of rare earth per 5 ml of xylene. The molar absorptivity of the extracted species were 1.53x10 5 , 1.42x10 5 , 1.35x10 5 , 8.5x10 4 , 8.2x10 4 cm -1 mol -1 l for lanthanum, praseodymium, cerium, gadolinium, and dysprosium, respectively. The composition of the ternary complexes were estimated to be M:XO:TOEA=1:1:2 for gadolinium and dysprosium, whereas 1:2:n for lanthanum, praseodymium and cerium. Combination ratio n of TOEA to metal-XO chelates in the latters could not be estimated by the commonly available methods. Thorium, vanadium, uranium, bismuth, aluminum, zirconium, chromium, nitrate, perchlorate and iodide interfered when triethylenetetramine and 1,10-phenanthroline were added as masking agent. (auth.)

  12. Nutrient removal by Chlorella vulgaris F1068 under cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide induced hormesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongzhi; Li, Feng; Ge, Fei; Liu, Na; Kuang, Yangduo

    2016-10-01

    Toxicants are generally harmful to biotechnology in wastewater treatment. However, trace toxicant can induce microbial hormesis, but to date, it is still unknown how this phenomenon affects nutrient removal during municipal wastewater treatment process. Therefore, this study focused on the effects of hormesis induced by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), a representative quaternary ammonium cationic surfactant, on nutrient removal by Chlorella vulgaris F1068. Results showed that when the concentration of CTAB was less than 10 ng/L, the cellular components chlorophyll a, proteins, polysaccharides, and total lipids increased by 10.11, 58.17, 38.78, and 11.87 %, respectively, and some enzymes in nutrient metabolism of algal cells, such as glutamine synthetase (GS), acid phosphatase (ACP), H(+)-ATPase, and esterase, were also enhanced. As a result, the removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)) and total phosphorus (TP) increased by 14.66 and 8.51 %, respectively, compared to the control during a 7-day test period. The underlying mechanism was mainly due to an enhanced photosynthetic activity of C. vulgaris F1068 indicated by the increase in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (the value of Fv/Fm, ΦII, Fv/Fo, and rETR increased by 12.99, 7.56, 25.59, and 8.11 %, respectively) and adenylate energy charge (AEC) (from 0.68 to 0.72). These results suggest that hormesis induced by trace toxicants could enhance the nutrient removal, which would be further considered in the design of municipal wastewater treatment processes. Graphical abstract The schematic mechanism of C. vulgaris F1068 under CTAB induced hormesis. Green arrows ( ) represent the increase and the red arrow ( ) represents the decrease.

  13. Application of artificial neural network in 3D imaging with lanthanum bromide calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostojic, A.; Tatischeff, V.; Kiener, J.; Hamadache, C.; Karkour, N.; Linget, D.; Grave, X.; Gibelin, L.; Travers, B.; Blin, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2015-07-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range from 0.1 up to 100 MeV holds many understudied questions connected with e.g. stellar nucleosynthesis, the active Sun, neutron stars and black holes. To access the physics behind, a significant improvement in detection sensitivity is needed compared to previous missions, e.g. CGRO and INTEGRAL. One of the promising concepts for a future gamma-ray mission is an Advanced Compton Telescope. Under the project of creating a prototype of such instrument, we study the perspectives of using a novel inorganic scintillator as a calorimeter part. Modern inorganic crystal or ceramics scintillators are constantly improving on qualities such as energy resolution and radiation hardness, and this makes them a smart choice for a new space-borne telescope. At CSNSM Orsay, we have assembled a detection module from a 5 × 5cm2 area and 1 cm thick, cerium-doped lanthanum (III) bromide (LaBr3:Ce) inorganic scintillator coupled to a 64 channel multi-anode photomultiplier. The readout of the PMT signals is carried out with the ASIC MAROC, used previously for the luminometer of the ATLAS detector (CERN). Characterization, thorough measurements with various radioactive sources, as well as, single photoelectron detection have been done. Furthermore, we made a comparison of measurements with a detailed GEANT4-based simulation which includes tracking of the optical photons. Finally, we have studied the 3D reconstruction of the first interaction point of incident gamma rays, utilizing a neural network algorithm. This spatial position resolution plays a crucial part in the future implementations and, together with the other measured properties, it makes our detector module very interesting for the next generation of space telescopes operating in the MeV range.

  14. White-Light Emission and Structural Distortion in New Corrugated Two-Dimensional Lead Bromide Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lingling; Wu, Yilei; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Wasielewski, Michael R; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2017-03-29

    Hybrid inorganic-organic perovskites are developing rapidly as high performance semiconductors. Recently, two-dimensional (2D) perovskites were found to have white-light, broadband emission in the visible range that was attributed mainly to the role of self-trapped excitons (STEs). Here, we describe three new 2D lead bromide perovskites incorporating a series of bifunctional ammonium dications as templates which also emit white light: (1) α-(DMEN)PbBr 4 (DMEN = 2-(dimethylamino)ethylamine), which adopts a unique corrugated layered structure in space group Pbca with unit cell a = 18.901(4) Å, b = 11.782(2) Å, and c = 23.680(5) Å; (2) (DMAPA)PbBr 4 (DMAPA = 3-(dimethylamino)-1-propylamine), which crystallizes in P2 1 /c with a = 10.717(2) Å, b = 11.735(2) Å, c = 12.127(2) Å, and β = 111.53(3)°; and (3) (DMABA)PbBr 4 (DMABA = 4-dimethylaminobutylamine), which adopts Aba2 with a = 41.685(8) Å, b = 23.962(5) Å, and c = 12.000(2) Å. Photoluminescence (PL) studies show a correlation between the distortion of the "PbBr 6 " octahedron in the 2D layer and the broadening of PL emission, with the most distorted structure having the broadest emission (183 nm full width at half-maximum) and longest lifetime (τ avg = 1.39 ns). The most distorted member α-(DMEN)PbBr 4 exhibits white-light emission with a color rendering index (CRI) of 73 which is similar to a fluorescent light source and correlated color temperature (CCT) of 7863 K, producing "cold" white light.

  15. Combination of selected enzymes with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in biofilm inactivation, removal and regrowth

    KAUST Repository

    Araujo, Paula Alexandra Da Silva

    2017-03-01

    Enzymes are considered an innovative and environmentally friendly approach for biofilm control due to their lytic and dispersal activities. In this study, four enzymes (β-glucanase, α-amylase, lipase and protease) were tested separately and in combination with the quaternary ammonium compound cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to control flow-generated biofilms of Pseudomonas fluorescens. The four enzymes caused modest reduction of biofilm colony forming units (CFU). Protease, β-glucanase and α-amylase also caused modest biofilm removal. CTAB combined with either β-glucanase or α-amylase increased biofilm removal. Its combination with either β-glucanase or protease increased CFU reduction. However, CTAB−protease combination was antagonist in biofilm removal. Long-term effects in biofilm mass reduction were observed after protease exposure. In contrast, biofilms treated with β-glucanase were able to regrowth significantly after exposure. Moreover, short-term respirometry tests with planktonic cells were performed to understand the effects of enzymes and their combination with CTAB on P. fluorescens viability. Protease and lipase demonstrated antimicrobial action, while α-amylase increased bacterial metabolic activity. The combination of CTAB with either protease or α-amylase was antagonistic, decreasing the antimicrobial action of CTAB. The overall results demonstrate a modest effect of the selected enzymes in biofilm control, either when applied alone or each one in combination with CTAB. Total biofilm removal or CFU reduction was not achieved and, in some cases, the use of enzymes antagonized the effects of CTAB. The results also propose that complementary tests, to characterize biofilm integrity and microbial viability, are required when someone is trying to assess the role of novel biocide - enzyme mixtures for effective biofilm control.

  16. Effects of cetyltriethylammonium bromide on the replication of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yajing; Zhang, Zhifang; He, Jialu; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2002-05-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to quantify the effects of cetyltriethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on the replication of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) and the transcriptionalactivity of BmNPV ie-1 promoter. The results demonstrated that the budded virus (BV) titer rose about 3.7-fold by adding CTAB to the culture media up to 0.1 mu g ml(-1) in infected Bm-N cells with a wild-type BmNPV. The transient expression level of luciferase driven by BmNPV ie-1 promoter was enhanced by more than 3-fold in the presence of 0.1 mu g ml(-1) of CTAB in uninfected insect cells via a transient expression system. Contrary to the rise in BV titer, the polyhedra inside the nucleus of infected cells dropped linearly from 4.0 x 10(6) ml(-1) down to 2.1 x 10(6) ml(-1) with in a range of CTAB concentrations from 0 to 0.25 mu g ml(-1). The same trend in expression level of beta -galactosidase or phytase was given when the Bm-N cells or fifth-instar silkworm larvae infected with a recombinant BmNPV containing the beta -galactosidase or phytase reporter gene driven by the polyhedrin promoter. We deduced that CTAB appeared to affect the virus bi-phasic life cycle stages and production pathways, resulting in an enhancement in BV production and a suppression of occluded virus (OV) production and expression of foreign genes controlled by the polyhedrin promoter.

  17. Pixellated thallium bromide detectors for gamma-ray spectroscopy and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, T. E-mail: tosiyuki@smail.tohtech.ac.jp; Hitomi, K.; Shoji, T.; Hiratate, Y

    2004-06-01

    Recently, pixellated semiconductor detectors exhibit high-energy resolution, which have been studied actively and fabricated from CdTe, CZT and HgI{sub 2}. Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a compound semiconductor characterized with its high atomic numbers (Tl=81, Br=35) and high density (7.56 g/cm{sup 3}). Thus, TlBr exhibits higher photon stopping power than other semiconductor materials used for radiation detector fabrication such as CdTe, CZT and HgI{sub 2}. The wide band gap of TlBr (2.68 eV) permits the detectors low-noise operation at around room temperature. Our studies made an effort to fabricate pixellated TlBr detectors had sufficient detection efficiency and good charge collection efficiency. In this study, pixellated TlBr detectors were fabricated from the crystals purified by the multipass zone-refining method and grown by the horizontal traveling molten zone (TMZ) method. The TlBr detector has a continuous cathode over one crystal surface and 3x3 pixellated anodes (0.57x0.57 mm{sup 2} each) surrounded by a guard ring on the opposite surface. The electrodes were realized by vacuum evaporation of palladium through a shadow mask. Typical thickness of the detector was 2 mm. Spectrometric performance of the TlBr detectors was tested by irradiating them with {sup 241}Am (59.5 keV), {sup 57}Co (122 keV) and {sup 137}Cs (662 keV) gamma-ray sources at temperature of -20 deg. C. Energy resolutions (FWHM) were measured to be 4.0, 6.0 and 9.7 keV for 59.5, 122 and 662 keV gamma-rays, respectively.

  18. Determination of niobium with p-arsonophenylazochromotropic acied and cetylpyridinium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz-Medel, A.; Camara Rica, C.; Perez-Bustamante, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Color stabilization and modification of the visible spectrum of the p-arsonophenylazochromotropic acid (L) and Nb(V) binary complex by the addition of surfactants has been studied in the course of a search for improved spectrophotometric methods for niobium. Addition of cationic surfactants resulted in an effective means of color stabilization and brought about a drastic improvement in the intensity of the absorption band maximum (sensitized reactions). The surfactant which gave the most intense absorption band maximum was cetylpyridinium bromide (CPAB). Spectrophotometric measurements indicate the formation of two Nb-L-CPAB ion-association ternary complexes: a complex with the stoichiometry 1:2:4 was formed in approximately 1 M HCl. The other complex had the stoichiometry 1:1:2 and formed in 2 to 4 M HCl mediums. Both ternary complexes mentioned can be applied to the spectrophotometric determination of niobium and two different analytical methods have been established: the complex formed in a 1.0 M HCl medium provides a method less selective than the complex formed in 2 to 4 M HCl. The method provided by the former complex is sensitive (epsilon = 1.87 x 10 4 L mol -1 cm -1 ), has a working range of 0.5 to 5 ppm Nb, and has a relative standard deviation of 0.5%. The complex formed in the higher acidity range provides a less sensitive method. The working range is 1 to 9 ppm and epsilon = 7.40 x 10 3 L mol -1 cm -1 . This latter method is most adequate for a selective spectrophotometric determination of niobium (relative standard deviation being 0.5%). 5 figures, 2 tables

  19. Production of hydrogen bromide and oxygen from water and bromine using a metal oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Nakane, Masanori; Ishii, Eiichi; Uehara, Itsuki; Miyake, Yoshizo

    1978-01-01

    In order to produce hydrogen by the thermochemical water splitting cycle, the following two-step reactions have been investigated. M.O + Br 2 → M.Br 2 + 1/2O 2 (1) M.Br 2 + H 2 O → M.O + 2HBr (2) At first, indium, zinc, cobalt, manganese and nickel were picked up as suitable elements based on ΔG 0 -T diagram of the reactions. Then, each fundamental reaction was checked experimentally. In the case of cobalt, manganese and nickel, reaction (1) hardly proceeded below 900 0 C under atmospheric pressure of Br 2 . Therefore, detailed experiments were carried out on zinc and indium. In the case of zinc, the equilibrium conversion of Br 2 for reaction (1) was estimated to be 37% at 900 0 C and that of ZnBr 2 (g) for reaction (2) was estimated to be 5% at the same temperature. Also in the case of indium, both the equilibrium conversions of Br 2 and of InBr 3 (g) turned out 10% under the same conditions. As the rate of conversion was rather low, large amounts of unreacted substances should be recycled to proceed these reactions. In the hydrolysis of both ZnBr 2 and InBr 3 , the use of five and ten times larger amount of H 2 O could reduce the amounts of unreacted metal bromides to about a half and one third of the values mentioned above, respectively. Under the present conditions the two-step sub-cycle using the metal oxide is considered to be difficult to realize from technical points of view. (author)

  20. Performance characteristics of single effect lithium bromide/ water absorption chiller for small data centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysore, Abhishek Arun Babu

    A medium data center consists of servers performing operations such as file sharing, collaboration and email. There are a large number of small and medium data centers across the world which consume more energy and are less efficient when compared to large data center facilities of companies such as GOOGLE, APPLE and FACEBOOK. Such companies are making their data center facilities more environmental friendly by employing renewable energy solutions such as wind and solar to power the data center or in data center cooling. This not only reduces the carbon footprint significantly but also decreases the costs incurred over a period of time. Cooling of data center play a vital role in proper functioning of the servers. It is found that cooling consumes about 50% of the total power consumed by the data center. Traditional method of cooling includes the use of mechanical compression chillers which consume lot of power and is not desirable. In order to eliminate the use of mechanical compressor chillers renewable energy resources such as solar and wind should be employed. One such technology is solar thermal cooling by means of absorption chiller which is powered by solar energy. The absorption chiller unit can be coupled with either flat plate or evacuated tube collectors in order to achieve the required inlet temperature for the generator of the absorption chiller unit. In this study a modular data center is considered having a cooling load requirement of 23kw. The performance characteristics of a single stage Lithium Bromide/ water refrigeration is presented in this study considering the cooling load of 23kw. Performance characteristics of each of the 4 heat exchangers within the unit is discussed which helps in customizing the unit according to the users' specific needs. This analysis helps in studying the importance of different properties such as the effect of inlet temperatures of hot water for generator, inlet temperatures of cooling water for absorber and