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Sample records for samarium 137

  1. 137

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucaković, Ivana; Barišić, Delko; Grahek, Željko; Kasap, Ante; Širić, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select species with higher potential to accumulate 137 Cs among the available mushroom species, by determining the activity concentrations of 137 Cs in mushrooms collected along north and north-western part of Croatia. A total of 55 samples of 14 different species were analyzed and the potential of mycorrhizal and saprotrophic species to accumulate 137 Cs was compared. A wide range of the dry weight activity concentrations of 137 Cs was detected, ranging from 0.95 to 1210 Bq/kg (154 Bq/kg mean value; 52.3 Bq/kg geometric mean) in mycorrhizal and 1.05-36.8 Bq/kg (8.90 Bq/kg mean value; 5.49 Bq/kg geometric mean) in saprotrophic species. Statistical analyses showed that mycorrhizal species accumulate significantly higher concentrations of 137 Cs and thus could perform better as long-term bioindicators of environmental pollution by radiocaesium then saprotrophic species. The comparison of Boletus sp. and Hydnum repandum (both mycorrhizal species commonly found in Croatia) showed, in general order of magnitude, higher accumulation in Hydnum repandum. Clearly, mushrooms, especially mycorrhizal species, can be used as significant indicators even decades after the occurrence of any serious 137 Cs contamination event. However, as a wide range of values indicates that various parameters may influence the total uptake of the 137 Cs into the mushroom fruit bodies, it is necessary to emphasize that 137 Cs activity detected in a single mushroom sample is very site-specific. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis of Samarium Cobalt Nanoblades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren M. Steele

    2010-08-25

    As new portable particle acceleration technologies become feasible the need for small high performance permanent magnets becomes critical. With particle accelerating cavities of a few microns, the photonic crystal fiber (PCF) candidate demands magnets of comparable size. To address this need, samarium cobalt (SmCo) nanoblades were attempted to be synthesized using the polyol process. Since it is preferable to have blades of 1-2 {micro}m in length, key parameters affecting size and morphology including method of stirring, reaction temperature, reaction time and addition of hydroxide were examined. Nanoparticles consisting of 70-200 nm spherical clusters with a 3-5 nm polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coating were synthesized at 285 C and found to be ferromagnetic. Nanoblades of 25nm in length were observed at the surface of the nanoclusters and appeared to suggest agglomeration was occurring even with PVP employed. Morphology and size were characterized using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis was conducted to determine composition but no supportive evidence for any particular SmCo phase has yet been observed.

  3. Particle-Size-Induced Valence Changes in Samarium Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, M. G.; Lee, S. -T.; Apai, G.; Davis, R. F.; Shirley, D. A.; Franciosi, A.; Weaver, J. H.

    1981-09-01

    Samarium clusters exhibit mixed-valence behavior which is sensitive to particle size. XPS and UPS data show samarium to be primarily divalent (4f{sup 6} ) at small particle size. The trivalent state (4f{sup 5} ) becomes progressively more abundant with increasing s1ze, becoming the dominant state for the bulk metal. These results are interpreted using a model in which band narrowing, due to reduced surface coordination, is more dominant than surface tension effects in establishing the valence of small samarium clusters.

  4. Yellow-green electroluminescence of samarium complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzad, Sara Karimi; Najafi, Ezzatollah [Department of Chemistry Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amini, Mostafa M., E-mail: m-pouramini@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Janghouri, Mohammad; Mohajerani, Ezeddin [Laser Research Institute Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ng, Seik Weng [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-12-15

    Four novel samarium complexes were prepared by reacting samarium(III) nitrate with 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline, and 1,10-phenanthroline and utilized as emitting materials in the electroluminescence device. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared, UV–vis and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopes and the molecular structure of a representative complex, [Sm{sub 2}(Me-HQ){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}] (1), was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Utilization of a π-conjugated (phenanthroline) ligand as a second ligand in the structure of the samarium complexes resulted in red shifts in both absorption and fluorescence spectra of complexes and moderately enhanced the photoluminescence intensity and the fluorescence quantum yield. The maximum emission peaks showed that a good correlation exists between the nature of the substituent group on the 8-hydroxyquinoline and the addition of the π-conjugated ligand in the structure of samarium complexes and emission wavelength. Devices with samarium(III) complexes with structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS (90 nm)/PVK:PBD:Sm(III) complexes (75 nm)/Al (180 nm) were fabricated. In the electroluminescence (EL) spectra of the devices, a strong ligand-centered emission and narrow bands arising from the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}→{sup 6}H{sub J} transitions (J=7/2, 9/2, and 11/2) of the samarium ion were observed for the complexes. The electroluminescent spectra of the samarium complexes were red-shifted as compared with the PVK:PBD blend. We believe that the electroluminescence performance of OLED devices based on samarium complexes relies on overlaps between the absorption of the samarium compounds and the emission of PVK:PBD. This revealed that it is possible to evaluate the electroluminescence performance of the samarium compounds-doped OLED devices based on the emission of PVK:PBD and the absorption of the dopants. - Highlights: • Four novel photoluminescence samarium complexes have been synthesized.

  5. Biodistribution of samarium-153-EDTMP in rats treated with docetaxel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarim Neto, Arthur; Acucena, Maria Kadja Meneses Torres; Pereira, Kercia Regina Santos Gomes; Rego, Amalia Cinthia Meneses [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences; Azevedo, Italo Medeiros; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. of Surgery; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [State University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Biophysics and Biometry

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: Many patients with metastatic bone disease have to use radiopharmaceuticals associated with chemotherapy to relieve bone pain. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of docetaxel on the biodistribution of samarium-153-EDTMP in bones and other organs of rats. Methods: Wistar male rats were randomly allocated into 2 groups of 6 rats each. The DS (docetaxel/samarium) group received docetaxel (15 mg/kg) intraperitoneally in two cycles 11 days apart. The S (samarium/control) group rats were not treated with docetaxel. Nine days after chemotherapy, all the rats were injected with 0.1 ml of samarium-153-EDTMP via orbital plexus (25 {mu} Ci. After 2 hours, the animals were killed and samples of the brain, thyroid, lung, heart, stomach, colon, liver, kidney and both femurs were removed. The percentage radioactivity of each sample (% ATI / g) was determined in an automatic gamma-counter (Wizard-1470, Perkin-Elmer, Finland). Results: On the ninth day after the administration of the second chemotherapy cycle, the rats had a significant weight loss (314.50 +- 22.09 g) compared (p<0.5) to pre-treatment weight (353.66 {+-} 22.8). The % ATI/g in the samples of rats treated with samarium-153-EDTMP had a significant reduction in the right femur, left femur, kidney, liver and lungs of animals treated with docetaxel, compared to the control rats. Conclusion: The combination of docetaxel and samarium-153-EDTMP was associated with a lower response rate in the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical to targeted tissues. Further investigation into the impact of docetaxel on biodistribution of samarium-153-EDTMP would complement the findings of this study. (author)

  6. The Basis for Developing Samarium AMS for Fuel Cycle Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, B A; Biegalski, S R; Whitney, S M; Tumey, S J; Weaver, C J

    2008-10-13

    Modeling of nuclear reactor fuel burnup indicates that the production of samarium isotopes can vary significantly with reactor type and fuel cycle. The isotopic concentrations of {sup 146}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, and {sup 151}Sm are potential signatures of fuel reprocessing, if analytical techniques can overcome the inherent challenges of lanthanide chemistry, isobaric interferences, and mass/charge interferences. We review the current limitations in measurement of the target samarium isotopes and describe potential approaches for developing Sm-AMS. AMS sample form and preparation chemistry will be discussed as well as possible spectrometer operating conditions.

  7. Optical characteristics of transparent samarium oxide thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optical characteristics of transparent samarium oxide thin films deposited by the radio-frequency sputtering technique. A A ATTA M M EL-NAHASS KHALED M ELSABAWY M M ABD EL-RAHEEM A M HASSANIEN A ALHUTHALI ALI BADAWI AMAR MERAZGA. Regular Volume 87 Issue 5 November 2016 Article ID 72 ...

  8. Optical properties of zinc–vanadium glasses doped with samarium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zinc–vanadium glasses doped with samarium oxide having the chemical composition Sm2O3() ZnO(40-)V2O5(60) (where = 0.1–0.5 mol%) were prepared by melt quenching method. The density of these glasses was measured by Archimedes method; the corresponding molar volumes have also been calculated.

  9. Optical properties of samarium doped zinc–tellurite glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Optical properties of samarium doped zinc–tellurite glasses. B ERAIAH. Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003, India. Present address: Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560 056, India. MS received 20 March 2006; revised 13 June 2006. Abstract. Glasses with the composition, ...

  10. Effect of second ligand on the luminescence of Samarium (III ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of second ligand on the luminescence of Samarium (III) dibenzoylmethane complexes: Syntheses, crystal structures, thermal analysis and luminescence study. MUHAMMAD IDIRIS SALEH, MIN YEE CHOO, TAI WEI CHAN and MOHD R RAZALI. ∗. School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, ...

  11. Effect of second ligand on the luminescence of Samarium (III ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 12. Effect of second ligand on the luminescence of Samarium (III) dibenzoylmethane complexes: ... Muhammad Idiris Saleh1 Min Yee Choo1 Tai Wei Chan1 Mohd R Razali1. School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia ...

  12. Dependence of samarium-soil interaction on samarium concentration: Implications for environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Guinart, Oriol; Salaberria, Aitor; Vidal, Miquel; Rigol, Anna

    2018-03-01

    The sorption and desorption behaviour of samarium (Sm), an emerging contaminant, was examined in soil samples at varying Sm concentrations. The obtained sorption and desorption parameters revealed that soil possessed a high Sm retention capacity (sorption was higher than 99% and desorption lower than 2%) at low Sm concentrations, whereas at high Sm concentrations, the sorption-desorption behaviour varied among the soil samples tested. The fractionation of the Sm sorbed in soils, obtained by sequential extractions, allowed to suggest the soil properties (pH and organic matter solubility) and phases (organic matter, carbonates and clay minerals) governing the Sm-soil interaction. The sorption models constructed in the present work along with the sorption behaviour of Sm explained in terms of soil main characteristics will allow properly assessing the Sm-soil interaction depending on the contamination scenario under study. Moreover, the sorption and desorption K d values of radiosamarium in soils were strongly correlated with those of stable Sm at low concentrations (r = 0.98); indicating that the mobility of Sm radioisotopes and, thus, the risk of radioactive Sm contamination can be predicted using data from low concentrations of stable Sm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanism of the electrochemical deposition of samarium-based coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Edgar J. [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro Sanfandila, P.O. Box 064, Pedro Escobedo, 76700 Queretaro (Mexico); Ortega-Borges, Raul [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro Sanfandila, P.O. Box 064, Pedro Escobedo, 76700 Queretaro (Mexico); Godinez, Luis A. [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro Sanfandila, P.O. Box 064, Pedro Escobedo, 76700 Queretaro (Mexico); Chapman, Thomas W. [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro Sanfandila, P.O. Box 064, Pedro Escobedo, 76700 Queretaro (Mexico); Meas-Vong, Yunny [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro Sanfandila, P.O. Box 064, Pedro Escobedo, 76700 Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: yunnymeas@cideteq.mx

    2006-11-12

    Samarium-based films have been shown to form from aqueous solutions on the surfaces of metallic substrates such as steel or aluminum, and their presence has been reported to decrease substantially the corresponding corrosion rate of the underlying metallic substrate. Based on previous reports on the deposition of oxides or hydroxides of the closely related element cerium, this work demonstrates that samarium films are formed following a similar mechanism, which involves as the fundamental step an increase in interfacial pH resulting from cathodic oxygen-reduction or hydrogen-evolution reactions. With cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical quartz-crystal microbalance (EQCM) measurements, rotating-disk electrode (RDE) tests, and surface characterization techniques, namely, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray surface microanalysis (EDX), the postulated mechanism was verified, and the surface morphology of the resulting films was correlated with the nature of the reduction reaction that triggers film formation.

  14. Samarium Monosulfide (SmS): Reviewing Properties and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sousanis, Andreas; Smet, Philippe; Poelman, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we give an overview of the properties and applications of samarium monosulfide, SmS, which has gained considerable interest as a switchable material. It shows a pressure-induced phase transition from the semiconducting to the metallic state by polishing, and it switches back to the semiconducting state by heating. The material also shows a magnetic transition, from the paramagnetic state to an antiferromagnetically ordered state. The switching behavior between the semiconducti...

  15. Optical properties of zinc–vanadium glasses doped with samarium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Zinc–vanadium glasses doped with samarium oxide having the chemical composition Sm2O3(x). ZnO(40−x)V2O5(60)(where x = 0·1–0·5 mol%) were prepared by melt quenching method. The density of these glasses was measured by Archimedes method; the corresponding molar volumes have also been ...

  16. Synthesis of nano-pore samarium (III)-imprinted polymer for preconcentrative separation of samarium ions from other lanthanide ions via solid phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvani-Arani, Simindokht [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Tehran, P.O.Box:14155-6455, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jaber Ibne Hayan Research Laboratories, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box: 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadi, Seyed Javad [Jaber Ibne Hayan Research Laboratories, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box: 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: sjahmadi@aeoi.org.ir; Bahrami-Samani, Ali [Nuclear Engineering and Physics Department, Amir Kabir University, P.O.Box: 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jaber Ibne Hayan Research Laboratories, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box: 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghannadi-Maragheh, Mohammad [Jaber Ibne Hayan Research Laboratories, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box: 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-08-08

    A batch process was developed to separate samarium ions from some lanthanide ions by a novel solid phase which was prepared via the ion-imprinting technique. The samarium (III) ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) particles were synthesized by preparing the ternary complex of samarium ions with 5,7-dichloroquinoline-8-ol (DCQ) and 4-vinylpyridine (VP). Then, thermally copolymerization with styrene (functional monomer, STY) and divinylbenzene (cross-linking monomer, DVB) followed in the presence of 2-methoxy ethanol (porogen) and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (initiator, AIBN). The imprinted ion was removed by stirring the above particles with 50% (v/v) HCl to obtain the leached IIP particles. Moreover, control polymer (CP) particles were similarly prepared without the samarium ions. The unleached and leached IIP particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infra-red spectroscopy (IR), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, preconcentration and selectivity studies for samarium and the other lanthanide ions were carried out. The preconcentration of the samarium (III) traces was studied during rebinding with the leached IIP particles as a function of pH, the weight of the polymer material, the preconcentration and the elution times, the eluent volume and the aqueous phase volume. These studies indicated that the samarium (III) amount as low as 1 {mu}g, present in 200 mL, could be preconcentrated into 25 mL of 1.0 M HCl.

  17. Pyroelectric properties and electrical conductivity in samarium doped BiFeO 3 ceramics

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yingbang

    2012-06-01

    Samarium (Sm 3+) doped BiFeO 3 (BFO) ceramics were prepared by a modified solid-state-reaction method which adopted a rapid heating as well as cooling during the sintering process. The pyroelectric coefficient increased from 93 to 137 μC/m 2 K as the Sm 3+ doping level increased from 1 mol% to 8 mol%. Temperature dependence of the pyroelectric coefficient showed an abrupt decrease above 80 °C in all samples, which was associated with the increase of electrical conductivity with temperature. This electrical conduction was attributed to oxygen vacancy existing in the samples. An activation energy of ∼0.7 eV for the conduction process was found to be irrespective of the Sm 3+ doping level. On the other hand, the magnetic Néel temperature (T N) decreased with increasing Sm 3+ doping level. On the basis of our results, the effects of Sm doping level on the pyroelectric and electrical properties of the BFO were revealed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ionization of Samarium by Chemical Releases in the Upper Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Holmes, J. M.; Pedersen, T. R.; Caton, R.; Miller, D.; Groves, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    The release of Samarium vapor into the upper atmosphere was studied using during the Air Force Research Laboratory sponsored Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) rocket launches in May 2009. The Naval Research Laboratory supported these experiments with 3-D photochemical modeling of the artificial plasma cloud including (1) reactions with atomic oxygen, (2) photo excitation, (3) photoionization, (4) dissociative recombination, and (5) ion and neutral diffusion. NRL provided the experimental diagnostic instrument on the rocket which was a dual frequency radio beacon on the rocket to measure changes in total electron content. The AFRL provided ground based diagnostics of incoherent scatter radar and optical spectroscopy and imagery. The NRL Chemical Release Model (CRM) has over 600 excited states of atomic Samarium neutrals, atomic ions, along with Samarium Oxide Ions and electrons. Diffusive transport of neutrals in cylindrical geometry and ions along magnetic field lines is computed along with the reactive flow to predict the concentrations of Sm, Sm-Ion, Sm0, and SmO Ion. Comparison of the CRM with observations demonstrates that Sm release into the upper atmosphere initially produces enhanced electron densities and SmO-Ions. The diatomic ions recombine with electrons to yield neutral Sm and O. Only the photo ionization of Sm yields a stable atomic ion that does not substantially recombine. The MOSC releases in sunlight yielded long duration ion clouds that can be replicated with the CRM. The CRM predicts that Sm releases in darkness would not produce long duration plasma clouds because of the lack of photo excitation and photoionization.

  19. Reactive Materials for Evaporating Samarium (Pre-Print)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    SUBJECT TERMS energetic materials, heat sources, pyrotechnic charges, easily ionized metals 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...experiments.    Keywords:  energetic  materials, heat sources, pyrotechnic charges, easily ionized metals  1. Introduction Ejection of clouds of...results  were  negatively  affected  by  reduced  efficiency   of  release  and  ionization of samarium [8]. It is possible that not the entire charge of

  20. Implementation of an analytical technique for Samarium; Implementacion de una tecnica analitica para Samario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia G, N. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Since the Samarium presents the same chemical properties that the plutonium, it has been used as homologous in studies that allow us to know the behavior that the plutonium presents in solution, with the advantage of working with an inactive and not very dangerous element. At the moment studies of sorption of plutonium or samarium are made on some mineral matrices that present certain surface properties. Due to the low concentrations that are used in the studies of sorption of samarium on those reagent substrates, their detection becomes very difficult for the conventional analysis media. The luminescence is a technique that can detect lower concentrations, smaller at 1 X 10{sup -} {sup 2} M, but when fluorofors are used this limit of detection increases in several orders of magnitude. In this work it has been used the arsenazo-III as fluorofor agent since it reacts in a specific way with the samarium, forming a complex that presents a proportional luminescence to the concentration of the present samarium. The advantage of making the quantification of samarium by luminescence is that it can use the same instrumental equipment to determine the speciation of the samarium sipped in the zircon. (Author)

  1. Synthesis of samarium binding bleomycin - a possible NCT radiosensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, B.M., E-mail: bmm@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mendes, T.M.; Campos, T.P.R., E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) is a drug that has attractive features for the development of a new radiopharmaceutical, particularly with regard to neutron capture therapy (NCT) sensitized by Sm-149. It has the ability to chelate many metal ions. In vitro studies have shown that up to 78% of BLM present in a cell is accumulated inside the nucleus or in the nuclear membrane. In addition, this drug has higher affinity for tumor tissues than for normal tissues. Radioactive isotopes carried by this antibiotic would be taken preferentially to one important cellular targets DNA. Besides, BLM displays intrinsic anti-tumor activity - it is a chemotherapic antibiotic clinically used against some cancers. This study aimed to obtain bleomycin molecules bound to samarium (BLM-Sm) for NCT studies in vitro and in vivo. The binding technique employed in this work has great simplicity and low cost. Thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, fast protein liquid chromatography and analysis by ICP-AES were applied to verify the binding molecule. ICP-AES results showed the presence of samarium in the sample peaks related to BLM-Sm. However, efficiency and stability of this bond needs to be investigated. (author)

  2. Cesium-137 Decorporation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    data, in vitro experiments simulating Cs transport through potassium channels , and in vitro tissue selectivity experiments (Leggett 1995, 2003). The...Lung and its Influence on Particle Deposition, Inhalation Toxicology 18:795-801. Boecker BB. 1969 Comparison of 137Cs metabolism in the beagle dog...biokinetic model for 137Cs. Health Phys 73(2):320-332. Melo DR, et al. 1998. Prussian blue decorporation of 137Cs in humans and beagle dogs. Radiat Prot

  3. Luminescent solutions and powders of new samarium complexes with N,N',O,O'-chelating ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharcheva, Anastasia V.; Nikolskiy, Kirill S.; Borisova, Nataliya E.; Ivanov, Alexey V.; Reshetova, Marina D.; Yuzhakov, Viktor I.; Patsaeva, Svetlana V.

    2016-04-01

    Imaging techniques in biology and medicine are crucial tools to obtain information on structural and functional properties of living cells and organisms. To fulfill the requirements associated with application of these techniques it appears necessary to design markers with specific characteristics. Luminescent complexes of trivalent lanthanide ions with chelating ligands are of increasing importance in biomedical applications because of their millisecond luminescence lifetime, narrow emission band, high signal-to-noise ratio and minimal photodamage to biological samples. In order to extend the available emission wavelength range the luminescent samarium chelates are highly desirable. In this study the ligands with diamides of 2,2'-bipyridin-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid were used to improve photophysical characteristics of samarium complexes. We report the luminescence characteristics of samarium complexes with novel ligands. All complexes exhibited the characteristic emission of Sm (III) ion with the lines at 565, 597, 605, 645 and 654 nm, the intensity strongly depended on the ligand. Absorption and luminescence excitation spectra of Sm (III) complexes showed main peaks in the UV range demonstrating lanthanide coordination to the ligand. The absolute lumenescence quantum yield was measured for solutions in acetonitrile with excitation at 350 nm. The largest luminescence quantum yield was found for the samarium complex Bipy 6MePy Sm (3%) being much higher that for samarium complexes reported in the literature earlier. These results prove as well that samarium chelates are potential markers for multiparametric imaging techniques.

  4. Australian manufacture of Quadramet{sup TM} (Samarium-153 EDTMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, N.R.; Whitwell, J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Australian Radioisotopes

    1997-10-01

    Quadramet{sup T} (Samarium-153 EDTMP) has been shown overseas to be potentially useful in the palliation of painful osteoblastic skeletal metastases and has been approved this year for general marketing in the USA. Australian Radioisotopes (ARI) has licensed this product from the Australian patent holders, Dow Chemical. Within the facilities of ARI, a hot cell has been dedicated to this product and fitted out to manufacture it weekly on a cycle related to the operating cycle of the Australian reactor HIFAR. Due to neutron flux limitations of HIFAR, the local formulation has an elemental Samarium content up to 200{mu}g/mL whereas the overseas formulation has a level of 20-46{mu}g/mL. All other specifications of the two products are essentially the same. In 1995 and 1996 a small clinical trial with 19 patients was held which demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic behaviour was also essentially the same by measuring blood clearance rates and skeletal uptake dynamics. Soft tissue uptake was also qualitatively determined. The ARI version is now the subject of an application for general marketing within Australia. Some useful characteristics of this agent are: almost complete excretion or fixation in the skeleton within 6 hours, rapid onset of clinical effect, applicability in most cases where an abnormal diagnostic bone scan correlates with painful sites, dosage can be tailored to individual patient uptake due to easy dose measurement and retreatment is quite possible. The use of this class of agents in pain palliation continues to increase. Australian manufacture of Quadramet{sup TM} provides a further option in the management of these difficult cases

  5. Electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides in pyrochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrillejo, Y., E-mail: ycastril@qa.uva.es [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Fernandez, P. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Medina, J. [Dept Fisica Materia Condensada Cristalografia y Mineralogia, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Hernandez, P. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, C.P. 42076 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Barrado, E. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    This work concerns the electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides. In this way, the electrochemical behaviour of samarium ions has been investigated in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at the surface of tungsten, aluminium and aluminium coated tungsten electrodes. On a W inert electrode the electro-reduction of Sm(III) takes place in only one soluble-soluble electrochemical step Sm(III)/Sm(II). The electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) has not been observed within the electrochemical window, because of the prior reduction of Li(I) ions from the solvent, which inhibits the electro-extraction of Sm species from the salt on such a substrate. Sm metal in contact with the melt react to give Li(0) according to the reaction: Sm(0) + 2Li(I) {r_reversible} Sm(II) + 2Li(0). On the contrary, on reactive Al electrodes the electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) was observed within the electroactive range. The potential shift of the redox couple is caused by the decrease of Sm activity in the metal phase due to the formation of Sm-Al alloys at the interface. The formation mechanism of the intermetallic compounds was studied in a melt containing: (i) both Sm(III) and Al(III) ions, using W and Al coated tungsten electrodes, and (ii) Sm(III) ions using an Al electrode. Analysis of the samples after potentiostatic electrolysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), allowed the identification of Al{sub 3}Sm and Al{sub 2}Sm.

  6. Optical analysis of samarium doped sodium bismuth silicate glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, V; Sofin, R G S; Allen, M; Thomas, H; Biju, P R; Jose, G; Unnikrishnan, N V

    2017-01-15

    Samarium doped sodium bismuth silicate glass was synthesized using the melt quenching method. Detailed optical spectroscopic studies of the glassy material were carried out in the UV-Vis-NIR spectral range. Using the optical absorption spectra Judd-Ofelt (JO) parameters are derived. The calculated values of the JO parameters are utilized in evaluating the various radiative parameters such as electric dipole line strengths (Sed), radiative transition probabilities (Arad), radiative lifetimes (τrad), fluorescence branching ratios (β) and the integrated absorption cross- sections (σa) for stimulated emission from various excited states of Sm3+‡ ion. The principal fluorescence transitions are identified by recording the fluorescence spectrum. Our analysis revealed that the novel glassy system has the optimum values for the key parameters viz. spectroscopic quality factor, optical gain, stimulated emission cross section and quantum efficiency, which are required for a high performance optical amplifier. Calculated chromaticity co-ordinates (0.61, 0.38) also confirm its application potential in display devices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Samarium Monosulfide (SmS): Reviewing Properties and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousanis, Andreas; Smet, Philippe F; Poelman, Dirk

    2017-08-16

    In this review, we give an overview of the properties and applications of samarium monosulfide, SmS, which has gained considerable interest as a switchable material. It shows a pressure-induced phase transition from the semiconducting to the metallic state by polishing, and it switches back to the semiconducting state by heating. The material also shows a magnetic transition, from the paramagnetic state to an antiferromagnetically ordered state. The switching behavior between the semiconducting and metallic states could be exploited in several applications, such as high density optical storage and memory materials, thermovoltaic devices, infrared sensors and more. We discuss the electronic, optical and magnetic properties of SmS, its switching behavior, as well as the thin film deposition techniques which have been used, such as e-beam evaporation and sputtering. Moreover, applications and possible ideas for future work on this material are presented. Our scope is to present the properties of SmS, which were mainly measured in bulk crystals, while at the same time we describe the possible deposition methods that will push the study of SmS to nanoscale dimensions, opening an intriguing range of applications for low-dimensional, pressure-induced semiconductor-metal transition compounds.

  8. Excitation induced spectroscopic study and quenching effect in cerium samarium codoped lithium aluminoborate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Parvinder; Kaur, Simranpreet [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Singh, Gurinder Pal [Department of Physics, Khalsa College, Amritsar 143002 (India); Arora, Deepawali; Kumar, Sunil [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Singh, D.P., E-mail: dpsinghdr@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

    2016-08-15

    Lithium aluminium borate host has been codoped with cerium and samarium to prepare glass by conventional melt quench technique. Their structural and spectroscopic investigation has been carried out using XRD, FTIR and density measurements. The UV‐Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra (λ{sub exc}.=380 nm and 400 nm) have been studied for spectroscopic analysis. The amorphous nature of the prepared samples is shown by XRD. The density is increasing with addition of cerium at the expense of aluminium, keeping other components constant. FTIR study also shows the presence of compact and stable tetrahedral BO{sub 4} units thus supporting the density results. The UV‐ Vis absorption spectra show a shift of optical absorption edge towards longer wavelength along with an increase in intensity of peaks with rising samarium concentration. The fluorescence spectra show a blue shift and subsequent suppression of cerium peaks with addition of samarium.

  9. Effect of samarium doping on the dielectric behavior of barium zircomium titanate ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badapanda, T., E-mail: badapanda.tanmaya@gmail.com [Department of Physics, C.V. Raman College of Engineering, Bhubaneswar, Odisha-752054 (India); Sarangi, S.; Behera, B. [School of Physics, Sambalpur University, Jyoti Vihar Sambalpur, Odisha-768019 (India); Anwar, S. [Colloids and Materials Chemistry, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha-751013 (India); Sinha, T. P. [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, Kolkata-700009 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Samarium doped Barium Zirconium Titanate ceramic with general formula Ba{sub 1−x}Sm{sub 2x/3}Zr{sub 0.05}Ti{sub 0.95}O{sub 3} [x=0.0,0.01,0.02,0.03,0.04] has been prepared by high energy ball milling. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed that these ceramics have a single phase with perovskite-type upto x≤0.03 and a small secondary phase exist at x=0.04. The temperature dependent dielectric study shows a ferroelectric phase transition and transition temperature decreases with an increase in the Samarium content.

  10. Lithium Bromide/Water as Additives in Dearomatizing Samarium-Ketyl (Hetero)Arene Cyclizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chintada Nageswara; Bentz, Christoph; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-11-02

    New conditions for dearomatizing samarium-ketyl (hetero)arene cyclizations are reported. In many examples of these samarium diiodide-mediated reactions, lithium bromide and water can be used as additives instead of the carcinogenic and mutagenic hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA). The best results were obtained for the cyclizations of N-acylated indole derivatives delivering the expected indolines in good yields and excellent diastereoselectivities. A new type of cyclization delivering indolyl-substituted allene derivatives is also described. The scope and limitations of the lithium bromide/water system are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. One-step synthesis of samarium-doped ceria and its CO catalysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The samarium-doped ceria (SDC) nanospheres were prepared by the one-step hydrothermal method and characterized by transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometer and Raman spectra. According to the ...

  12. A spectroscopic comparison of samarium-doped LiYF4 and KY3F10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, J. P. R.; Sugiyama, A.; Han, T. P. J.; Gallagher, H. G.

    2000-01-01

    Laser selective excitation and fluorescence has been performed on LiYF4 and KY3F10 doped with samarium ions. In LiYF4, a single, tetragonal symmetry center associated with isovalent substitution of Sm3+ with lattice yttrium ions is present. By contrast, three Sm2+ centres and a single, tetragonal

  13. The Use of a Flexible Calix[4]arene Template to Stabilize a Cyclooctatetraindiyl Samarium-Potassium Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffroy Guillemot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sandwich compound of cyclooctatetraendiyl (COT2− samarium-potassium was synthesized and analyzed using a flexible calix[4]arene dianion. This compound, [p-tBu-calix[4]-(OMe2(O2]arenediyl-samarium-(η8-cyclooctatetraendiyl-potassium (tetrahydrofurane3, is constructed as a linear sequence L-Sm--K-, where L, , and are specific ligands with L = O,O-dimethyl-calix[4]arene2−, = cyclo-octatetraendiyl, and = tetrahydrofurane templates.

  14. Solar nebula heterogeneity in p-process samarium and neodymium isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Rasmus; Sharma, Mukul

    2006-11-03

    Bulk carbonaceous chondrites display a deficit of approximately 100 parts per million (ppm) in 144Sm with respect to other meteorites and terrestrial standards, leading to a decrease in their 142Nd/144Nd ratios by approximately 11 ppm. The data require that samarium and neodymium isotopes produced by the p process associated with photodisintegration reactions in supernovae were heterogeneously distributed in the solar nebula. Other samarium and neodymium isotopes produced by rapid neutron capture (r process) in supernovae and by slow neutron capture (s process) in red giants were homogeneously distributed. The supernovae sources supplying the p- and r-process nuclides to the solar nebula were thus disconnected or only weakly connected.

  15. Samarium(II) iodide-mediated reductive annulations of ketones bearing a distal vinyl epoxide moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molander, G.A.; Shakya, S.R. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-08-23

    It was found that samarium (II) iodide promotes the intramolecular coupling of ketones with distal epoxy olefins while in the presence of hexamethylphosphoramide (HPMA). A number of epoxide compounds (1 a-k) fragment to form carbocycles with allylic alcohol side chains with high diastereoselectivity (2 a-k). Substituting tetramethylguanidine for HPMA reduces the diastereoselectivity. Adding Pd(0) as a catalyst reverses the diastereoselective sense. 40 refs., 1 tab.

  16. A temporal three-dimensional simulation of samarium release in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Sheng; Feng, Jie; Xu, Zheng-Wen; Wu, Jian; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Xu, Bin; Xue, Kun; Xu, Tong; Hu, Yan-Li

    2016-10-01

    For understanding plasma processes of the ionosphere and magnetosphere, the alkali and alkaline-earth metals are usually released in space for artificially increasing the electron density. However, it is a limitation that these releases must be in sunlight where the photoionization can take place. In recent years, the lanthanide metals, such as samarium, have been released to produce electrons in reaction with atomic oxygen in the upper space. The reaction could proceed without sunlight so that the restriction on experimental periods is broken. Unfortunately, any sophisticated models even preliminary ones are unavailable yet in the literature. A temporal three-dimensional model is presented for the samarium release in detail with respect to various altitudes and mass. Especially, the plasma diffusion equation is remarkably extended from 2-D to 3-D by importing the influence of geomagnetic declination, which could be also useful for other chemical releases. The field-aligned terms are brought so as to the presented model can describe the diffusion along the geomagnetic field subtly. On the basis of the presented model, behaviors of radio waves propagating through the release area are simulated by using ray tracing. This model could be as the theoretical support for samarium releases, and it also helpful for the research on the generation and evolution of the ionosphere irregularities.

  17. Decorporation of cesium-137; Decorporation du cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Fleche, Ph.; Destombe, C.; Grasseau, A.; Mathieu, J.; Chancerelle, Y.; Mestries, J.C. [GMR, Direction des Recherches, Etudes et Techniques, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    1997-12-31

    Cesium radio-isotopes, especially cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) are among the radionuclides of main importance produced by a fission reaction in reactor or a nuclear weapon explosion. In the environment, {sup 137}Cs is a major contaminant which can cause severe {beta}, {gamma}irradiations and contaminations. {sup 137}Cs is distributed widely and relatively uniformly throughout the body with the highest concentration in skeletal muscles. A treatment becomes difficult afterwards. The purposes of this report are Firstly to compare the Prussian blue verses cobalt and potassium ferrocyanide (D.I. blue) efficiency for the {sup 137}Cs decorporation and secondly to assess a chronological treatment with D.I. blue. (author)

  18. Liquid–liquid anion exchange extraction studies of samarium(III from salicylate media using high molecular weight amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha M. Mandhare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Liquid–liquid extraction and separation of samarium(III were carried out by using 0.025 mol dm−3 2-octylaminopyridine(2-OAP in xylene at 298 K. The extraction behavior of samarium was studied as a function of pH, weak acid concentration, extractant concentration, diluent, and equilibration time. Samarium was quantitatively extracted at pH 7.5 to 10.0 from 0.01 mol dm−3 sodium salicylate solution with 0.025 mol dm−3 2-OAP. The possible composition of the extracted species in organic phase has been determined by using model of slope analysis method and extraction mechanism was found to proceed via an anion exchange mechanism. The stripping efficiency was found to be quantitative in HNO3, HCl and CH3COOH. The robustness of the procedure was demonstrated by the average recoveries obtained (>99.6% for samarium(III extraction in the presence of several cations and anions which are commonly associated with it. The proposed method facilitates the separation and determination of samarium(III from binary and synthetic mixtures. The various thermodynamic functions like free energy (ΔG, enthalpy (ΔH and entropy (ΔS of extraction mechanism were discussed.

  19. Samarium(II) iodide-mediated intramolecular conjugate additions of alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molander, Gary A; St Jean, David J

    2002-05-31

    Samarium(II) iodide, in the presence of catalytic amounts of nickel(II) iodide, has been used to promote intramolecular conjugate additions of alkyl halides onto alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones. This process has been shown to be applicable to a number of alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones, including tetrasubstituted olefins, and has been demonstrated to be quite general for the formation of saturated bicyclic and tricyclic lactones. The method presented herein provides a mild, efficient process to form structurally complex lactones from simple precursors.

  20. Ekstraksi Pemisahan Neodimium dari Samarium, Itrium dan Praseodimium Memakai Tri Butil Fosfat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Veronica Purwani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of Nd(OH3 (neodymium hydroxide concentrate containing Y (yttrium, Sm (samarium and Pr (praseodymium as product of monazite processed has been done. The purpose of this study is to determine the separation of Nd from Y, Pr and Nd Sm in Nd concentrate. The aqueous phase was concentrated Nd (OH3 in HNO3 and extractant while organic phase was Tri Butyl Phosphate (TBP in kerosene. Parameters studied were pH and concentration feed, concentration of TBP in kerosene, extraction time and stirring speed. The result showed that the optimization of separation extraction neodymium from samarium, yttrium and praseodymium in Nd(OH3 concentrated with TBP, obtained the optimum condition of pH = 0.2, concentration of feed 100 g /L, concentration of TBP in kerosene 5%, extraction time 15 minutes and stirring speed 150 rpm. With the conditions, Separation Factor (SF obtained for Nd-Y, Nd-Pr, Nd-Sm are 2.242, 4.811, 4.002 respectively, while D and extraction efficiency of Nd are 0.236 and 19.07%.

  1. X-Band Microwave Reflection Properties of Samarium/Bismuth-Substituted Barium Lanthanum Titanate Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahel, Shalini; Pubby, Kunal; Narang, Sukhleen Bindra

    2017-03-01

    Samarium/bismuth-substituted barium lanthanum titanate ceramics with chemical composition Ba4 (La_{1 - y - z} Smy Biz )_{9.33} Ti_{18} O_{54} ( y = 0.5, 0.7; z = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15), intended as microwave reflecting materials, have been investigated in microwave X-band (8.2 GHz to 12.4 GHz) and the effect of substitution on their dielectric properties, i.e., dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent, has been studied by vector network analyzer. Dielectric analysis showed that the dielectric constant increased with increasing samarium as well as bismuth content. Dielectric relaxation was observed for all samples in the scanned frequency range. Microwave reflection and transmission analysis of ceramic pellets of thickness 4 mm was carried out using two methods, i.e., open- and short-circuit approach, both indicating very high values of reflected power and very low values of transmitted power for all the doped materials in comparison with the base composition. The doped compositions are therefore potential microwave shielding materials for use in anechoic chambers, microwave laboratories, and radar equipment. Double-layer reflectors are also proposed, having better reflection properties (˜99% reflection) compared with single-layer reflectors.

  2. Microstructure and hysteresis curves of samarium-holmium-iron garnet synthesized by coprecipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caffarena Valeska da Rocha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was made into the synthesis and magnetic properties of Sm(3-xHo xFe5O12 (samarium-holmium-iron garnet ferrite, as yet absent from the literature. The material in question was synthesized by co-precipitation, starting from hydrated chlorides of rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate, and the mixed hydroxide co-precipitate was calcined at 1000 °C. Using PVA as a binder, rectangular cross section-shaped compacts were produced by means of steel-die pressing, drying and sintering from 1200 to 1450 °C. The main conclusions of this study were that the coercive force decreases as the sintering temperature increases, and that the effect of substituting holmium for samarium in SmIG is entirely different from that provided by replacing yttrium by gadolinium in YIG, which is the most important result of this work. An in-depth investigation will be necessary to determine the correlation between microstructure/magnetic properties and ceramic processing variables.

  3. Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals as targeted agents of osteosarcoma: samarium-153-EDTMP and radium-223.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter M; Subbiah, Vivek; Rohren, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a cancer characterized by formation of bone by malignant cells. Routine bone scan imaging with Tc-99m-MDP is done at diagnosis to evaluate primary tumor uptake and check for bone metastases. At time of relapse the Tc-99m-MDP bone scan also provides a specific means to assess formation of bone by malignant osteosarcoma cells and the potential for bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals to deliver radioactivity directly into osteoblastic osteosarcoma lesions. This chapter will review and compare a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical that emits beta-particles, samarium-153-EDTMP, with an alpha-particle emitter, radium-223. The charged alpha particles from radium-223 have far more mass and energy than beta particles (electrons) from Sm-153-EDTMP. Because radium-223 has less marrow toxicity and more radiobiological effectiveness, especially if inside the bone forming cancer cell than samarium-153-EDTMP, radium-223 may have greater potential to become widely used against osteosarcoma as a targeted therapy. Radium-223 also has more potential to be used with chemotherapy against osteosarcoma and bone metastases. Because osteosarcoma makes bone and radium-223 acts like calcium, this radiopharmaceutical could possibly become a new targeted means to achieve safe and effective reduction of tumor burden as well as facilitate better surgery and/or radiotherapy for difficult to resect large, or metastatic tumors.

  4. Polypyrrole-coated samarium oxide nanobelts: fabrication, characterization, and application in supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Yunjiao; Wang, Xue; Yang, Chao; Yi, Yanfeng

    2012-11-01

    Polypyrrole-coated samarium oxide nanobelts were synthesized by the in situ chemical oxidative surface polymerization technique based on the self-assembly of pyrrole on the surface of the amine-functionalized Sm2O3 nanobelts. The morphologies of the polypyrrole/samarium oxide (PPy/Sm2O3) nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscope. The UV-vis absorbance of these samples was also investigated, and the remarkable enhancement was clearly observed. The electrochemical behaviors of the PPy/Sm2O3 composites were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge. The results indicated that the PPy/Sm2O3 composite electrode was fully reversible and achieved a very fast Faradaic reaction. After being corrected into the weight percentage of the PPy/Sm2O3 composite at a current density of 20 mA cm-2 in a 1.0 M NaNO3 electrolyte solution, a maximum discharge capacity of 771 F g-1 was achieved in a half-cell setup configuration for the PPy/Sm2O3 composites electrode with the potential application to electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors.

  5. Polypyrrole-coated samarium oxide nanobelts: fabrication, characterization, and application in supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Peng, E-mail: pliu@lzu.edu.cn; Wang Yunjiao; Wang Xue; Yang Chao; Yi Yanfeng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province and State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry (China)

    2012-11-15

    Polypyrrole-coated samarium oxide nanobelts were synthesized by the in situ chemical oxidative surface polymerization technique based on the self-assembly of pyrrole on the surface of the amine-functionalized Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanobelts. The morphologies of the polypyrrole/samarium oxide (PPy/Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscope. The UV-vis absorbance of these samples was also investigated, and the remarkable enhancement was clearly observed. The electrochemical behaviors of the PPy/Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge. The results indicated that the PPy/Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite electrode was fully reversible and achieved a very fast Faradaic reaction. After being corrected into the weight percentage of the PPy/Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite at a current density of 20 mA cm{sup -2} in a 1.0 M NaNO{sub 3} electrolyte solution, a maximum discharge capacity of 771 F g{sup -1} was achieved in a half-cell setup configuration for the PPy/Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites electrode with the potential application to electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors.

  6. Behavior of Samarium III during the sorption process; Comportamiento del Samario-III durante el proceso de sorcion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez R, E.; Garcia G, N.; Garcia R, G. [ININ, Carr. Mexico-Toluca Km 36.5, Salazar, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: edo@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    In this work the results of the behavior of samarium in solution are presented, in front of a fine powder of zirconium silicate (zircon). For that which is necessary to characterize the zircon, studying the crystallinity, the morphology, the surface area and the isoelectric point. The behavior of samarium in solution is studied by means of the elaboration of isotherm of sorption, using the technique by lots. One observes that to pH values of nearer to the isoelectric point (pH = 7.23) the process of sorption of the samarium begins, reaching a maximum to near pH at 9. The technique of luminescence is used to determine the concentration of the sipped samarium (phosphorescence) and also to make the speciation of the species formed in the surface of the zircon (phosphorescence). The results can be extrapolated with the plutonium when making the modeling of the migration of alpha emitting coming from the repositories of radioactive waste since both they have similar chemical properties (they are homologous). (Author)

  7. Neutron and Charged-Particle Induced Cross Sections for Radiochemistry in the Region of Samarium, Europium, and Gadolinium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, R D; Kelley, K; Dietrich, F S; Bauer, R; Mustafa, M

    2004-11-30

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron and proton induced nuclear reaction cross sections in the mass region of samarium, europium and gadolinium (62 {le} Z {le} 64, 82 {le} N {le} 96).

  8. Pemisahan Unsur Samarium dan Yttrium dari Mineral Tanah Jarang dengan Teknik Membran Cair Berpendukung (Supported Liquid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amri Amin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available he increasing use of rare earth elements in high technology industries needs to be supported by developmental work for the separation of elements. The research objective is fiercely attracting and challenging considering the similarity of bath physical and chemical properties among these elements. The rate separation of samarium and yttrium elements using supported liquid membrane has been studied. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE with pore size of 0.45 µm has been used as the membrane and di(2-ethylhexyl phosphate (D2EHP in hexane has been used as a carrier and nitric acid solution has been used as receiving phase. Result of experiments showed that the best separation rate of samarium and yttrium elements could be obtained at feeding phase of pH 3.0, di(2-ethylhexyl phosphate (D2EHP concentration of 0.3 M, agitation rate of 700 rpm, agitation time of 2 hours, and nitric acid and its solution concentrations of 1.0 M and 0.1 M, respectively. At this condition, separation rates of samarium and yttrium were 64.4 and 67.6%, respectively.   Keywords: liquid membrane, rare earth elements, samarium, yttrium

  9. Effects of the atomic environment on the electron binding energies in samarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoyatov, A.Kh., E-mail: inoyatov@jinr.ru [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Institute of Applied Physics, National University, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan (Uzbekistan); Kovalík, A. [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Nuclear Physics Institute of the ASCR, CZ-25068 Řež near Prague (Czech Republic); Filosofov, D.V. [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Ryšavý, M.; Vénos, D. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the ASCR, CZ-25068 Řež near Prague (Czech Republic); Yushkevich, Yu.V.; Perevoshchikov, L.L. [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Zhdanov, V.S. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Eight different matrices (evaporated and implanted at 30 keV) used. • The greatest average difference in the binding energies amounted to 3.1 ± 0.1 eV. • The presence of trivalent and divalent Sm ions found in some implanted samples. • No significant differences in Sm natural atomic level widths were observed. - Abstract: Effects of the atomic environment on the L{sub 1}, L{sub 2}, L{sub 3}, M{sub 1}, M{sub 2}, M{sub 3}, and N{sub 1} electron binding energies in samarium generated in the electron capture decay of radioactive {sup 149}Eu were investigated by means of the internal conversion electron spectroscopy using the conversion electron spectrum of the 22.5 keV M1 + E2 nuclear transition in the daughter {sup 149}Sm. In this investigation, four pairs of {sup 149}Eu sources prepared by vacuum evaporation deposition and by ion implantation at 30 keV with the use of four different source backing materials, namely polycrystalline carbon, aluminium, gadolinium and platinum foils, were employed. The greatest average difference of (3.1 ± 0.1) eV in the L{sub 1}, L{sub 2}, L{sub 3}, and M{sub 1} subshell electron binding energies was observed between the {sup 149}Eu sources prepared by ion implantation into the aluminium and platinum substrates. On the other hand, minimal differences in the electron binding energies were generally found between samarium generated in the evaporated layer and in the bulk for the individual investigated source backings with the exception of the gadolinium foil. A doublet structure of all investigated conversion electron lines with the average values of 8.1 ± 0.2 eV and 1.5 ± 0.1 for the separation energy and the intensity ratio of the low-energy to high-energy components, respectively, was observed for the {sup 149}Eu sources prepared by ion implantation into the aluminium and carbon foils. This structure was presumably caused by the presence of both the trivalent and divalent Sm ions in the sources. No

  10. Multiphoton laser wave-mixing absorption spectroscopy for samarium using a graphite furnace atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniaci, Michael J.; Tong, William G. E-mail: william.tong@sdsu.edu

    2004-07-30

    Nonlinear laser wave-mixing optical technique is presented as a sensitive atomic spectroscopic method for the analysis of rare earth elements using an unmodified commercially available graphite furnace (GF) atomizer. A simple nonplanar backward-scattering degenerate four-wave mixing optical arrangement offers sub-picogram detection sensitivity with sub-Doppler Lorentzian-broadened resolution. Nonlinear wave mixing is an unusually sensitive absorption-based optical method that offers both excellent detection sensitivity and sub-Doppler spectral resolution. A mass detection limit of 0.7 pg and a concentration detection limit of 70 pg/ml are determined for a rare earth element, samarium, using the 429.7-nm excitation line.

  11. Samarium Doped Cerium Oxide Clusters: a Study on the Modulation of Electronic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolski, Josey E.; Kafader, Jared O.; Marrero-Colon, Vicmarie; Chick Jarrold, Caroline

    2017-06-01

    Cerium oxide is known for its use in solid oxide fuel cells due to its high ionic conductivity. The doping of trivalent samarium atoms into cerium oxide is known to enhance the ionic conductivity through the generation of additional oxygen vacancies. This study probes the electronic structure of Sm_{x}Ce_{y}O_{z} (x+y=3, z=2-4) anion and neutral clusters. Anion photoelectron spectra of these mixed metal clusters exhibit additional spectral features not present in the previously studied cerium oxide clusters. Density functional theory calculations have been used to aid interpretation of collected spectra. The results of this work can be used to inform the design of materials used for solid oxide fuel cells.

  12. Chelating Ligand-Mediated Hydrothermal Synthesis of Samarium Orthovanadate with Decavanadate as Vanadium Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanguo Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid- (EDTA- mediated hydrothermal route to prepare chrysanthemum-shaped samarium orthovanadate (SmVO4 nanocrystals with decavanadate (K6V10O28·9H2O as vanadium source has been developed. The present hydrothermal approach is simple and reproducible and employs a relatively mild reaction temperature. The EDTA, pH value, and temperature of the reaction systems play important roles in determining the morphologies and growth process of the SmVO4 products. The products have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, photoluminescence spectra (PL, and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

  13. The Magnetocaloric Effect and Heat Capacity of Suspensions of High-Dispersity Samarium Ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, V. V.; Aref'ev, I. M.; Ramazanova, A. G.

    2008-02-01

    The magnetocaloric effect and specific heat capacity of an aqueous suspension of samarium ferrite were determined calorimetrically over the temperature range 288-343 K in magnetic fields of 0-0.7 T. The data obtained were used to calculate changes in the magnetic component of the molar heat capacity and entropy of the magnetic phase and changes in the enthalpy of the process under an applied magnetic field. The magnetocaloric effect was found to increase nonlinearly as the magnetic field induction grew. The corresponding temperature dependences contained a maximum at 313 K related to the second-order magnetic phase transition at the Curie point. The field and temperature dependences of heat capacity contained a maximum in fields of 0.4 T and a minimum at the magnetic phase transition temperature.

  14. Preparation of hollow core/shell microspheres of hematite and its adsorption ability for samarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sheng-Hui; Yao, Qi-Zhi; Zhou, Gen-Tao; Fu, Sheng-Quan

    2014-07-09

    Hollow core/shell hematite microspheres with diameter of ca. 1-2 μm have been successfully achieved by calcining the precursor composite microspheres of pyrite and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in air. The synthesized products were characterized by a wide range of techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) gas sorptometry. Temperature- and time-dependent experiments unveil that the precursor pyrite-PVP composite microspheres finally transform into hollow core/shell hematite microspheres in air through a multistep process including the oxidation and sulfation of pyrite, combustion of PVP occluded in the precursor, desulfation, aggregation, and fusion of nanosized hematite as well as mass transportation from the interior to the exterior of the microspheres. The formation of the hollow core/shell microspheres dominantly depends on the calcination temperature under current experimental conditions, and the aggregation of hematite nanocrystals and the core shrinking during the oxidation of pyrite are responsible for the formation of the hollow structures. Moreover, the adsorption ability of the hematite for Sm(III) was also tested. The results exhibit that the hematite microspheres have good adsorption activity for trivalent samarium, and that its adsorption capacity strongly depends on the pH of the solution, and the maximum adsorption capacity for Sm(III) is 14.48 mg/g at neutral pH. As samarium is a typical member of the lanthanide series, our results suggest that the hollow hematite microspheres have potential application in removal of rare earth elements (REEs) entering the water environment.

  15. The influence of the technological parameters on the ionic conductivity of samarium doped ceria thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Sriubas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sm0,20Ce0,80O2 powder was used for the formation of samarium doped cerium oxide (SDC thin films using e-beam. Surface area of powder was 34.9 m2/g and particle size – 0.3-0.5 μm. Thin films were deposited using physical vapor deposition system on SiO2 and Alloy 600 substrates. 2 Å/s – 16 Å/s growth rate and 20 °C – 600 °C substrate temperature were used during the deposition. Ionic conductivity investigation revealed that the maximum ionic conductivity (1.67 S/m has the thin film deposited on 300 °C temperature substrate using 4 Å/s growth rate. Minimum ionic conductivity (0.26 S/m has thin film which was deposited on 20 °C temperature substrate using 8 Å/s growth rate. Vacancy activation energies vary in 0.87 eV – 0.97 eV range. Furthermore the calculations of crystallite size revealed that crystallite size increases with increasing substrate temperature: from 7.50 nm to 46.23 nm on SiO2 substrate and from 9.30 nm to 44.62 nm on Alloy 600 substrate. Molar concentration of samarium in initial evaporated material is 19.38 mol% and varies from 11.37 mol% to 21 mol% in formed thin films depending on technological parameters.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5700

  16. Cesium-137, a drama recounted; Cesio-137, um drama recontado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Suzane de Alencar

    2013-01-15

    The radiological accident with Cesium-137, which started on Goiania in 1987, did not stop with the end of radiological contamination and continues in a judicial, scientific and narrative process of identification and recognition of new victims. The drama occupies a central place on the dynamics of radiological event, as it extends its limits, inflects its intensity and updates the event. As a narrative of the event, the ethnography incorporates and brings up to date the drama as an analysis landmark and the description of the theme as it is absorbed by a dramatic process. Cesium-137, a drama recounted is a textual experimentation based on real events and characters picked out from statements reported in various narratives about the radiological accident. (author)

  17. 137

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: A prospective study of cases managed. Setting: University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Subjects: Seventy six patients seen and managed .... of women who own motorcars, motorcycles and bicycles is negligible compared to that of men which exposes them to road traffic accidents which was the leading cause ...

  18. Formation of Core-Shell Nanoparticles Composed of Magnetite and Samarium Oxide in Magnetospirillum magneticum Strain RSS-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoshige, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Yoshikata; Kobayashi, Hideki; Yanagisawa, Keiichi; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Shimamura, Shigeru; Mizuki, Toru; Inoue, Akira; Maekawa, Toru

    2017-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) synthesize magnetosomes composed of membrane-enveloped magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) particles in the cells. Recently, several studies have shown some possibilities of controlling the biomineralization process and altering the magnetic properties of magnetosomes by adding some transition metals to the culture media under various environmental conditions. Here, we successfully grow Magnetospirillum magneticum strain RSS-1, which are isolated from a freshwater environment, and find that synthesis of magnetosomes are encouraged in RSS-1 in the presence of samarium and that each core magnetic crystal composed of magnetite is covered with a thin layer of samarium oxide (Sm2O3). The present results show some possibilities of magnetic recovery of transition metals and synthesis of some novel structures composed of magnetic particles and transition metals utilizing MTB.

  19. 7 CFR 1703.137 - Appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeals. 1703.137 Section 1703.137 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Combination Loan and Grant Program § 1703.137...

  20. 29 CFR 452.137 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 452.137 Section 452.137 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS... OF 1959 Dates and Scope of Application § 452.137 Effective dates. (a) Section 404 states when the...

  1. 25 CFR 137.1 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 137.1 Section 137.1 Indians BUREAU OF... CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.1 Water supply. The engineering report dealt with in... capacity of the San Carlos reservoir created by the Coolidge Dam and the water supply therefor over a...

  2. 42 CFR 137.2 - Congressional policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Congressional policy. 137.2 Section 137.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE General Provisions § 137.2 Congressional policy...

  3. 42 CFR 137.6 - Secretarial policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Secretarial policy. 137.6 Section 137.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE General Provisions § 137.6 Secretarial policy. In...

  4. 25 CFR 137.6 - Power development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Power development. 137.6 Section 137.6 Indians BUREAU OF... CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.6 Power development. The cost of the power development at... power development shall be disposed of as required by the terms and conditions of the act of March 7...

  5. 27 CFR 27.137 - Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention. 27.137 Section 27.137 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Filing and Retention of Records and Reports § 27.137 Retention. All records required by this part...

  6. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per ml...

  7. 21 CFR 137.320 - Semolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Semolina. 137.320 Section 137.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.320 Semolina. (a) Semolina is the food prepared by grinding and bolting cleaned...

  8. 28 CFR 13.7 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial review. 13.7 Section 13.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ATOMIC WEAPONS AND SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIALS REWARDS REGULATIONS § 13.7 Judicial review. The decision of the Attorney General is final and conclusive and no court...

  9. 49 CFR 176.137 - Portable magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine. 176.137 Section 176.137... Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Stowage § 176.137 Portable magazine. (a) Each portable magazine... wood, a portable magazine must be framed of nominal 5 cm × 10 cm (2×4 inch) lumber, and sheathed with...

  10. Co-reduction of aluminium and lanthanide ions in molten fluorides: Application to cerium and samarium extraction from nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibilaro, M. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique UMR 5503, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, Universite de Toulouse, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Massot, L. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique UMR 5503, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, Universite de Toulouse, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: massot@chimie.ups-tlse.fr; Chamelot, P.; Taxil, P. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique UMR 5503, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, Universite de Toulouse, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2009-09-01

    This work concerns the method of co-reduction process with aluminium ions in LiF-CaF{sub 2} medium (79-21 mol.%) on tungsten electrode for cerium and samarium extraction. Electrochemical techniques such as cyclic and square wave voltammetries, and potentiostatic electrolyses were used to study the co-reduction of CeF{sub 3} and SmF{sub 3} with AlF{sub 3}. For each of these elements, specific peaks of Al-Ce and Al-Sm alloys formation were observed by voltammetry as well as peaks of pure cerium and aluminium, and pure samarium and aluminium respectively. The difference of potential measured between the solvent reduction and the alloy formation suggests expecting an extraction efficiency of 99.99% of each lanthanide by the process. Different intermetallic compounds were obtained for different potentiostatic electrolysis and were characterised by Scanning Electron Microscopy with EDS probe. The validity of the process was verified by carrying out cerium and samarium extractions in the form of Al-Ln alloy; the extraction efficiency was 99.5% for Ce(III) and 99.4% for Sm(III)

  11. Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department`s mission as stated in that document. ``The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.``

  12. Structural and luminescence properties of samarium doped lead alumino borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Shaweta; Kaur, Simranpreet; Singh, D. P.; Kaur, Puneet

    2017-11-01

    The study reports the effect of samarium concentration on the physical, structural and spectroscopic characteristics of samarium doped lead alumino borate glasses having composition 20PbO-(10-x)Al2O3-70B2O3-xSm2O3; x = 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol %. The glasses were fabricated by conventional melt-quenching technique and then characterized by XRD, FTIR, optical absorption and fluorescence spectra. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the amorphous nature of the prepared glasses. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of BO3, BO4, AlO6 and a few other structural groups. Various physical properties such as density, molar volume, refractive index, rare earth ion concentration, boron-boron distance and polarizability etc. were determined using conventional methods and standard formulae. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied on the optical absorption spectra of the glasses to evaluate the three phenomenological intensity parameters Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6. The value of Ω2 was found to be highest for glass with 1 mol% Sm2O3 and attributed to the asymmetry of the ligand field at the rare earth ion site and the rare earth oxygen (Sm-O) covalency. The calculated intensity parameters and fluorescence spectra were further used to predict the radiative transition probability (A), radiative lifetime (τR), branching ratio (βR), peak wavelength (λp), effective line widths (Δλeff) and stimulated emission cross-section (σ) for the characteristic 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 6H7/2 and 6H9/2 transitions of the Sm3+ ion. Concentration quenching was observed for 2 mol% concentration of Sm2O3 and ascribed to energy transfer through various cross-relaxation channels between Sm3+ ions. Reasonably high values of branching ratios and stimulated emission cross-section for the prepared glasses points towards their utility in the development of visible lasers emitting in the reddish-orange spectral region. However, the glass with 1 mol% Sm2O3 was found to show better radiative properties.

  13. X-ray Induced Luminescence Spectroscopy of Samarium Doped Barium Sulfate Prepared by Sintering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumeda, T.; Maeda, K.; Shirano, Y.; Fujiwara, K.; Sakai, K.; Ikari, T.

    2015-06-01

    X-ray induced luminescence (XL) properties of phosphor materials made of samarium doped barium sulfate have been investigated. The samples were prepared by sintering method heated at 900-1250 °C for 3 hours in air from the mixture of BaSO4 and Sm2O3. The concentration of Sm were prepared from 0.01-6 at.%. In as-prepared sample, the Sm3+ was detected by photoluminescence (PL). The PL intensity is maximum about 2 at.% with Sm, and then starts decreasing. The PL intensity showed concentration quenching. The XL observed Sm2+ and Sm3+ ions. The XL was shown from the sample sintered up to 1200 °C. The XL intensity increased with Sm concentration up to 1 at.%. The intensity was almost constant larger than 1 at.% Sm. These concentration dependences is different since the X-ray energy absorbed to the host material at once, and the energy transferred to both Sm3+ and Sm2+ ions. Sm doped BaSO4 is found a host for XL phosphor materials.

  14. High-κ Samarium-Based Metal-Organic Framework for Gate Dielectric Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Abhishek; Chiou, Guan Ru; Gade, Narsinga Rao; Usman, Muhammad; Mendiratta, Shruti; Luo, Tzuoo-Tsair; Tseng, Tien Wen; Chen, Jenq-Wei; Chen, Fu-Rong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong; Lu, Kuang-Lieh

    2017-07-05

    The self-assembly of a samarium-based metal-organic framework [Sm2(bhc)(H2O)6]n (1) in good yield was achieved by reacting Sm(NO3)3·6H2O with benzenehexacarboxylic acid (bhc) in a mixture of H2O-EtOH under hydrothermal conditions. A structural analysis showed that compound 1 crystallized in a space group of Pnmn and adopted a 3D structure with (4,8) connected nets. Temperature dependent dielectric measurements showed that compound 1 behaves as a high dielectric material with a high dielectric constant (κ = 45.1) at 5 kHz and 310 K, which is comparable to the values for some of the most commonly available dielectric inorganic metal oxides such as Sm2O3, Ta2O5, HfO2, and ZrO2. In addition, electrical measurements of 1 revealed an electrical conductivity of about 2.15 × 10-7 S/cm at a frequency of 5 kHz with a low leakage current (Ileakage = 8.13 × 10-12 Amm-2). Dielectric investigations of the Sm-based MOF provide an effective path for the development of high dielectric materials in the future.

  15. Characterization of luminescent samarium doped HfO{sub 2} coatings synthesized by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon-Roa, C [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, C.P. 11500, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Guzman-Mendoza, J [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, C.P. 11500, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Aguilar-Frutis, M [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, C.P. 11500, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Garcia-Hipolito, M [Departamento de Materiales Metalicos y Ceramicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-360 Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Alvarez-Fragoso, O [Departamento de Materiales Metalicos y Ceramicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-360 Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Falcony, C [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, A. P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-01-07

    Trivalent samarium (Sm{sup 3+}) doped hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) films were deposited using the spray pyrolysis deposition technique. The films were deposited on Corning glass substrates at temperatures ranging from 300 to 550 deg. C using chlorides as raw materials. Films, mostly amorphous, were obtained when deposition temperatures were below 350 deg. C. However, for temperatures higher than 400 deg. C, the films became polycrystalline, presenting the HfO{sub 2} monoclinic phase. Scanning electron microscopy of the films revealed a rough surface morphology with spherical particles. Also, electron energy dispersive analysis was performed on these films. The photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence characteristics of the HfO{sub 2} : SmCl{sub 3} films, measured at room temperature, exhibited four main bands centred at 570, 610, 652 and 716 nm, which are due to the well-known intra-4f transitions of the Sm{sup 3+} ion. It was found that the overall emission intensity rose as the deposition temperature was increased. Furthermore, a concentration quenching of the luminescence intensity was also observed.

  16. Samarium-153 EDTMP for metastatic bone pain palliation: the impact of europium impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalef-Ezra, J A; Valakis, S T; Pallada, S

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the impact on the radiation protection policies of the radiocontaminants in Samarium-153 ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonate ((153)Sm-EDTMP). The internal contamination of patients treated with (153)Sm-EDMTP for palliation of painful disseminated multiple bone metastases due to long-lived impurities was assessed by direct measurements. These measurements were coupled with dose-rate measurements close to their bodies and spectroscopic analysis of the residual activity in post-treatment radiopharmaceutical vials. Whole-body counting carried out in six patients showed a 30-81-kBq europium -152 plus europium-154 contamination. The 0.85 mean (152)Eu- to -(154)Eu activity ratio obtained by direct counting was similar to that assessed by analysis of post-treatment residual activities in twelve radiopharmaceutical vials following radiopharmaceutical injection. The long-lived radiocontaminants in the patient's bodies and the treatment wastes require modifications of the applicable radiation protection policies. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Luminescence of trivalent samarium ions in silver and tin co-doped aluminophosphate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, José A.; Lysenko, Sergiy; Liu, Huimin; Sendova, Mariana

    2011-06-01

    This work presents the spectroscopic properties of trivalent samarium ions in a melt-quenched aluminophosphate glass containing silver and tin. Addition of 4 mol% of each Ag 2O and SnO into the glass system with 2 mol% Sm 2O 3 results in Sm 3+ ions luminescence under non-resonant UV excitation owing to energy transfer from single silver ions and/or twofold-coordinated Sn centers. Assessment of luminescence spectra and decay dynamics suggest the energy transfer mechanism to be essentially of the resonant radiative type. Moreover, a connection between the luminescent and structural properties of the rare-earth doped glass system was demonstrated. Raman spectroscopy characterization revealed that no significant variation in the glass matrix is induced by Sm 3+ doping at the concentration employed. A comparison was made with a structural study performed on the Eu 3+ doped system (containing 2 mol% Eu 2O 3 along with 4 mol% of each Ag 2O and SnO) where the radiative energy transfer mechanism was previously established. The data appears consistent regarding the lack of variation in glass structure upon the Eu 3+ and Sm 3+ doping in connection with the dominance of the radiative transfer in the matrix. Thermal treatment of the material leads to precipitation of Ag nanoparticles of a broad size range inside the dielectric as observed by transmission electron microspcopy. Assessment of 4G 5/2 excited state decay in Sm 3+ ions shows no influence from the silver particles.

  18. Samarium (III) adsorption on bentonite modified with N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Chang, Xijun; Hu, Zheng; Wang, Qihui; Li, Ruijun; Chai, Xiaoli

    2011-02-15

    A new material has been synthesized using dry process to activate bentonite followed by N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine connecting chlorosilane coupling agent. The synthesized new material was characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and thermogravimetry which proved that bentonite was successfully modified. The most interesting trait of the new material was its selective adsorption for rare earth elements. A variety of conditions of the new material were investigated for adsorption. The optimal conditions were determined with respect to pH and shaking time. Samarium (Sm) was quantitatively adsorbed at pH 4 and shaking time of 2 min onto the new material. Under these conditions the maximum static adsorption capacity of Sm(III) was found to be 17.7 mg g(-1). The adsorbed Sm(III) ion were quantitatively eluted by 2.0 mL 0.1 mol L(-1) HCl and 5% CS (NH(2))(2) solution. According to IUPAC definition, the detection limit (3σ) of this method was 0.60 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) under optimum conditions was less than 3% (n=8). The new material also was applied for the preconcentration of trace Sm(III) in environmental samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dicty_cDB: SLF137 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLF137 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16249-1 SLF137Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLF137Z 480 - - - - Show SLF137 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLF137 (Link to...ycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/SL/SLF1-B/SLF137Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID SLF13...7Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >SLF137 (SLF137Q) /CSM/SL/SLF1-B/SLF137Q.Seq.d/ XXXXX...qyqmlsfiyqiqlvnvihch y*nvqvvrl*htlvmkivv*llqlalnlhsvpwvchfvqqviv*inseqlkqmdvqyycd ptfvckth*flf

  20. Dicty_cDB: CHF137 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHF137 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16403-1 CHF137P (Link to Original site) CHF...137F 632 CHF137Z 765 CHF137P 1377 - - Show CHF137 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHF...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHF1-B/CHF137Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHF...137P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHF137 (CHF137Q) /CSM/CH/CHF1-B/CHF...AATTAATTAA ATAATAA sequence update 2002.10.25 Translated Amino Acid sequence *nlk

  1. 21 CFR 211.137 - Expiration dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expiration dating. 211.137 Section 211.137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Packaging and Labeling Control...

  2. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... properly installed shoulder harness for use by each pilot. ...

  3. Samarium oxide as a radiotracer to evaluate the in vivo biodistribution of PLGA nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandiwana, Vusani, E-mail: VMandiwana@csir.co.za; Kalombo, Lonji, E-mail: LKalombo@csir.co.za [Centre of Polymers and Composites, CSIR (South Africa); Venter, Kobus, E-mail: Kobus.Venter@mrc.ac.za [South African Medical Research Council (South Africa); Sathekge, Mike, E-mail: Mike.Sathekge@up.ac.za [University of Pretoria and Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine (South Africa); Grobler, Anne, E-mail: Anne.Grobler@nwu.ac.za; Zeevaart, Jan Rijn, E-mail: zeevaart@necsa.co.za [North-West University, DST/NWU Preclinical Drug Development Platform (South Africa)

    2015-09-15

    Developing nanoparticulate delivery systems that will allow easy movement and localization of a drug to the target tissue and provide more controlled release of the drug in vivo is a challenge in nanomedicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biodistribution of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing samarium-153 oxide ([{sup 153}Sm]Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in vivo to prove that orally administered nanoparticles alter the biodistribution of a drug. These were then activated in a nuclear reactor to produce radioactive {sup 153}Sm-loaded-PLGA nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized for size, zeta potential, and morphology. The nanoparticles were orally and intravenously (IV) administered to rats in order to trace their uptake through imaging and biodistribution studies. The {sup 153}Sm-loaded-PLGA nanoparticles had an average size of 281 ± 6.3 nm and a PDI average of 0.22. The zeta potential ranged between 5 and 20 mV. The [{sup 153}Sm]Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} loaded PLGA nanoparticles, orally administered were distributed to most organs at low levels, indicating that there was absorption of nanoparticles. While the IV injected [{sup 153}Sm]Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-loaded PLGA nanoparticles exhibited the highest localization of nanoparticles in the spleen (8.63 %ID/g) and liver (3.07 %ID/g), confirming that nanoparticles are rapidly removed from the blood by the RES, leading to rapid uptake in the liver and spleen. From the biodistribution data obtained, it is clear that polymeric nanoscale delivery systems would be suitable for improving permeability and thus the bioavailability of therapeutic compounds.

  4. Samarium oxide as a radiotracer to evaluate the in vivo biodistribution of PLGA nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandiwana, Vusani; Kalombo, Lonji; Venter, Kobus; Sathekge, Mike; Grobler, Anne; Zeevaart, Jan Rijn

    2015-09-01

    Developing nanoparticulate delivery systems that will allow easy movement and localization of a drug to the target tissue and provide more controlled release of the drug in vivo is a challenge in nanomedicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biodistribution of poly( d, l-lactide- co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing samarium-153 oxide ([153Sm]Sm2O3) in vivo to prove that orally administered nanoparticles alter the biodistribution of a drug. These were then activated in a nuclear reactor to produce radioactive 153Sm-loaded-PLGA nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized for size, zeta potential, and morphology. The nanoparticles were orally and intravenously (IV) administered to rats in order to trace their uptake through imaging and biodistribution studies. The 153Sm-loaded-PLGA nanoparticles had an average size of 281 ± 6.3 nm and a PDI average of 0.22. The zeta potential ranged between 5 and 20 mV. The [153Sm]Sm2O3 loaded PLGA nanoparticles, orally administered were distributed to most organs at low levels, indicating that there was absorption of nanoparticles. While the IV injected [153Sm]Sm2O3-loaded PLGA nanoparticles exhibited the highest localization of nanoparticles in the spleen (8.63 %ID/g) and liver (3.07 %ID/g), confirming that nanoparticles are rapidly removed from the blood by the RES, leading to rapid uptake in the liver and spleen. From the biodistribution data obtained, it is clear that polymeric nanoscale delivery systems would be suitable for improving permeability and thus the bioavailability of therapeutic compounds.

  5. Fabrication and properties of samarium doped calcium sulphate thin films using spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reghima, Meriem [Université Tunis El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Département de Physique, LR99ES13 Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée (LPMC), 2092 Tunis, Tunisie (Tunisia); Institut d' Electronique et des systèmes, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5214 UM2-CNRS (ST2i) – Université Montpellier, 860 rue de Saint Priest, Bâtiment 5, 34097 Montpellier (France); Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, Zarzouna 7021 (Tunisia); Guasch, Cathy [Institut d' Electronique et des systèmes, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5214 UM2-CNRS (ST2i) – Université Montpellier, 860 rue de Saint Priest, Bâtiment 5, 34097 Montpellier (France); Azzaza, Sonia; Alleg, Safia [Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Spectroscopie des Solides (LM2S), Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences, Université Badji Mokhtar Annaba, B.P. 12, 23000 Annaba (Algeria); Kamoun-Turki, Najoua [Université Tunis El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Département de Physique, LR99ES13 Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée (LPMC), 2092 Tunis, Tunisie (Tunisia)

    2016-10-01

    Using low cost spray pyrolysis technique, polycrystalline CaSO{sub 4} thin films were successfully grown on a glass substrate with a thickness of about 1 μm. Samarium doping has been performed on CaSO{sub 4} thin films to explore luminescence properties. The characterizations of these films were carried out using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and optical measurements. The structural analyses reveal the existence of hexagonal CaSO{sub 4} phase with a (200) preferred orientation belonging to CaS compound for substrate temperatures below 350 °C. It is shown that the crystallinity of the sprayed thin films can be improved by increasing substrate temperature up to 250 °C. Warren-Averbach analysis has been applied on X-ray diffractogram to determine structural parameters involving the phase with its amount, the grain size and the lattice parameters using Maud software. The surface topography shows a rough surface covered by densely packed agglomerated clusters having faceted and hexagonal shapes. Energy dispersive microscopy measurements confirm the presence of calcium and sulfur in equal proportions as well as high percentage of oxygen. Photoluminescence at room temperature revealed that luminescence peaks are attributed to the intrinsic emission of pure CaSO{sub 4} phase. - Highlights: • Warren Averbach analysis reveal the presence of hcp structure of CaSO{sub 4} phase. • A mixture of CaSO{sub 4} and CaHO{sub 4.5}S phases has been detected for lower T{sub s}. • For increasing T{sub s}, the CaHO{sub 4.5}S phase has been disappeared. • The origin of PL peaks has been identified.

  6. Desorption of 137Cs+ from mosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLGICA NEDIC

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Mosses are biomonitors that accumulate large amounts of various pollutants, including radionuclides. In this work we investigated the possibility of 137Cs extraction from mosses, as well as the significance of species specificity on the efficiency of 137Cs desorption. Salt and acid solutions were used as extraction media. It was shown that a 5 % solution of both ammonium oxalate and phosphoric acid was able to desorb 81.8 % of 137Cs+ from Homalothecium sericeum, which was 39.9 % more than desorption from water. At the same time, most of the desorbed 137Cs+ was incorporated in crystals that precipitated from the solution. An interspecies difference in respect to 137Cs+ desorption was noticed.

  7. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  8. Optical properties and electronic transitions of zinc oxide, ferric oxide, cerium oxide, and samarium oxide in the ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauly, N; Yubero, F; Espinós, J P

    2017-01-01

    Optical properties and electronic transitions of four oxides, namely zinc oxide, ferric oxide, cerium oxide, and samarium oxide, are determined in the ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy using primary electron energies in the range 0.3-2.0 keV. This...

  9. {sup 137}Cs distribution in guava trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosquera, B.; Veiga, R.; Mangia, L.; Carvalho, C.; Estellita, L.; Uzeda, D.; Facure, A.; Violini, B.; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2004-09-15

    This paper presents results of {sup 137}Cs concentration measured from a guava tree cultivated after the first decontamination work of one of the sites where the worst Brazilian radiological accident occurred. The present work aims to verify how the {sup 137}Cs is transported and distributed along the tropical trees. Bi-dimensional analyses of the radial distribution of {sup 137}Cs in the main trunk are also presented. Neither symmetrical nor homogeneous behaviors of the specific activity distribution in the tree rings were observed. (author)

  10. Optical response and magnetic characteristic of samarium doped zinc phosphate glasses containing nickel nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmi, Siti Amlah M.; Sahar, M.R., E-mail: mrahim057@gmail.com

    2015-11-01

    A magnetic glass of composition 40ZnO–(58−x) P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–1Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}–xNiO, with x=0.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mol% is prepared by melt-quenching technique. The glass is characterized by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis. The X-rays diffraction confirms the amorphous nature of the glass while the HRTEM analysis reveals the presence of nickel nanoparticles in the glass samples. High-resolution TEM reveals that the lattice spacing of nickel nanoparticles is 0.35 nm at (100) plane. Photoluminescence emission shows the existence of four peaks that correspond to the transition from the upper level of {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} to the lower level of {sup 6}H{sub 5/2}, {sup 6}H{sub 7/2}, {sup 6}H{sub 9/2,} and {sup 6}H{sub 11/2.} It is observed that all peaks experience significant quenching effect with the increasing concentration of nickel nanoparticles, suggesting a strong energy transfer from excited samarium ions to the nickel ions. The glass magnetization and susceptibility at 12 kOe at room temperature are found to be in the range of (3.87±0.17×10{sup −2}–7.19±0.39×10{sup −2}) emu/g and (3.24±0.16×10{sup −6}–5.99±0.29×10{sup −6}) emu/Oe g respectively. The obtained hysteresis curve indicates that the glass samples are paramagnetic materials. The studied glass can be further used towards the development of magneto-optical functional glass. - Highlights: • Sm{sup 3+} doped zinc phosphate glass embedded with Ni NPs has been prepared. • The Laue pattern and lattice spacing of Ni NPs are confirmed by HRTEM image. • The magnetic response of glasses has been studied through VSM analysis. • Enhancement factor and decay half-lifetime are investigated.

  11. Treatment of bone pain secondary to metastases using samarium-153-EDTMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Cristina Sá de Camargo Etchebehere

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: More than 50% of patients with prostate, breast or lung cancer will develop painful bone metastases. The purpose of treating bone metastases is to relieve pain, reduce the use of steroids and to maintain motion. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of samarium-153-EDTMP (153Sm-EDTMP for the treatment of bone pain secondary to metastases that is refractory to clinical management. TYPE OF STUDY: Retrospective. SETTING: Division of Nuclear Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients were studied (34 males with mean age 62 years; 31 patients had prostate cancer, 20 had breast cancer, three had lung cancer, one had lung hemangioendothelioma, one had parathyroid adenocarcinoma, one had osteosarcoma and one had an unknown primary tumor. All patients had multiple bone metastases demonstrated by bone scintigraphy using 99mTc-MDP,and were treated with 153Sm-EDTMP. Response to treatment was graded as good (pain reduction of 50-100%, intermediate (25-49% and poor (0-24%. RESULTS: All patients showed good uptake of 153Sm-EDTMP by bone metastases. Among the patients with prostate cancer, intermediate or good response to therapy occurred in 80.6% (25 patients and poor response in 19.4% (6. Among the patients with breast cancer, 85% (17 showed intermediate or good response to therapy while 15% (3 showed poor response. All three patients with lung cancer showed poor response to treatment. The lung hemangioendothelioma and unknown primary lesion patients showed intermediate response to treatment; the osteosarcoma and parathyroid adenocarcinoma patients showed good response to treatment. No significant myelotoxicity occurred. DISCUSSION: Pain control is important for improving the quality of life of patients with advanced cancers. The mechanism by which pain is relieved with the use of radionuclides is still not yet completely understood, however, the treatment is simple and provides a low risk of mielotoxicity

  12. Anchoring samarium oxide nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide for high-performance supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezfuli, Amin Shiralizadeh [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: ganjali@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology & Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naderi, Hamid Reza [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Samarium oxide nanoparticles have been anchored on the surface of reduced graphene oxide for the first time. • Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO nanocomposite show high capacitance, good rate and cycling performance. • Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO nanocomposite can serve as efficient electrode material for energy storage. • The best composite electrode exhibits specific capacitance of 321 F g{sup −1} in 2 mV s{sup −1}. - Abstract: We have synthesized Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (SmNs) and anchored them onto the surface of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) through a self-assembly thereof by utilizing a facile sonochemical procedure. The nanomaterials were characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As the next step, the supercapacitive behavior of the resulting nanocomposites were investigated when used as electrode material, through with cyclic voltammetric (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The SmNs decorated RGO (SmN-RGO) nanocomposites were found to possess a specific capacitance (SC) of 321 F g{sup −1} when used in a 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution as an electrolyte, in a scan rate of 2 mV s{sup −1}. The SC of the SmN-RGO based electrodes were also found to be 268 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 2 A g{sup −1} through galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The outstanding properties of the SmN-RGOs were attributed to synergy of the high charge mobility of SmNs and the flexibility of the sheets of RGOs. Additionally, the nano-composite revealed a unique cycling durability (maintaining 99% of its SC even after 4000 cycles).

  13. Standardization of 137mCs+137mBa by Liquid Scintillation; Calibracion de 137Cs+137mBa por Centelleo Liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L.; Los Arcos, J.M.; Grau, A.

    1995-07-01

    A procedure for the preparation of a stable, homogeneous solution of 137Cs+''137mBa, for use in liquid scintillation measurements, is described. Its count rate stability and spectral time evolution has been followed for several weeks. The solution has been standardised by the CIEMAT/NIST method in both Ultima-Gold and Insta-Gel, to a combined uncertainty lower than 0,51 % (k=l). (Author) 5 refs.

  14. Effect of Current Density on Thermodynamic Properties of Nanocrystalline Palladium Capped Samarium Hydride Thin Film Switchable Mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 55 nm samarium film capped with a 10 nm palladium overlayer switched from a metallic reflecting to a semiconducting, transparent in visible state during ex-situ hydrogen loading via electrochemical means in 1 M KOH electrolytic aqueous solution at room temperature. The switching between metal to semiconductor was accompanied by measurement of transmittance during hydrogen loading/unloading. The effect of current density on switching and thermodynamic properties was studied between dihydride state (FCC phase and trihydride state (hexagonal phase. From the plateau of partial pressure of hydrogen at x=2.6, enthalpy of formation was calculated at different current densities. The diffusion coefficients and switching kinetics are shown to depend on applied current density.

  15. Targeted bone marrow radioablation with 153Samarium-lexidronam promotes allogeneic hematopoietic chimerism and donor-specific immunologic hyporesponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inverardi, Luca; Linetsky, Elina; Pileggi, Antonello; Molano, R Damaris; Serafini, Aldo; Paganelli, Giovanni; Ricordi, Camillo

    2004-03-15

    Transplantation tolerance, defined as acceptance of a graft by an otherwise fully immunocompetent host, has been an elusive goal. Although robust tolerance has been achieved by the induction of stable hematopoietic chimerism after bone marrow transplantation, lethal or sublethal radiation conditioning used to induce long-term chimerism precludes its clinical use. We studied whether targeted delivery of radiation to bone marrow could allow for bone marrow cell (BMC) engraftment, chimerism, and donor-specific tolerance in the absence of the side effects associated with external irradiation. We administered a radioactive bone-seeking compound (Samarium-Lexidronam, Quadramet, Berlex Laboratories, Wayne, NJ) together with transient T-cell costimulatory blockade to recipient mice. Allogeneic BMCs were given 7 or 14 days after preconditioning. Costimulatory blockade was obtained by the use of an anti-CD154 antibody for 4 weeks. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. Mice then received donor-specific and third-party skin grafts. Graft survival was analyzed with mechanisms of donor-specific hyporesponsiveness. High levels of stable chimerism across an allogeneic barrier were achieved in mice by a single administration of Samarium-Lexidronam, transient T-cell costimulatory blockade, and BMC transplantation. A large percentage of chimeric animals retained donor-derived skin grafts for more than 120 days without requiring additional immunosuppression, suggesting that harsh cytotoxic preconditioning is not necessary to achieve stable chimerism and donor specific hyporesponsiveness. Analysis of the T-cell repertoire in chimeras indicates T-cell deletional mechanisms. These data broaden the potential use of BMC transplantation for tolerance induction and argue for its potential in treating autoimmune diseases.

  16. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is used...

  17. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  18. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  19. Distribution of cesium-137 in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Rissanen

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986 on the Finnish reindeer herding area was much smaller than the effects of the nuclear bomb tests in the 1960s. Only in one small area somewhat more Cs-137 was deposited than in the rest of the reindeer herding area. From that area 20 reindeer were chosen for investigation of the distribution of Cs-137. All tissues, organs, the skeleton, digestive tract, hide, head and hooves were sampled quantitatively. Three reindeer were pregnant and also the foetuses were studied. The Cs-137 amounts were determined by gammaspectrometric measurements. The results showed that the differences in the Cs-137 concentrations between muscle tissue from different parts of an individual reindeer were not more than 10 percent. Thus it is not essential from which part of the reindeer meat samples for surveillance purposes are taken. The concentration of Cs-137 in edible tissues other than muscle was lower except in the kidneys and scapula cartilage.

  20. Sorption of samarium in soils: influence of soil properties and Sm concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Guinart, Oriol; Salaberria, Aitor; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry department, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Due to the fact that barriers of Deep Geological Repositories (DGR) may lose efficiency before the radioisotopes present in the High Level Radioactive Waste (HLRW) completely decay, it is possible that, in the long-term, radioactive leachates may escape from the DGR and reach the soil and water compartments in the biosphere. Therefore, it is required to examine the interaction and mobility of radionuclides present in the HLRW, or their chemical analogues, to predict the impact of their eventual incorporation in the biosphere and to assess the derived risk. Although relevant data have been recently obtained for a few radionuclides in soils, there are still some important gaps for some radionuclides, such us for samarium (Sm). Sm is a lanthanide that, besides being considered as a natural analogue of actinides, may also be present in HLRW in the form of the radioactive isotope {sup 151}Sm. The main objective of this work was to obtain sorption data (K{sub d}) of {sup 151}Sm gathered from a set of soil samples physicochemical fully-characterized (pH, texture, cationic exchange capacity, soil solution cationic composition, organic matter, carbonate and metallic oxides content, etc.). Additionally, as an alternative for testing sorption capacity of radionuclides in soils is the use of the corresponding stable isotope or a chemical analogue, the influence of Sm concentration was also checked. To evaluate {sup 151}Sm sorption, batch assays were carried out for each soil sample, which consisted in a pre-equilibration step of 2 g of each soil with 50 ml of double deionised water, and a subsequent equilibration step with the same solution, but labelled with {sup 151}Sm. The activity of {sup 151}Sm in initial and final solutions was measured by liquid scintillation and K{sub d} ({sup 151}Sm) data were calculated. The reversibly sorbed fraction was estimated by the application of a single extraction test, with double deionised water, to soil residues coming from the previous

  1. Crystal growth of semiorganic complex- samarium chloride coordinated thiourea-L-tartaric acid and its studies on structure and optical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slathia, Goldy; Singh, Harjinder; Ramya, E.; Rao, D. Narayana; Bamzai, K. K.

    2017-05-01

    The semi-organic complex of samarium chloride coordinated thiourea-L-tartaric acid (SCTLT) has been grown as a single crystal by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. For structural studies, the grown crystal was subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. Low cut off wavelength and transparent characteristics were explored by UV-VIS optical characterization. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of grown crystal were investigated by Z-scan technique.

  2. Sorption of samarium in iron (II) and (III) phosphates in aqueous systems; Sorcion de samario en fosfatos de hierro (II) y (III) en sistemas acuosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz F, J.C

    2006-07-01

    The radioactive residues that are stored in the radioactive confinements its need to stay isolated of the environment while the radioactivity levels be noxious. An important mechanism by which the radioactive residues can to reach the environment, it is the migration of these through the underground water. That it makes necessary the investigation of reactive materials that interacting with those radionuclides and that its are able to remove them from the watery resources. The synthesis and characterization of materials that can be useful in Environmental Chemistry are very important because its characteristics are exposed and its behavior in chemical phenomena as the sorption watery medium is necessary to use it in the environmental protection. In this work it was carried out the sorption study of the samarium III ion in the iron (II) and (III) phosphate; obtaining the sorption isotherms in function of pH, of the phosphate mass and of the concentration of the samarium ion using UV-visible spectroscopy to determine the removal percentage. The developed experiments show that as much the ferrous phosphate as the ferric phosphate present a great affinity by the samarium III, for what it use like reactive material in contention walls can be very viable because it sorption capacity has overcome 90% to pH values similar to those of the underground and also mentioning that the form to obtain these materials is very economic and simple. (Author)

  3. Trace amounts of rare earth elements in high purity samarium oxide by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after separation by HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedreira, W.R. [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil) and Fundacao Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina do Trabalho (FUNDACENTRO), 05409-002 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: walter.pedreira@fundacentro.gov.br; Queiroz, C.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Abrao, A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rocha, S.M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vasconcellos, M.E. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Boaventura, G.R. [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Pimentel, M.M. [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2006-07-20

    Today there is an increasing need for high purity rare earth compounds in various fields, the optical, the electronics, the ceramic, the nuclear and geochemistry. Samarium oxide has special uses in glass, phosphors, lasers and thermoelectric devices. Calcium chloride crystals treated with samarium have been employed in lasers, which produce light beams intense enough to burn metal. In general, the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) presents some advantages for trace element analysis, due to high sensitivity and resolution, when compared with other analytical techniques such as ICP optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In this work, sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used. Sixteen elements (Sc, Y and 14 lanthanides) were determined selectively with the ICP-MS system using a concentration gradient method. The detection limits with the ICP-MS system were about 0.2 (La) pg mL{sup -1} to 8 (Gd) pg mL{sup -1}. The %R.S.D. of the methods varying between 0.9 and 1.5% for a set of five (n = 5) replicates was found for the IPEN's material and for the certificate reference sample. Determination of trace REEs in two high pure samarium oxides samples (IPEN and JMC) was performed. IPEN's material is highly pure (>99.99%) and was successfully analyzed without spectral interference (MO{sup +} and MOH{sup +})

  4. 21 CFR 137.300 - Farina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,” 13th Ed. (1980), Table 1..., other than durum wheat and red durum wheat, to such fineness that, when tested by the method prescribed... are determined by the methods therefor referred to in § 137.105(c). (2) The method referred to in...

  5. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the moisture as determined by the method prescribed in “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,” 13th Ed. (1980), section 7.002 under “Preparation of Sample... the method prescribed in § 137.200(c)(2), not less than 90 percent passes through a No. 8 sieve and...

  6. Pilot unit for cesium-137 separation; Unite pilote de separation du cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raggenbass, A.; Quesney, M.; Fradin, J.; Dufrene, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Users of radiation are becoming increasingly interested in cesium-137. At the same time the starting up of the industrial plant at Marcoule will make available in the near future large stocks of fission products which should be made use of as quickly as possible. The installation described is a pilot plant for cesium-137 production which should make it possible: - to verify the chemical method on actual solutions of fission products, by treating about 100 curies of {sup 137}Cs by operation, - to obtain technical information on the chemical equipment (tele-commands, corrosion, maintenance, etc...), - to obtain {sup 137}Cs in sufficient quantity to perfect the technique of the manufacture of sealed sources. (author)Fren. [French] L'interet des utilisateurs de rayonnement se porte de plus en plus vers le caesium-137. Parallelement, la mise en oeuvre de l'ensemble industriel de Marcoule nous permettra de disposer dans un avenir proche de stocks importants de produits de fission qu'il sera interessant de valoriser au plus vite. L'installation que nous decrivons est un pilote de production de caesium-137 qui doit nous permettre: - de verifier la methode chimique sur des solutions de produits de fission reelles en traitant environ 100 curies de {sup 137}Cs par operation; - d'obtenir des renseignements techniques sur l'appareillage chimique (telecommandes, corrosion, entretien, etc...); - d'obtenir du {sup 137}Cs en quantite suffisante pour mettre au point la technique de fabrication des sources scellees. (auteur)

  7. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§ 137...

  8. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  9. 10 CFR 600.137 - Property trust relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property trust relationship. 600.137 Section 600.137 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform..., Hospitals, and Other Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.137 Property trust relationship...

  10. 42 CFR 137.245 - What is retrocession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is retrocession? 137.245 Section 137.245 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Retrocession § 137.245 What is retrocession...

  11. 42 CFR 137.255 - What does reassumption mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does reassumption mean? 137.255 Section 137.255 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Reassumption § 137.255 What does reassumption...

  12. 42 CFR 137.40 - What is a funding agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is a funding agreement? 137.40 Section 137.40 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding Agreements § 137.40 What is a funding...

  13. 42 CFR 137.3 - Effect on existing Tribal rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect on existing Tribal rights. 137.3 Section 137.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE General Provisions § 137.3 Effect on existing...

  14. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  15. 14 CFR 21.137 - Location of manufacturing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of manufacturing facilities. 21.137 Section 21.137 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Certificates § 21.137 Location of manufacturing facilities. The Administrator...

  16. Effectiveness of radiation synovectomy with samarium-{sup 153} particulate hydroxyapatite in rheumatoid arthritis patients with knee synovitis: a controlled randomized double-blind trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marla Francisca dos; Furtado, Rita Nely Vilar; Konai, Monique Sayuri; Natour, Jamil, E-mail: jnatour@unifesp.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Reumatologia; Castiglioni, Mario Luiz Vieira; Marchetti, Renata Rosa [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Medicina Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    Objectives: the aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of Samarium{sup 153}-particulate hydroxyapatite radiation synovectomy in rheumatoid arthritis patients with chronic knee synovitis. Methods: fifty-eight rheumatoid arthritis patients (60 knees) with chronic knee synovitis participated in a controlled double-blinded trial. Patients were randomized to receive either an intra-articular injection with 40 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide alone (TH group) or 40 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide combined with 15 mCi Samarium{sup 153}-particulate hydroxyapatite (Sm/TH group). Blinded examination at baseline (T0) and at 1 (T1), 4 (T4), 12 (T12), 32 (T32), and 48 (T48) weeks post-intervention were performed on all patients and included a visual analog scale for joint pain and swelling as well as data on morning stiffness, flexion, extension, knee circumference, Likert scale of improvement, percentage of improvement, SF-36 generic quality of life questionnaire, Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), Lequesne index, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or oral corticosteroids, events and adverse effects, calls to the physician, and hospital visits. Results: the sample was homogeneous at baseline, and there were no withdrawals. Improvement was observed in both groups in relation to T0, but no statistically significant differences between groups were observed regarding all variables at the time points studied. The Sm/TH group exhibited more adverse effects at T1 (p<0.05), but these were mild and transitory. No severe adverse effects were reported during follow-up. Conclusion: intra-articular injection of Samarium{sup 153}-particulate hydroxyapatite (15 mCi) with 40 mg of triamcinolone hexacetonide is not superior to triamcinolone hexacetonide alone for the treatment of knee synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at 1 y of follow-up. (author)

  17. The properties of samarium-doped zinc oxide/phthalocyanine structure for optoelectronics prepared by pulsed laser deposition and organic molecular evaporation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Michal; Marešová, Eva; Fitl, Přemysl; Vlček, Jan; Bergmann, M.; Vondráček, Martin; Yatskiv, Roman; Bulíř, Jiří; Hubík, Pavel; Hruška, Petr; Drahokoupil, Jan; Abdellaoui, N.; Vrňata, M.; Lančok, Ján

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2016), 1-8, č. článku 225. ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15050; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0958; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10279S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14FR010 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:67985882 Keywords : samarium-doped zinc oxide zinc/phthalocyanine deposition * evaporation * pulsed laser deposition * thin films Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.455, year: 2016

  18. Neutron Activated Samarium-153 Microparticles for Transarterial Radioembolization of Liver Tumour with Post-Procedure Imaging Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashikin, Nurul Ab. Aziz; Yeong, Chai-Hong; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet; Ng, Kwan-Hoong; Chung, Lip-Yong; Dahalan, Rehir; Perkins, Alan Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Samarium-153 (153Sm) styrene divinylbenzene microparticles were developed as a surrogate for Yttrium-90 (90Y) microspheres in liver radioembolization therapy. Unlike the pure beta emitter 90Y, 153Sm possess both therapeutic beta and diagnostic gamma radiations, making it possible for post-procedure imaging following therapy. Methods The microparticles were prepared using commercially available cation exchange resin, Amberlite IR-120 H+ (620–830 μm), which were reduced to 20–40 μm via ball mill grinding and sieve separation. The microparticles were labelled with 152Sm via ion exchange process with 152SmCl3, prior to neutron activation to produce radioactive 153Sm through 152Sm(n,γ)153Sm reaction. Therapeutic activity of 3 GBq was referred based on the recommended activity used in 90Y-microspheres therapy. The samples were irradiated in 1.494 x 1012 n.cm-2.s-1 neutron flux for 6 h to achieve the nominal activity of 3.1 GBq.g-1. Physicochemical characterisation of the microparticles, gamma spectrometry, and in vitro radiolabelling studies were carried out to study the performance and stability of the microparticles. Results Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of the Amberlite IR-120 resins showed unaffected functional groups, following size reduction of the beads. However, as shown by the electron microscope, the microparticles were irregular in shape. The radioactivity achieved after 6 h neutron activation was 3.104 ± 0.029 GBq. The specific activity per microparticle was 53.855 ± 0.503 Bq. Gamma spectrometry and elemental analysis showed no radioactive impurities in the samples. Radiolabelling efficiencies of 153Sm-Amberlite in distilled water and blood plasma over 48 h were excellent and higher than 95%. Conclusion The laboratory work revealed that the 153Sm-Amberlite microparticles demonstrated superior characteristics for potential use in hepatic radioembolization. PMID:26382059

  19. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded on...

  20. 42 CFR 137.441 - Will there be a hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Will there be a hearing? 137.441 Section 137.441... of A Self-Governance Program § 137.441 Will there be a hearing? Yes, unless the Self-Governance Tribe...) If possible, the hearing will be held at the office of the Self-Governance Tribe. If the hearing is...

  1. Murine immunization by cesium-137 irradiation attenuated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stek, M. Jr.; Minard, P.; Cruess, D.F.

    1984-06-01

    Cesium-137, becoming a more readily available ionizing gamma radiation source for laboratory use, was shown to effectively attenuate Schistosoma mansoni cercariae for vaccine production. In parallel comparison studies with the murine model, cesium-137 attenuated cercariae consistently afforded better protection than did the cobalt-60 prepared vaccine. Dose-response data indicated that the optimal total irradiation with cesium-137 was between 45 and 50 Krad.

  2. Dicty_cDB: AFK137 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AF (Link to library) AFK137 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13893-1 AFK137E (Link... Clone ID AFK137 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U13893-1 Original site URL http://dict...DIFKSDQTFTLVQRLRSNVIKAGLKKLNTAYSR ISFNDICTKLKFDGTTQDIMFIIAKTIKDGVIDATXNYEGGYLQSRENIDAYSTQEPLHA FSNRIDICLKIHN...fissygdcsi*hknyslsiiiknflll*fil*ndk*ss*s*iniiists ysnikt***rssnny*fiieklfri*fi*tsr*iigqytipricikqsictlfllsr*...LNSSHKQLEKHHKTLLVVSEELFINFYPIVQLLMGEIPERNTFSQKQLKIA LKPYFHLTEAVRVGDLGSFNQALEQNSDIFKSDQTFTLVQRLRSNVIKAGLKKLNTAYSR ISFNDICT

  3. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section...

  4. 21 CFR 137.250 - White corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White corn meal. 137.250 Section 137.250 Food and... Related Products § 137.250 White corn meal. (a) White corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section not less...

  5. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than 1.2...

  6. Preparation and examination of properties of samarium-153-EDTMP complex; Otrzymywanie chelatu kwasu etylenodiaminotetrametylenofosfonowego (EDTMP) z samarem-153 i badanie jego wlasciwosci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, M. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Garnuszek, P.; Lukasiewicz, A.; Wozniak, I.; Zulczyk, W. [Osrodek Badawczo-Rozwojowy Izotopow, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Licinska, I. [Instytut Lekow, Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Preparation and properties of ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonic acid (EDTMP) as well as some properties of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP chelate have been examined. The chelate formed by samarium-153 (46.3 h, {beta}{sup -}-decay) with EDTMP exhibits high bone uptake and can be used for treatment of disseminated, painful skeletal metastases. The purity and stability of solutions of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP chelate were examined in a broad range of samarium concentration and {sup 153}Sm specific activity. The complex under study was examined by radio-TLC, -electrophoresis and radio-HPLC. The results obtained suggest the small size of molecules of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP chelate as compared with molecules of ``free``EDTMP. The results of biodistribution of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP determined in rats indicate the quick blood clearance, high deposition of radioactivity in bone and quick excretion of radioactivity into urine. No specific uptake of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP in extra-skeletal organs was found. (author). 42 refs, 13 figs, 22 tabs.

  7. Cesium-137 body burdens in Norwegian Lapps, 1965-1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerlund, E.A.; Berthelsen, T.; Berteig, L.

    1987-02-01

    Results of measurements of the whole-body contents of /sup 137/Cs during the period 1965-1983 in Lapps from the Kautokeino area in Norway are reported with measurements of /sup 137/Cs in reindeer meat during the period 1966-1983. By using available data on /sup 137/Cs in precipitation for the period 1950-1980, transfer coefficients from /sup 137/Cs in precipitation to reindeer meat have been assessed. A correlation between the /sup 137/Cs content in reindeer meat and the /sup 137/Cs content in Lapp reindeer breeders has been established. The average whole-body committed dose equivalent, H50, to the reindeer breeders from internally deposited /sup 137/Cs from intakes up to year 2000 was assessed to 13 mSv with a peak value of 30 mSv. In comparison, the corresponding committed dose equivalent to the Norwegian population from internally deposited /sup 137/Cs has been estimated to be about 1 mSv. The higher intake of /sup 137/Cs by reindeer breeders is due to the lichen-reindeer-man exposure pathway.

  8. The Level of Europium-154 Contaminating Samarium-153-EDTMP Activates the Radiation Alarm System at the US Homeland Security Checkpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Najeeb Al Hallak

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available 153Sm-EDTMP is a radiopharmaceutical composed of EDTMP (ethylenediamine-tetramethylenephosphonate and Samarium-153 [1]. 153Sm-EDTMP has an affinity for skeletal tissue and concentrates in areas with increased bone turnover; thus, it is successfully used in relieving pain related to diffuse bone metastases [1]. The manufacturing process of 153Sm-EDTMP leads to contamination with 154Eu (Europium-154 [2]. A previous study only alluded to the retention of 154Eu in the bones after receiving treatment with 153Sm-EDTMP [2]. Activation of the alarm at security checkpoints after 153Sm-EDTMP therapy has not been previously reported. Two out of 15 patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer Center (Fargo, N. Dak., USA activated the radiation activity sensors while passing through checkpoints; one at a US airport and the other while crossing theAmerican-Canadian border. We assume that the 154Eu which remained in the patients’ bones activated the sensors. Methods: In order to investigate this hypothesis, we obtained the consent from 3 of our 15 patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP within the previous 4 months to 2 years, including the patient who had activated the radiation alarm at the airport. The patients were scanned with a handheld detector and a gamma camera for energies from 511 keV to 1.3 MeV. Results: All three patients exhibited identical spectral images, and further analysis showed that the observed spectra are the result of 154Eu emissions. Conclusion: Depending on the detection thresholds and windows used by local and federal authorities, the remaining activity of 154Eu retained in patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP could be sufficient enough to increase the count rates above background levels and activate the sensors. At Roger Maris Cancer Center, patients are now informed of the potential consequences of 153Sm-EDTMP therapy prior to initiating treatment. In addition, patients treated with 153Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer Center

  9. The Level of Europium-154 Contaminating Samarium-153-EDTMP Activates the Radiation Alarm System at the US Homeland Security Checkpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb Al Hallak, Mohammed; McCurdy, Matt; Zouain, Nicolas; Hayes, Justin

    2009-08-28

    (153)Sm-EDTMP is a radiopharmaceutical composed of EDTMP (ethylenediamine-tetramethylenephosphonate) and Samarium-153 [1]. (153)Sm-EDTMP has an affinity for skeletal tissue and concentrates in areas with increased bone turnover; thus, it is successfully used in relieving pain related to diffuse bone metastases [1]. The manufacturing process of (153)Sm-EDTMP leads to contamination with (154)Eu (Europium-154) [2]. A previous study only alluded to the retention of (154)Eu in the bones after receiving treatment with (153)Sm-EDTMP [2]. Activation of the alarm at security checkpoints after (153)Sm-EDTMP therapy has not been previously reported. Two out of 15 patients who received (153)Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer Center (Fargo, N. Dak., USA) activated the radiation activity sensors while passing through checkpoints; one at a US airport and the other while crossing the American-Canadian border. We assume that the (154)Eu which remained in the patients' bones activated the sensors. METHODS: In order to investigate this hypothesis, we obtained the consent from 3 of our 15 patients who received (153)Sm-EDTMP within the previous 4 months to 2 years, including the patient who had activated the radiation alarm at the airport. The patients were scanned with a handheld detector and a gamma camera for energies from 511 keV to 1.3 MeV. RESULTS: All three patients exhibited identical spectral images, and further analysis showed that the observed spectra are the result of (154)Eu emissions. CONCLUSION: Depending on the detection thresholds and windows used by local and federal authorities, the remaining activity of (154)Eu retained in patients who received (153)Sm-EDTMP could be sufficient enough to increase the count rates above background levels and activate the sensors. At Roger Maris Cancer Center, patients are now informed of the potential consequences of (153)Sm-EDTMP therapy prior to initiating treatment. In addition, patients treated with (153)Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer

  10. 50 CFR 86.137 - What variables should I consider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What variables should I consider? 86.137...) PROGRAM How States Will Complete the State Program Plans § 86.137 What variables should I consider? You should consider the following variables: (a) Location of population centers, (b) Boat-based recreation...

  11. 14 CFR 1260.137 - Property trust relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Property trust relationship. 1260.137 Section 1260.137 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND... Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that are...

  12. Accumulation and distribution 137Сs in predators’ organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gulakov

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Data of the long-term research of accumulation and distribution 137Cs radionuclide in organisms of predatory wild animals from the alienation zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power station are presented. Essential fluctuations of the 137Cs contents in muscular tissue are noted. The results have large practical value for management of the hunting facilities on the radioactively polluted territories.

  13. 33 CFR 137.33 - General all appropriate inquiries requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY.... See § 137.60. (4) Visual inspections of the facility, the real property on which the facility is..., tribal, and local government records. See § 137.60. (iv) Visual inspections of the facility, the real...

  14. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by § 133.136...

  15. 49 CFR 229.137 - Sanitation, general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation, general requirements. 229.137 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.137 Sanitation, general requirements. (a) Sanitation compartment. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all lead locomotives in use shall be equipped with a sanitation...

  16. 11 CFR 100.137 - Invitations, food, and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Invitations, food, and beverages. 100.137...) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.137 Invitations, food, and beverages. The cost of invitations, food, and... invitations, food and beverages provided by the individual on behalf of the candidate does not exceed $1,000...

  17. Is 137Cs Dating Becoming Obsolete in North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, J. Z.; Fuller, C.; Salas, A.

    2016-12-01

    Dating of wetland sediments and peat is routinely carried out using 137Cs and 210Pb analysis. Unlike 210Pb, 137Cs is an anthropogenic radionuclide with a history of fallout from nuclear weapons testing. 137Cs is used as a single time marker; its peak is coincident with the height of atmospheric nuclear testing in 1963/4. During its use in the 1970s-90s, 137Cs peaks were usually highly distinct in wetland sediments (e.g., see 137Cs peaks from Louisiana marshes in Feijtel et al., 1988). This enabled its use as a check for dates assigned to a profile by 210Pb and other methods. However, recently, the efficacy of 137Cs dating in North America has deteriorated. In this presentation, we will provide specific examples of 137Cs as well as 210Pb dating in wetland sediments/peats we collected between 2005 and 2015 in Maine, California, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Washington. Two main reasons exist for this decline. First, 137Cs activities in our recent cores are 30-40 % of the original activities in 1963/4 due to decay of the original 137Cs in situ (half-life = 30.17 years) and no major new sources. This manifests in lower signal to noise ratio, with some peaks barely recognizable above the noise. Second, 137Cs peaks are much less distinct due to 137Cs migration through time independent of substrate (or sediment) particles. Migration of peaks has resulted in estimated accretion rates being systematically lower or higher than those derived from 210Pb dating. These issues with 137Cs dating have important implications because 137Cs is used with 210Pb dating or even alone to determine rates of recent wetland carbon accumulation. Such rates are required to enter wetland restoration projects into carbon markets and to document IPCC mandated reductions in carbon pollution. Our analysis shows that, although dating by 137Cs alone has always been highly tenuous, now it is especially contraindicated and should be disallowed for the purposes of carbon accounting.

  18. {sup 137}Cs accumulation in coastal sediments in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, H.B.L.; Salih, I. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Herrmann, J. [Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-09-15

    Seabed sediment samples were collected in 1998, 2000 and 2001 at 20 sites located in the Baltic Sea and 4 sites in the Skagerrak. The objectives of the sampling campaigns were (i) to establish the coastal sediment distribution of {sup 137}Cs, (ii) to evaluate the vertical core distribution of {sup 137}Cs, (iii) to study the sediment accumulation rates, and (iv) to assess the sediment inventories of {sup 137}Cs. The results show a very high variation in {sup 137}Cs concentrations and an almost 100-fold difference in inventories, showing predominance of Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs in the Baltic Proper compared to the western Baltic and the Skagerrak areas. Sediment accumulation rates were highly dependent on sediment types and ranged from 0.05 to 1.8 cm/y.

  19. Sources of 137Cs to an Arctic fjord (Hornsund, Svalbard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborska, Agata

    2017-12-01

    Although primary sources of anthropogenic 137Cs have decreased nowadays, the Arctic is exposed to a variety of secondary sources. These include riverine run-off, oceanic currents, drifting sea ice, melting glaciers and permafrost. Recent reports underline the role of glaciers, specifically cryoconite holes, in radionuclide accumulation. Therefore, this study investigates the hypothesis that melting glaciers are an important means of delivering 137Cs for Arctic fjord (Hornsund, Svalbard). As marine sediments are the final sink for most contaminants, seven 30-40 cm long sediment cores collected in 2016 were investigated for 137Cs activity concentration. Five were collected in a transect from the central to the outer part of the fjord while two were collected within one km of the different melting tidewater glaciers. Sediment layers were dated using 210Pb to reveal the history of 137Cs accumulation. The measured 137Cs activity concentrations ranged from <0.1 to 7.7 Bq kg-1. The activity concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 3.1 Bq kg-1 were measured in surface (0-2 cm) sediments. The total 137Cs inventories were calculated for five station and ranged from 322 to 908 Bq m-2, of which 29-34 Bq m-2 were deposited within the last decade. At two stations characterized by largest sediment accumulation rates only the last decade inventories were calculated and they ranged from 13 to 444 Bq·m-2. The mean of 137Cs fluxes calculated for last decade ranged from 2.7 to 44.1 Bq m-2yr-1. The history of 137Cs environmental inputs was well revealed in the sediments as the 137Cs penetration depth agreed with the time of its introduction to the Arctic and the most pronounced 137Cs activity concentration peak was found in sediments dated for circa 1963. Although 137Cs fluxes and inventories were largest in the glacial bay (Brepollen), the 137Cs was diluted in a large amount of sedimenting material. Based on the results in this study, the glaciers do not appear to act as

  20. {sup 137}CS in cod from Barents sea; {sup 137}CS in Kabeljau der Barentsee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellermann, H.-J.; Kanisch, G.; Krueger, A. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Fischerei (Germany). Inst. fuer Fischereioekologie

    2003-07-01

    After publication of the Yablovkov report about dumping of radioactive waste by the former Soviet Union the Institute for Fishery Ecology has analysed fish from Barents Sea for radioactivity. In all studies {sup 137}Cs concentrations in cod fillet showed a clear dependance from fish length. Results from an analysis of covariance for cod of 70 cm length have minor changes within Barents Sea and indicate a rapid decay to a value as is expected for marine fish which is only influenced by global fallout. (orig.)

  1. Plutonium, 137Cs and uranium isotopes in Mongolian surface soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, K; Kikawada, Y; Igarashi, Y; Fujiwara, H; Jugder, D; Matsumoto, Y; Oi, T; Nomura, M

    2017-01-01

    Plutonium (238Pu and 239,240Pu), 137Cs and plutonium activity ratios (238Pu/239,240Pu) as did uranium isotope ratio (235U/238U) were measured in surface soil samples collected in southeast Mongolia. The 239,240Pu and 137Cs concentrations in Mongolian surface soils (<53 μm of particle size) ranged from 0.42 ± 0.03 to 3.53 ± 0.09 mBq g-1 and from 11.6 ± 0.7 to 102 ± 1 mBq g-1, respectively. The 238Pu/239,240Pu activity ratios in the surface soils (0.013-0.06) coincided with that of global fallout. The 235U/238U atom ratios in the surface soil show the natural one. There was a good correlation between the 239,240Pu and 137Cs concentrations in the surface soils. We introduce the migration depth to have better understanding of migration behaviors of anthropogenic radionuclides in surface soil. We found a difference of the migration behavior between 239,240Pu and 137Cs from 137Cs/239,240Pu - 137Cs plots for the Mongolian and Tsukuba surface soils; plutonium in surface soil is migrated easier than 137Cs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Formation of a new adduct based on fullerene tris-malonate samarium salt C60-[C60(=C(COO)2)3]Sm2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, A. A.; Keskinov, V. A.; Semenov, K. N.; Charykov, N. A.; Letenko, D. G.; Nikitin, V. A.

    2017-03-01

    Gram quantities of a new adduct based on light fullerene tris-malonate samarium salt C60 [C60(=C(COO)2)3]Sm2 are obtained via the reaction of ion exchange. The obtained adduct is studied by means of electron and infrared spectroscopy, X-ray and elemental analysis, electron microscopy, and thermogravimetry. The polythermal solubility of [C60(=C(COO)2)3]Sm2 in water is determined in ampoules via saturation within 20-70°C. The composition of crystalline hydrate [C60(=C(COO)2)3]Sm2 · 36H2O, which exists in equilibrium with the saturated solution, is estimated.

  3. Biodistribution of samarium-153-EDTMP in rats treated with docetaxel Biodistribuição de EDTMP-153-samário em ratos tratados com docetaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Villarim Neto

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Many patients with metastatic bone disease have to use radiopharmaceuticals associated with chemotherapy to relieve bone pain. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of docetaxel on the biodistribution of samarium-153-EDTMP in bones and other organs of rats. METHODS: Wistar male rats were randomly allocated into 2 groups of 6 rats each. The DS (docetaxel/samarium group received docetaxel (15 mg/kg intraperitoneally in two cycles 11 days apart. The S (samarium/control group rats were not treated with docetaxel. Nine days after chemotherapy, all the rats were injected with 0.1ml of samarium-153-EDTMP via orbital plexus (25µCi. After 2 hours, the animals were killed and samples of the brain, thyroid, lung, heart, stomach, colon, liver, kidney and both femurs were removed. The percentage radioactivity of each sample (% ATI/g was determined in an automatic gamma-counter (Wizard-1470, Perkin-Elmer, Finland. RESULTS: On the 9th day after the administration of the 2nd chemotherapy cycle, the rats had a significant weight loss (314.50±22.09g compared (pOBJETIVO: Muitos pacientes com metástases ósseas são tratados com radiofármacos associados com quimioterapia para alívio da dor óssea. O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a influência do docetaxel na biodistribuição do EDTMP-153-samário nos ossos e outros órgãos de ratos. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar foram aleatoriamente alocados em 2 grupos de 6 animais cada. O grupo DS (docetaxel/samário recebeu docetaxel (15 mg/kg intraperitoneal em dois ciclos com 11 dias de intervalo. Os ratos do grupo S (samário/controle não foram tratados com docetaxel. Nove dias após a quimioterapia, todos os animais receberam 0,1ml de EDTMP-153-samário via plexo orbital (25µCi. Após 2 horas, os animais foram mortos e feitas biópsias de cérebro, tireóide, pulmão, coração, estômago, cólon, fígado, rim e fêmures. O percentual de radioatividade por grama (%ATI/g de tecido de cada bi

  4. Marrow irradiation with high-dose 153Samarium-EDTMP followed by chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell infusion for acute myelogenous leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Vilmarie; Anderson, Peter M; Litzow, Mark R; Erlandson, Linda; Trotz, Barbara A; Arndt, Carola A S; Khan, Shakila P; Wiseman, Gregory A

    2006-08-01

    In four patients, aged 15 - 20 years, with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML), high-dose samarium 153-labelled ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonate (153Sm-EDTMP) was used for targeted marrow irradiation before preparative chemotherapy conditioning regimens and allogeneic (three patients) or autologous (one patient) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The dose of 153Sm-EDTMP was 703 MBq/kg (n = 1) or 1110 MBq/kg (n = 3). No side-effects occurred during the 30-min infusion of 153Sm-EDTMP. Samarium - melphalan regimens were given to three patients; one had 153Sm-EDTMP - busulfan + cyclophosphamide. Total body radioactivity was below the 133 MBq safe limit before infusion of stem cells (day 14 after 153Sm-EDTMP). No hemorrhagic cystitis, nephrotoxicity or serious infections occurred. Leukocyte engraftment (white blood cell count >0.5 x 10(9)/l) occurred between 12 and 23 days after stem cell infusion (mean of 17 days). Complete cytogenetic and morphologic remission of AML was evident on follow-up marrow aspirate and biopsy specimens from all patients. In two of the four study patients, the disease remains in complete remission and the patients have an excellent quality of life (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0; no medications) and no organ toxicity more than 2 years and more than 4 years, respectively, after their blood and bone marrow transplantations. Thus, in adolescents and adults, 153Sm-EDTMP may provide a relatively simple and effective means for using irradiation to eliminate AML within the marrow.

  5. Phenotype abnormality: 137 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 137 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u643i decreased efficiency... during process named unidimensional cell growth ... decreased efficiency ... unidimensional cell growth ...

  6. /sup 137/Cs radioactive dating of Lake Ontario sediment cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, T.E.; Breeden, J.; Komisarcik, K.; Porter, R.; Czuczwa, J.; Kaminski, R.; McVeety, B.D.

    1987-12-01

    The distribution of /sup 137/Cs in sediment cores from Lake Ontario provides estimates of the sediment accumulation rates. Geochronology with /sup 210/Pb dating and distribution of Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen compare well with /sup 137/Cs dating. These methods can determine with precision, changes in sedimentation occurring over the past 100 years or so. Typical sedimentation rates of 0.18-0.36 cm/yr were measured. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Cs-137 and Sr-90 level in diary products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petukhov, V.L.; Dukhanov, Y.A.; Sevryuk, I.Z.; Patrashkov, S.A.; Korotkevich, O.S. [State Agrarian University, Research Institute of Veterinary Genetics and Animal Breeding of Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Gorb, T.S.; Petukhov, I.V. [Vitebsk State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, Balarus (Russian Federation)

    2003-05-01

    About 70% of radioactive substances fell on the territory of the Byelorussian Republic after the Chernobyl Atom Power Station Disaster. Cs-137 and Sr-90 accumulation dynamics was studied in milk of the cows from the highest polluted Braginsky area. 408 milk samples of Black and White cows were investigated. In 1995 average Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels were 61.00 and 3.73 Bk/dm{sup 3} respectively. Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels exceeded Byelorussian Republic upper limits RDU - 96 in 10 and 50% of milk samples respectively. After 5 years (by 2000) Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels had become almost 3 and 2 times less (21.70 Bk/dm{sup 3} and 1.72 Bk/dm{sup 3} respectively). Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels exceeded RDU - 96 in 1.5 and 5.5% of milk samples respectively. In the same periods Cs-137 and Sr-90 levels were 7 and 2 times higher than the similar indexes in the relatively clean Novosibirsk area. Thus, radioactive element levels in milk of Black and White cows of the Byelorussian Republic decreased significantly for the past years. (authors)

  8. Uptake of cesium-137 by crops from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, H.; Oezer, I.; Celenk, I.; Halitligil, M.B.; Oezmen, A. [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center (Turkey)

    1994-11-01

    The Turkish tea crop was contaminated following the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Finding ways to dispose of the contaminated tea (Camellia sinensis L.) without damaging the environment was the goal of this research conducted at the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA). In this study, an investigation was made of {sup 137}Cs activities of the plants and the ratios of transfer of {sup 137}Cs activity to plants when the contaminated tea was applied to the soil. Experiments were conducted in the field and in pots under greenhouse conditions. The activities of the tea applied in the field ranged from 12 500 to 72 800 Bq/m{sup 2}, whereas this activity was constant at 8000 Bq/pot in the greenhouse experiment. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from soil to the plants was between 0.037 and 1.057% for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), corn (Zea mays indentata Sturt), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and grass (Lolium perenne L.). The ratio of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs activity to plants increased as the activity {sup 137}Cs in tea applied to soil was increased. The activity in the plants increased due to increased uptake of {sup 137}Cs by plants. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. 232Th, 238U, 40K, 137Cs radioactivity concentrations and 137Cs dose rate in Turkish market tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Önder; Belivermiş, Murat; Topcuoǧlu, Sayhan; Çotuk, Yavuz

    In this study, the activity concentrations of 232Th, 238U, 40K and 137Cs were measured in 10 branded tea samples from local Turkish markets using gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector. The mean activity concentrations of 232Th, 238U, 40K and 137Cs were found to be 2.7 ± 1.0, 0.9 ± 0.4, 501 ± 42 and 45.04 ± 2.6 Bq kg-1, respectively. The average annual effective 137Cs dose as a consequence of tea consumption was found to be 385 nSv for an adult person, which is not hazardous to public health. The correlation coefficient between 137Cs and 40K was found to be-0.82 in these samples. The present data were compared with those found in other studies.

  10. Synthesis of samarium complexes with the derivative binder of Schiff Quinolinic base. Characterization and photophysical study; Sintesis de complejos de samario con el ligante derivado de base de Schiff Quinolinica. Caracterizacion y estudio fotofisico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas H, J.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we determined the metal: binder stoichiometry of the species formed during the UV/Vis spectrophotometric titration of the derivative binder of Schiff quinolinic base, L1 with the samarium nitrate pentahydrate in methanol. Statistical analysis of the data allowed proposing the metal: binder stoichiometry for the synthesis of the complexes which was one mole of samarium salt by 2.5 moles of binder and thus favor the formation of complexes with 1M: 1L and 1M: 2L stoichiometries. They were synthesized in aqueous-organic medium (water-ethanol), isolated and purified two complexes with stoichiometry 1 Sm: 1 L1, complex 1 and 1 Sm: 2 L1, complex 2. The overall yield of the reaction was 76%. The characterization of the formed complexes was performed by visible ultraviolet spectrometry (UV/Vis), nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XP S), thermal gravimetric analysis with differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC), and radial distribution function. These complexes were studied by fluorescence and emission phosphorescence at variable temperature. Spectroscopic techniques used in both solution and solid demonstrated the formation and stability of these complexes. In addition XP S indicated that in both complexes the samarium retains its oxidation state 3+. Luminescence studies indicated that there is intra-binding charge transfer which decreases the transfer of light energy from the binder to the samarium. Based on the experimental results, L1 binder molecules and complexes 1 and 2 were modeled that demonstrated the proposed Nc for each complex, as well as allowed to visualize the structural arrangement of the molecules, complexes and binder. (Author)

  11. Electrical conductivity and capacitance spectra of Bi1.37Sm0.13Zn0.92Nb1.50O6.92 pyrochlore ceramic in the range of 0-3 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasrawi, A. F.; Bzour, Faten M.; Nazzal, Eman O.; Mergen, A.

    2014-02-01

    In this work, the electrical properties of samarium-doped bismuth niobium zinc oxide (Sm-doped BZN) pyrochlore ceramics are investigated by means of temperature dependent electrical conductivity and capacitance spectroscopy in the frequency range of 0-3 GHz. It was observed that the novel dielectric Sm-BZN ceramic exhibits a temperature and electric field dependent dielectric breakdown. When measured at 300 K, the breakdown electric field is 1.12 kV/cm and when heated the breakdown temperature is 420 K. The pyrochlore is thermally active above 440 K with conductivity activation energy of 1.37 eV. In addition, the room temperature capacitance spectra reflected a resonance-antiresonance switching property at 53 MHz when subjected to an AC signal of low power of 5 dBm. Furthermore, when the Sm-BZN ceramics are used as microwave cavity and tested in the frequency range of 1.0-3.0 GHz, the cavity behaves as low pass filter with wide tunability up to a frequency of 1.91 GHz. At this frequency it behaves as a band rejection filter that blocks waves of 1.91 GHz and 2.57 GHz frequencies. These properties of the Sm-doped BZN are promising as they indicate the usability of the ceramics in digital electronic circuits as resonant microwave cavities suitable for the production of low pass/rejection band filters.

  12. Environmental application of cesium-137 irradiation technology: Sludges and foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivinski, Jacek S.

    Several activities have been undertaken to investigate and implement the use of the military byproduct cesium-137 in ways which benefit mankind. Gamma radiation from cesium-137 has been shown to be effective in reducing pathogens in sewage sludge to levels where reuse of the material in public areas meets current regulatory criteria for protection of public health. Food irradiation at doses of 10 kGy or less have been found by international expert committees to be wholesome and safe for human consumption. Cesium-137 can be used as a means of enhancing particular properties of various food commodities by means of sterilization, insect disinfestation, delayed senescence and ripening, and sprout inhibition. This paper discusses the U.S. Department of Energy Beneficial Uses Program research and engineering history, as well as current activities and future plans, relating to both sewage sludge and food irradiation.

  13. Household methods to reduce {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostiainen, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    High radiocaesium contents in different species of mushrooms have been observed in areas contaminated by radiocaesium deposition after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. There has been no significant reduction in the {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms during the past ten years, besides via radioactive decay. The internal radiation dose received via mushrooms can be reduced by processing mushrooms before consumption. Various household methods were studied to find out their efficiency to reduce {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms. The methods tested were the same as normally used in cooking. The tests were made for the species of edible mushrooms widely consumed. The retention factors for the treatments tested were in most cases 0.2-0.3. The efficiency of treatments in reducing the {sup 137}Cs contents increased with larger water volumes and prolonged treatment times.

  14. Radiochemical determination of {sup 137}Cs in foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastner, Geraldo F.; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Monteiro, Roberto P.G., E-mail: gfk@cdtn.br, E-mail: avf@cdtn.br, E-mail: rpgm@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A determination of radionuclides in food samples is important in commodities in order to attend to regulatory requirements for international trade. As a long-lived radioisotope of cesium, {sup 137}Cs is produced as a result of human nuclear activities and than its contamination level evaluation among others radionuclides in foods is necessary. A methodology for the determination of {sup 137}Cs in foods, pork and fish, is described. The procedures covered homogenization and freeze-drying of the samples. The {sup 137}Cs was measured by gamma spectrometry using Canberra 50% HPGe detector. The counting was carried out with Monte Carlo software for detection conditions optimization including geometry and chemical data information. A certified sample, SRM IAEA-375, was analyzed in order to evaluate the reliability of the method, and the results showed good agreement between the measured and certified values. (author)

  15. Characterization and immobilization of cesium-137 in soil at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ningping; Mason, C.F.V.; Turney, W.R.J.R.

    1996-06-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is a major contaminant in soils of Technical Area 21 (TA-21) and is mainly associated with soil particles {<=}2.00 mm. Cesium-137 was not leached by synthetic groundwater or acid rainwater. Soil erosion is a primary mechanism of {sup 137}Cs transport in TA-21. The methodology that controls soil particle runoff can prevent the transport of {sup 137}Cs.

  16. Dosimetry of a Cesium 137 source; Dosimetria de una fuente de Cesio 137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres R, J.G.; Manzanares A, E.; Vega C, H.R. [Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad de Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    It was carried out a dosimetric study of a source of Cesium 137 used in investigations of Radiobiology. This radionuclide has a half life of 30.07 years and it emits photons of 661.657 keV with a probability of 85.2%. The source has been used in a series of experiments trending to observe the cellular response before the gamma rays, as well as for the calibration of equipment of radiological protection. For such reason it is important to determine the dosimetric properties. In this work it was determined the absorbed dose that this source takes when being placed in the center from a methylmethacrylate badge to three distances, 5, 10 and 15 cm. The dose was measured with thermoluminescent dosemeters and it was calculated by means of Monte Carlo method, also was derived an expression that allows to determine the dose starting from the information of the activity of the source and of the distance regarding the same one. (Author)

  17. Temporal variations of Cs-137 in Sots Pine; Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylen, T.; Plamboeck, A.H.; Boson, J.

    2008-07-01

    In this study the temporal changes in 137Cs distribution in a Scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) stand was studied during 1986 to 2006 in Northern Sweden. The Chernobyl fallout provided an excellent possibility to study the uptake and retention in conifer trees of 137Cs, since the deposition lasted for only a few days. The average deposition of 137Cs in the region that originates from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 was 20 +-9 kBq M-2 . Also 137Cs from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests was present in the area and was only 3 +-2 kBq m-2. Studies show that the redistribution of radioactive caesium still contribute to high activity concentrations in some compartments of the ecosystem. It has been known that certain fungi continue to produce fruit bodies with high amounts of 137Cs. The current study adds another aspect to consider: The high activity concentration in branches and current needles during 2006 indicates an uptake of 137Cs from the soil which could lead to concentrations in Scots Pine that has to be considered in forestry and other kind of utilization of forest products. There are for instance a few game birds such as the capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) that feed on pine shoots. Another possible effect is on the use of pine branches in the bio fuel industry. Given an activity concentration of 1200 Bq/kg (d.w.) and a concentration factor of 10 during combustion the concentration in ashes would be 12000 bq/kg. According to the recommendations from SSI (the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority) ashes that have concentrations higher than 10 kBq/kg must be stored in special deposits. It would be of interest to investigate the uptake in stands of different ages since the pine stand that was studied was about 30 years old in 1986 and do not represent neither a mature nor a newly established stand (tk)

  18. {sup 137}Cs in a raised bog in central Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Ulls vag 17, Box 7014, SE-75007, Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: klas.rosen@mv.slu.se; Vinichuk, M. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Ulls vag 17, Box 7014, SE-75007, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Ecology, Zhytomyr State Technological University, 103 Cherniakhovsky Str., 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Johanson, K.J. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Ulls vag 17, Box 7014, SE-75007, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-07-15

    The vertical distribution of {sup 137}Cs activity in peat soil profiles and {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in plants of various species was studied in samples collected at two sites on a raised bog in central Sweden. One site (open bog) was in an area with no trees and only a few sparsely growing plant species, while the other (low pine) was less than 100 m from the open bog site and had slowly growing Scots pine, a field layer dominated by some ericaceous plants and ground well-covered by plants. The plant samples were collected in 2004-2007 and were compared with samples collected in 1989 from the same open bog and low pine sites. Ground deposition of {sup 137}Cs in 2005 was similar at both sites, 23 000 Bq m{sup -2}. In the open bog peat profile it seems to be an upward transport of caesium since a clear peak of {sup 137}Cs activity was found in the uppermost 1-4 cm of Sphagnum layers, whereas at the low pine site {sup 137}Cs was mainly found in deeper (10-12 cm) layers. The migration rate was 0.57 cm yr{sup -1} at the open bog site and the migration centre of {sup 137}Cs was at a depth of 10.7, while the rate at the low pine site was 0.78 cm yr{sup -1} and the migration centre was at 14.9 cm. Heather (Calluna vulgaris) was the plant species with the highest {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations at both sites, 43.5 k Bq{sup -1} DM in 1989 decreasing to 20.4 in 2004-2007 on open bog and 22.3 k Bq kg{sup -1} DM in 1989 decreasing to 11.2 k Bq{sup -1} DM by the period 2004-2007 on the low pine site. {sup 137}Cs transfer factors in plants varied between 0.88 and 1.35 on the open bog and between 0.48 and 0.69 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} DM at the low pine site.

  19. {sup 137}Cs in the population in inland north Sweden; {sup 137}Cs i befolkningen i Norrlands inland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, L.; Lindstroem, J.; Aagren, G. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics

    1993-12-01

    Whole-body measurements off {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were performed on samples of the population at three localities in northern Sweden, that suffered different degrees of contamination at the Chernobyl accident. The localities all have significant populations of lapps, who due to their high intake of reindeer-meat have much higher levels of Cesium than the population in general. It was found that; the mean whole-body content of {sup 137}Cs is ten times higher for lapps than for the general population in areas with high contamination; the ratio between the whole-body content and the ground contamination is lower in areas with high contamination, indicating that mitigation measures have had effect; measurements on urine samples can be used to get a quick estimate of the mean {sup 137}Cs concentration of a population group. Results from the measurements are presented in several tables.

  20. Pyrolysis result of polyethylene waste as fuel for solid oxide fuel cell with samarium doped-ceria (SDC)-carbonate as electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahputra, R. J. E.; Rahmawati, F.; Prameswari, A. P.; Saktian, R.

    2017-02-01

    In this research, the result of pyrolysis on polyethylene was used as fuel for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The pyrolysis result is a liquid which consists of hydrocarbon chains. According to GC-MS analysis, the hydrocarbons mainly consist of C7 to C20 hydrocarbon chain. Then, the liquid was applied to a single cell of NSDC-L | NSDC | NSDC-L. NSDC is a composite SDC (samarium doped-ceria) with sodium carbonate. Meanwhile, NSDC-L is a composite of NSDC with LiNiCuO (LNC). NSDC and LNC were analyzed by X-ray diffraction to understand their crystal structure. The result shows that presence of carbonate did not change the crystal structure of SDC. SEM EDX analysis for fuel cell before and after being loaded with polyethylene oil to get information of element diffusion to the electrolyte. Meanwhile, the conductivity properties were investigated through impedance measurement. The presence of carbonate even increases the electrical conductivity. The single cell test with the pyrolysis result of polyethylene at 300 - 600 °C, found that the highest power density is at 600 °C with the maximum power density of 0.14 mW/cm2 and open circuit voltage of 0.4 Volt. Elemental analysis at three point spots of single cell NDSC-L |NSDC|NSDC-L found that a migration of ions was occurred during fuel operation at 300 - 600 °C.

  1. Effects of some rare earth and carbonate-based co-dopants on structural and electrical properties of samarium doped ceria (SDC) electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Mustafa; Khan, Zuhair S.; Mustafa, Kamal; Rana, Akmal

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, samarium doped ceria (SDC) and SDC-based composite with the addition of K2CO3 were prepared by co-precipitation route and effects of pH of the solution and calcination temperature on microstructure of SDC and SDC-K2CO3, respectively, were investigated. Furthermore, experimentation was performed to investigate into the ionic conductivity of pure SDC by co-doping with yttrium i.e., YSDC, XRD and SEM studies show that the crystallite size and particle size of SDC increases with the increase in pH. The SEM images of all the samples of SDC synthesized at different pH values showed the irregular shaped and dispersed particles. SDC-K2CO3 was calcined at 600∘C, 700∘C and 800∘C for 4 h and XRD results showed that crystallite size increases while lattice strain, decreases with the increase in calcination temperature and no peaks were detected for K2CO3 as it is present in an amorphous form. The ionic conductivity of the electrolytes increases with the increase in temperature and SDC-K2CO3 shows the highest value of ionic conductivity as compared to SDC and YSDC. Chemical compatibility tests were performed between the co-doped electrolyte and lithiated NiO cathode at high temperature. It revealed that the couple could be used up to the temperature of 700∘C.

  2. Calculation of the Dose of Samarium-153-Ethylene Diamine Tetramethylene Phosphonate (153Sm-EDTMP as a Radiopharmaceutical for Pain Relief of bone Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Razghandi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the important applications of nuclear physics in medicine is the use of radioactive elements as radiopharmaceuticals. Metastatic bone disease is the most common form of malignant bone tumors. Samarium-153-ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate (153Sm-EDTMP as a radiopharmaceutical is used for pain palliation. This radiopharmaceutical usually emits beta particles, which have a high uptake in bone tissues. The purpose of this study was to calculate the radiation dose distribution of 153Sm-EDTMP in bone and other tissues, using MCNPX Monte Carlo code in the particle transport model. Materials and Methods Dose delivery to the bone was simulated by seeking radiopharmaceuticals on the bone surface. The phantom model had a simple cylindrical geometry and included bone, bone marrow, and soft tissue. Results The simulation results showed that a significant amount of radiation dose was delivered to the bone by the use of this radiopharmaceutical. Conclusion Thebone acted as a fine protective shield against rays for the bone marrow. Therefore, the trivial absorbed dose by the bone marrow caused less damage to bone-making cells. Also, the high absorbed dose of the bone could destroy cancer cells and relieve the pain in the bone.

  3. Synthesis, quality control and biological evaluation of tris[(1,10-phenanthroline)[{sup 153}Sm]samarium(III)]trithiocyanate complex as a therapeutic agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naseri, Z.; Kharat, A. Nemati [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Inorganic Chemistry Dept.; Hakimi, A. [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch; Jalilian, A.R.; Shirvani-Arani, S.; Bahrami-Samani, A.; Ghannadi-Maragheh, M. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (IR). Radiopharmaceutical Research and Development Lab (RRDL)

    2012-07-01

    Therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals are designed to deliver high doses of radiation to selected target organs or tissues with an aim of minimizing unwanted radiation to surrounding healthy tissue. In this work, [tris(1,10-phenanthroline)[{sup 153}Sm]samarium(III)]trithiocyanate ({sup 153}Sm-TPTTC) was developed for possible therapeutic properties. The cold compound, i.e. {sup nat}Sm-TPTTC was prepared and characterized by IR, UV, mass and {sup 1}H-NMR spectroscopy. {sup 153}Sm-TPTTC was prepared in two steps using [{sup 153}Sm]SmCl{sub 3}, obtained by neutron activation of an enriched {sup 152}Sm sample. Stability tests, partition coefficient determination, toxicity tests and biodistribution studies of the complex in wild-type and fibrosarcoma-bearing mice were determined. The radiolabeled complex was prepared in high radiochemical purity (> 99% precipitation method) and specific activity of 278 GBq/mmol and demonstrated significant stability at 4, 25 and 37 C (in presence of human serum). Initial complex biodistribution data showed significant liver accumulation in wild-type mice and significant tumor accumulation in fibrosarcoma-bearing mice with tumor:blood and tumor:muscle ratios of 3.55 (2 h) and 38.26 (96 h) respectively. {sup 153}Sm-TPTTC properties suggest an efficient tumor targeting agent with high tumor-avidity. Further investigation on the therapeutic properties must be conducted. (orig.)

  4. 40 CFR 1.37 - Office of External Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental impact statements, in relation to proposed legislation and reports on legislation. The Office... Section 1.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION... program manager for five major programs that include: (1) The review of other agency environmental impact...

  5. Page 1 Arabian Sea planktonic processes and organic flux 137 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arabian Sea planktonic processes and organic flux 137. DCM, and in traps with the benthic assemblage (s), where also differential dissolution of frustules ... plankton pigment concentrations, especially during the NE monsoon in the north. (areas 4b, 4c and Banse and English 1994b), marked interannual variability of animal.

  6. 49 CFR 37.137 - Paratransit plan development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paratransit plan development. 37.137 Section 37... development. (a) Survey of existing services. Each submitting entity shall survey the area to be covered by... development of its paratransit plan, including at least the following: (1) Outreach. Each submitting entity...

  7. The burden of cesium 137 in forest clerks; Die Belastung mit Caesium 137 bei Beschaeftigten der Forstverwaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piechotowski, I.; Jaroni, J. [Landesgesundheitsamt Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany); Link, B. [Arbeits- und Sozialministerium des Landes Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany); Groezinger, O. [Ministerium fuer Umwelt und Verkehr des Landes Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    In 47 forest clerks from the regions Ortenau and Oberschwaben in south-west Germany the incorporation of cesium 137 and potassium 40 was measured in autumn 1994. Soil burden as well as burden of nutrition with cesium 137 are different in these regions for geological reasons and as a result of the nuclear accident of Chernobyl. Caused by low content of clay in Oberschwaben, the transfer of cesium to plants is assisted. Heavy rainfall after the nuclear accident led to an additional increase of burden. The median of the concentration of cesium 137 was 1.4 Bq/kg body weight. The median for potassium 40 was 58 Bq/kg body weight. For cesium 137 regional differences were observed. For persons from Oberschwaben the median for cesium 137 was with 2.8 Bq/kg body weight clearly higher than for persons from Ortenau with 0,6 Bq/kg body weight. Concerning nutrition habits, the clearest difference was found comparing persons who had ate a minimum of four portions of deer from the surroundings within the last four weeks with persons who had ate less than four portions of deer from the surroundings within the last four weeks. The difference was greater in Oberschwaben than in Ortenau. The effective dose of cesium 137 calculated on the basis of the incorporation is very low compared to natural radiation. This is also valid for persons from Oberschwaben. (orig.) [German] Im Herbst 1994 wurde bei insgesamt 47 Bediensteten der Forstverwaltung aus den Regionen Ortenaukreis und Oberschwaben die Inkorportation an Caesium 137 und Kalium 40 gemessen. Sowohl die Bodenbelastung als auch die Belastung von Nahrungsmitteln mit Caesium 137 unterscheiden sich in diesen Gebieten bedingt durch geologische Besonderheiten und in Folge des Reaktorunfalls von Tschernobyl. Aufgrund eines geringen Anteils an Tonerden wird in Oberschwaben der Caesiumtransfer in Pflanzen beguenstigt, eine zusaetzliche Erhoehung der Belastung erfolgte durch starke Niederschlaege nach dem Reaktorunfall. Die Konzentration fuer

  8. Retention capacity of samarium (III) in zircon for it possible use in retaining walls for confinement of nuclear residues; Capacidad de retencion de samario (III) en circon para su posible uso en barreras de contencion para confinamiento de residuos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia G, N

    2006-07-01

    Mexico, as country that produces part of its electric power by nuclear means, should put special emphasis in the development of technologies guided to the sure and long term confinement of the high level nuclear residuals. This work studies the capacity that has the natural zircon to retain to the samarium (III) in solution, by what due, firstly, to characterize the zircon for technical instrumental to determine the purity and characteristic of the mineral in study. The instrumental techniques that were used to carry out the physicochemical characterization were the neutron activation analysis (NAA), the infrared spectroscopy (IS), the thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), semiquantitative analysis, dispersive energy spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and luminescence technique. The characterization of the surface properties carries out by means of the determination of the surface area using the BET multipoint technique, acidity constants, hydration time, the determination of the point of null charge (pH{sub PCN}) and density of surface sites (D{sub s}). The luminescence techniques were useful to determine the optimal point hydration of the zircon and for the quantification of the samarium, for that here intends the development of both analysis techniques. With the adjustment of the titration curves in the FITEQL 4 package the constants of surface acidity in the solid/liquid interface were determined. To the finish of this study it was corroborated that the zircon is a mineral that presents appropriate characteristics to be proposed as a contention barrier for the deep geologic confinement. With regard to the study of adsorption that one carries out the samarium retention it is superior to 90% under the described conditions. This investigation could also be applicable in the confinement of dangerous industrial residuals. (Author)

  9. Distribution of 137Cs Radionuclide in Industrial Wastes Effluents of Gresik, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs was measured from industrial waste effluent of Gresik to Gresik Sea in east Java, Indonesia. The activity of 37Cs detected at all stations was much lower than in northeast Japan both before and after NPP Fukushima accident. This indicated that in Gresik industrials waste did not consist of 137Cs. The lowest activity 137Cs occurred at the station nearest to the industrial waste effluent that contained some particle ions that were able to scavenge 137Cs and then precipate this radionuclide. Furthermore, the greatest 137Cs occured at the station that has high current speeds that stirred up sediment to release 137Cs in seawater as a secondary source. The lowest salinity did not effect on the activity of 137Cs even though the lowest salinity and activity 137Cs occured at the same station

  10. Contribution of Asian dust to atmospheric deposition of radioactive cesium ((137)Cs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Taijiro; Fujiwara, Hideshi

    2008-11-01

    Both Asian dust (kosa) transported from the East Asian continent and locally suspended dust near monitoring sites contribute to the observed atmospheric deposition of (137)Cs in Japan. To estimate the relative contribution of these dust phenomena to the total (137)Cs deposition, we monitored weekly deposition of mineral particles and (137)Cs in spring. Deposition of (137)Cs from a single Asian dust event was 62.3 mBq m(-2) and accounted for 67% of the total (137)Cs deposition during the entire monitoring period. Furthermore, we found high (137)Cs specific activity in the Asian dust deposition sample. Although local dust events contributed to (137)Cs deposition, their contribution was considerably smaller than that of Asian dust. We conclude that the primary source of atmospheric (137)Cs in Japan is dust transported from the East Asian continent.

  11. Surface erosion assessment using 137 Cs: examples from New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Basher, L. R.

    2000-01-01

    The 137Cs technique has provided the first quantitative, medium-term data on rates of soil redistribution by surface erosion on both cropland and rangeland in New Zealand. Use of the technique has demonstrated: high rates of soil redistribution by water erosion at two cropland sites under intensive vegetable production; a slow rate of net loss of soil by wind erosion associated with arable farming; a strong association between vegetation depletion and wind erosion on grazed rangeland. Re...

  12. SU-C-201-06: Utility of Quantitative 3D SPECT/CT Imaging in Patient Specific Internal Dosimetry of 153-Samarium with GATE Monte Carlo Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallahpoor, M; Abbasi, M [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Vali-Asr Hospital, Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sen, A [University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Parach, A [Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalantari, F [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Patient-specific 3-dimensional (3D) internal dosimetry in targeted radionuclide therapy is essential for efficient treatment. Two major steps to achieve reliable results are: 1) generating quantitative 3D images of radionuclide distribution and attenuation coefficients and 2) using a reliable method for dose calculation based on activity and attenuation map. In this research, internal dosimetry for 153-Samarium (153-Sm) was done by SPECT-CT images coupled GATE Monte Carlo package for internal dosimetry. Methods: A 50 years old woman with bone metastases from breast cancer was prescribed 153-Sm treatment (Gamma: 103keV and beta: 0.81MeV). A SPECT/CT scan was performed with the Siemens Simbia-T scanner. SPECT and CT images were registered using default registration software. SPECT quantification was achieved by compensating for all image degrading factors including body attenuation, Compton scattering and collimator-detector response (CDR). Triple energy window method was used to estimate and eliminate the scattered photons. Iterative ordered-subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) with correction for attenuation and distance-dependent CDR was used for image reconstruction. Bilinear energy mapping is used to convert Hounsfield units in CT image to attenuation map. Organ borders were defined by the itk-SNAP toolkit segmentation on CT image. GATE was then used for internal dose calculation. The Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs) and S-values were reported as MIRD schema. Results: The results showed that the largest SAFs and S-values are in osseous organs as expected. S-value for lung is the highest after spine that can be important in 153-Sm therapy. Conclusion: We presented the utility of SPECT-CT images and Monte Carlo for patient-specific dosimetry as a reliable and accurate method. It has several advantages over template-based methods or simplified dose estimation methods. With advent of high speed computers, Monte Carlo can be used for treatment planning

  13. Fabrication of catalytically active nanocrystalline samarium (Sm)-doped cerium oxide (CeO2) thin films using electron beam evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Subrata; Sutradhar, Narottam; Thangamuthu, R.; Subramanian, B.; Panda, Asit Baran; Jayachandran, M.

    2012-08-01

    Samarium (Sm)-doped cerium oxide (CeO2) thin films were fabricated using electron beam evaporation technique. The synthesized films were deposited either on glass or ITO substrates and studied their nature by annealing at different temperatures. The optical properties and other morphological studies were done by UV-Vis, XRD, XPS, SEM, EDS, and FT-IR analysis. XRD and XPS analysis clearly confirm the presence of Sm in the ceria site. From the SEM study, it was found that after annealing at high temperature ( 300 or 500 °C), the particles size was reduced due to breakdown of large aggregates of particles which is also confirmed from UV-Vis, XPS, and XRD analyses. The FT-IR study proves the presence of -COO-, -OH, or ammonium group on the particles surface. The deposition of Sm-doped CeO2 nanomaterials was found more feasible on ITO substrate compared to that of glass substrate in terms of stability and depth of film thickness. The Sm-doped CeO2 nanomaterial acts as a re-usable catalyst for the reduction of organic dye molecules in the presence of NaBH4. The catalysis rate was compared by considering the electron transfer process during the reduction. The synthesized Sm-doped CeO2 thin films might find wide variety of applications in various emerging fields like solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), oxygen sensor or as catalyst in different types of organic and inorganic catalytic reactions. The fabrication process is very simple, straightforward, less time consuming, and cost effective.

  14. Fabrication of catalytically active nanocrystalline samarium (Sm)-doped cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) thin films using electron beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Subrata, E-mail: skundu@cecri.res.in [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Electrochemical Materials Science (ECMS) Division, Central Electrochemical Research Institute - CECRI (India); Sutradhar, Narottam [G. B. Marg, Central Salt and Marine Chemical Research Institute - CSIR (India); Thangamuthu, R.; Subramanian, B. [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Electrochemical Materials Science (ECMS) Division, Central Electrochemical Research Institute - CECRI (India); Panda, Asit Baran [G. B. Marg, Central Salt and Marine Chemical Research Institute (CSIR) (India); Jayachandran, M., E-mail: mjayam54@yahoo.com [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Electrochemical Materials Science (ECMS) Division, Central Electrochemical Research Institute - CECRI (India)

    2012-08-15

    Samarium (Sm)-doped cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) thin films were fabricated using electron beam evaporation technique. The synthesized films were deposited either on glass or ITO substrates and studied their nature by annealing at different temperatures. The optical properties and other morphological studies were done by UV-Vis, XRD, XPS, SEM, EDS, and FT-IR analysis. XRD and XPS analysis clearly confirm the presence of Sm in the ceria site. From the SEM study, it was found that after annealing at high temperature ({approx}300 or 500 Degree-Sign C), the particles size was reduced due to breakdown of large aggregates of particles which is also confirmed from UV-Vis, XPS, and XRD analyses. The FT-IR study proves the presence of -COO-, -OH, or ammonium group on the particles surface. The deposition of Sm-doped CeO{sub 2} nanomaterials was found more feasible on ITO substrate compared to that of glass substrate in terms of stability and depth of film thickness. The Sm-doped CeO{sub 2} nanomaterial acts as a re-usable catalyst for the reduction of organic dye molecules in the presence of NaBH{sub 4}. The catalysis rate was compared by considering the electron transfer process during the reduction. The synthesized Sm-doped CeO{sub 2} thin films might find wide variety of applications in various emerging fields like solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), oxygen sensor or as catalyst in different types of organic and inorganic catalytic reactions. The fabrication process is very simple, straightforward, less time consuming, and cost effective.Graphical Abstract.

  15. 21 CFR 137.290 - Self-rising yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-rising yellow corn meal. 137.290 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.290 Self-rising yellow corn meal. Self-rising yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.270 for self-rising white corn meal...

  16. Observation of the Nuclear Magnetic Octupole Moment of 137Ba+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Matthew

    Single trapped ions are ideal systems in which to test atomic physics at high precision, which can in turn be used for searches for violations of fundamental symmetries and physics beyond the standard model, in addition to quantum computation and a number of other applications. The ion is confined in ultra-high vacuum, is laser cooled to mK temperatures, and kept well isolated from the environment which allows these experimental efforts. In this thesis, a few diagnostic techniques will be discussed, covering a method to measure the linewidth of a narrowband laser in the presence of magnetic field noise, as well as a procedure to measure the ion's temperature using such a narrowband laser. This work has led to two precision experiments to measure atomic structure in 138Ba+, and 137Ba+ discussed here. First, employing laser and radio frequency spectroscopy techniques in 138Ba+, we measured the Lande- gJ factor of the 5D5/2 level at the part-per-million level, the highest precision to date. Later, the development of apparatus to efficiently trap and laser cool 137Ba+ has enabled a measurement of the hyperfine splittings of the 5D3/2 manifold, culminating in the observation of the nuclear magnetic octupole moment of 137Ba+.

  17. 42 CFR 137.32 - Is a compact required to participate in self-governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-governance? 137.32 Section 137.32 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Self-Governance compact § 137.32 Is a compact required to participate in self-governance? Yes, Tribes must have a...

  18. 29 CFR 780.137 - Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... farming. 780.137 Section 780.137 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.137 Practices must be performed in connection with farmer's own farming. “Practices * * * performed by a farmer...

  19. 42 CFR 137.246 - How does a Self-Governance Tribe retrocede a PSFA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does a Self-Governance Tribe retrocede a PSFA? 137.246 Section 137.246 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Retrocession § 137...

  20. 42 CFR 137.133 - What does a final offer contain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does a final offer contain? 137.133 Section 137.133 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Final Offer § 137.133 What does a...

  1. 42 CFR 137.132 - How does the Indian Tribe submit a final offer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does the Indian Tribe submit a final offer? 137.132 Section 137.132 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Final Offer § 137...

  2. 42 CFR 137.130 - What is covered by this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is covered by this subpart? 137.130 Section 137.130 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Final Offer § 137.130 What is...

  3. 42 CFR 137.247 - What is the effective date of a retrocession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the effective date of a retrocession? 137.247 Section 137.247 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Retrocession § 137...

  4. 42 CFR 137.236 - When does a withdrawal become effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When does a withdrawal become effective? 137.236 Section 137.236 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Withdrawal § 137.236 When does a...

  5. 42 CFR 137.31 - What is included in a compact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is included in a compact? 137.31 Section 137.31 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Self-Governance compact § 137.31 What is...

  6. 42 CFR 137.131 - When should a final offer be submitted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When should a final offer be submitted? 137.131 Section 137.131 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Final Offer § 137.131 When should...

  7. 42 CFR 137.134 - When does the 45 day review period begin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When does the 45 day review period begin? 137.134 Section 137.134 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Final Offer § 137.134 When does...

  8. 14 CFR 137.42 - Fastening of safety belts and shoulder harnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fastening of safety belts and shoulder harnesses. 137.42 Section 137.42 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.42 Fastening of safety belts and shoulder harnesses. No...

  9. 45 CFR 13.7 - Studies, exhibits, analyses, engineering reports, tests and projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Studies, exhibits, analyses, engineering reports, tests and projects. 13.7 Section 13.7 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS General Provisions § 13.7 Studies, exhibits, analyses,...

  10. 42 CFR 137.301 - How are project and program environmental review costs identified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... development to identify program and project related costs associated with carrying out environmental... costs identified? 137.301 Section 137.301 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Construction Nepa Process § 137.301 How are project and program environmental review costs identified? (a) The...

  11. Bioremoval of Am-241 and Cs-137 from liquid radioactive wasters by bacterial consortiums; Biorremocao de Am-241 e Cs-137 de rejeitos radioativos liquidos por consorcios bacterianos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Lima, Josenilson B. de; Gomes, Mirella C.; Borba, Tania R.; Bellini, Maria Helena; Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Sakata, Solange Kazumi, E-mail: rpadua@ipen.b, E-mail: sksakata@ipen.b, E-mail: jblima@ipen.b, E-mail: mbmarumo@ipen.b, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper evaluates the capacity of two bacterial consortiums of impacted areas in removing the Am-241 and Cs-137 from liquid radioactive wastes.The experiments indicated that the two study consortiums were able to remove 100% of the Cs-137 and Am-241 presents in the waste from 4 days of contact. These results suggest that the bio removal with the selected consortiums, can be a viable technique for the treatment of radioactive wastes containing Am-241 and Cs-137

  12. Experimental contamination of pink shrimps by caesium 137; Contamination experimentale de crevettes roses par le cesium 137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancellin, J.; Michon, G.; Vilquin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The authors describe first of all the technique used for the determination of cesium 137 concentration factors in the pink shrimp (Leander Serratus Pennant). Experiments over three months have shown that the specific activity of the shrimps becomes stable between the thirtieth and the fortieth day. The concentration factors then have values between 30 and 40. These results are similar to those obtained by other authors. (authors) [French] Les auteurs decrivent tout d'abord la technique utilisee pour la determination des facteurs de concentration du Cesium 137 chez la crevette rose (Leander Serratus Pennant). Le resultat des experimentations menees pendant trois mois montre que l'activite specifique des crevettes se stabilise entre le trentieme et le quarantieme jour. Les facteurs de concentration se situent alors entre 30 et 40, Ces donnees sont comparables a celles obtenues par d'autres auteurs. (auteur)

  13. Divergence of Cs-137 sources fluence used in brachytherapy; Divergencia da fluencia de fontes de Cs-137 usadas em braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianello, E.A.; Almeida, C.E. de [Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas- LCR-DBB (UERJ). R. Sao Francisco Xavier, 524- Pav. HLC, sala 136 terreo- CEP 20.550- 013. Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    In this work the experimental determination of correction factor for fluence divergence (kln) of linear Cs-137 sources CDCS J4, with Farmer ionization chamber model 2571 in a central and perpendicular plan to source axis, for distances range from 1 to 7 cm., has been presented. The experimental results were compared to calculating by Kondo and Randolph (1960) isotropic theory and Bielajew (1990) anisotropic theory. (Author)

  14. Fukushima 137Cs at the base of planktonic food webs off Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Z.; Fisher, N. S.; Gobler, C. J.; Buesseler, K. O.; George, J. A.; Breier, C. F.; Nishikawa, J.

    2015-12-01

    The potential bioaccumulation of 137Cs in marine food webs off Japan became a concern following the release of radioactive contaminants from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant into the coastal ocean. Previous studies suggest that 137Cs activities increase with trophic level in pelagic food webs, however, the bioaccumulation of 137Cs from seawater to primary producers, to zooplankton has not been evaluated in the field. Since phytoplankton are frequently the largest component of suspended particulate matter (SPM) we used SPM concentrations and particle-associated 137Cs to understand bioaccumulation of 137Cs in through trophic pathways in the field. We determined particle-associated 137Cs for samples collected at 20 m depth from six stations off Japan three months after the initial release from the Fukushima nuclear power plant. At 20 m SPM ranged from 0.65 to 1.60 mg L-1 and rapidly declined with depth. The ratios of particulate organic carbon to chlorophyll a suggested that phytoplankton comprised much of the SPM in these samples. 137Cs activities on particles accounted for on average 0.04% of the total 137Cs in seawater samples, and measured concentration factors of 137Cs on small suspended particles were comparatively low (∼102). However, when 137Cs in crustacean zooplankton was derived based only on modeling dietary 137Cs uptake, we found predicted and measured 137Cs concentrations in good agreement. We therefore postulate the possibility that the dietary route of 137Cs bioaccumulation (i.e., phytoplankton ingestion) could be largely responsible for the measured levels in the copepod-dominated (%) zooplankton assemblages in Japanese coastal waters. Finally, our data did not support the notion that zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton results in a biomagnification of 137Cs.

  15. Phenotype-gene: 137 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 137 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u3ria224u1135i decreased leng...th in organ named hypocotyl for AT1G48380 Sugimoto-Shirasu Keiko et al. 2005 Dec. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S....A. 102(51):18736-41. http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u16339310i decreased length i

  16. Root endophytic bacteria of a (137)Cs and Mn accumulator plant, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides, increase (137)Cs and Mn desorption in the soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, Keiko; Nagata, Satoshi; Haruma, Toshikatsu; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Kozaki, Tamotsu; Watanabe, Naoko; Nanba, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    We found that root endophytes of (137)Cs accumulator plant produce siderophores, resulting in the desorption of (137)Cs from the contaminated soil collected at Fukushima, Japan. We selected an endemic Japanese deciduous tree, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides (Franch. et Sav), that accumulates high concentrations of (137)Cs and Mn. Root endophytic bacteria were isolated from E. sciadophylloides and microbial siderophore production was evaluated via chrome azurol S (CAS) Fe and CAS Al assays. Of the 463 strains that we isolated, 107 (23.1%) produced the siderophores. Using eight strains that showed high siderophore production in our assays, we examined desorption of (137)Cs, Mn, Fe and Al by the bacterial culture filtrates from (137)Cs-contaminated soil after decomposing the soil organic matter using hydrogen peroxide. We found (137)Cs and Mn desorption concomitant with Al and Fe desorption, as well as a decrease of pH. We also detected succinic acid, a well-known siderophore, in the bacterial culture filtrates of our two root endophytic bacteria. Our results strongly suggest that the root endophytic bacteria of E. sciadophylloides produce the siderophores that enhance (137)Cs and Mn desorption in the rhizosphere, making the resulting (137)Cs and Mn ions easier for E. sciadophylloides to absorb from the rhizosphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Crystal structure of monoclinic samarium and cubic europium sesquioxides and bound coherent neutron scattering lengths of the isotopes {sup 154}Sm and {sup 153}Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlmann, Holger [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry; Hein, Christina; Kautenburger, Ralf [Saarland Univ., Saarbruecken (Germany). Inorganic Solid State Chemistry; Hansen, Thomas C.; Ritter, Clemens [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Doyle, Stephen [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Synchrotron Radiation (ISS)

    2016-11-01

    The crystal structures of monoclinic samarium and cubic europium sesquioxide, Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were reinvestigated by powder diffraction methods (laboratory X-ray, synchrotron, neutron). Rietveld analysis yields more precise structural parameters than previously known, especially for oxygen atoms. Interatomic distances d(Sm-O) in Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} range from 226.3(4) to 275.9(2) pm [average 241.6(3) pm] for the monoclinic B type Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} [space group C2/m, a = 1418.04(3) pm, b = 362.660(7) pm, c = 885.48(2) pm, β = 100.028(1) ], d(Eu-O) in Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} from 229.9(2) to 238.8(2) pm for the cubic bixbyite (C) type [space group Ia anti 3, a = 1086.87(1) pm]. Neutron diffraction at 50 K and 2 K did not show any sign for magnetic ordering in Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Isotopically enriched {sup 154}Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 153}Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} were used for the neutron diffraction work because of the enormous absorption cross section of the natural isotopic mixtures for thermal neutrons. The isotopic purity was determined by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry to be 98.9% for {sup 154}Sm and 99.8% for {sup 153}Eu. Advanced analysis of the neutron diffraction data suggest that the bound coherent scattering lengths of {sup 154}Sm and {sup 153}Eu need to be revised. We tentatively propose b{sub c}({sup 154}Sm) = 8.97(6) fm and b{sub c}({sup 153}Eu) = 8.85(3) fm for a neutron wavelength of 186.6 pm to be better values for these isotopes, showing up to 8% deviation from accepted literature values. It is shown that inaccurate scattering lengths may result in severe problems in crystal structure refinements causing erroneous structural details such as occupation parameters, which might be critically linked to physical properties like superconductivity in multinary oxides.

  18. Caesium 137: Properties and biological effects resulting of an internal contamination;Cesium 137: proprietes et effets biologiques apres contamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestaevel, P.; Racine, R.; Bensoussan, H.; Rouas, C.; Gueguen, Y.; Dublineau, I.; Bertho, J.M.; Gourmelon, P.; Jourdain, J.R.; Souidi, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, laboratoire de radiotoxicologie experimentale, direction de la radioprotection de l' homme, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2010-02-15

    Caesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is a radionuclide present in the environment mainly as the result of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and accidents arising in nuclear power plants like the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Nowadays, the health consequences resulting from a chronic exposure to this radionuclide remain unknown. After absorption, the caesium is distributed relatively homogeneously within the body, with a more important load in children than in adults. The toxicity of {sup 137}Cs is mainly due to its radiological properties. A high dose of {sup 137}Cs is responsible for a medullar dystrophy, disorders of the reproductive function, and effects on liver and renal functions. Disorders of bone mineralization and brain damages were also described in human beings. At lowest dose, {sup 137}Cs induces disturbances of wakefulness-sleep cycle, but not accompanied with behavioural disorders. The cardiovascular system was also perturbed. Biological effects of {sup 137}Cs on the metabolisms of the vitamin D, cholesterol and steroid hormones were described, but do not lead to clinical symptoms. In human beings, {sup 137}Cs leads to an immune deficiency, congenital and foetal deformations, an increased of thyroid cancer, as well as neurological disorders. It seems that children are more sensitive to the toxic effects of caesium than the adults. At present, the only effective treatment for the decorporation of the ingested {sup 137}Cs is the Prussian Blue (Radiogardase). The use of pectin to de-corporate the ingested {sup 137}Cs, in children notably, is sometimes proposed, but its administration still remains an open question. To conclude, the available scientific data suggest that {sup 137}Cs could affect a number of physiological and metabolic functions and consequently, could participate in the health risks associated to the presence of other contaminants in the environment. (authors)

  19. 90Sr and 137Cs in Arctic echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniewski, Michał; Borszcz, Tomasz

    2017-11-15

    Radionuclides in the Arctic echinoderms have seldom been studied despite their considerable environmental importance. This manuscript covers the results of 90Sr and 137Cs measurements in common echinoderm taxa collected from the Svalbard Bank in the Barents Sea and from two High-Arctic fjords (Isfjorden and Magdalenefjorden). We focused on the echinoid, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, the asteroid, Henricia sanguinolenta, and the ophiuroid, Ophiopolis aculeata. For all echinoderms, the analysis revealed a negative correlation between 90Sr activity and the mass. Thus, we concluded that metals are accumulated faster at a young age when the growth is most rapid. The highest average activities of 137Cs followed the order O. aculeata>H. sanguinolenta>S. droebachiensis. This suggests that bioaccumulation was highly taxon-dependent and could reflect differences in the isotope exposures associated with the diet of echinoderms. The study provides a baseline for understanding radionuclide processes in the High-Arctic benthic echinoderm communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Isoniazid toxicosis in dogs: 137 cases (2004-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Dustin R; Lee, Justine A; Wismer, Tina A; Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P; Murtaugh, Robert J

    2017-09-15

    OBJECTIVE To establish the minimum toxic dose of isoniazid in dogs, characterize the clinical signs and outcomes for dogs following isoniazid ingestion, and determine whether IV administration of pyridoxine to dogs with isoniazid toxicosis is protective against death. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 137 dogs with isoniazid toxicosis. PROCEDURES The electronic database of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Animal Poison Control Center was reviewed from January 2004 through December 2014 to identify dogs with isoniazid toxicosis. For each dog identified, information extracted from the medical record included signalment, estimated dose of isoniazid ingested, clinical signs, treatment, and outcome. Follow-up communication with pet owners or primary care veterinarians was performed when necessary to obtain missing information. RESULTS Clinical signs of isoniazid toxicosis were observed in 134 of 137 (98%) dogs and included seizures (n = 104), CNS signs without seizures (94), and gastrointestinal (41), cardiovascular (19), urogenital (4), and respiratory (1) abnormalities. Of the 87 dogs for which the outcome was available, 61 survived, 18 died, and 8 were euthanized. Probability of survival was positively associated with body weight and IV administration of pyridoxine and negatively associated with dose of isoniazid ingested and presence of seizures. Dogs that received pyridoxine IV were 29 times as likely to survive as dogs that did not receive pyridoxine IV. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated rapid diagnosis of isoniazid toxicosis and prompt treatment of affected dogs with pyridoxine and other supportive care were imperative for achieving a successful outcome.

  1. Estimates of soil erosion using cesium-137 tracer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saç, M M; Uğur, A; Yener, G; Ozden, B

    2008-01-01

    The soil erosion was studied by 137Cs technique in Yatagan basin in Western Turkey, where there exist intensive agricultural activities. This region is subject to serious soil loss problems and yet there is not any erosion data towards soil management and control guidelines. During the soil survey studies, the soil profiles were examined carefully to select the reference points. The soil samples were collected from the slope facets in three different study areas (Kirtas, Peynirli and Kayisalan Hills). Three different models were applied for erosion rate calculations in undisturbed and cultivated sites. The profile distribution model (PDM) was used for undisturbed soils, while proportional model (PM) and simplified mass balance model (SMBM) were used for cultivated soils. The mean annual erosion rates found using PDM in undisturbed soils were 15 t ha(-1) year(-1) at the Peynirli Hill and 27 t ha(-1) year(-1) at the Kirtas Hill. With the PM and SMBM in cultivated soils at Kayişalan, the mean annual erosion rates were obtained to be 65 and 116 t ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. The results of 137Cs technique were compared with the results of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE).

  2. Juridical-penal aspects of the cesium-137 accident; Implicacoes juridico-penais do acidente com o cesio-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Carolina Chaves [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The study of the juridical-penal aspects of the Cesium-137 accident, has, as a base, the police inquiry and the penal lawsuit concerning to the episode. Due to the lack of a law which typified activities related with radioisotope material as crime, the responsible were sentenced according to the penalties of body injury crime and homicide. Among the 10 investigated people, only 5 were condemned by the Judiciary and only 4 serve the sentence. (author) 5 refs.; e-mail: mariliag at netline.com.br

  3. Distribution of 137Cs in surface soil of Fraser's Hill, Pahang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Ahmad Sanadi Abu; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Caesium-137 (137Cs) in an anthropogenic radionuclide originated from the fission of fissile materials. Nuclear weapons testing during the 1960s and the Chernobyl disaster introduced substantial amount of 137Cs into the atmosphere that are then eventually deposited back to earth's surface. Caesium-137 can be used as tracer to study soil movements since it adsorbs to soil particles. This paper aims to describe the distribution of 137Cs in surface soil of Fraser's Hill, Pahang, determine the levels of 137Cs here compared to other areas, and to check correlation of 137Cs levels to physical data. A series of sampling were carried out between February 2014 and August 2015. Soil samples were taken from 31 locations using soil scraper. The samples were then taken to the laboratory to be dried, homogenized, grinded and sieved. The activity concentration of 137Cs in the samples was determined using gamma spectroscopy. The activity concentration was found to be between 0.26 Bq/kg and 5.14 Bq/kg. Although this paper only studies surface soil, 137Cs is expected to be present within the soil body. Further study of 137Cs in the soil body can be used to predictive model for soil erosion.

  4. Inhibition of GPR137 suppresses proliferation of medulloblastoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengfeng; Liang, Qinchuan; Chen, Guangming; Jing, Junjie; Wang, Shousen

    2015-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor in children. GPR137 is a ubiquitously expressed gene in the central nervous system. It has been reported that GPR137 modulates malignant proliferation of glioma cells. However, the relationship between GPR137 and medulloblastoma is still unknown. In this study, we knocked down GPR137 in the medulloblastoma cell line Daoy via a lentivirus-based RNA interference system to explore its role in medulloblastoma. Functional analyses showed that cell proliferation and colony formation were obviously restrained in Daoy cells after GPR137 knockdown. Furthermore, knockdown of GPR137 in Daoy cells led to a significant increase in cell percentage in the G0/G1 phase but a decrease in the S phase. Additionally, the cell population in the sub-G1 phase, which represents apoptotic cells, was remarkably increased in GPR137 knockdown cells. GPR137 inhibition induced a strong proapoptotic effect in Daoy cells, as confirmed by annexin V-APC/7-AAD double staining. In conclusion, GPR137 knockdown inhibited growth of Daoy medulloblastoma cells via disturbing cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis. Our investigation suggested that GPR137 could be a potential oncogene in medulloblastoma cells and might serve as a target for the treatment of medulloblastoma. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. {sup 137}Cs applicability to soil erosion assessment: theoretical and empirical model; Aplicabilidade do {sup 137}Cs para medir erosao do solo: modelos teoricos e empiricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova

    2004-02-15

    The soil erosion processes acceleration and the increase of soil erosion rates due to anthropogenic perturbation in soil-weather-vegetation equilibrium has influenced in the soil quality and environment. So, the possibility to assess the amplitude and severity of soil erosion impact on the productivity and quality of soil is important so local scale as regional and global scale. Several models have been developed to assess the soil erosion so qualitative as quantitatively. {sup 137}Cs, an anthropogenic radionuclide, have been very used to assess the superficial soil erosion process Empirical and theoretical models were developed on the basis of {sup 137} Cs redistribution as indicative of soil movement by erosive process These models incorporate many parameters that can influence in the soil erosion rates quantification by {sup 137} Cs redistribution. Statistical analysis was realized on the models recommended by IAEA to determinate the influence that each parameter generates in results of the soil redistribution. It was verified that the most important parameter is the {sup 137} Cs redistribution, indicating the necessity of a good determination in the {sup 137} Cs inventory values with a minimum deviation associated with these values. After this, it was associated a 10% deviation in the reference value of {sup 137} Cs inventory and the 5% in the {sup 137} Cs inventory of the sample and was determinate the deviation in results of the soil redistribution calculated by models. The results of soil redistribution was compared to verify if there was difference between the models, but there was not difference in the results determinate by models, unless above 70% of {sup 137} Cs loss. Analyzing three native forests and an area of the undisturbed pasture in the Londrina region, can be verified that the {sup 137} Cs spatial variability in local scale was 15%. Comparing the {sup 137} Cs inventory values determinate in the three native forest with the {sup 137} Cs inventory

  6. Complete β -decay pattern for the high-priority decay-heat isotopes 137I and 137Xe determined using total absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasco, B. C.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Fijałkowska, A.; Karny, M.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Gross, C. J.; Stracener, D. W.; Zganjar, E. F.; Blackmon, J. C.; Brewer, N. T.; Goetz, K. C.; Johnson, J. W.; Jost, C. U.; Hamilton, J. H.; Miernik, K.; Madurga, M.; Miller, D.; Padgett, S.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Ramayya, A. V.; Spejewski, E. H.

    2017-05-01

    Background: An assessment done under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Agency in 2007 suggested that the β decays of abundant fission products in nuclear reactors may be incomplete. Many of the nuclei are potentially affected by the so called pandemonium effect and their β -γ decay heat should be restudied using the total absorption technique. The fission products 137I and 137Xe were assigned highest priority for restudy due to their large cumulative fission branching fractions. In addition, measuring β -delayed neutron emission probabilities is challenging and any new technique for measuring the β -neutron spectrum and the β -delayed neutron emission probabilities is an important addition to nuclear physics experimental techniques. Purpose: To obtain the complete β -decay pattern of 137I and 137Xe and determine their consequences for reactor decay heat and ν¯e emission. Complete β -decay feeding includes ground state to ground state β feeding with no associated γ rays, ground state to excited states β transitions followed by γ transitions to the daughter nucleus ground state, and β -delayed neutron emission from the daughter nucleus in the case of 137I. Method: We measured the complete β -decay intensities of 137I and 137Xe with the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We describe a technique for measuring the β -delayed neutron energy spectrum, which also provides a measurement of the β -neutron branching ratio, Pn. Results: We validate the current Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) evaluation of 137Xeβ decay. We find that major changes to the current ENSDF assessment of 137Iβ -decay intensity are required. The average γ energy per β decay for 137Iβ decay (γ decay heat) increases by 19%, from 1050-1250 keV, which increases the average γ energy per 235U fission by 0.11 % . We measure a β -delayed neutron branching fraction for 137Iβ decay of 7.9 ±0.2 (fit )±0.4 (sys )% and we provide a

  7. Reconstruction of 137Cs activity in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tateda, Yutaka; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Hayami, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    2014-05-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. We reconstructed spatiotemporal variability of 137Cs activity in the ocean by the comparison model simulations and observed data. We employed a regional scale and the North Pacific scale oceanic dispersion models, an atmospheric transport model, a sediment transport model, a dynamic biological compartment model for marine biota and river runoff model to investigate the oceanic contamination. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for more than 2 years after the accident by comparing simulated results and observed activities very close to the site. The estimated total amounts of directly released 137Cs was 3.6±0.7 PBq. Directly release rate of 137Cs decreased exponentially with time by the end of December 2012 and then, was almost constant. The daily release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be 3.0 x 1010 Bq day-1 by the end of September 2013. The activity of directly released 137Cs was detectable only in the coastal zone after December 2012. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of dose rate and air activity of 137Cs over the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Observed 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition in the ocean helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Although there is no observed data of 137Cs activity in the ocean from 11 to 21 March 2011, observed data of

  8. Concentration factors for {sup 137}Cs in Japanese coastal fish (1984-1990)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateda, Yutaka [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab.; Koyanagi, Taku

    1996-06-01

    Concentration factors (CFs; Bq kg{sup -1} wet in fish muscle/Bq kg{sup -1} in filtered seawater) for {sup 137}Cs were determined in Japanese coastal fish collected from 1984 to 1990. {sup 137}Cs/Cs (stable) atom ratios were also examined to clarify the distribution equilibrium of {sup 137}Cs-between marine fish and seawater. The geometric mean of CF in Japanese coastal fish was 52{+-}4 (standard error of the mean), with values ranging from 14 to 133. {sup 137}Cs/Cs atom ratios both in marine fish and seawater indicate that the distribution of {sup 137}Cs was in equilibrium between fish muscle and seawater. Therefore, CF values obtained in the present study can be regarded as equilibrated. Our results show that the CFs for {sup 137}Cs in Japanese coastal fish were within the range of Japanese guidelines, but were below the recommended IAEA value. (author)

  9. Study on transfer model of {sup 137}Cs in lake Hinuma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeishi, Minoru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    A transfer model has been developed to facilitate the environmental monitoring of fallout (Cesium-137) in lake Hinuma. The lake Hinuma is located near the Pacific Ocean in Ibaraki-prefecture in Japan. Transfer of {sup 137}Cs between zones (i.e., catchment area, lake water, lake bed sediment) was modeled using standard differential equations based on the results of observations such as fluctuation of {sup 137}Cs concentration in the lake water and sediments since 1986. Transfer velocities of {sup 137}Cs between zones on the model were determined from expressed as a function of rainfall intensity. The effects of rainfall intensity (i.e., increasing inflow-flux of {sup 137}Cs from catchment area and rolling-up of particles of sediments carrying {sup 137}Cs) were investigated on this model. (author)

  10. a Biokinetic Model for CESIUM-137 in the Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karen Lynn

    1995-01-01

    Previously, there was no method to determine the dose to the embryo, fetus, fetal organs or placenta from radionuclides within the embryo, fetus, or placenta. In the past, the dose to the fetus was assumed to be equivalent to the dose to the uterus. Watson estimated specific absorbed fractions from various maternal organs to the uterine contents which included the fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid and Sikov estimated the absorbed dose to the embryo/fetus after assuming 1 uCi of radioactivity was made available to the maternal blood.^{1,2} However, this method did not allow for the calculation of a dose to individual fetal organs or the placenta. The radiation dose to the embryo or fetus from Cs-137 in the fetus and placenta due to a chronic ingestion by the mother was determined. The fraction of Cs-137 in the maternal plasma crossing the placenta to the fetal plasma was estimated. The absorbed dose from Cs-137 in each modelled fetal organ was estimated. Since there has been more research regarding potassium in the human body, and particularly in the pregnant woman, a biokinetic model for potassium was developed first and used as a basis and confirmation of the cesium model. Available pertinent information in physiology, embryology, biokinetics, and radiation dosimetry was utilized. Due to the rapid growth of the fetus and placenta, the pregnancy was divided into four gestational periods. The numerous physiological changes that occurred during pregnancy were considered and an appropriate biokinetic model was developed for each of the gestational periods. The amount of cesium in the placenta, embryo, and fetus was estimated for each period. The dose to the fetus from cesium deposited in the embryo or fetus and in the placenta was determined for each period using Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) methodology. An uncertainty analysis was also performed to account for the variability of the parameters in the biokinetic model based on the experimental data

  11. miR-137 acts as a tumor suppressor in astrocytoma by targeting RASGRF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Danni; Xue, Lian; Shao, Naiyuan; Qu, Hongtao; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Suinuan; Xia, Xiwei; Yang, Yilin; Zhi, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Astrocytoma is one of the most common primary central nervous system tumors and has both high mortality and a poor 5-year survival rate. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in carcinogenesis by acting on multiple signaling pathways. Although we have demonstrated that miR-137 is downregulated in astrocytoma tissues, the role of miR-137 in astrocytoma still remains unknown. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the function of miR-137 and its possible target genes in astrocytoma. miR-137 was significantly downregulated in astrocytoma tissues, and its expression level was inversely correlated with the clinical stage. Restoring miR-137 was able to dramatically inhibit cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and enhance apoptosis in vitro, whereas silencing its expression inhibited these processes. By overexpressing or inhibiting miR-137 in cancer cells, we experimentally confirmed that miR-137 directly recognized the 3'-UTR (3'-untranslated region) of the RASGRF1 (Ras protein-specific guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 1) transcript and regulated RASGRF1 expression. Furthermore, an inverse correlation was observed between miR-137 levels and RASGRF1 protein levels, but not mRNA levels, in astrocytoma samples. The silencing of RASGRF1 resulted in similar effects to miR-137 restoration in cancer cells. Finally, overexpression of RASGRF1 rescued the inhibitory effects of miR-137. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-137 acts as a tumor suppressor in astrocytoma by targeting RASGRF1. These findings suggest that miR-137 may serve as a novel therapeutic target in astrocytoma treatment.

  12. 21 CFR 137.270 - Self-rising white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-rising white corn meal. 137.270 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.270 Self-rising white corn meal. (a) Self-rising white corn meal is an intimate mixture of white corn meal, sodium bicarbonate, and one or both of the acid-reacting...

  13. CD137 is a Useful Marker for Identifying CD4+ T Cell Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z-H; Zheng, X-F; Yi, L; Wang, J; Wang, X-J; Wei, P-J; Jia, H-Y; Zhou, L-J; Zhao, Y-L; Zhang, H-T

    2017-05-01

    Upregulation of CD137 on recently activated CD8+ T cells has been used to identify rare viral and tumour antigen-specific T cells from the peripheral blood. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of CD137 for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-reactive CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood of infected individuals by flow cytometry and to investigate the characteristics of these CD137+ CD4+ T cells. We initially enrolled 31 active tuberculosis (TB) patients, 31 individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI) and 25 healthy donors. The intracellular CD137 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production by CD4+ T cells was simultaneously detected under unstimulated and CFP10-stimulated (culture filtrate protein 10, a Mtb-specific antigen) conditions. In unstimulated CD4+ T cells, we found that the CD137 expression in the TB group was significantly higher than that in the LTBI group. Stimulation with CFP10 largely increased the CD4+ T cell CD137 expression in both the TB and LTBI groups. After CFP10 stimulation, the frequency of CD137+ CD4+ T cells was higher than that of IFN-γ+ CD4+ T cells in both the TB and LTBI groups. Most of the CFP10-activated IFN-γ-secreting cells were CD137-positive, but only a small fraction of the CD137-positive cells expressed IFN-γ. An additional 20 patients with TB were enrolled to characterize the CD45RO+ CCR7+ , CD45RO+ CCR7- and CD45RO- subsets in the CD137+ CD4+ T cell populations. The Mtb-specific CD137+ CD4+ T cells were mainly identified as having an effector memory phenotype. In conclusion, CD137 is a useful marker that can be used for identifying Mtb-reactive CD4+ T cells by flow cytometry. © 2017 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  14. Role of CD137 signaling in dengue virus-mediated apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagila, Amar [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Netsawang, Janjuree [Faculty of Medical Technology, Rangsit University, Bangkok (Thailand); Srisawat, Chatchawan [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Noisakran, Sansanee [Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Research Unit, Office for Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Medical Biotechnology Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Bangkok (Thailand); Morchang, Atthapan; Yasamut, Umpa [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Puttikhunt, Chunya [Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Research Unit, Office for Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Medical Biotechnology Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Bangkok (Thailand); Kasinrerk, Watchara [Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Medical Technology, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Biomedical Technology Research Center, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency at Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand); and others

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} For the first time the role of CD137 in dengue virus (DENV) infection. {yields} Induction of DENV-mediated apoptosis by CD137 signaling. {yields} Sensitization to CD137-mediated apoptosis by dengue virus capsid protein (DENV C). {yields} Nuclear localization of DENV C is required for CD137-mediated apoptosis. -- Abstract: Hepatic dysfunction is a well recognized feature of dengue virus (DENV) infection. However, molecular mechanisms of hepatic injury are still poorly understood. A complex interaction between DENV and the host immune response contributes to DENV-mediated tissue injury. DENV capsid protein (DENV C) physically interacts with the human death domain-associated protein Daxx. A double substitution mutation in DENV C (R85A/K86A) abrogates Daxx interaction, nuclear localization and apoptosis. Therefore we compared the expression of cell death genes between HepG2 cells expressing DENV C and DENV C (R85A/K86A) using a real-time PCR array. Expression of CD137, which is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, increased significantly in HepG2 cells expressing DENV C compared to HepG2 cells expressing DENV C (R85A/K86A). In addition, CD137-mediated apoptotic activity in HepG2 cells expressing DENV C was significantly increased by anti-CD137 antibody compared to that of HepG2 cells expressing DENV C (R85A/K86A). In DENV-infected HepG2 cells, CD137 mRNA and CD137 positive cells significantly increased and CD137-mediated apoptotic activity was increased by anti-CD137 antibody. This work is the first to demonstrate the contribution of CD137 signaling to DENV-mediated apoptosis.

  15. Caesium-137 distribution, inventories and accumulation history in the Baltic Sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborska, Agata; Winogradow, Aleksandra; Pempkowiak, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is susceptible to pollution by hazardous substances due to limited water exchange, shallowness, and the large catchment area. Radionuclides, particularly (137)Cs, are one of the most hazardous anthropogenic substances present in the Baltic environment. This study was conducted to present (137)Cs present contamination that should further be a subject of reliable monitoring when the new Nuclear Power Plant is put into operation in the northern Poland. The sea-wide, up to date distribution of (137)Cs activities and inventories in the Baltic Sea bottom sediments are presented. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were measured in 30 cm long sediment cores collected at 22 sampling stations. Sediment accumulation rates were quantified by (210)Pb geochronology to follow the history of (137)Cs accumulation. The (137)Cs inventories and fluxes were calculated. Most of the Baltic Sea sediments accumulated (137)Cs in the range from 750 to 2675 Bq m(-2). The Bothnian Bay is severely contaminated by (137)Cs with inventories up to 95,191 Bq m(-2). This region is moreover characterized by extremely large patchiness of (137)Cs inventories. The (137)Cs annual fluxes are highest at the two stations located at the Bothnian Bay (342 Bq m(-2) and 527 Bq m(-2)) due to large Chernobyl (137)Cs contamination of that region and high sediment accumulation rates. When these stations are excluded, the recent, annual mean value of (137)Cs load to the Baltic Sea deposits is 38 ± 22 Bq m(-2). The distribution of radio-caesium inventories over the Baltic Sea nowadays reflects the pattern of Chernobyl contamination. The radio-caesium deposited in surface sediments is not permanently buried, but may be resuspended and redeposited by currents, bioturbation or anthropogenic activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. LF-lähetin 137 kHz:lle

    OpenAIRE

    Heikura, Ilkka

    2007-01-01

    Tämän insinöörityön aiheena oli suunnitella ja rakentaa ra diolähetin taajuusvälille 135,7–137,8 kHz. Tämä taajuusalue on varattu radioamatöörikäyttöön ja sitä käytetään sähkötykseen. Lähettimen vähimmäislähetysteho täytyi olla 50 W 50 W:n kuormaan. Insinöörityön tilaajana toimi Kajaanin ammattikorkeakoulu. Laitteisto koostuu pääosiltaan oskillaattorista, kahdesta taajuusjakajasta, avainnuksesta, pääteasteesta ja LCsuodattimesta. Oskillaattorissa muodostetaan taajuus, joka syötetä...

  17. 137Cs uptake with cafeteria food after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, G.; Paretzke, H.G. (GSF-Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg (Germany))

    1992-11-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the activity concentrations of radiocesium were measured in both the meals served at the cafeteria of a research center and in the employees eating there. The time-dependent means of monthly 137Cs activities in meals and people show a similar distribution pattern with highest values between March and July 1987, i.e., only 1 y after the accident. In meals, the highest activities were found when the menu consisted of pork, milk, or milk products. The 50-y cumulative effective dose calculated from the whole-body measurements is 0.21 mSv for male and 0.15 mSv for female employees. Cafeteria food contributed only a small share to this exposure.

  18. 137Cs uptake with cafeteria food after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, G; Paretzke, H G

    1992-11-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the activity concentrations of radiocesium were measured in both the meals served at the cafeteria of a research center and in the employees eating there. The time-dependent means of monthly 137Cs activities in meals and people show a similar distribution pattern with highest values between March and July 1987, i.e., only 1 y after the accident. In meals, the highest activities were found when the menu consisted of pork, milk, or milk products. The 50-y cumulative effective dose calculated from the whole-body measurements is 0.21 mSv for male and 0.15 mSv for female employees. Cafeteria food contributed only a small share to this exposure.

  19. Long-term behaviours of {sup 137}Cs in simulated crop fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, K. M.; Choi, Y. H.; Park, H. K.; Park, D. W.; Lee, W. Y. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-10-01

    In order to understand the long-term behaviour of {sup 137}Cs in crop fields, root uptake and underground distribution of {sup 137}Cs were investigated through a greenhouse experiment where {sup 137}Cs was mixed with topsoil in culture boxes and rice, soybean and Chinese cabbage were grown for 4 years. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs for hulled rice, rice straw, soybean seed and Chinese cabbage reduced by factors of 3-10 depending on crops, and leaching of {sup 137}Cs from the rice culture box decreased by a factor of about 7, in 3 years. The {sup 137}Cs transfer factor for soybean seed were several times higher than that for hulled rice. The amount of {sup 137}Cs leaching during the growing season of rice was as low as 0.025% of applied activity even in the 1st year. The uniformity of {sup 137}Cs distribution in topsoil tended to improve year by year. The present results may be utilized as basic information for the environmental impact assessment and the counter-measure decision when crop fields are contaminated with {sup 137}Cs.

  20. miR-137 suppresses tumor growth of malignant melanoma by targeting aurora kinase A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Xiao; Zhang, Haiping [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Lian, Shi [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Zhu, Wei, E-mail: zhuwei_2020@163.com [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2016-07-01

    As an oncogene, aurora kinase A (AURKA) is overexpressed in various types of human cancers. However, the expression and roles of AURKA in malignant melanoma are largely unknown. In this study, a miR-137-AURKA axis was revealed to regulate melanoma growth. We found a significant increase in levels of AURKA in melanoma. Both genetic knockdown and pharmacologic inhibition of AURKA decreased tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Further found that miR-137 reduced AURKA expression through interaction with its 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) and that miR-137 was negatively correlated with AURKA expression in melanoma specimens. Overexpression of miR-137 decreased cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro. Notably, re-expression of AURKA significantly rescued miR-137-mediated suppression of cell growth and clonality. In summary, these results reveal that miR-137 functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting AURKA, providing new insights into investigation of therapeutic strategies against malignant melanoma. -- Highlights: •First reported overexpression of AURKA in melanoma. •Targeting AURKA inhibits melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo. •Further found miR-137 suppressed cell growth by binding to AURKA 3′UTR. •Re-expression of AURKA rescued miR-137-mediated suppression. •miR-137-AURKA axis may be potential therapeutic targets of melanoma.

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi mediated uptake of {sup 137}Cs in leek and ryegrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, Klas; Weiliang, Zhong; Maertensson, Anna [Department of Soil Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-02-15

    In a first experiment of soil contaminated with {sup 137}Cs, inoculation with a mixture of arbuscular mycorrhizae enhanced the uptake of {sup 137}Cs by leek under greenhouse conditions, while no effect on the uptake by ryegrass was observed. The mycorrhizal infection frequency in leek was independent of whether the {sup 137}Cs-contaminated soil was inoculated with mycorrhizal spores or not. The lack of mycorrhizae-mediated uptake of {sup 137}Cs in ryegrass could be due to the high root density, which was about four times that of leek, or due to a less well functioning mycorrhizal symbiosis than of leek. In a second experiment, ryegrass was grown for a period of four cuts. Additions of fungi enhanced {sup 137}Cs uptake of all harvests, improved dry weight production in the first cut, and also improved the mycorrhizal infection frequencies in the roots. No differences were obtained between the two fungal inoculums investigated with respect to biomass production or {sup 137}Cs uptake, but root colonization differed. We conclude that, under certain circumstances, mycorrhizae affect plant uptake of {sup 137}Cs. There may be a potential for selecting fungal strains that stimulate {sup 137}Cs accumulation in crops. The use of ryegrass seems to be rather ineffective for remediation of {sup 137}Cs-contaminated soil.

  2. Inferring the chemical form of 137Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring (137)Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato; Sugiura, Yuki

    2016-05-15

    We hypothesized that the water-soluble (ionic) and water-insoluble (stable) radiocesium from the initial fallout of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident was distributed in various proportions in the surrounding areas and that this distribution was reflected in the trees that suffered deposition from the initial fallout. This study attempted to evaluate local variations in the chemical form of (137)Cs derived from the initial fallout of the FDNPP accident and whether its chemical form affected the radiocesium concentration in the tissues currently growing in trees, even after the initial fallout ceased. For these estimations, the ratio between the (137)Cs concentration in Cryptomeria japonica needle leaves in the tree crown, which existed before the FDNPP accident and subsequently directly exposed to the initial fallout ((137)Cs pre-accident N), and the amount of (137)Cs in the initial fallout itself ((137)Cs fallout) was determined ((137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout) at 66 sites. In addition, the (137)Cs ratios between the male cones produced in 2012 ((137)Cs male cone) and needle leaves that had elongated in the spring of 2011 ((137)Cs 2011N) was determined at 82 sites ((137)Cs male cone/(137) Cs 2011N). Most of the sites with lower (137)Cs pre-accident N /(137)Cs fallout ratios were distributed in eastern Fukushima, relatively close to the Pacific Ocean coastline. Lower (137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout and higher (137)Cs malecone/(137)Cs 2011N were found to be associated with higher proportions of (137)Cs in ionic forms. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis, and likely reflect regional variations in the chemical form of the deposited radiocesium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Highly CO2-Tolerant Cathode for Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Samarium-Doped Ceria-Protected SrCo0.85Ta0.15O3-δ Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengran; Zhou, Wei; Zhu, Zhonghua

    2017-01-25

    Susceptibility to CO2 is one of the major challenges for the long-term stability of the alkaline-earth-containing cathodes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells. To alleviate the adverse effects from CO2, we incorporated samarium-stabilized ceria (SDC) into a SrCo0.85Ta0.15O3-δ (SCT15) cathode by either mechanical mixing or a wet impregnation method and evaluated their cathode performance stability in the presence of a gas mixture of 10% CO2, 21% O2, and 69% N2. We observed that the CO2 tolerance of the hybrid cathode outperforms the pure SCT15 cathode by over 5 times at 550 °C. This significant enhancement is likely attributable to the low CO2 adsorption and reactivity of the SDC protective layer, which are demonstrated through thermogravimetric analysis, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and electrical conductivity study.

  4. CETESB`s actions in Goiania in what concerns cesium-137 accident; Atuacao da CETESB em Goiania com relacao ao acidente do cesio-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penteado Filho, Azor Camargo; Derisio, Jose Carlos; Albuquerque, Antonio Martins de [CETESB, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1991-12-31

    This work presents several actions performed by CETESB, the sanitary engineering agency of Sao Paulo State - Southeast Brazil, in what concerns the accident involving cesium-137 in Goiania, Goias State - Center Brazil. The adopted procedures are described in details

  5. {sup 137}Cs in mushrooms in the Alpine environment; {sup 137}Cs in Pilzen im alpinen Raum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettner, Herbert; Kagerer, Stephan; Hubmer, Alexander [Salzburg Univ. (Austria). Abt. Physik und Biophysik; Bossew, Peter; Witzani, Josef

    2009-07-01

    Mushrooms tend to accumulate radionuclides due to their physiological peculiarities and their predominant occurrence in nutrient deficient forest ecosystems. For some species, and under certain conditions, radionuclide concentrations may exceed the EC limits of 600 Bq/kg for radionuclides in mushrooms. Still in 2006, in a large scale survey in Salzburg, Upper Austria and in the region of the Koralpe in many edible species, i.e. in xerocomus badius in more than 65% of the collected samples, this limit was exceeded. The contribution gives an overview on the contamination of edible wild mushrooms with {sup 137}Cs, its dependency on the local soil contamination, the spatial distribution in the investigated areas and the preparation of a risk map based on these data. (orig.)

  6. {sup 137}Cs in marine sediments of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Paulo Alves de Lima [Instituto Oceanográfico, Universidade de São Paulo (IO-USP), Pça. do Oceanográfico, 191, Butantã, SP, 05508 900 (Brazil); Ribeiro, Andreza Portella, E-mail: andrezpr@usp.br [Instituto Oceanográfico, Universidade de São Paulo (IO-USP), Pça. do Oceanográfico, 191, Butantã, SP, 05508 900 (Brazil); Mestrado de Gestão Ambiental e Sustentabilidade, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Avenida Francisco Matarazzo, 612, prédio C, andar térreo, Água Branca, São Paulo, SP, 05001 100 (Brazil); Nascimento, Mylene Giseli do; Martins, Cesar de Castro [Centro de Estudos do Mar, Universidade Federal do Paraná (CEM-UFPR), Av. Beira-mar, no number, Balneário Pontal do Sul, Pontal do Paraná, PR, 83255 971 (Brazil); Mahiques, Michel Michaelovitch de; Montone, Rosalinda Carmelo; Figueira, Rubens Cesar Lopes [Instituto Oceanográfico, Universidade de São Paulo (IO-USP), Pça. do Oceanográfico, 191, Butantã, SP, 05508 900 (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    The radionuclide cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is produced exclusively by anthropogenic processes and primarily by nuclear explosions. This study determined the reference inventory that is {sup 137}Cs associated with the element's original input, and utilized the levels of activity of this radionuclide previously measured in five sediment profiles collected from Admiralty Bay, Antarctica, to investigate the mobility of this element in the environment. {sup 137}Cs has a half-life of 30 years. Because of this, it is environmentally persistent and has been shown to accumulate in marine organisms. The mean reference inventory of this radionuclide in Admiralty Bay sediments, determined using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry, was 20.23 ± 8.94 Bq m{sup −2}, and within the ambient {sup 137}Cs activity range. A model of {sup 137}Cs diffusion–convection was applied to data collected from 1 cm intervals in sediment cores with the aim of providing insights with respect to this element's behavior in sediments. Model results showed a significant correlation between measured and modeled values using the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, and estimated input into the system from the global fallout of past nuclear tests and expected values based on local sedimentation rates. Results highlight the importance of accounting for the vertical diffusion of {sup 137}Cs in marine sediments when used as a tracer for environmental processes and for assessing potential bioavailability. - Highlights: ► Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is produced exclusively by anthropogenic processes. ► A model of diffusion–convection simulated {sup 137}Cs environmental behavior. ► This is important for assessing the bioavailability of this toxic element. ► In Antarctica ice cover influenced the input to the sediments.

  7. Comparative study of {sup 137}Cs distribution in broilers and pheasants and possibilities for protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrovic, Branislava M.; Vitorovic, Gordana; Lazarevic-Macanovic, Mirjana [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Radiology and Radiation Hygiene, Belgrade (Serbia); Vicentijevic, Mihajlo [Insititute of Veterinary Medicine Serbia, Laboratory of Radiation Hygiene, Belgrade (Serbia); Vitorovic, Dusko [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Belgrade (Serbia); Pantelic, Gordana [Institute of Nuclear Sciences-Vinca, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2012-03-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate distribution of {sup 137}Cs in leg and breast meat of broilers and pheasants following single alimentary contamination and administration of two protectors (AFCF and clinoptilolite). The birds were administered a single dose of {sup 137}CsCl, with an activity of 750 Bq. Protectors were given via gastric tube or mixed in the forage pellets. AFCF given via gastric tube decreased the {sup 137}Cs concentration by a factor of 7.8 in broilers leg meat and 7.4 in broilers breast meat. When AFCF was mixed in pellets, the {sup 137}Cs concentration was 19.5 times lower in broilers leg meat and 22.1 times lower in broilers breast meat, than in the control group. In pheasants, AFCF administered via gastric tube decreased the {sup 137}Cs concentration by a factor of 12.4 in leg meat and by a factor of 13.7 in breast meat, respectively. In group 4, where pheasants were administered AFCF mixed in pellets, the {sup 137}Cs concentration was 3.7 times lower in leg and breast meat, than in the control group. For comparison, clinoptilolite administered via gastric tube decreased the {sup 137}Cs concentration 1.8 times in broilers leg meat and 2.0 times in breast meat, compared to the control group. In pheasants, {sup 137}Cs concentration was 2.9 times lower in leg meat and 2.6 times lower in breast meat. Clinoptilolite mixed in the feed had relatively low efficiency of protection in broilers ({sup 137}Cs concentration was 1.4 times lower in leg meat and 1.6 lower in breast meat). A similar trend was observed in pheasants ({sup 137}Cs concentration was 1.6 lower in leg and breast meat). (orig.)

  8. Down-regulation of GPR137 expression inhibits proliferation of colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Shen, Zhen; Liang, Xianjun; Liu, Tongjun; Wang, Tiejun; Jiang, Yang

    2014-11-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) are highly related to oncogenesis and cancer metastasis. G protein-coupled receptor 137 (GPR137) was initially reported as a novel orphan GPR about 10 years ago. Some orphan GPRs have been implicated in human cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of GPR137 in human colon cancer. Expression levels of GRP137 were analyzed in different colon cancer cell lines by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA was specifically designed to knock down GPR137 expression in colon cancer cells. Cell viability was measured by methylthiazoletetrazolium and colony formation assays. In addition, cell cycle characteristic was investigated by flow cytometry. GRP137 expression was observed in all seven colon cancer cell lines at different levels. The mRNA and protein levels of GPR137 were down-regulated in both HCT116 and RKO cells after lentivirus infection. Lentivirus-mediated silencing of GPR137 reduced the proliferation rate and colonies numbers. Knockdown of GPR137 in both cell lines led to cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. These results indicated that GPR137 plays an important role in colon cancer cell proliferation. A better understanding of GPR137's effects on signal transduction pathways in colon cancer cells may provide insights into the novel gene therapy of colon cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Solubilisation of griseofulvin, quercetin and rutin in micellar formulations of triblock copolymers E62P39E62 and E137S18E137.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Maria Elenir N P; Vieira, Icaro G P; Cavalcante, Igor Marques; Ricardo, Nágila M P S; Attwood, David; Yeates, Stephen G; Booth, Colin

    2009-08-13

    The solubilisation of two poorly soluble flavonoids, quercetin and rutin, in micellar solutions of mixtures of a block copolymer of ethylene oxide and styrene oxide (E(137)S(18)E(137)) with one of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide (E(62)P(39)E(62)) has been studied at 25 and 37 degrees C. Solubilisation capacities were higher than those for the model poorly water-soluble drug griseofulvin and comparable with published values for the solubilisation of rutin by beta-cyclodextrin.

  10. Radioecological studies of {sup 137}Cs in limnological ecosystems. Analysis on the bonding forms of {sup 137}Cs in pond sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki [Saitama Inst. of Public Health (Japan); Nakamura, Fumio; Izumo, Yoshiro

    2000-02-01

    In order to investigate in more detail on the {sup 137}Cs concentration in pond sediments, we have carried out analysis on the bonding forms of {sup 137}Cs in pond sediments. The existing rate of different bonding forms of {sup 137}Cs in pond sediments was found to be below 5% for F1: exchangeable and F2: bound to carbonates, 18-24% for F3: bound to iron and manganese oxides, 14-17% for F4: bound to organic matter and 54-60% for F5: residual (mainly, bound to silicate minerals). Furthermore, we have investigated the relations among the {sup 137}Cs concentration in each place, the ignition loss, the total carbon and the carbon exchange capacity of pond sediment, respectively. We have found a tendency that the larger the ignition loss, the total carbon and the cation exchange capacity are, the higher the {sup 137}Cs concentration is. On the other hand, about 90% of {sup 40}K in pond sediments is in the form of F5, and the bonding forms of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K are obviously different regardless of the fact that both are alkaline metals. (author)

  11. Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in lynx (Lynx lynx) in relation to prey choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, Lavrans [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 55, NO-1332 Osteraas (Norway)]. E-mail: lavrans.skuterud@nrpa.no; Gaare, Eldar [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Tungasletta 2, NO-7485 Trondheim (Norway); Kvam, Tor [Nord-Troendelag University College, Servicebox 2501, NO-7729 Steinkjer (Norway); Hove, Knut [Department of Animal Science, Agricultural University of Norway, NO-1432 Aas (Norway); Steinnes, Eiliv [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2005-07-01

    Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs were determined in 747 lynxes killed in Norway during the period 1986-2001. Highly variable {sup 137}Cs concentrations and aggregated transfer coefficient values were observed, probably caused by variable {sup 137}Cs concentrations in prey and the lynx's extensive home ranges and roaming distances. Adult lynxes had higher {sup 137}Cs concentrations than sub-adults, and lynxes killed in regions with extensive reindeer grazing areas were more contaminated than others. A model with {sup 137}Cs deposition density, the year lynxes were killed, age, and extent of reindeer grazing area accounted for 50% of the variability in observed {sup 137}Cs concentrations. The analyses were equivocal regarding the influence of stomach content on {sup 137}Cs concentrations in lynx muscle, i.e., on the lynx's specialization in prey species. Gender was not significant. Information on caesium retention in lynx and better estimates of deposition densities in lynxes' home ranges are important for further elucidation of factors influencing {sup 137}Cs contamination in lynxes.

  12. 9 CFR 3.137 - Primary enclosures used to transport live animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... live animals. 3.137 Section 3.137 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... live animals. No dealer, research facility, exhibitor, or operator of an auction sale shall offer for transportation or transport, in commerce, any live animal in a primary enclosure which does not conform to the...

  13. 42 CFR 137.30 - What is a self-governance compact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is a self-governance compact? 137.30 Section... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Self-Governance compact § 137.30 What is a self-governance compact? A self-governance compact is a legally binding and mutually...

  14. 42 CFR 137.35 - What is the term of a self-governance compact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the term of a self-governance compact? 137... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Self-Governance compact § 137.35 What is the term of a self-governance compact? Upon approval and execution of a self-governance...

  15. 42 CFR 137.15 - Who may participate in Tribal Self-Governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may participate in Tribal Self-Governance? 137... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Selection of Indian Tribes for Participation in Self-Governance § 137.15 Who may participate in Tribal Self-Governance? Those...

  16. ESTIMATION OF THE DECREASING OF 137 CS SEDIMENT IN THE SOIL DUE TO HORIZONTAL FLOWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Prokof'ev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of work is to estimate the possible decreasing of the density of  137 Cs sediment in the soil influenced by the horizontal flowing basing on the analysis of on location observations on the density of  137 Cs sediment in the soil after the Chernobyl accident.

  17. 42 CFR 137.25 - Are planning and negotiation grants available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are planning and negotiation grants available? 137... for Participation in Self-Governance Planning Phase § 137.25 Are planning and negotiation grants... planning and negotiation grants available, an explanation of the application process for such grants, and...

  18. 31 CFR 103.137 - Anti-money laundering programs for insurance companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anti-money laundering programs for insurance companies. 103.137 Section 103.137 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Anti-Money Laundering...

  19. 76 FR 14349 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1, Jetstream Series 200, Jetstream Series 3101, and... issued British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JA090240, Revision 1, dated... British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1, Jetstream Series 200, Jetstream Series...

  20. 21 CFR 516.137 - Notification of decision regarding eligibility for indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... indexing. 516.137 Section 516.137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Notification of decision regarding eligibility for indexing. (a) Within 90 days after the filing of a request for a determination of eligibility for indexing based on § 516.129(c)(7)(i), or 180 days for a request...

  1. 42 CFR 137.226 - How does a Self-Governance Tribe request a waiver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does a Self-Governance Tribe request a waiver? 137.226 Section 137.226 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Regulation Waiver...

  2. MicroRNA-137 promoter methylation in oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Jun; Bian, Yong-qian; Sun, Jian-yong

    2013-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common oral mucosal disease, which is generally considered a potentially malignant lesion. To identify efficiently prognostic biomarker, we investigated the microRNA-137 (miR-137) promoter methylation in OLP and compared with the samples from healthy volunteers and p...

  3. 42 CFR 137.353 - What is contained in a construction project financial report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... financial concerns of the Self-Governance Tribe, if any. Roles of the Secretary in Establishing and... financial report? 137.353 Section 137.353 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE...

  4. 14 CFR 91.137 - Temporary flight restrictions in the vicinity of disaster/hazard areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary flight restrictions in the vicinity of disaster/hazard areas. 91.137 Section 91.137 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General §...

  5. Compartmental Model For Uptake Of 137cs By Pine In Forest Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A compartmental model of soil to pine tree transfer of 137Cs following the Chernobyl nuclear accident is presented. The model was validated using data collected in 1996 at five sites in Northern Ukraine. The transfer constants of 137Cs between model compartments are estimated using a semi-empirical method.

  6. Biological effects of cesium-137 injected in beagle dogs of different ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The toxicity of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) in the Beagle dog was investigated at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of {sup 137}Cs are important to understand because {sup 137}Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons test, and additional cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. Although the final analyses are not complete, three findings are significant: older dogs dies significantly earlier than juvenile and young adult dogs; greater occurrence of sarcomas in the cesium-137 injected dogs; the major nonneoplastic effect in dogs surviving beyond 52 d appears to be testicular atrophy.

  7. Ferrites Ni{sub 0,5}Zn{sub 0,5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} doped with samarium: structural analysis, morphological and electromagnetic; Ferritas Ni{sub 0,5}Zn{sub 0,5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} dopada com samario: analise estrutural, morfologica e eletromagnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A.C.F.M.; Diniz, A.P., E-mail: anacristina@dema.ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academinca de Engenharia de Materiais; Viana, K.M.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, PE (Brazil). Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia; Cornejo, D.R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Kiminami, R.H.G.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    This paper proposes to investigate the sintering at 1200 deg C/2h of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2-x}Sm{sub x}O{sub 4} ferrite doped with 0.05; 0.075 e 0.1 mol of Sm synthesized by combustion reaction to evaluate the performance materials as absorbers of electromagnetic radiation. The influence of the concentration of samarium on the structure, morphology and electromagnetic properties of ferrites was studied. The resulting samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), magnetic measurements and reflectivity measurements in the frequency range between 8-12 GHz. The results showed that increasing the concentration of samarium caused a decrease in particle size of the samples, encouraging, therefore, to obtain materials with better values of magnetization and reflectivity, allowing for use as absorbers in narrow-band frequency between 9-10 GHz. (author)

  8. Estimation of vertical migration velocity of (137)Cs in the Mount IDA/Kazdagi, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, Özlem; Çakır, Rukiye; Karakurt, Hidayet

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from a radioecological study carried out in the forest sites of Mount IDA (Kazdagi)/Edremit, Turkey. For 118 soil profiles, the depth distribution of (137)Cs activity was established by fitting the experimental points to an exponential, a gaussian or a log-normal function. The relaxation lengths were in the range of 1.09-16.7 cm with a mean of 5.73 cm, showing a slow transport and a strong retention capacity of (137)Cs even after the 26-y period of Chernobyl accident. From the data for the vertical distribution of (137)Cs in soil profiles, the mean annual migration velocity of (137)Cs was in the range of 0.11-0.62 cm year(-1) with a mean of 0.30 cm year(-1). Statistically significant correlations between the thickness of the humus layer and the mean annual velocity of (137)Cs were found for both coniferous and mixed forest sites. The mean annual velocity of (137)Cs in the forests sites with Pinus nigra var pallasiana was significantly higher than sites with Pinus brutia. External dose-rates from the (137)Cs in forest soils were estimated using a conversion factor used in many studies and comprised with the external dose-rates determined according to the vertical distribution of (137)Cs within the soil depth profiles. It is clearly seen that both levels and spatial distribution patterns of the external dose-rates from (137)Cs were influenced considerably with the vertical migration rate and the vertical distribution of (137)Cs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolism of {sup 137}cesium, {sup 137}barium in the rat. Therapeutics of the contamination; Metabolisme du {sup 137}cesium, {sup 137}baryum chez le rat. Therapeutique de la contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, J.; Philippon, A.; Lafuma, J.; Walter, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Departement de la Protection Sanitaire, Laboratoire de Radiopathologie

    1967-07-01

    The authors carry out research into the distribution kinetics, the metabolism and the excretion of {sup 137}Cs - {sup 137}Ba in the rat. They show that these phenomena are independent of the method of applying a single dose. The distribution tends to adopt in all cases a typical shape which remains the same depending on the body burden. Biological analysis of the state of the cesium in the biological media shows that it is transported in the free and ionised form. Considering the problem of the method of penetration of the cesium ion in the intracellular medium, and in particular by the in vivo and in vitro kinetic study of the plasma - red cell system, the authors make the assumption that an active transport of cesium occurs by the cell membrane. They thus arrive at an overall picture of the cesium distribution in the organism which is essentially characterized by a dynamic distribution equilibrium between two compartments: 99 per cent of the cesium accumulates in the intracellular pool, 1 per cent in the extracellular liquids. This latter compartment is open to the emunctories. Because, of the active transport by the cell membranes, the intracellular pool is filled rapidly but discharge is slow. This phenomenon is the limiting factor in the decrease of the body burden. From this representation, the authors deduce the reasons for the relative failure of the various therapeutic methods examined up till now by themselves or by other authors. The stimulation of the natural emunctories in the case of diuretics for example, can only improve the purification of the extracellular compartment. Now this latter contains only 1 per cent of the body burden and recharging is slow. Furthermore the methods designed to counteract or inhibit the active transport of cesium by the cell membrane are still at the present time incompatible with the survival of the cell. (authors) [French] Les auteurs etudient experimentalement la cinetique de distribution, le metabolisme et l

  10. Karakterisasi ekstrak kasar lipase Rhizopus stolonifer UICC 137

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sumiarsih

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing commercial interest in enzymatic production of biologically active component, because there are a number of well-known advantages compared to chemical synthesis. One of the most valuable synthetic features of enzyme is their ability to discriminate between enantiomers of racemic substrates. Lipase have become of great interest to the chemical industries wing their usefulness in both hydrolytic and synthesis reactions. The aim of this work was to study the production of lipase by Rhizopus stolonifer UICC 137, and determine the crude lipase preparation characteristics. The lipolytic activity was determined by titrimetric method toward oil-arabic gum emultion as a substrate. The strain produced lipase at appreciable lipolytic when cultivated for 72 hours in medium containing 3% glucose and 1% olive oil. Our data suggest that the strain produced lipase since the exponential phase of its growth. Lipase with optimum lipolytic activity was obtained at late stationary phase. The optimum condition for lipolytic activity measurement were pH of 7.5 and temperature 37oC, the crude enzyme had a specific activity 20.2 unit/ mg protein, the Vmax was 15.1 mol/ min and KM was 12.5 mg/ ml. The crude enzyme retained 79.9%, 68.0% and 52.6% of its lipolytic activity, when incubated for 90 minutes at temperature of 40, 50, and 60oC respectively.

  11. Inferring the chemical form of {sup 137}Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring {sup 137}Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu, E-mail: kanasashi.tsutomu@g.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Takenaka, Chisato [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Sugiura, Yuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 765-1 Funaishikawa, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1184 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    We hypothesized that the water-soluble (ionic) and water-insoluble (stable) radiocesium from the initial fallout of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident was distributed in various proportions in the surrounding areas and that this distribution was reflected in the trees that suffered deposition from the initial fallout. This study attempted to evaluate local variations in the chemical form of {sup 137}Cs derived from the initial fallout of the FDNPP accident and whether its chemical form affected the radiocesium concentration in the tissues currently growing in trees, even after the initial fallout ceased. For these estimations, the ratio between the {sup 137}Cs concentration in Cryptomeria japonica needle leaves in the tree crown, which existed before the FDNPP accident and subsequently directly exposed to the initial fallout ({sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accident} {sub N}), and the amount of {sup 137}Cs in the initial fallout itself ({sup 137}Cs{sub fallout}) was determined ({sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accident} {sub N}/{sup 137}Cs{sub fallout}) at 66 sites. In addition, the {sup 137}Cs ratios between the male cones produced in 2012 ({sup 137}Cs{sub male} {sub cone}) and needle leaves that had elongated in the spring of 2011 ({sup 137}Cs{sub 2011N}) was determined at 82 sites ({sup 137}Cs{sub male} {sub cone}/{sup 137} Cs{sub 2011N}). Most of the sites with lower {sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accident} {sub N}/{sup 137}Cs{sub fallout} ratios were distributed in eastern Fukushima, relatively close to the Pacific Ocean coastline. Lower {sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accidentN}/{sup 137}Cs{sub fallout} and higher {sup 137}Cs{sub malecone}/{sup 137}Cs{sub 2011N} were found to be associated with higher proportions of {sup 137}Cs in ionic forms. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis, and likely reflect regional variations in the chemical form of the deposited radiocesium. - Highlights: • Study of spatial variation of ionic and stable {sup 137}Cs in the initial

  12. {sup 137}Cs in the population of northern Sweden; {sup 137}Cs i befolkningsgrupper i norra Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagren, G.; Bjoereland, A.; Johansson, Lennart

    1996-12-01

    The activity of Cs 137 has been studied in several different population groups in northern Sweden after the Chernobyl accident. Special attention has been given to the Saami (Lapp) population from which we have measured a group of volunteers regularly between 1986 and 1990. In 1991 we started a study on randomly chosen groups from the general population and members of the Saami communities from three regions in northern Sweden with different deposition levels. The results from these measurements have shown an effective half-time of Cs whole-body content in the Saami groups of about five years. The measurements in 1996 show decreasing levels of activities in the different population groups with half-times between 4 and 12 years. Another exposed group is breast-fed babies. We have measured the transfer of Cs from mother to baby via the breast milk in 12 cases. The activity in breast milk was measured to be 14% of the activity in the mother (calculated using specific activity - Bq/kg). The corresponding activity in the baby was 90% of the activity in the mother. 13 refs.

  13. Evaluation of DNA damage induced by Auger electrons from 137Cs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ritsuko; Hattori, Yuya; Kai, Takeshi

    2016-11-01

    To understand the biological effect of external and internal exposure from 137Cs, DNA damage spectrum induced by directly emitted electrons (γ-rays, internal conversion electrons, Auger electrons) from 137Cs was compared with that induced by 137Cs γ-rays. Monte Carlo track simulation method was used to calculate the microscopic energy deposition pattern in liquid water. Simulation was performed for the two simple target systems in microscale. Radiation sources were placed inside for one system and outside for another system. To simulate the energy deposition by directly emitted electrons from 137Cs placed inside the system, the multiple ejections of electrons after internal conversion were considered. In the target systems, induction process of DNA damage was modeled and simulated for both direct energy deposition and the water radical reaction on the DNA. The yield and spatial distribution of simple and complex DNA damage including strand breaks and base lesions were calculated for irradiation by electrons and γ-rays from 137Cs. The simulation showed that the significant difference in DNA damage spectrum was not caused by directly ejected electrons and γ-rays from 137Cs. The result supports the existing perception that the biological effects by internal and external exposure by 137Cs are equivalent.

  14. Cs-137 in terrestrial environment in Loviisa, Olkiluoto and Maenttae areas (Finland)[Radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartti, V.P.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Klemola, S.; Ilus, E.; Mattila, J. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    The aim of the study was to clarify how Cs-137 is accumulated in different biota species in Finnish terrestrial environment. The study was carried out in three different areas. The Maenttae area was one of the areas in Finland with the highest contamination by the Chernobyl fallout. The other areas (Loviisa and Olkiluoto) represent the environs of the Finnish NPPs located in the South and West coast of Finland, respectively (Fig. 1). The sampling was carried out in 2000 in Loviisa, in 2001 in Olkiluoto and in 2003 in Maenttae. Altogether over 120 samples from over 50 species were taken including soil profiles, mushrooms, lichens, mosses, ferns, twigs, needles, leaves and berries. All the samples were dried and homogenized and Cs-137 was measured with HPGe gamma spectrometers. The highest Cs-137 concentrations and Tagg values were found in mushrooms. The Cs-137 concentrations in needles, twigs and ferns were clearly lower than in mushrooms. The activity concentration of Cs-137 in lichens, mosses and leaves were at the same level as in needles and ferns. The concentrations of Cs-137 in berries Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Vaccinium myrtillus and Empetrum nigrum varied from 160 to 1200 Bq/kg d.w. In other berries the concentrations were very low. The best indicator species seemed to be mushrooms. The results of Hypogymnia physodes sampled in Loviisa in 2000 showed that Cs-137 concentrations can vary greatly within a small area. (LN)

  15. miR-137 inhibits glutamine catabolism and growth of malignant melanoma by targeting glutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Wenkang; Zhou, Zhou; Zhu, Yan; Xia, Yun; Wang, Jinlong; Xu, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Glutamine catabolism is considered to be an important metabolic pathway for cancer cells. Glutaminase (GLS) is the important rate-limiting enzyme of glutamine catabolism. miR-137 functions as a tumor suppressor in many human malignant tumors. However, the role and molecular mechanism of miR-137 and GLS in malignant melanoma has not been reported. In this study, we showed that miR-137 was decreased in melanoma tissue, and the low miR-137 level and high GLS expression are independent risk factor in melanoma. miR-137 suppressed the proliferation and glutamine catabolism of melanoma cells. GLS is crucial for glutamine catabolism and growth of malignant melanoma. We also demonstrated that miR-137 acts as a tumor suppressor in melanoma by targeting GLS. This result elucidates a new mechanism for miR-137 in melanoma development and provides a survival indicator and potential therapeutic target for melanoma patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Senile gluteal dermatosis: a clinical study of 137 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Nan; Wang, Wen-Jen; Chen, Chih-Chiang; Lee, Ding-Dar; Chang, Yun-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Senile gluteal dermatosis (SGD) is a common genital dermatosis but has gained little attention before. A large-scale clinical study of this disease is lacking. We examined 162 consecutive outpatients with gluteal skin diseases of different causes. Fourteen skin biopsies were performed. Patient's age, gender, body mass index (BMI), way of sitting or lying, treatment response, and underlying systemic diseases were recorded. About 137 (85%) patients could be defined as SGD. These patients, with a mean age of 79.4 ± 40.7 years and a mean BMI of 21.7 ± 10.8, presented with either partial (n = 43, 31%) or full-blown (n = 94, 69%) SGD lesions characterized by the sign of so-called "three corners of a triangle": brownish plaques on the gluteal cleft and each side of the buttocks. Male/female ratio was 130/7. Itching or pain of varying intensity was reported by 50 patients (36%) and 14 patients (10%), respectively. Eighty-six patients (53%) presented with horizontal hyperkeratotic ridges, a characteristic sign of SGD. Most patients spent most of the day sitting but reported no special way of sitting or lying. More than half of patients with SGD claimed no response to topical steroids and/or keratolytics. In comparison with patients with SGD, SGD-free patients were younger (61.3 ± 36 years, P = 0.0005) and heavier (BMI 26.2 ± 15.6, P dermatosis, mostly affecting the thinner elderly. Friction, pressures and long hours sitting seemed to be important factors to trigger this dermatosis. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. Iodine-129 and Caesium-137 in Chernobyl contaminated soil and their chemical fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Fogh, C.L.; Kucera, J.

    2003-01-01

    and (CS)-C-137 in the Chernobyl soil and Irish Sea sediment was investigated by a sequential extraction method. Similar speciation of I-129 in the Chernobyl soil and Irish Sea sediment was found. Approximately 70% of I-129 is bound to oxides and organic matter, and 10-20% is in the readily available phase......Soil samples from areas in Belarus, Russia and Sweden contaminated by the Chernobyl accident were analysed for I-129 by radiochemical neutron activation analysis, as well as for Cs-137 by gamma-spectrometry. The atomic ratio of I-129/(CS)-C-137 in the upper layer of the examined soil cores ranged...

  18. 42 CFR 137.16 - What if more than 50 Indian Tribes apply to participate in self-governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... participate in self-governance? 137.16 Section 137.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-GOVERNANCE Selection of Indian Tribes for Participation in Self-Governance § 137.16 What if more than 50 Indian Tribes apply to participate in self-governance? The first Indian Tribes who apply and are...

  19. 42 CFR 137.336 - What is the difference between fixed-price and cost-reimbursement agreements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the difference between fixed-price and cost-reimbursement agreements? 137.336 Section 137.336 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.336 What is the difference between fixed-price and cost...

  20. 42 CFR 137.179 - May a Self-Governance Tribe make agreements with the Federal Records Centers regarding disclosure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe make agreements with... § 137.178? 137.179 Section 137.179 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE...

  1. 42 CFR 137.401 - What role does Tribal consultation play in the IHS annual budget request process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What role does Tribal consultation play in the IHS annual budget request process? 137.401 Section 137.401 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-GOVERNANCE Secretarial Responsibilities Budget Request § 137.401 What role does Tribal consultation play in...

  2. 42 CFR 137.295 - May Self-Governance Tribes elect to develop their own environmental review process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes elect to develop their own environmental review process? 137.295 Section 137.295 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.295 May Self-Governance Tribes elect to develop their...

  3. {sup 137}Cs in Lapps breeding reindeer measured by simplified whole-body counti; {sup 137}Cs i samiska renskoetare uppmaett med foerenklad helkroppsmaetning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillander, M.; Jaakkola, T. [Helsingfors Univ., Kemiska Inst., Lab. foer radiokemi (Finland)

    2002-04-01

    The whole-body activity of a selected group of Finnish Lapps was measured in 1962 to 1977 and in 1986 to 1997 using mobile whole-body counters. For the most exposed group - the male reindeer breeders - the mean value of the body activity 137CS increased to 53 kBq/person for the year 1965 and 14 kBq/person for 1997. The effective half-time for {sup 137}Cs was 7 years in the seventies and 4,4 years in the nineties. In the summer of 2000 another measurement using bending geometry was carried out. The result corroborated the trend, which was observed earlier. (au)

  4. [Color distribution of the anterior teeth in 137 elder people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan-Ling; Qian, Hai-Xin; Gan, Hong; Qian, Cheng-Hui; Zhang, Xiu-Yin

    2008-06-01

    To study the color distribution of the anterior teeth in elder people. 612 anterior teeth from 137 people aging from 60 to 81 years and 200 anterior teeth from 100 young people aging from 20 to 40 years were collected. A digital colorimeter was used to measure the value of L*,a*,b* of the teeth, and the chromatism (deltaE) was calculated according to the formula deltaE=(deltaL*(2)+deltaa*(2)+deltab*(2))1/2. All data were analyzed with SAS 6.12 software package for Student's t test. Totally, there were 612 vital anterior teeth from elder people, including 201 central incisors,199 lateral incisors and 212 canines, were collected. No difference was found between the teeth on the right side and the left side in terms of L*,a*,b*value(P>0.05). The mean value of L*,a*,b* of the central incisors was 71.2+/-6.22,0.97+/-1.12,15.9+/-5.04, respectively and that of the lateral incisors and the canines were 69.6+/-5.52,0.6+/-1.18,13.9+/-4.15 and 68.4+/-5.99,0.15+/-1.02,19.6+/-4.87, respectively.The mean value of L*,a*,b* of the central incisors and the canines from the youngster was 75.82,-0.11,12.68 and 72.07,1.22,17.92, respectively.There were significant differences between the central incisors and the lateral incisors as well as the canines (Pelder people demonstrated a lower L* and a* value, but a higher b* value (Pelder people, the central incisors look much brighter than the lateral incisors and canines, while the canines have more redness and yellowness than the incisors, and the color of the lateral incisors exhibits lighter than the central incisors and the canines. Compared to the teeth from younger people, the teeth from elder people look much darker and yellower but less red. Supported by Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (Grant No.T0202).

  5. Floodplain data: ecosystem characteristics and /sup 137/Cs concentrations in biota and soil. [ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Voris, P.; Dahlman, R.C.

    1976-11-01

    Radiocesium (/sup 137/Cs) distribution was determined in soil, roots, ground vegetation, overstory, litter, mammals, feces, and insects for a floodplain ecosystem contaminated by radioactive wastes from Manhattan Project operations in 1944. The 2-ha research site was located on the ERDA reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, in a drained holding pond between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and White Oak Lake. Maximum /sup 137/Cs concentrations in soil occurred near the old retention pond dam (84,400 pCi/g) and at the upper portion of the floodplain boundary (70,500 pCi/g). This bimodal distribution pattern of /sup 137/Cs was evident for all samples collected. Large amounts of data have been collected since the summer of 1974. This report documents the data on ecosystem characteristics and /sup 137/Cs concentrations in biota and soil.

  6. HH137 and 138: Discovering New Knots and a Molecular Outflow with Gemini and APEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, L. V.; Cappa, C. E.; Gomez, M.

    2017-07-01

    We present a multi-frequency study of HH 137 and HH 138 using Gemini images and APEX molecular line data, as well as Spitzer images. Several 2.12 micron knots linked to HH137 are identified in the Gemini image. 12^CO(3-2), 13^CO(3-2), and C18^O(3-2) line data reveal the molecular counterpart of HH 137. Spitzer combined images suggest the location of the exciting source of HH 137, almost coincident with a high-density molecular clump detected in C18^O. We derive the main physical parameters of the molecular clump and the molecular outflow, and propose a simple scenario for the whole complex.

  7. A comparison of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in localized evergreen and deciduous plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, R.C.

    1996-05-01

    A vegetation study at the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES) near Glen Rose, Texas was conducted in 1991 and 1992. The CPSES is a commercial nuclear power plant owned and operated by Texas Utilities Electric of Dallas, Texas. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) requires the CPSES to routinely sample broadleaf vegetation in place of milk samples. Few commercial dairies exist in the vicinity. Broadleaf tree species are scarce because the climate and local limestone geology have produced a dry rolling hill topography. An evergreen juniper is the dominant tree species. Few broadleaves during the winter season have hindered year-round sampling. This study compares the environmental {sup 137}Cs concentrations between broadleaf and evergreen foliage at CPSES. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations from each vegetation location were also compared to the foliage {sup 137}Cs concentrations. The study`s objective was to determine if the deciduous and evergreen vegetation {sup 137}Cs concentrations are statistically the same.

  8. Chitosan-ferrocyanide sorbent for Cs-137 removal from mineralized alkaline media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorin, Andrei [Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Ozyorsk Technical Institute MEPHI, Ozersk (Russian Federation); Tokar, Eduard [Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zemskova, Larisa [Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-01

    An organomineral sorbent based on mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide and chitosan to be used in removal of Cs-137 radionuclide from highly mineralized media with high pH has been fabricated. The synthesized sorbent was applied to remove Cs-137 from model solutions under static and dynamic conditions. The effects of contact time, pH, and presence of sodium ions and complexing agents in the process of Cs-137 removal have been investigated. The sorbent is distinguished by increased stability to the impact of alkaline media containing complexing agents, whereas the sorbent capacity in solutions with pH 11 exceeds 1000 bed volumes with the Cs-137 removal efficiency higher than 95%.

  9. Detritivores enhance the mobilization of {sup 137}Cs from leaf-litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Masashi; Suzuki, Takahiro [Community Ecology Lab., Biology Course, Faculty of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Ishii, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Ohte, Nobuhito [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-8657 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    A large amount of radioactive material was released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident after the disastrous earthquake and subsequent tsunami of March 2011. Since most of the Japanese land area is covered by forest ecosystems, {sup 137}Cs was mostly deposited and accumulated on the land surface of forest. The fate of radioactive materials accumulated on the leaf litters should be conscientiously monitored to understand the future distribution and the spread to the surrounding landscapes. Because the accident took place on 11 March 2011, just before the bud-break of deciduous trees, the {sup 137}Cs are highly accumulated on the surface of leaf litter on the forest floor. This accumulated {sup 137}Cs had transferred to higher trophic organisms mainly through the detritus food chain. However, on the litter surface, {sup 137}Cs considered to be strongly and immediately fixed and highly immobilized. Decomposition processes in the forest floor can re-mobilise the nutritional elements which are contained within detritus and make them available for the organisms. In the present study, the feeding effect of detritivore soil arthropods on the mobilization of {sup 137}Cs from leaf litter was experimentally examined. Furthermore, the effect of detritivores on the plant uptake of {sup 137}Cs was examined by small-scale nursery experiment. Decomposition experiment in the small microcosms was performed using a larvae of Trypoxylus dichotomus, whichis a detritivores feeding on dead plant materials such as wood debris and leaf litters. Contaminated leaf litters were collected in a forest of the Kami-Oguni River catchment in the northern part of Fukushima Prefecture. The leaf litters at A0 layers which are highly contaminated by {sup 137}Cs were utilized for the experiment. The contaminated leaf litter was fed to the larvae for ten days. The litter with larvae excreta was washed by 2 M KCl and deionized water. The {sup 137}Cs concentration was measured

  10. Clinical implications of elevated serum soluble CD137 levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinchuan Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Research has focused on identifying specific serum biomarkers to detect vulnerable plaques. These markers serve as diagnostic tools for acute coronary syndrome and assist in identifying high-risk patients. However, the existing data are limited and conflicting. This study tested the hypothesis that CD137 levels identify patients with acute coronary syndrome who are at a heightened risk for recurrent cardiac events. METHODS: The levels of soluble CD137 (sCD137 were measured using ELISA in 180 patients with acute coronary syndrome and 120 patients with acute chest pain. Platelet activation was assessed by flow cytometry. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to evaluate the prognostic characteristics of sCD137. RESULTS: The levels of sCD137 were elevated in 75 patients with acute coronary syndromes and 20 patients with acute chest pain (>35.0 ng/ml. In patients with acute coronary syndrome, elevated sCD137 levels (>35.0 ng/ml indicated an increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (OR =1.93, 95% CI: 1.39-2.54. Elevated serum levels of sCD137 and cTnT were correlated with a significantly increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in both groups after 30 days, six months and nine months of follow-up. The increased sCD137 levels were significantly correlated with the levels of troponin I (r = 0.4799, p<0.001. Importantly, 26 patients with normal cTnI levels had acute coronary syndrome. However, elevated sCD137 levels identified these patients as a being high-risk subgroup (OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.25-4.13. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated sCD137 levels indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Soluble CD137 may be a useful prognostic marker or indicator for adverse events in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF WIND CHARACTERISTICS AND ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION MODELING OF 137Cs ON THE BARAKAH NPP AREA IN THE UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JONG KUK LEE

    2014-08-01

    Six variations of cesium-137 (137Cs dispersion test were simulated under severe accident condition. The 137Cs dispersion was strongly influenced by the direction and speed of the main wind. A virtual receptor was set and calculated for observation of the 137Cs movement and accumulation. The results of the surface roughness effect demonstrated that the deposition of 137Cs was affected by surface condition. The results of these studies offer useful information for developing environmental radiation monitoring systems (ERMSs for the BNPP and can be used to assess the environmental effects of new nuclear power plant.

  12. Reconstruction of Long-Lived Radionuclide Intakes for Techa Riverside Residents: Cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Peremyslova, L. M.; Shagina, N. B.; Vorobiova, M. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2013-05-01

    Radioactive contamination of the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) occurred from 1949–1956 due to routine and accidental releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak Production Association. The long-lived radionuclides in the releases were 90Sr and 137Cs. Contamination of the components of the Techa River system resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside villages. Data on radionuclide intake with diet are used to estimate internal dose in the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS), which was elaborated for the assessment of radiogenic risk for Techa Riverside residents. The 90Sri ntake function was recently improved taking into account the recently available archival data on radionuclide releases and in-depth analysis of the extensive data on 90Sr measurements in Techa Riverside residents. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the dietary intake of 137Cs by Techa Riverside residents. The 137Cs intake with river water used for drinking was reconstructed on the basis of the 90Sr intake-function and the concentration ratio 137Cs/90Sr in river water. Intake via 137Cs transfer from floodplain soil to grass and cows’ milk was evaluated for the first time. As a result, the maximal 137Cs intake level was indicated near the site of releases in upper-Techa River settlements (8,000–9,000 kBq). For villages located on the lower Techa River the 137Cs intake was significantly less (down to 300 kBq). Cows’ milk was the main source of 137Cs in diet in the upper-Techa.

  13. Immunotherapy of melanoma with the immune costimulatory monoclonal antibodies targeting CD137

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li SY

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Shi-Yan Li, Yizhen Liu Cancer Research Institute, Scott and White Healthcare, Temple, TX, USA Abstract: Knowledge of how the immune system recognizes and attempts to control cancer growth and development has improved dramatically. The advent of immunotherapies for cancer has resulted in robust clinical responses and confirmed that the immune system can significantly inhibit tumor progression. Until recently, metastatic melanoma was a disease with limited treatment options and a poor prognosis. CD137 (also known as 4-1BB a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptor superfamily, is an activation-induced T cell costimulator molecule. Growing evidence indicates that anti-CD137 monoclonal antibodies possess strong antitumor properties, the result of their powerful capability to activate CD8+ T cells, to produce interferon (IFN-γ, and to induce cytolytic markers. Combination therapy of anti-CD137 with other anticancer agents, such as radiation, has robust tumor-regressing abilities against nonimmunogenic or poorly immunogenic tumors. Of importance, targeting CD137 eliminates established tumors, and the fact that anti-CD137 therapy acts in concert with other anticancer agents and/or radiation therapy to eradicate nonimmunogenic and weakly immunogenic tumors is an additional benefit. Currently, BMS-663513, a humanized anti-CD137 antibody, is in clinical trials in patients with solid tumors, including melanoma, renal carcinoma, ovarian cancer, and B-cell malignancies. In this review, we discuss the basis of the therapeutic potential of targeting CD137 in cancer treatment, focusing in particular, on BMS-663513 as an immune costimulatory monoclonal antibody for melanoma immunotherapy. Keywords: anti-CD137 monoclonal antibodies, immune costimulator molecule, BMS-663513

  14. Introduce lichen Lepraria incana as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Amin; Jahangiri, Ahmad; Iranmanesh, Jalil

    2016-08-01

    Lichens have been used as biomonitors of airborne radionuclides released in conjunction with nuclear bomb testing as well as nuclear power plant accidents. The potential of lichens for monitoringof radionuclides has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide monitoring by lichens, in Iran. Thus, as a first step, we have conducted a comparison of (137)Csactivity concentration capacity of three epiphytic lichen species including Lepraria incana, Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea from Ramsar Northern Iran. In this work, accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was determined in 36 lichen samples using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The results showed that highest accumulation capacity of (137)Cs in the lichen species was found in Lepraria incana and Xanthoria parietina, 30.2, 9.8 Bq/kg respectively, and lowest average accumulation capacity were found in Ramalina farinacea 2.7 Bq/kg (dry weight). This study showed that activity concentration (137)Cs is in crustose > foliose > fruticose lichens in the same biotope. Thus, crustose lichens are capable to accumulate higher (137)Cs than foliose and fruticose species because of different factors such as special morphological characteristics in these species and large surface/volume ratio or longer biological half-life of (137)Cs in lichen Lepraria incana. Therefore, Lepraria incana due to high concentration capability of (137)Cs (approximately 3 and 11 time higher than Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea, respectively), is introduced as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, North of Iran. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. {sup 137}Cs distribution among annual rings of different tree species contaminated after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukhova, N.V.; Fesenko, S.V.; Klein, D.; Spiridonov, S.I.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Badot, P.M. E-mail: pierre-marie.badot@univ-fcomte.fr

    2003-07-01

    The distributions of {sup 137}Cs among annual rings of Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula at four experimental sites located in the most contaminated areas in the Russian territory after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 were studied. Trees of different ages were sampled from four forest sites with different tree compositions and soil properties. The data analysis shows that {sup 137}Cs is very mobile in wood and the 1986 rings do not show the highest contamination. The difference between pine and birch in the pattern of radial {sup 137}Cs distribution can be satisfactorily explained by the difference in radial ray composition. {sup 137}Cs radial distribution in the wood can be described as the sum of two exponential functions for both species. The function parameters are height, age and species dependent. The distribution of {sup 137}Cs in birch wood reveals much more pronounced dependence on site characteristics and/or the age of trees than pines. The data obtained can be used to assess {sup 137}Cs content in wood.

  16. Influence on the mouse immune system of chronic ingestion of {sup 137}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertho, Jean-Marc; Faure, Marie-Cecile; Louiba, Sonia; Tourlonias, Elie; Stefani, Johanna; Siffert, Baptiste; Paquet, Francois; Dublineau, Isabelle, E-mail: Jean-marc.bertho@irsn.fr [IRSN, Laboratoire de Radiotoxicologie Experimentale, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the possible occurrence of damage to the immune system during the course of chronic ingestion of {sup 137}Cs. BALB/C mice were used, with {sup 137}Cs intake via drinking water at a concentration of 20 kBq l{sup -1}. Adults received {sup 137}Cs before mating and offspring were sacrificed at various ages between birth and 20 weeks. Phenotypic analysis of circulating blood cells and thymocytes did not show any significant modification of immune cell populations in animals ingesting {sup 137}Cs as compared with control animals, with the exception of a slight increase in Treg percentage at the age of 12 weeks. Functional tests, including proliferative response to mitogens such as phytohaemagglutinin, response to alloantigens in mixed lymphocyte reaction and immunoglobulin response to vaccine antigens such as tetanus toxin and keyhole limpet haemocyanin did not show any significant functional modification of the immune system in {sup 137}Cs-ingesting animals as compared with control animals. Overall, our results suggest that chronic ingestion of a low concentration of {sup 137}Cs in drinking water in the long term does not have any biologically relevant effect on the immune system.

  17. Distribution of 137Cs In the Surface Soil of Serpong Nuclear Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lubis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of 137Cs in the surface soil layer of Serpong Nuclear Site (SNS was investigated by field sampling. The Objectives of the investigation is finding the profile of 137Cs distribution in the surface soil and the Tf value that can be used for estimation of radiation dose from livestock product-man pathways. The results indicates that the 137Cs activity in surface soil of SNS is 0.80 ± 0,29 Bq/kg, much lower than in the Antarctic. The contribution value of 137Cs from the operation of G.A.Siwabessy Reactor until now is undetectable. The Tf of 137Cs from surface soil to Panisetum Purpureum, Setaria Spha Celata and Imperata Cylindrica grasses were 0.71 ± 0.14, 0.84 ± 0.27 and 0.81 ± 0.11 respectively. The results show that value of the transfer factor of 137Cs varies between cultivated and uncultivated soil and also with the soils with thick humus

  18. Dermatophytoses in children: study of 137 cases Dermatofitoses na criança: estudo de 137 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurimar C. FERNANDES

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytoses are common fungal infections caused by dermatophytes but there are few data about this condition in the childhood. 137 children below the age of 12 and clinically diagnosed as tineas were investigated prospectively at Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria, Rio de Janeiro, from 1994 to 1999. Hair, skin/nails scraping and pus swabs were collected from lesions and processed for fungus. Male children from 2 to 12 years were mostly affected; tinea capitis (78 cases mainly caused by Microsporum canis (46 cases was the most common clinical form. Tinea corporis (43 cases mainly caused by Trichophyton rubrum (17 cases accounted for the second most frequent clinical form. Tinea cruris (10 cases with Trichophyton rubrum (5 cases as the most common etiologic agent accounted for the third most frequent clinical form. Tinea pedis and tinea unguium were much less frequent (3 cases each. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common etiologic agent isolated in these cases (3 cases.As dermatofitoses são infecções fúngicas freqüentes causadas por dermatófitos mas há poucos relatos sobre esta condição na infância. Cento e trinta e sete crianças abaixo de 12 anos e clinicamente diagnosticadas como tinhas, foram investigadas prospectivamente no Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria, Rio de Janeiro, no período de 1994 a 1999. Foram submetidas ao exame micológico de raspado de pele e unhas, pelos e pus das lesões. Meninos na faixa etária de 2 a 12 anos foram mais afetados; tinea capitis (78 casos por Microsporum canis (46 casos foi a forma clínica mais freqüente. Tinea corporis (43 casos por Trichophyton rubrum (17 casos foi a segunda forma clínica mais freqüente. Tinea cruris (10 casos por Trichophyton rubrum (5 casos como o agente mais comum foi a terceira forma clínica mais freqüente. Nas Tinea pedis e tinea unguium (3 casos cada, o Trichophyton rubrum foi o agente mais isolado (3 casos.

  19. Retrospective evaluation of bone pain palliation after samarium-153-EDTMP therapy Avaliação retrospectiva do tratamento da dor óssea metastática com Samário-153-EDTMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Tatit Sapienza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of metastatic bone pain palliation and medullar toxicity associated with samarium-153-EDTMP treatment. METHODS: Seventy-three patients with metastatic bone pain having previously undergone therapy with samarium-153-EDTMP (1 mCi/kg were retrospectively evaluated. Routine follow-up included pain evaluation and blood counts for 2 months after treatment. Pain was evaluated using a subjective scale (from 0 to 10 before and for 8 weeks after the treatment. Blood counts were obtained before treatment and once a week for 2 months during follow-up. Dosimetry, based upon the urinary excretion of the isotope, was estimated in 41 individuals, and the resulting radiation absorbed doses were correlated with hematological data. RESULTS: Reduction in pain scores of 75% to 100% was obtained in 36 patients (49%, with a decrease of 50% to 75%, 25% to 50%, and 0% to 25% in, respectively, 20 (27%, 10 (14%, and 7 (10% patients. There was no significant relationship between the pain response and location of the primary tumor (breast or prostate cancer. Mild to moderate myelosuppression was noted in 75.3% of patients, usually with hematological recovery at 8 weeks. The mean bone marrow dose was 347 ± 65 cGy, and only a weak correlation was found between absorbed dose and myelosuppression (Pearson coefficient = .4. CONCLUSIONS: Samarium-153-EDTMP is a valuable method for metastatic bone pain palliation. A mild to moderate and transitory myelosuppression is the main toxicity observed after samarium therapy, showing a weak correlation with dosimetric measures.OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito paliativo da dor e a toxicidade medular associados ao tratamento com Samário-153-EDTMP em pacientes com metástases ósseas. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado de forma retrospectiva, a partir do levantamento de prontuário de 178 pacientes submetidos a tratamento com 1mCi/kg de 153Sm

  20. The dynamics of the laser-induced metal-semiconductor phase transition of samarium sulfide (SmS); Die Dynamik des laserinduzierten Metall-Halbleiter-Phasenuebergangs von Samariumsulfid (SmS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaempfer, Tino

    2009-12-15

    The present thesis is dedicated to the experimental study of the metal-semiconductor phase transition of samarium sulfide (SmS): Temperature- and time-resolved experiments on the characterization of the phase transition of mixed-valence SmS samples (M-SmS) are presented. The measurement of the dynamics of the laser-induced phase transition pursues via time-resolved ultrashort-time microscopy and by X-ray diffraction with sub-picosecond time resolution. The electronic and structural processes, which follow an excitation of M-SmS with infrared femtosecond laser pulses, are physically interpreted on the base of the results obtained in this thesis and model imaginations. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit ist der experimentellen Untersuchung des Metall-Halbleiter-Phasenuebergangs von Samariumsulfid (SmS) gewidmet. Es werden temperatur- und zeitaufgeloeste Experimente zur Charakterisierung des Phasenuebergangs gemischt-valenter SmS Proben (M-SmS) vorgestellt. Die Messung der Dynamik des laserinduzierten Phasenuebergangs erfolgt ueber zeitaufgeloeste Ultrakurzzeit-Mikroskopie und durch Roentgenbeugung mit subpikosekunden Zeitaufloesung. Die elektronischen und strukturellen Prozesse, welche einer Anregung von M-SmS mit infraroten Femtosekunden-Laserpulsen folgen, werden auf der Basis der in dieser Arbeit gewonnenen Ergebnisse und Modellvorstellungen physikalisch interpretiert. (orig.)

  1. Distribution of {sup 137}Cs in three representative soils of Pernambuco state, Brazil;Distribuicao de {sup 137}Cs em tres solos representativos do estado de Pernambuco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Patrik Diogo, E-mail: pdantunes@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias do Solo; Sampaio, Everardo Valadares de Sa Barretto; Ferreira Junior, Antonio Luiz Goncalves; Salcedo, Ignacio Hernan, E-mail: esampaio@ufpe.b, E-mail: antonio.ferreira@ariano.nlink.com.b, E-mail: salcedo@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Galindo, Izabel Cristina Luna, E-mail: iclgalindo@uol.com.b [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia

    2010-05-15

    Contents of {sup 137}Cs have been used to quantify soil loss or accumulations, based on values of reference sites with little soil disturbance in the last decades. In Northeastern Brazil no such sites have been evaluated yet. Three areas with flat topography, native vegetation and undisturbed soil were selected in of Goiania, Araripina and Sertania counties, state of Pernambuco. Four points in each area were marked at a distance of 20 to 50 m away from each other and soil samples were collected in 3 cm depth intervals, down to 30 cm. The {sup 137}Cs activities were determined using gamma spectrometry with a hyper pure germanium detector. Average contents of {sup 137}Cs (Bq m{sup -2}) were 71.6 +- 6.3 in Goiania, 64.0 +- 13.8 in Araripina and 95.5 +- 9.8 in Sertania. Values in this range have been reported in Paraiba and Bahia, and higher ones in the Southeastern region, confirming the reduction of stocks in areas closer to the equator. The highest activities occurred in the surface layers, ranging from 0.5 to 1.6 Bq kg{sup -1}, and decreased linearly with depth until the detection limits: 18 cm in Araripina, 15 cm in Goiania, and 9 cm in Sertania. In Goiania, the activity was highest (2.06 +- 1.0 Bq kg{sup -1}) in an organic horizon above a inorganic horizon. The high activities and stock and lower depth in Sertania could be explained by the predominance of 2:1 clay minerals versus 1:1 clay minerals in the other areas. {sup 137}Cs activities were positively correlated with water and KCl pH values and negatively correlated with Al concentrations. The results confirm that, in the reference areas, {sup 137}Cs activities are highest in the surface layers, decreasing regularly down the soil profile. (author)

  2. Assessment of 137Cs and 90Sr Fluxes in the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matishov, Gennady; Usiagina, Irina; Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Ilin, Gennadii

    2014-05-01

    On the basis of published and own data the annual balance of radionuclide income/outcome was assessed for 137Cs and 90Sr in the Barents Sea for the period from 1950s to the presnt. The scheme of the isotope balance calculation in the Barents Sea included the following processes:atmospheric fallout; river run-off; liquid radioactive wastes releases, income from the Norwegian and the White Seas; outflow to the adjacent areas through the Novaya Zemlya straits and the transects Svalbard-Franz Josef Land and Franz Josef Land-Novaya Zemlya; radioactive decay. According to the multiyear dynamics, the inflow of 137Cs and 90Sr to the Barents Sea was significantly preconditioned by currents from the Norwegian Sea. Three peaks of 137Cs and 90Sr isotope concentrations were registered for the surface waters on the western border of the Barents Sea. The first one was observed in the mid-1960s and was conditioned by testing of nuclear weapons. The increase of isotope concentrations in 1975 and 1980 was preconditioned by the discharge of atomic waste by the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. Nowadays, after the sewage disposal plant was built, the annual discharge of nuclear waste from Sellafield plant is low. The Norwegian Sea was a major source of 137Cs and 90Sr isotope income into the Barents Sea for the period of 1960-2014. Currently, the transborder transfer of 90Sr and 137Cs from the Norwegian Sea into the Barents Sea constitutes about 99% of income for each element. Atmospheric precipitation had a major impact in the 1950-1960s after the testing of the nuclear weapons, and in 1986 after the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. In 1963, the atmospheric precipitation of 137Cs reached 1050 TBq; and that of 90Sr, 630 TBq. In 1986, a significant amount of 137Cs inflow (up to 1010 TBq/year) was registered. The 137Cs isotope income exceeded the 90Sr income in the 1960s-1980s, and equal amounts penetrated into the Barents Sea from the Norwegian Sea in the 1990s. Before

  3. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 9}Sr uptake by sunflower cultivated under hydroponic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudek, Petr [Department of Plant Tissue Cultures, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nam. 2, CZ-166 10 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Valenova, Sarka [Department of Plant Tissue Cultures, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nam. 2, CZ-166 10 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vavrikova, Zuzana [Department of Plant Tissue Cultures, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nam. 2, CZ-166 10 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vanek, Tomas [Department of Plant Tissue Cultures, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nam. 2, CZ-166 10 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: vanek@uochb.cas.cz

    2006-07-01

    The {sup 9}Sr and {sup 137}Cs uptake by the plant Helianthus annuus L. was studied during cultivation in a hydroponic medium. The accumulation of radioactivity in plants was measured after 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of cultivation. About 12% of {sup 137}Cs and 20% of {sup 9}Sr accumulated during the experiments. We did not find any differences between the uptake of radioactive and stable caesium and strontium isotopes. Radioactivity distribution within the plant was determined by autoradiography. {sup 137}Cs was present mainly in nodal segments, leaf veins and young leaves. High activity of {sup 9}Sr was localized in leaf veins, stem, central root and stomata. The influence of stable elements or analogues on the transfer behaviour was investigated. The percentage of non-active caesium and strontium concentration in plants decreased with the increasing initial concentration of Cs or Sr in the medium. The percentage of {sup 9}Sr activity in plants decreased with increasing initial activity of the nuclide in the medium, but the activity of {sup 137}Cs in plants increased. The influence of K{sup +} and NH{sub 4} {sup +} on the uptake of {sup 137}Cs and the influence of Ca{sup 2+} on the uptake of {sup 9}Sr was tested. The highest accumulation of {sup 137}Cs (24-27% of the initial activity of {sup 137}Cs) was found in the presence of 10 mM potassium and 12 mM ammonium ions. Accumulation of about 22% of initial activity of {sup 9}Sr was determined in plants grown on the medium with 8 mM calcium ions.

  4. Computational modeling of 137Cs contaminant transfer associated with sediment transport in Abukuma River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, T; Nabi, M; Shimizu, Y; Kimura, I

    2015-01-01

    A numerical model capable of simulating the transfer of (137)Cs in rivers associated with transport of fine sediment is presented. The accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) released radionuclides into the atmosphere, and after fallout several radionuclides in them, such as radiocesium ((134)Cs, (137)Cs) and radioiodine ((131)I) were adsorbed on surface soil particles around FDNPP and transported by surface water. To understand the transport and deposition of the radioactive contaminant along with surface soil particles and its flux to the ocean, we modeled the transport of the (137)Cs contaminant by computing the water flow and the associated washload and suspended load transport. We have developed a two-dimensional model to simulate the plane flow structure, sediment transport and associated (137)Cs contaminant transport in rivers by combining a shallow water flow model and an advection-diffusion equation for the transport of sediment. The proposed model has been applied to the lower reach of Abukuma River, which is the main river in the highly contaminated area around FDNPP. The numerical results indicate that most (137)Cs supplied from the upstream river reach with washload would directly reach to Pacific Ocean. In contrast, washload-oriented (137)Cs supplied from the upstream river basin has a limited role in the radioactive contamination in the river. The results also suggest that the proposed framework of computational model can be a potential tool for understanding the sediment-oriented (137)Cs behavior in rivers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bayesian approach to model CD137 signaling in human M. tuberculosis in vitro responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío A Fernández Do Porto

    Full Text Available Immune responses are qualitatively and quantitatively influenced by a complex network of receptor-ligand interactions. Among them, the CD137:CD137L pathway is known to modulate innate and adaptive human responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of this regulation remain unclear. In this work, we developed a Bayesian Computational Model (BCM of in vitro CD137 signaling, devised to fit previously gathered experimental data. The BCM is fed with the data and the prior distribution of the model parameters and it returns their posterior distribution and the model evidence, which allows comparing alternative signaling mechanisms. The BCM uses a coupled system of non-linear differential equations to describe the dynamics of Antigen Presenting Cells, Natural Killer and T Cells together with the interpheron (IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α levels in the media culture. Fast and complete mixing of the media is assumed. The prior distribution of the parameters that describe the dynamics of the immunological response was obtained from the literature and theoretical considerations Our BCM applies successively the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to find the maximum a posteriori likelihood (MAP; the Metropolis Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to approximate the posterior distribution of the parameters and Thermodynamic Integration to calculate the evidence of alternative hypothesis. Bayes factors provided decisive evidence favoring direct CD137 signaling on T cells. Moreover, the posterior distribution of the parameters that describe the CD137 signaling showed that the regulation of IFN-γ levels is based more on T cells survival than on direct induction. Furthermore, the mechanisms that account for the effect of CD137 signaling on TNF-α production were based on a decrease of TNF-α production by APC and, perhaps, on the increase in APC apoptosis. BCM proved to be a useful tool to gain insight on the mechanisms of CD

  6. The Transfer and diffusion of Cesium 137 within forest ecosystem in Fukushima after the nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Murakami, Masashi [Community Ecology Lab., Biology Course, Faculty of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Ishii, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Tanoi, Keitaro; Hirose, Atsushi; Ohte, Nobuhito [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-8657 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    A large amount of radionuclides was released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident after the disastrous earthquake and subsequent tsunami of March 2011. Among the variety of radionuclides released from FDNPP, cesium 137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the most worrying radionuclide in the environment, with a half-life of 30 years. Since most of the Japanese land area is covered by forest, the distribution and transportation of radioactive materials within forest ecosystems should be conscientiously monitored. In Europe, many studies reported that the {sup 137}Cs deposition caused by the Chernobyl accident has still been distributed in the litter and soil layers and has become a source for the soil-to-plant transfer. Most of these studies emphasize the 'stability' of {sup 137}Cs within forest ecosystems, because {sup 137}Cs are considered to be strongly and immediately fixed in clay minerals. Even though there are many studies of the soil-to-plant transfer of {sup 137}Cs in forest after several years of Chernobyl accident, very initial distribution and transfer of {sup 137}Cs in food web within one to two years after the deposition in forest ecosystems have never been examined. The evaluation of the initial dynamics of {sup 137}Cs in forest ecosystems should be quite important because of the increasing stability of {sup 137}Cs after the deposition. The accumulation and transfer of {sup 137}Cs through food web within forest ecosystems were examined by collecting various organisms at forests in Fukushima. The {sup 137}Cs concentrations, natural Cs and K concentrations, and delta {sup 15}N of the specimens were measured to evaluate the occurrence of bioaccumulation or bio-diffusion of {sup 137}Cs through tropic interaction within forest ecosystem. {sup 137}Cs was highly concentrated on leaf litters which had been deposited in autumn 2010, before the accident. This accumulated {sup 137}Cs had transferred to higher trophic organisms mainly through

  7. Individual Radiological Protection Monitoring of Utrok Atoll Residents Based on Whole Body Counting of Cesium-137 (137Cs) and Plutonium Bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T; Kehl, S; Brown, T; Martinelli, R; Hickman, D; Jue, T; Tumey, S; Langston, R

    2007-06-08

    This report contains individual radiological protection surveillance data developed during 2006 for adult members of a select group of families living on Utrok Atoll. These Group I volunteers all underwent a whole-body count to determine levels of internally deposited cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and supplied a bioassay sample for analysis of plutonium isotopes. Measurement data were obtained and the results compared with an equivalent set of measurement data for {sup 137}Cs and plutonium isotopes from a second group of adult volunteers (Group II) who were long-term residents of Utrok Atoll. For the purposes of this comparison, Group II volunteers were considered representative of the general population on Utrok Atoll. The general aim of the study was to determine residual systemic burdens of fallout radionuclides in each volunteer group, develop data in response to addressing some specific concerns about the preferential uptake and potential health consequences of residual fallout radionuclides in Group I volunteers, and generally provide some perspective on the significance of radiation doses delivered to volunteers (and the general Utrok Atoll resident population) in terms of radiological protection standards and health risks. Based on dose estimates from measurements of internally deposited {sup 137}Cs and plutonium isotopes, the data and information developed in this report clearly show that neither volunteer group has acquired levels of internally deposited fallout radionuclides specific to nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands that are likely to have any consequence on human health. Moreover, the dose estimates are well below radiological protection standards as prescribed by U.S. regulators and international agencies, and are very small when compared to doses from natural sources of radiation in the Marshall Islands and the threshold where radiation health effects could be either medically diagnosed in an individual or epidemiologically discerned in a

  8. PEMISAHAN DAN ANALISIS 137Cs DARI LARUTAN PELAT ELEMEN BAKAR U-7%Mo/Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Anggraini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK PEMISAHAN DAN ANALISIS 137Cs DARI LARUTAN PELAT ELEMEN BAKAR U-7%Mo/Al. Pemisahan cesium dari larutan pelat elemen bakar (PEB U-7Mo/Al telah dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode pengendapan dan penukar kation. Tujuan penelitian adalah mendapatkan metode yang valid untuk pemisahan cesium dari larutan PEB U-7Mo/Al melalui penentuan parameter unjuk kerja metode yaitu akurasi, presisi dan rekoveri. Metode pengendapan dan metode penukar kation yang digunakan mengacu kepada metode ASTM 690-000 dan kepada hasil penelitian U3Si2/Al. Penentuan parameter unjuk kerja metode pengendapan dilakukan dengan menggunakan larutan sampel PEB U-7%Mo/Al sebanyak 150 μL, larutan standar 137Cs sebanyak 50 μL dalam 2 mL HCl 0,1N. Larutan dikenakan proses pengendapan dengan menggunakan pereaksi HClO4 pekat dan penambahan senyawa carrier CsNO3 seberat 225 mg pada temperatur 0oC selama 1 jam, sedangkan proses penukar kation dilakukan dengan menggunakan resin zeolit Lampung sebanyak 400 mg. Proses penukar kation dilakukan secara batch dengan pengocokan selama 1 jam. Hasil proses pengendapan diperoleh endapan CsClO4 dan penukar kation diperoleh berupa padatan cesium - zeolit serta supernatan. Pengukuran dan analisis radionuklida137Cs dalam endapan CsClO4 dan padatan 137Cs-zeolit dilakukan dengan spektrometer gamma. Hasil pengukuran diperoleh nilai cacahan radionuklida 137Cs per detik (cps. Perhitungan rekoveri metode dilakukan dengan perbandingan nilai cacahan radionuklida 137Cs sebelum dan sesudah proses pemisahan. Hasil pemisahan radionuklida 137Cs dari larutan PEB U-7Mo/Al menggunakan metode pengendapan diperoleh rekoveri sebesar 95,56 % dengan akurasi dan presisi pengukuran masing-masing sebesar 0,375 % dan 1,875 %, sedangkan rekoveri pemisahan radionuklida 137Cs dengan metode penukar kation diperoleh rekoveri sebesar 26,73 %. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa metode pengendapan lebih baik dari pada metode penukar kation untuk pemisahan 137Cs dari larutan bahan bakar

  9. Relationship between caesium-137 and soil organic carbon (SOC) in cultivated and uncultivated/grazing landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, C.; Hancock, G. R.; Kalma, J. D.

    2009-04-01

    The soil carbon pool is a key element within the global carbon cycle. Almost twice the size of the atmospheric carbon pool, and approximately three times that of all living things (biosphere), the soil carbon pool is a significant sink or reservoir for organic carbon. The impact of soil redistribution processes (i.e. soil erosion and deposition) on the movement, storage and loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) has become a subject of debate amongst the scientific community. One school of thought claims soil erosion promotes the storage or sequestration of C (i.e. erosion is a net atmospheric C sink), while others suggest that soil erosion leads to the removal of SOC from the landscape through reduced productivity and soil degradation (i.e. erosion is a net atmospheric C source). Recently, studies have investigated the effects of soil redistribution on SOC using the caesium-137 (137Cs) radio-isotope method. The 137Cs method provides an opportunity to trace the fate of soil (and SOC) in a spatially distributed fashion. Strong and statistically significant relationships between SOC and 137Cs have been observed in heavily cultivated (i.e. highly disturbed) landscapes. These findings have lead to a number of common conclusions, namely that 137Cs and SOC are moving by the same physical processes and the same physical pathways, leading to the possibility of using 137Cs as tool by which to determine SOC distribution patterns. While the literature regarding the relationship between SOC and 137Cs within highly disturbed, cultivated landscapes appears to be reasonably established, there has been a dearth of studies in uncultivated (i.e. largely undisturbed) environments. In this study, we use the 137Cs method to quantify soil redistribution patterns (vertical and lateral) and examine the relationship with SOC for a 150ha catchment in the Upper Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. The study site has a number of areas which are subject to different land use histories

  10. Determination of {sup 135}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in environmental samples: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, B.C., E-mail: ben.russell@npl.co.uk [GAU-Radioanalytical, Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Croudace, Ian W.; Warwick, Phil E. [GAU-Radioanalytical, Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-26

    Radionuclides of caesium are environmentally important since they are formed as significant high yield fission products ({sup 135}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) and activation products ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 136}Cs) during nuclear fission. They originate from a range of nuclear activities such as weapons testing, nuclear reprocessing and nuclear fuel cycle discharges and nuclear accidents. Whilst {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 136}Cs are routinely measurable at high sensitivity by gamma spectrometry, routine detection of long-lived {sup 135}Cs by radiometric methods is challenging. This measurement is, however, important given its significance in long-term nuclear waste storage and disposal. Furthermore, the {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio varies with reactor, weapon and fuel type, and accurate measurement of this ratio can therefore be used as a forensic tool in identifying the source(s) of nuclear contamination. The shorter-lived activation products {sup 134}Cs and {sup 136}Cs have a limited application but provide useful early information on fuel irradiation history and have importance in health physics. Detection of {sup 135}Cs (and {sup 137}Cs) is achievable by mass spectrometric techniques; most commonly inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), as well as thermal ionisation (TIMS), accelerator (AMS) and resonance ionisation (RIMS) techniques. The critical issues affecting the accuracy and detection limits achievable by this technique are effective removal of barium to eliminate isobaric interferences arising from {sup 135}Ba and {sup 137}Ba, and elimination of peak tailing of stable {sup 133}Cs on {sup 135}Cs. Isobaric interferences can be removed by chemical separation, most commonly ion exchange chromatography, and/or instrumental separation using an ICP-MS equipped with a reaction cell. The removal of the peak tailing interference is dependent on the instrument used for final measurement. This review summarizes and compares the analytical procedures

  11. Cs-137 in aquatic organisms in the southern Lake Keurusselkae (Finland)[Radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilus, E.; Klemola, S.; Vartti, V.P.; Mattila, J.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    The results of a study carried out in Lake Keurusselkae, in the Finnish Lake District, are reported. The aim of the study was to collect biota samples for the INDOFERN Project from an area that was rather highly contaminated (70 kBq m{sup -2} of {sup 137}Cs in 1986) with the Chernobyl fallout in Finland. The samples were taken from a relatively small area surrounding the island of Iso Riihisaari in the southern part of the Keurusselkae water course. In total 15 samples of aquatic plants, 6 samples of aquatic animals, 1 water sample and 2 sediment cores were taken. In August 2003, the activity concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the surface water of the southern Lake Keurusselkae was 49 Bq m{sup -3}, whereas it was 310 Bq m{sup -3} in 1988, two year after the Chernobyl accident. In the relatively shallow area surrounding the island of Iso Riihisaari, the total amount of {sup 137}Cs in sediments was 32-37 kBq m{sup -2} in 2003, but in a deeper basin close to this area the total amount of {sup 137}Cs was 130 kBq m{sup -2} in 1990. The clearly highest activity concentration and concentration factor of {sup 137}Cs was found in one sample of Water horsetail (Equisetum fluviatile), 1 430 Bq kg{sup -1} dry wt; CF 29 200, whereas in another sample of the same species the concentration was only 174 Bq kg{sup -1} dry wt. In addition, the Water lily (Nymphaea candida), Spiked water millfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), Broad-leaved pondweed (Potamogeton natans) and Yellow water lily (Nuphar lutea) seemed to be good indicators for {sup 137}Cs. The tall freshwater clam (Anodonta sp.) seemed to be a modest accumulator of {sup 137}Cs. Contrary to our results from the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea, many aquatic plants demonstrated in fresh water similar accumulation capacity of {sup 137}Cs as fish (perch and roach), while in the sea the uptake of {sup 137}Cs in fish seemed to be more efficient than in aquatic plants. (LN)

  12. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Characteristics of Subcutaneously Applied PTH-1-37

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf-Georg Forssmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Parathyroid hormone (PTH derivatives exert pronounced renal and osteoanabolic properties when given intermittently. The current study was performed to assess the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties as well as safety of subcutaneously applied PTH-1-37 after repeated dosing in healthy subjects. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, dose-escalating, placebo and active comparator controlled study was conducted in 33 healthy postmenopausal women. Subjects were allocated to one of five treatment options: 10, 20, or 40 µg PTH-1-37, 20 µg PTH-1-34 or placebo, administered as once daily subcutaneous doses for three days. Plasma drug concentrations and serum levels of endogenous PTH-1-84, and calcium as markers of biological activity were monitored during the treatment. Results: PTH was absorbed rapidly from the subcutaneous tissue with a median tmax of 30 minutes for 20 and 40 µg of PTH-1-37. tmax was 45 minutes for 20 µg PTH-1-34. Elimination half-lives were estimated as 76 ± 34 min and 70 ± 13 min for 20 µg and 40 µg PTH-1-37 (mean ± SD, and 78 ± 34 for 20 µg PTH-1-34. Both PTH fragments (PTH-1-37 and PTH-1-34 increased serum calcium. For PTH-1-37 the effect on serum calcium was dose-dependent. Suppression of endogenous PTH-1-84 was seen after the application of both PTH-1-37 and PTH-1-34. During the study period, the subjects experienced no unexpected or serious adverse events. Conclusions: PTH-1-37 is rapidly absorbed after s.c. injection, has a short plasma elimination half-life, and does not accumulate during multiple dosing. Biological activity was demonstrated by rising serum calcium and decreasing endogenous PTH-1-84 in blood plasma. The study drugs were well tolerated and safe. Our investigation presents data that PTH-1-37 is an excellent drug candidate for intervening with syndromes of dysregulation of calcium metabolism.

  13. The effect of Cs-137 short-range spatial variability on soil after the Chernobyl disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynenko, Vladimir; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Linnik, Vitaly

    2014-05-01

    After the Chernobyl accident of 1986, large areas of Russia were contaminated by 137Cs. Post-depositional redistribution of 137Cs fallout across the land surface resulting from mechanical, physical, chemical, and biological processes operating in the soil system and the grain size selectivity associated with soil erosion and sediment transport processes. Therefore of uppermost importance are data on evaluating 137Cs variability at short distances, obtained at the early period after the accident. Measurements of 137Cs deposit at the territory of Russia exposed to radioactive contamination were mainly conducted with the help of air-gamma survey, and were verified by soil sampling on test plots with size 10x10 m with control soil sampling using "envelope" method of fivefold soil sampling (1 sampling at the centre and 4 along the edges of the plot under study). Presented here are evaluation data of 137Cs contamination, obtained in the Bryansk, Yaroslav and Rostov regions in 1991. Test plots were selected at the distance of 50-100 m away from a road on matted areas with undisturbed soil structure. Test routes of sampling were made perpendicularly to directions crossing basic traces of radioactive contamination. Sampling measurements were carried out at Canberra and Ortec gamma spectrometers. Each of the 5 samples of the "envelope" was measured separately, soil mixing was not applied. 137Cs value for the Bryansk Region varied from 2,6 kBq/m2 to 2294 kBq/m2, at the territories of the Yaroslav and Rostov regions 137Cs value varied from 0,44 kBq/m2 to 5,1 kBq/m2 and 0,56 kBq/m2 to 22,2 kBq/m2, respectively. Statistical analysis of 137Cs deposit at different plots is a solid argumentation in favour of nonuniform distribution in various landscapes and at a different distance from the Chernobyl NPP. Such nonuniformity of 137Cs soil contamination in the limits of 10 m of the plot is most likely to be related to initial aerosol contamination nonuniformity at the moment of

  14. Specificity of Cs-137 redistribution in toposequence of arable soils cultivated after the Chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey; Baranchukov, Vladimir; Berezkin, Victor; Moiseenko, Fedor; Kirov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Investigations performed after the Chernobyl accident showed high spatial variation of radionuclide contamination of the soil cover in elementary landscape geochemical systems (ELGS) that characterize catena's structure. Our studies of Cs-137 distribution along and cross the slopes of local ridges in natural forested key site revealed a cyclic character of variation of the radionuclide surface activity along the studied transections (Korobova et al, 2008; Korobova, Romanov, 2009; 2011). We hypothesized that the observed pattern reflects a specific secondary migration of Cs-137 with water, and that this process could have taken place in any ELGS. To test this hypothesis a detailed field measurement of Cs-137 surface activity was performed in ELGS in agricultural area cultivated after the Chernobyl accident but later withdrawn from land-use. In situ measurements carried out by field gamma-spectrometry were accompanied by soil core sampling at the selected points. Soil samples were taken in increments of 2 cm down to 20 cm and of 5 cm down to 40 cm. The samples were analyzed for Cs-137 in laboratory using Canberra gamma-spectrometer with HP-Ge detector. Obtained results confirmed the fact of area cultivation down to 20 cm that was clearly traced by Cs-137 profile in soil columns. At the same time, the measurements also showed a cyclic character of Cs-137 variation in a sequence of ELGS from watershed to the local depression similar to that found in woodland key site. This proved that the observed pattern is a natural process typical for matter migration in ELGS independently of the vegetation type and ploughing. Therefore, spatial aspect is believed to be an important issue for development of adequate technique for a forecast of contamination of agricultural production and remediation of the soil cover on the local scale within the contaminated areas. References Korobova, E.M., Romanov, S.L., 2009. A Chernobyl 137Cs contamination study as an example for the spatial

  15. In vivo effects of chronic contamination with 137 cesium on testicular and adrenal steroidogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grignard, Elise; Gueguen, Yann; Grison, Stephane; Gourmelon, Patrick; Souidi, Maamar [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Radiological Protection and Human Health Division, Radiobiology and Epidemiology Department, Laboratory of Experimental Toxicology, BP no 17, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A. [UMR Universite Blaise Pascal-CNRS 6547, Physiologie Comparee et Endocrinologie Moleculaire, Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d' Auvergne, Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2008-09-15

    More than 20 years after Chernobyl nuclear power plant explosion, radionuclids are still mainly bound to the organic soil layers. The radiation exposure is dominated by the external exposure to gamma-radiation following the decay of {sup 137}Cs and by soil-to-plant-to-human transfer of {sup 137}Cs into the food chain. Because of this persistence of contamination with {sup 137}Cs, questions regarding public health for people living in contaminated areas were raised. We investigated the biological effects of chronic exposure to {sup 137}Cs on testicular and adrenal steroidogenesis metabolisms in rat. Animals were exposed to radionuclide in their drinking water for 9 months at a dose of 6,500 Bq/l (610 Bq/kg/day). Cesium contamination decreases the level of circulating 17{beta}-estradiol, and increases corticosterone level. In testis, several nuclear receptors messenger expression is disrupted; levels of mRNA encoding Liver X receptor {alpha} (LXR{alpha}) and LXR{beta} are increased, whereas farnesoid X receptor mRNA presents a lower level. Adrenal metabolism presents a paradoxical decrease in cyp11a1 gene expression. In conclusion, our results show for the first time molecular and hormonal modifications in testicular and adrenal steroidogenic metabolism, induced by chronic contamination with low doses of {sup 137}Cs. (orig.)

  16. Subcellular localization and Ser-137 phosphorylation regulate tumor-suppressive activity of profilin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Marc I; Cai, Shirong; Boudreau, Aaron; Carey, Clifton J; Lyle, Nicholas; Pappu, Rohit V; Swamidass, S Joshua; Bissell, Mina; Piwnica-Worms, Helen; Shao, Jieya

    2015-04-03

    The actin-binding protein profilin-1 (Pfn1) inhibits tumor growth and yet is also required for cell proliferation and survival, an apparent paradox. We previously identified Ser-137 of Pfn1 as a phosphorylation site within the poly-l-proline (PLP) binding pocket. Here we confirm that Ser-137 phosphorylation disrupts Pfn1 binding to its PLP-containing ligands with little effect on actin binding. We find in mouse xenografts of breast cancer cells that mimicking Ser-137 phosphorylation abolishes cell cycle arrest and apoptotic sensitization by Pfn1 and confers a growth advantage to tumors. This indicates a previously unrecognized role of PLP binding in Pfn1 antitumor effects. Spatial restriction of Pfn1 to the nucleus or cytoplasm indicates that inhibition of tumor cell growth by Pfn1 requires its nuclear localization, and this activity is abolished by a phosphomimetic mutation on Ser-137. In contrast, cytoplasmic Pfn1 lacks inhibitory effects on tumor cell growth but rescues morphological and proliferative defects of PFN1 null mouse chondrocytes. These results help reconcile seemingly opposed cellular effects of Pfn1, provide new insights into the antitumor mechanism of Pfn1, and implicate Ser-137 phosphorylation as a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. (137)Cs, (40)K and (210)Po in marine mammals from the southern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Tomasz; Góral, Marta; Szefer, Piotr; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Bojanowski, Ryszard

    2015-12-15

    This study provides information on baseline concentrations of the radionuclides Cesium-137, Potassium-40 and Polonium-210 in sea mammals from the Baltic Sea. The radionuclides were analyzed in the liver, kidney and muscle of harbor porpoises, striped dolphins, and gray and ringed seals from the Polish coast by γ- and α-spectrometry. Median (137)Cs activities were 14.8, 13.2 and 23.2 Bq kg(-1) w.w. in the liver, kidney and muscles, respectively. Activities of (40)K and (210)Po in the respective tissues were found to be 79.1, 79.8 and 111 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K and 58.1, 59.2 and 32.9 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Po. The measured (137)Cs concentrations were extraordinarily high in comparison to those reported in sea mammals from other locations. However, dose assessments did not imply health effects from (137)Cs exposure in Baltic Sea mammals. Correlations between (137)Cs tissue activities and reported sea water concentrations highlight the potential use of marine mammals for biomonitoring purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Concentrating cesium-137 from seawater using resorcinol-formaldehyde resin for radioecological monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorin, Andrei; Tokar, Eduard; Tutov, Mikhail; Avramenko, Valentin [Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Palamarchuk, Marina; Marinin, Dmitry [Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-01

    A method of preconcentrating cesium-137 from seawater using a resorcinol-formaldehyde resin, which enables one to optimize the ecological monitoring procedure, has been suggested. Studies of sorption of cesium-137 from seawater by resorcinol-formaldehyde resin have been performed, and it has been demonstrated that the cation exchanger is characterized by high selectivity with respect to cesium-137. It was found that the selectivity depended on the temperature of resin solidification and the seawater pH value. The maximal value of the cesium-137 distribution coefficient is equal to 4.1-4.5 x 10{sup 3} cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}. Under dynamic conditions, the ion-exchange resin capacity is 310-910 bed volumes depending on the seawater pH, whereas the efficiency of cesium removal exceeds 95%. The removal of more than 95% of cesium-137 has been attained using 1-3 M solutions of nitric acid: here, the eluate volume was 8-8.4 bed volumes. Application of 3 M solution of nitric acid results in resin degradation with the release of gaseous products.

  19. Determination of {sup 137}Cs in the water system of a pre-Alpine lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlinger, Ch. [Abtlg. Physik und Biophysik, Fachbereich Materialwissenschaften und Physik, Universitaet Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)], E-mail: christian.erlinger@sbg.ac.at; Lettner, H.; Hubmer, A.; Hofmann, W.; Steinhaeusler, F. [Abtlg. Physik und Biophysik, Fachbereich Materialwissenschaften und Physik, Universitaet Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

    2009-04-15

    The aim of this study was to measure the {sup 137}Cs activity derived from the Chernobyl accident in the water system of Lake Wallersee, a pre-Alpine lake in Austria within an area highly contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout. For this purpose, water and sediment samples of the inflows and the outflow of Lake Wallersee and lake water at different depths were collected in 2005. The obtained {sup 137}Cs activity depth profile in the water body shows an exponential increase of {sup 137}Cs activity in the lake water with increasing depth. Inflow and outflow sediment analyses exhibit a clear negative correlation between particle size and specific activity for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K in sediment samples following a power function. In a first approach it was tried to calculate the catchment run-off factor of {sup 137}Cs during a period without heavy rainfalls. The result is in good agreement with run-off factors determined in other similar investigations in Austria.

  20. Modulation of trinucleotide repeat instability by DNA polymerase β polymorphic variant R137Q

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yaou; Lai, Yanhao; Laverde, Eduardo E.; Lei, Ruipeng; Rein, Hayley L.

    2017-01-01

    Trinucleotide repeat (TNR) instability is associated with human neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Recent studies have pointed out that DNA base excision repair (BER) mediated by DNA polymerase β (pol β) plays a crucial role in governing somatic TNR instability in a damage-location dependent manner. It has been shown that the activities and function of BER enzymes and cofactors can be modulated by their polymorphic variations. This could alter the function of BER in regulating TNR instability. However, the roles of BER polymorphism in modulating TNR instability remain to be elucidated. A previous study has shown that a pol β polymorphic variant, polβR137Q is associated with cancer due to its impaired polymerase activity and its deficiency in interacting with a BER cofactor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In this study, we have studied the effect of the pol βR137Q variant on TNR instability. We showed that pol βR137Q exhibited weak DNA synthesis activity to cause TNR deletion during BER. We demonstrated that similar to wild-type pol β, the weak DNA synthesis activity of pol βR137Q allowed it to skip over a small loop formed on the template strand, thereby facilitating TNR deletion during BER. Our results further suggest that carriers with pol βR137Q polymorphic variant may not exhibit an elevated risk of developing human diseases that are associated with TNR instability. PMID:28475635

  1. G-protein-coupled receptor 137 accelerates proliferation of urinary bladder cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiheng; Bi, Wenhuan; Zhang, Fei; Wu, Wenbo; Xia, Shujie; Liu, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a worldwide concern because of its level of incidence and recurrence. To search an effective therapeutic strategy for urinary bladder cancer, it is important to identify proteins involved in tumorigenesis that could serve as potential targets for diagnosis and treatment. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) constitute a large protein family of receptors that sense molecules outside the cell and activate signal transduction pathways and cellular responses inside the cell. GPR137 is a newly discovered human gene encoding orphan GPRs. In this study, we aimed to investigate the physiological role of GPR137 in urinary bladder cancer. The effect of GPR137 on cell growth was examined via an RNA interference (RNAi) lentivirus system in two human urinary bladder cancer cell lines BT5637 and T24. Lentivirus-mediated RNAi could specifically suppressed GPR137 expression in vitro, resulting in alleviated cell viability and impaired colony formation, as well as blocks G0/G1 and S phases of the cell cycle. These results suggested GPR137 as an essential player in urinary bladder cancer cell growth, and it may serve as a potential target for gene therapy in the treatment of urinary bladder cancer. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Adsorption of Cs-137 and U-238 in semi-arid soils; Adsorcion de Cs-137 y U-238 en suelos semiaridos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez T, U. O. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy G, F.; Anguiano A, J. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Fernandez R, E., E-mail: uohtrejo@gmail.com [Universidad Politecnica del Valle de Toluca, Carretera Toluca-Almoloya de Juarez Km. 5.6, Santiaguito Tlalcilalcali, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Is of great importance to determine the adsorption properties of the soils where radioactive wastes are stored, fundamentally of the radioisotopes contained in these wastes, with the purpose of knowing like will be their behavior in the event of happening radionuclide migration toward the surrounding means. Therefore, in this work the adsorption properties of {sup 137}Cs{sup +} and {sup 238}UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in soils coming from the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes are studied. Was studied the effect of the soil type and the particle size of the soil in the adsorption properties of Cs (I) and U (Vi). 13 soil samples and six different particle sizes were analyzed. The adsorption studies were carried out by the radiotracers technique in static way. The results indicate an important adsorption affinity toward the Cs-137 and a very vulnerable affinity for the {sup 238}UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. (author)

  3. Study of Deposit Cesium-137 (137Cs Activity as a Result of Fission Product from The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant at Japan after Earthquake and Tsunami in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahpita Windriani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Study of deposit Cesium-137 (137Cs activity as a result of the fission product of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after earthquake and tsunami in 2011 has been done. The purpose of the present research is to study the deposit 137Cs activity on the land and the Sea of Japan and then to estimate a model of 137Cs distribution on the earth's surface of Japan. The stability of nuclei decay equation is used to obtain a deposit 137Cs activity depending on time, theoretically. The Pasquill-Gifford equation is used to estimate a distribution of 137Cs activity on the earth surface from the original source. The results suggested that Hatachinaka city, the largest measurement point, for about 60 years forward, 137Cs activity levels reach about 54 Bq. In the Sea of Japan at the point of sensor C47, which it has the largest value, the accumulation of deposit 137Cs activity gives about 0.69 Bq at the time of the next 60 years. For the distribution of 137Cs activity, the concentration values at a distance of 200 m from the original source obtained maximum for all case.

  4. Violence and hatred in Psalm 137: The psalm in its ancient social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Steenkamp

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Psalm 137 has become notorious for the brutality and bloodthirstiness that characterise its last verses. In the face of many past criticisms which rejected the Old Testament as a book of violence, both Christians� and� Jews need to take texts such as Psalm 137 seriously and interpret them against the� social� and cultural customs of their time. Before Psalm 137 can be judged against the ethical norms of modern societies, the text must first be understood in its ancient context. The aim of this paper is to show that a better understanding of the socio-cultural background of the Psalm may enhance our understanding of vv. 7-9, as well as of the Psalm as a whole. The hypothesis is that the social values of honour and shame feature so prominently in the Psalm that they form a key to the interpretation of the poem.

  5. First Results on the Concentration of 137Cs in Seaweed at the South of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjon, G.; Garcia-Leon, M.

    First results on 137Cs in seaweed samples collected along the coast of the South of Spain during 1988 and 1989 are presented in this work. 137Cs was determined by direct HPGe γ-spectrometry. Typical 137Cs levels between 0.6 and 3.1 mBq/g dry weight have been found in a wide variety of seaweed species (Fucus, Ulva, Halopteris, Codium, Corallina, etc.). Such results are in close agreement with activities obtained by another researchers at the coasts of Galicia (NW of Spain). They ranged from 0.7 to 1.7 mBq/g dry weight in Fucus species, and were attributed essentially to fallout. On the other hand, the comparison of our data with others shows that they are, respectively, 10 and 100 times lower than activities found at Sweden after the Chernobyl event, and in the vicinity of Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant…

  6. Airborne fallout mapping of {sup 137}Cs Finnish defence forces team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, M.; Heininen, T. [Finnish Defence Forces Research Centre, Lakiala (Finland); Pulakka, M. [Finnish Air Force Depot, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The main task of the team was to create a fallout map of {sup 137}Cs in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used an MI-8 helicopter of the Finnish Air Force. The team had an HPGe system (relative efficiency 70%) to measure nuclide specific ground contamination level. For navigation the team took advantage of the DGPS service provided by Finnish Broadcasting company utilizing the RDS-channel to get position accuracy within 2 meters. The correction signal is reachable nationwide on the FM transmitter network. The system produced a distribution map for {sup 40}K and fallout maps for {sup 134,137}Cs using a Micro Station Program with TerraModeler application. The maximum measured {sup 137}Cs ground contamination exceeded 130-140 kBqm{sup -2}. (au).

  7. Total deposition of cesium-137 measured in Finland during the exercise `RESUME 95` in August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, L.E. De; Vintersved, I.; Arntsing, R. [National Defence Research Establisment, Nuclear Detection Group, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    In the exercise called `RESUME 95` the Nuclear Detection Group from the National Defence Research Establishment in Stockholm participated with field gamma ray measurements combined with soil sampling and profile measurements. The results are presented in this report for the measurements of cesium-137. We considered the measurements of cesium-137 at the airfield the most important part of the in-situ exercise. Data was of course collected also for cesium-134 and natural radionuclides but time has not permitted a full analysis of these radionuclides. The methodology would, however, be the same as applied for cesium-137. Less attention was paid for area II and due to limited personnel resources the search exercise was not fully carried out. (au).

  8. Soil-to-Plant Transfer Factors of {sup 137}Cs for Fresh and Aged Depositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Kwang Muk; Choi, Yong Ho; Jun, In; Park, Doo Won; Keum, Dong Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    In steady-state food chain models for routine releases, radionuclide concentrations in crop plants due to root uptake are estimated using soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) defined as the ratio of plant concentration to soil concentration. Of various radionuclides released from nuclear facilities, {sup 137}Cs is regarded as one of the most important radionuclides in terms of the ingestion radiation dose. Its half-life is 30 y and its mobility in soil is very low. Accordingly, considerable fractions of the {sup 137}Cs activity deposited onto farmlands will stay in the root-zone soil for many years, possibly decades. In this paper, a long-term evaluation of root uptake of {sup 137}Cs by rice and Chinese cabbage plants were discussed by comparing the TF data acquired from greenhouse experiments and fallout field studies

  9. Effect of solution composition on the adsorption and desorption of {sup 137}Cs on forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, S.; Wells, C.; Shaw, G. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), UMR Rhizosphere and Symbiose, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2004-07-01

    There is ongoing debate as to the pertinence of measurements of soil-liquid distribution coefficients in dilute suspension to the understanding and the prediction of the mobility of radionuclides in soil. This debate is particularly active in the case of radiocaesium. Several factors could cause significant discrepancies between measured and effective in situ distributions of radiocaesium. 1. Differences in solution composition, notably ionic strength and concentration in cations such as potassium and ammonium; 2. Differences in soil:solution ratio; 3. Time dependent reactions; 4. Reversibility of the adsorption reaction; 5. Concentration dependence of adsorption. We have attempted to assess the importance of some of these factors by studying {sup 137}Cs adsorption on soils sampled from different horizons of a forest soil. Kd was measured in suspension. Soil:solution ratio and initial {sup 137}Cs concentration and concentration of potassium and stable Cs in solution were varied. Adsorption and desorption Kd values were measured under similar conditions and compared. Kd values were in the lower range of values reported in the literature (5-30 1/kg). Samples from surface layers showed no concentration dependence at trace additions of {sup 137}Cs, whereas some decrease in Kd was observed with increasing {sup 137}Cs concentration on the Ea horizon. Data obtained at different soil:solution ratios all fell on the same adsorption isotherms as those obtained by varying initial {sup 137}Cs concentration. Stable caesium and, to a lesser extent, potassium inhibited {sup 137}Cs adsorption. This effect was greater in the Ea horizon than the surface soils, probably due to the mineral content. For all samples the desorption Kd was greater than the adsorption Kd in the same solution, indicating a small but significant degree of irreversibility. (author)

  10. 137Cs and 210Po in Pacific Walrus and Bearded Seal from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T F; Seagars, D J; Jokela, T; Layton, D

    2005-02-02

    The activity concentration of Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and naturally-occurring Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) were measured in the muscle tissue, kidney and liver of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) collected by native hunters from the Bering Sea. The mean {sup 137}Cs concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus were 0.07, 0.09 and 0.07 Bq kg{sup -1} (N= 5, wet weight), respectively, and 0.17, 0.10, and 0.17 Bq kg{sup -1} (N=2, wet weight), respectively, in bearded seal. In general, {sup 137}Cs tissue concentrations are significantly lower than those previously reported for mammals from other regions. By comparison, {sup 210}Po activity concentrations appear to be higher than those reported elsewhere but a larger variation. The mean {sup 210}Po concentration in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus (N=5, wet weight) were 28.7, 189, and 174 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. This compares with {sup 210}Po concentration values (N=2, wet weight) of 27, 207, and 68 Bq kg{sup -1} measured in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney, of bearded seal, respectively. Estimated bioaccumulation factors--as defined by the radionuclide concentration ratio between the target tissue to that in sea water--were two to three orders of magnitude higher for {sup 210}Po that those of {sup 137}Cs. We conclude from radiological dose estimates that ingestion of {sup 137}Cs in foods derived from walrus and seal will pose no threat to human health. This work has important implications for assessing health risks to Alaskan coastal communities concerned about the dumping of nuclear waste in the Russia Arctic.

  11. Foliar absorption and leaf-fruit transfer of sup 137 Cs in fruit trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anguissola Scotti, I.; Silva, S. (Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Piacenza (Italy). Inst. di Chimica Agraria ed Ambientale)

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K have been carried out on the leaves and fruit of cherry, peach, pear and apple trees contaminated by the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. It has been shown that the activity of {sup 137}Cs in leaves depends on the interception ability of the foliage, while the amount transferred from leaves to fruit seems to be related more to genetic factors of the individual species and cultivar than to the quantity present in the leaves. (author).

  12. Measurement of natural and 137Cs radioactivity concentrations at Izmit Bay (Marmara Sea), Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öksüz, I.; Güray, R. T.; Özkan, N.; Yalçin, C.; Ergül, H. A.; Aksan, S.

    2016-03-01

    In order to determine the radioactivity level at Izmit Bay Marmara Sea, marine sediment samples were collected from five different locations. The radioactivity concentrations of naturally occurring 238U, 232Th and 40K isotopes and also that of an artificial isotope 137Cs were measured by using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Preliminary results show that the radioactivity concentrations of 238U and 232Th isotopes are lower than the average worldwide values while the radioactivity concentrations of the 40K are higher than the average worldwide value. A small amount of 137Cs contamination, which might be caused by the Chernobyl accident, was also detected.

  13. Spatial heterogeneity of Cs-137 soil contamination at the landscape scale of the Bryansk Region (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Alexander; Sokolov, Anton; Linnik, Vitaly

    2016-04-01

    The passage of the Chernobyl plume over the Bryansk region (Russia) in the end of April 1986 led to the deposition of radionuclides on the ground by wet and dry deposition processes. According to the results of the Cs-137 air gamma survey (AGS, grid size: 100 m x100 m), which was conducted in summer 1993, it was shown that the processes of Cs-137 lateral migration took place due to nearly a fourfold increase of Cs-137 in the lower slope as compared to the upper part of the slope during a seven-year period after the Chernobyl accident. The variability patterns of Cs-137 could be described by a stochastic or a deterministic function of the measurement location. The patterns variations could be associated with the nonlinear response of many interacting variables within the landscape system. In the test area located at a distance of about 280 km from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cs-137 surface activity typically ranges from below 7 kBq/m2 to approximately 50-60 kBq/m2 reflecting the combination of deposition due to global fallout from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, and the relatively low levels of Chernobyl deposition to the area. To model the Cs-137 distribution depending on complex landscape attributes the following information layers were used: 1) the soil map at the scale of 1:50,000; 2) SRTM elevation data acquired from the Global Land Cover Facility at a 3 arc second resolution. Fundamental difficulties in distributed erosion modelling arise from the natural complexity of landscape systems and Cs-137 spatial heterogeneity. The SRTM DEM of the test site has a grid size about 90 m, which is not sufficient for distributed hydrological modelling at the landscape scale. The scaling problem arises because of the mismatch between SRTM DEM pixel dimensions and the size of erosion network (width about 10-50 m) that concentrates Cs-137 run-off from the overlying slopes and watershed areas. To build a hydrologically correct local drain direction (LDD) with

  14. 137Cs monitoring in the meat of wild boar population in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Beňová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, due to the elapsed time and the nature of the Chernobyl accident, the only artificial radionuclide present in the soil is 137Cs, with a physical half-life conversion of 30.17 years. The 137Cs is quickly integrated into a biological cycle, similar to potassium. Generally, radionuclides are characterized by their mobility in soil. Contamination of materials and food by radionuclides represent a serious problem and has a negative impact on human health. The threat of international terrorism and the inability to forestall the impact of natural disasters on nuclear energetic (Fukushima accident, are also reasons for continuous monitoring of food safety. According screening measurement performed in European countries, high radioactivity levels were reported in the wild boars muscles from Sumava (Czech Republic. Seasonal fluctuation of 137Cs activity in the wild boar meat samples was observed in the forests on the southern Rhineland. Monitoring of 137Cs activity in the wild boar meat samples in the hunting grounds in Slovakia was initiated based on the reports on exceeding limits of the content of radiocaesium in the meat of wild boar from the surrounding countries. The aim of this study was to determine the 137Cs post Chernobyl contamination of wild boars population in different hunting districts of Slovakia during 2013 - 2014. A total of 60 thigh muscle samples from wild boars of different age categories (4 months - 2 years were evaluated. 137Cs activity was measured by gamma spectrometry (Canberra. Despite the fact Slovakia is closer to Chernobyl as Czech Republic and Germany, the 137Cs activity measured was very low and far below the permitted limit. The highest radiocaesium activity level measured in muscle was 37.2 Bq.kg-1 ±4.7%. Wild boar originated from Zlate Moravce district. The measurement results show, that 137Cs contamination levels of game in Slovakia are low. Radiocaesium activity in examined samples was very low and

  15. Accumulation and distributions of {sup 137}Cs in fresh water snail Pila ampullacea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suseno, Heny, E-mail: henis@batan.go.id [Marine Radioecology Group, Center for Radiation Safety Technology and Metrology - National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jl. Lebak Bulus Raya No. 49, Kotak Pos 7043 JKSKL Jakarta Selatan 12070 (Indonesia)

    2014-10-24

    Pila ampullacea are found in tropical freshwaters of Indonesia. This snail exhibit several characteristics of ideal indicator organisms in order to understand the bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs. Biokinetic experiment was performaced in aquaria system and under influenced of concentration K{sup +} in water. The result of experiment shown that Under difference K{sup +} concentration in water, Pila ampullacea have capability to accumulated {sup 137}Cs with CF value range 8.95 to 12.52 ml.g{sup −1}. Both uptake and depuration rate were influenced by concentration of K{sup +} in water.

  16. Effective Half-Life of Caesium-137 in Various Environmental Media at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M. H.; Jannik, G. T.; Baker, R. A.

    2014-05-01

    During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities into the SRS environment. However, only a relatively small number of pathways, most importantly 137Cs in fish and deer, have contributed significantly to doses and risks to the public. The “effective” half-lives (Te) of 137Cs (which include both physical decay and environmental dispersion) in Savannah River floodplain soil and vegetation and in fish and white-tailed deer from the SRS were estimated using long-term monitoring data. For 1974–2011, the Tes of 137Cs in Savannah River floodplain soil and vegetation were 17.0 years (95% CI = 14.2–19.9) and 13.4 years (95% CI = 10.8–16.0), respectively. These Tes were greater than in a previous study that used data collected only through 2005 as a likely result of changes in the flood regime of the Savannah River. Field analyses of 137Cs concentrations in deer collected during yearly controlled hunts at the SRS indicated an overall Te of 15.9 years (95% CI = 12.3–19.6) for 1965–2011; however, the Te for 1990–2011 was significantly shorter (11.8 years, 95% CI = 4.8–18.8) due to an increase in the rate of 137Cs removal. The shortest Tes were for fish in SRS streams and the Savannah River (3.5–9.0 years), where dilution and dispersal resulted in rapid 137Cs removal. Long-term data show that Tes are significantly shorter than the physical half-life of 137Cs in the SRS environment but that they can change over time. Therefore, it is desirable have a long period of record for calculating Tes and risky to extrapolate Tes beyond this period unless the processes governing 137Cs removal are clearly understood.

  17. Internal conversion coefficients in Cs134, Ba137, and La139: A precise test of theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, N.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; Balonek, C.; Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.

    2008-03-01

    Recently we measured the ratio of K-shell internal conversion coefficients, αK, for the 127.5-keV E3 transition in Cs134 and the 661.7-keV M4 transition in Ba137. We here report a measurement of the 165.9-keV M1 transition in La139, based on which we convert our earlier ratio measurement into individual αK values for the transitions in Cs134 and Ba137. These results continue to confirm the Dirac-Fock calculations of internal conversion coefficients that incorporate the atomic K-shell vacancy.

  18. Level and distribution of artificial radionuclides ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, Hiroto [Japan Chemical Analysis Center, Chiba (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Chief artificial radionuclides deposited in the earth are {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu. These radionuclides have been reduced and dispersed depend on no nuclear test in atmosphere since 1981. {sup 137}Cs internal exposure was 22 and 0.5 {mu}Sv/y in 1964 and 1990, respectively. The concentration of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were determined in the samples in environment such as light dust, soil, river water, sea water, agricultural products, fish and sea grass from 1974 to 1996. The concentrations of {sup 90}Sr were 0.001 mBq/m{sup 3} or less in light dust, 0.05 MBq/km{sup 2} in deposit, 0.02-20 Bq/kg in soil, 0-5 mBq/liter in river water and not detected in fish body. The concentration of {sup 137}Cs was 0.2-100 Bq/kg in soil, 1 Bq/kg in agricultural products, 0.1 Bq/kg in fish and 0.03 Bq/kg in shell. {sup 90}Sr is supplied by soil and sea water. {sup 90}Sr accumulation is changed by geographical features, depth and soil. However, in the sea, the concentration of Sr (about 8 mBq/liter) was the same as that of {sup 90}Sr (about 2 mBq/liter). Sea grass contains the large concentration of {sup 90}Sr. (S.Y.)

  19. Leaching of 60 Co and 137 Cs from spent ion exchange resins in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The leaching rate of 60Co and 137Cs from the spent cation exchange resins in cement–bentonite matrix has been studied. The solidification matrix was a standard Portland cement mixed with 290–350 (kg/m3) spent cation exchange resins, with or without 2–5% of bentonite clay. The leaching rates from the ...

  20. A medical follow-up of 137 Cs Goiania radiation accident: un update (1990-1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao-Mello, Carlos Eduardo; Oliveira, Alexandre Rodrigues de [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Farina, Rosana [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil SA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    The aim of this paper is to describe the main aftereffects of the 137 Cs accident in the last two years, giving emphasis on clinical, hematological, radiological and psychological aspects. A medical follow-up protocol was established by CNEN and the Leide das Neves Ferreira Foundation of the State of Goias, in order to prospectively follow more than 150 victims. (author). 6 refs.

  1. {sup 40}K/{sup 137}Cs discrimination ratios to the aboveground organs of tropical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanches, N. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, CEP 24210-346, RJ (Brazil); Anjos, R.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, CEP 24210-346, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.br; Mosquera, B. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, CEP 24210-346, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    In the present work, the accumulation of caesium and potassium in aboveground plant parts was studied in order to improve the understanding on the behaviour of monovalent cations in several compartments of tropical plants. We present the results for activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K, measured by gamma spectrometry, from five tropical plant species: guava (Psidium guajava), mango (Mangifera indica), papaya (Carica papaya), banana (Musa paradisiaca), and manioc (Manihot esculenta). Caesium and potassium have shown a high level of mobility within the plants, exhibiting the highest values of concentration in the growing parts (fruits, leaves, twigs, and barks) of the woody fruit and large herbaceous shrub (such as manioc) species. In contrast, the banana and papaya plants exhibited the lowest levels of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K in their growing parts. However, a significant correlation between activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K was observed in these tropical plants. The {sup 40}K/{sup 137}Cs discrimination ratios were approximately equal to unity in different compartments of each individual plant, suggesting the possibility of using caesium to predict the behaviour of potassium in several tropical species.

  2. Performance of 20 Ci 137Cs γ-ray Compton spectrometer for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The in-house 137Cs spectrometer is very useful for the measurement of momentum densities of heavy materials. The performance of the machine is assessed using aluminum, terbium and mercury samples and the exper- imental data from comparable apparatus. Keywords. Compton scattering; electron momentum density; ...

  3. 75 FR 3418 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1, Jetstream Series 200, Jetstream... Service Information BAE Systems (Operations) Limited has issued British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin No. 32-JA020741, dated November 2, 2002; British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100...

  4. A clay permeable reactive barrier to remove Cs-137 from groundwater: Column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pourcq, K; Ayora, C; García-Gutiérrez, M; Missana, T; Carrera, J

    2015-11-01

    Clay minerals are reputed sorbents for Cs-137 and can be used as a low-permeability material to prevent groundwater flow. Therefore, clay barriers are employed to seal Cs-137 polluted areas and nuclear waste repositories. This work is motivated by cases where groundwater flow cannot be impeded. A permeable and reactive barrier to retain Cs-137 was tested. The trapping mechanism is based on the sorption of cesium on illite-containing clay. The permeability of the reactive material is provided by mixing clay on a matrix of wood shavings. Column tests combined with reactive transport modeling were performed to check both reactivity and permeability. Hydraulic conductivity of the mixture (10(-4) m/s) was sufficient to ensure an adequate hydraulic performance of an eventual barrier excavated in most aquifers. A number of column experiments confirmed Cs retention under different flow rates and inflow solutions. A 1D reactive transport model based on a cation-exchange mechanism was built. It was calibrated with batch experiments for high concentrations of NH4+ and K+ (the main competitors of Cs in the exchange positions). The model predicted satisfactorily the results of the column experiments. Once validated, it was used to investigate the performance and duration of a 2 m thick barrier under different scenarios (flow, clay content, Cs-137 and K concentration). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effective and ecological half-lives of 137Cs in cow's milk in alpine agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettner, Herbert; Hubmer, Alexander; Bossew, Peter; Strebl, Friederike; Steinhäusler, Friedrich

    2009-02-01

    In the mountainous "Hohe Tauern" region of Salzburg (Austria), milk samples have been collected in a long-term montitoring programme since 1988, at eight alpine sites used for extensive, seasonal stock farming. For this alpine environment with its acidic soils developed on silicate bedrock, high soil-to-plant transfer factors and long-lasting (137)Cs contamination levels in milk--the main product of seasonal agriculture at elevated altitudes--are characteristic features. The decrease in (137)Cs concentration in milk measured since 1988 turned out to be best described by one or two effective half-lives. For the period from 1993 to 2007, which can be modelled with one effective half-life for all sites, effective half-lives between 3.7 and 15.0 years (ecological half-lives: 4.3-29.9 years) were obtained. The effective half-life increases with mean altitude of the investigated graze pastures, probably due to reduced migration velocities of (137)Cs and low (137)Cs half-value depths of a few centimetres in the soil.

  6. How to make 137Cs erosion estimation more useful: An uncertainty perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cesium-137 technique has been widely used in the past 50 years to provide quantitative soil redistribution estimates at a point scale. Recently its usefulness has been challenged by a few researchers questioning the validity of the key assumption that the spatial distribution of fallout cesium-...

  7. {sup 137}Cs in the fungal compartment of Swedish forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinichuk, Mykhaylo M. [Department of General Ecology, University of Agriculture and Ecology, Stary Blvd. 7, Zhytomyr 10001 (Ukraine); Johanson, Karl J.; Taylor, Andy F.S. [Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7026, Uppsala S-750 07 (Sweden)

    2004-05-05

    The {sup 137}Cs activities in soil profiles and in the mycelia of four ectomycorrhizal fungi were studied in a Swedish forest in an attempt to understand the mechanisms governing the transfer and retention of {sup 137}Cs in forest soil. The biomass of four species of fungi was determined and estimated to be 16 g m{sup -2} in a peat soil and 47-189 g m{sup -2} in non-peat soil to the depth of 10 cm. The vertical distribution was rather homogeneous for two species (Tylospora spp. and Piloderma fallax) and very superficial for Hydnellum peckii. Most of the {sup 137}Cs activity in mycelium of non-peat soils was found in the upper 5 cm. Transfer factors were quite high even for those species producing resupinate sporocarps. In the peat soil only approximately 0.3% of the total {sup 137}Cs inventory in soil was found in the fungal mycelium. The corresponding values for non-peat soil were 1.3, 1.8 and 1.9%.

  8. 40 CFR 81.137 - Midland-Odessa-San Angelo Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Midland-Odessa-San Angelo Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.137 Midland-Odessa-San Angelo Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Midland-Odessa-San Angelo Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) consists of the...

  9. Deciphering the measured ratios of Iodine-131 to Cesium-137 at the Fukushima reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, T.

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the relative abundance of the radioactive isotopes Iodine-131 and Cesium-137 produced by nuclear fission in reactors and compare it with data taken at the troubled Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The ratio of radioactivities of these two isotopes can be used to obtain information about when the nuclear reactions terminated.

  10. Bioaccumulation factor of {sup 137}Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suseno, Heny, E-mail: henis@batan.go.id [Radioactive Waste Technology Center - The Indonesia Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

  11. Several key issues on using 137Cs method for soil erosion estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work was to examine several key issues of using the cesium-137 method to estimate soil erosion rates in order to improve and standardize the method. Based on the comprehensive review and synthesis of a large body of published literature and the author’s extensive research experience, several k...

  12. Evaluating water erosion prediction project model using Cesium-137-derived spatial soil redistribution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lack of spatial soil erosion data has been a major constraint on the refinement and application of physically based erosion models. Spatially distributed models can only be thoroughly validated with distributed erosion data. The fallout cesium-137 has been widely used to generate spatial soil re...

  13. Tests of Cs-137 removal from DWPF samples prior to analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewberry, R.A.; Coleman, C.J.

    1994-11-10

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used to encapsulate high-level radioactive waste into borosilicate glass at the Savannah River Site. To ensure that the process streams will be blended in the right proportions to produce durable glass, process control analyses will be performed in a laboratory in the DWPF. The high radioactivity of DWPF samples will require that sample preparation, including dissolution and dilution of samples, be performed in shielded cells. However the final analyses will be made with instruments and spectrometers contained in unshielded fume hoods. The primary radiation concern is the exposure to y-rays from the decay of Cs-137 after samples are removed from the shielded cells. Since there are several methods available for removing Cs-137 from samples, investigations were made into removing Cs-137 from DWPF samples prior to analysis in order to reduce worker exposure. Results are presented of the efficiency of various Cs-137 removal techniques and the effects of these techniques on analytical precision and accuracy.

  14. Performance of 20 Ci 137Cs γ-ray Compton spectrometer for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... than the conventional 241Am Compton spectrometers. The in-house 137Cs spectrometer is very useful for the measurement of momentum densities of heavy materials. The performance of the machine is assessed using aluminum, terbium and mercury samples and the experimental data from comparable apparatus.

  15. Measurement of the whole-body 137Cs in residents around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Naoko; Takamura, Noboru; Ashizawa, Kiyoto; Shimasaki, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Shunichi; Okumura, Yutaka

    2005-01-01

    To understand the current situation of internal radiation exposure in the population around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP), we examined the 137Cs body burden in six residents of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia in 2002 and 2004 using the whole-body counter (WBC) at Nagasaki University (Japan). The data were compared with those of our previous study performed in 1993-1994 using the same method. In 2002 and 2004, peaks of 137Cs were detected in two residents from Gomel, which was heavily contaminated by the CNPP accident, one from Minsk (Belarus) and one from Kiev (Ukraine), but another resident from Minsk showed no 137Cs peaks. The results of the present study suggests that residents around the CNPP are still exposed to chronic 137Cs internal irradiation, probably due to the daily consumption of contaminated domestic foods, but the risk of any disease by the irradiation is quite low. Long-term follow-up of WBC around the CNPP is useful and may contribute to radiation safety regulation together with a reduction of unnecessary radiophobia for the residents.

  16. 42 CFR 137.274 - Does this subpart cover construction programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Program; (b) Construction program functions; and, (c) Planning services and construction management... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Does this subpart cover construction programs? 137... INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction...

  17. Dark Matter and Extragalactic Gas Clouds in the NGC 4532/DDO 137 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, G. L.; Lu, N. Y.; Salpeter, E. E.; Connell, B. M.

    1998-01-01

    H I synthesis mapping of NGC 4532 and DDO 137, a pair of Sm galaxies on the edge of the Virgo cluster, is used to determine rotation curves for each of the galaxies and to resolve the structure and kinematics of three extragalactic H I clouds embedded in an extended envelope of diffuse HI discovered in earlier Arecibo studies of the system.

  18. Concentration and vertical distribution of 137Cs in the undisturbed soil of southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, I R; Fischer, H W; Burak, A; Qwasmeh, A; Tabot, B

    2007-01-01

    The results of measurements of 137Cs in soil profiles that were sampled in undisturbed soil in Ondo, Ekiti, and Oyo states in the southwestern area of Nigeria are presented in this paper. Samples were collected from nine soil profiles. The vertical distributions of 137Cs in the soil profiles have been determined. Cesium concentration ranged from 0.31 +/- 0.10 Bq kg(-1) in the 0-2 cm depth to a maximum of 1.25 +/- 0.21 Bq kg(-1) in the 6-8 cm depth at some sites and from 3.16 +/- 0.16 Bq kg(-1) in 0-5 cm depth to below detection limit (BDL) at 20-25 cm at another site. 137Cs total deposition in 0-10 cm depth was found to be greatest at Ikogosi site with a value of 90.30 Bq m(-2). The results generally showed that more than 40 y after the first nuclear weapon tests, 137Cs still remains within the 25 cm upper layer of soil in the region with a migration velocity of 0.17-0.18 cm y(-1). The mean value of effective dose commitment due to the presence of cesium in soil in the entire region was found to be 10.77 microSv.

  19. Biogeochemical behaviour of 137Cs and 90Sr in the artificial reservoirs of Mayak PA, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, P.; Brown, J.E.; Amundsen, I. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini naeringspark 13, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Drozhko, E.; Mokrov, Y. [Mayak Production Association, 31, Lenin St, 45065 Chelyabinsk-65 (Russian Federation); Salbu, B.; Oughton, D. [Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, Agricultural University of Norway, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Christensen, G.C. [Institute for Energy Technology, Health and Safety Department, Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, N-2007 Kjeller (Norway)

    1999-10-29

    The Mayak Production Association (PA) in the southern Urals, Russia was the site of the first weapons-grade plutonium production reactor complex in Russia. The site and surrounding area have been significantly contaminated by direct discharges of radionuclides for over 40 years, the Techa River alone having received more than 100 PBq of waste in the period 1949-1956. The aim of this study was to consider the levels of 90Sr and 137Cs in water, sediment and biota samples for two industrial reservoirs in the Mayak PA area, thus allowing a biogeochemical assessment of the behaviour of radionuclides in the system. Four sediment cores were collected and sectioned along with four water samples and seven fish samples (pike, perch and roach). Samples were analysed using (1) standard gamma-spectrometric techniques (HPGe and NaI(Tl) detectors) for 137Cs determination; and (2) radiochemical separation and beta-counting (low-background, anti-coincidence and Geiger-Muller counters) for 90Sr determination. Maximum specific activities (dry weight) of 3350 kBq kg{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs and 720 kBq kg{sup -1} {sup 90}Sr were measured in sediments from Reservoir 10. Activity levels of sediment-bound radionuclides in Reservoir 11 were 403 kBq kg{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs and 670 kBq kg{sup -1} {sup 90}Sr. Water concentrations in Reservoir 10 were as high as 100 Bq l{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs and 8.4-14 kBq l{sup -1} {sup 90}Sr. A dramatic decrease in 137Cs concentrations was observed in Reservoir 11, i.e. 1.1-1.5 Bq l{sup -1}, but 90Sr levels fell to a lesser extent, i.e. 1.9-2.4 kBq l{sup -1}. Sediment and water activity data allowed the calculation of distribution coefficients (K{sub d} values). This parameter fluctuated for both radionuclides reflecting the heterogeneous nature of the sediment deposits in the reservoirs. Caesium-137 Concentration Factors (CFs) as high as 1400 l kg{sup -1} were calculated for pike from Reservoir 10. A pronounced 'trophic level' effect was evident in

  20. Cs-137 in biofuel and reuse of the ash; Radiocesium i biobraenslen och aateranvaendning av askan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, K. J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1999-07-01

    The activity concentration of {sup 137}Cs in sheep fescue grown in pots where ashes had been added to forest soil were studied. The added ash corresponded to 3000 kg per hectare and were either mixed into the forest soil or spread above the soil. The results were expressed as percentage of control value from sheep fescue grown on the same forest soil but without adding ash. In the first harvest the {sup 137}Cs were 60 and 33 % of the control value in the pots where fly ash respectively wet ash was mixed with the forest soil before starting the experiment. In the pots where the ash was spread on the soil 80 and 76 % of control values were found in fly ash respectively wet ash pots. In the second harvest 87 and 10 % of control values were found in fly ash respectively wet ash in the pots where ash were mixed with soil. The corresponding values in pots where the ash was spread on the soil were 31 respectively 42 %. The results show that we probably can expect at least a 50 % decrease in the {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations after adding ash particularly if the ash is spread on the soil. There will take a certain time before the optimal reduction occur and after spreading in the forest there will probably take one year before maximum reduction is obtained. In a field experiment using potassium fertilization we obtained about the same reduction in {sup 137}Cs levels in bilberry, lingonberry and heather and also in some fungal species. The reduction could be seen even after 7 vegetation periods. It thus seems that the adding of ash to forest soil should be a rather effective counter measure with expected reduction of {sup 137}Cs levels of about 50 %.

  1. A comparison of measured and calculated values of air kerma rates from 137Cs in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Ramzaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, a study was conducted to determine the air gamma dose rate from 137Cs deposited in soil. The gamma dose rate measurements and soil sampling were performed at 30 reference plots from the south-west districts of the Bryansk region (Russia that had been heavily contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The 137Cs inventory in the top 20 cm of soil ranged from 260 kBq m–2 to 2800 kBq m–2. Vertical distributions of 137Cs in soil cores (6 samples per a plot were determined after their sectioning into ten horizontal layers of 2 cm thickness. The vertical distributions of 137Cs in soil were employed to calculate air kerma rates, K, using two independent methods proposed by Saito and Jacob [Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry, 1995, Vol. 58, P. 29–45] and Golikov et al. [Contaminated Forests– Recent Developments in Risk Identification and Future Perspective. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. – P. 333–341]. A very good coincidence between the methods was observed (Spearman’s rank coefficient of correlation = 0.952; P<0.01; on average, a difference between the kerma rates calculated with two methods did not exceed 3%. The calculated air kerma rates agreed with the measured dose rates in air very well (Spearman’s coefficient of correlation = 0.952; P<0.01. For large grassland plots (n=19, the measured dose rates were on average 6% less than the calculated kerma rates. The tested methods for calculating the air dose rate from 137Cs in soil can be recommended for practical studies in radiology and radioecology. 

  2. Evaluation of the mobility of {sup 137}CS in soil profiles of the Pantanal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fernanda L. da; Ferreira, Ana C.M., E-mail: fleite@ird.gov.br, E-mail: anacris@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica V.; Lapa, Celso F., E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel Vidal; Rendeiro, Nilson, E-mail: chpd@cnps.embrapa.br, E-mail: nilson.rendeiro@embrapa.br [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos; Picanco Junior, Pericles L., E-mail: pericles.picanco@gmail.com [Instituto BioAtlantica (IBIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive pollutants can cause impact on the environmental quality of soils and represent a risk to human health. Radioecological studies have shown that soils with low pH, low organic matter content and low fertility are more vulnerable to contamination by {sup 137}Cs, since the transfer to plants is high. In this study, some surface horizons of soils from Jaraguari, situated at Brazilian Pantanal were assessed in order to map their vulnerability to contamination by {sup 137}Cs. It was also proposed some mitigation measures adapted to the regional scenario in order to optimize radiological protection for rural areas. A conceptual model established to detect the vulnerability of radioactively contaminated soils was applied for soils located in the municipality of Jaraguari (Mato Grosso do Sul). This conceptual model was established based on the relationship between reference values of the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) for {sup 137}Cs and critical pedological parameters for each radiovulnerability category (pH, CTC and exchangeable K). The application of this conceptual model to a soil data bank using Geographic Information System (GIS) tools generated vulnerability soils maps. This result identified that most of Pantanal soils presented very low radiovulnerability, but it was possible to detect some small areas presenting extreme radiovulnerability. It was possible to conclude that these small areas is not indicated for activities that presents a potential risk for {sup 137}Cs contamination and also it must receive priority actions for remediation in the case of accident, since a superficial contamination with {sup 137}Cs in these areas can lead to a contamination of subsoil and to a significant spread of contamination via groundwater. (author)

  3. Accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in wetlands and their importance in radioecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, K.; Nylen, T.; Wallberg, P. [Stockholm University, Dept. of Systems Ecology, SE (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    Wetlands function as nurseries and feeding areas for both terrestrial and aquatic species and are habitats for many endangered species such as frogs, salamanders and snakes. Wetlands alter the hydrology of streams and rivers, enhance sediment deposition and work as a filter to coastal waters retaining nutrients as well as contaminants. Due to the lack of easily identifiable direct pathways to humans wetland ecosystems have generally been neglected within radioecological research. There is a large diversity of wetlands and some of them can accumulate and function as sinks for radionuclides. In Sweden wetlands are among the ecosystems where the highest activity concentrations have accumulated after the Chernobyl accident. This paper summarizes factors that are important to the accumulation of radionuclides in wetlands. As an example, one wetland ecosystem in Sweden contaminated by {sup 137}Cs due to the Chernobyl accident will be described in more detail. The average activity concentration in this wetland is 1.1 MBq/m{sup 2}, i.e. 10 times higher than in the surrounding areas. Soil and sediment samples were collected and the {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations were measured. A budget calculation of {sup 137}Cs in the wetland area was conducted, indicating that the accumulation of {sup 137}Cs is still ongoing seventeen years after the accident. High activity concentrations are likely to remain in this ecosystem for a long time, resulting in long-term exposure for organisms living there. The maximum external {sup 137}Cs dose rate to frogs was estimated to 96 mGy/year. Hence, identification and consideration of wetlands that accumulate radionuclides to a high extent are important in radioecological risk assessments for the protection of plants and animals from ionizing radiation. (author)

  4. Potential impact of miR-137 and its targets in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie eWright

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The significant impact of microRNAs (miRNAs on disease pathology is becoming increasingly evident. These small non-coding RNAs have the ability to post-transcriptionally silence the expression of thousands of genes. Therefore, dysregulation of even a single miRNA could confer a large polygenic effect. Schizophrenia is a genetically complex illness thought to involve multiple genes each contributing a small risk. Large genome-wide association studies identified miR-137, a miRNA shown to be involved in neuronal maturation, as one of the top risk genes. To assess the potential mechanism of impact of miR-137 in this disorder and identify its targets, we used a combination of literature searches, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA, and freely accessible bioinformatics resources. Using TargetScan and the Schizophrenia Gene Resource (SZGR database, we found that in addition to CSMD1, C10orf26, CACNA1C, TCF4, and ZNF804A, five schizophrenia risk genes whose transcripts are also validated miR-137 targets, there are other schizophrenia-associated genes that may be targets of miR-137, including ERBB4, GABRA1, GRIN2A, GRM5, GSK3B, NRG2 and HTR2C. IPA analyses of all the potential targets identified several nervous system functions as the top canonical pathways including synaptic long-term potentiation, a process implicated in learning and memory mechanisms and recently shown to be altered in patients with schizophrenia. Among the subset of targets involved in nervous system development and function, the top scoring pathways were ephrin receptor signaling and axonal guidance, processes that are critical for proper circuitry formation and were shown to be disrupted in schizophrenia. These results suggest that miR-137 may indeed play a substantial role in the genetic etiology of schizophrenia by regulating networks involved in neural development and brain function.

  5. 42 CFR 137.203 - May a Self-Governance Tribe participate in a voluntary national uniform data collection effort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Governance Tribe participate in a voluntary national uniform data collection effort with the IHS? Yes, in... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe participate in a voluntary national uniform data collection effort with the IHS? 137.203 Section 137.203 Public Health PUBLIC...

  6. 42 CFR 137.142 - What is a “significant danger” or “risk” to the public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is a âsignificant dangerâ or âriskâ to the public health? 137.142 Section 137.142 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE...

  7. 42 CFR 137.360 - Does the Secretary approve project planning and design documents prepared by the Self-Governance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... design documents prepared by the Self-Governance Tribe? 137.360 Section 137.360 Public Health PUBLIC... HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Roles of the Secretary in Establishing and... documents prepared by the Self-Governance Tribe? The Secretary shall have at least one opportunity to...

  8. 42 CFR 137.304 - May Self-Governance Tribes buy back environmental services from the IHS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... services from the IHS? 137.304 Section 137.304 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF... project agreement, including design and construction engineering, and environmental compliance services...

  9. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? (a) As the MRO, you must verify a confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, and/or PCP unless the employee presents a...

  10. 42 CFR 137.21 - How does an Indian Tribe demonstrate financial stability and financial management capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does an Indian Tribe demonstrate financial stability and financial management capacity? 137.21 Section 137.21 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... How does an Indian Tribe demonstrate financial stability and financial management capacity? The Indian...

  11. 42 CFR 137.175 - Is a Self-Governance Tribe required to maintain a recordkeeping system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is a Self-Governance Tribe required to maintain a recordkeeping system? 137.175 Section 137.175 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE...

  12. 42 CFR 137.23 - For purposes of determining eligibility for participation in self-governance, may the Secretary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... participation in self-governance, may the Secretary consider any other information regarding the Indian Tribe's financial stability and financial management capacity? 137.23 Section 137.23 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Selection of Indian Tribes for Participation in Self-Governance Planning...

  13. MicroRNA-137 regulates a glucocorticoid receptor-dependent signalling network: implications for the etiology of schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valles, A.; Martens, G.J.; Weerd, P. de; Poelmans, G.J.V.; Aschrafi, A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder. A genetic variant of microRNA-137 (miR-137) has yielded significant genome-wide association with schizophrenia, suggesting that this miRNA plays a key role in its etiology. Therefore, a molecular network of interacting

  14. 14 CFR 137.23 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 137.23 Section 137.23 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If the holder of a certificate issued...

  15. 42 CFR 137.299 - Are Federal funds available to cover the cost of Self-Governance Tribes carrying out...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... funds available to cover the cost of Self-Governance Tribes carrying out environmental responsibilities... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Federal funds available to cover the cost of Self-Governance Tribes carrying out environmental responsibilities? 137.299 Section 137.299 Public...

  16. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on (137)Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarubina, N

    2016-09-01

    Levels of soil contamination with (137)Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of (137)Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of (137)Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Reduction of 137caesium contamination in wild boars by supplementing offered food with ammonium-iron-hexa-cyanoferrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, P; Reddemann, J; Schungel, P; Kienzle, E

    2014-01-01

    This replication study investigated whether the 137caesium (137Cs) contamination of wild boars could be relevantly reduced under field conditions by adding ammonium-iron-hexa-cyanoferrate (AFCF; Prussian blue) to the food. In 285 wild boars that had been shot in six Bavarian hunting territories during the season (November until May) between 01 November 2010 and 10 December 2011 137Cs contamination was analysed. Thirty-five animals originated from two hunting territories in which offered food had been supplemented with 1250 mg AFCF per kilogram food. The control animals showed a mean 137Cs contamination of 522 Bq/kg lean skeletal muscle meat. Direct (univariable) comparisons of the two experimental territories with the four control territories yielded a mean reduction in 137Cs contamination due to Prussian bluefeeding by -211 Bq/kg (p contamination by -380 Bq/kg due to the feeding of Prussian blue in other territories.

  18. Relative effects of slow adsorption or fixation and changing soil properties on the immobilisation of {sup 137}Cs in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, S.; Wang, G. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), UMR Rhizosphere and Symbiose 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2004-07-01

    It is generally accepted that {sup 137}Cs undergoes an initial rapid adsorption reaction with soil, followed by a slower long term reaction. With time adsorption increases and the reversibility of adsorption decreases, a phenomenon known as fixation or aging. However most experimental studies do not distinguish between ongoing reaction of {sup 137}Cs with soil and changing soil properties that may influence soil affinity for caesium. We have incubated soil at two moisture contents (flooded, to induce anaerobic conditions or moist) for up to 4 months. During this period changes in pH and Eh have been monitored and samples destructively sampled to follow the disappearance of {sup 137}Cs from soil solution and the extractability of adsorbed {sup 137}Cs. The evolution of exchangeable and solution phase potassium and ammonium and the Cs adsorption properties of initially non contaminated soil, incubated under the same conditions is also reported. Flooded soils became rapidly reducing, with little change in pH and an increase in ammonium content. The{sup 137}Cs activity concentration in flooded soils remained larger than in aerated soils. There was good general agreement between Kd values calculated from soil solution extracted by centrifugation and by extracting {sup 137}Cs in CaCl{sub 2} solution, indicating that adsorption is largely reversible. There was no marked change in reversibility over time. Kd calculated from soil solution data was underestimated at short incubation times (<1 week) probably due to slow access of {sup 137}Cs to adsorption sites within soil aggregates. The Kd values of {sup 137}Cs on soil incubated prior to contamination then air-dried also increased with time, particularly for flooded soils, indicating increasing affinity of the soil for {sup 137}Cs. Decreasing {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in soil solution cannot therefore be attributed to ongoing adsorption alone. (author)

  19. Vertical and lateral distribution of fallout (137)Cs and soil properties along representative toposequences of central Rif, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesrar, Haytam; Sadiki, Abdelhamid; Faleh, Ali; Quijano, Laura; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand and quantify the relationships between current (137)Cs inventories and the soil properties and the physiographic characteristics. A total of 36 cores were taken in seven transects with different slopes, lithology and land use. The analysis focused on the (137)Cs mass activity as well as inventories and its relationship with soil properties as grain size and organic matter. The mass activity of (137)Cs and the inventories varied between 3.6 and 63.7 Bq kg(-1) and between 521.7 and 3304.4 Bq m(-2), respectively. At uncultivated soils, high concentrations of (137)Cs are located in the top 10 cm and decreased exponentially in depth. Cultivated soils record disturbed and heterogeneous (137)Cs profiles with values of mass activity and inventories up to 38.7 Bq kg(-1) and 2510.8 Bq m(-2), respectively. The (137)Cs inventories were significantly higher in uncultivated soils (mean: 2086.9 Bq m(-2)) compared to cultivated soils (mean: 1397.1 Bq m(-2)). The (137)Cs mass activity showed a significant positive correlation with organic matter, silt and clay, but it was negatively correlated with sand and pH respectively. High levels of (137)Cs were found at altitudes between 500 m and 640 m a.s.l, and at slopes from 8° to 11°, as well as in dense scrub land and Fersialitic soils. A principal component analysis showed that more than 86.7% of the variance in (137)Cs mass activity was explained by the organic matter content and the land use. The results of this study provide insights into the effects of soil properties and physiographic factors on the behaviour of (137)Cs in soils of Mediterranean environments of North Africa and strengthen the reliability of this radioisotope as an erosion tracer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Uncertainty assessment method for the Cs-137 fallout inventory and penetration depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakos, G N; Karangelos, D J; Petropoulos, N P; Anagnostakis, M J; Hinis, E P; Simopoulos, S E

    2017-05-01

    Within the presented study, soil samples were collected in year 2007 at 20 different locations of the Greek terrain, both from the surface and also from depths down to 26 cm. Sampling locations were selected primarily from areas where high levels of 137Cs deposition after the Chernobyl accident had already been identified by the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the National Technical University of Athens during and after the year of 1986. At one location of relatively higher deposition, soil core samples were collected following a 60 m by 60 m Cartesian grid with a 20 m node-to-node distance. Single or pair core samples were also collected from the remaining 19 locations. Sample measurements and analysis were used to estimate 137Cs inventory and the corresponding depth migration, twenty years after the deposition on Greek terrain. Based on these data, the uncertainty components of the whole sampling-to-results procedure were investigated. A cause-and-effect assessment process was used to apply the law of error propagation and demonstrate that the dominating significant component of the combined uncertainty is that due to the spatial variability of the contemporary (2007) 137Cs inventory. A secondary, yet also significant component was identified to be the activity measurement process itself. Other less-significant uncertainty parameters were sampling methods, the variation in the soil field density with depth and the preparation of samples for measurement. The sampling grid experiment allowed for the quantitative evaluation of the uncertainty due to spatial variability, also by the assistance of the semivariance analysis. Denser, optimized grid could return more accurate values for this component but with a significantly elevated laboratory cost, in terms of both, human and material resources. Using the hereby collected data and for the case of a single core soil sampling using a well-defined sampling methodology quality assurance, the uncertainty component

  1. Radiocaesium (137Cs) in marine mammals from Svalbard, the Barents Sea and the North Greenland Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Magnus; Gwynn, Justin P; Dowdall, Mark; Kovacs, Kit M; Lydersen, Christian

    2006-06-15

    Specific activities of the anthropogenic radionuclide, 137Cs, were determined in marine mammals from Svalbard and the Barents and North Greenland Seas. Muscle samples were collected from 12 polar bears, 15 ringed seals, 10 hooded seals, 7 bearded seals, 14 harp seals, one walrus, one white whale and one blue whale in the period 2000-2003. The mean concentrations (+/-SD) of 137Cs were: 0.72+/-0.62 Bq/kg wet weight (w.w.) for polar bears; 0.49+/-0.07 Bq/kg w.w. for ringed seals; 0.25+/-0.10 Bq/kg w.w. for hooded seals; 0.22+/-0.11 Bq/kg w.w. for bearded seals; 0.36+/-0.13 Bq/kg w.w. for harp seals; 0.67 Bq/kg w.w. for the white whale sample; 0.24 Bq/kg w.w. for the blue whale; and below detection limit for the walrus. Significant differences in 137Cs specific activities between some of the species were found. Ringed seals had higher specific activities than the other seal species in the study. Bearded seals and hooded seals had similar values, which were both significantly lower than the harp seal values. The results in the present study are consistent with previous reported results, indicating low specific activities of 137Cs in Arctic marine mammals in the Barents Sea and Greenland Sea region during the last 20 years. The species specific differences found may be explained by varying diet or movement and distribution patterns between species. No age related patterns were found in specific activities for the two species (polar bears and hooded seals) for which sufficient data was available. Concentration factors (CF) of 137Cs from seawater were determined for polar bears, ringed, bearded, harp and hooded seals. Mean CF values ranged from 79+/-32 (SD) for bearded seals sampled in 2002 to 244+/-36 (SD) for ringed seals sampled in 2003 these CF values are higher than those reported for fish and benthic organisms in the literature, suggesting bioaccumulation of 137Cs in the marine ecosystem.

  2. TG-43 U1 based dosimetric characterization of model 67-6520 Cs-137 brachytherapy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meigooni, Ali S.; Wright, Clarissa; Koona, Rafiq A.; Awan, Shahid B.; Granero, Domingo; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Ballester, Facundo [Department of Radiation Medicine, North Shore University Hospital, 300 Community Drive, Manhasset, New York 11030 and Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center, Lexington, Kentucky 40536-0084 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center, Lexington, Kentucky 40536-0084 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Avenida Tres Cruces, 2, E-46014 Valencia (Spain); Department of Oncology, Physics Section, ' ' La Fe' ' University Hospital, Avenida Campanar 21, E-46009 Valencia (Spain); Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, C/ Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, Spain and Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), C/ Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: Brachytherapy treatment has been a cornerstone for management of various cancer sites, particularly for the treatment of gynecological malignancies. In low dose rate brachytherapy treatments, {sup 137}Cs sources have been used for several decades. A new {sup 137}Cs source design has been introduced (model 67-6520, source B3-561) by Isotope Products Laboratories (IPL) for clinical application. The goal of the present work is to implement the TG-43 U1 protocol in the characterization of the aforementioned {sup 137}Cs source. Methods: The dosimetric characteristics of the IPL {sup 137}Cs source are measured using LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters in a Solid Water phantom material and calculated using Monte Carlo simulations with the GEANT4 code in Solid Water and liquid water. The dose rate constant, radial dose function, and two-dimensional anisotropy function of this source model were obtained following the TG-43 U1 recommendations. In addition, the primary and scatter dose separation (PSS) formalism that could be used in convolution/superposition methods to calculate dose distributions around brachytherapy sources in heterogeneous media was studied. Results: The measured and calculated dose rate constants of the IPL {sup 137}Cs source in Solid Water were found to be 0.930({+-}7.3%) and 0.928({+-}2.6%) cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1}, respectively. The agreement between these two methods was within our experimental uncertainties. The Monte Carlo calculated value in liquid water of the dose rate constant was {Lambda}=0.948({+-}2.6%) cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1}. Similarly, the agreement between measured and calculated radial dose functions and the anisotropy functions was found to be within {+-}5%. In addition, the tabulated data that are required to characterize the source using the PSS formalism were derived. Conclusions: In this article the complete dosimetry of the newly designed {sup 137}Cs IPL source following the AAPM TG-43 U1 dosimetric protocol and the PSS

  3. Soil erosion determination in a watershed from northern Paraná (Brazil using 137Cs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avacir Casanova Andrello

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was study the soil losses or gains in a watershed in the municipal district of Cambé, Paraná using 137Cs as marker for the determination of soil redistributions. A transect sampling was used to evaluate the influence of different tillage on soil erosion. One point, located in a forest area was sampled and analyzed to determine the reference inventory of cesium-137 deposited by fallout. The average value of the reference inventory was 292 Bq m-2. The cesium-137 inventory of the transect samples varied from 80 Bq m-2 to 403 Bq m-2. The sampling points in pasture presented soil losses. The sampling points in coffee plantation did not present losses or gains. The sampling points in soybean cultivated areas presented soil losses.O césio-137 introduzido no meio ambiente pelos testes nucleares de superfície é rápido e fortemente adsorvido às partículas finas do solo. Este pode ser usado como um marcador para determinação da redistribuição do solo. Esta metodologia tem sido muito usada nos países desenvolvidos, porém ainda muito pouco difundida no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi a aplicação desta metodologia para determinação de perdas e ganhos de solo em uma bacia no município de Cambe, Paraná. Esta bacia está localizada ao redor das coordenadas 23º16' S e 51º17' O e o solo cultivado com diferentes culturas. Uma amostragem em transectos foi utilizada para avaliar a influência dos diferentes cultivos na erosão do solo. Um ponto em área de floresta foi amostrado e analisado para determinar o inventário de referência de césio-137 depositado pelo "fallout". O valor médio do inventário de referência foi de 292 Bq m-2. O inventário de césio-137 das amostras dos transectos variou de 80 Bq m-2 até 403 Bq m-2. Os pontos amostrados em pastagem e em cultura de soja apresentaram perdas de solo, e os pontos amostrados em plantação de café não apresentaram nem perda nem ganho de solo.

  4. Behavior of137Cs in ponds in the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Konoplev, Alexei; Wada, Toshihiro; Takase, Tsugiko; Byrnes, Ian; Carradine, Matthew; Nanba, Kenji

    2017-11-01

    137 Cs activity concentration in the water of four ponds, Suzuuchi (SU), Funasawa (FS), Inkyozaka (IZ), and Kashiramori (KM), that are within 10 km of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant were observed from April 2015 to August 2016. 137 Cs inventories in soils surrounding SU, FS, IZ, and KM were 6.4, 2.9, 2.1, and 0.9 MBq m -2 , respectively. 137 Cs inventories in the bottom sediments of SU, FS, IZ, and KM were 13, 8.9, 1.6, and 1.1 MBq m -2 , respectively. Higher 137 Cs inventories in bottom sediment than those of soil in SU and FS suggest that 137 Cs was delivered to and accumulated in these ponds. Mean total 137 Cs activity concentrations in SU, FS, IZ, and KM were 41, 13, 9.5, and 1.4 Bq L -1 , respectively. Particulate 137 Cs concentration accounted for 71-90% of total 137 Cs in the water samples, on average. The mean distribution coefficient, K d , in SU, FS, IZ, and KM was 1.3 × 10 5 , 2.1 × 10 5 , 1.7 × 10 5 , and 6.2 × 10 5  L kg -1 , respectively. These K d values were higher than the K d values observed in the Chernobyl area by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Although no significant decreasing trends were found, dissolved 137 Cs activity concentration tended to be low during winter in all four ponds. Dissolved 137 Cs activity concentrations were proportional to K + and DOC concentrations in all the ponds. The results from principal component analysis performed for 137 Cs activity concentration and water chemistry data sets suggested that there were different mechanisms behind variability of dissolved 137 Cs activity concentrations for each pond. Continuous monitoring is required to reveal temporal trends in 137 Cs activity concentrations of these waters and controlling factors of such in closed water systems in Fukushima. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radioactivity in {sup 137}Cs of the French terrestrial environment: interpretation of OPERA data acquired between 1993 and 2004; Radioactivite en {sup 137}Cs de l'environnement terrestre francais. Interpretation des donnees OPERA acquises de 1993 a 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Debet, S.; Masson, O.; Salaun, G.

    2005-07-01

    After having indicated the implemented equipment and methods (location of sampling stations, general presentation of results in terms of {sup 137}Cs activity measurement, of {sup 134}Cs activity, and of isotopic {sup 137}Cs /{sup 134}Cs rate), this report presents, analyses and comments detailed measurements performed by the OPERA (Permanent Observatory of Radioactivity) between 1993 and 2004 of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs activity in soils, grass, salads, thyme, mushrooms, cow milk, cow cheese, goat milk, goat cheese, and meat (beef muscle)

  6. Nuclear techniques support to assess erosion and sedimentation processes: preliminary results of the use of 137Cs as soil tracer in Slovenia = Uporaba nuklearnih tehnik za oceno erozije in sedimentacije: preliminarni rezultati uporabe cezija-137 kot sledila v Sloveniji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Mabit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of erosion and sedimentation evaluation in Slovenia have focused on the use of conventional approaches. This paper highlights potential advantages of nuclear techniques to assess soil redistribution magnitude and presents assessment of the initial 137Cs fallout in undisturbed site, located in Šalamenci, Eastern Slovenia. The 137Cs background activity in the selected forested site was evaluated at 7316 ± 2525 Bq m–2 with a coefficient of variation of 34 % (n = 20. This information will be used in future investigations to assess erosion and sedimentation processes of adjacent agricultural fields with 137Cs method.

  7. Nuclear toxicology file: effects of cesium-137 on major physiological functions among the rodent; Dossier toxicologie nucleaire: effets du cesium-137 sur des fonctions physiologiques majeures chez le rongeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueguen, Y.; Lestaevel, Ph.; Jourdain, J.R.; Bertho, J.M.; Gourmelon, P.; Souidi, M.; Dublineau, I. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2008-09-15

    The present study shows to the rat an absence of significant changes of the small intestine by a chronic ingestion of {sup 137}Cs to post-accidental dose during several months. The arsenal of the immunological and not immunological defence developed by the digestive system against toxins seems effective against the internal contagion by {sup 137}Cs. Other experiments have to confirm the absence of effects in the case of contamination by the {sup 137}Cs on the totality of the life expectancy. (N.C.)

  8. Distribution of /sup 137/Cs in surface intertidal sediments from the Solway Firth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.G.; Miller, J.M.; Roberts, P.D. (Institute of Geological Sciences, Keyworth (UK))

    1984-05-01

    The distribution of /sup 137/Cs from the Sellafield (Windscale) nuclear fuel reprocessing plant has been examined in detail in the surface intertidal sediments of the inner Solway Firth by means of a hovercraft-borne radiometric survey. With the exception of a belt of relatively active sands to the south of Silloth, caesium distribution is generally consistent with that of fine-grained sediment such that the highest concentrations occur in mud flat and salt marsh sediments which are most extensive in sheltered coastal embayments. /sup 137/Cs activities in July 1980 were typically 2 to 30 pCi g/sup -1/ but locally exceeded 50 pCi g/sup -1/. These levels are considerably lower than those recorded in locations, such as the outer Solway and Ravenglass estuary, which are closer to the Sellafield outfall.

  9. Revised Methodology for Determining Cesium-137 Content of HN-200 Grout Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHELOR, J.L.

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this technical paper is to examine the accuracy of the existing method of determining the Cs-137 content of HN-200 grout containers and compare that accuracy to the accuracy attainable by other methods of measurement. The methods of measurement to be compared include: Contact measurements on a grouted container (existing method); Measurements at 5 feet from the surface of a grouted container; Measurements at 10 feet from a grouted container; Measurements on contact with the surface of an ungrouted container; Measurements at 5 feet from the surface of an ungrouted container; and Measurements at 10 feet from the surface of an ungrouted container. Once the most accurate and useable method is determined, the precepts for an operating procedure will be provided for determining the Cs-137 content of newly generated and future HN-200 grout containers as well as the grouted legacy containers currently stored in B Cell.

  10. {sup 137}Cs content in the fruit bodies of various Tuber species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzelli, R.; Lamma, A. [ENEA AMB-SAF, Brasimone (Italy); Zambonelli, A. [Universita di Bologna (Italy); Serra, F. [ENEA AMB-BIO, Brasimone (Italy)

    1996-12-01

    In this research, the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the fruit bodies of the Tuber species T. magnatum Pico, T. borchii Vitt., T. aestivum Vitt., and T. excavatum Vitt. collected in three different regions of Italy was determined. The values obtained have been compared to the soil concentration of {sup 137}Cs, and the transfer factor was determined. The radiocesium content of the examined fruit bodies ranged from 2.5 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} to 33.3 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} fresh weight; the median transfer factor values of the four species ranged between 0.06 and 0.6. Our findings indicate that the radiocesium level in truffles from these regions of Italy is generally low, and, thus, their consumption is not of radiological concern. The results may suggest certain hypotheses as to the mechanisms involved in radiocesium uptake in these fungi. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. 137Cs content in the fruit bodies of various Tuber species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzelli, R; Zambonelli, A; Serra, F; Lamma, A

    1996-12-01

    In this research, the concentration of 137Cs in the fruit bodies of the Tuber species T. magnatum Pico, T. borchii Vitt., T. aestivum Vitt., and T. excavatum Vitt. collected in three different regions of Italy was determined. The values obtained have been compared to the soil concentration of 137Cs, and the transfer factor was determined. The radiocesium content of the examined fruit bodies ranged from 2.5 Bq kg(-1) to 33.3 Bq kg(-1) fresh weight; the median transfer factor values of the four species ranged between 0.06 and 0.6. Our findings indicate that the radiocesium level in truffles from these regions of Italy is generally low, and, thus, their consumption is not of radiological concern. The results may suggest certain hypotheses as to the mechanisms involved in radiocesium uptake in these fungi.

  12. Measurement of natural and {sup 137}Cs radioactivity concentrations at Izmit Bay (Marmara Sea), Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Öksüz, İ., E-mail: ibrahim-ksz@yahoo.com; Güray, R. T., E-mail: tguray@kocaeli.edu.tr; Özkan, N., E-mail: nozkan@kocaeli.edu.tr; Yalçin, C., E-mail: caner.yalcin@kocaeli.edu.tr [Kocaeli University, Department of Physics, Umuttepe 41380, Kocaeli (Turkey); Ergül, H. A., E-mail: halim.ergul@kocaeli.edu.tr; Aksan, S., E-mail: serdar.aksan@kocaeli.edu.tr [Kocaeli University, Department of Biology, Umuttepe 41380, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    In order to determine the radioactivity level at Izmit Bay Marmara Sea, marine sediment samples were collected from five different locations. The radioactivity concentrations of naturally occurring {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K isotopes and also that of an artificial isotope {sup 137}Cs were measured by using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Preliminary results show that the radioactivity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th isotopes are lower than the average worldwide values while the radioactivity concentrations of the {sup 40}K are higher than the average worldwide value. A small amount of {sup 137}Cs contamination, which might be caused by the Chernobyl accident, was also detected.

  13. Airborne fallout mapping of {sup 137}Cs - STUK/HUT team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikkinen, M.; Aarnio, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Honkamaa, T.; Tiilikainen, H. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The task of the team was to create a fallout map of {sup 137}Cs on a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used AB-420 helicopter of the Finnish Frontier Guard. The team had two measuring systems: HPGe system (relative efficiency 18%) and NaI system (5`x5`). Both systems produced similar maps. The average {sup 137}Cs fallout within the area (lakes and ponds included) was 88 kBq m{sup -2,} the maximum value being 161 kBq m{sup -2}. In an emergency the HPGe is superior to NaI because of its better energy resolution, giving possibility to obtain nuclide-specific results. (au).

  14. 137Cs activity concentration in mosses in the Calabria region, south of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, F.; Belvedere, A.; D'Agostino, M.; Marguccio, S.

    2017-05-01

    Many studies carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 showed that mosses are suitable bioindicators of the radioactive fall-out, given their long life expectancy. 137Cs activity concentration was measured through HPGe gamma spectrometry in different mosses (Hypnum Cupressiforme, Hypnum Andoi, Homalothecium Sericeum, Philonotis Fontana), collected, in 2008 and 2015, from four sampling sites in the Calabria region, south of Italy. Experimental specific activities allowed us to determine the effective and the biological half-time of 137Cs for the investigated plants. The effective half-time was found in the range from (4.2 ± 1.1) to (7.4 ± 1.8) years; the biological half-time varied from (4.9 ± 1.3) to (9.9 ± 2.4) years. Data reported in this article provide useful information on the environmental risk of the studied area and can be further used for a radiological mapping.

  15. Determination of 137Cs in large volume seawater using Cu-hexacyanoferrate cartridge filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visetpotjanakit, S.; Tumnoi, Y.

    2017-06-01

    A simple method to determine 137Cs in seawater has been developed based on the use of a Cu-hexacyanoferrate scavenger. The Cu-hexacyanoferrate supported on cotton wound cartridge filter was used to absorb 137Cs from seawater by passing large volumes over the cartridge filters with flowrate of 240 L hr-1. Results from the Cu-hexacyanoferrate method were proved acceptable for accuracy with bias below ± 20 % i.e. - 9.16 to + 18.55 % when compared with the traditional ammonium molybdophosphate pre-concentration method. This developed method is cost-effective and less time consuming. In addition it can be easily performed at sampling fields.

  16. AN OVERVIEW OF CESIUM-137 CONTAMINATION IN A SOUTHEASTERN SWAMP ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fledderman, P; Tim Jannik, T; Michael Paller, M

    2006-10-09

    In the early 1960s, an area of privately owned swamp adjacent to the Savannah River Site (SRS) was contaminated by site operations. Studies conducted in 1974 estimated that approximately 925 GBq of {sup 137}Cs and 37 GBq of {sup 60}Co were deposited in the swamp. Subsequently, a series of surveys was initiated to characterize the contaminated environment. These surveys--composed of 52 monitoring locations--allow for continued monitoring at a consistent set of locations. Initial survey results indicated maximum {sup 137}Cs concentrations of 19.5 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 8.7 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation. By the 2004-2005 surveys, maximum concentrations had declined to 1-2 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 0.4 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation.

  17. AN OVERVIEW OF CESIUM-137 CONTAMINATION IN A SOUTHEASTERN SWAMP ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fledderman, P; Tim Jannik, T; Michael Paller, M

    2007-04-04

    In the early 1960s, an area of privately owned swamp adjacent to the Savannah River Site (SRS) was contaminated by site operations. Studies conducted in 1974 estimated that approximately 925 GBq of {sup 137}Cs and 37 GBq of {sup 60}Co were deposited in the swamp. Subsequently, a series of surveys was initiated to characterize the contaminated environment. These surveys--composed of 52 monitoring locations--allow for continued monitoring at a consistent set of locations. Initial survey results indicated maximum {sup 137}Cs concentrations of 19.5 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 8.7 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation. By the 2004-2005 surveys, maximum concentrations had declined to 1-2 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 0.4 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation.

  18. Long-Term Reduction in 137Cs Concentration in Food Crops on Coral Atolls Resulting from Potassium Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Stone, E L; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L

    2004-04-14

    Bikini Island was contaminated March 1, 1954 by the Bravo detonation (U.S nuclear test series, Castle) at Bikini Atoll. About 90% of the estimated dose from nuclear fallout to potential island residents is from cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) transferred from soil to plants that are consumed by residents. Thus, radioecology research efforts have been focused on removing {sup 137}Cs from soil and/or reducing its uptake into vegetation. Most effective was addition of potassium (K) to soil that reduces {sup 137}Cs concentration in fruits to 3-5% of pretreatment concentrations. Initial observations indicated this low concentration continued for some time after K was last applied. Long-term studies were designed to evaluate this persistence in more detail because it is very important to provide assurance to returning populations that {sup 137}Cs concentrations in food (and, therefore, radiation dose) will remain low for extended periods, even if K is not applied annually or biennially. Potassium applied at 300, 660, 1260, and 2070 kg ha{sup -1} lead to a {sup 137}Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat that is 34, 22, 10, and about 4% of original concentration, respectively. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs remains low 8 to 10 y after K is last applied. An explanation for this unexpected result is discussed.

  19. Long-Term Reduction in 137Cs Concentration in Food Crops on Coral Atolls Resulting from Potassium Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W; Stone, E; Hamilton, T; Conrado, C

    2005-04-08

    Bikini Island was contaminated March 1, 1954 by the Bravo detonation (U.S nuclear test series, Castle) at Bikini Atoll. About 90% of the estimated dose from nuclear fallout to potential island residents is from cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) transferred from soil to plants that are consumed by residents. Thus, radioecology research efforts have been focused on removing {sup 137}Cs from soil and/or reducing its uptake into vegetation. Most effective was addition of potassium (K) to soil that reduces {sup 137}Cs concentration in fruits to 3-5% of pretreatment concentrations. Initial observations indicated this low concentration continued for some time after K was last applied. Long-term studies were designed to evaluate this persistence in more detail because it is very important to provide assurance to returning populations that {sup 137}Cs concentrations in food (and, therefore, radiation dose) will remain low for extended periods, even if K is not applied annually or biennially. Potassium applied at 300, 660, 1260, and 1970 kg ha{sup -1} lead to a {sup 137}Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat that is 34, 22, 10, and about 4 % of original concentration, respectively. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs remains low 8 to 10 y after K is last applied. An explanation for this unexpected result is discussed.

  20. Residence half-time of {sup 137}Cs in the top-soils of Japanese paddy and upland fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komamura, Misako [National Inst. of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tsumura, Akito; Kodaira, Kiyoshi

    1999-03-01

    A series of top-soil samples of 14 paddy fields and 10 upland fields in Japan, were annually collected during more than 30 years, to be examined in the contents of {sup 137}Cs. The data, which were obtained by the use of a gamma spectrometric system, received some statistical treatments to distinguish the annual decline of {sup 137}Cs contents from deviations. Then the authors calculated `residence half-time of {sup 137}Cs` within top-soil, and `eluviation rate of {sup 137}Cs` from top to the sub-layer of the soil. The following nationwide results were obtained irrespective of paddy or upland field: (1) The `apparent residence half-time` was estimated as 16 - 17 years. This consists of both effects of eluviation and nuclear disintegration. (2) The true residence half-time` was reported as 41 - 42 years. This depends on the eluviation speed of {sup 137}Cs exclusively, because the influence of nuclear disintegration has been compensated. (3) The eluviation rate of {sup 137}Cs from top-soil down to the sub-soil was 1.6 - 1.7% per year. (4) The ratio of distribution of {sup 137}Cs between top-soil and the sub-soil was estimated to be 6:4 as average at the date of 1996. (author)

  1. Modification of the 137Cs, 90Sr, and 60Co transfer to wheat plantlets by NH4+ fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, J; Muñoz-Muñoz, G; Baeza, A; Salas, A; Mocanu, N

    2017-03-01

    Inorganic fertilizers are used as agricultural countermeasures intended to inhibit the soil to plant transfer of radionuclides after a radioactive fallout. Two NH4+ fertilizers, diammonium phosphate (DAP) and NPK, were applied to soil contaminated with a mixture of radionuclides to analyze whether they modify the transfer of 137Cs, 90Sr, and 60Co and stable elements (K, Na, Ca, and Mg) to wheat plantlets grown under controlled laboratory conditions. DAP introduced NH4+ in the soil, which can increase 137Cs transfer, while NPK also introduced K+, which can decrease it. The application of DAP increased the accumulation of 137Cs in wheat plantlets with increasing application rate, so did the 137Cs/K in plantlets. Regarding the NPK application, the 137Cs increased in all treatments, but at maximum rate, the available K introduced by the fertilizer was probably able to partially satisfy the nutritional requirements of the wheat plantlet and the 137Cs decreased relative to the recommended rate. The 137Cs/K ratio in plantlet decreased with increasing NPK rates. The transfer of 90Sr increased with increasing DAP rate and only at the maximum NPK rate. The 60Co transfer only increased at the maximum application rates for DAP and NPK. These modifications should be considered when using these fertilizers as agricultural countermeasures.

  2. Assessment of the caesium-137 flux adsorbed to suspended sediment in a reservoir in the contaminated Fukushima region in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Goro; Golosov, Valentin; Shiiba, Michiharu; Hori, Tomoharu

    2014-04-01

    We estimated the flux of caesium-137 adsorbed to suspended sediment in the Kusaki Dam reservoir in the Fukushima region of eastern Japan, which was contaminated by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident. The amount and rate of reservoir sedimentation and the caesium-137 concentration were validated based on the mixed-particle distribution and a sediment transport equation. The caesium-137 and sediment flux data suggested that wash load, suspended load sediment, and caesium-137 were deposited and the discharge and transport processes generated acute pollution, especially during extreme rainfall-runoff events. Additionally, we qualitatively assessed future changes in caesium-137 and sediment fluxes in the reservoir. The higher deposition and discharge at the start of the projection compared to the 2090s are most likely explained by the radioactive decay of caesium-137 and the effects of reservoir sedimentation. Predictions of the impacts of future climate on sediment and caesium-137 fluxes are crucial for environmental planning and management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Elevated congenital anomaly rates and incorporated cesium-137 in the Polissia region of Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertelecki, Wladimir; Koerblein, Alfred; Ievtushok, Bogdana; Zymak-Zakutnia, Nataliya; Komov, Oleksandr; Kuznietsov, Illia; Lapchenko, Serhiy; Sosyniuk, Zoriana

    2016-03-01

    Investigations soon after the 1986 Chornobyl (Chernobyl in Russian) accident of exposed populations residing elsewhere in Europe led government and international agencies to conclude that exposures to cesium-137 (Cs-137) were not teratogenic. Our observations of elevated population rates of neural tube defects (NTDs) and microcephaly and microphthalmia (M/M) in the Rivne Province in Ukraine, which were among the highest in Europe, prompted this follow-up investigation inclusive of whole-body counts (WBCs) of Cs-137 among ambulatory patients and pregnant women residing in Polissia, the most polluted region in Rivne. Yearly (2000-2012) population rates of NTDs and M/M and WBC patterns of ambulatory patients (2001-2010) and pregnant women (2011-2013) in Polissia and non-Polissia regions of Rivne were analyzed. The NTD and M/M population rates in Rivne remain elevated and are statistically significantly higher in Polissia than in non-Polissia. The WBCs among residents in Polissia are statistically significantly higher than among those from non-Polissia. NTD and M/M rates are highest in the Polissia region of Rivne and are among the highest in Europe. In Polissia, the WBCs of Cs-137 are above officially set permissible upper limits. The results are based on aggregate data of NTDs and M/Ms and average WBC values. Further investigations of causality of the high rates of NTDs and M/Ms are needed and urgent strengthening policies and implementations to reduce exposures to teratogens, in particular radioactive nuclides and alcohol, and consumption of folic acid supplements are indicated. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Analysis of resusupention of Cs-137 in Fukushima with box model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuta; Hatano, Yuko; Kita, Kazuyuki; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Kajino, Mizuo; Ishizuka, Masahide

    2017-04-01

    We use the atmospheric concentration of Cs-137 measured continuously at Namie, Fukushima and compare the observational results with a two-box model. Resuspension, deposition and the vertical diffusion are considered in the model. The values of five parameters in the model are estimated by the fitting of the data, such as the resuspension rate, the dry/wet deposition rate, and the exchange rate between the mixed layer and the higher atmosphere.

  5. 137Cs off Fukushima Dai-ichi, Japan – model based estimates of dilution and fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kriest

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of an earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011 radioactive 137Cs was discharged from a damaged nuclear power plant to the sea off Fukushima Dai-ichi, Japan. Here we explore its dilution and fate with a state-of-the-art global ocean general circulation model, which is eddy-resolving in the region of interest. We find apparent consistency between our simulated circulation, estimates of 137Cs discharged ranging from 0.94 p Bq (Japanese Government, 2011 to 3.5 ± 0.7 p Bq (Tsumune et al., 2012, and measurements by Japanese authorities and the power plant operator. In contrast, our simulations are apparently inconsistent with the high 27 ± 15 p Bq discharge estimate of Bailly du Bois et al. (2012. Expressed in terms of a diffusivity we diagnose, from our simulations, an initial dilution on the shelf of 60 to 100 m2 s−1. The cross-shelf diffusivity is at 500 ± 300 m2 s−1 significantly higher and variable in time as indicated by its uncertainty. Expressed as an effective residence time of surface water on the shelf, the latter estimate transfers to 43 ± 16 days. As regards the fate of 137Cs, our simulations suggest that activities up to 4 mBq l−1 prevail in the Kuroshio-Oyashio Interfrontal Zone one year after the accident. This allows for low but detectable 0.1 to 0.3 m Bq l−1 entering the North Pacific Intermediate Water before the 137Cs signal is flushed away. The latter estimates concern the direct release to the sea only.

  6. Decision support for the selection of reference sites using 137Cs as a soil erosion tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Bürge, Alexandra; Zehringer, Markus; Ketterer, Michael E.; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2017-08-01

    The classical approach of using 137Cs as a soil erosion tracer is based on the comparison between stable reference sites and sites affected by soil redistribution processes; it enables the derivation of soil erosion and deposition rates. The method is associated with potentially large sources of uncertainty with major parts of this uncertainty being associated with the selection of the reference sites. We propose a decision support tool to Check the Suitability of reference Sites (CheSS). Commonly, the variation among 137Cs inventories of spatial replicate reference samples is taken as the sole criterion to decide on the suitability of a reference inventory. Here we propose an extension of this procedure using a repeated sampling approach, in which the reference sites are resampled after a certain time period. Suitable reference sites are expected to present no significant temporal variation in their decay-corrected 137Cs depth profiles. Possible causes of variation are assessed by a decision tree. More specifically, the decision tree tests for (i) uncertainty connected to small-scale variability in 137Cs due to its heterogeneous initial fallout (such as in areas affected by the Chernobyl fallout), (ii) signs of erosion or deposition processes and (iii) artefacts due to the collection, preparation and measurement of the samples; (iv) finally, if none of the above can be assigned, this variation might be attributed to turbation processes (e.g. bioturbation, cryoturbation and mechanical turbation, such as avalanches or rockfalls). CheSS was exemplarily applied in one Swiss alpine valley where the apparent temporal variability called into question the suitability of the selected reference sites. In general we suggest the application of CheSS as a first step towards a comprehensible approach to test for the suitability of reference sites.

  7. (137)Cs contamination over Transylvania region (Romania) after Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begy, R Cs; Simon, H; Vasilache, D; Kelemen, Sz; Cosma, C

    2017-12-01

    Following the radionuclide releases due to Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, various studies were completed by researchers all over the world in order to measure the surface contaminations by artificial radionuclides. The aim of this study was to evaluate (137)Cs surface contamination and to create an inventory distribution for Transylvania region (Romania) after the Chernobyl event using γ spectrometric measurements on soil samples collected from 153 locations. The results were compared to measured data from the Danube Delta and Moldova Republic, as well as to (137)Cs concentrations from the rest of Europe reported by literature. The (137)Cs surface concentrations in soil samples ranged between 0.4±0.1kBqm(-2) and 301.1±3.0kBqm(-2), having an average of 8.3±0.2kBqm(-2), with more elevated values in the mountain areas (18.3±0.6kBqm(-2)) compared to the hills and plains (2.6±0.1kBqm(-2)). Taking into consideration the cardinal regions, the northern and western regions received the least amount of (137)Cs (2.9±0.1kBqm(-2)), while the southern part received 16.3±0.6kBqm(-2). Sampling points with eastern slope exposure received the highest average (27.8±0.5kBqm(-2)), while southern, north-western and north-eastern ones received less than 8kBqm(-2). Two hotspots are reported at Iezer-Ighiel (72.7±5.9kBqm(-2)) and Tulgheș areas (51.5±0.6kBqm(-2)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The inhibitory effects of potassium chloride versus potassium silicate application on (137)Cs uptake by rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ota, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Makoto; Satou, Mutsuto

    2016-03-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company on 11 March 2011, potassium fertilizer was applied to agricultural fields in the southern Tohoku and northern Kanto regions of Japan to reduce the uptake of radiocesium by crops. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of potassium fertilizers, potassium chloride (a readily available potassium fertilizer) and potassium silicate (a slow-release potassium fertilizer), as well as a split application of potassium, on the accumulation of (137)Cs by rice plants in two pot experiments. The (137)Cs concentrations in the brown rice and in the above-ground plants were significantly lower after potassium chloride application than after potassium silicate application. The potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations in soil solutions sampled 9 and 21 d after transplanting were significantly higher for the potassium chloride application than for the potassium silicate application. The K(+) concentrations in soil solutions observed in the application of potassium silicate were similar to those in the treatment when no potassium was applied. This finding indicates that the application of potassium silicate did not sufficiently increase the available K(+) for rice plants in the soil, which led to a greater uptake of (137)Cs after the potassium silicate application than after the application of potassium chloride. The (137)Cs concentration in brown rice was higher in the split application of potassium fertilizer with the second application at the full heading stage than that without split application and the split application with the second application before heading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Cesium-137

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    recovery is both time and budget sensitive, it is imperative that the community address these values, and have agreement, before a disaster strikes. A key...agreement, before a disaster strikes. Pre-event clearance level concurrence is key to a community’s resiliency and speedy recovery. As such, technical and...Goiania) and those containing 137Cs and other radionuclides ( Chernobyl ). Another group contains documents relevant to site survey 3 procedures

  10. [Improvement of gynecologic radium therapy through the afterloading method using cesium 137].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, D V; Senf, W; Kuttig, H; Kubli, F

    1976-03-01

    For all centers performing gynecological contact irradiation the use of afterloading techniques is urgently required, since they eliminate any radiation exposure to the personnel. The radio-therapist may position and control the empty applicators still free from radiation withoug haste. This procedure diminishes the occurrence of overdosages and underdosages. The care for the patients is possible without radiation exposure, and the morbidity of contact therapy can be reduced by occasional mobilization of the patient, the applicator without sources remaining at its place. The fully automatic apparatus "Curietron" using cesium-137 sources (0.662 MeV gamma emission, half-life period 26.6 years) with an equivalent source activity (factor 2.6) yields the dose distribution demanded in the gynecologic field which in practice is identical to that of Ra-226 (medium gamma emission 1 MeV, half-life period 1620 years). With similar dose distribution, a biological and therapeutical effect alike to Ra-226 may be expected from Cs-137. In comparison with Ra-226, the following advantages of Cs-137 may be mentioned: Lower half-value thickness of 5.5 mm lead (low expenses for radioprotection), less danger with handling (no emanation of radioactive gases), and lower contamination risks in case of breaking. The measured dose distributions at equivalent source activity and similar geometry of the applicators revealed the possibility with regard of all techniques of gynecologic irradiation utilized in our field of arriving at similar relative and absolute dose distributions by means of the Cs-137 afterloading technique. Whilst short-term afterloading irradiation with highly active sources, their radiobiological effectiveness being not yet ascertained, has to be tested at appropriate scientific centers, it is necessary to demand afterloading techniques with dosages and duration of irradiations approved over decades for all centers of gynecological contact therapy because of radiation

  11. Characterizing land surface erosion from cesium-137 profiles in lake and reservoir sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinbao; Walling, Desmond E

    2005-01-01

    Recognition of the threat to the sustainable use of the earth's resources posed by soil erosion and associated off-site sedimentation has generated an increasing need for reliable information on global rates of soil loss. Existing methods of assessing rates of soil loss across large areas possess many limitations and there is a need to explore alternative approaches to characterizing land surface erosion at the regional and global scale. The downcore profiles of 137Cs activity available for numerous lakes and reservoirs located in different areas of the world can be used to provide information on land surface erosion within the upstream catchments. The rate of decline of 137Cs activity toward the surface of the sediment deposited in a lake or reservoir can be used to estimate the rate of surface lowering associated with eroding areas within the upstream catchment, and the concentration of 137Cs in recently deposited sediment provides a basis for estimating the relative importance of surface and channel, gully, and/or subsurface erosion as a source of the deposited sediment. The approach has been tested using 137Cs data from several lakes and reservoirs in southern England and China, spanning a wide range of specific suspended sediment yield. The results obtained are consistent with other independent evidence of erosion rates and sediment sources within the lake and reservoir catchments and confirm the validity of the overall approach. The approach appears to offer valuable potential for characterizing land surface erosion, particularly in terms of its ability to provide information on the rate of surface lowering associated with the eroding areas, rather than an average rate of lowering for the entire catchment surface.

  12. Evidence of the evolved nature of the B[e] star MWC 137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratore, M. F.; Arias, M. L.; Cidale, L. [Departamento de Espectroscopía Estelar, Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, and Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata, CCT La Plata, CONICET-UNLP, Paseo del Bosque S/N, B1900FWA, La Plata (Argentina); Kraus, M.; Oksala, M. E. [Astronomický ústav, Akademie věd České Republiky, Fričova 298, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Fernandes, M. Borges [Observatório Nacional, Rua General José Cristino 77, 20921-400 São Cristovão, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Liermann, A., E-mail: fmuratore@carina.fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary phase of B[e] stars is difficult to establish due to the uncertainties in their fundamental parameters. For instance, possible classifications for the Galactic B[e] star MWC 137 include pre-main-sequence and post-main-sequence phases, with a large range in luminosity. Our goal is to clarify the evolutionary stage of this peculiar object, and to study the CO molecular component of its circumstellar medium. To this purpose, we modeled the CO molecular bands using high-resolution K-band spectra. We find that MWC 137 is surrounded by a detached cool (T=1900±100 K) and dense (N=(3±1)×10{sup 21} cm{sup −2}) ring of CO gas orbiting the star with a rotational velocity, projected to the line of sight, of 84 ± 2 km s{sup −1}. We also find that the molecular gas is enriched in the isotope {sup 13}C, excluding the classification of the star as a Herbig Be. The observed isotopic abundance ratio ({sup 12}C/{sup 13}C = 25 ± 2) derived from our modeling is compatible with a proto-planetary nebula, main-sequence, or supergiant evolutionary phase. However, based on some observable characteristics of MWC 137, we propose that the supergiant scenario seems to be the most plausible. Hence, we suggest that MWC 137 could be in an extremely short-lived phase, evolving from a B[e] supergiant to a blue supergiant with a bipolar ring nebula.

  13. 42 CFR 137.211 - How does a Self-Governance Tribe learn whether self-governance activities have resulted in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does a Self-Governance Tribe learn whether self-governance activities have resulted in savings as described in § 137.210. 137.211 Section 137.211 Public... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Savings § 137.211 How does...

  14. Modeling {sup 137}Cs bioaccumulation in the salmon–resident killer whale food web of the Northeastern Pacific following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alava, Juan José, E-mail: jalavasa@sfu.ca; Gobas, Frank A.P.C.

    2016-02-15

    To track the long term bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs in marine organisms off the Pacific Northwest coast of Canada, we developed a time dependent bioaccumulation model for {sup 137}Cs in a marine mammalian food web that included fish-eating resident killer whales. The model outcomes show that {sup 137}Cs can be expected to gradually bioaccumulate in the food web over time as demonstrated by the increase of the apparent trophic magnification factor of {sup 137}Cs, ranging from 0.76 after 1 month of exposure to 2.0 following 30 years of exposure. {sup 137}Cs bioaccumulation is driven by relatively rapid dietary uptake rates, moderate depuration rates in lower trophic level organisms and slow elimination rates in high trophic level organisms. Model estimates of the {sup 137}Cs activity in species of the food web, based on current measurements and forecasts of {sup 137}Cs activities in oceanic waters and sediments off the Canadian Pacific Northwest, indicate that the long term {sup 137}Cs activities in fish species including Pacific herring, wild Pacific salmon, sablefish and halibut will remain well below the current {sup 137}Cs-Canada Action Level for consumption (1000 Bq/kg) following a nuclear emergency. Killer whales and Pacific salmon are expected to exhibit the largest long term {sup 137}Cs activities and may be good sentinels for monitoring {sup 137}Cs in the region. Assessment of the long term consequences of {sup 137}Cs releases from the Fukushima aftermath should consider the extent of ecological magnification in addition to ocean dilution. - Highlights: • A food web bioaccumulation model to assess the biomagnification of {sup 137}Cs is developed. • Cesium 137 exhibits bioaccumulation over time as simulated by the model. • Predicted activities in marine biota are below {sup 137}Cs-food consumption benchmarks. • Long-term monitoring of {sup 137}Cs in the ocean will improve the model predictions.

  15. Pu-239+240 and Cs-137 in Montenegro soil: their correlation and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antovic, Nevenka M; Vukotic, Perko; Svrkota, Nikola; Andrukhovich, Sergey K

    2012-08-01

    The (239+240)Pu activity concentrations in soil from Montenegro (six samples from three localities) have been measured for the first time. The alpha and gamma-spectrometric measurements are used to determine the (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratio, and it was found to be with an average of 0.02 and standard deviation of 0.007. This average activity ratio was applied to estimate (239+240)Pu in soil samples from the other 21 localities at which (137)Cs activity concentrations were measured. In this research obtained (either experimentally or estimated) (239+240)Pu activity concentrations (0.036-8.265 Bq kg(-1)) are comparable with those measured in some other European countries. On the basis of the results obtained in the present study and a survey of relevant literature, it is possible to conclude that Chernobyl contribution to (137)Cs contamination of Montenegro soils is dominant, whilst Pu contamination comes from the global fallout of nuclear weapon tests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Concentration of fallout Cesium-137 in soils of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, F.C.A.; Lauria, D.C.; Silva, J.I.R., E-mail: fribeiro@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, E.S.A.; Amaral Sobrinho, N.M.B. do [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Perez, D.V. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (CNPS/EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of fallout {sup 137}Cs in soil samples of the Rio de Janeiro State was investigated. Two-hundred sixty-two samples of soil were analyzed for {sup 137}Cs by gamma spectrometry. A reference data set was built containing thirty-six detected values (14%) and two hundred twenty-six (86%) multiple detection limits of non-detected observations. Distribution pattern of the radionuclide, as well their controlling factors were evaluated based on statistical methods for censored data set (with non-detected observations). The mean of concentration values of thirty-six detected observations was 1.25 Bq.kg{sup -1}, while for the censored data sets the mean value was 0.51 Bq.kg{sup -1}. The references values for the Rio de Janeiro State were estimated as 1.44 Bq.kg{sup -1} (75{sup th}) and 1.78 Bq.kg{sup -1} (90{sup th}) (considering the year of 2015). {sup 137}Cs concentrations tend to be higher in soils with high levels of organic matter and clay and locations with high levels of these parameters would provide higher Cs fixation. No influence of the rainfall index and soil pH on the Cs content in soil was observed. The data and information gathered in this study provide valuable information for decision making purposes in case of soil contamination. (author)

  17. Transmutation of ABO4 compounds incorporating technetium-99 and caesium-137

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, E. Y.; Qin, M. J.; Thorogood, G. J.; Huai, P.; Ren, C. L.; Lumpkin, G. R.; Middleburgh, S. C.

    2017-02-01

    The stability of a series of {AB}{{{O}}}4 minerals incorporating radioactive {}99{Tc} during the latter’s β-decay to {}99{Ru} was investigated theoretically using density functional theory (DFT) computations. The compounds investigated were {{KTcO}}4, {{RbTcO}}4 and {{CsTcO}}4. The stability of the latter, {{CsTcO}}4, during transmutation, when the caesium consists of the radioactive isotope {}137{Cs}, was also investigated. For each of the compounds, two similar possible crystal structure types—scheelite and pseudoscheelite—were considered. As the {}99{Tc} decays, or the {}137{Cs} decays to {}137{Ba}, reaction enthalpies were calculated for possible decompositions or precipitations of the transmuting compounds. All the possible decompositions or precipitations investigated had positive reaction enthalpies, suggesting that the transmuting compounds are all chemically stable. Volume and lattice parameter changes, however, suggest that {{KTcO}}4 would also be structurally stable during transmutation to {{KRuO}}4, but that {{CsTcO}}4 would not be structurally stable during its transmutation to {{BaRuO}}4.

  18. Biosorption of Am-241 and Cs-137 by radioactive liquid waste by coffee husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Sakata, Solange Kazumi; Bellini, Maria Helena; Marumo, Julio Takehiro, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radioactive Waste Management Laboratory of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, has stored many types of radioactive liquid wastes, including liquid scintillators, mixed wastes from chemical analysis and spent decontamination solutions. These wastes need special attention, because the available treatment processes are often expensive and difficult to manage. Biosorption using biomass of vegetable using agricultural waste has become a very attractive technique because it involves the removal of heavy metals ions by low cost biossorbents. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of the coffee husk to remove Am-241 and Cs-137 from radioactive liquid waste. The coffee husk was tested in two forms, treated and untreated. The chemical treatment of the coffee husk was performed with HNO{sub 3} and NaOH diluted solutions. The results showed that the coffee husk did not showed significant differences in behavior and capacity for biosorption for Am-241 and Cs-137 over time. Coffee husk showed low biosorption capacity for Cs-137, removing only 7.2 {+-} 1.0% in 4 hours of contact time. For Am-241, the maximum biosorption was 57,5 {+-} 0.6% in 1 hours. These results suggest that coffee husk in untreated form can be used in the treatment of radioactive waste liquid containing Am-241. (author)

  19. Accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in trefoil (leaf and stem), ``Mitsuba``, Cryptotaenia japonica Hassk, immersed in hydroponic culture medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motegi, Misako; Miyake, Sadaaki; Ohsawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki [Saitama Institute of Public Health, Urawa (Japan); Izumo, Yoshiro

    1998-11-01

    Accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in trefoil (leaf and stem), ``Mitsuba``, Cryptotaenia japonica Hassk, with or without root was investigated to prepare higher radioactive plant in hydroponic culture medium (140-150 Bq/ml). It was found that {sup 137}Cs concentration in plant tissue was increased with time, as high as 1.6 times of that in the culture medium after 4 days. On the other hand, {sup 137}Cs concentration was affected by carrier element (Cs>6 ppm) and coexistent elements in the medium. Radioactivity of the plant after 4 days was shown to be sufficient for successive experiments. (author)

  20. 42 CFR 137.379 - Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? 137.379 Section 137.379 Public Health... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Other § 137.379 Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? Davis-Bacon Act...

  1. 42 CFR 137.78 - May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding agreement for a term longer or shorter than one...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding agreement for a term longer or shorter than one year? 137.78 Section 137.78 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding General § 137.78 May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding...

  2. 42 CFR 137.167 - What cost principles must a Self-Governance Tribe follow when participating in self-governance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What cost principles must a Self-Governance Tribe follow when participating in self-governance under Title V? 137.167 Section 137.167 Public Health PUBLIC... HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Audits and Cost Principles § 137.167 What...

  3. 42 CFR 137.65 - May a Self-Governance Tribe receive statutorily mandated grant funding in an annual lump sum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe receive statutorily mandated grant funding in an annual lump sum advance payment? 137.65 Section 137.65 Public Health PUBLIC... HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Statutorily Mandated Grants § 137.65 May a Self-Governance Tribe...

  4. 42 CFR 137.18 - What criteria must an Indian Tribe satisfy to be eligible to participate in self-governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... eligible to participate in self-governance? 137.18 Section 137.18 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... SELF-GOVERNANCE Selection of Indian Tribes for Participation in Self-Governance § 137.18 What criteria must an Indian Tribe satisfy to be eligible to participate in self-governance? To be eligible to...

  5. Germline mutations in people descendants occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation from Cesium 137; Mutacoes germinativas na prole de pessoas expostas ocupacionalmente a radiacao ionizante de Cesio 137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Juliana Ferreira da

    2016-07-01

    The radiological accident in Goiania in 1987, resulted in a serious episode of human contamination, animal, plant and environmental were exposed to Cesium 137 chloride ({sup 137}CsCl) that caused contamination and accidental and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is one of the environmental components that causes most cellular stress in complex organisms. Exposure to ionizing radiation induces breaks in nucleic acids, especially, DNA double and single strand breaks. Chromosomal microarray analysis is an important tool for the detection and microdeletion and microduplications in the genomes. In this study we proposed to analyze the effect of exposure to RI on the formation of CNVs in an exposed human population occupationally to ionizing radiation from Cesium 137 during the accident in Goiania. The exposed group consisted of 07 families, of which at least one parent was occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation from Cesium 137, including a total of 25 individuals, do not know the absorbed dose of the military who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. 11 families with a group of individuals not exposed to IR was used as control were used including a total of 33 individuals with no history of exposure to RI. The genotyping microarray was conducted in CytoScan HD system (Affymetrix®) without then analyzes was performed in ChAS® software. The statistical tests used were: Shapiro-Wilk, Mann- Whitney U, Spearman correlation, discriminant function analysis, binomial test, χ{sup 2} test. All analyzes were performed using the statistical package SPSS 21.0, with a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). The frequency of CNVs were estimated loss / generation, gain / generation and burden / generation, representing 3,9 x 10{sup -5}, 6,8 x 10{sup -6} and 4,6 x 10{sup -5} respectively for the exposed group. For the control group, the frequencies were 2,1 x 10{sup -5}, 5,9 x 10{sup -6} and 3,1 x 10{sup -5} respectively. Thus, the

  6. Dermatological consequences of the Cs-137 radiological accident in Goiania, Goias State, Brazil; Repercussoes dermatologicas no acidente radioativo com o Cesio 137 em Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Lia Candida Miranda de

    1996-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyse the occurrence of dermatosis in individuals that had been exposed to cesium{sup 137} during the radioactive accident in Goiania, in 1987 and detect pre-cancerous dermatosis or those predictive of low immunity. The groups were evaluated according to the intensity of radiation they had been exposed to and then compared to a control group of people not exposed to radiation. The population exposed to the cesium{sup 137} was comprised of 109 people, who were divided into Groups I and II, according to the CNEN norms. In group I, 54 people with {<=} 20 rads exposure and/or radio lesion were included; in group II, 55 people with > 20 rads exposure were included, along with the children of group I individuals. This was a historic cohort study, that is, a retrospective study that lasted 9 years, extending from September of 1987 to August, 1996. The presence of the oncoprotein p-53 was studied in the radio lesions of 10 patients. There is no evidence of an increase in the incidence of dermatosis in the exposed groups, excepts for pyoderma in patients with radio lesions. The most frequent dermatosis were: pyoderma, pityriasis versicolor, scabies, dermatophytosis and seborrhoeic dermatitis. The results obtained were not statistically significant for the evaluation of dermatosis predictive of low immunity or precancerous lesions. The oncoprotein p-53 in individuals with radio lesion showed a 80% positivity rate and risk factor estimated in 8 times, for the test. It has proved to be useful because it represents one more option in terms of propaedeutic evaluation and suggests that one should pay close and continuous attention in order to better control the evolution of these individuals. (author)

  7. Polonium-210 and Caesium-137 in lynx (Lynx lynx), wolverine (Gulo gulo) and wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjelsvik, Runhild; Holm, Elis; Kålås, John Atle; Persson, Bertil; Asbrink, Jessica

    2014-12-01

    Wolves, lynx and wolverines are on the top of the food-chain in northern Scandinavia and Finland. (210)Po and (137)Cs have been analysed in samples of liver, kidney and muscle from 28 wolves from Sweden. In addition blood samples were taken from 27 wolves. In 9 of the wolves, samples of muscle, liver and blood were analysed for (210)Po. Samples of liver and muscle were collected from 16 lynx and 16 wolverines from Norway. The liver samples were analysed for (210)Po and (137)Cs. Only (137)Cs analyses were carried out for the muscle samples. The wolves were collected during the winter 2010 and 2011, while the samples for lynx and wolverines were all from 2011. The activity concentrations of (210)Po in wolves were higher for liver (range 20-523 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and kidney (range 24-942 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) than muscle (range 1-43 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and blood (range 2-54 Bq kg(-1) d.w.). Activity ratios, (210)Po/(210)Pb, in wolf samples of muscle, liver and blood were in the ranges 2-77, 9-56 and 2-54. Using a wet weight ratio of 3.8 the maximal absorbed dose from (210)Po to wolf liver was estimated to 3500 μGy per year. Compared to wolf, the ranges of (210)Po in liver samples were lower in lynx (range 22-211 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and wolverine (range16-160 Bq kg(-1) d.w.). Concentration of (137)Cs in wolf samples of muscle, liver, kidney and blood were in the ranges 70-8410 Bq kg(-1) d.w., 36-4050 Bq kg(-1) d.w., 31-3453 Bq kg(-1) d.w. and 4-959 Bq kg(-1) d.w., respectively. (137)Cs in lynx muscle and liver samples were in the ranges 44-13393 Bq kg(-1) d.w. and 125-10260 Bq kg(-1) d.w. The corresponding values for (137)Cs in wolverine were 22-3405 Bq kg(-1) d.w. for liver and 53-4780 Bq kg(-1) d.w. for muscle. The maximal absorbed dose from (137)Cs to lynx was estimated to 3000 μGy per year. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimation of Radiation Doses in the Marshall Islands Based on Whole Body Counting of Cesium-137 (137Cs) and Plutonium Urinalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J; Hickman, D; Kehl, S; Hamilton, T

    2007-06-11

    Under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE), researchers from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have recently implemented a series of initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former nuclear test sites in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). The aim of this radiological surveillance monitoring program (RSMP) is to provide timely radiation protection for individuals in the Marshall Islands with respect to two of the most important internally deposited fallout radionuclides-cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and long-lived isotopes 239 and 240 of plutonium ({sup 239+240}Pu) (Robison et al., 1997 and references therein). Therefore, whole-body counting for {sup 137}Cs and a sensitive bioassay for the presence of {sup 239+240}Pu excreted in urine were adopted as the two most applicable in vivo analytical methods to assess radiation doses for individuals in the RMI from internally deposited fallout radionuclides (see Hamilton et al., 2006a-c; Bell et al., 2002). Through 2005, the USDOE has established three permanent whole-body counting facilities in the Marshall Islands: the Enewetak Radiological Laboratory on Enewetak Atoll, the Utrok Whole-Body Counting Facility on Majuro Atoll, and the Rongelap Whole-Body Counting Facility on Rongelap Atoll. These whole-body counting facilities are operated and maintained by trained Marshallese technicians. Scientists from LLNL provide the technical support and training necessary for maintaining quality assurance for data acquisition and dose reporting. This technical basis document summarizes the methodologies used to calculate the annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE; or dose for the calendar year of measurement) based on whole-body counting of internally deposited {sup 137}Cs and the measurement of {sup 239+240}Pu excreted in urine. Whole-body counting provides a direct measure of the total amount (or burden) of {sup 137}Cs present in the human body at the time of

  9. [The intensity of cesium-137 elimination in victims of the Chernobyl catastrophe at the balneology health resort of Truskavets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetsenko, H I; Beĭda, P A; Sov'iak, S Ia; Mits, L S; Pikush, V M; Koval's'kyĭ, S V; Snaĭchuk, B O

    1997-01-01

    A clinical study was made of rate of elimination of radiocaesium in 137 adult subjects and 4700 children residing in the territory affected by radioactive contamination caused by the Chernobyl accident, undergoing rehabilitative treatment at the Truskavets health resort. A complex of therapeutic measures involving the use of the mineral water "Naftusia" containing few mineral substances, and, in addition, enterosorbents (Silard-P, Enterosgel, Ferrocin), the concentrated product "Vin-Vita" were associated with moderate stimulation of elimination of 137Cs from the organism. Supplementary ferrocin over six days had the best effect in the above series, with the activity of radiocaesium having been decreased by 40% whereas a complex of therapeutic measures over 20 days with no such supplement led to 17% reduction in 137Cs. It is suggested that ferrocin be included into the complex of therapeutic measures designed to eliminate 137Cs from the organism.

  10. Depth and Areal Distribution of Cs-137 in the Soil of a Small Water Catchment in the Sopron Mountains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ervin Kiss; Péter Volford

    2013-01-01

    The study presents the depth and areal distribution of Cs-137 activity concentration in the forest soils of Farkas Trench, a small water catchment in the Sopron Mountains, in 2001 and 2010, moreover...

  11. Ocean dynamic processes causing spatially heterogeneous distribution of sedimentary caesium-137 massively released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, H.; Morino, Y.; Furuichi, N.; Ohara, T.

    2015-12-01

    Massive amounts of anthropogenic radiocaesium 137Cs that were released into the environment by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011 are widely known to have extensively migrated to Pacific Ocean sediment off of eastern Japan. Several recent reports have stated that the sedimentary 137Cs is now stable with a remarkably heterogeneous distribution. The present study elucidates ocean dynamic processes causing this heterogeneous sedimentary 137Cs distribution in and around the shelf off Fukushima and adjacent prefectures. We performed a numerical simulation of oceanic 137Cs behaviour for about 10 months after the accident, using a comprehensive dynamic model involving advection-diffusion transport in seawater, adsorption and desorption to and from particulate matter, sedimentation and suspension on and from the bottom, and vertical diffusion transport in the sediment. A notable simulated result was that the sedimentary 137Cs significantly accumulated in a swath just offshore of the shelf break (along the 50-100 m isobath) as in recent observations, although the seabed in the entire simulation domain was assumed to have ideal properties such as identical bulk density, uniform porosity, and aggregation of particles with a single grain diameter. This result indicated that the heterogeneous sedimentary 137Cs distribution was not necessarily a result of the spatial distribution of 137Cs sediment adsorptivity. The present simulation suggests that the shape of the swath is mainly associated with spatiotemporal variation between bottom shear stress in the shallow shelf (< 50 m depths) and that offshore of the shelf break. In a large part of the shallow shelf, the simulation indicated that strong bottom friction suspending particulate matter from the seabed frequently occurred via a periodic spring tide about every 2 weeks and via occasional strong wind. The sedimentary 137Cs thereby could hardly stay on the surface of the seabed with the result that

  12. Potassium fertilization and (137)Cs transfer from soil to grass and barley in Sweden after the Chernobyl fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, K; Vinichuk, M

    2014-04-01

    Fertilization of soils contaminated by radionuclides with potassium (K) and its effect on (137)Cs transfer from soil to crops is well studied in field conditions; however experiments over many years are few. The effects of potassium fertilization on cesium-137 ((137)Cs) transfer to hay, pasture grass, and barley growing on organic rich soils and mineral sand and loam soils in a number of field experimental sites situated in different environments in Sweden are summarized and discussed. The basic experimental treatments were control (no K fertilizers were applied), 50, 100, and 200 kg K ha(-1). In the experiment, which lasted over 3-6 years, (137)Cs transfer factors in control treatments ranged between 0.0004 m(2) kg(-1) (barley grain on sand soil) and 0.07 m(2) kg(-1) (pasture grass on organic rich soil). Potassium application on soils with low clay content i.e. mineral sand and organic rich soils was effective at the 50-100 kg ha(-1) level. Application of 200 kg K ha(-1) resulted in a five-fold reduction in (137)Cs transfer for hay and up to four-fold for barley grain. The effects of potassium application were generally greater on sand than organic rich soil and were observed already in the first cut. After K application, the reduction in (137)Cs transfer to crops was correlated with (137)Cs:K ratios in plant material. Additional application of zeolite caused a 1.4 reduction of (137)Cs transfer to hay on sand and 1.8-fold reduction on organic rich soil; whereas, application of potash-magnesia and CaO had no effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Condition of 137Cs Activity in Karimunjawa Waters and its Distribution When an NPP Jepara is Operated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim Muslim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Karimunjawa islands are located in the middle of the Java Sea, approximately 83 km northwest of Jepara city. These islands have become an Indonesian marine tourism destination and since 2001 had been designated as a national park. The Indonesian government has chosen Muria peninsula in the district of Jepara, Indonesia as a site for a potential nuclear power plant (NPP. The purpose of this study was to determine the current level of radiocesium (137Cs activity and forecast its spread if an NPP is operated at Jepara. To determine the distribution of 137Cs in Karimunjawa waters, a sampling of water was done in six stations. Simulation modeling was used to map the distribution of 137Cs should an NPP be constructed in Jepara. The results showed that 137Cs activity in Karimunjawa waters ranges from 0.12 to 0.39 mBq.L-1 with an average of 0.24 mBq.L-1. This value is slightly higher than previous studies in the coastal waters of Gresik, which had an average activity of 0.200 mBq.L-1 because the waters around Karimunjawa have a lower dilution rate than the coastal waters of Gresik. However, these values were considerably lower than those in the waters of Northeast Japan before the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident which registered 137Cs activity at 2-3 mBq.L-1.This indicates that 137Cs in Karimunjawa is not entirely from Fukushima rather from the global fallout. The 137Cs distribution model suggests that after 15 days, a leakage in the Muria Peninsula nuclear plant will not contaminate Karimunjawa waters because the current in the Java Sea is relatively weak and dominant in the westward direction. Thus, when an NPP leak only runs for 15 days, Karimunjawa waters remain safe. Keyword: 137Cs, Karimunjawa, NPP, modeling, Muria Peninsula

  14. Influence of soil types and osmotic pressure on growth and 137Cs accumulation in blackgram (Vigna mungo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Khin Thuzar; Oo, Aung Zaw; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

    2017-04-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of soil types and osmotic levels on growth and 137Cs accumulation in two blackgram varieties differing in salinity tolerance grown in Fukushima contaminated soils. The contamination levels of the sandy clay loam and clay soil were 1084 and 2046 Bq kg-1 DW, respectively. The 137Cs activity was higher in both plants grown on the sandy clay loam than on the clay soil regardless of soil 137Cs activity concentration. No significant differences were observed in all measured growth parameters between the two varieties under optimal water conditions for both types of soil. However, the growth, leaf water contents and 137Cs activity concentrations in both plants were lower in both soil types when there was water stress induced by addition of polyethylene glycol. Water stress-induced reduction in total leaf area and total biomass, in addition to leaf relative water content, were higher in salt sensitive 'Mut Pe Khaing To' than in salt tolerant 'U-Taung-2' plants for both soil types. Varietal difference in decreased 137Cs uptake under water stress was statically significant in the sandy clay loam soil, however, it was not in the clay soil. The transfer of 137Cs from soil to plants (i.e., root, stem and leaf) was higher for the sandy clay loam for both plants when compared with those of the clay soil. The decreased activity of 137Cs in the above ground samples (leaf and stem) in both plants in response to osmotic stress suggested that plant available 137Cs decreased when soil water is limited by osmotic stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. APPLICATION OF BAYESIAN AND GEOSTATISTICAL MODELING TO THE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF CS-137 AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kara G. Eby

    2010-08-01

    At the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Cs-137 concentrations above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency risk-based threshold of 0.23 pCi/g may increase the risk of human mortality due to cancer. As a leader in nuclear research, the INL has been conducting nuclear activities for decades. Elevated anthropogenic radionuclide levels including Cs-137 are a result of atmospheric weapons testing, the Chernobyl accident, and nuclear activities occurring at the INL site. Therefore environmental monitoring and long-term surveillance of Cs-137 is required to evaluate risk. However, due to the large land area involved, frequent and comprehensive monitoring is limited. Developing a spatial model that predicts Cs-137 concentrations at unsampled locations will enhance the spatial characterization of Cs-137 in surface soils, provide guidance for an efficient monitoring program, and pinpoint areas requiring mitigation strategies. The predictive model presented herein is based on applied geostatistics using a Bayesian analysis of environmental characteristics across the INL site, which provides kriging spatial maps of both Cs-137 estimates and prediction errors. Comparisons are presented of two different kriging methods, showing that the use of secondary information (i.e., environmental characteristics) can provide improved prediction performance in some areas of the INL site.

  16. Transfer factors of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from soil to the sweet potato collected in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.-J.; Wang, J.-J. E-mail: wang@mail.trmc.aec.gov.tw; Chiu, C.-Y.; Lai, S.-Y.; Lin, Y.-M

    1999-01-01

    The activity concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in sweet potatoes collected at eight locations in Taiwan were measured using radiochemical analysis and {gamma}-ray spectrometry. {sup 90}Sr is found to be more concentrated in leaves than in storage roots (the mean activity ratio of storage roots to leaves is 0.55), while {sup 137}Cs distributes homogeneously in both storage roots and leaves (the corresponding ratio for {sup 137}Cs is 0.94). The mean transfer factors of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from soil-to-storage roots are determined to be 0.55 and 0.095, respectively, while the mean transfer factors of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from soil to leaves are 1.38 and 0.105, respectively. The effective dose equivalent values due to the dietary intake of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs through sweet potato for the Taiwanese are estimated to be 9.38x10{sup -8} and 2.37x10{sup -8} Sv yr{sup -1}, respectively.

  17. {sup 137}Cs and 40K soil-to-plant relationship in a seminatural grassland of the Giulia Alps, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciuffo, L.E.C.; Belli, M.; Pasquale, A. [Agenzia Nazionale per la Protezione dell' Ambiente ANPA, Via Vitaliano Brancati 48, 00144 Roma (Italy); Menegon, S. [Ente Regionale Promozione e Sviluppo Agricoltura ERSA, Via Sabbatini, 5, Udine (Italy); Velasco, H.R. [Instituto de Matematica Aplicada San Luis (IMASL), Universidad Nacional de San Luis, CONICET, Ejercito de los Andes 950, 5700 San Luis (Argentina)

    2002-08-05

    To examine the soil-to-plant transfer of 137Cs and 40K, we performed a study based on sampling of natural soil and plants from an alpine pasture site situated in the Giulia Alps, Italy, during July 1997. High 137Cs activity was present in the upper most soil layer, and decreased one order of magnitude at a depth of 10 cm. An opposite gradient was observed for 40K. Simultaneous sampling of soil and plant material was performed in order to analyse transfer factor (TF) values. In spite of homogeneous 137Cs activities in soil, grass samples showed a high variability. A negative correlation was detected between 40K- and 137Cs-activities in plants. TF values for 137Cs were highly variable, thus suggesting that this parameter would be independent of 137Cs soil activity. Lower variability was observed for 40K TFs values. Our results suggest that TFs are highly variable parameters that appear to be independent on radionuclide soil activity. Because soil and plant characteristics strongly affect TF values, caution is necessary when TF values are used as the sole parameter to predict radionuclide uptake by plants in semi-natural ecosystems.

  18. Intraspecific variation in {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in sporocarps of Suillus variegatus in seven Swedish populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Anders [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Forest Mycology and Pathology Dept., Uppsala (Sweden); Nikolova, Ivanka; Johanson, K.-J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Radioecology Dept., Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-05-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, sporocarps of Suillus variegatus in Sweden showed a large amount of individual variation in concentration of {sup 137}Cs activity. Our aim was to determine the degrees to which this variability in sporocarp {sup 137}Cs levels could be explained by differences between (i) local populations, (ii) fungal genets and (iii) locations within genets. Five populations in a 100-yr-old Scots pine forest, located within a 1 km{sup 2} area, and two populations in Scots pine/Norway spruce forest, located 40 km north-west of Uppsala, were investigated. In total, 154 sporocarps were analysed to determine their {sup 137}Cs content. Of these, the genetic affiliations of 86 were successfully characterized using somatic incompatibility reactions. Twenty-six genets were found which, on average, consisted of 6.5 sporocarps. The genets averaged 7.5 m in size, measured as the length between the most distant sporocarps. The mean sporocarp {sup 137}Cs level was 67.1 {+-} 2.8 kBq kgsup(-1) D.W. (range between 13.6 and 182). According to analyses of variance, within-population variation accounted for 60% of the total variation in {sup 137}Cs levels, while 40% was ascribed to variation among populations. Within a population, {sup 137}Cs levels did not generally differ significantly between genets. Plausible reasons for intraspecific variation in radiocaesium content in sporocarps are discussed. (author).

  19. The usefulness of 137Cs as a tracer for soil erosion assessment: A critical reply to Parsons and Foster (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabit, L.; Meusburger, K.; Fulajtar, E.; Alewell, C.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of geoscientists worldwide from different disciplines have recognized and have adopted the 137Cs method as an effective tracer to assess soil erosion rates during the last decades. The recent review of Parsons and Foster (2011) challenged the usefulness of this radioisotopic method primarily by questioning the assumption of the representativeness of the reference inventory and its conservative behavior and the 137Cs data conversion into soil erosion rates. While there are many studies published on 137Cs method, Parsons and Foster (2011) have not evaluated the full range of the existing literature. We present additional highly relevant studies, assessing and applying the 137Cs method successfully. While we agree that the applicability of the 137Cs method to assess soil erosion magnitude needs careful planning as well as expert knowledge, we highlight in our reply that if the method is based on suitable and statistically sound sampling, 137Cs is a very effective soil tracer to assess soil erosion magnitude.

  20. Predictions of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs Concentrations in Rice Seeds and Chinese Cabbage after a Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lim, Kwang Muk; Hwang, Won Tae; Lee, Han Soo; Lee, Chang Woo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    A method of more realistically predicting radionuclide concentrations in crop plants varying with time after a nuclear accident was established to estimate 50 years' concentration of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in polished rice seeds and Chinese cabbage for unit dry deposition. After non-growing season accidents, concentrations of both nuclides decreased gradually with time and {sup 90}Sr concentrations were higher than those of {sup 137}Cs throughout the whole period. Radionuclide concentrations in the 1st year after growing season accidents were on the whole higher than those after non-growing season accidents by factors of up to 30 for {sup 90}Sr and up to 1,000 for {sup 137}Cs. In polished rice seeds, the 50 years-integrated concentration was higher for {sup 90}Sr than for {sup 137}Cs after non-growing season accidents, whereas the opposite was true after growing season accidents. In Chinese cabbage, however, it was higher for {sup 90}Sr than for {sup 137}Cs after both types of the accident. Generally speaking, the dominant pathway for the integrated concentration after the growing season accident was root uptake for {sup 90}Sr and direct plant contamination for {sup 137}Cs. The effect of resuspension was negligible. Based on the predicted results, the direction of planning countermeasures was suggested for various accident conditions.

  1. Aggregated Transfer Factors For Small Mammals Collected From the Exposed Sediments Of A 137 Cs Contaminated Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, Michael H.; Jannika, G. Timothy; Wike, Lynn D

    2005-10-04

    {sup 137}Cs transfer factors were computed for small mammals collected from the dried sediment areas of a partially drained, contaminated reservoir. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations were heterogeneous on small and large spatial scales, with a geometric mean of 253.1 Bq/kg dry weight. About 50% of the variance in cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus tissue {sup 137}Cs levels was explained by variation in soil {sup 137}Cs levels. Soil to animal transfer factors (whole body dry weight) averaged 6.0 for cotton rats and 1.2 for cotton mice Peromyscus gossypinus. These values are similar to {sup 137}Cs transfer factors for herbivorous, homeothermic animals from other contaminated ecosystems. Site-specific transfer factors can significantly affect the estimation of dose. In the RESRAD-BIOTA dose model, the default transfer factor for {sup 137}Cs in terrestrial animals is 110 resulting in an estimate of radiation dose to terrestrial biota that is 16 times more than the dose calculated with the actual measured transfer factor.

  2. Relationship between the {sup 137}Cs whole-body counting results and soil and food contamination in farms near Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Sato, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun [and others

    2000-01-01

    The authors measured the radioactivity in the soil and child food samples from farms near Mogilev (56--270 GBq km{sup {minus}2} {sup 137}Cs), Gomel (36--810 GBq km{sup {minus}2} {sup 137}Cs), and Klincy (59--270 GBq km{sup {minus}2} {sup 137}Cs), who had whole-body {sup 137}Cs counting results measured as part of a health examination in the Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project. Soil contamination on the family farm seems to be the main source of human contamination because most of the people in the area live on small farms and they and their domestic animals eat crops from the farms. A clear correlation was found between the children's whole-body {sup 137}Cs counting results and the radioactivity in their food (correlation coefficient: 0.76; confidence level of correlation: 3.2 x 10{sup {minus}9}). There were also significant correlations between the whole-body {sup 137}Cs counting results and both the radioactivity of the soil samples (correlation coefficient: 0.22; confidence level of correlation: 0.0107) and the average contamination level of their current residence (correlation coefficient: 0.20; confidence level of correlation: 0.0174).

  3. Effects of gamma radiation and temperature on the biological assimilation and retention of /sup 137/Cs by Acheta domesticus (L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hook, R.I. Jr.; Herbert, E.T.

    1971-12-01

    Cesium-137 retention was determined for brown crickets, Acheta domesticus, which had been irradiated with 0, 1000, 2500 and 5000 rad gamma radiation and maintained at 20, 25 and 30 degrees C. Parameters examined for temperature and dose effects were (1) per cent /sup 137/Cs assimilated into body tissues (p2), (2) rate of isotope passage through the gut (k1) and (3) rate of elimination of assimilated /sup 137/Cs (ks). Increases in temperature and gamma dose resulted in a general decrease in per cent /sup 137/Cs assimilated pe day (p2). The first-component elimination coefficient (k1) was not significantly affected (P less than or equal to 0.05) by either temperature or dose changes. Biological elimination coefficients for assimilated /sup 137/Cs (k2) increased with increasing temperature between doses of 0 and 2500 rad. Above 2500 rads however, increases in temperature had no noticeable effects on the rate of assimilated /sup 137/Cs excretion. At higher dose levels, radiation was the dominant factor influencing the parameter k2.

  4. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizae does not improve 137Cs uptake in crops grown in the Chernobyl region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinichuk, M; Mårtensson, A; Rosén, K

    2013-12-01

    Methods for cleaning up radioactive contaminated soils are urgently needed. In this study we investigated whether the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can improve (137)Cs uptake by crops. Barley, cucumber, perennial ryegrass, and sunflower were inoculated with AM fungi and grown in low-level radionuclide contaminated soils in a field experiment 70 km southwest of Chernobyl, Ukraine, during two successive years (2009-2010). Roots of barley, cucumber and sunflower plants were slightly or moderately infected with AM fungus and root infection frequency was negatively or non-correlated with (137)Cs uptake by plants. Roots of ryegrass were moderately infected with AM fungus and infection frequency was moderately correlated with (137)Cs uptake by ryegrass. The application of AM fungi to soil in situ did not enhance radionuclide plant uptake or biomass. The responsiveness of host plants and AM fungus combination to (137)Cs uptake varied depending on the soil, although mycorrhization of soil in the field was conditional and did not facilitate the uptake of radiocesium. The total amount of (137)Cs uptake by plants growing on inoculated soil was equal to amounts in plant cultivated on non-inoculated soil. Thus, the use of AM fungi in situ for bioremediation of soil contaminated with a low concentration of (137)Cs could not be recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The distribution of {sup 137}Cs, K, Rb and Cs in plants in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland in eastern central Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinichuk, M., E-mail: mykhailo.vinichuk@mark.slu.s [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Ecology, Zhytomyr State Technological University, 103 Chernyakhovsky Street, 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Johanson, K.J. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Rydin, H. [Department of Plant Ecology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 18D, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Rosen, K. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    We record the distribution of {sup 137}Cs, K, Rb and Cs within individual Sphagnum plants (down to 20 cm depth) as well as {sup 137}Cs in vascular plants growing on a peatland in eastern central Sweden. In Calluna vulgaris{sup 137}Cs was mainly located within the green parts, whereas Andromeda polifolia, Eriophorum vaginatum and Vaccinium oxycoccos showed higher {sup 137}Cs activity in roots. Carex rostrata and Menyanthes trifoliata showed variable distribution of {sup 137}Cs within the plants. The patterns of {sup 137}Cs activity concentration distribution as well as K, Rb and Cs concentrations within individual Sphagnum plants were rather similar and were usually highest in the capitula and/or in the subapical segments and lowest in the lower dead segments, which suggests continuous relocation of those elements to the actively growing apical part. The {sup 137}Cs and K showed relatively weak correlations, especially in capitula and living green segments (0-10 cm) of the plant (r = 0.50). The strongest correlations were revealed between {sup 137}Cs and Rb (r = 0.89), and between {sup 137}Cs and stable Cs (r = 0.84). This suggests similarities between {sup 137}Cs and Rb in uptake and relocation within the Sphagnum, but that {sup 137}Cs differs from K.

  6. The distribution of (137)Cs, K, Rb and Cs in plants in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland in eastern central Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinichuk, M; Johanson, K J; Rydin, H; Rosén, K

    2010-02-01

    We record the distribution of (137)Cs, K, Rb and Cs within individual Sphagnum plants (down to 20cm depth) as well as (137)Cs in vascular plants growing on a peatland in eastern central Sweden. In Calluna vulgaris(137)Cs was mainly located within the green parts, whereas Andromeda polifolia, Eriophorum vaginatum and Vaccinium oxycoccos showed higher (137)Cs activity in roots. Carex rostrata and Menyanthes trifoliata showed variable distribution of (137)Cs within the plants. The patterns of (137)Cs activity concentration distribution as well as K, Rb and Cs concentrations within individual Sphagnum plants were rather similar and were usually highest in the capitula and/or in the subapical segments and lowest in the lower dead segments, which suggests continuous relocation of those elements to the actively growing apical part. The (137)Cs and K showed relatively weak correlations, especially in capitula and living green segments (0-10cm) of the plant (r=0.50). The strongest correlations were revealed between (137)Cs and Rb (r=0.89), and between (137)Cs and stable Cs (r=0.84). This suggests similarities between (137)Cs and Rb in uptake and relocation within the Sphagnum, but that (137)Cs differs from K. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mobility of 137Cs in freshwater lakes: A mass balance and diffusion study of Lake St. Clair, Southeast Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinlong; Baskaran, Mark; Niedermiller, John

    2017-12-01

    Cesium-137 is one of the most widely utilized anthropogenic radionuclides, both as a tracer and chronometer in the environment. Its application as an effective chronometer requires a thorough understanding of its geochemical behavior in aqueous systems. In this study, we collected and analyzed a suite of time-series water samples over a period of 8 months (April - November 2015), for particulate and dissolved 137Cs activities from a watershed in southeast Michigan, USA, using Cu2Fe(CN)6-coated cartridges developed to pre-concentrate dissolved 137Cs. We also conducted a series of laboratory experiments with the natural freshwater sediment samples and water with different chemical composition. There were seasonal variations of both particulate and dissolved 137Cs activities in the watersheds of Lake St. Clair. The distribution coefficients of 137Cs determined over a period of 8 months varied between 0.14 × 105 and 6.1 × 105 mL g-1 (mean: 2.9 × 105 mL g-1). The annual input and export flux of total 137Cs activity via rivers into and out of Lake St. Clair were calculated to be 3.6 × 1010 Bq and 1.6 × 1010 Bq, respectively. The amount of 137Cs derived by diffusion from interstitial pore water to the water column was estimated to be 0.30 × 1010 Bq (8.3% of the total input flux) which is similar to the percentage of 137Cs desorption (13%-20%) from sediment placed in oxic soft water system over a period of 30-106 days. For the same concentrations of NH4+, Mn2+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+ and Sr2+ in a distilled water, our lab work showed that the sediment-sorbed 137Cs is displaced by ions in the order NH4+ > Mn2+ > K+ > Mg2+ ≈ Ca2+ > Na+ > Sr2+. In laboratory studies, 137Cs sorbed onto sediment was found to be less mobile in oxic soft water (Kd: 2.0 × 103 mL g-1) and more mobile in anoxic soft water (Kd: 0.2 × 103 mL g-1). In a hard water system, however, there is no significant difference in Kd values for both oxic and anoxic conditions. The sequence of Kd values is

  8. Cesium-137 as a tracer of soil turbation: example of the taiga landscapes of the Western Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usacheva, Anna A.; Semenkov, Ivan N. [The Organization of Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of geology of ore deposits, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry Russian Academy of Sciences, 119017, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Cesium-137 is artificial radionuclide with 30.17 years half-life. However, this element can be found anywhere due to global atmospheric fallout. Its background storage is detected in landscapes: water, bottom sediments, plants and soils. Almost no one has studied the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the landscapes of the North, because of its negligible storage. Cesium-137 is slightly mobile in the soils of the North. The cryogenic and other material movement is a typical feature of soils of the North. However, the dating of the soil turbations less than 100 years of age, using existing methods, is possible via long-term stationary observations. To determine the age of soil turbations quicker, one can use slightly mobile artificial radionuclides with medium or long half-life. Cesium-137 satisfies all the criteria. The aim of the work is to estimate suitable of cesium-137 as geo-tracer of soil turbation. According to our evaluation, the activity of the buried layers is less than 10 Bq*kg{sup -1} at the current {sup 137}Cs contamination of surface organic horizons (60-90 Bq*kg{sup -1}). A research has been conducted to study distribution of cesium-137 in the north and middle taiga landscapes of Western Siberia (Russia). Field research was carried out in 2012 in two study areas. The first study area 'Purpe' is located in the middle part of the Pur river basin, near Gubkinsky town (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). The second study area 'Noyabrsk' is located in the Ob and the Pur river watersheds, near Noyabrsk-city (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). Moss-grass-underwood layer (n=13) contains 22±20% of {sup 137}Cs total storage in the landscapes of oligo-trophic bogs with cryohistosols and pine forests on cryopodzols. The main reservoir of cesium-137 is soils (n=24) that accumulate 78±20% of its total landscape storage. The upper 10-cm soil layer contains 90% of {sup 137}Cs soil storage. Cesium-137 activity declines from shrubs and polytric layers

  9. Transport mechanism for Pb-210, Cs-137 and Pu fallout radionuclides through fluvial-marine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. N.; Ellis, K. M.

    1982-06-01

    Pb-210, Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 sediment-depth profiles in an anoxic, unbioturbated, estuarine depositional regime at the head of the Saguenay Fjord, Que. exhibit a seasonally-modulated component caused by pulsed inputs of silts and sands during high energy, spring river discharge events superimposed on an ambient depositional pattern of finer grained clays and organic matter. A precise sediment timestratigraphy has been determined by the inverse correlation of the Pb-210 activity with the rate of river discharge during the period, 1963-1976. The historical record of Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 sediment fluxes has been reconstructed through the normalization of fallout radionuclide activities to the excess Pb-210 activity profile. Radionuclide flux geochronologies have been interpreted on the basis of a fluvial-marine transport model which distinguishes between inputs due to direct adsorption of radionuclides onto particles in the water column and inputs resulting from the erosion of particle-associated radionuclides from the drainage basin. Rate constants corresponding to residence times of one year for Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 in the water column and 1500 years for each radionuclide in the drainage basin provide reasonable agreement between the model and experimental results, although there is some evidence for a slightly longer drainage basin residence time for plutonium. Both the threshold for the initial appearance of Pu-238, derived from the atmospheric burnup of a SNAP-9A satellite reactor in 1964, and the magnitude of its isotopic dilution by drainage basin inputs of Pu-239,240 are also in agreement with model predictions.

  10. The metabolomic approach identifies a biological signature of low-dose chronic exposure to cesium 137.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Stéphane; Martin, Jean-Charles; Grandcolas, Line; Banzet, Nathalie; Blanchardon, Eric; Tourlonias, Elie; Defoort, Catherine; Favé, Gaëlle; Bott, Romain; Dublineau, Isabelle; Gourmelon, Patrick; Souidi, Maâmar

    2012-01-01

    Reports have described apparent biological effects of (137)Cs (the most persistent dispersed radionuclide) irradiation in people living in Chernobyl-contaminated territory. The sensitive analytical technology described here should now help assess the relation of this contamination to the observed effects. A rat model chronically exposed to (137)Cs through drinking water was developed to identify biomarkers of radiation-induced metabolic disorders, and the biological impact was evaluated by a metabolomic approach that allowed us to detect several hundred metabolites in biofluids and assess their association with disease states. After collection of plasma and urine from contaminated and non-contaminated rats at the end of the 9-months contamination period, analysis with a LC-MS system detected 742 features in urine and 1309 in plasma. Biostatistical discriminant analysis extracted a subset of 26 metabolite signals (2 urinary, 4 plasma non-polar, and 19 plasma polar metabolites) that in combination were able to predict from 68 up to 94% of the contaminated rats, depending on the prediction method used, with a misclassification rate as low as 5.3%. The difference in this metabolic score between the contaminated and non-contaminated rats was highly significant (P = 0.019 after ANOVA cross-validation). In conclusion, our proof-of-principle study demonstrated for the first time the usefulness of a metabolomic approach for addressing biological effects of chronic low-dose contamination. We can conclude that a metabolomic signature discriminated (137)Cs-contaminated from control animals in our model. Further validation is nevertheless required together with full annotation of the metabolic indicators.

  11. Adsorption models of 137Cs radionuclide and Sr (II) on some Egyptian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Nariman H M

    2010-04-01

    Distribution of cesium (134Cs and 137Cs) and strontium (Sr-II) between soil/water phases depends on many factors such as concentration of these ions between phases, the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soil as well as its clay content, chemical composition (especially Na, K, Ca, and Mg ions), grain size distribution, calcite, iron oxide content, and organic coatings. Distribution coefficients (Kd) of cesium (labeled with 137Cs) and strontium were measured on the grain size distributions > or = 32 microm of four soil samples. These soils were obtained from four different locations within Inshas site in Egypt and three groundwater samples were obtained from the same site locations. X-ray diffraction showed that the soil samples consisted mainly of quartz mixed with the minor amounts of kaolonite and clay minerals. Sorption experiments were carried out at strontium aqueous concentrations range 10(-7) to 10(-4) mol l(-1). The CEC and Kds for cesium and strontium were measured at the same metal concentrations range. Distribution coefficients of cesium were found to be influenced by the composition of the soil, while the distribution coefficients of strontium were found to depend on calcium concentrations in the soil/groundwater system. The aim of this study was to determine the safety assessment of disposal 137Cs radionuclide and Sr(II) in the aquifer regions inside the Inshas site. Sequential extraction tests showed that, strontium was associated with the carbonate fractions and majority of cesium was sorbed on the iron oxides and the residue. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transfer of 137Cs from Chernobyl debris and nuclear weapons fallout to different Swedish population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rääf, C L; Hubbard, L; Falk, R; Agren, G; Vesanen, R

    2006-08-15

    Data from measurements on the body burden of (134)Cs, (137)Cs and (40)K in various Swedish populations between 1959 and 2001 has been compiled into a national database. The compilation is a co-operation between the Departments of Radiation Physics in Malmö and Göteborg, the National Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) and the Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI). In a previous study the effective ecological half time and the associated effective dose to various Swedish populations due to internal contamination of (134)Cs and (137)Cs have been assessed using the database. In this study values of human body burden have been combined with data on the local and regional ground deposition of fallout from nuclear weapons tests (only (137)Cs) and Chernobyl debris (both (134)Cs and (137)Cs), which have enabled estimates of the radioecological transfer in the studied populations. The assessment of the database shows that the transfer of radiocesium from Chernobyl fallout to humans varies considerably between various populations in Sweden. In terms of committed effective dose over a 70 y period from internal contamination per unit activity deposition, the general (predominantly urban) Swedish population obtains 20-30 microSv/kBq m(-2). Four categories of populations exhibit higher radioecological transfer than the general population; i.) reindeer herders ( approximately 700 microSv/kBq m(-2)), ii.) hunters in the counties dominated by forest vegetation ( approximately 100 microSv/kBq m(-2)), iii.) rural non-farming populations living in sub-arctic areas (40-150 microSv/kBq m(-2)), and iv.) farmers ( approximately 50 microSv/kBq m(-2)). Two important factors determine the aggregate transfer from ground deposition to man; i.) dietary habits (intakes of foodstuff originating from natural and semi-natural ecosystems), and ii.) inclination to follow the recommended food restriction by the authorities. The transfer to the general population is considerably lower

  13. Changes in {sup 137}Cs bioavailability under the influence of soil microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareniuk, Olena [Institute of Environmental Radioactivity of Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima City, Fukushima Prefecture, 960-1296 (Japan); Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology of National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Chabany, Kyivo-Svyatoshin region, 08162, Kyiv (Ukraine); Illienko, Volodymyr; Gudkov, Igor [National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Heroyiv Oborony st., 15, Kyiv-03041 (Ukraine); Shavanova, Kateryna; Levchuk, Svyatoslav [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology of National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Chabany, Kyivo-Svyatoshin region, 08162, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Despite the rising safety standards applicable to the nuclear industry enterprises still occur the huge radiation accidents, the consequences of which are large-scale releases of radionuclides into the environment. The soil is the main depot for radioactive substances in the ecosystem and triggering element for their transition through trophic chains up to the human being. That is why the search for new effective methods of soil decontamination, particularly the soil that is used for agriculture, still remains of a big relevance. Using the properties of microorganisms to affect the availability of mineral compounds in the soil may become one of such methods. {sup 137}Cs is one of the main dose-forming radionuclides, introduced into the ecosystem as a result of the nuclear weapons testing and accidents occurring at nuclear power plants. Thus, radionuclide contamination of agricultural land and food is a major problem for the exclusion zones, formed after the accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi and the Chernobyl NPPs. To study the role of soil microorganisms in the migration of {sup 137}Cs 5 isolates from Chernobyl exclusion zone were allocated and identified in accordance with 16s RNA: Burkholderia glathei Hg11, Burkholderia sp IMER-B1-53, Bacillus mycides BCHMAC12, Flavobacterium sp TISTR 1602, Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis TPK 2-4 and compared their ability to accumulate radionuclide with collection species, which are used as a bio-agents of microbial fertilizers: Bacillusmegaterium UKM B-5724, Azotobacterchroococcum UKM B-6003-20A, Azotobacterchroococcum UKM B-6003-9T, Agrobacterium radiobacter by transfer of isolates to liquid nutrient medium containing 5 kBq {sup 137}Cs. It was found that the strain Bacillusmegaterium UKM B-5724 from the collection of the Institute of Microbiology and Virology of NASU, has a high ability to accumulate radionuclides. Figured out that certain types of microorganisms can either reduce or increase the ratio of {sup 137}Cs transfer

  14. Comparison of decontamination parameters for two rodents. {sup 90}SR and {sup 137}CS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarkov, M.; Gaschak, S.; Goryanaya, J.U.; Maksimenko, A.; Barchuk, R.; Martynenko, V.; Shulga, A.; Chesser, R.; Rodgers, B. [Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, Slavutych (Ukraine)

    2004-07-01

    The rate of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs content decrease in the whole body has been estimated for bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus and lab strain of mouse Mus musculus (Big Blue) over 50 and 180 days, respectively. Before the study the animals were naturally contaminated within the most contaminated area of the Chernobyl zone. The initial activity of the whole body ranged as follows: voles - 4-385 kBq for {sup 137}Cs, 0.9-7.7 kBq for {sup 90}Sr; mice - 0.62-1.19 and 0.64-2.20, respectively. Methods of beta and gamma spectrometry and a specially designed alive counting method were used in the study. The exponential decay model of the second order was applied to estimate parameters of the body decontamination from {sup 137}Cs. Both species have similar half-life periods of the fast-excreted fraction - 1.87-2.17d. However, a bank vole loses up to 96-97% of initial activity by the fast excreted fraction, while mice - only 67.4%. A slow excreted fraction of initially accumulated {sup 137}Cs has a half-life period of 55.3d and 9.6d in voles and mice, respectively. Thus, bank vole and domestic mouse have evident differences of radiocesium excretion, first of all at the early stage of decontamination. Some preliminary data for a yellow-necked mouse Apodemus flavicollis show similar parameters of decontamination as for a domestic mouse. The excretion of {sup 90}Sr was estimated using the exponential decay model of the first order. A mouse has much larger part of the excreted radionuclide - 87%, and a half-life period - 49.9d; a vole - 58% and 13.1d, respectively. The rest amount of radionuclides was considered as non-excreted over the study term. Thus, similar size representatives of two rodent taxa have different parameters of radionuclide excretion. The reason for this may be their specific physiology of accumulation and excretion. (author)

  15. Incorporation of {sup 137}Cs by tropical tree species and its correlation with plant physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cid, Alberto Silva; Anjos, Roberto Meigikos dos; Macario, K.D.; Veiga, R.; Ayubi, J. Juri; Lacerda, T. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Zamboni, C.B.; Medeiros, I.M.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN- SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Velasco, H.; Rizzotto, M. [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (UNSL) (Argentina). Instituto de Matematica Aplicada San Luis; Audicio, P. [Facultad de Ciencias (UDELAR), Montevideo (Uruguay). Centro de Investigaciones Nucleares

    2011-07-01

    Environmental phenomena associated with potential releases of radionuclides to terrestrial ecosystems have attracted the interest of several researches around the world. However, such interest has not been focused exclusively in its effects on human health. Several radionuclides have also been used as tracers of physicochemical or biological phenomena. These studies depend on both the development of auxiliary analysis techniques, which help to improve the results of traditional methods, and the production of additional data, so that a wide variety of natural processes can be understood. In this sense, the same radiometric results can be analyzed or interpreted from different viewpoints, allowing the interdisciplinary understanding of the overall structure of terrestrial ecosystems. {sup 137}Cs, for example, is one of the main fission products of nuclear reactors and atmospheric nuclear testing that is persistent in the biosphere because of its half-life of 30.2 years and biological mobility. This radionuclide remains in the top soil due to fixation and adsorption to clay minerals and organic matter, persisting in the root zone of plant for a long period of time. As its chemical behavior is similar to other monovalent inorganic cations (such as NH{sup +}{sub 4} , Na{sup +} and K{sup +}), Cs{sup +} can be readily absorbed by roots and translocated to the aboveground parts of plant. In this work, concentrations of {sup 137}Cs{sup +}, K{sup +} and Na{sup +} in fruits of lemon (Citrus limon B.) and coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) were measured by both gamma spectrometry and neutron activation analysis, with the aim to understand the behavior of monovalent inorganic cations in tropical plants as well as the plant ability to store these elements. In contrast to K{sup +} and Na{sup +}, Cs{sup +} is not an essential element to plants. However, our results have shown that {sup 137}Cs{sup +} incorporation to vegetal tissues is positively correlated to K{sup +} distribution inside

  16. Modern parameters of caesium-137 root uptake in natural and agricultural grass ecosystems of contaminated post-Chernobyl landscape, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Paramonova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of modern parameters of 137Cs root uptake was conducted in natural meadow and agricultural ecosystems of post-Chernobyl landscapes of Tula region. The agrosystems with main crops of field rotation (barley, potatoes, rape, maize occupying watersheds and slopes with arable chernozems are contaminated at a level 460-670 Bq/kg (4.7-6.0 Ci/km2; natural meadow ecosystems occupying lower parts of slopes and floodplains are contaminated at a level 620-710 Bq/kg (5.8-7.6 Ci/km2. In the arable soils 137Cs uniformly distributed to a depth of Ap horizon (20-30 cm of thickness, while in meadow soils 70-80% of the radionuclide is concentrated within the top Ad horizon (9-13 cm of thickness. These topsoil layer accords with rhizosphere zone, where >80-90% of plant roots are concentrated, and from which 137Cs is mostly consumed by vegetation. Total amount of 137Cs root uptake depends on the level of soil radioactive contamination (correlation coefficient 0.61. So 137Cs activity in meadow vegetation (103-160 Bq/kg is generally more than one in agricultural vegetation (9-92 Bq/kg. The values of 137Cs transfer factor in the studied ecosystems vary from 0.01 (rape to 0.20 (wet meadow, that confirms the discrimination of the radionuclide’s root uptake. The larger are the volume of roots and their absorbing surface, the higher are the values of transfer factor from soil to plant (correlation coefficients 0.71 and 0.64 respectively. 137Cs translocation from roots to shoots is also determined by biological features of plants. At the same level of soil contamination above-ground parts of meadow herbs accumulate more 137Cs than Gramineae species, and in agrosystems above-ground parts of weeds concentrate more 137Cs than cultivated cereals. Thus, the level of soil radioactive pollution and biological features of plants are determinants in the process of 137Cs root uptake and translocation and should be considered in land use policy.

  17. Effect of wood ash and K-fertilization on {sup 137}Cs uptake by selected forest plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandro, Yrii N. [Zhytomyr State Technological University, P.O. Box 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Rosen, Klas [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences P.O. Box 7070 SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Vinichuk, Mykhailo M. [Zhytomyr State Technological University, P.O. Box 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences P.O. Box 7070 SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Accumulation {sup 137}Cs by different forest plants and trees after fertilization of soil with potassium and wood ash ({sup 137}Cs-contaminated and non-contaminated) in forest ecosystems of Ukraine contaminated by radionuclides after Chernobyl accident in 1986 was studied. Experiment is performed in Bazar forestry, Zhytomyr region, Ukraine, located about 70 km (51 deg. 5'35'' N, 29 deg. 18'56'' E) from Chernobyl NPP. Potassium fertilizer (KCl, wooden ash (Ash), and {sup 137}Cs-contaminated ash ({sup 137}CsAsh) in different combinations) were spread on the forest floor in April 2012 at a rate corresponding 100 kg/ha potassium. The experiment layout was as follows: 1- Control (no fertilizers were applied), 2- KCl, 3- Ash + KCl, 4- Ash + {sup 137}CsAsh, 5- Ash, 6- {sup 137}CsAsh + KCl. Samples (leaves and annual shoots) of blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), birch (Betula), buckthorn (Frangula) and oak (Quercus robur) and also mushrooms (fruit bodies of Russula, Lactarius, Cantharellus, Collybia etc.) and berries (blueberry and cowberry) were taken monthly from each treatment. Samples were measured for {sup 137}Cs with calibrated HPGe detectors. The results of the first year studies show variation of Transfer Factors (TF) for different plants and for the same plants on different treatments. The effect of fertilization was found for blueberry on Ash-applicated (TF = 0.0085 ± 0.0025), {sup 137}CsAsh + KCl-applicated (TF = 0.0105 ± 0.0060) and Ash + KCl-applicated (TF = 0.0123 ± 0.0058) treatments compared to Control (TF = 0.0163 ± 0.0092). Also good effect for rowan on Ash + KCl-applicated treatment (TF = 0.0067 ± 0.0024) compared to Control (TF = 0.0100 ± 0.0064). Effect was less obvious for birch on Ash + KCl-applicated treatment and for cowberry on Ash + KCl-applicated treatment. There was not found an obvious effect of fertilization for buckthorn. Positive effect of

  18. A NOVEL SAMARIUM COMPLEX WITH INTERESTING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Fluorescent materials, particularly blue fluorescent materials have gained strong interest because ... emitting complexes in different technical applications, such as emitting materials for organic light emitting ..... properties of three novel two-dimensional lanthanide coordination polymers with mixed aromatic ...

  19. Pyroelectric Ferroelectric and Resistivity Studies on Samarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barium Strontium Sodium Niobate (Ba1-xSrx)2NaNb5O15 (BSNN) belongs to tungsten bronze ferroelectric morphotrophic phase boundary (MPB) system at x = 0.6, having large spontaneous polarisation, pyroelectric coefficient and low dielectic constant and is expected to be applicable for piezoceramic filter and ...

  20. A NOVEL SAMARIUM COMPLEX WITH INTERESTING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emitting complexes in different technical applications, such as emitting materials for organic light emitting diodes, sensitizers in solar energy conversion, chemical sensors and so forth [6-9]. The ability of bipy to act as a rigid ..... properties of three-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrids based on α-metatungstate. Inorg. Chim.

  1. Spatial patterns of (137)Cs inventories and soil erosion from earth-banked terraces in the Yimeng Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunqi; Long, Yi; An, Juan; Yu, Xingxiu; Wang, Xiaoli

    2014-10-01

    The Yimeng Mountains is one of China's most susceptible regions to soil erosion. In this region, slopes are composed of granite- or gneiss-derived soils that are commonly cultivated using earth-banked terraces. Based on the (137)Cs measurement for nine reference cores, the present study analysed the spatial patterns of (137)Cs inventory and soil erosion using 105 sampling points in a seven-level earth-banked terrace system. The mean (137)Cs inventory, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and allowable error for the nine reference cores were 987 Bq m(-2), 71 Bq m(-2), 7%, and 6%, respectively, values that may reflect the heterogeneity of the initial (137)Cs fallout deposit. Within each terrace, the (137)Cs inventory generally increases from the rear edge to the front edge, accompanied by a decrease in the erosion rate. This results from planation by tillage and rainfall runoff during the development of the earth-banked terraces. Across the entire seven-level terrace system, (137)Cs inventories decrease from the highest terrace downwards, but increase in the lower terraces, whereas erosion rate displays the opposite trend. These trends are the result of the combined effects of the earth-bank segmented hillslope, the limited protection of the earth banks, and rainfall runoff in combination with tillage. The high coefficients of variation of (137)Cs inventories for the 21 sampling rows, with a mean value of 44%, demonstrate the combined effects of variations in original microtopography, anthropogenic disturbance, the incohesive soils weathered from underlying granite, and the warm climate. Although earth-banked terraces can reduce soil erosion to some extent, the estimated erosion rates for the study area are still very high. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Selection of Shared and Neoantigen-Reactive T Cells for Adoptive Cell Therapy Based on CD137 Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Seliktar-Ofir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive cell therapy (ACT of autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL is an effective immunotherapy for patients with solid tumors, yielding objective response rates of around 40% in refractory patients with metastatic melanoma. Most clinical centers utilize bulk, randomly isolated TIL from the tumor tissue for ex vivo expansion and infusion. Only a minor fraction of the administered T cells recognizes tumor antigens, such as shared and mutation-derived neoantigens, and consequently eliminates the tumor. Thus, there are many ongoing effects to identify and select tumor-specific TIL for therapy; however, those approaches are very costly and require months, which is unreasonable for most metastatic patients. CD137 (4-1BB has been identified as a co-stimulatory marker, which is induced upon the specific interaction of T cells with their target cell. Therefore, CD137 can be a useful biomarker and an important tool for the selection of tumor-reactive T cells. Here, we developed and validated a simple and time efficient method for the selection of CD137-expressing T cells for therapy based on magnetic bead separation. CD137 selection was performed with clinical grade compliant reagents, and TIL were expanded in a large-scale manner to meet cell numbers required for the patient setting in a GMP facility. For the first time, the methodology was designed to comply with both clinical needs and limitations, and its feasibility was assessed. CD137-selected TIL demonstrated significantly increased antitumor reactivity and were enriched for T cells recognizing neoantigens as well as shared tumor antigens. CD137-based selection enabled the enrichment of tumor-reactive T cells without the necessity of knowing the epitope specificity or the antigen type. The direct implementation of the CD137 separation method to the cell production of TIL may provide a simple way to improve the clinical efficiency of TIL ACT.

  3. K137R mutation on adeno-associated viral capsids had minimal effect on enhancing gene delivery in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Chunping; Li, Chengwen; Zhao, Chunxia; Li, Jianbin; Bian, Tao; Grieger, Joshua; Li, Juan; Samulski, R Jude; Xiao, Xiao

    2014-02-01

    The adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector has emerged as an attractive vector for gene therapy applications. Development of AAV vectors with enhanced gene transduction efficiency is important to ease the burden of AAV production and minimize potential immune responses. Rational mutations on AAV capsids have gained attention as a simple method of enhancing AAV transduction efficiency. A single-amino acid mutation, K137R, on AAV1 and AAV8 was recently reported to increase liver transgene expression by 5-10-fold. To determine whether the same mutation on other AAV serotypes would result in similar gene enhancement effects, K137R mutants were generated on AAV7, AAV8, and AAV9, and their effects were evaluated in vivo. Two reporter genes were utilized: the nuclear LacZ gene driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter and the luciferase gene driven by the CB promoter. Surprisingly, we found no difference in luciferase gene expression in the liver or other tissues using either the wild-type AAV8 capsid or AAV8-K137R. LacZ gene expression in the liver by AAV8-K137R was about onefold higher than that of wild-type AAV8. However, no difference was found in other tissues, such as skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle. In addition, no difference was found in transgene expression with either AAV7-K137R or AAV9-K137R mutants. Our results indicated that the K137R mutation on AAV7, AAV8, and AAV9 had minimal to no effect on transduction efficiency in vivo.

  4. Comparison of two methodologies used to estimate erosion rates in Mediterranean ecosystems:137Cs and exposed tree roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Delgado, J; Guillén, J; Corbacho, J A; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Á; Baeza, A; Schnabel, S

    2017-12-15

    The 137 Cs deposited in soil and exposed tree roots have been widely applied to estimate medium-term soil erosion rates. However, comparative studies between these methods are scarce. For this purpose, three hillsides in two Mediterranean dehesas (rangeland with disperse tree cover) were selected. Regarding the 137 Cs technique, a reference site close to the study areas and with similar altitude and rainfall was selected. In order to reduce uncertainties related to the use of point soil profiles, all those collected in an area were combined to form a representative composite profile. The total inventory was 2790±50Bq/m 2 , and the relaxation coefficient indicated it was an undisturbed soil. The radiocaesium inventory in the study areas was 14-23% lower than in the reference area. The erosion rates for 137 Cs were in the range 20.9-38.1tha -1 y -1 . The exposed root technique was applied to holm oak trees (age about 90years), and the erosion rates were in the range 22-34tha -1 y -1 . The ratio between exposed root and 137 Cs techniques was 1.02±0.11 (S.D.) within the range 0.89-1.2. Both methods produced very similar results equally with respect to the mean erosion rate as well as the relative difference between the hillslope sections, i.e. displaying the same spatial variation in the study areas. As the accounting time for these two techniques is different, 50 and 90y for 137 Cs and exposed roots respectively, results suggest that no change in mid-term erosion rates was implied for these areas for almost a century. The use of 137 Cs and exposed roots methodology for the determination of mean erosion rates can be reproduced in other ecosystems, but a careful selection of the reference site for 137 Cs is essential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pre- and post-accident (129)I and (137)Cs levels, and (129)I/(137)Cs ratios in soil near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaka, Tetsuya; Sasa, Kimikazu; Sueki, Keisuke; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Satou, Yukihiko; Matsumura, Masumi; Kinoshita, Norikazu; Kitagawa, Jun-Ichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the deposition density and extent of subsurface infiltration of (129)I and (137)Cs in the restricted area that was highly contaminated by the accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, cumulative inventories of (129)I and (137)Cs, concentrations of (129)I and (137)Cs, and (129)I/(137)Cs ratio in 30-cm-long soil columns were compared with pre-accident levels from the same area. The cores were collected before and after the accident from locations of S-1 (4 km west of FDNPP) and S-2 (8 km west of FDNPP). Deposition densities of (129)I and (137)Cs in the soil following the accident were 0.90-2.33 Bq m(-2) and 0.80-4.04 MBq m(-2), respectively, which were 14-39 and 320-510 times larger than the pre-accident levels of (129)I (59.3-63.3 mBq m(-2)) and (137)Cs (2.51-7.88 kBq m(-2)), respectively. Approximately 90% of accident-derived (129)I and (137)Cs deposited in the 30-cm soil cores was concentrated in the surface layer from 0 to 44-95 kg m(-2) of mass depth (0-4.3-6.2 cm depth) and from 0 to 16-25 kg m(-2) of mass depth (0-1.0-3.1 cm depth), respectively. The relaxation mass depths (h0) of 10.8-11.2 kg m(-2) for (129)I estimated in the previous study were larger than those of 8.1-10.6 kg m(-2) for (137)Cs at both sites, owing to the larger infiltration depth of radioiodine mainly by the gravitational water penetration in the surface soil in our study sites. Approximately 7-9% of the accident-derived (129)I was present in the lower layer from 44 to 100 kg m(-2) (4.3-8.6 cm depth) at S-1, and from 95 to 160 kg m(-2) (6.2-10.2 cm depth) at S-2. Approximately 1% of (137)Cs seems to infiltrate deeper than (129)I in the lower layer at each site in contrast to the surface layer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modeling dynamics of (137)Cs in forest surface environments: Application to a contaminated forest site near Fukushima and assessment of potential impacts of soil organic matter interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Masakazu; Nagai, Haruyasu; Koarashi, Jun

    2016-05-01

    A process-based model for (137)Cs transfer in forest surface environments was developed to assess the dynamic behavior of Fukushima-derived (137)Cs in a Japanese forest. The model simulation successfully reproduced the observed data from 3year migration of (137)Cs in the organic and mineral soil layers at a contaminated forest near Fukushima. The migration of (137)Cs from the organic layer to the mineral soil was explained by the direct deposition pattern on the forest floor and the turnover of litter materials in the organic layer under certain ecological conditions. Long-term predictions indicated that more than 90% of the deposited (137)Cs would remain within the top 5cm of the soil for up to 30years after the accident, suggesting that the forest acts as an effective long-term reservoir of (137)Cs with limited transfer via the groundwater pathway. The model was also used to explore the potential impacts of soil organic matter (SOM) interactions on the mobility and bioavailability of (137)Cs in the soil-plant system. The simulation results for hypothetical organic soils with modified parameters of (137)Cs turnover revealed that the SOM-induced reduction of (137)Cs adsorption elevates the fraction of dissolved (137)Cs in the soil solution, thereby increasing the soil-to-plant transfer of (137)Cs without substantially altering the fractional distribution of (137)Cs in the soil. Slower fixation of (137)Cs on the flayed edge site of clay minerals and enhanced mobilization of the clay-fixed (137)Cs in organic-rich soils also appeared to elevate the soil-to-plant transfer of (137)Cs by increasing the fraction of the soil-adsorbed (exchangeable) (137)Cs. A substantial proportion (approximate 30%-60%) of (137)Cs in these organic-rich soils was transferred to layers deeper than 5cm decades later. These results suggested that SOM influences the behavior of (137)Cs in forests over a prolonged period through alterations of adsorption and fixation in the soil. Copyright

  7. Estimative of dilution factor for radioactive liquid effluents employing the H-3 and Cs-137 radiotracers present as pollutant; Estimativa do fator de diluicao para efluentes radioativos liquidos empregando os radiotracadores H-3 e Cs-137 presentes como poluentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisti, Marcelo Bessa; Santos, Adir Janete Godoy dos, E-mail: mbnisti@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    It was estimated the dilution factor for liquid effluents at the discharge points of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing as radiotracers the radioisotope routinely liberated for the sewage of 'Cidade Universitaria Armando de Salles Oliveira' - CUASO {sup 3}H and {sup 137}Cs, not generating either monetary or environmental cost associated to the estimation. The {sup 137}Cs was determined by gamma spectrometry and the {sup 3}H was determined liquid phase scintillation. The results showed that the dilution factor varied according to the employed radiotracer in a crescent order of {sup 3}H and {sup 137}Cs according to the characteristics of each element. The average of dilution factors obtained at the first and second liberation day were 4.3 and 7.4 respectively for the {sup 3}H and 6.2 and 13.9 for the {sup 137}Cs. The ratio of dilution factors of calculated {sup 3}H and {sup 137}Cs were coherent with the ratio verified at the twelve hydrometers distributed by the IPEN campus. The dilution factors were estimated in operational and laboratory study, in a single controlled discharge of the TR1 tank

  8. Association of a miRNA-137 Polymorphism with Schizophrenia in a Southern Chinese Han Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoda Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both genome wide association study (GWAS and biochemical studies of Caucasian populations indicate a robust association between the miR-137 genetic variant rs1625579 and schizophrenia, but inconsistent results have been reported. To assay the association between this variant and schizophrenia, we genotyped 611 schizophrenic patients from Southern Chinese Han population for the risk single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1625579 using the SNaPshot technique and compared the clinical profiles of different genotypes. Additionally, a meta-analysis was performed using the combined sample groups from five case-control publications and the present study. Both the genotype and allele distributions of the rs1625579 SNP were significantly different between patients and controls (P=0.036 and 0.026, SNP. TT genotype carriers showed slightly lower Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia- (BACS- derived working memory performance than G carriers (15.58 ± 9.56 versus 19.71 ± 8.18, P=0.045. In the meta-analysis, we observed a significant association between rs1625579 and schizophrenia under different genetic models (all P<0.05. The results of our study and meta-analysis provide convincing evidence that rs1625579 is significantly associated with schizophrenia. Furthermore, the miR-137 polymorphism influences the working memory performance of schizophrenic patients in a Chinese Han population.

  9. Estimation of sedimentation rate in the Middle and South Adriatic Sea using 137Cs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrinec, Branko; Franic, Zdenko; Ilijanic, Nikolina; Miko, Slobodan; Strok, Marko; Smodis, Borut

    2012-08-01

    (137)Cs activity concentrations were studied in the sediment profiles collected at five locations in the Middle and South Adriatic. In the sediment profiles collected from the South Adriatic Pit, the deepest part of the Adriatic Sea, two (137)Cs peaks were identified. The peak in the deeper layer was attributed to the period of intensive atmospheric nuclear weapon tests (early 1960s), and the other to the Chernobyl nuclear accident (1986). Those peaks could be used to estimate sedimentation rates by relating them to the respective time periods. Grain-size analysis showed no changes in vertical distribution through the depth of the sediment profile, and these results indicate uniform sedimentation, as is expected in deeper marine environments. It was not possible to identify respective peaks on more shallow locations due to disturbance of the seabed either by trawlers (locations PalagruŽa and Jabuka) or by river sediment (location Albania). The highest sedimentation rates were found in Albania (∼4 mm y(-1)) and Jabuka (3.1 mm y(-1)). For PalagruŽa, the sedimentation rate was estimated to be 1.8 mm y(-1), similar to the South Adriatic Pit where the sedimentation rate was estimated to be 1.8±0.5 mm y(-1). Low sedimentation rates found for the Middle and South Adriatic Sea are consistent with previously reported results for the rest of the Mediterranean.

  10. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 210}Pb inventories in soils and sediments from Chapala Lake (Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Fernandez, A.C.; Perez-Bernal, L.H. [Unidad Academica Mazatlan, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A. [Unidad Academica de Procesos Oceanicos y Costeros, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Ontiveros-Cuadras, J.F. [Posgrado en Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    Chapala Lake is the largest natural freshwater reservoir in Mexico and it is located in Central Mexico, at 1524 m above sea level. The lake is considered to be fairly anthropized and it has experienced periods of extremely low water level as a result of recent climate change and water extraction. The study of recent manifestations of global change in Chapala Lake requires accurate {sup 210}Pb chronological reconstructions, taking into account the expected variability of sediment accumulation rates by using the Constant Flux model. For a reliable application of this dating model, it is important that {sup 210}Pb flux values in the lacustrine sedimentary record are in correspondence with the local atmospheric fluxes. With the aim to estimate the fluxes of the fallout radionuclides {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs in the region, sediment and soil cores were collected in the Chapala Lake. Sediment profiles were evaluated and estimated fluxes in sediments and soils were compared. Some geochemical properties (e.g. grain size distribution, organic matter concentration, XRF-derived elemental composition and magnetic susceptibility) were also evaluated to understand how diagenesis changes and sediment provenance can affect the {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs depth profiles and inventories. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  11. Baseline Caesium-137 and Plutonium-239+240 inventory assessment for Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusburger, Katrin; Borelli, Pasquale; Evrard, Olivier; Ketterer, Michael; Mabit, Lionel; van Oost, Kristof; Alewell, Christine; Panagos, Panos

    2017-04-01

    Artificial fallout radionuclides (FRNs) such as Caesium-137 and Plutonium-239+240 released as products of the thermonuclear weapons testing that took place from the mid-1950s to the early 1980s and from nuclear power plant accidents (e.g. Chernobyl) are useful tools to quantify soil redistribution. In combination with geostatistics, FRNs may have the potential to bridge the gap between small scale process oriented studies and modelling that simplifies processes and effects over large spatial scales. An essential requirement for the application of FRNs as soil erosion tracers is the establishment of the baseline fallout at undisturbed sites before its comparison to those inventories found at sites undergoing erosion/accumulation. For this purpose, undisturbed topsoil (0-20cm) samples collected in 2009 within the framework of the Land Use/Cover Area frame Survey (LUCAS) have been measured by gamma-spectrometry and ICP-MS to determine 137Cs (n=145) and 239+240Pu (n=108) activities. To restrict the analysis to undisturbed reference sites a geospatial database query selecting only sites having a slope angle Chernobyl fallout. The establishment of such baseline inventory map will provide a unique opportunity to assess soil redistribution for a comparable time-frame (1953-2009) following a harmonised methodological protocol across national boundaries.

  12. Removal of 137-Cs from Dissolved Hanford Tank Saltcake by Treatment with IE-911

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2003-12-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Richland Operations Office plans to accelerate the cleanup of the Hanford Site. Testing new technology for the accelerated cleanup will require dissolved saltcake from single-shell tanks. However, the 137Cs will need to be removed from the saltcake to alleviate radiation hazards. A saltcake composite constructed from archived samples from Hanford Site single-shell tanks 241-S-101, 241-S-109, 241-S-110, 241-S-111, 241-U-106, and 241-U-109 was dissolved in water, adjusted to 5 M Na, and transferred from the 222-S Laboratory to the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL). At the RPL, the approximately 5.5 liters of solution was passed through a 0.2-micron polyethersulfone filter, collected, and homogenized. The filtered solution then was passed through an ion exchange column containing approximately 150 mL IONSIV® IE-911, an engineered form of crystalline silicotitanate available from UOP, at approximately 200 mL/hour in a continuous operation until all of the feed solution had been run through the column. An analysis of the 137Cs concentrations in the initial feed solution and combined column effluent indicates that > 99.999 percent of the Cs in the feed solution was removed by this operation. PNNR

  13. $\\beta$-delayed neutrons from oriented $^{137,139}$I and $^{87,89}$Br nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose a world-first measurement of the angular distribution of $\\beta$‐delayed n and $\\gamma$-radiation from oriented $^{137, 139}$I and $^{87,89}$Br nuclei, polarised at low temperature at the NICOLE facility. $\\beta$­-delayed neutron emission is an increasingly important decay mechanism as the drip line is approached and its detailed understanding is essential to phenomena as fundamental as the r‐process and practical as the safe operation of nuclear power reactors. The experiments offer sensitive tests of theoretical input concerning the allowed and first­‐forbidden $\\beta$‐decay strength, the spin-density of neutron emitting states and the partial wave barrier penetration as a function of nuclear deformation. In $^{137}$I and $^{87}$Br the decay feeds predominantly the ground state of the daughters $^{136}$Xe and $^{86}$Kr whereas in $^{139}$I and $^{89}$Br we will explore the use of n-$\\gamma$- coincidence to study neutron transitions to the first and second excited states in the daughters...

  14. $\\beta$-delayed neutrons from oriented $^{137,139}$I and $^{87,89}$Br nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Grzywacz, Robert; Stone, Nicholas; Köster, Ulli; Singh, Barlaj; Bingham, Carrol; Gaulard, S; Kolos, Karolina; Madurga, Miguel; Nikolov, J; Otsubo, T; Roccia, S; Veskovic, Miroslav; Walker, Phil; Walters, William

    2013-01-01

    We propose a world-­‐first measurement of the angular distribution of $\\beta$-­‐delayed n and $\\gamma$- radiation from oriented $^{137, 139}$I and $^{87,89}$Br nuclei, polarised at low temperature at the NICOLE facility. $\\beta$-­‐delayed neutron emission is an increasingly important decay mechanism as the drip line is approached and its detailed understanding is essential to phenomena as fundamental as the r‐process and practical as the safe operation of nuclear power reactors. The experiments offer sensitive tests of theoretical input concerning the allowed and first-­‐forbidden $\\beta$‐decay strength, the spin-­‐density of neutron emitting states and the partial wave barrier penetration as a function of nuclear deformation. In $^{137}$I and $^{87}$Br the decay feeds predominantly the ground state of the daughters $^{136}$Xe and $^{86}$Kr whereas in $^{139}$I and $^{89}$Br we will explore the use of n-$\\gamma$- coincidence to study neutron transitions to the first and second excited state...

  15. Modeling watershed-scale 137Cs transport in a forested catchment affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lezhang; Kinouchi, Tsuyoshi; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Velleux, Mark L

    2017-05-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011 resulted in 137Cs contamination of large areas in northeast Japan. A watershed-scale 137Cs transport model was developed and applied to a forested catchment in Fukushima area. This model considers 137Cs wash-off from vegetation, movement through soils, and transport of dissolved and particulate 137Cs adsorbed to clay, silt and sand. Comparisons between measurements and simulations demonstrated that the model well reproduced 137Cs concentrations in the stream fed from the catchment. Simulations estimated that 0.57 TBq of 137Cs was exported from the catchment between June, 2011 and December, 2014. Transport largely occurred with eroded sediment particles at a ratio of 17:70:13 of clay, silt, and sand. The overall 137Cs reduction ratio by rainfall-runoff wash-off was about 1.6%. Appreciable 137Cs remained in the catchment at the end of 2014. The largest rate of 137Cs reduction by wash-off was simulated to occur in subwatersheds of the upper catchment. However, despite relatively low initial deposition, middle portions of the watershed exported proportionately more 137Cs by rainfall-runoff processes. Simulations indicated that much of the transported 137Cs originates from erosion over hillsides and river banks. These results suggested that areas where 137Cs accumulates with redeposited sediments can be targeted for decontamination and also provided insight into 137Cs transport at the watershed scale to assess risk management and decontamination planning efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Regression model analysis of the decreasing trend of cesium-137 concentration in the atmosphere since the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Kyo; Ohse, Kenji; Shima, Nagayoshi; Kawatsu, Kencho; Tsukada, Hirofumi

    2016-11-01

    The decreasing trend of the atmospheric 137Cs concentration in two cities in Fukushima prefecture was analyzed by a regression model to clarify the relation between the parameter of the decrease in the model and the trend and to compare the trend with that after the Chernobyl accident. The 137Cs particle concentration measurements were conducted in urban Fukushima and rural Date sites from September 2012 to June 2015. The 137Cs particle concentrations were separated in two groups: particles of more than 1.1 μm aerodynamic diameters (coarse particles) and particles with aerodynamic diameter lower than 1.1 μm (fine particles). The averages of the measured concentrations were 0.1 mBq m-3 in Fukushima and Date sites. The measured concentrations were applied in the regression model which decomposed them into two components: trend and seasonal variation. The trend concentration included the parameters for the constant and the exponential decrease. The parameter for the constant was slightly different between the Fukushima and Date sites. The parameter for the exponential decrease was similar for all the cases, and much higher than the value of the physical radioactive decay except for the concentration in the fine particles at the Date site. The annual decreasing rates of the 137Cs concentration evaluated by the trend concentration ranged from 44 to 53% y-1 with average and standard deviation of 49 ± 8% y-1 for all the cases in 2013. In the other years, the decreasing rates also varied slightly for all cases. These indicated that the decreasing trend of the 137Cs concentration was nearly unchanged for the location and ground contamination level in the three years after the accident. The 137Cs activity per aerosol particle mass also decreased with the same trend as the 137Cs concentration in the atmosphere. The results indicated that the decreasing trend of the atmospheric 137Cs concentration was related with the reduction of the 137Cs concentration in

  17. Use of (137)Cs technique for soil erosion study in the agricultural region of Casablanca in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouira, A; Sayouty, E H; Benmansour, M

    2003-01-01

    Accelerated erosion and soil degradation currently cause serious problems to the Oued El Maleh basin (Morocco). Furthermore, there is still only limited information on rates of soil loss for optimising strategies for soil conservation. In the present study we have used the (137)Cs technique to assess the soil erosion rates on an agricultural land in Oued el Maleh basin near Casablanca (Morocco). A small representative agricultural field was selected to investigate the soil degradation required by soil managers in this region. The transect approach was applied for sampling to identify the spatial redistribution of (137)Cs. The spatial variability of (137)Cs inventory has provided evidence of the importance of tillage process and the human effects on the redistribution of (137)Cs. The mean (137)Cs inventory was found about 842 Bq m(-2), this value corresponds to an erosion rate of 82 tha(-1) yr(-1) by applying simplified mass balance model in a preliminary estimation. When data on site characteristics were available, the refined mass balance model was applied to highlight the contribution of tillage effect in soil redistribution. The erosion rate was estimated about 50 tha(-1) yr(-1). The aspects related to the sampling procedures and the models for calculation of erosion rates are discussed.

  18. Assessment of wind characteristics and atmospheric dispersion modeling of {sup 137}Cs on the Barakah NPP area in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Kuk; Lee, Kun Jai; Yun, Jong IL [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Chul; Belorid, Miloslav [Institute of Environmental Research, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Beeley, Philip A. [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Dubai (Antigua and Barbuda)

    2014-08-15

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of wind characteristics and atmosphere dispersion modeling that are based on computational simulation and part of a preliminary study evaluating environmental radiation monitoring system (ERMS) positions within the Barakah nuclear power plant (BNPP). The return period of extreme wind speed was estimated using the Weibull distribution over the life time of the BNPP. In the annual meteorological modeling, the winds from the north and west accounted for more than 90 % of the wind directions. Seasonal effects were not represented. However, a discrepancy in the tendency between daytime and nighttime was observed. Six variations of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) dispersion test were simulated under severe accident condition. The {sup 137}Cs dispersion was strongly influenced by the direction and speed of the main wind. A virtual receptor was set and calculated for observation of the {sup 137}Cs movement and accumulation. The results of the surface roughness effect demonstrated that the deposition of {sup 137}Cs was affected by surface condition. The results of these studies offer useful information for developing environmental radiation monitoring systems (ERMSs) for the BNPP and can be used to assess the environmental effects of new nuclear power plant.

  19. Random and systematic spatial variability of 137Cs inventories at reference sites in South-Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correchel Vladia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The precision of the 137Cs fallout redistribution technique for the evaluation of soil erosion rates is strongly dependent on the quality of an average inventory taken at a representative reference site. The knowledge of the sources and of the degree of variation of the 137Cs fallout spatial distribution plays an important role on its use. Four reference sites were selected in the South-Central region of Brazil which were characterized in terms of soil chemical, physical and mineralogical aspects as well as the spatial variability of 137Cs inventories. Some important differences in the patterns of 137Cs depth distribution in the soil profiles of the different sites were found. They are probably associated to chemical, physical, mineralogical and biological differences of the soils but many questions still remain open for future investigation, mainly those regarding the adsorption and dynamics of the 137Cs ions in soil profiles under tropical conditions. The random spatial variability (inside each reference site was higher than the systematic spatial variability (between reference sites but their causes were not clearly identified as possible consequences of chemical, physical, mineralogical variability, and/or precipitation.

  20. Uptake of {sup 137}Cs by berries, mushrooms and needles of Scots pine in peatland forests after wood ash application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetikko, Virve, E-mail: virve.vetikko@stuk.f [STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Research and Environmental Surveillance, P.O.Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Rantavaara, Aino, E-mail: aino.rantavaara@stuk.f [STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Research and Environmental Surveillance, P.O.Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Moilanen, Mikko, E-mail: mikko.moilanen@metla.f [Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA), Muhos Research Unit, Kirkkosaarentie 7, FI-91500 Muhos (Finland)

    2010-12-15

    Increasing use of wood fuels for energy production in Finland since the 1990s implies that large quantities of the generated ashes will be available for forest fertilization. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of wood ash application on {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles and certain berries and mushrooms on drained peatlands. The study was based on field experiments carried out on two mires in Finland in 1997-1998. Two different types of wood ash were applied at dosages of 3500, 3700, 10 500 and 11 100 kg ha{sup -1}. Wood ash did not increase {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in plants in the second growing season following application. On the contrary, a decrease in {sup 137}Cs activity concentration was seen in the plants of the ecosystem on drained peatlands. This result is of importance, for instance, when recycling of ash is being planned. -- Research highlights: {yields} The study confirmed the fast response of Scots pine to ash application. {yields} Wood ash decreased the 137Cs activity concentration in Scots pine needles. {yields} Wood ash did not increase the 137Cs contamination in wild berries and mushrooms. {yields} The results are of importance when recycling of ash is being planned.

  1. {sup 137}Cs metabolism during pregnancy; Metabolismo de {sup 1}'3{sup 7}Cs durante a gravidez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Dunstana R.; Lipsztein, Joyce L.; Oliveira, Carlos A.N.; Bertelli, Luiz [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    Data from two pregnant women contaminated with {sup 137} Cs, body burdens of 0.2 and 300 MBq, respectively, at the time of the Goiania accident, were compared. The first one, with lower {sup 137} Cs body burden was exposed during the fourth month of pregnancy, while the second became pregnant three years and eight months after {sup 137} Cs intake. For the first woman {sup 137} Csconcentrations were similar for the mother, infant and placenta, indicating an easy and homogeneous transport of {sup 137} Cs from mother to fetus. The whole-body monitoring data from the second woman, who became pregnant four years after intake, did not show a reduction in biological half-life during the pregnancy. Cs concentration in the mother was found to be 13 times higher than in the infant. One possible reason for this result is that four after intake. Cs is supposed to be concentrated mainly in skeletal muscle tissue. During the pregnancy the blood flux becomes higher in most of organs and tissues except brain, liver and skeletal muscle tissue. In this case, the physiological changes due to pregnancy did not modify the cesium retention. (author)

  2. Continuing 137 Cs release to the sea from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant through 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kanda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The rate of cesium-137 (137Cs release to the sea from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant for the period until September 2012 was estimated. Publicly released data on 137Cs radioactivity in seawater near the power plant by Tokyo Electric Power Company strongly suggest a continuing release of radionuclides to the sea. The plant has an artificial harbour facility, and the exchange rate of harbour water with surrounding seawater was estimated by the decrease in radioactivity immediately after an intense radioactive water release. The estimated exchange rate of water in the harbour was 0.44 d−1 during the period from 6 to 19 April. The 137Cs radioactivity in the harbour water was substantially higher than that of seawater outside and remained relatively stable after June 2011. A quasi-steady state was assumed with continuous water exchange, and the average release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be 93 GBq d−1 in summer 2011 and 8.1 GBq d−1 in summer 2012.

  3. Assessment of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs in three types of vegetables consumed in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K.N.; Mao, S.Y.; Young, E.C.M

    1998-12-01

    A dynamic food chain model has been built for the modeling of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs in three types of vegetables consumed in Hong Kong, namely, white flowering cabbage (Brassica chinensis), head lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and celery (Apium graveolens). Some parameters have been estimated from the experimental data obtained in this work. The experimental data include the transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs from soil to the different vegetable species which are determined through high resolution gamma spectrometry, maximum crop biomasses for the vegetable species, the dry-to-fresh ratios for the vegetable species, the bulk density of soil layers and the average concentration of {sup 137}Cs in air. The derived parameters include the deposition rate and the root uptake rate, information for tillage, the logistic growth model and radionuclide concentrations in vegetables. The dynamic food chain model is solved by the Birchall-James algorithm to give the {sup 137}Cs concentration in subsurface soil, from the 0.1-25 cm soil layer, and the {sup 137}Cs concentration in harvested and unwashed vegetables. As validation of the model and parameters, the concentrations obtained experimentally and from the model are compared and are found to be in good agreement.

  4. The Y137H mutation of VvCYP51 gene confers the reduced sensitivity to tebuconazole in Villosiclava virens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Lin, Yang; Yin, Wei-Xiao; Peng, You-Liang; Schnabel, Guido; Huang, Jun-Bin; Luo, Chao-Xi

    2015-12-03

    Management of rice false smut disease caused by Villosiclava virens is dependent on demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides. Investigation of molecular mechanisms of resistance is therefore of upmost importance. In this study the gene encoding the target protein for DMI fungicides (VvCYP51) was cloned and investigated. The VvCYP51 gene in the resistant mutant revealed both a change from tyrosine to histidine at position 137 (Y137H) and elevated gene expression compared to the parental isolate. In order to determine which of these mechanisms was responsible for the reduced sensitivity to DMI fungicide tebuconazole, transformants expressing the mutated or the wild type VvCYP51 gene were generated. Transformants carrying the mutated gene were more resistant to tebuconazole compared to control transformants lacking the mutation, but the expression of the VvCYP51 gene was not significantly correlated with EC50 values. The wild type VvCYP51 protein exhibited stronger affinity for tebuconazole compared to the VvCYP51/Y137H in both molecular docking analysis and experimental binding assays. The UV-generated mutant as well as transformants expressing the VvCYP51/Y137H did not exhibit significant fitness penalties based on mycelial growth and spore germination, suggesting that isolates resistant to DMI fungicides based on the Y137H mutation may develop and be competitive in the field.

  5. Comparison of the post-Chernobyl [sup 137]Cs contamination of mushrooms from eastern Europe, Sweden, and North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.L.; Taylor, H.W.; Sharma, H.D. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    1993-01-01

    A comparison was made of 134Cs and 137Cs contamination in fungi from eastern Europe and eastern North America. Mean activities of 25 Ukrainian, 6 Swedish, and 10 North American collections were 4,660, 9,750, and 205 Bq/kg (dry weight), respectively. Additional measurements were made on samples from the Moscow, southern Belarus, and Yugoslavia/Bulgaria regions. Activity values were found to vary by several orders of magnitude within all geographic areas, even for the same mushroom species. Significantly higher specific activities were observed in mycorrhizal species than in saprophytic and parasitic fungi. Unfortunately, many of the European mycorrhizal species considered as prized edibles contained unacceptably high levels of 137Cs (> 1,000 Bq/kg [dry weight]) and should be used sparingly as food. By contrast, no mushrooms collected in Ontario or northern Michigan exceeded 1,000 Bq of 137Cs per kg (dry weight). The excessive 137Cs contamination was evident in mushrooms from areas that had substantial fallout from the 1986 accident in reactor 4 at the Chernobyl nuclear power station. However, observations suggest that about 20% of the 137Cs in eastern Europe (Moscow area, Belarus, and Ukraine) is of non-Chernobyl origin.

  6. {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 40}K uptake by lettuce plants in two distributions of soil contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinto, Francesca [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); CIRCE, INNOVA, via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli 80078 (Italy)], E-mail: francesca.quinto@unina2.it; Sabbarese, Carlo; Visciano, Lidianna; Terrasi, Filippo; D' Onofrio, Antonio [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); CIRCE, INNOVA, via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli 80078 (Italy)

    2009-08-15

    {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co, two of the radionuclides more representative of discharges from nuclear facilities, are of interest for radiological protections because of their great mobility in biosphere and affinity with biological systems. The aim of the present work is the investigation of the possible influence of the vertical distribution of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co in soil upon their uptake by lettuce as function of plant's growth. An experiment ad hoc has been carried out in field conditions. The results show that (i) the transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co from soil to lettuce is independent by their distribution in soil, (ii) the soil-plant transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co show a similar trend vs. growth stage, (iii) the {sup 40}K transfer factor trend is different from those of anthropogenic radionuclides, and (iv) {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co specific activities are about 1 Bq/kg, in the mature vegetable with soil activity from 9 to 21 kBq/m{sup 2}.

  7. {sup 137}Cs as tracer of the origin of allochthonous sediments in the Southeast Continental Margin of Brazil; {sup 137}Cs como tracador da origem de sedimentos aloctones na Margem Continental Sudeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Paulo A.L.; Mahiques, Michel M.; FIgueira, Rubens C.L., E-mail: paulo.alves.ferreira@usp.br, E-mail: mahiques@usp.br, E-mail: rfigueira@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico; Franca, Elvis J., E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The distribution of {sup 137}Cs, artificial radionuclide for which there is no current source, can inform on the origin and destination of sediments. This study analyzed about 60 samples of surface sediment to generate a model of spatial distribution of {sup 137}Cs in the Southeast Continental Margin of Brazil and surroundings for evaluating possible sediment sources for this region. The model showed that the levels of {sup 137}Cs in the southern compartment of the Southeast Brazilian Margin (south of Sao Sebastiao Island) are statistically similar to those of the Rio de la Plata river mouth region, indicating sediment entry due to the seasonal intrusion of the plume of Rio de la Plata, a phenomenon already studied by other authors.

  8. Spatial variability of caesium-137 activities in soils in the Jura mountains; Variabilite spatiale des activites en cesium-137 dans les sols d'un bassin versant du massif du Jura: etendue et principales sources de variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimou-Heumou, G.; Lucot, E.; Crini, N.; Briot, M.; Badot, P.M. [CNRS - Universite de Franche-Comte, Laboratoire chrono-environnement, UMR 6249, Place Leclerc, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2011-01-15

    275 soil samples were taken in the catchment area of the upper part of the Doubs river located in the Jura mountains according to a sampling strategy designed to evaluate the extent of the spatial variability of {sup 137}Cs activities and to identify its main sources. {sup 137}Cs activities ranged between about 1000 and 12000 Bq.m{sup -2} with an average of approximately 3600 Bq.m{sup -2}. The spatial variability of the contamination is high: {sup 137}Cs activity shows statistically significant links with altitude, soil organic matter and land cover, whereas the other studied parameters, i.e. soil type and topographic position, do not constitute significant sources of variation. These results are discussed in terms of evaluation of the radioactive contamination on a regional scale. They show that to be satisfactory, a sampling strategy must necessarily take into account the various types of land cover. (authors)

  9. Study of calibration equations of {sup 137}Cs methodology for soil erosion determination; Estudo de equacoes de calibracao para metodologia do {sup 137}Cs de determinacao da erosao de solos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Elias Antunes dos

    2001-02-01

    Using the method of {sup 137} Cs and gamma-ray spectrometry, soil samples of two plots erosion were studied at Londrina city. the soil class studied was a dystrophic dark red soil (LRd), with erosion indexes measured by Agronomic Institute of Parana State (IAPAR) using a conventional method, since 1976. Through the percentage reduction of {sup 137} Cs related to the reference site, the soil losses were calculated using the proportional, mass balance and profile distribution models. Making the correlation between the {sup 137} Cs concentrations and the erosion measured by IAPAR, two calibration equations were obtained and applied to the data set measured in the basin of the Unda river and compared to those models in the literature. As reference region, was chosen a natural forest located close to the plots. The average inventory of {sup 137} Cs was 555{+-} 16 Bq.m{sup -2}. The inventories of the erosion plots varied from 112 to 136 Bq.m{sup -2} for samples collected until 30 cm depth. The erosion rates estimated by the models varied from 64 to 85 ton.ha{sup -1}.yr{sup -1} for the proportional and profile distribution models, respectively, and 137 to 165 ton.ha{sup -1} for the mass balance model, while the measured erosion obtained by IAPAR was 86 ton.ha{sup -1}.yr{sup -1}. From the two calibration equations obtained, the one that take into account the {sup 137} Cs distribution with the soil profile was that showed the best consistence with the erosion rated for the basin of the Unda river (same soil class) in the range from 4 to 48 ton.ha{sup -1}.yr{sup -1}, while the proportional and profile distribution models applied rates from 7 to 45 ton.ha{sup -1}.yr{sup -1} and 6 to 69 ton.ha{sup -1}.yr{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  10. Uso do césio-137 para avaliar taxas de erosão em cultura de soja, café e pastagem Use of cesium-137 to assess soil erosion rates under soybean, coffee and pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Andrello

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se o césio-137 para avaliar as taxas de perda ou ganho de solo numa microbacia com diferentes culturas, situada no município de Cambe (PR, a 23º16' Sul e 51º17' Oeste. Foi utilizada uma equação teórica que considera a perda ou ganho de solo num ponto diretamente proporcional à redistribuição de césio-137. Uma amostragem em transectos foi efetuada com o objetivo de avaliar a redistribuição de solo dentro da microbacia. Um ponto em mata nativa na microbacia foi amostrado para estimar a quantidade de césio-137 depositado na região pela precipitação radioativa. Os pontos amostrados em área de pastagem apresentaram, em sua maioria, perda de solo. Os pontos amostrados em área de cafeeiro não apresentaram perda nem ganho de solo. Os pontos amostrados em área de soja, em sistema convencional de preparo de solo, apresentaram perda de solo.The methodology cesium-137 was used to assess soil erosion and deposition rates in a small watershed with varied crops, at 23º16' S and 51º17' W, in a district of Cambé, Paraná State, Brazil. A theoretical equation which considers soil loss or gain directly proportional to the cesium-137 redistribution was utilized in this study. In the watershed, soil redistribution was assessed by transect sampling, and the regional input of cesium-137 by radioactive rainfall determined based on samples from a point in the native forest. Most sampled pasture points presented soil loss, as well as the points in the soybean area under conventional tillage, while in the coffee crop there was neither soil loss nor gain.

  11. Using 137 Cs measurements to investigate the influence of erosion and soil redistribution on soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, P; Walling, D E

    2011-05-01

    Information on the interaction between soil erosion and soil properties is an important requirement for sustainable management of the soil resource. The relationship between soil properties and the soil redistribution rate, reflecting both erosion and deposition, is an important indicator of this interaction. This relationship is difficult to investigate using traditional approaches to documenting soil redistribution rates involving erosion plots and predictive models. However, the use of the fallout radionuclide (137)Cs to document medium-term soil redistribution rates offers a means of overcoming many of the limitations associated with traditional approaches. The study reported sought to demonstrate the potential for using (137)Cs measurements to assess the influence of soil erosion and redistribution on soil properties (particle size composition, total C, macronutrients N, P, K and Mg, micronutrients Mn, Mo, Fe, Cu and Zn and other elements, including Ti and As). (137)Cs measurements undertaken on 52 soil cores collected within a 7 ha cultivated field located near Colebrooke in Devon, UK were used to establish the magnitude and spatial pattern of medium-term soil redistribution rates within the field. The soil redistribution rates documented for the individual sampling points within the field ranged from an erosion rate of -12.9 t ha(-1) yr(-1) to a deposition rate of 19.2 t ha(-1) yr(-1). Composite samples of surface soil (0-5 cm) were collected immediately adjacent to each coring point and these samples were analysed for a range of soil properties. Individual soil properties associated with these samples showed significant variability, with CV values generally lying in the range 10-30%. The relationships between the surface soil properties and the soil redistribution rate were analysed. This analysis demonstrated statistically significant relationships between some soil properties (total phosphorus, % clay, Ti and As) and the soil redistribution rate, but for

  12. Measurement of caesium-137 in the human body using a whole body counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elessawi, Elkhadra Abdulmula

    Gamma radiation in the environment is mainly due to naturally occurring radionuclides. However, there is also a contribution from anthropogenic radionuclides such as 137Cs which originate from nuclear fission processes. Since 1986, the accident at the Chernobyl power plant has been a significant source of artificial environmental radioactivity. In order to assess the radiological impact of these radionuclides, it is necessary to measure their activities in samples drawn from the environment and in plants and animals including human populations. The whole body counter (WBC) at the University Hospital of Wales in Cardiff makes in vivo measurements of gamma emitting radionuclides using a scanning ring of six large-volume thallium-doped sodium iodide (Nal(Tl)) scintillation detectors. In this work the WBC was upgraded by the addition of two high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The performance and suitability of the detection systems were evaluated by comparing the detection limits for Cs. Sensitivities were measured using sources of known activity in a water filled anthropomorphic phantom and theoretical minimum detectable count-rates were estimated from phantom background pulse height spectra. The theoretical minimum detectable activity was about 24 Bq for the combination of six Nal(Tl) detectors whereas for the individual HPGe detectors it was 64 Bq and 65 Bq, despite the much improved energy resolution Activities of 137Cs in the human body between 1993 and 2007 were estimated from the background Nal(Tl) spectra of 813 patients and compared with recent measurements in 14 volunteers. The body burden of Cs in Cardiff patients increased from an average of about 60 Bq in the early and mid 1990s to a maximum of about 100 Bq in 2000. By 2007 it had decreased to about 40 Bq. This latter value was similar to that of Cardiff residents at the time of the Chernobyl accident and to that of the volunteers measured in 2007 (51 Bq). However, it was less than the mean activity of

  13. Study and Estimation of the Ratio of 137CS and 40K Specific Activities in Sandy and Loam Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mikalauskienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes changes in specific activities and fluctuations in the ratio of natural 40K and artificial 137Cs radionuclides in soil samples taken from different places of Lithuanian territory. The samples of soil have been selected from the districts polluted after the accident in Chernobyl nuclear plant performing nuclear testing operations. The study has established the main physical and chemical properties of soil samples and their impact on the concentration of 40K activities. 137Cs/40K specific activities in soil have been observed under the dry weight of the sample that varied from 0.0034 to 0.0240. The results of the study could be used for establishing and estimating 137Cs and 40K transfer in the system “soil-plant”.Article in Lithuanian

  14. Soil to plant transfer of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co in Ferralsol, Nitisol and Acrisol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, M.A. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/no, Recreio, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: angelica@ird.gov.br; Bartoly, F.; Viana, A.G.; Silva, M.M.; Rochedo, E.R.R. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/no, Recreio, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, D.V. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos, EMBRAPA, R. Jardim Botanico 1024, CEP: 22460-000, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Conti, C.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/no, Recreio, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-03-15

    In this study, soil to plant transfer factor values were determined for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co in radish (Raphanus sativus), maize (Zea mays L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) growing in gibbsite-, kaolinite- and iron-oxide-rich soils. After 3 years of experiment in lysimeters it was possible to identify the main soil properties able to modify the soil to plant transfer processes, e.g. exchangeable K and pH, for {sup 137}Cs, and organic matter for {sup 60}Co. Results of sequential chemical extraction were coherent with root uptake and allowed the recognition of the role of iron oxides on {sup 137}Cs behaviour and of Mn oxides on {sup 60}Co behaviour. This information should provide support for adequate choices of countermeasures to be applied on tropical soils in case of accident or for remediation purposes.

  15. Modeling (137)Cs bioaccumulation in the salmon-resident killer whale food web of the Northeastern Pacific following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alava, Juan José; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2016-02-15

    To track the long term bioaccumulation of (137)Cs in marine organisms off the Pacific Northwest coast of Canada, we developed a time dependent bioaccumulation model for (137)Cs in a marine mammalian food web that included fish-eating resident killer whales. The model outcomes show that (137)Cs can be expected to gradually bioaccumulate in the food web over time as demonstrated by the increase of the apparent trophic magnification factor of (137)Cs, ranging from 0.76 after 1 month of exposure to 2.0 following 30 years of exposure. (137)Cs bioaccumulation is driven by relatively rapid dietary uptake rates, moderate depuration rates in lower trophic level organisms and slow elimination rates in high trophic level organisms. Model estimates of the (137)Cs activity in species of the food web, based on current measurements and forecasts of (137)Cs activities in oceanic waters and sediments off the Canadian Pacific Northwest, indicate that the long term (137)Cs activities in fish species including Pacific herring, wild Pacific salmon, sablefish and halibut will remain well below the current (137)Cs-Canada Action Level for consumption (1000 Bq/kg) following a nuclear emergency. Killer whales and Pacific salmon are expected to exhibit the largest long term (137)Cs activities and may be good sentinels for monitoring (137)Cs in the region. Assessment of the long term consequences of (137)Cs releases from the Fukushima aftermath should consider the extent of ecological magnification in addition to ocean dilution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 137Cs Inter-Plant Concentration Ratios Provide a Predictive Tool for Coral Atolls with Distinct Benefits Over Transfer Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Bogen, K; Corado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2007-07-17

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR), [Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in coral atoll tree food-crops/Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume], can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict {sup 137}Cs concentration in tree food-crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact tree roots naturally integrate 137Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of {sup 137}Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in {sup 137}Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSD's of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10 to 20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

  17. Biosorption behavior and mechanism of cesium-137 on Rhodosporidium fluviale strain UA2 isolated from cesium solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tu; Feng, Yue; Liao, Jiali; Li, Xiaolong; Ding, Congcong; Zhang, Dong; Yang, Jijun; Zeng, Junhui; Yang, Yuanyou; Tang, Jun; Liu, Ning

    2014-08-01

    In order to identify a more efficient biosorbent for (137)Cs, we have investigated the biosorption behavior and mechanism of (137)Cs on Rhodosporidium fluviale (R. fluviale) strain UA2, one of the dominant species of a fungal group isolated from a stable cesium solution. We observed that the biosorption of (137)Cs on R. fluviale strain UA2 was a fast and pH-dependent process in the solution composed of R. fluviale strain UA2 (5 g/L) and cesium (1 mg/L). While a Langmuir isotherm equation indicated that the biosorption of (137)Cs was a monolayer adsorption, the biosorption behavior implied that R. fluviale strain UA2 adsorbed cesium ions by electrostatic attraction. The TEM analysis revealed that cesium ions were absorbed into the cytoplasm of R. fluviale strain UA2 across the cell membrane, not merely fixed on the cell surface, which implied that a mechanism of metal uptake contributed largely to the cesium biosorption process. Moreover, PIXE and EPBS analyses showed that ion-exchange was another biosorption mechanism for the cell biosorption of (137)Cs, in which the decreased potassium ions were replaced by cesium ions. All the above results implied that the biosorption of (137)Cs on R. fluviale strain UA2 involved a two-step process. The first step is passive biosorption that cesium ions are adsorbed to cells surface by electrostatic attraction; after that, the second step is active biosorption that cesium ions penetrate the cell membrane and accumulate in the cytoplasm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fluctuations of the Concentration of Cs-137 Aerosol in Chernobyl,Fukushima and Kawasaki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Yohei; Hatano, Yuko; Okada, Yukiko; Hirose, Katsumi

    2017-04-01

    Statistical analysis is applied to a time series of the airborne concentration of Cs-137. In order to extract fractal characteristics of the fluctuations, we employed the Hurst analysis. Interestingly, the Hurst index is around 1/3, which is common to the Chernobyl data, Fukushima data, and Kawasaki data. The Kawasaki data is measured by the Tokyo City University, located at 40km south to Tokyo. We proposed a stochastic differential equation, based on an advection equation with winds fluctuating probabilistically. The averaged solution of the equation is compared with measured data. We found that the index of the power of the time is -4/3, which is common to the three cases, Chernobyl, Fukushima and Kawasaki.

  19. Theoretical and experimental analysis of titanium Compton profile using {sup 137}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazirandeh, Ali [Science and Research Branch, Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tehran University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azizi, Maryam, E-mail: aziziph@gmail.co [Tehran University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this study is to measure the Compton profile of a titanium coating on a glass substrate, comparing it with a profile computed by the Hillman and Skilman program based on the Hartree-Fock model. The experimental Compton profile was obtained using 661.7 keV gamma-rays from a {sup 1}Ci {sup 137}Cs source and a 3''x3'' NaI(Tl) detector. The experimental, theoretical and unfolded Compton profiles of titanium have been compared. The results illustrate the breadth of experimental Compton profile in comparison with the two others. This difference can be mainly attributed to the Doppler broadening effect, the final quantum state of the electron and partly by the approximations implemented in the theoretical model.

  20. Succinic acid production from duckweed (Landoltia punctata) hydrolysate by batch fermentation of Actinobacillus succinogenes GXAS137.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Naikun; Wang, Qingyan; Zhu, Jing; Qin, Yan; Liao, Siming; Li, Yi; Zhu, Qixia; Jin, Yanling; Du, Liqin; Huang, Ribo

    2016-07-01

    Duckweed is potentially an ideal succinic acid (SA) feedstock due to its high proportion of starch and low lignin content. Pretreatment methods, substrate content and nitrogen source were investigated to enhance the bioconversion of duckweed to SA and to reduce the costs of production. Results showed that acid hydrolysis was an effective pretreatment method because of its high SA yield. The optimum substrate concentration was 140g/L. The optimum substrate concentration was 140g/L. Corn steep liquor powder could be considered a feasible and inexpensive alternative to yeast extract as a nitrogen source. Approximately 57.85g/L of SA was produced when batch fermentation was conducted in a 1.3L stirred bioreactor. Therefore, inexpensive duckweed can be a promising feedstock for the economical and efficient production of SA through fermentation by Actinobacillus succinogenes GXAS137. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. A Wearable Healthcare System With a 13.7 μA Noise Tolerant ECG Processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Shintaro; Yamashita, Ken; Nakano, Masanao; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Kimura, Hiromitsu; Marumoto, Kyoji; Fuchikami, Takaaki; Fujimori, Yoshikazu; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Shiga, Toshikazu; Yoshimoto, Masahiko

    2015-10-01

    To prevent lifestyle diseases, wearable bio-signal monitoring systems for daily life monitoring have attracted attention. Wearable systems have strict size and weight constraints, which impose significant limitations of the battery capacity and the signal-to-noise ratio of bio-signals. This report describes an electrocardiograph (ECG) processor for use with a wearable healthcare system. It comprises an analog front end, a 12-bit ADC, a robust Instantaneous Heart Rate (IHR) monitor, a 32-bit Cortex-M0 core, and 64 Kbyte Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM). The IHR monitor uses a short-term autocorrelation (STAC) algorithm to improve the heart-rate detection accuracy despite its use in noisy conditions. The ECG processor chip consumes 13.7 μA for heart rate logging application.

  2. Determination of derived concentration limit of {sup 137}Cs in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C. M.; Choi, Y. H.; Lim, K. M.; Lee, C. W. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W. K. [Kyunghee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-10-01

    In this work, according to new recommendation, we determined derived concentration limit of Cs-137 in soil. There are 2 classes in soil. one is a place for residence, and the other is a place for cultivation. The former has a pathway to internal exposure, the latter has a pathway to external exposure. Especially we considered the character of upland field and choose critical pathway. We have to control the derived concentration limit in case of contamination of some radio nuclides, because total concentration may exceed the dose limit although each concentration does not exceed the dose limit. So we use the method that dose limit is devided by the quantity of radionuclides. We expect to determine the acute value because this is very logical method, and does not have uncertainty of contamination pathway.

  3. Adaptation and security validation of an irradiator suitable for use of cesium-137 sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Rogério M.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of offering a new application for 137Cs sources that were previously used in brachytherapy, we developed an irradiator for TL and OSL dosimeters by adapting a shielded storage container; this irradiator was named SOPHIA. It was assembled from a cubic iron casing, filled with lead, with external dimensions of 25 × 25 × 25 cm3. It has three different drawers with two sample holders suitable for samples or dosimeters with dimensions of up to 2 cm. Dose distribution of the surface of sample holder was obtained with EBT-3 radiochromic film and detectors thermoluminescent CaSO4: Dy. Regarding the security conditions of irradiation, the whole routine procedure for placement and removal of samples was simulated using Monte Carlo code. The equipment presented proper security conditions and the doses received by users during procedures for placement and extraction of the samples are in accordance with international standards.

  4. Results from an Integrated Safety Analysis of Urelumab, an Agonist Anti-CD137 Monoclonal Antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Segal, Neil H; Logan, Theodore F; Hodi, F Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Urelumab is an agonist antibody to CD137 with potential application as an immuno-oncology therapeutic. Data were analyzed to assess safety, tolerability, and pharmacodynamic activity of urelumab, including the dose selected for ongoing development in patients with advanced solid tumors...... and lymphoma.Experimental Design: A total of 346 patients with advanced cancers who had progressed after standard treatment received at least one dose of urelumab in one of three dose-escalation, monotherapy studies. Urelumab was administered at doses ranging from 0.1 to 15 mg/kg. Safety analyses included...... the most common treatment-related AEs, and was associated with immunologic and pharmacodynamic activity demonstrated by the induction of IFN-inducible genes and cytokines.Conclusions: Integrated evaluation of urelumab safety data showed significant transaminitis was strongly associated with doses of ≥1 mg...

  5. Rate-capability study for a four-gap phenolic RPC with a Cs-137 source

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kyong Sei

    2014-01-01

    We report test results of a prototype four-gap phenolic resistive plate chamber (RPC) with high-rate gamma rays irradiated from a 200-mCi 137Cs source. The detector signals of the prototype four-gap RPC were digitized at charge thresholds of 80, 130, and 170 fC by using a 32-channel front-end-electronics board, previously developed for the current double-gap RPCs in CMS. We confirmed from the test that the cosmic muons were reliably measured with efficiencies higher than 95pct up to a gamma-background rate of 5.3 kHz cm-2. We concluded from the present R and D that use of the current four-gap phenolic RPCs is advantageous to the high-η triggers in CMS in virtue of the high rate capability.

  6. What is the origin of ^<137>Cs detected in under-floor soil samples of houses built in 1-3 years after the Hiroshima atomic bomb ?

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Hoshi, Masaharu; Endo, Satoru; Imanaka, Tetsuji; MIYAMOTO, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Since 2008, we have measured 137Cs and 239,240Pu isotopes in about 60 soil samples from the under-floor of 20 houses built within 1-3 years after 1945, in order to evaluate the close-in fallout deposition due to the "Black rain" at the time of Hiroshima atomic explosion. 239,240Pu was used as indicator to evaluate the contamination from global fallout 137Cs other than Hiroshima A-bomb derived 137Cs. As a result, it seems likely that 137Cs deposition at that time due to the Hiroshima A-bom...

  7. Estimating sediment and caesium-137 fluxes in the Ribble Estuary through time-series airborne remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakefield, R. [Atkins Limited, 200 Broomielaw, Glasgow, G1 4RU (United Kingdom); Tyler, A.N., E-mail: a.n.tyler@stir.ac.u [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); McDonald, P. [Environmental Sciences Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd, The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3LN (United Kingdom); Atkin, P.A. [Atkins Limited, Wastwater Pavillion Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3JZ (United Kingdom); Gleizon, P. [Environmental Sciences Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd, The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3LN (United Kingdom); Gilvear, D. [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    High spatial and temporal resolution airborne imagery were acquired for the Ribble Estuary, North West England in 1997 and 2003, to assess the application of time-series airborne remote sensing to quantify total suspended sediment and radionuclide fluxes during a flood and ebb tide sequence. Concomitant measurements of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and water column turbidity were obtained during the time-series image acquisition for the flood and ebb tide sequence on the 17th July 2003 to verify the assumption of a vertically well mixed estuary and thus justifying the vertical extrapolation of spatially integrated estimate of surface SPM. The {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations were calculated from a relatively stable relationship between SPM and {sup 137}Cs for the Ribble Estuary. Total estuary wide budgets of sediment and {sup 137}Cs were obtained by combining the image-derived estimates of surface SPM and {sup 137}Cs with estimates of water volume from a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model (VERSE) developed for the Ribble Estuary. These indicate that around 10,000 tonnes of sediment and 2.72 GBq of {sup 137}Cs were deposited over the tidal sequence monitored in July 2003. This compared favourably with bed height elevation change estimated from field work. An uncertainty analysis on the total sediment and {sup 137}Cs flux yielded a total budget of the order of 40% on the final estimate. The results represent a novel approach to providing a spatially integrated estimate of the total net sediment and radionuclide flux in an intertidal environment over a flood and ebb tide sequence. - Research highlights: {yields} This paper provides a rare insight into the next flux of sediment and associated radionuclide loading into an estuary over and ebb and flood tide sequence. {yields} The paper uses high temporal resolution airborne imagery coupled with concomitant sampling to convert total suspended sediment flux to {sup 137}Cs loading. {yields} For the estuary and date

  8. Multi-Zone Modeling of the Pulsar Win Nebula HESS J1825-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Etten, Adam; Romani, Roger W.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-11-08

    The pulsar wind nebula associated with PSR J1826-1334, HESS J1825-137, is a bright very high energy source with an angular extent of {approx} 1{sup o} and spatially-resolved spectroscopic TeV measurements. The gamma-ray spectral index is observed to soften with increasing distance from the pulsar, likely the result of cooling losses as electrons traverse the nebula. We describe analysis of X-ray data of the extended nebula, as well as 3-D time-dependent spectral energy distribution modeling, with emphasis on the spatial variations within HESS J1825-137. The multi-wavelength data places significant constraints on electron injection, transport, and cooling within the nebula. The large size and high nebular energy budget imply a relatively rapid initial pulsar spin period of 13 {+-} 7 ms and an age of 40 {+-} 9 kyr. The relative fluxes of each VHE zone can be explained by advective particle transport with a radially decreasing velocity profile with v(r) {proportional_to} r{sup -0.5}. The evolution of the cooling break requires an evolving magnetic field which also decreases radially from the pulsar, B(r, t) {proportional_to} r{sup -0.7} E(t){sup 1/2}. Detection of 10 TeV flux {approx} 80 pc from the pulsar requires rapid diffusion of high energy particles with {tau}{sub esc} {approx} 90 (R/10 pc){sup 2}(E{sub e}/100TeV){sup -1} year, contrary to the common assumption of toroidal magnetic fields with strong magnetic confinement. The model predicts a rather uniform Fermi LAT surface brightness out to {approx} 1{sup o} from the pulsar, in good agreement with the recently discovered LAT source centered 0.5{sup o} southwest of PSR J1826-1334 with extension 0.6 {+-} 0.1{sup o}.

  9. Association of IL-18 Gene Polymorphism at Position -137G / C with Vaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Solimanipour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC is a common disease affecting more than 75% of all women at least once in their lifetime. Various factors, including genetic and immunology factors, plays an important role in this disease. IL-18 is an important cytokine in immune system and has several polymorphisms in the promoter region. This study attempted to evaluate associations between IL-18 gene polymorphisms in patients with acute Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Methods: In the present case-control study, a total of 100 women with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis and 100 healthy women in Iran were examined. DNA was extracted by saluting out method and Single nucleotide Polymorphisms of the IL-18 gene at positions -607 (C/A and -137 (G/C were analyzed by the Allele-specific PCR method and data were compared in both groups by using Pearson’s chi-square test and to investigate that the genotypes study in the position followed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, was assessed by the Arlequin 3.1. Results: The results of this study showed that the frequency of genotypes of polymorphic position -607 C / A IL-18 genes were not significantly different in patients with vaginal Candidiasis and the control group P> 0.05. On the other hand, in patients ,there was  an association  with a significant increase in the C allele and CC genotype, of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at position-137G/C in the IL-18 gene promoter and Vulvovaginal Candidiasis ( P< 0.05 . Conclusion: Due to the fact that an increase in the expression of CC genotype and allele C, can lead to reduction of Interleukin-18 gene promoter activity and according to the impact of that activity of this cytokine can lead to Th1 system, it seems that the promoter activity of this gene may lead to reduced activity of the immune system and as a result be prone to vaginal Candidiasis

  10. Fertilization influence on the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr uptake by crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Tarasuk, S.; Shmigelskaya, I.; Putyatin, Y. [Belarussian Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry (BRISSA), Kazintsa 62, Minsk 220108 (Belarus)

    2003-07-01

    Reducing the risk of people internal irradiation based on decreasing of radionuclide concentration in consumed food stuff is a main objective for justified application of the countermeasures on contaminated agricultural land at the last period after Chernobyl radioactive fallout. Liming, fertilizers and manure application are the most widespread, applicable and effective countermeasures to restrict the soil-to-plant radionuclide transfer. Efficiency of the fertilization depends on radionuclide deposition, texture and chemical properties of the soils, biological characteristics of plants and type of the fertilizers. The selection of the types of agro-chemical treatments should be considered with combined economical and radiological justification. Countermeasures treatments have to lead to the profitable or self-sufficient production of extra yield with low radionuclide contamination. As objective of this work, mentioned is the assessment of the different types of agro-chemical countermeasures on agricultural land contaminated by {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr based on radiological economical justification. The efficiency of K fertilizer on different K supply soils, the efficiency of balanced fertilization at the different rates of manure utilization and the efficiency of liming and K fertilizer rates are presented. In conclusion, the soil fertility improvement based on balanced fertilization and liming to achieve the optimal agro-chemical properties allow significantly (up to 2-4 times) reduce the concentration of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in crop production with the simultaneous yield increase. The agro-chemical countermeasures targeted for balanced plant nutrition should have priority, on the assumption of providing the profitable or self-sufficient production of extra yield to pay for expenses. The profitability of agricultural production is a main criterion for justification of countermeasure application in long-term period after Chernobyl accident.

  11. Prussian blue decorporation of {sup 137}Cs in humans and beagle dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, D.R.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Oliveira, C.A.N.; Lundgren, D.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A

    1998-07-01

    Prussian blue was used to enhance the elimination of {sup 137}Cs from 46 individuals contaminated in an accident in Goiania, Brazil, in 1987. PB dosages administered to the victims varied from 1 to 3 g.d{sup -1} for children and from 3 to 10 g.d{sup -1} for adolescents and adults. To complement human data in the evaluation of the effectiveness of PB and its relation to age, a 41 day study was conducted using immature (4.7 months old), young adult (2.4 years old) and aged (13.5 years old) male beagle dogs. The mean biological half-times for the Goiania people under PB treatment were 24 {+-} 3 days, 30 {+-} 12 days and 25 {+-} 11 days, for children, adolescents and adults, respectively. The mean reductions of half-times were 43%, 46% and 69%, respectively. The effect of PB was shown to be independent of age and the administered dose. Similar results were found in dogs: the mean biological half-times related to the second component of the equation were 11, 15 and 13 days for the immature, young adult and aged dogs, respectively, indicating a reduction of the clearance half-times of 45%, 45% and 63%. The experiment in dogs has shown that when the PB is administered immediately after caesium intake, its effectiveness is greater in immature than in aged dogs. The percentages of the initial body burden remaining 41 days after caesium intake were 4%, 12% and 8% for the immature, young adult and aged dogs, respectively. This age-related effect correlates with the increased fraction of {sup 137}Cs eliminated with the fast clearance half-time, and was greater in immature than in aged dogs. (author)

  12. Estimation Of 137Cs Using Atmospheric Dispersion Models After A Nuclear Reactor Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, V.; Kindap, T.; Unal, A.; Pozzoli, L.; Karaca, M.

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear energy will continue to have an important role in the production of electricity in the world as the need of energy grows up. But the safety of power plants will always be a question mark for people because of the accidents happened in the past. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident which happened in 26 April 1986 was the biggest nuclear accident ever. Because of explosion and fire large quantities of radioactive material was released to the atmosphere. The release of the radioactive particles because of accident affected not only its region but the entire Northern hemisphere. But much of the radioactive material was spread over west USSR and Europe. There are many studies about distribution of radioactive particles and the deposition of radionuclides all over Europe. But this was not true for Turkey especially for the deposition of radionuclides released after Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident and the radiation doses received by people. The aim of this study is to determine the radiation doses received by people living in Turkish territory after Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident and use this method in case of an emergency. For this purpose The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model was used to simulate meteorological conditions after the accident. The results of WRF which were for the 12 days after accident were used as input data for the HYSPLIT model. NOAA-ARL's (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Air Resources Laboratory) dispersion model HYSPLIT was used to simulate the 137Cs distrubition. The deposition values of 137Cs in our domain after Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor Accident were between 1.2E-37 Bq/m2 and 3.5E+08 Bq/m2. The results showed that Turkey was affected because of the accident especially the Black Sea Region. And the doses were calculated by using GENII-LIN which is multipurpose health physics code.

  13. A New Approach for Heterogeneity Corrections for Cs-137 Brachytherapy Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sina, S; Faghihi, R; Meigooni, A S

    2015-06-01

    Most of the current brachytherapy treatment planning systems (TPS) use the TG-43U1 recommendations for dosimetry in water phantom, not considering the heterogeneity effects. The purpose of this study is developing a method for obtaining correction factors for heterogeneity for Cs-137 brachytherapy sources based on pre-calculated MC simulations and interpolation. To simulate the effect of phantom heterogeneity on dose distribution around Cs-137 sources, spherical water phantoms were simulated in which there were spherical shells of bone with different thicknesses (0.2cm to 1.8cm with 0.1cm increment) at different distances (from 0.1cm to 10cm, with 0.5cm increment) from the source center. The spherical shells with 0.1cm thickness at different distances from 0.1cm to 10cm were used as tally cells. The doses at these cells were obtained by tally types F6, *F8, and *F4.The results indicate that the percentage differences between the doses in heterogeneity sections with the dose at the same positions inside the homogeneous water phantom vary when the distance of bone section from the source center increases, because of decreasing the average energy of photons reaching the bone layer. Finally, the results of Monte Carlo simulations were used as the input data of MATLAB software, and the percentage dose difference for each new configuration (i.e. different thickness of inhomogenity at different distances from the source) was estimated using the 2D interpolation of MATLAB. According to the results, the algorithm used in this study, is capable of dose estimation with high accuracy. The developed method using the results of Monte Carlo simulations and the dose interpolation can be used in treatment planning systems for heterogeneity corrections.

  14. Impact of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl reactor accident on the Spanish Mediterranean marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molero, J.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Merino, J. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Mitchell, P.I. [Laboratory of Radiation Physics, University College, Dublin (Ireland); Vidal-Quadras, A. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Departament de Fisica, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    As part of a study aiming to establish the distribution and bioavailability of man-made radionuclides in the marine environment, radiocaesium levels were determined in large volume sea water samples and in the sea-grass Posidonia oceanica collected along the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Results obtained from 1987 to 1991 showed the enhancement of radiocaesium levels in the Spanish Mediterranean marine environment after the Chernobyl accident. The well-known {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs isotopic ratio in Chernobyl fresh deposition was used to identify the weapon tests fall-out and Chernobyl deposition components. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs mean concentrations in surface waters from the Spanish Mediterranean shoreline were 4.8{+-}0.2 and 0.27{+-}0.01 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. {sup 137}Cs concentration incorporated into Mediterranean waters as a consequence of the post-Chernobyl deposition was estimated to be 1.16{+-}0.04 Bq m{sup -3}, which is a 33{+-}2% increase over the previous levels. {sup 137}Cs estimated inventory in the surface water layer (0-50 m) of the Catalan-Balearic basin was 17.4{+-}0.5 TBq for {sup 137}Cs, of which 4.3{+-}0.2 TBq must be attributed to post-Chernobyl deposition, and 1.00{+-}0.04 TBq for {sup 134}Cs. Activation and fission products such as {sup 106}Ru, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 144}Ce, were detected in all samples of Posidonia oceanica. Mean radiocaesium levels in the bioindicator were 1.02{+-}0.25 and 0.20{+-}0.03 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs, respectively, corresponding to a mean isotopic ratio {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs equal to 0.20{+-}0.04 (1987). {sup 137}Cs activity incorporated by Posidonia oceanica after the Chernobyl deposition over the Mediterranean Sea was estimated as 0.51{+-}0.08 Bq kg{sup -1}. Therefore, {sup 137}Cs specific activity had increased 100{+-}40% one year after the accident. Low level radioactive liquid effluents from the nuclear power plants located on the southern Catalan

  15. Monte Carlo simulations to calculate energy doses in a cow after continuous ingestion of CS 137 and K 40; Monte-Carlo-Simulationen zur Berechnung der Energiedosis in einem Rind nach kontinuierlicher Aufnahme von CS 137 und K 40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichl, E. [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Medizintechnik; Rabitsch, H. [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Arbeitsgebiet Strahlenphysik

    2009-07-01

    Currently ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) develops a new recommendation to estimate the natural radiation exposure of an agreed set of animals and reference plants. For estimating effective dose in humans and animals, the incorporated activities of natural and artificial radionuclides in body tissues and contents of the digestive system have to be known. It was the aim of this investigation to calculate energy doses caused by Cs 137 and K 40 in the reproductive organs (uterus, ovaries) of a cow. During its whole lifetime from 1986 to 1992, the cow incorporated continuously Cs 137 which was due to the fallout following the Chernobyl accident. K 40 occurs naturally in the cow's fodder. The cow was born in a highly contaminated region of Styria, Austria, and was infertile since 1990. The activities of Cs 137 and K 40 in the cow's fodder and in tissues, organs and contents of the digestive system of the carcass were measured simultaneously with the help of semiconductor detectors. To calculate the specific absorbed fractions by means of the Monte Carlo code MCNP, an appropriate simulation model for the reproductive organs and their surrounding tissues was developed. The contents of rectum and urinary bladder account for the main part of the energy dose in the reproductive organs. Comparison of our results with data from other investigations showed, that lifetime accumulation of Cs 137 and K 40 was too low to cause radiation inferred infertility. (orig.)

  16. Study on the energy dependence of gamma radiation detectors for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co; Estudo da dependencia energetica de detectores de radiacao gama para {sup 137}Cs e {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda B.C.; Diniz, Raphael E.; Carvalho, Valdir S.; Vivolo, Vitor; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: fbnonato@ipen.b, E-mail: rediniz@ipen.b, E-mail: vcsouza@ipen.b, E-mail: vivolo@ipen.b, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    38 Geiger-Mueller radiation detectors and 9 ionization chambers were calibrated, viewing to study the energy dependence of the monitor response for gamma radiation fields ({sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co). The results were considered satisfactory only for ionization chambers and for some Geiger-Mueller detectors

  17. Distribution of oceanic 137Cs from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant simulated numerically by a regional ocean model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi

    2012-09-01

    Radioactive materials were released to the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant as a result of the reactor accident after the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011. The measured (137)Cs concentration in a seawater sample near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant site reached 68 kBq L(-1) (6.8 × 10(4)Bq L(-1)) on 6 April. The two major likely pathways from the accident site to the ocean existed: direct release of high radioactive liquid wastes to the ocean and the deposition of airborne radioactivity to the ocean surface. By analysis of the (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratio, we determined that direct release from the site contributed more to the measured (137)Cs concentration than atmospheric deposition did. We then used a regional ocean model to simulate the (137)Cs concentrations resulting from the direct release to the ocean off Fukushima and found that from March 26 to the end of May the total amount of (137)Cs directly released was 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq ((3.5 ± 0.7) × 10(15)Bq). The simulated temporal change in (137)Cs concentrations near the Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plant site agreed well with observations. Our simulation results showed that (1) the released (137)Cs advected southward along the coast during the simulation period; (2) the eastward-flowing Kuroshio and its extension transported (137)C during May 2011; and (3) (137)Cs concentrations decreased to less than 10 BqL(-1) by the end of May 2011 in the whole simulation domain as a result of oceanic advection and diffusion. We compared the total amount and concentration of (137)Cs released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors to the ocean with the (137)Cs released to the ocean by global fallout. Even though the measured (137)Cs concentration from the Fukushima accident was the highest recorded, the total released amount of (137)Cs was not very large. Therefore, the effect of (137)Cs released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors on concentration in the whole North

  18. CD137 expression is induced by Epstein-Barr virus infection through LMP1 in T or NK cells and mediates survival promoting signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimori, Mayumi; Imadome, Ken-Ichi; Komatsu, Honami; Wang, Ludan; Saitoh, Yasunori; Yamaoka, Shoji; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Kurata, Morito; Koyama, Takatoshi; Shimizu, Norio; Fujiwara, Shigeyoshi; Miura, Osamu; Arai, Ayako

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the mechanism for development of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T- or NK-cell neoplasms, we focused on the costimulatory receptor CD137. We detected high expression of CD137 gene and its protein on EBV-positive T- or NK-cell lines as compared with EBV-negative cell lines. EBV-positive cells from EBV-positive T- or NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV-T/NK-LPDs) patients also had significantly higher CD137 gene expression than control cells from healthy donors. In the presence of IL-2, whose concentration in the serum of EBV-T/NK-LPDs was higher than that of healthy donors, CD137 protein expression was upregulated in the patients' cells whereas not in control cells from healthy donors. In vitro EBV infection of MOLT4 cells resulted in induction of endogenous CD137 expression. Transient expression of LMP1, which was enhanced by IL-2 in EBV-T/NK-LPDs cells, induced endogenous CD137 gene expression in T and NK-cell lines. In order to examine in vivo CD137 expression, we used EBV-T/NK-LPDs xenograft models generated by intravenous injection of patients' cells. We identified EBV-positive and CD8-positive T cells, as well as CD137 ligand-positive cells, in their tissue lesions. In addition, we detected CD137 expression on the EBV infected cells from the lesions of the models by immune-fluorescent staining. Finally, CD137 stimulation suppressed etoposide-induced cell death not only in the EBV-positive T- or NK-cell lines, but also in the patients' cells. These results indicate that upregulation of CD137 expression through LMP1 by EBV promotes cell survival in T or NK cells leading to development of EBV-positive T/NK-cell neoplasms.

  19. [Using 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) to trace the impact of soil erosion on soil organic carbon at a slope farmland in the black soil region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hai-Yan; Sheng, Mei-Ling; Sun, Li-Ying; Cai, Qiang-Guo

    2013-07-01

    Soil cores were collected from a 28.5 hm2 slope farmland in the black soil region of Northeast China. Based on the sampled data of 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC, the potentials of applying 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) for assessing SOC redistribution were evaluated, aimed to approach the impact of soil erosion on soil organic carbon (SOC) in black soil region. At both planar and vertical directions, the 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC in the farmland had similar distribution patterns. Although there were large planar variations in the 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) areal activities and the SOC stock as affected by soil erosion and deposition, the 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC had similar changing trends over the landscape. Two depth distribution profiles were also used to study the relations of 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) with SOC. At eroded site, the radioactivities of 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) and the SOC mass fraction did not show large variations in 0-25 cm soil layer, but decreased sharply below 25 cm. For the deposition sample, the radioactivities of 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) in 0-100 cm soil increased firstly and then decreased. The SOC mass fraction also had similar depth distribution pattern in this soil layer. The 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) presented positive linear correlations with the SOC, indicating that 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC moved with the same physical mechanism in the farmland, and fallout 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) could be used to study spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of SOC in the black soil region under the condition of soil erosion.

  20. Distribution of 137Cs activity concentration in wood scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. of Zhytomyr Polissya after the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Holiaka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the calculated values for wood samples (relative diameter, height and relative activity concentration of 137Cs selected in different parts of the profile tree stems, statistical and graphical interpretation of the regularity of the distribution of 137Cs in the wood of model trees of Scots pine were performed. In the research, detected observation uniformity of samples in the studied profiles stems for the relative activity concentration of 137Cs, calculated on the base of the ratio of the activity concentration of tree rings for certain years to their median at height of 1.3 m. Three intervals of the relative diameters for stem wood of model trees at height of 1.3 m of the study stand were obtained, that is characterized by significant difference on the activity concentration of 137Cs: d(ω1.3m ≤ 0.55 (Am(ω = 0.63 ± 0.08; 0.55 < d(ω1.3m ≤ 0.95 (Am(ω = 1.01 ± 0.04; 0.95 < d(ω1.3m ≤ 1.0 (Am(ω = 2.1 ± 0.5.