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Sample records for samanea saman jacq

  1. Composición química, producción de gas in vitro y astringencia en el follaje de Samanea saman (Jacq. Merrill Chemical composition, in vitro gas production and astringency in the foliage of Samanea saman (Jacq. Merrill

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    A Ojeda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la composición química, la astringencia, la producción de gas y la degradabilidad ruminal in vitro de la fracción comestible de Samanea saman, durante el año 2009 se realizaron cinco muestreos (febrero, abril, mayo, junio y octubre en plantas localizadas en un bosque semicaducifolio tropical en Venezuela. En cada muestreo se consideraron 10 plantas diferentes, cada una como una réplica evaluada en un diseño completamente aleatorizado. No hubo variación (P>0,05 en la MO (94,1 ± 1,5%, la PC (20,1 ± 1,5%, la hemicelulosa (17,5 ± 3,7%, la celulosa (10,5 ± 2,5%, la lignina (11,1 ± 1,8% y los fenoles totales (2,8 ± 1,1%. De mayo a octubre se observaron los mayores valores (PIn order to determine the chemical composition, astringency, in vitro gas production and ruminal degradability of the edible fraction of Samanea saman, during 2009, five samplings (February, April, May, June and October were conducted on plants located in a semideciduous tropical forest in Venezuela. In each sampling 10 different plants were considered, each as a replicate evaluated in a completely randomized design. OM (94,1 ± 1,5%, CP (20,1 ± 1,5%, hemicellulose (17,5 ± 3,7%, cellulose (10,5 ± 2,5%, lignin (11,1 ± 1,8%, and total phenols (2,8 ± 1,1% did not show variations (P<0,05. From May to October, the highest values (P<0,05 of EE (5,3 ± 0,8%, NDF (44,8 ± 3,3%, ADF (16,7 ± 1,9%, and Ca (1,3 ± 0,2% were observed; while total (P<0,05 and condensed tannins (P<0,01 increased in October (3,75% and 0,99%, respectively. Astringency was not detected from February to May, and had limited values from June to October (0,4 ± 0,2 g Eta/100 g DM. No differences were observed in b (0,04 ± 0,01 mL/h, To (1,2 ± 0,2 h and T½ (21,3 ± 3,3 h with the highest gas potential production in February (63,3 mL/g DM. The OM and NDF degradability was reduced (P<0,05 in April (44,7% and 24,7%, respectively, without differences during the remaining

  2. Potassium Channels in Motor Cells of Samanea saman1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nava; Ehrenstein, Gerald; Iwasa, Kunihiko; Mischke, Charles; Bare, Charles; Satter, Ruth L.

    1988-01-01

    Leaflet movements in Samanea saman are driven by the shrinking and swelling of cells in opposing (extensor and flexor) regions of the motor organ (pulvinus). Changes in cell volume, in turn, depend upon large changes in motor cell content of K+, Cl− and other ions. We performed patch-clamp experiments on extensor and flexor protoplasts, to determine whether their plasma membranes contain channels capable of carrying the large K+ currents that flow during leaflet movement. Recordings in the “whole-cell” mode reveal depolarization-activated K+ currents in extensor and flexor cells that increase slowly (t½ = ca. 2 seconds) and remain active for minutes. Recordings from excised patches reveal a single channel conductance of ca. 20 picosiemens in both cell types. The magnitude of the K+ currents is adequate to account quantitatively for K+ loss, previously measured in vivo during cell shrinkage. The K+ channel blockers tetraethylammonium (5 millimolar) or quinine (1 millimolar) blocked channel opening and decreased light- and dark-promoted movements of excised leaflets. These results provide evidence for the role of potassium channels in leaflet movement. Images Fig. 4 PMID:16666362

  3. Eficiencia del saman (samanea saman) como insumo para el engorde del híbrido rojo de tilapia (oreochromis sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquel Corral, David

    2009-01-01

    En el proyecto se comparó una dieta natural elaborada con pulpa de saman (Samanea saman) mezclada con pasta de soya, contra un alimento comercial; ambos suplementos alimenticios formulados al 24% de proteína. Se utilizó dos tanques de cemento, cada uno de los cuales estaba dividido en 4 compartimientos y para fines de la investigación se hizo uso únicamente de 3 compartimientos de cada tanque. Las dietas y cada una de sus replicas fueron distribuidas aleatoriamente en los 6 compartimient...

  4. Volatile constituents from Samanae saman (Jacq.) Merr. Fabaceae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    Oct 16, 2006 ... as 'monkey pod' or 'cow tamarind'. Rain trees may attain ... pods that are suitable as a dry season feed supplement. (Flores, 2002; Durr .... uptake studies. Int. J. Pharm. 127: 9-26. Durr PA (2001). The biology, ecology and agroforestry potential of the raintree, Samanae saman (Jacq.) Merr. Agrofor. Systems.

  5. Silviculture conditions and wood properties of Samanea saman and Enterolobium cyclocarpum in 19-year-old mixed plantations

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    M.F. Obando

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The objective of this work is to examine wood properties of a mixed plantation of Samanea saman and Enterolobium cyclocarpum, combined with native species of Costa Rica.Area of study: Mixed plantation in dry tropical zone of Costa Rica.Material and Methods: It was measured by total diameter, heartwood, bark thickness, several physical wood properties (green density, specific gravity, volumetric, tangential and radial shrinkage and moisture content and wood color.Main results: The largest of this diameter are reached when S. saman is planted with E. cyclocarpum, E. cyclocarpum and Swietenia macrophylla and Simarouba glauca. Meanwhile the largest total diameter and heartwood in E. cyclocarpum was found when this species is planted with Dalbergia retusa. Heartwood percentage, bark percentage, and some physical properties are not affected when S. saman or E. cyclocarpum are planted with other species. However, parameters of wood color were affected mixture plantation of S. saman or E. cyclocarpum with other species. The lowest difference between wood from mixed plantations and wood from trees growing in native forests is produced when S. saman is mixed with E. cyclocarpum, but this last species is mixed with Hymenaea courbaril and produced wood with the lowest difference in wood color compared to trees growing in the natural forest.Research highlights: S. saman and E. cyclocarpum tress planted in a mixed plantation produce variation in breast diameter, physical properties, heartwood percentage and wood color.Keywords: silvicultural condition; wood properties; tropical species; plantation species.

  6. Efecto de diferentes métodos de escarificación en la emergencia de semillas frescas de Samanea saman (algarrobo Effect of different scarification methods on the emergence of fresh seeds from Samanea saman

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    I Gómez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de diferentes alternativas de escarificación sobre la germinación de semillas de Samanea saman (algarrobo en estado fresco, se realizó un estudio bajo condiciones naturales de campo en un suelo Fluvisol, durante el segundo trimestre del año (abril-junio. Se utilizó un diseño de bloque al azar con cuatro réplicas y los tratamientos fueron: T0 - semilla sin tratar, T1 - inmersión en agua a punto de ebullición durante 5 minutos, T2 - inmersión en agua a punto de ebullición durante 10 minutos, T3 - inmersión en agua a punto de ebullición durante 15 minutos, T4 - inmersión en agua a temperatura ambiente durante 24 horas, T5 - inmersión en agua a temperatura ambiente durante 48 horas y T6 - inmersión en agua a temperatura ambiente durante 72 horas. Los tratamientos T3 y T4, sin diferir significativamente entre sí, mostraron el mayor efecto en la emergencia de las semillas, con valores superiores al 67%. Por su parte, la velocidad de germinación fue mayor entre los 6 y 20 días después de la siembra, lo que evidencia la posibilidad de utilizar ambos tratamientos para romper la dormancia inicial que presentan las semillas de esta especie. Se concluye que los mejores tratamientos fueron la inmersión en agua a punto de ebullición durante 15 minutos y la inmersión en agua a temperatura ambiente durante 24 horas, por lo que se recomienda su utilización en las semillas del algarrobo.With the objective of evaluating the effect of different scarification alternatives on the germination of fresh seeds from Samanea saman, a study was conducted under natural field conditions on a Fluvisol soil, during the second quarter of the year (April-June. A randomized block design with four replications was used and the treatments were: T0 - untreated seed, T1 - immersion in boiling water for 5 minutes, T2 - immersion in boiling water during 10 minutes, T3 - immersion in boiling water for 15 minutes, T4 - immersion

  7. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents of n-butanol extract of Samanea saman leaf and the antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Wiwik Susanah; Swantara, I. Made Dira; Asih, I. A. Raka Astiti; Sinarsih, Ni Ketut; Suteja, I. Kadek Pater

    2016-03-01

    Total flavonoid and phenolic contents in some natural products was suspected of having a positive correlation to its activity in inhibiting the growth of bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the total flavonoid and phenolic contents of n-butanol extract of Samanea saman leaf, and to evaluate the antibacterial activity towards Escherechia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Extraction of compounds was done by ethanol 96%, followed by fractionation into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. Determination of total flavonoid and phenolic contents was done by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer using standard of quersetin and galic acid respectively. In addition, antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar disc diffusion method. Extraction of 1000 g of Samanea saman leaf was obtained 80 g of ethanol extracts, fractionation of the extract was obtained 8.02 g of n-hexane extracts, 7.11 g of ethyl acetate extracts, 13.5 g of n-butanol extracts, and 14.16 g of aqueous extracts. Phytochemical screening of the n-butanol extracts revealed the presence of flavonoid and phenolic compounds. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents were successively 43.5798 mg QE/100g and 34.0180 mg GAE/100g. The butanol extracts inhibited the growth of S.aureus higher than the growth of E.coli. At the concentration of 2, 4, 6, 8 % (b/v), and positive control (meropenem μg/disc), inhibition zone towards S. aureus was successively 5.67, 9.33, 10.33, 12.00, and 32.33 mm, while the inhibition zone towards E. coli was1.33, 3.33, 4.33, 5.43, and 34.00 mm.

  8. Reproductive toxicity of Samanea tubulosa on rats

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    Maria Rafaella Luz de Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Samanea tubulosa is a plant used for medicinal and feeding purposes. However, ingestion of S. tubulosa pods has been associated with bovine abortion. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of diet containing 5% of S. tubulosa pod meal on male and female Wistar rats. Diet was administered to male rats (n = 10 for 60 days before mating. Female rats (n = 10 received the treatment for 30 days, during cohabitation and from gestational day (GD 0 to GD20. Treated animals were mated with untreated rats. In male rats, plant consumption caused decreased food consumption and 20% fertility index reduction. Litters from treated males presented lower body weight and crown–rump length. Female rats treated with the plant increased water and food intake and body weight. Decreases in fertility, fecundity and gestation indices and increase of placenta weight and mean number of corpora lutea were found. Thus, owing to the possible general and reproductive toxic effects, long-term consumption of S. tubulosa is not recommended for phytotherapic or food purposes.

  9. Effects of Albizia saman pods supplementation on feed intake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With 3 replicate per ration and each period lasting 28days feed intake and live weight changes of White Fulani Calves were determined. The DM intake increased with increased level of Albizia saman in the ration, the highest liveweight changes was recorded when the animals were fed 30% Albizia saman whole pod.

  10. Representasi Seksualitas dalam Novel Saman Karya Ayu Utami

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    Rina Patriana Chairiyani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Saman is a literature written by Ayu Utami. Showing a representation of a female counterpart ideology that differs from what has already been made in heterosexual and patriarchal society. The community considers sex is taboo to talk openly. In this novel it is represented openly. Women are no longer in a weak position, and have choices. In this paper, research methodology used is qualitative method. 

  11. ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq ) vascular wilt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effet de la jachére sur l'expérimentation de la fusariose vasculaire du palmier à huile ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq ) : Effects of the fallow in the expression of oil-palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq ) vascular wilt.

  12. The Translation of Indonesian Cultural Lexicons in the Novel Saman

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    Evert H. Hilman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Article was aimed to explore and identity the manners used by the translator in translating the Indonesian cultural lexicon in the novel Saman into English, and to find out which manners that contained the least semantic shifts concerning the problems of meaning related to cultural differences. Method applied was descriptive qualitative research by collecting and analyzing both the Indonesian and English versions of the novel. The samples were classified by Newmark four categories: loan words, cultural equivalent, functional equivalent, and addition. It can be concluded that there are only seven manners found from the collected data but only four manners used in the analysis, they are loan word, cultural equivalent, functional equivalent, and addition.

  13. El colapso del Puente Samaná: un nuevo enfoque

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    Gustavo Cifuentes Cifuentes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available E13 de octubre de 1993, colapsó la superestructura del puente sobre el río Samaná en la carretera Bogotá - Medellín, en Colombia. La Facultad de Minas de la Universidad Nacional, en Medellín, llevó a cabo un estudio que señala como causa probable del colapso, la falla de la unión de la armadura inferior con un pendolón. Un nuevo estudio analítico realizado en 1996, por la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad Nacional, en Bogotá, indica que el puente tenía problemas de estabilidad general, los cuales se presentan en este artículo, y se indican como posible causa del colapso. Así mismo se muestran algunas soluciones dadas al problema para un puente gemelo.

  14. Pertunjukan Saman Di Blangkejeren Aceh: Analisis Makna Gerak Tari Dan Teks, Fungsi Sosio Budaya, Serta Struktur Musik

    OpenAIRE

    Putriani, Nuning

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the meaning and the meaning of poetry in motion saman dance, which aims to preserve the saman dance later in the day, and the efforts to adjust to market tastes and desires of the dancers to enrich saman dance movements. The results of this study indicate the development of creativity semangkin motion was carried by the dancers Blangkejeren saman contained in Gayo Lues, in accordance with the times today, So is the meaning of each movement performed by the dancers sama...

  15. Effects of different CO2 concentration on growth and photosynthetic of rain tree plants (Albizia saman jacq.Merr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathurrahman, F.; Nizam, M. S.; Wan Juliana, W. A.; Doni, Febri; NorLailatul, W. M.; Che Radziah, C. M. Z.

    2016-11-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to determine the effect of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) in rain tree growth under controllable growth chamber. The tolerance towards CO2 absorption in the photosynthesis process for the growth of tree rain is still unknown. In this study, rain tree seedlings were incubated for three months in a growth chamber with three different CO2 concentration treatment: GC1 (300 ppm), GC2 (600 ppm) and GC3 (900 ppm) at similar condition of temperature (28°C), humidity (60%) and lighting (1200 lux). The results showed that increased CO2 significantly increase the growth rate and chlorophyll content in rain tree. The results of this study add to the further understanding of how the improvement of the growth and physiological characteristics of rain tree was affected by CO2 enrichment treatment. This research can for used for global warming mitigation in the future.

  16. ENERGY OF NOVELS SAMAN, NAYLA, AND PETIR IN LITERARY PUBLISHING INDUSTRY

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    Sugiarti -

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The research was based on the notion that novels Saman, Nayla, and Petir haveuniqueness in the exploration of ideas, narration style, and such typical techniques that creatednew esthetics. Besides, the literary works were written by three creative, innovative andknowledgeable young women who, in expressing their ideas and thoughts, were able to totallyframe story and give energy to the novels Saman, Nayla, and Petir. In the history of Indonesiancontemporary literary works, they (Ayu Utami, Djenar Maesa Ayu, and Dewi Lestari wereknown to have produce monumental works, which in turn received good responses in Indonesianliterature publishing industry.This research is aimed at describing (a thematic aspect and energy of the novels Saman,Nayla and Petir, which encourages literature publishing industry to publish; (b readers’reception of the themes novels Saman, Nayla, and Petir in social and cultural change andpublishing industry; (c relevance of cultural industry and economic praxis of readers, bookmarket and publishing industry of literary history. The research method used was descriptivewith qualitative and hermeneutic approaches. Meanwhile, the data was deeply analyzed in theunderstanding, content, and context. The analysis was conducted in cyclic and counter balancedways to gain deep understanding of writers’ thoughts, readers’ responses to the literary works,and the role of publishing industry with available market prospect. The research was based ontheory of post structuralism, reception, intertext, and cultural industry in literature.The research results showed that (1 thematic aspects and energy of the novels Saman,Nayla, and Petir as a context described women’s concern about social and cultural structure,patriarchy culture, and conflicts between traditional and modern structures. There were vulgarand jumping expressions, contrasting dictions, fantasy and symbolic language, the use of naturalstyle, free narrative, surprising and

  17. Evaluación nutricional de arbóreas y arbustivas de bosque muy seco tropical (bms- T) en producción bovina

    OpenAIRE

    Edmundo Apráez; Arturo Leonel Gálvez; Jorge Fernando Navia

    2017-01-01

    Se determinó la calidad nutricional de las arbóreas Payandé (Pithecellobium lanceolatum MART.), Guácimo (Guazuma ulmifolia LAM.), Caña fístula (Cassia fistula L.), Chiminango (Pithecellobium dulce MART.) y Samán (Samanea saman JACQ.) en zona de bosque muy seco tropical (bms-T) del Valle del Patía y el efecto como suplemento en la alimentación de bovinos mestizos tipo cebú. Se evaluaron seis tratamientos: T0 (100% pastoreo), T1(90% pastoreo +10% P. lanceolatum); T2 (90% pastoreo +10% P.dulce);...

  18. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization Enhanced Early Growth of Mallotus paniculatus and Albizia saman under Nursery Conditions in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

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    Dewi Wulandari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest over logging, forest fire, forest conversion, and opencast mining have promoted deforestation in Indonesia, and reforestation is needed immediately. However, reforestation is limited by low seedling quality and production, and slow seedling growth in nurseries. Native tropical tree and fast-growing species, Mallotus paniculatus and Albizia saman, are potential to promote the first rotation of reforestation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi are known to promote nutrient uptake and plant growth. We examined the effects of two native AM fungi, Gigaspora decipiens and Glomus clarum, on the growth of M. paniculatus and A. saman seedlings under nursery conditions. At harvest, after six months, we determined AM colonization, shoot dry weight, and shoot N and P concentration. Approximately 90% and 50% of M. paniculatus and A. saman roots, respectively, were colonized by AM fungi, without any difference between the inoculation treatments. G. decipiens and G. clarum increased shoot height, leaf number, shoot dry weight, and shoot N and P uptake of both species. A positive correlation was observed between N and P uptake and shoot dry weight. These results suggest that AM fungi are effective in accelerating nutrient uptake and plant growth, which will, in turn, promote reforestation and sustainable forest timber production.

  19. Insectes ravageurs du piment Capsicum chinense Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... (Solanaceae) à Port-Bouët (Abidjan-Côte d'Ivoire) : Pratiques de lutte par les pesticides chimiques. 8667. Insectes ravageurs du piment Capsicum chinense. Jacq. (Solanaceae) à Port-Bouët (Abidjan-Côte d'Ivoire) : Pratiques de lutte par les pesticides chimiques. AKESSE E. N.1*, OUALI-N'GORAN S-W.

  20. Algunos componentes esteroidales del solanum havanense jacq

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    Mario J. Basterrechea Rey

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Un nuevo alcaloide esteroidal llamado acetil etiolina, ha sido aislado de las hojas, tallos y raices del Solanum havanense Jacq y su estructura corresponde con (25S-16a-acetoxi-22.26-epiminocolest-5.22(N-dien-3ß-ol.

  1. Screening and Purification of a Chymotrypsin Inhibitor from Entrolobium Saman Seeds

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    Maher Ali. Maqtari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A chymotrypsin inhibitor was isolated and purified from the seeds of Enterolobium saman  (Leguminaceae family by extraction with 100 mM phosphate buffer, heat treatment, ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAEcellulose and filtration through Sephadex G-75. The final preparation appeared to be homogeneous by both chromatographic and electrophoretic analyses. ESCI had a molecular weight of about 17,890 and an isoelectric point of 5.8. ESCI inhibited bovine chymotrypsin at an inhibitor-enzyme molar ratio of 1:2. The inhibition mode of chymotrypsin inhibitor was competitive on bovine chymotrypsin. Investigation has been carried out on the complex formed between chymotrypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor by physico-chemical methods. An apparent dissociation constant (Ki of 9.05 X 10-8 M has been calculated for the complex. This enzyme-  inhibitor complex was isolated by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and a molecular weight of 43.000 was estimated for the complex. The inhibitor did not have any effect on other proteinases, such as papain, bromelin, elastase, α -amylase, trypsin and pepsin. The chemical modification of lysine residues indicated that –NH2  groups are not essential for the activity of ESCI toward chymotrypsin. The inhibitor was an acidic protein and was stable over a wide pH range of 2-12 and temperature range of 10o C-97o C.

  2. Cryopreservation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Engelmann, Florent

    2017-08-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), a tropical plant, is the leading source of edible oil. This review deals with the cryopreservation of oil palm as a way to preserve this important tropical germplasm. Somatic embryos have been the most popular source of material for cryopreservation as they are propagules that are effectively produced during micropropagation. In contrast, fewer studies exist on the cryopreservation of pollen, zygotic embryos, seeds, kernels and embryogenic cell suspensions. This review highlights the ideal protocols, in detail, in a bid to offer guidance for further advances in oil palm cryopreservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro antibacterial activity of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) root bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The medicinal plant Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) was screened for the phytochemical components and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa which are associated with urinary tract infections. Aqueous solutions are more potent than ...

  4. Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. Bloodwood Legumeminosae, Legume Family, lotoideae, Pea Subfamily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter L. Weaver

    1997-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq., called palo de pollo in Puerto Rico, bloodwood in Guyana and Panama, and by numerous other names throughout its extensive range, is an evergreen tree that reaches 40m in height

  5. Molecular markers linked to apomixis in Panicum maximum Jacq.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... Panicum maximum Jacq. is an important forage grass of African origin largely used in the tropics. The genetic breeding of this species is based on the hybridization of sexual and apomictic genotypes and selection of apomictic F1 hybrids. The objective of this work was to identify molecular markers linked to.

  6. Molecular markers linked to apomixis in Panicum maximum Jacq.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... Apomixia, genética e melhoramento de plantas. Rev. Bras. Agrosci. 11:127-133. Ebina M, Nakagawa H, Yamamoto T, Araya H, Tsuruta I, Takahara M,. Nakajima K (2005). Co-segregation of AFLP and RAPD markers to apospory in guineagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq.).Grassland Sci. 51:71-78. Gualtieri ...

  7. Sesquiterpene and acyclic diterpenes from Hyptis verticillata Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Duanne A C; Porter, Roy B R; Reynolds, William F

    2009-03-01

    From the methanolic extract of the plant Hyptis verticillata Jacq, was isolated five compounds: the novel compounds cadina-10(15)-en-3-one and 3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadec-1-en-3-ol and the known compounds 3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadec-2-en-1-ol, 7,11,15-trimethyl-3-methylenehexadecane-1,2-diol and myo-inositol. All structures were established by spectroscopic means.

  8. Habib, Dr Saman

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JNU), FNASc. Date of birth: 16 August 1968. Specialization: Parasitology, Molecular & Cell Biology Address: Molecular & Structural Biology Division, Central Drug Research Institute, 10, Janakipuram Extn., Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226 031, U.P.

  9. Saman ve pomza malçı ile jips uygulamalarının alkali bir toprağın ıslahındaki etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    TEMİZ, Çağla

    2016-01-01

    Bu çalışmanın amacı, saman ve pomza malç materyallerinin farklı düzeylerde jipsle birlikte uygulanmaları halinde, alkali toprak ıslahındaki etkinliğini belirlemektir. Araştırma tesadüf parselleri deneme desenine göre 3 tekerrürlü olarak 27 adet kolonda yürütülmüştür. PVC kolonlara aşağıdaki deneme planına göre hazırlanan jips ve malç materyali ilave edilmiştir. Çalışma; 1. % 100 Jips gereksinimi, malçsız, 2. % 75 Jips gereksinimi, malçsız, 3. % 50 Jips gereksinimi, malçsız, 4. % 100 ...

  10. Estudo FitoquÃmico de Geoffroea spinosa Jacq. (Leguminosae)

    OpenAIRE

    Elton Luz Lopes

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho descreve a identificaÃÃo de constituintes volÃteis das folhas e flores e o isolamento de constituintes fixos das cascas e lenho do caule e lenho da raiz de Geoffroea spinosa Jacq. Esta espÃcie, que ocorre nas margens de rios do Nordeste brasileiro, produz frutos que sÃo utilizados como alimento, e suas folhas, na forma de chÃ, combatem diarrÃia e distÃrbios menstruais. Apesar desta espÃcie ser de considerÃvel importÃncia para o povo nordestino, nenhum relato na literatura ...

  11. Evaluación nutricional de arbóreas y arbustivas de bosque muy seco tropical (bms- T en producción bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Apráez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la calidad nutricional de las arbóreas Payandé (Pithecellobium lanceolatum MART., Guácimo (Guazuma ulmifolia LAM., Caña fístula (Cassia fistula L., Chiminango (Pithecellobium dulce MART. y Samán (Samanea saman JACQ. en zona de bosque muy seco tropical (bms-T del Valle del Patía y el efecto como suplemento en la alimentación de bovinos mestizos tipo cebú. Se evaluaron seis tratamientos: T0 (100% pastoreo, T1(90% pastoreo +10% P. lanceolatum; T2 (90% pastoreo +10% P.dulce; T3 (90% pastoreo +10% S.saman; T4 (90% pastoreo +10% C. fistula y T5(90% pastoreo +10% G. ulmifolia, distribuidos en un diseño de Bloques Completos al Azar. Se valoró la fenología, composición nutricional y metabolitos secundarios de las arbóreas. Los mayores contenidos de Materia Seca (47,1%, Proteína Cruda (23,5%, Fibra Detergente Neutro (58% y Energía Bruta (523 Kcal/100g los presentó P. saman. La FDA fue superior (p<0,05 en P. lanceolatum y G. ulmifolia con 39,5%. C. fistula y P. saman presentaron los menores niveles de metabolitos secundarios. Las saponinas se detectaron en P. lanceolatum. P. dulce. P. lanceolatum y G. ulmifolia. Estas reportaron bajos niveles de esteroides y ninguna de las especies presentó alcaloides. El consumo de C. fistula y G. ulmifolia fue bajo, solo 10g/día, las demás especies se consumieron en cantidades superiores a 100g/día. La mayor ganancia de peso se obtuvo con P. saman (560g/día, hubo pérdida de peso con C. fistula (-20g/día. En época lluviosa los pesos más altos fueron: C. fistula (1,7kg, P. saman y G.ulmifolia (1,36kg, P. lanceolatum (0,9kg y P. dulce (0,36kg.

  12. Ipomea hederacea Jacq.: a medicinal herb with promising health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2012-11-05

    Ipomea hederacea Jacq. (kaladana or ivy leaf morning-glory), a member of the family Convolvulaceae, is used primarily for its seeds and recognized for its medicinal properties, especially in Asian countries. This medicinal herb contains various valuable chemical constituents such as ecdysteriods, steroidal glycosides, aromatic acids, triterpenes, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. A number of pharmacological properties such as diuretic, anthelmintic, blood purifier, deobstruent, laxative, carminative and anti-inflammatory actions have been ascribed to this plant, besides its use to treat abdominal diseases, fevers, headache and bronchitis. This review focuses on compositional, medicinal and therapeutic properties of this plant, as a potential sources of bioactive molecules for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

  13. Ipomea hederacea Jacq.: A Medicinal Herb with Promising Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ipomea hederacea Jacq. (kaladana or ivy leaf morning-glory, a member of the family Convolvulaceae, is used primarily for its seeds and recognized for its medicinal properties, especially in Asian countries. This medicinal herb contains various valuable chemical constituents such as ecdysteriods, steroidal glycosides, aromatic acids, triterpenes, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. A number of pharmacological properties such as diuretic, anthelmintic, blood purifier, deobstruent, laxative, carminative and anti-inflammatory actions have been ascribed to this plant, besides its use to treat abdominal diseases, fevers, headache and bronchitis. This review focuses on compositional, medicinal and therapeutic properties of this plant, as a potential sources of bioactive molecules for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

  14. BUĞDAY SAPLARINDAN (Triticum aestivum L. VE SAMAN-ODUN KARIŞIMI LİFLERDEN ORTA YOĞUNLUKTA LİF LEVHA (MDF ÜRETİMİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüdaverdi EROĞLU

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, hammadde olarak Ankara ilinden temin edilen buğday (Triticum aestivum L. sapları kullanılmıştır. Kuru yöntemle MDF üretiminde % 8, 10 ve 12 oranında üre formaldehit tutkalı yapıştırıcı, sulu amonyum klorürün % 30'luk çözeltisinden % 1 oranında sertleştirici olarak kullanılmıştır. Ayrıca, 5, 6 ve 7 dk'lık presleme süreleri denenmiştir. Buğday saplarının alkol-benzen, soğuk su, sıcak su ve % 1'lik NaOH çözünürlüğü sırasıyla; % 5.15, % 7.31, % 9.84 ve % 40.79 olarak bulunmuştur. Ayrıca, holoselüloz, selüloz, lignin ve kül miktarları sırasıyla; % 74.79, % 52.67, % 20.17 ve % 4.21 olarak belirlenmiştir. Yapılan lif morfolojisiyle ilgili çalışmalarda kullanılan buğday saplarının lif uzunluğu 1.2-1.5 mm, lif genişliği 12-16 µm, lümen çapı 4-6 µm ve çift çeper kalınlığı 7.5-11.5 µm bulunmuştur. Buğday saplarından MDF eldesi için en uygun lif üretim şartları; buhar basıncı 10.5 atm, buharlama süresi 4 dk ve liflendirme süresi 2 dk olarak belirlenmiş ve uygulanmıştır. Saman liflerinden 0.700 g/cm 3 ve 0.800 g/cm 3 , odun ve saman-odun karışımı (% 30 saman + % 70 odun, % 50 saman + % 50 odun, % 70 saman + % 30 odun liflerden ise 0.800 g/cm 3 özgül kütleli MDF levhaları üretilmiştir. Tüm levhaların elastikiyet modülü, eğilme direnci, yüzeye dik çekme direnci ile 24 saatteki su alma ve kalınlığına şişme değerleri belirlenmiştir. Laboratuar koşullarında elde edilen MDF levhaların fiziksel ve mekanik özellikleri üzerinde yapılan değerlendirmeler sonucunda buğday saplarından en uygun MDF üretim koşulları; tutkal miktarı % 12, pres süresi 6 dakika, pres sıcaklığı 150 °C, pres basıncı 200-220 kp/cm 2 , sertleştirici miktarı % 1 ve saman/odun oranı % 50 -% 50 şeklinde belirlenmiştir.

  15. Antinociceptive effect of extracts of Marrubium astracanicum Jacq. aerial parts

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    Niloofar Kahkeshani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The genus Marrubium is used for treatment of joint pain, gout, stomach-ache and colic in Iranian Traditional Medicine. Marrubium astracanicum Jacq. (M. astracanicum is a native species in the flora of Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive properties of various extracts of aerial parts of M. astracanicum.Materials and Methods: Antinociceptive activities of total hydroalcoholic extract (THE and its n-hexane (non-polar and residual partition (polar fractions were analyzed using formalin test in mice. Morphine (5 mg/kg and normal saline were used as positive and negative controls, respectively.Results: Intraperitoneal administration of THE (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, non-polar fraction (200 mg/kg and polar fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg, 30 min before formalin injection, caused significant analgesic activity in acute phase (0-5 min after formalin injection of formalin test (p0.05 in comparison with morphine.  In chronic phase (15–60 min after formalin injection, non-polar and polar fractions (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg showed significant analgesic activity (p0.05 in comparison with morphine.Conclusion: Different extracts of M. astracanicum demonstrated antinociceptive activity that support the traditional usage of Marrubium genus for the treatment of arthritis, gout and other inflammatory diseases.

  16. Novel cytotoxic isolated from Jamaican Hyptis verticillata jacq induces apoptosis and overcomes multidrug resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Yohann; Hamada, Toshiyuki; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Nakashima, Mitsuyoshi; Hachiman, Miho; Kozako, Tomohiro; Matsushita, Kakushi; Uozumi, Kimiharu; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Kofune, Hiroki; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Arima, Naomichi

    2011-01-01

    ...-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-8, 9 - dihydrofuro[3',4':6,7]naphtho[2,3-d][1,3]dioxol-6(5H)-one (4-MTDND) from the Jamaican plant Hyptis verticillata jacq, and its effects on apoptosis, cell cycle and drug resistance were elucidated...

  17. 4-Deoxyaurone formation in Bidens ferulifolia (Jacq. DC.

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    Silvija Miosic

    Full Text Available The formation of 4-deoxyaurones, which serve as UV nectar guides in Bidens ferulifolia (Jacq. DC., was established by combination of UV photography, mass spectrometry, and biochemical assays and the key step in aurone formation was studied. The yellow flowering ornamental plant accumulates deoxy type anthochlor pigments (6'-deoxychalcones and the corresponding 4-deoxyaurones in the basal part of the flower surface whilst the apex contains only yellow carotenoids. For UV sensitive pollinating insects, this appears as a bicoloured floral pattern which can be visualized in situ by specific ammonia staining of the anthochlor pigments. The petal back side, in contrast, shows a faintly UV absorbing centre and UV absorbing rays along the otherwise UV reflecting petal apex. Matrix-free UV laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometric imaging (LDI-MSI indicated the presence of 9 anthochlors in the UV absorbing areas. The prevalent pigments were derivatives of okanin and maritimetin. Enzyme preparations from flowers, leaves, stems and roots of B. ferulifolia and from plants, which do not accumulate aurones e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana, were able to convert chalcones to aurones. Thus, aurone formation could be catalyzed by a widespread enzyme and seems to depend mainly on a specific biochemical background, which favours the formation of aurones at the expense of flavonoids. In contrast to 4-hydroxyaurone formation, hydroxylation and oxidative cyclization to the 4-deoxyaurones does not occur in one single step but is catalyzed by two separate enzymes, chalcone 3-hydroxylase and aurone synthase (catechol oxidase reaction. Aurone formation shows an optimum at pH 7.5 or above, which is another striking contrast to 4-hydroxyaurone formation in Antirrhinum majus L. This is the first example of a plant catechol oxidase type enzyme being involved in the flavonoid pathway and in an anabolic reaction in general.

  18. Breeding the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. for climate change

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    Rival Alain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breeding the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. for climate change requires multidisciplinary and collaborative research by nature: indeed – besides genetics and structural and functional genomics – almost all disciplines related to life sciences are involved. Research work also relies on the identification of genetic variation in the strategies of response to stress developed by the plant: this implies the exploration of resources provided by natural variation, germplasm collections, selected genitors from breeding programs together with material of interest collected from smallholders. The phenotyping of selected plant material under biotic/abiotic stress will involve new methods for high-throughput phenotyping and genomic approaches will be followed for the identification of genes underlying the variation of traits which will be used as selection targets. Also, improvements in understanding how climate change may influence chemical and physical processes in soils, how this may affect nutrient availability, and how the plant responds to changed availability of nutrients will also influence oil palm breeding programs. Molecular approaches and tools have great potential to optimize patterns of plant breeding, especially for perennial species. In recent years, there has been an exponential increase in molecular resources and methods aimed at identifying polymorphisms which control the traits of interest and exploring the mechanisms linking these polymorphisms to phenotypes. With genomic resources becoming increasingly available for the oil palm (sequencing, resequencing and chips development the exploration of the genetic basis of complex traits such as oil yield or resistance to disease is now possible. Consequently the availability and sharing of such a large amount of data is currently reshaping most of oil palm breeding strategies.

  19. he Role of Aspect on Spatial Variability of Soil Properties and Quantitative, Qualitative, and Vegetative Properties of Peach in Saman Region, Shahrekord

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    nargess keyvani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soils form from the interplay of five main factors namely parent material, time, climate, relief (topography and organisms. Topography is one of the local factors that has direct and indirect effects on soil formation, physical and chemical properties of soils. To understand the mutual relationship between topographic properties, soil properties and plant community (phytocoenosis, it is necessary to decide on the appropriate method for properly managing the soil resources. In addition to the soil properties, topography may affect the soil production indices as well. Soil production index and consequently its productivity will in turn affect the growth and fruiting. Insight about the pattern the spatial variability of soil properties can be used to manage the lands properly. This study was performed to investigate the spatial variability of soil properties regarding aspect and also the relationship of these changes with the quality and quantity of peach production in Saman region in Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari province, Iran. Materials and Methods: The study area contained 1.5 hectare of 200-hectare peach gerdens belong to BaghGostaran Company located in Saman, Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari Province. The soil moisture and temperature regimes are xeric and mesic, respectively. 136 soil samples were collected from 0-30 and 30-60 cm depths. Two peach trees around the soil samples were also selected. Then, soil physical and chemical properties including soil texture, percentage of calcium carbonate equivalent, organic carbon, plant available potassium, phosphorous, iron and zinc, pH and electrical conductivity were determined and fruit properties including branch length and diameter in the current year, number of fruits, total yield, average of fruit weight, TSS, tissue strength, pH, acid and extract percentage were measured. Finally, the dataset were analyzed using Statistica 6.0 software. Analysis of spatial data was calculated via variogram

  20. Climate influence on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Justicia pectoralis Jacq.

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    Jonh Jairo Méndez Arteaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of the altitude in the phenols and flavonoids contents and the antioxidant activity of the extracts of different polarities of Justicia pectoralis Jacq(Acanthaceae was evaluated. There was found that the plants cultivated under the Ibagué-Tolima's climate and soil conditions, can be a source of antioxidant compounds, especially in water preparations. The chromatographic analysis revealed that J. pectoralis extracts have mainly flavonoids of the flavonone type, as apigenine. A greater (or The greatest content of flavonoids was detected in the ethanolic extract of the plant samples grown at 1 265 m.a.s.l. (meters above sea level (2 748,03 mg/L. The altitude level does not seem to have any influence on the functional properties, neither on the phytophenols content. The J. pectoralis Jacq can be considered one species with a high therapeutic potential and with good commercial opportunities.

  1. Pemberian Pupuk Kascing dan Urin Sapi pada Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.) di Main Nursery

    OpenAIRE

    Gusriyono, Fajar '; Sampurno,; yulia, Arnis En

    2016-01-01

    The research aimed to determine the effect of interaction giving of vermicompost fertilizer and cow urine to the growth of oil palm seeds (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and get a suitable combination for the growth of oil palm seedlings in main nursery. The research was conducted from April to July 2015. The research used to completely randomized design (CRD) factorial consisting of two factors . The first factor is vermicompost fertilizer consists of 4 levels: vermicompost fertilizer dose of 0 g/...

  2. Reproduction et Diversité Génétique chez Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don

    OpenAIRE

    Sina, S.

    2006-01-01

    Parkiabiglobosa(Jacq.)G.Don, African locust bean, is one of the 34 known species of the genusParkiawhose centre of origin isSouth America. It is anagroforestrytree species spread throughout the Africansudaniansavannas, fromSenegalin the West toUgandain the East. P.biglobosa is also an important socio-economic species in high demand by local communities for its multiple amenities and uses (food, traditional medicine and pharmacy, preservation and improvement of soil fertility, rites and custom...

  3. Reproduction et Diversité Génétique chez Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sina, S.

    2006-01-01

    Parkiabiglobosa(Jacq.)G.Don, African

  4. Reproduction et Diversité Génétique chez Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sina, S.

    2006-01-01

    Parkiabiglobosa(Jacq.)G.Don, African

  5. Identification of Secretory Structure, Histochemistry and Phytochemical Compounds of Medicinal Plant Hyptis Capitata Jacq.

    OpenAIRE

    Rupa, Darius; Sulistyaningsih, Yohana Caecilia; Dorly, Dorly; Ratnadewi, Diah

    2017-01-01

    Hyptis capitata Jacq. (common name: Knobweed or False Ironwort) belongs to Lamiaceae family and is among known traditional medicine. The Anak Dalam Tribe of Jambi Province uses the leaves of H. capitata to cure external and internal wounds. This study was aimed at identifying and analyzing secretory structure, histochemistry and phytochemical content of H. capitata leaves. The results showed that H. capitata leaves have secretory structures in the form of peltate, capitate and uniseriate gla...

  6. Biological activity and chemical composition of the essential oil from Jamaican Hyptis verticillata Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facey, Petrea C; Porter, Roy B R; Reese, Paul B; Williams, Lawrence A D

    2005-06-15

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Hyptis verticillata Jacq. was elucidated by a combination of GC and GC-MS analyses. The oil was dominated by the sesquiterpenoids cadina-4,10(15)-dien-3-one (15.1%) (1) and aromadendr-1(10)-en-9-one (squamulosone) (30.7%) (2). The oil exhibited chemosterilant activities against the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus Canest., and toxic action against adult Cylas formicarius elegantulus Summer, the most destructive pest of sweet potato (Ipomoea species).

  7. Development of Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Based SCAR Marker for Identification of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq (Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiranda Devaiah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vidari is an Ayurvedic herbal drug used as aphrodisiac, galactagogue and is also used in the preparation of Chyavanaprash. Tubers of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. (Convolvulaceae, Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex Willd. DC (Fabaceae, Adenia hondala (Gaertn. de Wilde (Passifloraceae and pith of Cycas circinalis L. (Cycadaceae are all traded in the name of Vidari, creating issues of botanical authenticity of the Ayurvedic raw drug. DNA-based markers have been developed to distinguish I. mauritiana from the other Vidari candidates. A putative 600-bp polymorphic sequence, specific to I. mauritiana was identified using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique. Furthermore, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR primers (IM1F and IM1R were designed from the unique RAPD amplicon. The SCAR primers produced a specific 323-bp amplicon in authentic I. mauritiana and not in the allied species.

  8. Nutritional characterisation of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) P. Kumm. produced using paper scraps as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Herbert, Paulo; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-02-15

    Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) P. Kumm. is the third most produced edible mushroom worldwide, due to its ability to colonise and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus grown on blank and printed paper substrates, in comparison with samples grown on oat straw (control). The nutritional properties of the control sample were similar to values reported in the literature, while the chemical composition of the samples obtained using paper scraps, either blank or printed, was highly satisfactory. The results obtained validated the nutritional characteristics of the samples, highlighting a profitable means to recycle paper. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Polyphenolic Composition of Crataegus monogyna Jacq.: From Chemistry to Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Habtemariam, Solomon; Ahmed, Touqeer; Sureda, Antoni; Daglia, Maria; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-09-11

    The abundance of scientific evidence has shown that many synthetic drugs can cause serious adverse effects in patients. Recently, the search of natural therapeutic agents with low adverse effects has attracted much attention. In particular, considerable interest has focused on edible and medicinal plants, which play an important role in human diet, and have been used for disease treatment since ancient times. Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (hawthorn) is one of the most important edible plants of the Rosaceae family and is also used in traditional medicine. Growing evidence has shown that this plant has various interesting physiological and pharmacological activities due to the presence of different bioactive natural compounds. In addition, scientific evidence suggests that the toxicity of hawthorn is negligible. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide a critical review of the available scientific literature about pharmacological activities as well as botanical aspects, phytochemistry and clinical impacts of C. monogyna.

  10. Histology of embryoid development in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. cell suspension culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songrat Tinnongjig

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Embryos of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. variety tenera were cultured on Eeuwens or Y3 (1976; 1978 medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2,4-D. Calluses were initiated from these embryos. The eight-weekold calluses derived from embryos were transferred to modified Y3 liquid medium devoid of 2,4-D and supplemented with NAA, BA and coconut water to establish cell suspension culture. After a period of culture,these cells were then subcultured to the same medium without plant growth regulators to induce embryoid formation. The calluses and embryoids were harvested at various times, fixed, sectioned, stained and examined microscopically. Histological study revealed that embryoid occurred from meristematic cells with dense cytoplasm along the callus clumps.

  11. PEMANFAATAN EKSTRAK TERSTANDARDISASI DAUN SOM JAWA (Talinum paniculatum (Jacq. Gaertn DALAM SEDIAAN KRIM ANTIBAKTERI Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyuning Setyani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases have been the leading cause of morbidity and mortality because of the widespread antibacterial resistance due to existing drugs. Thus, the discovery and development of new antimicrobial agents, especially from natural resources is important to promote the human health. This research aimed to examine the antibacterial activity of som jawa (Talinum paniculatum (Jacq. Gaertn. standardized extract thus their application into cream. Extraction was done by remaceration method, then followed by phytochemical investigation to obtain the active ingredients inside extract. The result of this research showed that both som jawa standardized extract and their formula cream had antibacterial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus. This formula cream was potential as alternative herbal medicine for skin infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

  12. Polyphenolic Composition of Crataegus monogyna Jacq.: From Chemistry to Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Fazel Nabavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of scientific evidence has shown that many synthetic drugs can cause serious adverse effects in patients. Recently, the search of natural therapeutic agents with low adverse effects has attracted much attention. In particular, considerable interest has focused on edible and medicinal plants, which play an important role in human diet, and have been used for disease treatment since ancient times. Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (hawthorn is one of the most important edible plants of the Rosaceae family and is also used in traditional medicine. Growing evidence has shown that this plant has various interesting physiological and pharmacological activities due to the presence of different bioactive natural compounds. In addition, scientific evidence suggests that the toxicity of hawthorn is negligible. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide a critical review of the available scientific literature about pharmacological activities as well as botanical aspects, phytochemistry and clinical impacts of C. monogyna.

  13. Stability of Tilo® tablets formulation obtained from dry extract of Justice pectoralis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Rodríguez-Chanfrau

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Justicia pectoralis Jacq., Acanthaceae, is a herb known popularly in Cuba as Tilo and used traditionally as sedative. The development in a solid pharmaceutical (Tablets 100 mg using dry extract of Justicia pectolaris aqueous extract is of interest for the development of phytomedicines, which uses this active raw material. The aim of the present study was to carry out chemical and biological stability studies to the formulation. A method of coumarin determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC was used and validated. The stability studies during different periods of time (24 months showed a stability of the product stored at 32 ± 2 °C, and protected of the light.

  14. FLUSHING PADA Amherstia nobilis Wall. DAN Brownea capitella Jacq. DI KEBUN RAYA BOGOR

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    Siti Suraehah Tul Azhari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fenologi adalah telaah penampakan periodisitas pada tumbuhan dalam hubungannya dengan iklim, seperti waktu pembungaan dan flushing. Flushing yaitu pertumbuhan tunas/flush secara serempak. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengamati pertumbuhan tunas daun dalam merespon intensitas cahaya dengan posisi tumbuh berbeda dan faktor lingkungan yang mempengaruhinya. Metode yang digunakan adalah deskriptif dengan pengambilan purposive sampling, flush dibedakan posisi tumbuhnya yaitu terminal dan aksilar dalam kondisi terpapar dan ternaungi. Laju tumbuh Amherstia nobilis Wall. dan Brownea capitella Jacq. di daerah terpapar cahaya lebih cepat dibandingkan daerah ternaungi. Laju pertumbuhan diiringi dengan perubahan warna. Perubahan warna pada daun  A. nobilis berlangsung selama dua bulan lebih cepat dari B. capitella. Intensitas cahaya dan posisi tumbuh (terminal dan aksilar berpengaruh pada pertumbuhan kedua spesies.

  15. Antileishmanial activity of 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl propanoic acid purified from Amazonian Piper tuberculatum Jacq., Piperaceae, fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretty P. R. Ferreira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Leishmanicidal activity of the 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl propanoic acid (TMPP isolated from EtOH extracts of the Amazonian Piper turbeculatum Jacq. fruits was evaluated in vitro using Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. The TMPP was assayed at concentrations of 1600 to 6.25 µg/mL for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Promastigotes viability was analyzed and the IC50 of TMPP was 145 µg/mL.

  16. Assessment of various strategies for the preservation of clonal genetic resources in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Konan, K.E.; Rival, A.; Kouadio, Y. J.; Duval, Yves; FLORI, A.; Adon, B.; Pene, C.; Gasselin, T.D.

    2006-01-01

    Three different approaches for the preservation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) clonal genetic resources and their impacts on the induction of the « mantled » somaclonal variation were assessed. In vitro long term preservation of somatic embryos stock-cultures was studied : after a 5 year cultivation period, 75 % of clonal lines were still normal. Between 8 and 13 years of embryo cultures, half of the considered clonal lines were found to be « mantled ». Finally, 40 % were found t...

  17. Qualidade nutricional da polpa de bocaiúva Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. Nutritional quality of the pulp of bocaiuva Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Lima Ramos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de incentivar o consumo e o aproveitamento de alimentos oriundos do Cerrado Brasileiro, foram determinados os teores de umidade, lipídios totais, proteínas, carboidratos, cinzas, fibra, minerais e os principais carotenóides da polpa de bocaiúva, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. A porção comestível do fruto (polpa e amêndoa representou aproximadamente a metade do peso total do fruto. A polpa apresentou 52,99% de umidade, 8,14% de lipídios totais, 1,5% de proteínas, 22,08% de carboidratos, 1,51% de cinzas e 13,76% de fibra. O valor energético foi estimado em 167,67 kcal.100 g-1 de polpa úmida, o qual mostrou-se superior ao de outros frutos da região Centro-Oeste. Entre os minerais avaliados, a maior concentração foi a do potássio (766,37 ± 18,36 mg.100 g-1, seguida do cálcio (61,96 ± 2,30 mg.100 g-1 e do fósforo (36,70 mg.100 g-1. Relacionando-se os resultados de minerais às IDR de referências dos mesmos, a polpa de bocaiúva pode ser classificada como rica em cobre para crianças, como fonte de zinco e potássio para crianças e como fonte de cobre e potássio para adultos. A polpa mostrou-se rica em β-caroteno (49,0 ± 2,0 µg.g-1 de polpa integral, principal carotenóide identificado no fruto analisado, podendo contribuir com o enriquecimento da dieta regional em programas de suplementação alimentar, como uma fonte natural desse nutriente e dos minerais cobre, potássio e zinco.With the aim at stimulating the consumption of natural food from the Brazilian Cerrado (vast tropical savanna ecoregion of Brazil, the contens of moisture, lipid, protein, carbohydrate, ash, fiber, minerals, and main carotenoids were determinated in the bocaiuva Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. pulp. The edible portion of the fruit (pulp and kernel corresponded to 50% of the whole fruit. The pulp presented 52.99% of moisture, 8.14% of total lipids, 1.5% of protein, 22.08% of carbohydrates, 1.51% of ash, and 13.76% of fiber. The

  18. Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and C. oxyacantha L. Medical applications of quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Chwil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Crataegus L. is one of the most numerous genus in the plants’ world, including more than 1200 species. The most common is hawthorn monogyna (C. monogyna Jacq.. The specie is native to Europe, northern Africa and Southwestern Asia. It is common for polish flora. C. oxyacantha L. (syn. C. laevigata (Poir. DC. is rare to Poland, mostly found among the Vistula valley and the San valley. The aim of the present study was the analysis of the impact of quercetin on humans organisms, contained in the flowers of two species of Crataegus, as well as its medical applications. Flowers of mentioned species contain quercetin. Quercetin, is a plant-derived flavonoid, which with its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties has many medical applications. It has been effectively used against a wide variety of diseases and therapies. Due to its protective mechanisms it induces cardioprotection against doxorubicin, which is commonly used to treat neoplasms. Moreover quercetin inhibits the cytochrome P-450 – the subfamily of CYP1A enzymes involved in the activation of many carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines. The antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties of quercetin were evaluated positively against Helicobacter pylori, as well as against viral proliferation (Polio, Herpes simplex. More than that, the substance was found to be antiallergenic by inhibition of inflammatory activity of mast cells and basophiles.

  19. Capillary electrophoretic analysis of flavonoids in single-styled hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) ethanolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbonaviciūte, A; Jakstas, V; Kornysova, O; Janulis, V; Maruska, A

    2006-04-21

    Flavonoids are an important group of natural compounds, which can prevent coronary heart disease and have antioxidant properties. Hawthorn is a well known and widely used medicinal plant due to its cardiotonic activity. Previous studies refer mostly to the HPLC analysis of the flavonoids: vitexin, quercetin, hyperoside, oligomeric procyanidins, which appear to be primarily responsible for the cardiac action of the plant. Aqueous ethanolic extracts of single-styled hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., f.: Rosaceae Juss.) leaves and sprouts were analyzed by means of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Influence of vegetation period on the extract qualitative composition and flavonoids quantities was evaluated. Sample preparation by extraction using different concentration of aqueous ethanol (40-96%, v/v) and the influence of extractant composition on the recovery of flavonoids are discussed in detail. The results obtained using CZE are compared to the results of spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis of the extracts. The effect of storage conditions of extracts (solar irradiation, temperature and duration) on degradation of flavonoids was investigated.

  20. Formulation of microspheres containing Crataegus monogyna Jacq. extract with free radical scavenging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucconi, Giulia; Chlapanidas, Theodora; Martino, Emanuela; Gaggeri, Raffaella; Perteghella, Sara; Rossi, Daniela; Faragò, Silvio; Vigo, Daniele; Faustini, Massimo; Collina, Simona; Torre, Maria Luisa

    2014-02-01

    Extracts of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (hawthorn) show an interesting free radical scavenging (FRS) effect, related to their flavonoids content. Unfortunately, their oral administration is affected by their low bioavailability. The aim of this work is to obtain a multiparticulate drug delivery system for hawthorn extracts for oral administration. The extracts from flowering tops (FL) or fruits (FR) of hawthorn were obtained with maceration, using ethanol as an extraction solvent, and their antioxidant activity was evaluated. FL extract showed the highest FRS activity (EC50 3.72 ± 1.21 µg/ml), so it was selected to prepare microparticulate systems by a spray-drying technique, which were characterized by granulometric analysis, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, confocal fluorescence microscopy and hyperoside content. Antioxidant activity was evaluated before and after gastrointestinal transit in vitro simulation. Results indicate that the microparticulate systems maintained the antioxidant activity of hawthorn also after gastrointestinal transit in vitro simulation, exhibiting properties suitable for oral administration.

  1. De novo transcriptome analyses of host-fungal interactions in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chai-Ling; Tan, Yung-Chie; Yeoh, Keat-Ai; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Yee, Wai-Yan; Hoh, Chee-Choong

    2016-01-19

    Basal stem rot (BSR) is a fungal disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) which is caused by hemibiotrophic white rot fungi belonging to the Ganoderma genus. Molecular responses of oil palm to these pathogens are not well known although this information is crucial to strategize effective measures to eradicate BSR. In order to elucidate the molecular interactions between oil palm and G. boninense and its biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum, we compared the root transcriptomes of untreated oil palm seedlings with those inoculated with G. boninense and T. harzianum, respectively. Differential gene expression analyses revealed that jasmonate (JA) and salicylate (SA) may act in an antagonistic manner in affecting the hormone biosynthesis, signaling, and downstream defense responses in G. boninense-treated oil palm roots. In addition, G. boninense may compete with the host to control disease symptom through the transcriptional regulation of ethylene (ET) biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging. The strengthening of host cell walls and production of pathogenesis-related proteins as well as antifungal secondary metabolites in host plants, are among the important defense mechanisms deployed by oil palm against G. boninense. Meanwhile, endophytic T. harzianum was shown to improve the of nutrition status and nutrient transportation in host plants. The findings of this analysis have enhanced our understanding on the molecular interactions of G. boninense and oil palm, and also the biocontrol mechanisms involving T. harzianum, thus contributing to future formulations of better strategies for prevention and treatment of BSR.

  2. Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. based on RAPD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nualsri, C.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability and phylogenetic relationships in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. were studied using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Leaf samples of 151 plants were collected from different areas in southern Thailand. DNA from the leaf samples was isolated using CTAB buffer and screened by decamer oligonucleotide primers. Among the total of 160 primers screened, 7 primers (OPB-08, OPR-11, OPT-06, OPT-19, OPAB-01, OPAB-09 and OPAB-14 were chosen to analyse for genetic variation in 151 individuals representing 52 dura, 60 tenera and 39 pisifera. Two hundred and nine amplified fragments were obtained from 7 primers with an average of 29.85 RAPD markers per primer. A dendrogram showing genetic similarities among oil palm was constructed based on polymorphic bands using UPGMA (Unweighted Pair-Group Method Using Arithmetic Average. Cluster analysis was performed using the SPSS program, which revealed four major clusters: 1 dura, tenera and pisifera from Paorong Oil Palm Company, Oil Palm Research Center, dura and tenera from private plantation in Krabi, and dura from Thepa Research Station;2 dura and tenera from Thai Boonthong Company, pisifera and tenera from Thepa Research Station, dura, tenera and pisifera from Klong Hoi Khong Research Station; 3 and 4 dura and tenera from Univanit Company, respectively. In general, a similarity index showed relatively high levels of 0.6 or greater.

  3. QTL detection by multi-parent linkage mapping in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billotte, N; Jourjon, M F; Marseillac, N; Berger, A; Flori, A; Asmady, H; Adon, B; Singh, R; Nouy, B; Potier, F; Cheah, S C; Rohde, W; Ritter, E; Courtois, B; Charrier, A; Mangin, B

    2010-05-01

    A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis designed for a multi-parent population was carried out and tested in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), which is a diploid cross-fertilising perennial species. A new extension of the MCQTL package was especially designed for crosses between heterozygous parents. The algorithm, which is now available for any allogamous species, was used to perform and compare two types of QTL search for small size families, within-family analysis and across-family analysis, using data from a 2 x 2 complete factorial mating experiment involving four parents from three selected gene pools. A consensus genetic map of the factorial design was produced using 251 microsatellite loci, the locus of the Sh major gene controlling fruit shell presence, and an AFLP marker of that gene. A set of 76 QTLs involved in 24 quantitative phenotypic traits was identified. A comparison of the QTL detection results showed that the across-family analysis proved to be efficient due to the interconnected families, but the family size issue is just partially solved. The identification of QTL markers for small progeny numbers and for marker-assisted selection strategies is discussed.

  4. Characterization of the chloroplast genome sequence of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthaipaisanwong, P; Chanprasert, J; Shearman, J R; Sangsrakru, D; Yoocha, T; Jomchai, N; Jantasuriyarat, C; Tragoonrung, S; Tangphatsornruang, S

    2012-06-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is an economically important crop, which is grown for oil production. To better understand the molecular basis of oil palm chloroplasts, we characterized the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence obtained from 454 pyrosequencing. The oil palm cp genome is 156,973 bp in length consisting of a large single-copy region of 85,192 bp flanked on each side by inverted repeats of 27,071 bp with a small single-copy region of 17,639 bp joining the repeats. The genome contains 112 unique genes: 79 protein-coding genes, 4 ribosomal RNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. By aligning the cp genome sequence with oil palm cDNA sequences, we observed 18 non-silent and 10 silent RNA editing events among 19 cp protein-coding genes. Creation of an initiation codon by RNA editing in rpl2 has been reported in several monocots and was also found in the oil palm cp genome. Fifty common chloroplast protein-coding genes from 33 plant taxa were used to construct ML and MP phylogenetic trees. Their topologies are similar and strongly support for the position of E. guineensis as the sister of closely related species Phoenix dactylifera in Arecaceae (palm families) of monocot subtrees. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Thiophene Derivatives with Antileishmanial Activity Isolated from Aerial Parts of Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq. Cass.

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    Celso Vataru Nakamura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq. Cass. is a plant native to Brazil and in the northwest region of the state of Paraná, Brazil, aerial parts of P. ruderale have been used popularly in the treatment of lesions caused by Leishmania sp.. In this study the antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities of the crude extract, fractions, and isolated compounds from aerial parts of P. ruderale was evaluated. The dichloromethane extract was submitted to chromatography to yield compounds active against Leishmania amazonensis. Their structures were established by comparison of their spectroscopic data with literature values. The activities of crude extract against promastigote and axenic amastigote forms of L. amazonensis (IC50 were 60.3 and 77.7 μg/mL, respectively. Its cytotoxic activity against macrophage cells (CC50 was 500 μg/mL. The thiophene derivatives isolated were: 5-methyl-2,2':5',2"-terthiophene (compound A and 5'-methyl–[5–(4–acetoxy-1–butynyl]–2,2'-bithiophene (compound B. The activity of compound A against promastigote and axenic amastigote forms were 7.7 and 19.0 μg/mL and of compound B were 21.3 and 28.7 μg/mL, respectively. The activity of the isolated compounds against promastigote and axenic amastigote forms was better than that of the crude extract and more selective against protozoa than for macrophage cells.

  6. Inhibitory effect of verbascoside isolated from Buddleja brasiliensis Jacq. ex Spreng on prolyl oligopeptidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Augusto G; Morel, Ademir F; Adolpho, Luciana; Ilha, Vinícius; Giralt, Ernest; Tarragó, Teresa; Dalcol, Ionara I

    2012-10-01

    The phenylpropanoid glycoside verbascoside [2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyl)-1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-(4-O-caffeyl)-glucopyranoside] (1) has been isolated as the main constituent of the crude extract of Buddleja brasiliensis Jacq. ex Spreng from Southern Brazil. The crude extract, main fractions and the compound 1 were evaluated for inhibition of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and prolyl oligopeptidase (POP). Compound 1 showed weak activity against DPP-IV with an IC(50) > 150 µM and was inactive against AChE, with a pMIQ determined by bioautography of 9.6. In contrast, 1 displayed significant inhibition of POP in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 1.3 ± 0.2 µM, similar to the positive control, baicalin, with a POP IC(50) of 12 ± 3 µM. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Novel cytotoxic isolated from Jamaican Hyptis verticillata jacq induces apoptosis and overcomes multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Yohann; Hamada, Toshiyuki; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Nakashima, Mitsuyoshi; Hachiman, Miho; Kozako, Tomohiro; Matsushita, Kakushi; Uozumi, Kimiharu; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Kofune, Hiroki; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Arima, Naomichi

    2011-12-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia is an aggressive hematological malignancy with a poor clinical prognosis, and a rapid resistance to chemotherapy is rapid. Cytotoxicity assay-directed fractionation identified a novel lignan-related agent, 4-methoxy-9-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-8, 9 - dihydrofuro[3',4':6,7]naphtho[2,3-d][1,3]dioxol-6(5H)-one (4-MTDND) from the Jamaican plant Hyptis verticillata jacq, and its effects on apoptosis, cell cycle and drug resistance were elucidated. The novel agent, 4-MTDND, exhibited cytotoxicity against myriad cancer types, with a wide therapeutic index of 30- to 40-fold, promoted G(2)/M arrest and up-regulated expression of pro-apoptotic proteins p53 and BAX, as well as enhanced activation of caspase-3, caspase-9 and poly (ADP ribose) polymerase, consistent with apoptosis induction. Multidrug-resistant cancer cells were as susceptible to 4-MTDND as their non-resistant control counterparts, with 4-MTDND having greater efficacy compared to standard chemotherapy agents etoposide and mitoxantrone. The novel cytotoxic agent 4-MTDND induces G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells possibly due to direct DNA damage or interference with topoisomerase II.

  8. Harvest time influences on coumarin and umbelliferone contents in extracts of Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (tilo

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    Jorge Enrique Rodríguez Chanfrau

    Full Text Available Introduction: Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae is medicinal plant species commonly used in Cuba for the treatment of nervous disorders because of its sedative effect. Coumarin is one of its main active phytochemicals present in the extracts obtained from this plant and used as analytic marker in quality control. On the other hand, this compound contributes to the sedative effect attributed to this plant. Objective: to evaluate the influence of harvest time on the coumarin and umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin in Justicia pectoralis extracts. Methods: the experiment lasted two years. The harvest was performed at 4, 6 and 8 months after planting. Aqueous and hydroalcohol extracts were produced and the coumarin and umbelliferone contents were determined by high resolution liquid chromatography. Results: the achieved results showed the presence of coumarin and umbelliferone in both extracts. Both methods can be used for the extraction of these components from the plant, although in the case of umbelliferone, the best extraction results were achieved by using aqueous extract. In both cases, the recovery percentages were more than 98 %. This study confirmed that the harvest time significantly influences on the coumarin and umbelliferone contents. Conclusions: the best results are observed in the first two harvests (4 and 6 months at summer time, which indicates that the industry should process the vegetal material in these two periods of the year.

  9. Pollen viability and its effect on fruit set of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

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    ALFIN WIDIASTUTI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at studying (1 the decline of pollen viability during storage, and (2 the effect of pollen amount on fruit set of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.. The experiment was conducted at PT. Dami Mas Sejahtera and PT. Sinar Mas Agro Resource and Technology (SMART Tbk, Riau from February to August 2004. The first experiment was investigated up to six months storage period in the refrigerator, whereas in the second experiment a randomized complete block design with two factors was used: length of storage, i.e. 0, 1 and 2 months and amount of pollen, i.e. 0.022, 0.044, 0.066, 0.088, and 0.11 g mixed with powder to 10g to pollinate an inflorescence. The result showed that the viability of pollen started to decline three months after storage from about 92% to 83%, and declined to about 75% after six months of storage. Result of the second experiment showed that storage of pollen up to two months did not affect percentage of normal fruit, although the percentage of parthenocarpic fruits was decreased. This could be due to the high viability of pollen as the viability was remained high (about 90% after being stored for two months in the refrigerator. Pollen with high viability could be used in a smaller amount to pollinate a female inflorescence without affecting fruit set of about 70-76%.SD037 had a higher reproductive success than SD038 and SD39.

  10. Fertilización orgánica y mineral del zapote mamey [Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. Moore & Stearn

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Fernández, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de la investigación consistió en estudiar las características físicas y químicas del suelo cultivado con mamey [Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. Moore and Stearn], se evaluaron cinco tratamientos: vermicomposta 6.6 kg árbol-1, gallinaza 5 kg árbol-1, fertilizante químico (sulfato de amonio 1 kg árbol-1, superfosfato de calcio triple 750 g árbol-1, sulfato de potasio 400 g árbol-1), Azufre 4 kg árbol-1 y el testigo. Se hicieron cinco aplicaciones con cuatro repeticion...

  11. The identity of Albuca caudata Jacq. (Hyacinthaceae and a description of a new related species: A. bakeri

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    Mario Martínez-Azorín

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The name Albuca caudata Jacq. has been widely misunderstood or even ignored since its description in 1791. After studying herbarium specimens and living populations in South Africa, plants fitting Jacquin´s concept of that species are found to be widely distributed in the Eastern Cape, mainly in the Albany centre of Endemism. Furthermore, some divergent specimens matching Baker´s concept of A. caudata are described as a new related species: A. bakeri. Data on typification, morphology, ecology, and distribution are reported for both taxa. Affinities and divergences with other close allies are also discussed.

  12. Identification of MADS-box Gene in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

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    Winda Nawfetrias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The bunch size represented by the fruit number is the main parameter of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. yield. The fruit number, which is determined during the initial phase of development, is related to various factors, including the genetic properties of the trees. Trees that have more pistillate flowers have more fruit. The diversity of MADS-box genes assumed can be used as a marker for trees that have a higher number of pistillate flowers. Therefore, the aims of this research were to isolate and identify the MADS-box genes from flowers of tenera oil palm using PCR techniques. The SQUAMOSA (SQUA gene and the GLOBOSA (GLO gene are members of the MADS-box genes family that are responsible for sepal, petal and stamen organ development. The genomic DNA of the staminate flowers of trees that have more staminate flowers (P1 and the genomic DNA of the pistillate flowers of trees that have more pistillate flowers (P2 were isolated using the CTAB+ PVP method. The CTAB+PVP method was more efficient for isolating pistillate flower genomic DNA than staminate flower genomic DNA. The genomic DNA of P1 and P2 was amplified with two primers: BMS and BMG. The BMS primers gave a PCR product size of 1250 bp for the genomic DNA of P1 and P2. Meanwhile, the BMG primers gave a PCR product size of 1250 bp and 1300 bp for P1 and P2, respectively. The PCR products were sequenced and analyzed for homology using the GenBank database. BLAST analysis showed the PCR products have high homology with the SQUA1 gene and the GLO2 gene. Alignment analysis showed that the DNA fragments amplified with the BMS primers of the P1 and P2 sequences have variations in the exons and introns, and the variations were observed only in the introns of the DNA fragments amplified with the BMG primers.

  13. Wound healing potential of Elaeis guineensis Jacq leaves in an infected albino rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Nilawatyi, Rajoo; Xavier, Rathinam; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Amala, Rajoo

    2010-04-30

    Elaeis guineensis Jacq (Arecaceae) is one of the plants that are central to the lives of traditional societies in West Africa. It has been reported as a traditional folkloric medicine for a variety of ailments. The plant leaves are also used in some parts of Africa for wound healing, but there are no scientific reports on any wound healing activity of the plant. To investigate the effects of E. guineensis leaf on wound healing activity in rats. A phytochemical screening was done to determine the major phytochemicals in the extract. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was examined using the disk diffusion technique and broth dilution method. The wound healing activity of leaves of E. guineensiswas studied by incorporating the methanolic extract in yellow soft paraffin in concentration of 10% (w/w). Wound healing activity was studied by determining the percentage of wound closure, microbial examination of granulated skin tissue and histological analysis in the control and extract treated groups. Phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids, and flavonoids in the extract. The extract showed significant activity against Candida albicans with an MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL. The results show that the E. guineensis extract has potent wound healing capacity, as evident from better wound closure, improved tissue regeneration at the wound site, and supporting histopathological parameters pertaining to wound healing. Assessment of granulation tissue every fourth day showed a significant reduction in microbial count. E. guineensis accelerated wound healing in rats, thus supporting this traditional use.

  14. Understanding the physiological responses of a tropical crop (Capsicum chinense Jacq. at high temperature.

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    René Garruña-Hernández

    Full Text Available Temperature is one of the main environmental factors involved in global warming and has been found to have a direct effect on plants. However, few studies have investigated the effect of higher temperature on tropical crops. We therefore performed an experiment with a tropical crop of Habanero pepper (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.. Three growth chambers were used, each with 30 Habanero pepper plants. Chambers were maintained at a diurnal maximum air temperature (DMT of 30 (chamber 1, 35 (chamber 2 and 40°C (chamber 3. Each contained plants from seedling to fruiting stage. Physiological response to variation in DMT was evaluated for each stage over the course of five months. The results showed that both leaf area and dry mass of Habanero pepper plants did not exhibit significant differences in juvenile and flowering phenophases. However, in the fruiting stage, the leaf area and dry mass of plants grown at 40°C DMT were 51 and 58% lower than plants at 30°C DMT respectively. Meanwhile, an increase in diurnal air temperature raised both stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, causing an increase in temperature deficit (air temperature - leaf temperature. Thus, leaf temperature decreased by 5°C, allowing a higher CO2 assimilation rate in plants at diurnal maximum air temperature (40°C. However, in CO2 measurements when leaf temperature was set at 40°C, physiological parameters decreased due to an increase in stomatal limitation. We conclude that the thermal optimum range in a tropical crop such as Habanero pepper is between 30 and 35°C (leaf temperature, not air temperature. In this range, gas exchange through stomata is probably optimal. Also, the air temperature-leaf temperature relationship helps to explain how temperature keeps the major physiological processes of Habanero pepper healthy under experimental conditions.

  15. De novo transcriptome assembly for the tropical grass Panicum maximum Jacq.

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    Guilherme Toledo-Silva

    Full Text Available Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. is a tropical African grass often used to feed beef cattle, which is an important economic activity in Brazil. Brazil is the leader in global meat exportation because of its exclusively pasture-raised bovine herds. Guinea grass also has potential uses in bioenergy production due to its elevated biomass generation through the C4 photosynthesis pathway. We generated approximately 13 Gb of data from Illumina sequencing of P. maximum leaves. Four different genotypes were sequenced, and the combined reads were assembled de novo into 38,192 unigenes and annotated; approximately 63% of the unigenes had homology to other proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Functional classification through COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups, GO (Gene Ontology and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses showed that the unigenes from Guinea grass leaves are involved in a wide range of biological processes and metabolic pathways, including C4 photosynthesis and lignocellulose generation, which are important for cattle grazing and bioenergy production. The most abundant transcripts were involved in carbon fixation, photosynthesis, RNA translation and heavy metal cellular homeostasis. Finally, we identified a number of potential molecular markers, including 5,035 microsatellites (SSRs and 346,456 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize the complete leaf transcriptome of P. maximum using high-throughput sequencing. The biological information provided here will aid in gene expression studies and marker-assisted selection-based breeding research in tropical grasses.

  16. Understanding the physiological responses of a tropical crop (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garruña-Hernández, René; Orellana, Roger; Larque-Saavedra, Alfonso; Canto, Azucena

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is one of the main environmental factors involved in global warming and has been found to have a direct effect on plants. However, few studies have investigated the effect of higher temperature on tropical crops. We therefore performed an experiment with a tropical crop of Habanero pepper (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.). Three growth chambers were used, each with 30 Habanero pepper plants. Chambers were maintained at a diurnal maximum air temperature (DMT) of 30 (chamber 1), 35 (chamber 2) and 40°C (chamber 3). Each contained plants from seedling to fruiting stage. Physiological response to variation in DMT was evaluated for each stage over the course of five months. The results showed that both leaf area and dry mass of Habanero pepper plants did not exhibit significant differences in juvenile and flowering phenophases. However, in the fruiting stage, the leaf area and dry mass of plants grown at 40°C DMT were 51 and 58% lower than plants at 30°C DMT respectively. Meanwhile, an increase in diurnal air temperature raised both stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, causing an increase in temperature deficit (air temperature - leaf temperature). Thus, leaf temperature decreased by 5°C, allowing a higher CO2 assimilation rate in plants at diurnal maximum air temperature (40°C). However, in CO2 measurements when leaf temperature was set at 40°C, physiological parameters decreased due to an increase in stomatal limitation. We conclude that the thermal optimum range in a tropical crop such as Habanero pepper is between 30 and 35°C (leaf temperature, not air temperature). In this range, gas exchange through stomata is probably optimal. Also, the air temperature-leaf temperature relationship helps to explain how temperature keeps the major physiological processes of Habanero pepper healthy under experimental conditions.

  17. Exogenous nitrate induces root branching and inhibits primary root growth in Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Arámburo, Teresita de Jesús; Carrillo-Pech, Mildred; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel; Echevarría-Machado, Ileana

    2011-12-01

    The effects of nitrate (NO₃⁻) on the root system are complex and depend on several factors, such as the concentration available to the plant, endogenous nitrogen status and the sensitivity of the species. Though these effects have been widely documented on Arabidopsis and cereals, no reports are available in the Capsicum genus. In this paper, we have determined the effect of an exogenous in vitro application of this nutrient on root growth in habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). Exposure to NO₃⁻ inhibited primary root growth in both, dose- and time-dependent manners. The highest inhibition was attained with 0.1 mM NO₃⁻ between the fourth and fifth days of treatment. Inhibition of primary root growth was observed by exposing the root to both homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions of the nutrient; in contrast, ammonium was not able to induce similar changes. NO₃⁻-induced inhibition of primary root growth was reversed by treating the roots with IAA or NPA, a polar auxin transport inhibitor. Heterogeneous NO₃⁻ application stimulated the formation and elongation of lateral roots in the segment where the nutrient was present, and this response was influenced by exogenous phytohormones. These results demonstrate that habanero pepper responds to NO₃⁻ in a similar fashion to other species with certain particular differences. Therefore, studies in this model could help to elucidate the mechanisms by which roots respond to NO₃⁻ in fluctuating soil environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Hyptis verticillata Jacq: a review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picking, D; Delgoda, R; Boulogne, I; Mitchell, S

    2013-05-02

    Hyptis verticillata Jacq. (Lamiaceae) (John Charles) is an important medicinal plant with a long history of traditional use, originating in Central America and now extending from Florida to Colombia and across the Caribbean. Records of its earliest use date back to the ancient Mayan and Aztec cultures of Mesoamerica. There is no indication that this plant is being used outside of the Americas. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacological activity and toxicology of Hyptis verticillata and to highlight the opportunities for greater development of the plant's medicinal properties at a local and international level. An extensive and systematic review of the literature was undertaken and all relevant abstracts and full-text articles analysed and included in the review. A wide range of traditional uses are cited in the literature, from internal uses for conditions affecting the respiratory system, digestive tract and gynaecological system to external uses for conditions affecting the skin and musculoskeletal system. Pharmacological studies to date have demonstrated significant activity which support the traditional use of the plant as an antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antisecretory agent and hormone modulator. In addition studies have identified anti-cancer, acaricidal, insecticidal and molluscicidal activity. No clinical trials had been completed at the time of this review. A number of key phytochemicals have been isolated, identified and published to date including: 17 lignans; 4 triterpenes; 11 diterpenes, 3 sesquiterpenes, 3 monoterpenes, 2 flavonoids, 1 polyphenol and 1 alkaloid. Nine of these phytochemicals are novel to Hyptis verticillata. Plant extracts and isolated phytochemicals exhibit a broad range of activities that include: antimitotic; antiproliferative; cytotoxic; antioxidant; antiinflammatory; antibacterial; antifungal; antiviral; anti-HIV; antisecretory; hepatoprotective; insecticidal and

  19. VERMINOSE EM CAPRINOS E OVINOS MANTIDOS EM PASTAGENS DE Panicum maximum Jacq. NO PERÍODO CHUVOSO DO ANO

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    Danilo Gusmão de Quadros

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the worm disease on goats and sheep kept on Panicum maximum Jacq. pastures, in the rainy season of the year. The dry matter density (DM of different layers (0-15, 15-30 and above 30 cm of Panicum maximum Jacq. pastures, and the forage contamination by gastrintestinal nematode infective larvae (L3 were quantified. Forty animals were submitted monthly to coproparasitological examinations (ECG and coproculture during the rainy season. The experiment was carried out in Barreiras-Bahia-Brazil, in a split-plot design, with 10 replications on pastures and 20 replications on animals, from October of 2003 to March of 2004, and samples were taken from December to February. The number of infective larvae per kg/DM did not change with the grass layer, with average of 22.2 L3/kg DM. On the forage, Haemonchus sp. and Trichostrongylus sp. L3 larvae were indentified, reflecting the coproculture results. Goats showed higher ECG counting (2602 than Sheep (865, demanding more sanitary care.

  20. Effect of sowing time and crop geometry on the Capsaicinoid content in Bhoot Jolokia (Capsicum chinense Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirangthem, Sanju Singh; Gogoi, Sailen; Thongbam, Premila Devi; Ramya, K T; Fiyaz, R Abdul; Pandey, D S

    2014-09-01

    Capsicum species are not only cultivated as vegetable and condiment crop but are also incorporated into a number of medicinal preparations in the ancient literature around the world. 'Naga chilli' or 'Bhoot Jolokia' (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) is a chilli variety indigenous to the northeast region of India and has been recognized as one of the hottest chilli in the world. It has also been used conventionally in treating various human ailments since time immemorial by the indigenous people of the northeast India. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin are the two major members of the so-called capsaicinoid family, which includes other minor analogues, and usually account for at least 90 % of the pungency trait in chilli fruits. In the present study, determination of Capsaicinoid content of Bhoot Jolokia (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) under different sowing time and spacing was done. In the Scoville Organoleptic test, the highest Scoville Heat Unit (SHU) value was found in September 15 sowing fruits and the lowest in the February 15 sowing fruits. Fruit produced from spacing 105 cm × 105 cm showed highest Scoville Heat Unit. In High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis, highest amount of capsaicinoid was also found in September 15 sowing while fruits produced from spacing 105 cm × 105 cm showed highest amount of capsaicinoid. Identification of Nordihydrocapsaicin, Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin was done by comparing the retention time of sample with those of standard.

  1. Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. tissue culture ESTs: Identifying genes associated with callogenesis and embryogenesis

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    Ooi Leslie CL

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is one of the most important oil bearing crops in the world. However, genetic improvement of oil palm through conventional breeding is extremely slow and costly, as the breeding cycle can take up to 10 years. This has brought about interest in vegetative propagation of oil palm. Since the introduction of oil palm tissue culture in the 1970s, clonal propagation has proven to be useful, not only in producing uniform planting materials, but also in the development of the genetic engineering programme. Despite considerable progress in improving the tissue culture techniques, the callusing and embryogenesis rates from proliferating callus cultures remain very low. Thus, understanding the gene diversity and expression profiles in oil palm tissue culture is critical in increasing the efficiency of these processes. Results A total of 12 standard cDNA libraries, representing three main developmental stages in oil palm tissue culture, were generated in this study. Random sequencing of clones from these cDNA libraries generated 17,599 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. The ESTs were analysed, annotated and assembled to generate 9,584 putative unigenes distributed in 3,268 consensi and 6,316 singletons. These unigenes were assigned putative functions based on similarity and gene ontology annotations. Cluster analysis, which surveyed the relatedness of each library based on the abundance of ESTs in each consensus, revealed that lipid transfer proteins were highly expressed in embryogenic tissues. A glutathione S-transferase was found to be highly expressed in non-embryogenic callus. Further analysis of the unigenes identified 648 non-redundant simple sequence repeats and 211 putative full-length open reading frames. Conclusion This study has provided an overview of genes expressed during oil palm tissue culture. Candidate genes with expression that are modulated during tissue culture were identified. However

  2. Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) tissue culture ESTs: identifying genes associated with callogenesis and embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Eng-Ti L; Alias, Halimah; Boon, Soo-Heong; Shariff, Elyana M; Tan, Chi-Yee A; Ooi, Leslie Cl; Cheah, Suan-Choo; Raha, Abdul-Rahim; Wan, Kiew-Lian; Singh, Rajinder

    2008-05-29

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the most important oil bearing crops in the world. However, genetic improvement of oil palm through conventional breeding is extremely slow and costly, as the breeding cycle can take up to 10 years. This has brought about interest in vegetative propagation of oil palm. Since the introduction of oil palm tissue culture in the 1970s, clonal propagation has proven to be useful, not only in producing uniform planting materials, but also in the development of the genetic engineering programme. Despite considerable progress in improving the tissue culture techniques, the callusing and embryogenesis rates from proliferating callus cultures remain very low. Thus, understanding the gene diversity and expression profiles in oil palm tissue culture is critical in increasing the efficiency of these processes. A total of 12 standard cDNA libraries, representing three main developmental stages in oil palm tissue culture, were generated in this study. Random sequencing of clones from these cDNA libraries generated 17,599 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The ESTs were analysed, annotated and assembled to generate 9,584 putative unigenes distributed in 3,268 consensi and 6,316 singletons. These unigenes were assigned putative functions based on similarity and gene ontology annotations. Cluster analysis, which surveyed the relatedness of each library based on the abundance of ESTs in each consensus, revealed that lipid transfer proteins were highly expressed in embryogenic tissues. A glutathione S-transferase was found to be highly expressed in non-embryogenic callus. Further analysis of the unigenes identified 648 non-redundant simple sequence repeats and 211 putative full-length open reading frames. This study has provided an overview of genes expressed during oil palm tissue culture. Candidate genes with expression that are modulated during tissue culture were identified. However, in order to confirm whether these genes are suitable as

  3. Total number of tillers of different accessions of Panicum maximum Jacq.

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    Thiago Perez Granato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of forage grasses is due to continuous emission of leaves and tillers, ensuring the restoration of leaf área after cutting or grazing, thus ensuring the sustainability of forage. This study aimed to asses the total number tillers in different acessions of Panicum maximum Jacq. The experiment was carried in field belonging to the Instituto de Zootecnia located in Nova Odessa / SP. Evaluated two new accesses Panicum maximum, and two commercial cultivars. The cultivars tested were Aruana, Milenio, NO 2487, NO 78, and the two latter belonging to the Germoplasm Collection of the IZ. The experimental desing was in randomized complete block with four replications. The experimental area consisted of 16 plots of 10 m2 (5 x 2 m each. The experimental area was analyzed and according to the results, received dolomitic limestone corresponding 2t /ha, two months before the implementation of the experiment. Sowing was made by broad costing together with 80 kg/ha of P2O5 in the form of single superphosfate. After 60 days of implantation of the experiment it was a made a leveling of the plots to a height of about 15 cm. After this it was applied 250g of the 20-00-20 fertilizer/plot. Thirty days after the standardization it was evaluated the total number of tillers of the cultivars, using a metal frame of 0.5 x 0.5m which was thrown at random on each of the 16 plots, leaving one meter of each extremitly, and all tillers which were within the frame counted. After finished the counting of all tillers, the plots cut again at a height of approximately 15 cm. The second evaluation took place after thirty days, and it was again counted the total number of tillers following the same procedure. The results were analyzed by Tukey test at 5% after transforming the data to log(x. For the first evaluation there was no statistical difference in the total number of tillers between cultivars. But, in the second evaluation, the total number of tillers of NO 78

  4. EX VITRO ROOTING OF OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. PLANTLETS DERIVED FROM TISSUE CULTURE

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    Sumaryono Sumaryono

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Plantlets of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. derived from so-matic embryos sometimes do not form well developed-roots. Root formation of unrooted-plantlets can be induced with aux-in during ex vitro acclimatization period to simplify the proce-dure and to reduce seedling production cost. Experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design to determine the effect of different types of auxin, i.e. indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, and 1-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA at different concentrations, i.e. 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mM on root development of oil palm plantlets. The plantlets used were derived from somatic embryos of MK 649 oil palm clone. The basal end of the shoots was dipped in auxin solution for 10 minutes before the shoot was cultured in a small plastic pot containing a mixed growing medium. The cultures were then placed inside a closed transparent plastic tunnel (240 cm x 100 cm x 95 cm for 12 weeks. The results showed that without auxin treatment only 15% of the shoots formed roots. Dipping in auxin solution increased significantly root frequen-cy to more than 50%. The best root formation was found on the shoots treated with 2 mM NAA by which rooting frequency was 80%. Auxin treatments also increased root quality as indi-cated by more number of primary and secondary roots. IAA, IBA, and NAA treatments at all concentrations tested increased significantly shoot height on average by 42% and shoot diame-ter by 30% compared to control treatment, but did not influ-ence root length. The best treatment for inducing roots of oil palm plantlets ex vitro was by dipping the basal end of the plant-lets in 2 mM NAA solution. The result showed that rooting of oil palm plantlets could be successfully conducted ex vitro that would eliminate sterile rooting stage thus simplify the protocol and reduce seedling production time and cost.

  5. Climate influence on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Justicia pectoralis Jacq. Influencia del clima en la composición química y la actividad antioxidante de Justicia pectorales Jacq

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    Jonh Jairo Méndez Arteaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of the altitude in the phenols and flavonoids contents and the antioxidant activity of the extracts of different polarities of Justicia pectoralis Jacq(Acanthaceae was evaluated. There was found that the plants cultivated under the Ibagué-Tolima's climate and soil conditions, can be a source of antioxidant compounds, especially in water preparations. The chromatographic analysis revealed that J. pectoralis extracts have mainly flavonoids of the flavonone type, as apigenine. A greater (or The greatest content of flavonoids was detected in the ethanolic extract of the plant samples grown at 1 265 m.a.s.l. (meters above sea level (2 748,03 mg/L. The altitude level does not seem to have any influence on the functional properties, neither on the phytophenols content. The J. pectoralis Jacq can be considered one species with a high therapeutic potential and with good commercial opportunities.En este trabajo se evaluó la influencia de la altitud en el contenido de fenoles y flavonoides y la actividad antioxidante de los extractos de diferentes polaridades provenientes de Justicia pectorales (Acanthaceae. Se halló que las plantas cultivadas en las condiciones del suelo y el clima de la zona Ibagué-Tolima pueden constituirse en compuestos antioxidantes, especialmente en preparados acuosos. El análisis cromatográfico reveló que los extractos de J. pectorales poseen en lo fundamental flavonoides del tipo flavona como es la apigenina. Un mayor contenido (sino el mayor de flavonoides se detectó en el extracto etanol obtenido de las muestras de la planta cultivadas a 1 265 metros por encima del nivel del mar (2 748,03 mg/L. La altitud no parece influir en las propiedades funcionales, ni en el contenido de fitofenoles del extracto. La J. pectorales puede considerarse una especie de gran potencial terapéutico y buenas posibilidades de comercialización.

  6. Characterization of apigenin and luteolin derivatives from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) leaf using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Noor Idayu; Shaari, Khozirah; Abas, Faridah; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Ishak, Zamzuri; Ramli, Umi Salamah

    2012-11-14

    The palm oil industry generates several byproducts, and more than half of the dry weight of the waste is of oil palm leaf whereby the tissue is underutilized. Recently, several research studies found promising potential of oil palm fronds as a source of nutraceutical due to its bioactive properties. However, the chemical composition of the tissue is still not deciphered. Using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), glycosylated apigenin and luteolin were separated and identified from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) leaf and structures of the constituents were elucidated by collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem MS. From 28 derivatives of the flavones, 9 compounds were conjugated with hydroxymethylglutaric (HMG) acid. Improved knowledge on oil palm especially on bioactive component of the leaf tissue will allow correlation of its beneficial effects and further promotes efficient utilization of this agriculture byproduct.

  7. Perubahan Pola Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq) Dengan Pemberian ZPT Atonik Pada Media Campuran Pasir Dengan Blotong Tebu Di Pre Nursery

    OpenAIRE

    Angga Reksa

    2009-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perubahan pola pertumbuhan bibit kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) dengan ZPT Atonik pada Media campuran pasir dengan blotong tebu di pre nursery, dilaksanakan di lahan percobaan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Sumatera Utara Medan, Pada bulan Mei sampai juli 2007. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) faktorial dengan 2 faktor perlakuan. Faktor pertama adalah ZPT Atonik yang terdiri dari 3 taraf yaitu : A0 : 0cc/L, A2 : 1,5cc/L,...

  8. Características morfogênicas e perfolhamento do Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia irrigado Morphogenetic characteristics and tillering of irrigated Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania

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    Fernando França da Cunha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes turnos de rega e níveis de irrigação sobre as características morfogênicas e o perfilhamento de Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia. Uma bancada experimental foi montada sob ambiente protegido, onde foram colocados recipientes cultivados com o capim. As irrigações foram realizadas com turnos de rega de 1, 4 e 7 dias, e lâminas de irrigação para restabelecer 50, 75 e 100% da disponibilidade total de água no solo. A densidade populacional de perfilhos foi obtida por meio de contagem de perfilhos vivos após cada corte. As características morfogênicas foram estudadas por meio da taxa de aparecimento de folhas (TApF, taxa de alongamento de folhas (TAlF e colmos (TAlC, número de folhas emergentes (NFEm, expandidas (NFEx e vivas (NFV. O perfilhamento foi maior para maior nível de irrigação. O clima proporcionou maior efeito nas características morfogênicas que os tratamentos. Os fatores estudados não proporcionaram efeito expressivo na TAlC, NFEm, NFEx e NFV.The aim of this work was to study the effect of different irrigation interval and irrigation depth on morphogenetic characteristics and tillering of the Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania. The grass was cultivated in recipients in a greenhouse. The irrigations were performed with intervals of 1, 4 and 7 days, in order to reestablish soil water content to 50, 75 and 100% of the total available water in the soil. The tillering was obtained through counting of living tiller after each cut. The morphogenetic characteristics were studied through the leaf appearance rate (LAR, leaf elongation rate (LER and stem elongation rate (SER, emerging leaf numbers (EmLN, expanded leaf numbers (ExLN and living leaf numbers (LLN. The tillering was larger for larger irrigation depth. The climate provided greater effect in the morphogenetic characteristics than the treatments. The studied factors were not significant for SER, EmLN, ExLN and LLN.

  9. Perdas de forragem em capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1 manejado sob diferentes alturas sob pastejo Forage losses in Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1 managed in different sward height under grazing

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    Ulysses Cecato

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - O experimento foi conduzido com objetivo de avaliar as perdas de forragem e a acumulação de liteira em uma pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1 manejada sob diferentes alturas. Os níveis de altura (tratamentos estudados foram: 29,8; 32,0; 47,1; 51,5; 57,9; 62,7; 72,6 e 80,0 cm, em um delineamento completamente casualizado e com duas repetições. As taxas de acúmulo e acumulação de liteira e as perdas de forragem foram iguais em todas as alturas. A porcentagem de forragem senescente foi influenciada de forma quadrática pelos níveis de altura. Os resultados indicam que foram altos os níveis de acumulação de liteira e as perdas de forragem, em média, 38,9 kg/ha/dia de MS e 2179 kg/ha de MS, respectivamente. Devido à possibilidade de se reduzirem a persistência da pastagem e a modificação da estrutura das plantas, recomenda-se não utilizar pastagens de capim-Tanzânia em alturas próximas ou iguais a 20 e 80 cm, sob lotações contínuas.The experiment was conducted to evaluate, the forage losses and litter accumulation, in a pasture of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximun Jacq cv. Tanzania managed in different sward height levels. The studied levels of sward heights (treatments were: 29.8, 32.0, 47.1, 51.5, 57.9, 62.7, 72.6 and 80.0 cm, in a completely randomized design and two replications. The litter accumulation rate, litter accumulation and forage losses were similar in all heights. The percentage of senescent forage in the plant canopy was influenced on a quadratic way by the sward height levels. The results show that the litter accumulation and forage losses were high, with average DM of 38.9 kg/ha.day and 2179 kg/ha of DM, respectively. Due to the possibility to reduce the pasture persistence and plant structure deteriorate, it is not recommended to utilize Tanzania grass pastures, in levels sward height near or equal of 20 and 80 cm, under continuous stocking rate.

  10. Enrichment of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases the capsaicinoids content in Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garruña-Hernández, René; Monforte-González, Miriam; Canto-Aguilar, Azucena; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Orellana, Roger

    2013-04-01

    The effects of the increase of atmospheric CO2 on agricultural productivity have been mainly analyzed through its impact on biomass yield, and little attention has been directed to quality traits, such as nutritional or organoleptic attributes. For this study, plants of hot Habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were grown in growth chambers under three different CO2 levels: 380 (normal atmospheric value), 760 and 1140 µmol mol(-1), and their effects on pod yield, size, color and pungency, were monitored. The total number of pods per plant increased by 88.5% at the highest CO2 , in comparison to plants grown at normal CO2 conditions. Pod size and yield per plant also increased when plants were grown at the highest CO2 concentration (partial pressure). Furthermore, total capsaicinoids contents in ripe peppers under a high CO2 atmosphere were 27% higher than those from plants under lower concentrations, but it was not the case for immature pods. These data suggest that the increase of atmospheric CO2 could modify specific routes of secondary metabolism as well as others desirable traits, thus affecting the quality of Capsicum pepper products. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. THE ROLE OF PLANTATIONS OF THE AFRICAN PALM (ELAEIS GUINEENSIS JACQ. IN THE CONSERVATION OF SNAKES IN COLOMBIA

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    JOHN D. LYNCH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Monocultures of the African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. were studied between 2006 and 2013 so as to determine which species of snakes frequented them and to estimate the abundances of each species encountered. Thirty five species of snakes (three boas, one coral, 27 colubrids, one tropidophid, one typhlopid, and two vipers were captured within palmeras. Palm plantations are revealed to (1 augment the densities of ten species of snakes well beyond the densities found by collectors in natural and/or relatively transformed habitats and (2 to not offer benefits to at least 75% of the snake community found in the vicinities of palm plantations. The majority of snake species (60% found in palmeras are nocturnal species. The most common species (defined by having 15 or more captures were Atractus univittatus, Bothrops asper, B. atrox, Epicrates maurus, Leptodeira annulata, Liophis melanotus, Ninia atrata, Oxyrhopus petolarius, Pseudoboa neuwiedii, and Tantilla melanocephala. Palm plantations permit substantial local population sizes for a fraction (< 25% of the local snake community. Internal practices of such plantations could be modified so as to protect a larger share of the fauna by means of two practices: (1 construction and maintenance of paleras as well as (2 creating a mosaic of palm plantations enclosing "islands" of secondary forests.

  12. Isolation, expression analysis and characterization of EgNDL, a NDR-like protein in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

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    Kedsirin Ruttajorn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel cDNA of a SF21-like protein or NDR-like protein (EgNDL from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is 1,044 bp in length and encodes a putative protein with a 347-amino-acid open reading frame. The EgNDL showed 93% identity to the pollenspecific SF21-like protein of Phoenix dactylifera and also showed 79% identity to the NDL protein of Theobroma cacao. Expression analysis of the EgNDL gene in various tissues showed that EgNDL was expressed in the anthers, pistils, mesocarp and leaves. The high expression of EgNDL among three oil palm varieties was significantly expressed in Pisifera (P<0.05, which is commonly used as a male parent in crosses. Computational tools were used to predict the protein and concluded that EgNDL is a putative membrane protein that may function in a signal transduction pathway during pollen development. In this context, knowledge regarding EgNDL and its potential role in plant developmental processes will benefit oil palm breeding programs.

  13. Effect of autohydrolysis and enzymatic treatment on oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) frond fibres for xylose and xylooligosaccharides production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiha-Hanim, Saleh; Noor, Mohd Azemi Mohd; Rosma, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the most important commercial crops for the production of palm oil, which generates 10.88 tons of oil palm fronds per hectare of plantation as a by-product. In this study, oil palm frond fibres were subjected to an autohydrolysis treatment using an autoclave, operated at 121 °C for 20-80 min, to facilitate the separation of hemicelluloses. The hemicellulose-rich solution (autohydrolysate) was subjected to further hydrolysis with 4-16 U of mixed Trichoderma viride endo-(1,4)-β-xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8) per 100 mg of autohydrolysate. Autoclaving of palm fronds at 121°C for 60 min (a severity factor of 2.40) recovered 75% of the solid residue, containing 57.9% cellulose and 18% Klason lignin, and an autohydrolysate containing 14.94% hemicellulose, with a fractionation efficiency of 49.20%. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the autohydrolysate with 8 U of endoxylanase at 40 °C for 24 h produced a solution containing 17.5% xylooligosaccharides and 25.6% xylose. The results clearly indicate the potential utilization of oil palm frond, an abundantly available lignocellulosic biomass for the production of xylose and xylooligosaccharides which can serve as functional food ingredients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN PUPUK ORGANIK CAIR DAUN GAMAL (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp. TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN SAWI (Brassica juncea L.

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    Fitri Oviyanti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamal (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp. is a plant leguminoceae class. So far, only gliricidia plants used as feed for ruminants, even though this plant has the potential as a source of nutrients for plants when used as an organic fertilizer. This study aims to determine the effect of Gliricidia leaves liquid organic fertilizer on plant growth mustard and determine the concentration of gliricidia leaves liquid organic fertilizer optimally to enhance the growth of mustard. This research was conducted at the Biology Laboratory of Biology education studies program teacher training and Tarbiyah Faculty UIN Raden Fatah Palembang from May to June 2015, while for the analysis of gliricidia leaves liquid organic fertilizer held in the Research and Standardization Industry Palembang. This study uses a completely randomized design (RAL with 4 treatments and 3 replications. Such treatment is 0 (K0, 40 (K1, 80 (K2, and 120 (K3 ml/l of water. The analysis showed that in the gliricidia leaves liquid organic fertilizer contained 0.24% N, 0.039% P, 8.38% K, 12.4% C-organic. Parameters measured were plant height, number of leaves, and leaf width. The research showed that the gliricidia leaves liquid organic fertilizer a significant influence on the growth of mustard. The concentration of 120 ml/l of water provide optimum influence on the growth of mustard

  15. Justicia pectoralis Jacq: , Acanthaceae: preparation and characterisation of the plant drug including chromatographic analysis by HPLC-PDA

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    Francisco N. Fonseca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Justicia pectoralis Jacq., Acanthaceae, is a herb popularly known in Brazilian northeast as "chambá" and used in folk medicine for the treatment of respiratory tract conditions such as asthma, cough and bronchitis. This species is included in the National Register of Plants of Interest to the National Health System. The aim of the present study was to develop a protocol for the preparation of the plant drug from J. pectoralis and to characterise the plant drug for its use as a pharmaceutical raw material. The aerial parts of J. pectoralis, after drying chamber with forced air circulation (35 °C for different periods of time (1-5 days, presented after one day a moisture content below the maximum allowed for plant drugs. The powder of the plant drug was classified as moderately coarse, and the total ashes content and the water- or ethanol-soluble extractives were determined. Analysis of hydroalcoholic (ethanol 20% extract of J. pectoralis by high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array (HPLC-PDA determined the content of coumarin and umbelliferone (16.2 and 0.81 mg/g plant drug, respectively. The preparation conditions of the plant drug and the quality control parameters established for J. pectoralis in this study are of interest for the development of phytomedicines which use this active raw material.

  16. Synergistic Effects of n-Hexane Fraction of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. Bark Extract and Selected Antibiotics on Bacterial Isolates

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    Oluwatayo E. Abioye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents by microbial pathogens demands increased effort in the development of effective ways of treating infections and diseases. The n-hexane fraction of lyophilized crude bark extract of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. was prepared and, in combination with selected antibiotics, assayed for antimicrobial activity against some selected bacterial pathogens using time-kill assay. Protein leakage analysis of the combined agents was performed using Bradford protein quantification method. Determination of active compounds present in the n-hexane fraction was done using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. While time-kill assay detected 43.33% synergy; 56.67% indifference and no antagonism at 1/2 × minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, 1 × MIC exhibited 55% synergy, 45% indifference and no antagonism. Protein leakages from the cells of selected bacteria ranged from 1.20 µg/mL to 256.93 µg/mL. The presence of a phenyl group, an aromatic ring and phenolic compounds in the n-hexane fraction was confirmed at 2162 cm−1–2020 cm−1, 1605 cm−1–1533 cm−1 and 1438 cm−1–1444 cm−1 spectra peaks, respectively. The observed antibiotic−n-hexane fraction synergistic interaction revealed the improved antibacterial activity of the selected antibiotics. Hence, exploration of a combination of antibiotics with plant secondary metabolites is hereby advocated in the global quest for means of combating infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens.

  17. Conservação de sementes de marizeiro Geoffroea spinosa Jacq. utilizando diferentes embalagens e ambientes

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    Vênia Camelo de Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Geoffroea spinosa Jacq., commonly known as marizeiro in Brazil, is an important tree species, mainly because it is adapted to riparian forest conditions in semi-arid and associated ecosystems. The species occur in large areas of northeastern Brazil and in the São Francisco river valley, always restricted to seasonally flooded environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different types of packaging and storage periods, as well the influence of environments on the process of seed germination and vigor of Geoffroea spinosa. The experiment was carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Ecology - CCA/UFPB, following a completely randomized design. The seeds were distributed among two environments (natural conditions in the laboratory and cold room, packed in two types of packaging (paper bags and plastic bags for five periods of storage: 0; 15; 30; 60 and 90 days. Water content, the emergence velocity index, dry weight and length of seedlings were evaluated. The data were submitted to a polynomial regression analysis. In plastic packaging and the environment of the cold room there was less reduction of viability and vigor during storage. Seeds packed in paper bags and stored in a laboratory rapidly lost viability and vigor, after 30 days of storage.

  18. Effects of IAA and IBA on the in vitro rooting of stem cuttings of Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw

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    José García García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was carried out with the objective of evaluating the response of shoots of chayote [S. edule (Jacq. Sw.] to the application of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA on the in vitro rooting phase. The effect of three culture media, modified from the proposed of Murashige and Skoog (MS was studied: 1- 65% MS salt base, 2- 65% MS salt base + 0.05 mg l-1 of indolebutyric acid (AIB and 3- 65% MS salt base + 3.0 mg l-1-3-indole acetic acid (IAA. The variables evaluated were: number of roots, length and number of shoots per in vitro seedling. The best result were obtained when using 65% MS salt base with 3.0 mg l-1 of IAA. Significant differences (P<0.05 among treatments containing growth regulators was obtained for the variables number of roots and length of in vitro plantlets. In the UNA-730 accession root induction was obtained in a 65% MS salt base culture medium without growth regulators; however, when IAA and IBA was added the induction was 100%. The differences identified in this work with regards to the root induction were probably the combined result of genotype and specific culture conditions. Key words: auxins, chayote, growth regulators, in vitro culture

  19. Žuta imela (Loranthus europaeus Jacq.) i bijela imela (Viscum album L.) na području Uprave šuma podružnice Bjelovar

    OpenAIRE

    Idžojtić, Marilena; Glavaš, Milan; Zebec, Marko; Pernar, Renata; Bradić, Branko; Husak, Dražen

    2006-01-01

    Na području Uprave šuma podružnice Bjelovar istražena je zaraza hrastova kitnjaka (Quercus petraea /Matt./ Liebl.) i lužnjaka (Q. robur L.) žutom imelom (Loranthus europaeus Jacq.), te zaraza bijele topole (Populus alba L.), običnog bagrema (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) i kitnjaka bijelom imelom (Viscum album L.). Istraživanje je provedeno u izabranim odsjecima starijima od 30 godina u kojima je dijagonalnim pregledom evidentiran broj zaraženih i nezaraženih stabala, te broj grmova imele na zaraž...

  20. Produção de forragem do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1) pastejado em diferentes alturas

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    Clovenilson Cláudio Perissato Cano; Ulysses Cecato; Marcos Weber do Canto; Anneliese Biagi Rodrigues; Clóves Cabreira Jobim; Augusto Manoel Rodrigues; Sandra Galbeiro; Willian Gonçalves do Nascimento

    2004-01-01

    Objetivou-se, com este experimento, avaliar a massa de forragem (MF), massa de lâmina verde (MLV), massa de colmo + bainha verde (MCV), massa de material morto (MMM), massa de forragem verde (MFV), relação folha/colmo (F/C), taxa de acúmulo de massa seca (TAMS), acúmulo de massa de forragem (AMF), índice de área foliar (IAF), porcentagem de solo descoberto (SD) e porcentagem de solo coberto com liteira (SCL) em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1) manejada em quat...

  1. Inoculación con Azospirillum spp y Enterobacter aglomerans en Pasto Guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq. en el Departamento de Cesar (Colombia / Inoculation with Azospirillum spp and Enterobacter aglomerans in Guinea Grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. in the Cesar

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    Diana María Cárdenas Caro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se evaluó el efecto de los aislados SRGM2, SRGM3 y SRGM4 de Azospirillum spp. en el crecimiento y desarrollo de plantas de pasto Guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania en la Estación Experimental Motilonia de Corpoica, del municipio Agustín Codazzi (Cesar, Colombia. Se realizó inoculación por imbibición de las semillas, y en el momento de la siembra, en las macetas en condiciones de casa malla. Se utilizó inoculación simple de los aislados de Azospirillum sp y co-inoculación con una cepa fosfato solubilizadora de Enterobacter aglomerans (UV1, aislada de suelos cultivados con algodón en el departamento de Cesar. Lasvariables estudiadas en las plantas fueron: germinación, peso foliar fresco y seco, peso radical fresco y seco, fósforo y proteína foliar. Los resultados mostraron que la inoculación simple y combinada promovió la germinación de semillas del pasto guinea (P≤0,05 con respecto al tratamiento sin inoculación (testigo absoluto; y aunque no se presentaron diferencias significativas (P≤0,05 en las demásvariables estudiadas, se encontraron aumentos de hasta 26,80% en proteína cruda, y 45,67% en materia seca foliar comparada con las plantas tratadas con 100% de fertilización nitrogenada. Se observó que el aislado de Azospirillum SRGM2 co-inoculado con Enterobacter aglomerans UV1 registró los mayores valores en el crecimiento vegetal del pasto guinea, por lo que se consideró como una rizobacteria promisoria para la biofertilización de esta gramínea utilizada en la alimentación bovina en la costa caribe colombiana. / Abstract. The effect of the isolates SRGM2, SRGM3 and SRGM of Azospirillum spp. on the growth and development of Guinea grass plants (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania was evaluated in the Experimental Station Motilonia of Corpoica, municipality Agustin Codazzi (Cesar, Colombia. The inoculation was performed by imbibition of seeds and at planting time in pots under

  2. Produção de forragem do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 pastejado em diferentes alturas Forage production of Tanzaniagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 grazed at different heights

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    Clovenilson Cláudio Perissato Cano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este experimento, avaliar a massa de forragem (MF, massa de lâmina verde (MLV, massa de colmo + bainha verde (MCV, massa de material morto (MMM, massa de forragem verde (MFV, relação folha/colmo (F/C, taxa de acúmulo de massa seca (TAMS, acúmulo de massa de forragem (AMF, índice de área foliar (IAF, porcentagem de solo descoberto (SD e porcentagem de solo coberto com liteira (SCL em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 manejada em quatro alturas do dossel forrageiro (20, 40, 60 e 80 cm. O método de pastejo utilizado foi o de lotação contínua e taxa de lotação variável, com novilhos da raça Nelore com peso médio de 340 kg. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com duas repetições e realizaram-se cinco avaliações. MLV, MCV, MMM, MFV, MF, IAF, TAMS e AMF aumentaram com o avanço da altura do dossel, sendo que a porcentagem de SD, SCL e material morto diminui em pastos mais altos. O manejo do capim-Tanzânia nas alturas de 40 e 60 cm, apresentou as melhores respostas de composição morfológica, garantindo boa oferta de folhas, de cobertura do solo e taxa de acúmulo de massa seca. As alturas de 20 e 80 cm não devem ser recomendadas para o manejo do capim-Tanzânia quando o objetivo for produção com qualidade e quantidade.This experiment was conducted out to evaluate the forage mass (FM, green leaf lamina mass (GLLM, green stem + leaf sheath mass (GSSM, mass of dead material (MDM, green forage mass (GMF, total forage mass (TFM, leaf/stem ratio (L/S, dry matter accumulation rate (DMAR, leaf area index (LAI, % of bare soil (BS and litter cover percentage (LCP in Tanzaniagrass pasture (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 managed at four different sward heights (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm. The grazing method was the continuous stocking with variable stocking rate, and the grazing animals were Nellore steers with average weight of 340 kg. The completely

  3. Valor nutritivo do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 pastejado em diferentes alturas Nutritive value of Tanzaniagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 grazed at different heights

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    Clovenilson Cláudio Perissato Cano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as concentrações de proteína bruta (PB, de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, de fósforo (P, de potássio (K, de cálcio (Ca e de magnésio (Mg e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS nas frações lâminas foliares e colmos + bainhas em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 manejada em quatro alturas de dossel forrageiro (20, 40, 60 e 80 cm. O método de pastejo foi o de lotação contínua, com taxa de lotação variável, e os animais utilizados foram novilhos da raça Nelore, com peso médio de 340 kg. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com duas repetições, sendo realizadas cinco avaliações no período (112 dias. O aumento na altura do dossel promoveu redução nas concentrações de PB, Ca, P, Mg e DIVMS e elevação nas concentrações de FDN, FDA e K para as frações lâmina foliar e colmo + bainha. As lâminas foliares apresentaram melhor composição química que colmos + bainhas em todas as alturas de dossel e em todos os períodos de avaliação. A altura de dossel de 40 a 50 cm propiciou boa composição química e DIVMS.Crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD contents were assessed in the leaf blade and stem + leaf sheath fractions of Tanzaniagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 managed at four sward heights (20, 40, 50 and 65 cm. The grazing method was the continuous stocking and variable stocking rate, and used Nelore steers with an average weight of 340 kg. The completely randomized experimental design was used with two replications, and five evaluations were performed during a period of 112 days. The CP, IVDMD, Ca, P and Mg contents decreased while NDF, ADF and K concentrations increased in the leaf blade and stem + leaf sheath fraction in response to grazing

  4. Producción de semilla de guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq. en un sistema intensivo de ceba de ganado vacuno Seed production of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. in an intensive cattle fattening system

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    G Oquend

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En un suelo Pardo sialítico del subtipo Cambisol cálcico, localizado en la Empresa Pecuaria «Calixto García», en la provincia de Holguín, se estudio la producción de semilla de guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq. en un sistema intensivo de ceba de ganado vacuno, en condiciones de riego. Los tratamientos fueron cinco varieda­des del pasto guinea: A Común; B Likoni; C Mombasa; D Tanzania; y E Tobiatá. Los siguientes métodos se consideraron a su vez como subtratamientos: 1 Siembra con semilla gámica; 2 Plantación por macollas; y 3 Por vía de trasplante. La carga se mantuvo ajustada a 2 UGM/ha. En la producción de semillas existieron interacciones favorables entre los métodos de siembra y las variedades: semilla gámica-guinea Likoni; maco­lla-guinea Mombasa, Tanzania y Tobiatá; trasplante-guinea Común. En todo el sistema de explotación se obtuvo un aporte adicional superior a los $1 000/ha por concepto de producción de semilla, sin afectar la producción animal, en la que se obtuvieron ganancias superiores a los 800 g/animal/día y producciones pro­medio de 46 212 t de carne en pie por ciclo de ceba. Se considera factible la producción de semilla del pasto guinea en sistemas intensivos de ceba de ganado vacuno.On a sialitic Brown soil of the calcic Cambisol subtype, located at the «Calixto García» Livestock Production Enterprise, in the Holguín province, the production of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. was studied in an intensive cattle fattening system, with irrigation. The treatments were five varieties of Guinea grass: A Common; B Likoni; C Mombasa; D Tanzania; and E Tobiatá. The following methods were considered, in turn, sub-treatments: 1 Seeding with gamic seed; 2 Planting with tillers; and 3 Transplanting. The stocking rate remained adjusted at 2 animals/ha. In seed production there were favorable interactions between the planting methods and the varieties: gamic seed-Guinea grass Likoni; tiller-Guinea grass

  5. Chemical and nutritional evaluation of kernels of bocaiuva, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. Avaliação química e nutricional de amêndoas da bocaiúva, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd.

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    Priscila A. Hiane

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein characterization and results of proximate composition and mineral analyses of fruit kernels of bocaiuva, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd., are reported. The kernels presented high contents of oil (51.7%, protein (17.6% and fiber (15.8%. The seeds´ soluble proteins were isolated according to their solubility. The main separated proteins were globulins (53.5% and glutelins (40.0%. Moreover, the presence of low molecular mass proteases in these two fractions was shown by the SDS-PAGE method. The assays of protease-inhibitory and hemagglutinating activities showed that bocaiuva´s protein fractions were not resistant to trypsin or chymotrypsin activities and that both had low lectin content. The globulin in vitro digestibility assay resembled a casein standard. Neither globulin nor glutelin enzymatic hydrolyses increased significantly (p Caracterização de proteínas e análises da composição centesimal e teores de minerais foram realizados nas amêndoas da bocaiúva, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. As amêndoas apresentaram alto teor de lipídio (51,7%, proteína (17,6% e fibra (15,8%. Proteínas solúveis das sementes foram fracionadas de acordo com a sua solubilidade. As principais proteínas separadas foram as globulinas (53,5% e glutelinas (40,0%, e a presença de proteases de baixo peso molecular nessas duas frações foi revelada por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE. Ensaios da atividade inibitória de proteases e da hemaglutinação mostraram que as frações protéicas da bocaiúva não foram resistentes à ação da tripsina e quimotripsina e apresentaram baixo teor de lectina. A digestibilidade in vitro da globulina foi semelhante à da caseína padrão. Hidrólises enzimáticas da globulina e glutelina não aumentaram significativamente (p < 0,05, com o aquecimento. Treonina e lisina são os aminoácidos mais limitantes, respectivamente, das duas principais frações de proteínas da amêndoa da bocaiúva, a

  6. Evaluación fisico-química de la semilla y del aceite de corozo ( Acrocomia aculeata Jacq.

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    Medina, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, physicochemical characteristics of the seed and seed oil of corozo ( Acrocomia aculeata Jacq., a wild palm from Central and South America , were evaluated. Seeds obtained from mature fruits from “El Chaparro” town, Anzoategui state, Venezuela, harvested in March 2003, were decorticated; the endospermus was transformed to meal by means of grinding and then using a sieve (425 µm, and its oil was extracted with n-hexane. The whole seed showed an average weight of 9.67 ± 0.32 (PEl objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar algunas características físicas y químicas de la semilla y del aceite crudo extraído de la semilla del fruto de corozo ( Acrocomia aculeata Jacq., una palmera silvestre distribuida en Centroamérica y Sudamérica. A un lote se semillas obtenidas de frutos maduros procedentes de la población de “El Chaparro”, estado Anzoátegui, Venezuela, cosechados en Marzo 2003, se le separó el pericarpio y el endospermo. El endospermo fue transformado en harina, mediante molienda y tamizado (apertura 425 μm, y a ésta se le extrajo el aceite con n-hexano. A la semilla entera se le determinó la masa promedio (9,67 ± 0,32; P<0,05 y la proporción de pericarpio (75,39 % y endospermo (24,61 %. A la harina del endospermo de le determinó la composición proximal, presentando niveles importantes de grasa (53,13 %, proteína (13,75 % y fibra cruda (25,82 %. El aceite crudo de corozo presentó baja acidez libre (0,40 %, expresada como ácido oleico y alta resistencia a la oxidación (no se detectó peróxidos y el índice de estabilidad OSI fue de 100 h; sus índices de yodo y saponificación fueron 29,87 cg I/g y 205 mg KOH/g, respectivamente. La composición en ácidos grasos, determinada mediante cromatografía de gas, mostró mayor proporción de ácidos saturados (79,6 %, siendo el ácido láurico el de mayor concentración. La semilla de corozo es un recurso oleaginoso que puede ser útil

  7. Justicia pectoralis Jacq: , Acanthaceae: preparation and characterisation of the plant drug including chromatographic analysis by HPLC-PDA

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    Francisco N. Fonseca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Justicia pectoralis Jacq., Acanthaceae, is a herb popularly known in Brazilian northeast as "chambá" and used in folk medicine for the treatment of respiratory tract conditions such as asthma, cough and bronchitis. This species is included in the National Register of Plants of Interest to the National Health System. The aim of the present study was to develop a protocol for the preparation of the plant drug from J. pectoralis and to characterise the plant drug for its use as a pharmaceutical raw material. The aerial parts of J. pectoralis, after drying chamber with forced air circulation (35 °C for different periods of time (1-5 days, presented after one day a moisture content below the maximum allowed for plant drugs. The powder of the plant drug was classified as moderately coarse, and the total ashes content and the water- or ethanol-soluble extractives were determined. Analysis of hydroalcoholic (ethanol 20% extract of J. pectoralis by high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array (HPLC-PDA determined the content of coumarin and umbelliferone (16.2 and 0.81 mg/g plant drug, respectively. The preparation conditions of the plant drug and the quality control parameters established for J. pectoralis in this study are of interest for the development of phytomedicines which use this active raw material.Justicia pectoralis Jacq., Acanthaceae, é uma erva conhecida popularmente no Nordeste como chambá e, utilizada tradicionalmente no tratamento de doenças do trato respiratório, como a asma, tosse e bronquite. Essa espécie encontra-se na Relação Nacional de Plantas Medicinais de Interesse para o SUS. O objetivo do presente estudo foi elaborar protocolo para a preparação da droga vegetal a partir de J. pectoralis e realizar a sua caracterização visando seu emprego como matéria-prima farmacêutica. A parte aérea de J. pectoralis, após secagem em estufa com circulação e renovação de ar (35 °C durante diferentes per

  8. Control de plagas de la jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. con Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. en Chiautla de Tapia, Puebla

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    A. Aragón-García

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el ciclo agrícola comprendido entre los meses de julio a diciembre de 2005, se generó en el municipio de Chiautla de Tapia, una metodología para el control de plagas insectiles que afectan el follaje del cultivo de jamaica. En el desarrollo de este trabajo se utilizó una parcela ubicada en el mismo municipio, en la que se sembrójamaica criolla -de acuerdo a la tecnología agrícola de la zona- y se controlaron las plagas, realizando cuatro aplicaciones de extracto acuoso de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq., alternándolas con cuatro aplicaciones de jabón neutro. Para verificar la efectividad del tratamiento, los parámetros evaluados fueron: porcentaje de infestación, daños causados por insectos y producción. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la parcela a la cual se consideró como testigo, presentó un porcentaje de infestación del 79%; mientras que la parcela que se le aplicó el tratamiento presentó un 21% de infestación. En cuanto a los daños, en la parcela testigo se presentó en promedio 30.08% de daño por planta y la parcela donde se realizó el control sólo 14.89%. La producción en la parcela tratada fue de 793 kg/ha, presentándose un incremento en la producción con respecto al testigo, del 116%. En los tres parámetros evaluados se observó diferencia significativa ( = 0.05 entre tratamientos. Con la aplicación del tratamiento, se evitan los daños a las plantas, observándose un incremento en la producción.

  9. Chemical Characterization, Antileishmanial Activity, and Cytotoxicity Effects of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Marley; Scull, Ramón; Satyal, Prabodh; Setzer, William N; Monzote, Lianet

    2017-09-01

    Current strategies to control leishmaniasis are mainly based on chemotherapy. However, none of the available drugs can be considered to be ideal to treat this disease. Because of the hydrophobic nature and bioactivities of their components, essential oils (EOs) can be considered as important sources for developing agents against intracellular pathogens, such as Leishmania parasites. In this study, we report the chemical characterization, antileishmanial activities, and cytotoxicity effect of the EO from Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don. (Asteraceae). Chemical analysis revealed that EO from aerial part from P. carolinensis is composed of 44 compounds. The main component was selin-11-en-4α-ol, which made up 51.0%. In vitro antileishmanial studies showed that P. carolinensis EO inhibited the growth of promastigotes (IC 50  = 24.7 ± 7.1 μg/mL) and amastigotes (IC 50  = 6.2 ± 0.1 μg/mL) of Leishmania amazonensis, while cytotoxicity evaluation revealed fivefold higher values than those for the parasites. In a model of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice, five doses of EO at 30 mg/kg by intralesional route demonstrated smaller lesion size and parasite burden (p < 0.05) compared with animals treated with Glucantime® and untreated mice. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo results showed the potentialities of EO from P. carolinensis with the future possibility of a new alternative in the treatment for leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Improved cryopreservation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) polyembryoids using droplet vitrification approach and assessment of genetic fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantait, Saikat; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Suranthran, Periasamy; Palanyandy, Sharrmila Rengeswari; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, polyembryoids of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were cryopreserved with successful revival of 68 % for the first time using the droplet vitrification technique. Excised polyembryoids (3-5-mm diameter) from 3-month-old in vitro cultures were pre-cultured for 12 h in liquid Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.5 M sucrose. The polyembryoids were osmoprotected in loading solution [10% (w/v) dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) plus 0.7 M sucrose] for 30 min at room temperature and then placed on aluminium strips where they were individually drenched in chilled droplets of vitrification solution (PVS2) [30% (w/v) glycerol plus 15% (w/v) ethylene glycol (EG) plus 15% (w/v) DMSO plus 0.4 M sucrose] for 10 min. The aluminium strips were enclosed in cryovials which were then plunged quickly into liquid nitrogen and kept there for 1 h. The polyembryoids were then thawed and unloaded (using 1.2 M sucrose solution) with subsequent transfer to regeneration medium and stored in zero irradiance. Following for 10 days of storage, polyembryoids were cultured under 16 h photoperiod of 50 μmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic photon flux density, at 23 ± 1 °C. Post-thaw growth recovery of 68% was recorded within 2 weeks of culture, and new shoot development was observed at 4 weeks of growth. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that successful regeneration of cryopreserved polyembryoids was related to maintenance of cellular integrity, presumably through PVS2 exposure for 10 min. The present study demonstrated that cryopreservation by droplet vitrification enhanced the regeneration percentages of oil palm in comparison with the conventional vitrification method previously reported.

  11. Response surface optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of carotenoids from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fronds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori-Boateng, C; Lee, K T

    2013-05-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fronds (OPF) are the most abundant oil palm solid wastes that are generated during oil palm agriculture and harvest. Palm oil and some other palm wastes have been reported to contain high concentrations of carotenoids with vital bioactive properties. However, the extraction and quantification of carotenoids from OPF have not been reported. In this study, ultrasonic-assisted extraction, HPLC-FLD for quantification, and response surface methodology (RSM) for optimization of β-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin from OPF extracts were investigated. The effects of extraction temperature (X1: 30-70°C), extraction time (X2: 10-50 min), and solvent-sample ratio (X3: 10-50 mL/g) on the recovery of β-carotene (Y1), lutein (Y2), and zeaxanthin (Y3) were investigated using three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) experiment. At a desirability of 1, the optimum extraction conditions for β-carotene (30.14°C, 37.11 min, and 23.18 mL/g), lutein (30.00°C, 39.09 min, and 19.24 mL/g), and zeaxanthin (30.09°C, 36.76 min, and 22.38 mL/g) yielded carotenoid concentrations of 17.95 μg/g dry weight (DW), 261.99 μg/g DW, and 29.99 μg/g DW, respectively.

  12. Feeding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq. fronds alters rumen protozoal population and ruminal fermentation pattern in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm fronds (OPF, normally available all the year round, may provide a sustainable ruminant feed for livestock industry in tropical regions. A feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of feeding OPF on the rumen protozoal population, rumen fermentation and fatty acid profiles of rumen fluid in goats. Twentyfour five-month-old Kacang crossbred male goats were individually housed and fed for 100 d with concentrate diets supplemented with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. frond pellets. The treatments were: CON (100% concentrate, MOPF (75% concentrate + 25% OPF, w/w and HOPF (50% concentrate + 50% OPF, w/w. The diets were adjusted to be isocaloric. The pH of rumen fluid was in the order of HOPF (5.90>MOPF (5.74>CON (5.62. Both HOPF (17.75x104/mL and MOPF (17.13x104/mL had significantly (P<0.05 higher population of Entodinium sp. than CON (14.88x104/mL. Although populations of Holotrichs and total protozoa among the three groups did not show any significant difference (P>0.05, populations were in the numerical order of HOPF>MOPF>CON. The molar proportions of acetate were significantly higher (P<0.05 in HOPF animals compared to MOPF and CON. The altered status in the rumen environment due to supplementation of OPF in the diets resulted in the highest (P<0.05 amount of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA in the rumen of animals receiving HOPF and MOPF diet. These results were suggestive of a decreased biohydrogenation in the rumen, resulting in higher levels of UFA available for hindgut absorption, and hence their increased incorporation in the plasma and edible tissues of the HOPF animals.

  13. Caracterização anatômica e citométrica em biribazeiro (Rollinia mucosa [Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Dória Rodrigues Soares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O biribazeiro (Rollinia mucosa [Jacq.] é uma frutífera nativa da América Central e América do Sul que se destaca das demais espécies do gênero por apresentar frutos grandes e comestíveis. Tendo em vista que pouco se conhece a respeito da anatomia da planta, tipo de reserva da semente, como também sobre o conteúdo de DNA de espécies da família anonáceas, este trabalho teve por objetivos caracterizar histoquimicamente as sementes e anatomicamente as plântulas, e determinar o conteúdo de DNA de biribazeiro. As plântulas foram obtidas de sementes coletadas na região Amazônica pela Embrapa Roraima e enviadas à Universidade Federal de Lavras. Os frutos foram despolpados, e suas sementes foram previamente lavadas e semeadas em bandejas de 48 células, contendo como substrato pó de serragem, permanecendo em câmara de germinação a 30ºC por 90 dias. Nas plantas obtidas, procedeu-se à análise histoquímica, à caracterização anatômica e à determinação do conteúdo de DNA. As principais conclusões deste trabalho foram que: (1 as sementes da Rollinia mucosa apresentam reserva principal lipídica; (2 as secções transversais da lâmina foliar indicam organização dorsiventral, do tipo hipoestomática com estômatos paracíticos e tricomas em ambas as faces da folha; (3 as folhas de biribazeiro apresentam, em média, 4,77 pg de DNA.

  14. Biochemical characterization and immunolocalization studies of a Capsicum chinense Jacq. protein fraction containing DING proteins and anti-microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito-Argáez, Ligia; Tamayo-Sansores, José A; Madera-Piña, Dianeli; García-Villalobos, Francisco J; Moo-Puc, Rosa E; Kú-González, Ángela; Villanueva, Marco A; Islas-Flores, Ignacio

    2016-12-01

    The DING protein family consists of proteins of great biological importance due to their ability to inhibit carcinogenic cell growth. A DING peptide with Mr ∼7.57 kDa and pI ∼5.06 was detected in G10P1.7.57, a protein fraction from Capsicum chinense Jacq. seeds. Amino acid sequencing of the peptide produced three smaller peptides showing identity to the DING protein family. G10P1.7.57 displayed a phosphatase activity capable of dephosphorylating different phosphorylated substrates and inhibited the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Western immunoblotting with a custom-made polyclonal antibody raised against a sequence (ITYMSPDYAAPTLAGLDDATK), derived from the ∼7.57 kDa polypeptide, immunodetected an ∼ 39 kDa polypeptide in G10P1.7.57. Purification by electroelution followed by amino acid sequencing of the ∼39 kDa polypeptide yielded seven new peptide sequences and an additional one identical to that of the initially identified peptide. Western immunoblotting of soluble proteins from C. chinense seeds and leaves revealed the presence of the ∼39 kDa polypeptide at all developmental stages, with increased accumulation when the organs reached maturity. Immunolocalization using Dabsyl chloride- or Alexa fluor 488-conjugated antibodies revealed a specific fluorescent signal in the cell cytoplasm at all developmental stages, giving support to the idea that the ∼39 kDa polypeptide is a soluble DING protein. Thus, we have identified and characterized a protein fraction with a DING protein from C. chinense. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of the extraction mode on the yield of hyperoside, vitexin and vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside from Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (hawthorn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Emanuela; Collina, Simona; Rossi, Daniela; Bazzoni, Deborah; Gaggeri, Raffaella; Bracco, Francesco; Azzolina, Ornella

    2008-01-01

    The extract of Crataegus monogyna shows sedative, hypotensive, vasodilator and cardio-tonic actions. Although several papers dealing with the extraction of metabolites from Crataegus have been published, the plant productivity in terms of bioactive compounds is not easily understandable as yet. To investigate the influence of the extraction mode on the yield of bioactive compounds from Crataegus monogyna Jacq. in order to evaluate plant productivity. Samples were prepared by extraction of powdered material obtained from top branches, flowers and leaves. Soxhlet extraction, maceration and ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction at different experimental conditions were investigated for the exhaustive extraction of hyperoside, vitexin and vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside. The phytocomponents were identified and quantified by HPLC-UV/PAD, comparing HPLC retention times and UV spectra of individual peaks with those of the standards analysed under the same conditions. An easy-to-use HPLC isocratic method suitable for the quantification of hyperoside, vitexin and vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside in raw plant extracts was developed. The optimised HPLC methodology was applied to evaluate different extraction procedures. The ultrasound and microwave-assisted extraction protocols showed higher extraction efficiency than the others. In particular, the optimised microwave protocol gave rise to the highest extraction efficiency with high reproducibility. A microwave protocol combined with isocratic HPLC analysis is proposed for the rapid screening of plant materials collected in different environmental conditions in order to evaluate the productivity of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and to find out the best ecological conditions to cultivate hawthorn in Northern Italy.

  16. Physico-chemical, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties and stability of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) procyanidins microcapsules with inulin and maltodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyspiańska, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kolniak-Ostek, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Procyanidins from the bark of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) were isolated and purified. Qualitative and quantitative composition was compared with that of the extract of hawthorn fruit (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). Stability and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of procyanidins before and after micro-encapsulation were estimated. The effects of the carrier type (inulin and maltodextrin) and procyanidins:carrier ratio (1:1, 1:3) and the influence of storage temperature (20 °C, -20 °C, -80 °C) on the content of procyanidins were evaluated. Samples before and after micro-encapsulation contained from 651 to 751 mg of procyanidins in 1 g. Among the procyanidins, (-)-epicatechin, dimer B2, and trimer C1 dominated. The use of inulin during spray drying resulted in greater efficiency of micro-encapsulation than the use of maltodextrin. During storage of the samples at 20 °C degradation of procyanidins was observed, whereas at -20 °C and -80 °C concentrations of them increased. The microcapsules with procyanidins from the bark of hawthorn, as well as the extract of procyanidins, have valuable biological activity, and strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is better to prepare microcapsules with a greater amount of carrier, with the procyanidin/carrier ratio 1:3. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. OBTENCIÓN DE BIOCOMBUSTIBLES PRODUCTO DE LA PIROLISIS RÁPIDA DE RESIDUOS DE PALMA AFRICANA (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. OBTENÇÃO DE BICOMBUSTÍVEIS POR PIRÓLISE RÁPIDA DE RESÍDUOS DE PALMA DE DENDÊ (Elaeisg uineensis Jacq. BIOFUELS PRODUCTION BY FAST PYROLYSIS OF PALM OIL WASTES (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN C. ARTEAGA V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es la obtención de biocombustibles por medio de la pirólisis rápida de residuos de palma africana (Elaeis guineensis Jacq., en un reactor de caída libre. Previamente la biomasa es sometida a un proceso de tamizado y secado, para luego ser alimentada al reactor. Producto de la pirolisis se obtiene carbonizado, gasesincondensables y un líquido condensado (bio-oil,compuesto de alcoholes, ácidos carboxílicos, alcanos y compuestos aromáticos. Las pruebas se realizaron en un rango de temperaturas entre 500-700°C y se encontró que a 600°C el rendimiento del proceso fue máximo con un 23.3% de biocombustible condensado. La composición de los gases a 600°C fue CO22,720%, H20,703 % , CH41,289%, CO 2,472 % y el resto es N2. La mayor cantidad de gases incondensables se obtuvo a 700°C pero el rendimiento del bio-oil es solo del 14.9% en peso. Los resultados evidencian que la temperatura del reactor es un parámetro importante en la composición de los gases y el rendimiento del bio-oil. Una fase posterior será evaluar costos y beneficios para re-configurar el reactor de manera tal que se optimice el rendimiento en la producción de bio-oil evaluando la posibilidad de usar los gases incondensables como fuente de energía para la pirólisis.O objetivo destetrabalhofoi a obtenção de bicombustíveis a partir da pirólise rápida de resíduos de palma de dendê (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. num reator de queda livre. Inicialmente a biomassa passou por uma serie de peneiras, havendo sido posteriormente secada e finalmente fornecida ao reator. Após da pirólise, foram obtidos um carbonizado solido, uma fração gasosa e um liquido condensado (bio-oil, o qual é composto por alcoóis, ácidos carboxílicos, e hidrocarbonetos de tipo alcanos e aromáticos. Os testes foram feitos entre 500 - 700 ºC, encontrando se o maiorrendimento para o bio-oil a 600 ºCcomum 23.3 % em peso. A composição dos gases para esta temperatura foi

  18. Activation of charcoal from wood of some Philippine trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanega, S.M.; Villanueva, E.P.; Banag-Laxamana, N.F.

    1974-01-01

    In further studies on the adsorptive capacity of charcoals made from Philippine woods, charcoals of Agathis philippinesis and Terminalia copelandii were sufficiently activated by heating with ZnCl/sub 2/ at 700/sup 0/C for 4 hours to make them as adsorptive as the commercial active carbons tested. ZnCl/sub 2/ was not, however, as effective in activating charcoals of Dipterocarpus grandiflorus, Leucaena leucocephaloa (L. glauca), Shorea squamata, S. polysperma and Samanea saman. Factors affecting development of adsorptive capacity in the charcoals studied probably included the chemical activator used, the temperature and the duration of heating; an intrinsic factor characteristic of each wood species may also have been involved.

  19. Densidade e qualidade dos estratos de forragem do capim Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. Cv. Tanzânia-1) manejado em diferentes alturas, sob pastejo Density bulk and quality of Tanzania grass layers (Panicum maximum Jacq.cv. Tanzania-1), at different heights in grazing

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos; Marcos Weber do Canto; Ulysses Cecato; Fabíola Cristiane de Almeida Rêgo; Sandra Galbeiro; Josmar Almeida Junior

    2001-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes alturas (24; 26; 43; 45; 52; 62; 73 e 78 cm) do pasto sobre a qualidade de forragem e estrutura do perfil do capim-Tanzânia, (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia – 1) (Poaceae). Foram utilizados novilhos da raça Nelore sob pastejo com carga animal variável, por meio da técnica put and take. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. A densidade de matéria seca total (DMT) aumentou com o avan...

  20. Toxicological assessment of crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. used in deep frying of akara (cowpea paste finger food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felzenszwalb, I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Akara is cowpea paste which is deep-fried in crude palm oil (CPO; Elaeis guineensis Jacq. and sold as a street finger food in Brazil and Africa. During the food frying oils can form toxic decomposition products as total polar compounds (TPC, which can determinate oil degradation. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of CPO used in akara frying for 25 hours. Changes in the oil were determined by TPC quantification and mutagenicity using a Salmonella/microssome assay with Salmonella Typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 with and without exogenous metabolic activation. Assuming that 25% TPC is the maximum level permitted in frying oils and it ranged from 14.08 to 29.81%, frying palm oil exceeded the limit. Nonetheless, no cytotoxic, mutagenic or genotoxic activity were detected in CPO used in the traditional akara frying process.Akara es una tapa hecha de pasta de frijol frito en aceite de palma crudo (CPO; Elaeis guineensis, que se vende en las calles de Brasil y África. Durante la fritura de alimentos, los aceites pueden formar productos de descomposición tóxicos como los compuestos polares totales (TPC, que determinan la degradación del aceite. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la toxicidad de CPO utilizado en 25 horas de frituras de akara. Los cambios en el aceite se determinaron mediante la cuantificación de TPC y ensayos de mutagenicidad en Salmonella microsomas usando cepas de Salmonella Typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 y TA102 con y sin activación metabólica exógena. Se asume que el 25% de TPC es el nivel máximo permitido, los aceites de fritura oscilaron desde 14,08 hasta 29,81%. Ningún CPO utilizado en el proceso de akara tradicional mostró ser citotóxico, ni tener actividad mutagénica o genotóxica.

  1. Larvicidal, ovicidal and pupicidal activities of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) (Leguminosae) against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Culicidae: Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnappa, Kaliyamoorthy; Dhanasekaran, Shanmugam; Elumalai, Kuppusamy

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the potentiality of mosquitocidal activity of Gliricidia sepium (G. sepium) (Jacq.) (Leguminosae). Twenty five early third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) were exposed to various concentrations (50-250 ppm) and the 24 h LC(50) values of the G. sepium extract was determined by probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi to various concentrations ranging from 25-100 ppm under laboratory conditions. The eggs hatchability was assessed 48 h post treatment. The pupicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi to various concentrations ranging from 25-100 ppm. Mortality of each pupa was recorded after 24 h of exposure to the extract. Results pertaining to the experiment clearly revealed that ethanol extract showed significant larvicidal, ovicidal and pupicidal activity against the An. stephensi. Larvicidal activity of ethanol extracts of G. sepium showed maximum mortality in 250 ppm concentration (96.0±2.4)%. Furthermore, the LC(50) was found to be 121.79 and the LC(90) value was recorded to be 231.98 ppm. Ovicidal activity of ethanol extract was assessed by assessing the egg hatchability. Highest concentration of both solvent extracts exhibited 100% ovicidal activity. Similarly, pupae exposed to different concentrations of ethanol extract were found dead with 58.10% adult emergence when it was treated with 25 ppm concentration. Similarly, 18.36 (n=30; 61.20%); 21.28(70.93) and 27.33(91.10) pupal mortality was recorded from the experimental pupae treated with 50, 75 and 100 ppm concentration of extracts. Three fractions have been tested for their larvicidal activity of which the Fraction 3 showed the LC(50) and LC(90) values of 23.23 and 40.39 ppm. With regard to the ovicidal effect fraction 3 showed highest ovicidal activities than the other two fractions. Furthermore, there were no hatchability was recorded above 50 ppm (100% egg mortality) in the experimental group. Statistically significant

  2. Efectos citotoxicos in vitro de extractos y fracciones de Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, frente a lineas celulares tumorales humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Robles Camargo

    Full Text Available A los extractos, fracciones y subfracciones obtenidos de hojas, flores y corteza de Bursera tomentosa (Jacq. Triana & Planch., Burseraceae, se les evalúo su actividad citotóxica preliminar frente a las líneas celulares CSC-1595 y Colo 205, siguiendo el método de fraccionamiento guiado por bioensayo de citotoxicidad MTT. Los resultados obtenidos de esta prueba muestran a la subfracción en diclorometano-metanol (9.5:0.5 obtenida de la fracción acetato de etilo del extracto en éter de petróleo de hojas, como la que presentó las sustancias bioactivas con una marcada actividad citotóxica, con porcentajes de viabilidad del 3% y 15.3% a la concentración 30 µg/mL en las líneas tumorales humanas Colo 205 y CSC-1595 respectivamente.

  3. Extremely high boron tolerance in Puccinellia distans (Jacq.) Parl. related to root boron exclusion and a well-regulated antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamurcu, Mehmet; Hakki, Erdogan E; Demiral Sert, Tijen; Özdemir, Canan; Minareci, Ersin; Avsaroglu, Zuhal Z; Gezgin, Sait; Ali Kayis, Seyit; Bell, Richard W

    Recent studies indicate an extremely high level of tolerance to boron (B) toxicity in Puccinellia distans (Jacq.) Parl. but the mechanistic basis is not known. Puccinellia distans was exposed to B concentrations of up to 1000 mg B L-1 and root B uptake, growth parameters, B and N contents, H2O2 accumulation and ·OH-scavenging activity were measured. Antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, peroxidase and glutathione reductase, and lipid peroxidation products were determined. B appears to be actively excluded from roots. Excess B supply caused structural deformations in roots and leaves, H2O2 accumulation and simultaneous up-regulation of the antioxidative system, which prevented lipid peroxidation even at the highest B concentrations. Thus, P. distans has an efficient root B-exclusion capability and, in addition, B tolerance in shoots is achieved by a well-regulated antioxidant defense system.

  4. Perdas de forragem em capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1) manejado sob diferentes alturas sob pastejo

    OpenAIRE

    Ulysses Cecato; Christian Roberto de Carvalho Castro; Marcos Weber do Canto; Maurício Peternelli; Josmar Almeida Júnior; Clóves Cabreira Jobim; Clovenilson Claudio Perissato Cano

    2001-01-01

    RESUMO - O experimento foi conduzido com objetivo de avaliar as perdas de forragem e a acumulação de liteira em uma pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1 ) manejada sob diferentes alturas. Os níveis de altura (tratamentos) estudados foram: 29,8; 32,0; 47,1; 51,5; 57,9; 62,7; 72,6 e 80,0 cm, em um delineamento completamente casualizado e com duas repetições. As taxas de acúmulo e acumulação de liteira e as perdas de forragem foram iguais em todas as alturas. A porcent...

  5. Nível crítico de fósforo no solo paraPanicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia

    OpenAIRE

    EMERSON DE OLIVEIRA GHERI; MARA CRISTINA PESSÔA DA CRUZ; MANOEL EVARISTO FERREIRA; LEONARDO ANDRÉ SCHIAVETO DA PALMA

    2000-01-01

    Foram avaliados os efeitos da aplicação de fósforo (P) em solo argiloso, de textura média e arenoso, sobre a produção de matéria seca de Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia. O ensaio foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em vasos de plástico contendo 10 dm³ de solo, em esquema fatorial e delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Após calagem para V = 70% e aplicação de 0, 35, 70, 105 e 140 mg/dm³ de P, o solo foi umedecido, e depois de 30 dias, secado e amostrado. O ensaio foi conduzido por 76 dias, a...

  6. Nutritive value of tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1) handled in different pasture heights - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.205

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos; Newton Paul Ribas; Júlio César Damasceno; Ulysses Cecato; Fabíola Cristine de Almeida Rego; Fernanda Barros Moreira; Augusto Manoel Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    O trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes alturas do pasto (24cm e 26cm; 43cm e 45cm; 52cm e 62cm; 73cm e 78cm) e períodos de avaliação (28, 56, 84 e 112 dias) em capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia - 1) nos teores de proteína bruta (PB), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN), fibra em detergente ácido (FDA), digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS), Ca, P, K e Mg nas porções lâmina e colmo. Foram utilizados novilhos da raça Nelore (em pastejo contínuo) com taxa de...

  7. A Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP of Capsicum chinense Jacq. Is Induced during Incompatible Interactions and Displays Mn-Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rico-García

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A germin-like gene (CchGLP cloned from geminivirus-resistant pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. Line BG-3821 was characterized and the enzymatic activity of the expressed protein analyzed. The predicted protein consists of 203 amino acids, similar to other germin-like proteins. A highly conserved cupin domain and typical germin boxes, one of them containing three histidines and one glutamate, are also present in CchGLP. A signal peptide was predicted in the first 18 N-terminal amino acids, as well as one putative N-glycosylation site from residues 44–47. CchGLP was expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein displayed manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD activity. Molecular analysis showed that CchGLP is present in one copy in the C. chinense Jacq. genome and was induced in plants by ethylene (Et and salicylic acid (SA but not jasmonic acid (JA applications in the absence of pathogens. Meanwhile, incompatible interactions with either Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV or Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV caused local and systemic CchGLP induction in these geminivirus-resistant plants, but not in a susceptible accession. Compatible interactions with PHYVV, PepGMV and oomycete Phytophthora capsici did not induce CchGLP expression. Thus, these results indicate that CchGLP encodes a Mn-SOD, which is induced in the C. chinense geminivirus-resistant line BG-3821, likely using SA and Et signaling pathways during incompatible interactions with geminiviruses PepGMV and PHYVV.

  8. Komparasi Laju Pertumbuhan Miselium Jamur Tiram Putih (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr Kummer pada Komposisi Media Bibit (F3 dan Baglog yang Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE SUDARMA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth rate comparison of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex FrKummer mycelium in the composition of different seed (F3 and baglog media . Cultivation ofoyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr Kummer has grown rapidly along with the increasein income and health awareness. Oyster mushrooms growing need for media with a particular compositionin order to grow optimally. Oyster mushroom production is determined by the quality of the seeds (F3is used, which is sourced from the media with good quality and composition. The research aimed todetermine the rate of growth of white oyster mushroom mycelium in the different composition of seedmedium (F3 (sawdust: fine bran: corn flour: CaCO3 . The experiments was conducted at nurseriesand oyster mushroom development, Jl. Siulan Gang Zella No. 7 Denpasar, from June to August 2013.Each treatment contained 50 bottles, and 10 bottles only used as a sample, in environmental conditionswith temperature and humidity ranges, 20-29oC and 59-86% respectively . T-test was used todifferentiate the growth rate of white oyster mushroom mycelium with different compositions. Theresults showed that seeds (F3 derived from the growing media composition, sawdust (1 week old:fine bran: corn flour: CaCO3 (10:4:2:0,5 significantly different and better than the composition sawdust(age 1 month : fine bran: corn flour (20:2:1:0.5, with a growth rate of mycelium in a mean 6.14±0.56cm/week and 1,81±0,82 cm/week, respectively. Spawn running in baglog with media composition10:4:2:0.5 was 2.77±1.22cm/week, but with composition media 20:2:1:0.5 mycelium could not grow.Effect of temperature and humidity on the growth rate of white oyster mushroom mycelium in seedmedia (F3 is not significantly.

  9. [Elaeis guineensis (JACQ)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    up to 30 % decrease in production when potassium is deficient. Potassium nutrition control of palm oil tree is a very important issue leading to a K+ fertilisation policy. Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) of chlorophyll a is a fast and simple method compared to the usually used Foliar Diagnostic method. In this study, LIF was ...

  10. Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... dried in a hot air oven at 45°C for 12 h, and then the seed coat was broken. The embryos, along with the ... chambers with 32 holes and placing gas-permeable microporous polypropylene film (0.22 µm pore ... filter paper in an osmometer chamber (Wescor, Utah, USA). Chlorophyll a (Chla), chlorophyll b ...

  11. Production and Multiplication of Native Compost Fungal Activator by Using Different Substrates and Its Influence on Growth and Development of Capsicum chinensis Jacq. “Bhut Jolokia”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Parkash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro experiment was carried out to see the effect of saw dusts of Pinus kesiya, Shorea robusta, and Callicarpa arborea on Trichoderma harzianum, isolate TH-13 mass production, along with its biotization effect on Capsicum chinensis Jacq. “Bhut Jolokia.” Early mycelium initiation (2 days occurred in S. robusta followed by P. kesiya and C. arborea (3.5 days. The sporulation was observed earlier in S. robusta (100% after 6 days than P. kesiya (33.4% after 8 days and C. arborea (16.7% after 9 days but no sporulation was observed in control. The complete sporulation was also earlier in S. robusta (100% after 10 days than P. kesiya (33.4% after 15 days and C. arborea (16.4% after 18 days. Higher conidial yield 86×106 was also in S. robusta than P. kesiya 70×106 and C. arborea 45×106, respectively. The increase in height (60–70 cm, number of leaves (600–650, and yield of chili (120–150 fruits were also more in inoculated C. chinensis seedlings than control. It is concluded that S. robusta saw dust is the best substrate for mass production of compost fungal activator and can be used in nursery practices for quality stock production of various crops/plantations.

  12. Assessing the Effect of Composting Cassava Peel Based Substrates on the Yield, Nutritional Quality, and Physical Characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortei, N K; Dzogbefia, V P; Obodai, M

    2014-01-01

    Cassava peel based substrate formulations as an alternative substrate were used to grow mushrooms. The effect of two compost heights, three composting periods on the mycelia growth, physical characteristics, yield, and nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer was studied. Mean mycelia growth of 16.2 cm after a period of seven (7) weeks was the best for 1.5 m compost height. Cap diameter and stipe length differed significantly (P compost heights (0.8 m and 1.5 m). The yield on compost height of 1.5 m, composted for 5 days, differed significantly (P Composting periods (3 and 7 days) gave varying yields depending on the compost height. Based on the findings an interaction of 1.5 m compost height and 5 days composting period on cassava peels and corncobs (1 : 1 ratio) with chicken manure produced the best results. The nutritional quality of the mushrooms also differed significantly (P < 0.05), indicating that cassava peels could be used as a possible substrate in cultivation of mushroom.

  13. Topical toxicity of two acetonic fractions of Trichilia havanensis Jacq. and four insecticides to larvae and adults of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, A; Medina, P; Smagghe, G; Castañera, P; Viñuela, E

    2003-01-01

    The toxicity of botanical origin compounds such as two acetonic fractions of the seed kernels of the Meliacea Trichilia havanensis Jacq with insecticide properties (azadirone (F12) and the mixture F18 [1,7+3,7-di-O-acethylhavanensin (4:1)], three insecticides commercially available (imidacloprid, natural pyrethrins+PBO, triflumuron) and phloxine B, were tested in the laboratory. Topical bioassays using third instar and newly emerged adults of the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) at the maximum field recommended rate in Spain for commercials and at 1,000 ppm of active ingredient for T. havanensis acetone fractions and phloxine-B, were carried out. Imidacloprid and triflumuron were very toxic to third instar larvae inhibiting adult emergence, being the rest of insecticides harmless. Fecundity and fertility were not affected by the non-toxic compounds. Concerning adults, only imidacloprid and natural pyrethrins killed them significantly 24 hours after treatment. Phloxine B, triflumuron and T. havanensis fractions were harmless and did not cause any effect on fecundity and fertility with the exception of triflumuron, which reduced considerably the egg hatch. It can be concluded that T. havanensis acetonic fractions and phloxine B were non-toxic to larvae and adults of C. carnea when treated topically, whereas triflumuron, natural pyrethrins and imidacloprid affected one or more of the evaluated parameters under our conditions.

  14. Characterization and Functional Analysis of a Type 2 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase (DGAT2) Gene from Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Mesocarp in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuanhang; Yuan, Yijun; Gao, Lingchao; Sun, Ruhao; Chen, Lizhi; Li, Dongdong; Zheng, Yusheng

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is the highest oil-yielding plant in the world, storing 90 and 60% (dry weight) oil in its mesocarp and kernel, respectively. To gain insights into the oil accumulation mechanism, one of the key enzymes involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis, a Type 2 diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT2) from oil palm, was characterized for its in vivo activity. EgDGAT2 is highly expressed in mesocarp during the last two developmental stages while large amounts of oil are accumulated at the highest rate during ripening. Heterologous expression of EgDGAT2 in mutant yeast H1246 restored TAG biosynthesis with substrate preference toward unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) (16:1 and 18:1). Furthermore, seed-specific overexpression of EgDGAT2 in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced the content of polyunsaturated FAs 18:2 and 18:3 (each by 6 mol%) in seed TAGs, when compared to that from wild-type Arabidopsis. In turn, the proportion of 18:0 and 20:0 FAs in seed TAGs from EgDGAT2 transgenic lines decreased accordingly. These results provide new insights into understanding the in vivo activity of EgDGAT2 from oil palm mesocarp, which will be of importance for metabolic enhancement of unsaturated FAs production.

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of the late embryogenesis abundant group 4 (EgLEA4 gene from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharasuda Hualkasin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Late-Embryogenesis Abundant group 4 (LEA4 genes is a group of genes that have been reported to be involved in stress and hormone responses. The completed LEA4 cDNA sequence was first obtained from a set of EST sequences of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq, named as EgLEA4. The open reading frame is 486 bp in length, encoding a deduced amino acid sequence of 161 residues with a molecular weight of 16.5 kDa and a pI value of about 8.0. Five amino acid motif patterns were found in the EgLEA4 (II, I, III, IV and V and each had a close identity to similar LEA4 patterns of soybean (64%.Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the cDNA and the genomic DNA demonstrated that the EgLEA4 gene is composed of 2 exons and 1 intron. The 52 untranslated region shows a putative promoter sequence involved in the transcription process, drought stress and hormone responsive elements. RT-PCR analysis showed that the EgLEA4 gene was only expressed in mesocarp, during the late stages of fruit development. It also had a higher expression in induced drought conditions indicating that the EgLEA4 protein may be involved in plant adaptation and stress (drought responsive pathway.

  16. Expression profiles of defence related cDNAs in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) inoculated with mycorrhizae and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai T32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yung-Chie; Wong, Mui-Yun; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2015-11-01

    Basal stem rot is one of the major diseases of oil palm (Elaies guineensis Jacq.) caused by pathogenic Ganoderma species. Trichoderma and mycorrhizae were proposed to be able to reduce the disease severity. However, their roles in improving oil palm defence system by possibly inducing defence-related genes in the host are not well characterized. To better understand that, transcript profiles of eleven putative defence-related cDNAs in the roots of oil palm inoculated with Trichoderma harzianum T32 and mycorrhizae at different time points were studied. Transcripts encoding putative Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (EgBBI2) and defensin (EgDFS) increased more than 2 fold in mycorrhizae-treated roots at 6 weeks post inoculation (wpi) compared to those in controls. Transcripts encoding putative dehydrin (EgDHN), glycine-rich RNA binding protein (EgGRRBP), isoflavone reductase (EgIFR), type 2 ribosome inactivating protein (EgT2RIP), and EgDFS increased in the oil palm roots treated with T. harzianum at 6 and/or 12 wpi compared to those in the controls. Some of these genes were also expressed in oil palm roots treated with Ganoderma boninense. This study provides an insight of some defence-related genes induced by Trichoderma and mycorrhizae, and their roles as potential agents to boost the plant defence system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of a Δ12 fatty acid desaturase from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) involved in the biosynthesis of linoleic acid by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruhao; Gao, Lingchao; Yu, Xiaoping; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Xinguang

    2016-10-10

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the highest oil-yield crops in the world. A Δ12-desaturases associated with the primary steps of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis were successfully cloned from oil palm and their functions identified. The open reading frames (ORFs) of egFAD2 (GenBank accession: KT023602) consisted of 1176bp and code for 391 amino acids. Their deduced polypeptides showed 75-93% identity to microsomal Δ12-desaturases from other higher plants, and each contained the three histidine clusters typical of the catalytic domains of such enzymes. RT-PCR experiment indicated that the egFAD2 gene exhibited the highest accumulation in the mesocarp of fruits at 120-140 DAP (i.e. the fourth period of fruit development) and, despite having different expression levels, the other four stages were at significantly lower levels compared with the fourth stage. Plasmid pYES2-egFAD2 was transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INVSc1 using lithium acetate method for expression under the induction of galactose. Yeast cells transformed with plasmid constructs containing egFAD12 produced an appreciable amount of linoleic acids (18:2(Δ9,)(12)), not normally present in wild-type yeast cells, indicating that the genes encoded functional Δ12-desaturase enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of Mesocarp and Kernel Lipids from Elaeis guineensis Jacq., Elaeis oleifera [Kunth] Cortés, and Their Interspecific Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Veronika M; Kerfers, Margarete R; Kronmüller, Amrei; Esquivel, Patricia; Alvarado, Amancio; Jiménez, Víctor M; Schmarr, Hans-Georg; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B

    2017-05-10

    Morphological traits, total lipid contents, and fatty acid profiles were assessed in fruits of several accessions of Elaeis oleifera [Kunth] Cortés, Elaeis guineensis Jacq., and their interspecific hybrids. The latter featured the highest mesocarp-to-fruit ratios (77.9-78.2%). The total lipid contents of both E. guineensis mesocarp and kernel were significantly higher than for E. oleifera accessions. Main fatty acids comprised C16:0, C18:1n9, and C18:2n6 in mesocarp and C12:0, C14:0, and C18:1n9 in kernels. E. oleifera samples were characterized by higher proportions of unsaturated long-chain fatty acids. Saturated medium-chain fatty acids supported the clustering of E. guineensis kernels in multivariate statistics. Hybrid mesocarp lipids had an intermediate fatty acid composition, whereas their kernel lipids resembled those of E. oleifera genotypes. Principal component analysis based on lipid contents and proportions of individual fatty acids permitted clear-cut distinction of E. oleifera, E. guineensis, and their hybrids.

  19. Control mechanisms operating for lipid biosynthesis differ in oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and olive (Olea europaea L.) callus cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Umi S; Baker, Darren S; Quant, Patti A; Harwood, John L

    2002-01-01

    As a prelude to detailed flux control analysis of lipid synthesis in plants, we have examined the latter in tissue cultures from two important oil crops, olive (Olea europaea L.) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Temperature was used to manipulate the overall rate of lipid formation in order to characterize and validate the system to be used for analysis. With [1-14C]acetate as a precursor, an increase in temperature from 20 to 30 degrees C produced nearly a doubling of total lipid labelling. This increase in total lipids did not change the radioactivity in the intermediate acyl-(acyl carrier protein) or acyl-CoA pools, indicating that metabolism of these pools did not exert any significant constraint for overall synthesis. In contrast, there were some differences in the proportional labelling of fatty acids and of lipid classes at the two temperatures. The higher temperature caused a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acid labelling and an increase in the proportion of triacylglycerol labelling in both calli. The intermediate diacylglycerol was increased in olive, but not in oil palm. Overall the data indicate the suitability of olive and oil-palm cultures for the study of lipid synthesis and indicate that de novo fatty acid synthesis may exert more flux control than complex lipid assembly. In olive, diacylglycerol acyltransferase may exert significant flux control when lipid synthesis is rapid. PMID:12023881

  20. Carotenoid content of wild edible young shoots traditionally consumed in Spain (Asparagus acutifolius L., Humulus lupulus L., Bryonia dioica Jacq. and Tamus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Herrera, Patricia; Sánchez-Mata, María Cortes; Cámara, Montaña; Tardío, Javier; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña

    2013-05-01

    Wild vegetables have traditionally been consumed as part of the Mediterranean diet, being valuable sources of nutrients and bioactive compounds. The objective of this work was to analyse the carotenoid content of the edible young shoots of four species (Asparagus acutifolius L., Humulus lupulus L., Bryonia dioica Jacq. and Tamus communis L.) as part of a wider study on the characterisation of the nutritional composition of wild edible plants commonly consumed in Spain. Samples were gathered from two locations in Central Spain for two consecutive years. Lutein, β-carotene, neoxanthin and violaxanthin were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector. Median concentration ranges (μg g(-1) edible wet weight) were: β-carotene, 3.39-6.69, lutein, 5.44–19.13;neoxanthin, 5.17-17.37; and violaxanthin, 2.08-8.93. The highest carotenoid content was that of B. dioica (59.01 μg g(-1)) and the lowest was found in A. acutifolius (17.58 μg g(-1)) [corrected]. Our results show that these wild young shoots are richer sources of carotenoids than many of the commercially available leafy vegetables. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Assessing the Effect of Composting Cassava Peel Based Substrates on the Yield, Nutritional Quality, and Physical Characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr. Kummer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Kortei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava peel based substrate formulations as an alternative substrate were used to grow mushrooms. The effect of two compost heights, three composting periods on the mycelia growth, physical characteristics, yield, and nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr. Kummer was studied. Mean mycelia growth of 16.2 cm after a period of seven (7 weeks was the best for 1.5 m compost height. Cap diameter and stipe length differed significantly (P<0.05 with the compost heights (0.8 m and 1.5 m. The yield on compost height of 1.5 m, composted for 5 days, differed significantly (P<0.05 from that of 0.8 m and gave increasing yields as follows: cassava peels and manure, cassava peels only, cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio, and cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio with chicken manure. Composting periods (3 and 7 days gave varying yields depending on the compost height. Based on the findings an interaction of 1.5 m compost height and 5 days composting period on cassava peels and corncobs (1 : 1 ratio with chicken manure produced the best results. The nutritional quality of the mushrooms also differed significantly (P<0.05, indicating that cassava peels could be used as a possible substrate in cultivation of mushroom.

  2. Comportamiento de ocho accesiones de Panicum maximum (Jacq. en un oxisol de Carimagua-Colombia fertilizado con fósforo y calcio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez O. Jaime F.

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Behavior of eight Panicum maximum Jacq accessions on a Carimagua oxisol fertilized with phosphorus and calcium. In greenhouse conditions P. maximum shows a high response to phosphorus applications as long as. The external requirements are less than 100 kg/ha wich can be taken as some degree of tolerance of the specie to high aluminum concentrations in the soil. The external requirements of phosphorus were asffollows: 14 ppm (accession 6299, 16 ppm (604, 20 ppm (673, 672, 6179 and 25 ppm (accessions 622 and 695.

    En el invernadero P. maximum responde vigorosamente a las aplicaciones de fósforo, mientras que muestra requerimientos externos menores de 100 kg/ha, lo que parece señalar algún grado de tolerancia de la especie a la alta saturación de aluminio del suelo. Los requerimientos externos de P fueron: 14 ppm (accesión 6299, 16ppm (604, 20 ppm (67 3 , 6172 y 6179 y 25 ppm (accesiones 622 y 695.

  3. Production and Multiplication of Native Compost Fungal Activator by Using Different Substrates and Its Influence on Growth and Development of Capsicum chinensis Jacq. "Bhut Jolokia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, Vipin; Saikia, Ankur Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    In vitro experiment was carried out to see the effect of saw dusts of Pinus kesiya, Shorea robusta, and Callicarpa arborea on Trichoderma harzianum, isolate TH-13 mass production, along with its biotization effect on Capsicum chinensis Jacq. "Bhut Jolokia." Early mycelium initiation (2 days) occurred in S. robusta followed by P. kesiya and C. arborea (3.5 days). The sporulation was observed earlier in S. robusta (100% after 6 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 8 days) and C. arborea (16.7% after 9 days) but no sporulation was observed in control. The complete sporulation was also earlier in S. robusta (100% after 10 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 15 days) and C. arborea (16.4% after 18 days). Higher conidial yield (86 × 10(6)) was also in S. robusta than P. kesiya (70 × 10(6)) and C. arborea (45 × 10(6)), respectively. The increase in height (60-70 cm), number of leaves (600-650), and yield of chili (120-150 fruits) were also more in inoculated C. chinensis seedlings than control. It is concluded that S. robusta saw dust is the best substrate for mass production of compost fungal activator and can be used in nursery practices for quality stock production of various crops/plantations.

  4. Criterios locales para selección de semillas de chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw. en zonas rurales de Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Guevara Hernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se identificaron y analizaron los criterios socio-antropológicos fundamentados en etnoagronomía y etnobotánica de los productores para seleccionar semillas de chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw. en zonas rurales de los municipios Villa Corzo y Villaflores (Chiapas, México. En entrevistas semi-estructuradas realizadas a 60 productores se describieron los criterios locales para seleccionar las semillas de esta hortaliza, considerando características de color, tamaño y presencia de espinas en los frutos, así como la obtención de variedades y recomendaciones para la siembra. Sin considerar la procedencia de los productores, el cultivo del chayote se realiza independientemente del tamaño, el color o la presencia de espinas en los frutos. Más de 60% de los productores entrevistados compra las semillas y prefieren aquellas variedades que posean frutos con espinas debido a su sabor agradable. Se confirmó la validez de los estudios socio-antropológicos en sistemas agrícolas tradicionales en la zona, particularmente en etnobotánica, para entender las relaciones sociales y productivas a nivel local, y para definir sistemas productivos sostenibles a partir de los criterios propios de las familias campesinas, lo que permite documentar, analizar, validar y entender multi-criterios relacionados con la producción familiar de chayote y su posible mejoramiento.

  5. Characterization and Functional Analysis of a Type 2 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase (DGAT2 Gene from Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Mesocarp in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhang Jin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is the highest oil-yielding plant in the world, storing 90 and 60% (dry weight oil in its mesocarp and kernel, respectively. To gain insights into the oil accumulation mechanism, one of the key enzymes involved in triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis, a Type 2 diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT2 from oil palm, was characterized for its in vivo activity. EgDGAT2 is highly expressed in mesocarp during the last two developmental stages while large amounts of oil are accumulated at the highest rate during ripening. Heterologous expression of EgDGAT2 in mutant yeast H1246 restored TAG biosynthesis with substrate preference toward unsaturated fatty acids (FAs (16:1 and 18:1. Furthermore, seed-specific overexpression of EgDGAT2 in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced the content of polyunsaturated FAs 18:2 and 18:3 (each by 6 mol% in seed TAGs, when compared to that from wild-type Arabidopsis. In turn, the proportion of 18:0 and 20:0 FAs in seed TAGs from EgDGAT2 transgenic lines decreased accordingly. These results provide new insights into understanding the in vivo activity of EgDGAT2 from oil palm mesocarp, which will be of importance for metabolic enhancement of unsaturated FAs production.

  6. Estrogenic and progestagenic effects of extracts of Justicia pectoralis Jacq., an herbal medicine from Costa Rica used for the treatment of menopause and PMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locklear, Tracie D; Huang, Yue; Frasor, Jonna; Doyle, Brian J; Perez, Alice; Gomez-Laurito, Jorge; Mahady, Gail B

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the biological activities of Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae), an herbal medicine used in Costa Rica (CR) for the management of menopausal symptoms and dysmenorrhea. The aerial parts of J. pectoralis were collected, dried and extracted in methanol. To establish possible mechanisms of action of JP for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, the estrogenic and progesterone agonists, and antiinflammatory activities were investigated. The methanol extract (JP-M) was tested in ER and PR binding assays, a COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay, the ERbeta-CALUX assay in U2-OS cells, as well as reporter and endogenous gene assays in MCF-7 K1 cells. The JP-M extract inhibited COX-2 catalytic activity (IC(50) 4.8 microg/mL); bound to both ERalpha and ERbeta (IC(50) 50 microg/mL and 23.1 microg/mL, respectively); induced estrogen-dependent transcription in the ERbeta-CALUX; and bound to the progesterone receptor (IC(50) 22.8 microg/mL). The extract also modulated the expression of endogenous estrogen responsive genes pS2, PR, and PTGES in MCF-7 cells at a concentration of 20 microg/mL. Activation of a 2 ERE-construct in transiently transfected MCF-7 cells by the extract was inhibited by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780, indicating that the effects were mediated through the estrogen receptor. Finally, the extract weakly enhanced the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, however this was not statistically significant as compared with DMSO controls. Extracts of J. pectoralis have estrogenic, progestagenic and anti-inflammatory effects, and thus have a plausible mechanism of action, explaining its traditional use for menopause and PMS. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ecophysiological Competence of Populus alba L., Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Used in Plantations for the Recovery of Riparian Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanera, Jose A.; Martínez-Chacón, Maria F.

    2007-12-01

    In many semi-arid environments of Mediterranean ecosystems, white poplar ( Populus alba L.) is the dominant riparian tree and has been used to recover degraded areas, together with other native species, such as ash ( Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and hawthorn ( Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). We addressed three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of some specific relationships between environmental parameters and leaf-level physiological factors in these riparian forest species, (2) to compare the leaf-level physiology of these riparian species to each other, and (3) to compare leaf-level responses within native riparian plots to adjacent restoration plots, in order to evaluate the competence of the plants used for the recovery of those degraded areas. We found significant differences in physiological performance between mature and young white poplars in the natural stand and among planted species. The net assimilation and transpiration rates, diameter, and height of white poplar plants were superior to those of ash and hawthorn. Ash and hawthorn showed higher water use efficiency than white poplar. White poplar also showed higher levels of stomatal conductance, behaving as a fast-growing, water-consuming species with a more active gas exchange and ecophysiological competence than the other species used for restoration purposes. In the restoration zones, the planted white poplars had higher rates of net assimilation and water use efficiency than the mature trees in the natural stand. We propose the use of white poplar for the rapid restoration of riparian vegetation in semi-arid Mediterranean environments. Ash and hawthorn can also play a role as accompanying species for the purpose of biodiversity.

  8. EgRBP42 encoding an hnRNP-like RNA-binding protein from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is responsive to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Wan-Chin; Ooi, Tony Eng Keong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2012-10-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have been implicated as regulatory proteins involved in the post-transcriptional processes of gene expression in plants under various stress conditions. In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of a gene, designated as EgRBP42, encoding a member of the plant heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP)-like RBP family from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). EgRBP42 consists of two N-terminal RNA recognition motifs and a glycine-rich domain at the C-terminus. The upstream region of EgRBP42 has multiple light-responsive, stress-responsive regulatory elements and regulatory elements associated with flower development. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of EgRBP42 showed that EgRBP42 was expressed in oil palm tissues tested, including leaf, shoot apical meristem, root, female inflorescence, male inflorescence and mesocarp with the lowest transcript level in the roots. EgRBP42 protein interacted with transcripts associated with transcription, translation and stress responses using pull-down assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The accumulation of EgRBP42 and its interacting transcripts were induced by abiotic stresses, including salinity, drought, submergence, cold and heat stresses in leaf discs. Collectively, the data suggested that EgRBP42 is a RBP, which responds to various abiotic stresses and could be advantageous for oil palm under stress conditions. Key message EgRBP42 may be involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of stress-related genes important for plant stress response and adaptation.

  9. Mechanisms underlying the endothelium-dependent vasodilatory effect of an aqueous extract of Elaeis Guineensis Jacq. (Arecaceae) in porcine coronary artery rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Mamadou; Anselm, Eric; Séne, Madièye; Diatta, Williams; Dièye, Amadou Moctar; Faye, Babacar; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2009-12-30

    This study was undertaken to investigate the vasodilatory effect of an aqueous extract of Elaeis guineensis Jacq (EGE) in the porcine coronary artery and elicit its possible mechanism(s) of action. Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered leaves of Elaeis guineensis were evaluated on isolated coronary arteries on organ chambers. Determination of eNOS expression and the phosphorylation level of eNOS were determined by Western blot analysis. In the presence of indomethacin, EGE caused pronounced relaxations in endothelium-intact but not in endothelium-denuded coronary artery rings. Relaxations to EGE were significantly reduced by N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA, a competitive inhibitor of NO synthase), slightly but not significantly by charybdotoxin plus apamin (two potent inhibitors of EDHF-mediated responses) and abolished by the combination of L-NA and charybdotoxin plus apamin. Relaxations to EGE were abolished by the membrane permeant, SOD mimetic, MnTMPyP, and significantly reduced by wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3-kinase. Exposure of endothelial cells to EGE increased the phosphorylation level of eNOS at Ser1177 in a time and concentration-dependent manner. MnTMPyP abolished the EGE-induced phosphorylation of eNOS.In conclusion, the obtained data indicate that EGE induces pronounced endothelium-dependent relaxations of the porcine coronary artery, which involve predominantly NO. The stimulatory effect of EGE on eNOS involves the redox-sensitive phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177 most likely via the PI3-kinase pathway.

  10. Integrating mixed-effect models into an architectural plant model to simulate inter- and intra-progeny variability: a case study on oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Raphaël P A; Pallas, Benoît; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Rey, Hervé; Griffon, Sébastien; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Costes, Evelyne; Dauzat, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of plants is time-consuming and involves considerable levels of data acquisition. This is possibly one reason why the integration of genetic variability into 3D architectural models has so far been largely overlooked. In this study, an allometry-based approach was developed to account for architectural variability in 3D architectural models of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) as a case study. Allometric relationships were used to model architectural traits from individual leaflets to the entire crown while accounting for ontogenetic and morphogenetic gradients. Inter- and intra-progeny variabilities were evaluated for each trait and mixed-effect models were used to estimate the mean and variance parameters required for complete 3D virtual plants. Significant differences in leaf geometry (petiole length, density of leaflets, and rachis curvature) and leaflet morphology (gradients of leaflet length and width) were detected between and within progenies and were modelled in order to generate populations of plants that were consistent with the observed populations. The application of mixed-effect models on allometric relationships highlighted an interesting trade-off between model accuracy and ease of defining parameters for the 3D reconstruction of plants while at the same time integrating their observed variability. Future research will be dedicated to sensitivity analyses coupling the structural model presented here with a radiative balance model in order to identify the key architectural traits involved in light interception efficiency. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Isolation and expression analysis of genes encoding MET, CMT, and DRM methyltransferases in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in relation to the 'mantled' somaclonal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rival, Alain; Jaligot, Estelle; Beulé, Thierry; Finnegan, E Jean

    2008-01-01

    In oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), approximately 5% of somatic embryo-derived regenerants show homeotic changes during floral development, involving an apparent feminization of male parts in flowers of both sexes, called the 'mantled' phenotype. This variant phenotype is associated with a reduction in the level of global DNA methylation. To explore possible relationships between DNA methylation level and accumulation of DNA-(cytosine-5) methyltransferase (DNMT) transcripts, the full-length coding sequences corresponding to three different DNMT families in oil palm, namely the MET, CMT, and DRM classes, have been isolated and characterized. The corresponding genes were designated as EgMET1, EgCMT1, and EgDRM1, and encode predicted polypeptides of 1543, 925, and 591 amino acid residues, respectively. Expression of oil palm DNMTs was compared between normal and variant calli and inflorescence tissues using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. A consistent increase in transcript levels of EgMET1 and EgCMT1 was found in variant fast-growing calli relative to nodular-compact calli. Nodular-compact calli give rise to about 5% of abnormal regenerants whereas fast-growing calli generate 95% of 'mantled' palms in their clonal offspring and were previously demonstrated as having markedly hypomethylated DNA. In immature abnormal inflorescences only EgMET1 transcript levels were increased, while no changes in relative abundance of the EgCMT1 or EgDRM1 transcripts were observed. Therefore, the genome-wide hypomethylation previously described in 'mantled' material cannot be explained by a decrease in expression levels of the de novo or maintenance DNMTs, a paradox which has been previously reported in tumour cells, where there is evidence for global hypomethylation of DNA.

  12. Intérêts des semences commerciales améliorées de palmier à huile (Elæis guineensis Jacq.

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    Cochard Benoît

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Le palmier à huile (Elæis guineensis Jacq. est originaire d’Afrique où il est encore exploité de façon traditionnelle. L’intensification de sa culture a commencé au début du xxe siècle, en Asie du Sud-Est. Ce n’est qu’entre les deux guerres mondiales que cette intensification s’est manifestée en Afrique. En Amérique latine, cette culture ne s’est développée que depuis la fin des années 60. En 2000, la production d’huile s’élève à 21,7 millions de tonnes. Par ailleurs, les extensions et renouvellements de plantations demeurent très vifs. Ainsi, les surfaces plantées sont de 6 562 000 hectares dans le monde en 2000 [1]. Dans ces conditions, le marché mondial des semences est estimé à plus de 150 millions de graines par an. Autant les agro-industriels se fournissent le plus souvent auprès des obtenteurs, autant les planteurs villageois, en particulier en Afrique, ne s’adressent pas systématiquement à eux, et sont confrontés à des désagréments ultérieurs, lors de la mise en récolte de leur plantation. Les semences commerciales de qualité prennent en compte des contraintes liées à la biologie florale de cette plante ainsi qu’aux caractéristiques morphologiques de la graine. Elles sont fabriquées en respectant un cahier des charges rigoureux permettant d’éviter aux exploitants de très mauvaises désillusions.

  13. Caracterização biométrica, física e química de frutos da palmeira bocaiuva Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq Lodd

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    Eliana Janet Sanjinez-Argandoña

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Frutos de palmeira bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd., coletados em Dourados (MS e Presidente Epitácio (SP, foram analisados quanto ao aspecto biométrico, a composição química e as características físicas, visando a avaliar seu potencial alimentício. Os frutos de bocaiuva das regiões de procedência não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre si nas características biométricas. O rendimento médio da polpa foi de 42% em relação ao fruto inteiro, sendo superior ao encontrado na literatura para outros frutos de palmeiras. As determinações físicas e químicas da polpa dos frutos das regiões de Mato Grosso do Sul e São Paulo caracterizam a polpa como sendo pouco ácida (pH 5,70 a 6,29. As amostras de Dourados - MS, foram consideradas mais doces (14,53% de açúcares redutores totais e com maior teor de vitamina C (34,57 mg.100 g-1 em relação às amostras de Presidente Epitácio-SP (11,46 mg.100 g-1. Porém, a intensidade da cor amarelo-laranja foi maior na polpa dos frutos de Presidente Epitácio (SP, sugerindo maior conteúdo de carotenoides.

  14. Densidade e qualidade dos estratos de forragem do capim Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. Cv. Tanzânia-1 manejado em diferentes alturas, sob pastejo Density bulk and quality of Tanzania grass layers (Panicum maximum Jacq.cv. Tanzania-1, at different heights in grazing

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    Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes alturas (24; 26; 43; 45; 52; 62; 73 e 78 cm do pasto sobre a qualidade de forragem e estrutura do perfil do capim-Tanzânia, (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia – 1 (Poaceae. Foram utilizados novilhos da raça Nelore sob pastejo com carga animal variável, por meio da técnica put and take. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. A densidade de matéria seca total (DMT aumentou com o avanço no período experimental, enquanto a densidade de matéria seca de lâminas (DML não foi influenciada pelo período e pela altura do pasto. O estrato superior da pastagem foi a porção de maior qualidade, apresentando maior DML e maior teor de PB. Os estratos inferiores apresentaram menor qualidade, devido à maior DMT e menor DML, acarretando em maiores valores de FDA e FDN e menores teores de PB. O conteúdo de minerais das lâminas foi superior aos colmos, mantendo-se inalterado com relação aos estratos da pastagem.The effect of different sward heights (24; 26; 43; 45; 52; 62; 73 and 78 cm on forage quality and profile structure Tanzania grass, Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania – 1 (Poaceae is provided. Nelore steers were used in grazing at variable stocking rates with put and take technique. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two replications. Total dry matter bulk densitity (TDMD increased during experimental period, while the leaf blade dry matter bulk density (LDMD was not influenced by period on by sward height. The upper layers had the best quality with higher LDMD and CP levels. Lower layers had the worst quality, due the higher TDMD and lower LDMD. This fact caused higher ADF and NDF levels and lower CP levels. Leaf blade mineral content was higher than that of stem, and remained unaltered in relation to the different layers.

  15. ESTIMACIÓN DE LA CAPACIDAD GERMINATIVA Y EL VIGOR DE LAS SEMILLAS DE diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq. SOMETIDAS A DIFERENTES TRATAMIENTOS Y CONDICIONES DE ALMACENAMIENTO ESTIMATE OF THE GERMINATIVE CAPACITY AND THE VIGOR OF DIOMATE SEEDS (Astronium graveolens Jacq. SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT TREATMENTS AND STORAGE CONDITIONS

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    Martha Ligia Gómez Restrepo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se llevaron a cabo dos estudios con semillas de diomate (Astronium graveolens Jacq. El primero se hizo con el fin de determinar el efecto que sobre la germinación tienen el sustrato y la condición lumínica. El segundo, para evaluar la respuesta germinativa de semillas almacenadas durante varios períodos y bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura y empaque. Las semillas de diomate sembradas a plena exposición y en las cuales se utilizó tierra como sustrato obtuvieron la mayor potencia germinativa, los menores tiempos de germinación y el vigor más alto. La pérdida total de vigor en las semillas varió según el tiempo y la temperatura de almacenamiento así: al cabo de un mes de almacenamiento a temperaturas entre 7 y 10ºC, al sexto mes de almacenamiento a temperaturas entre 20 y 33ºC y al undécimo mes cuando fueron almacenadas a temperatura ambiente entre 12 y 18ºC. El tipo de empaque no influyó significativamente en los resultados finales.Two studies of diomate seeds (Astronium graveolens Jacq were conducted. The first was conducted to determine the effect that substrate and light condition has on germination. The second was to evaluate the germinative response of seeds stored over differing time periods and under temperature and packaging conditions. The diomate seeds sowed in full exposure in soil substrate had the greatest germinative potential, the fastest germination times and the highest vigor. The total loss of vigor in the seeds varied according to time and temperature of storage, as follows: after a month of storage at temperatures between 7 and 10ºC, after six months of storage at temperatures between 20 and 33ºC and after eleven months of storage at ambient temperatures between 12 and 18ºC. The type of packing did not significantly influence the final results.

  16. Production and bromatologic composition of grass-mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq., submitted to different sources and doses of acidity corrective / Produção e composição bromatológica da forragem do capim-mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq., submetidos a diferentes fontes e doses de corretivo de acidez

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    Francisco Maximino Fernandes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried in protected (greenhouse atmosphere, in University of Engineering, UNESP of Ilha Solteira-SP, with the objective of evaluating sources (limestone and calcium silicate slag and doses (0,0 – 0,5 – 1,0 – 1,5 – 2,0 times the recommended dose of corrective in the bromatologic composition, tillering and production of dry matter of the grass mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq.. The lineation was completely randomized design, with four repetitions. It was evaluated the tiller number, the production of dry matter, the gross protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF. The corrective influenced the tillering in almost all of the countings. The limestone provided larger production of dry matter in the doses of 1,5 and 2,0 times the recommended dose. The bromatologic composition of the forage was not influenced by the corrective and doses.O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido (estufa, na Faculdade de Engenharia, UNESP de Ilha Solteira, com o objetivo de avaliar fontes (calcário e escória silicatada e doses (0,0 – 0,5 – 1,0 – 1,5 – 2,0 vezes a dose recomendada de corretivos na composição bromatológica, perfilhamento e produção de matéria seca do capim-mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq.. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Avaliou-se o número de perfilhos, a produção de matéria seca e os teores de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA. Os corretivos influenciaram o perfilhamento em quase todas as contagens. O calcário proporcionou maior produção de matéria seca nas doses de 1,5 e 2,0 vezes a dose recomendada. A composição bromatológica da forragem não foi influenciada pelos corretivos e doses utilizadas.

  17. Valor nutritivo do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzânia-1 manejado em alturas de pastejo - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.205 Nutritive value of tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1 handled in different pasture heights - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.205

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    Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes alturas do pasto (24cm e 26cm; 43cm e 45cm; 52cm e 62cm; 73cm e 78cm e períodos de avaliação (28, 56, 84 e 112 dias em capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia - 1 nos teores de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS, Ca, P, K e Mg nas porções lâmina e colmo. Foram utilizados novilhos da raça Nelore (em pastejo contínuo com taxa de lotação variável pela técnica put and take. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com 2 repetições. O aumento na altura de manejo provocou redução dos teores de PB e aumento dos níveis de FDA e FDN nas lâminas e nos colmos. As melhores alturas de manejo, de acordo com os resultados relativos à qualidade da forragem, variaram de 40cm e 60cm.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of different pasture heights (24cm and 26cm; 43cm and 45cm; 52cm and 62cm; 73cm and 78cm and sampling periods (28, 56, 84 and 112 days in Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia - 1 on content of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVMD, Ca, P, K and Mg on leaf blade and stem part. Nelore steers were used (in continuous grazing with variable stocking rates, using put and take technique. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two replications. The increments on the pasture height decreased CP content and increased ADF and NDF contents, both to the leaf blade and to the stems. The leaf blade quality was also influenced by different sampling times. The best pasture management height according to forage quality were between 40cm to 60cm.

  18. Environmental assessment of the degradation potential of mushroom fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. towards synthetic azo dyes and contaminating effluents collected from textile industries in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Prasanna, Apoorva; Manjunath, Sirisha P; Karanth, Soujanya S; Nazre, Ambika

    2016-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. is one of the edible mushrooms currently gaining attention as environmental restorer. The present study explores the potential of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. in degradation of textile dyes and effluents. The mushroom cultivation was carried out using paddy bed as substrate. The fully grown mushroom fruit bodies were used as a bioremediation agent against two industrially important azo dyes such as nylon blue and cotton yellow and few effluents collected from various textile industries in Karnataka, India. The ideal growth parameters such as temperature, pH, and dye concentrations for effective degradation were carried out. One of the main enzymes, laccase, responsible for biodegradation, was partially characterized. The degradation was found to be ideal at pH 3.0 and temperature at 26-28 °C. This study demonstrated a percentage degradation of 78.10, 90.81, 82.5, and 64.88 for dye samples such as nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), KSIC effluents, and Ramanagar effluents at 28 °C within 15th days respectively in comparison with other temperature conditions. Similarly, a percentage degradation of 35.99, 33.33, 76.13 and 25.8 for nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), Karnataka Silk Industries Corporation (KSIC) effluents and Ramnagar effluents were observed at pH 3.0 within 15 days, respectively (p azo dyes and textile effluents which are harmful to the ecosystem.

  19. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mejía-Teniente

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Germin-like proteins (GLPs are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession.

  20. The Effects of Organic Fertilizers and Mycorrhizae Inoculation (Glomus mosseae and G. intraradices on Quantitative and Qualitative Yield of Dwarf Chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq. in Different Cuttings

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    R. Naghibi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years many farmers in Iran interested in to cultivate and produce different medicinal plants which are so important in traditional agriculture in Iran. In order to reduce the environmental impacts of using chemical inputs and also to increase the quality of plant secondary metabolite components, the emphasis is on sustainable agriculture base on using of organic and biological fertilizer. Dwarf chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq. is an annual plant from Asteraceae family. Dwarf chicory is classified by jacq as subspecies of the cultivated species Cichorium endeva which consumed for healing a variety of diseases such as bacterial infection, poisoning and rheumatism. The use of organic fertilizer in the form of humic acid and fulvic acid play an important role in sustainable agriculture. Humic substances can be added to the soil for improvement the crop yield. A benefit of humic acid due to its ability to complex metal ions and form aqueous complexes with micronutrients and also may form an enzymatically active complex, which can be carry on reactions that are usually assigned to the metabolic activity of living microorganisms. In additional of using organic fertilizers, the biological fertilizer like mycorrhiza fungi is a good approach in agriculture. Mycorrhizal fungi have been used to enhance the plant growth and yield of medicinal crops and to help maintain good soil health and fertility that contributes to a greater extent to a sustainable yield and good quality of the products. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic fertilizers and mycorrhizae inoculation on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of dwarf chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq. in different cuttings. Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out in a factorial layout based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (59°28 E and

  1. Estudio preliminar para el establecimiento de un protocolo de crioconservación para palma de aceite (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

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    Villa Alba Lucía

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue desarrollar e implementar un protocolo de crioconservación para embriones cigóticos de palma de aceite (Elaeis guineensis Jacq., como alternativa para complementar la conservación de genotipos de palma ante las dificultades que se presentan en la colección de campo en la actualidad. Se evaluaron las etapas de pre y poscongelación de embriones cigóticos con la metodología de desecación en silica gel a diferentes tiempos de exposición (2, 2,5 y 3 h, seguido de un congelamiento rápido y una etapa de recuperación en un medio de cultivo Murashige y Skoog (1962. Todos los tratamientos de crioconservación fueron evaluados con un fotoperíodo de 16 h luz y 8 h de oscuridad, con una temperatura media de 28 ºC. Previamente se determinó el estado de desarrollo adecuado de los embriones para crioconservar. Además, se realizó la prueba de viabilidad con Tetrazolio para embriones desnudos como un control inicial del lote de semilla solicitado. Se logró establecer un protocolo de crioconservación a partir de embriones cigóticos desnudos de palma, el cual permitió obtener plántulas de embriones congelados en nitrógeno líquido (-196 ºC; alcanzando una sobrevivencia del 84,37% para embriones crioconservados. En cuanto a la diferenciación de estructuras de los embriones crioconservados, el tratamiento de dos horas obtuvo valores para plúmula del 88,9%, radícula del 55,57% y haustorio del 66,7%. Esta metodología permitiría conservar material valioso a largo plazo como copia de seguridad complementaria de la colección de campo y reduciría los costos de mantenimiento y conservación.

  2. Antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. stem bark and Ageratum conyzoides Linn. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Adewale; Morgan, Winston A; Corcoran, Olivia; Chimezie, F

    2012-09-01

    Many species of plants in African countries are widely used in the rural communities where there is little or no access to modern medicine. However, the safety and effectiveness of these medicinal plants are poorly evaluated. The stem bark of Parkia biglobosa Jacq. and leaves of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. were investigated for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. The plant materials were extracted with 95% ethanol, and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antibacterial effects of the extracts and fractions of the plant materials were assayed on the bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringes. Ethanol extracts of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides were screened for cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Two cancer cell lines (SK-MES 1 and SK-LU 1) and one normal cell line (human skin fibroblast cell line, FS5) were used for the screening of the extracts and the fractions obtained. The ethanolic extracts and fractions of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides showed the best activity against E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA. All fractions of A. conyzoides leaves have no activity against P. aeruginosa. Human lung cancer cell lines (SK-LU 1 and SK-MES 1) and human skin fibroblast cell line (FS5 cells) were treated with various concentrations (3.9μg/ml-2mg/ml) of the extracts and fractions for 24h. SK-MES 1 cells are more susceptible to treatment with the plant fractions. All the fractions of A. conyzoides leaves and the petroleum ether fraction of P. biglobosa were cytotoxic to SK-MES 1 cells, which to some extent may support their traditional inclusion in herbal preparations for treatment of cancer. The overall results provided evidence that the studied plant extracts might be potential sources of new antibacterial and anticancer drug. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  3. Estudio para la propagación vegetativa in vitro de Anón amazónico (Rollinia mucosa (JACQ. BAILL

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    Claudia Patricia Marín Jaramillo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Para lograr la producción de material vegetal de Anón amazónico Rollinia mucosa (Jacq. Baill, se buscó el establecimiento en condiciones in vitro de segmentos nodales de árboles adultos, para lo cual se aplicaron ensayos de desinfección y control de la oxidación. Aunque se logró el control de la contaminación no fue posible el establecimiento in vitro, debido a la perdida de viabilidad. Para facilitar el manejo de los problemas de contaminación durante la fase de establecimiento, se realizaron ensayos para la germinación de semillas en condiciones in vitro, pero no se logró la germinación de estas, razón por la cual se sembraron en tierra estéril. Las semillas germinaron entre los 35 y 50 días. Cuando las plántulas tuvieron dos meses de edad se tomaron explantes de hipocótilos y hojas, a los que se les realizaron ensayos de desinfección y control de oxidación. Fue posible el control de la contaminación en los explantes de hoja y de la oxidación en los de hipocótilo. Se evaluó el efecto de los reguladores de crecimiento ácido naftalenacético, ANA, bencilaminopurina, BAP, ácido diclorofenoxiacético, 2,4-D y thidiazuron, TDZ, sobre la inducción de morfogénesis en segmentos de hipocótilos, para las hojas se evalúo el efecto del BAP, del ácido 3-indol acético, AIA, y de la acción conjunta de estos dos reguladores de crecimiento. En las hojas se logró la inducción de rizogénesis, caulogénesis indirecta y producción de callo friable. En los hipocótilos fue posible la inducción de organogénesis directa, y la obtención de plántulas de aspecto norma.

  4. Características de carcaça e de não componentes da carcaça de cordeiros suplementados com sal forrageiro de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walq

    OpenAIRE

    Cirne, L.G.A. [UNESP; M. R. Baroni; Oliveira,G.J.C.; Jaeger,S.M.P.L.; Bagaldo,A.R.; M.C.P. Leite; J.A Marques; G.G.P. Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    O presente experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a porcentagem de inclusão da espécie forrageira Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walq na confecção do sal forrageiro de gliricídia, por meio de características de carcaça e de não componentes da carcaça de cordeiros. Foram utilizados 30 cordeiros mestiços da raça Santa Inês, não castrados, com aproximadamente 180 dias de idade, peso vivo médio de 25kg, confinados, num delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos...

  5. Características de carcaça e de não componentes da carcaça de cordeiros suplementados com sal forrageiro de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walq

    OpenAIRE

    Cirne, L.G.A. [UNESP; M. R. Baroni; Oliveira,G.J.C.; Jaeger,S.M.P.L.; Bagaldo, Adriana Regina; M.C.P. Leite; J.A Marques; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto

    2013-01-01

    p.289-293 O presente experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a porcentagem de inclusão da espécie forrageira Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walq na confecção do sal forrageiro de gliricídia, por meio de características de carcaça e de não componentes da carcaça de cordeiros. Foram utilizados 30 cordeiros mestiços da raça Santa Inês, não castrados, com aproximadamente 180 dias de idade, peso vivo médio de 25kg, confinados, num delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com cinc...

  6. PEMANFAATAN DAUN TANAMAN BERKAYU SEBAGAI PUPUK ORGANIK TANAMAN SAYURAN DAN JAGUNG - (UTILIZATION OF WOODY PLANT LEAVES AS ORGANIC FERTILIZER FOR VEGETABLES AND CORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dody Priadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to use woody plant leaves as organic fertilizer (compost and their effects on vegetables and corn. The compost was made from leaves of Samanea saman, Swietenia macrophylla, Nephelium lappaceum and cow dung (1:3, 2:2 and 3:1 using OrgaDec (0.5% w/w, Decomic (0.1% v/w and Dectro (0.1 v/w as bioactivator. The result showed that compost from Samanea saman leaves and cow dung (1:3 using Decomic (0.1% v/w met the organic fertilizer standard. The compost was applied to Ipomoea reptans, Capsicum annuum and Zea mays on a media from compost and latosol soil (1:3, 2:2 and 3:1 using Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 3 replications. The analyzed data using ANOVA showed no significant difference in the growth parameter of tested plants. The best media for Ipomoea reptans was the mixture of compost and latosol soil (3:1 meanwhile for Zea mays and Capsicum annuum were 1:3 and 2:2, respectively.Keywords: compost, compost application, organic fertilizer, woody plant leavesABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk memanfaatkan daun tumbuhan berkayu menjadi pupuk organik (kompos serta pengaruhnya terhadap tanaman sayuran dan jagung. Kompos dibuat dari daun kihujan (Samanea saman, daun mahoni (Swietenia macrophylla daun rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum dan kotoran sapi (1:3, 2:2 dan 3:1 dengan penambahan bioaktivator OrgaDec (0,5% w/w, Decomic (0,1% v/w dan Dectro (0,1 v/w. Hasil analisis kimia menunjukkan bahwa kompos yang dibuat dari daun kihujan dan kotoran sapi (1:3 yang menggunakan bioaktivator Decomic (0,1% v/w adalah perlakuan yang paling sesuai dengan baku mutu pupuk organik berdasarkan Permentan No.70/Permentan/SR.140/10/2011. Kompos hasil penelitian diujicobakan kepada tanaman kangkung darat (Ipomoea reptans, cabe keriting (Capsicum annuum dan jagung manis (Zea mays pada media campuran kompos dan tanah latosol (1:3, 2:2 dan 3:1 menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan 3 ulangan sedangkan data yang diperoleh diolah dengan ANOVA

  7. Características de carcaça e de não componentes da carcaça de cordeiros suplementados com sal forrageiro de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walq Characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs supplemented with fodder salt from Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walq

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    L.G.A. Cirne

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a porcentagem de inclusão da espécie forrageira Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walq na confecção do sal forrageiro de gliricídia, por meio de características de carcaça e de não componentes da carcaça de cordeiros. Foram utilizados 30 cordeiros mestiços da raça Santa Inês, não castrados, com aproximadamente 180 dias de idade, peso vivo médio de 25kg, confinados, num delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, em que os tratamentos foram constituídos de zero (100% de NaCl, 93, 95, 97 e 99% de inclusão de feno de gliricídia (7, 5, 3 e 1% de NaCl na formulação do sal forrageiro, respectivamente. A suplementação com sal forrageiro de gliricídia não afetou (P>0,05 o peso vivo ao abate em jejum (28,39kg, peso de carcaça quente (9,76kg, rendimento de carcaça quente (34,12%, o peso de carcaça fria (9,42kg, o rendimento de carcaça fria (32,95%, as perdas de peso por resfriamento (3,40%, assim como o peso de vísceras brancas (2,19kg e o peso de vísceras vermelhas (1,29kg. Porcentagem de inclusão de até 99% de gliricídia na confecção de sal forrageiro não altera (P>0,05 as características de carcaça e de não componentes da carcaça de cordeiros.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walq forage species for the confection of the fodder salt gliricidia according to the characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs. Thirty confined, not castrated crossbred Santa Inês lambs, ageing approximately 180 days, with mean live body weight of 25kg, were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and six repetitions. Treatments were zero (100% NaCl, 93, 95, 97 and 99% inclusion of gliricidia hay (7, 5, 3 and 1% NaCl in the formulation of fodder salt, respectively. The supplementation with gliricidia fodder salt did not affect (P>0.05 the

  8. Composição químico-bromatológica do feno de cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq. em cinco estádios de corte Chemical composition of the hay of the Bauhinia glabra Jacq. in five periods of cut

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    Jael Soares Batista

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar a composição químico-bromatológica do feno de cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq. aos 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 dias de crescimento, após o corte de uniformização. Delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições foi usado. O feno foi obtido em uma área de pastagem nativa rebaixada/raleada de 7200 m², subdividida em parcelas de 360 m². Não houve diferenças para os teores de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, hemicelulose e fósforo (P. Os teores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose, lignina e cálcio (Ca apresentaram diferenças entre os tratamentos. Os teores médios para a composição químico-bromatológica foram: 88,90% MS, 94,17% MO, 5,51% MM, 17,97% PB, 58,12% FDN, 40,88% FDA, 17,11% hemicelulose, 27,33% celulose, 12,77% lignina, 0,29% Ca e 0,15% P. Os fenos avaliados são recomendáveis para suplementação protéica em dietas para ruminantes. Com o avançar do estádio vegetativo, aumentaram linearmente os constituintes da parede celular e o Ca.This research was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition of cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq hay at 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days of growth after uniformity cut. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and four replicates, was used. The hay was obtained from an area of native pasture lowed and cleaned of 7200 m², which were subdivided in plots of 360 m². There were no differences for the content of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, hemicellulose and phosphorus (P. However, differences were observed for the neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, cellulose, lignin and calcium (Ca contents among the treatments. The average contents for the chemical composition were: 88.90% DM, 94.17% OM, 5.51% ash, 17.97% CP, 58.12% NDF, 40.88% ADF, 17.11% hemicellulose, 27

  9. Effect of light intensity and growth substratum on plant development and production of secondary metabolites in Cordia curassavica (Jacq. Roem. & Schult Efeito da intensidade de luz e substrato no crescimento da planta e produção de metabólitos secundários em Cordia curassavica (Jacq. Roem. & Schult

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    Maria Terezinha Silveira Paulilo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cordia curassavica (Jacq. Roem. & Schult. (Boraginaceae, also referred to as Cordia verbenacea DC, has been traditionally used for medicinal purposes. This study was driven to verify the behavior of the species in similar conditions to its natural environment, such as high light intensity and sandbank soil, and in conditions of low light intensity and fertilized substratum (dystroferric red nitosoil plus earthworm humus. The growth of the plant, the income of leaf crude extracts and, in the alcoholic extract, the number of substances found in thin layer cromatography and the toxicity of the substratum was observed. The results indicated that the growth of the root biomass, stem and leaves in discharge or lower light intensity was similar, but smaller in sandbank soil than in fertilized soil. The relative income of extracts in ether of petroleum and alcohol was larger in high light intensity and fertilized substratum. The light intensity and the substratum type didn't affect the number of substances detected in the alcoholic extract or the toxicity of this extract. Stains corresponding to the rosmarinic acid were only evidenced in some samples of the alcoholic extract, not allowing the verification of the effect of the treatments about its production.Cordia curassavica (Jacq. Roem. & Schult. (= Cordia verbenacea DC., Boraginaceae, tem sido tradicionalmente utilizada com propósitos medicinais. Este estudo verificou o comportamento da espécie em condições similares ao ambiente natural, alta intensidade de luz e solo de restinga e em condição de baixa intensidade de luz e substrato adubado (solo distroférrico mais húmus de minhoca. valiaram-se o crescimento da planta, o rendimento de extratos brutos de folha, o número de substâncias encontradas em cromatografia de placa no extrato alcoólico e a toxicidade do substrato. Os resultados indicaram que o crescimento da biomassa de raiz, de caule e de folhas em alta ou baixa intensidade de luz

  10. Germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento de protocormos de Epidendrum secundum Jacq. (Orchidaceae em associação com fungos micorrízicos do gênero Epulorhiza Seed germination and protocorm development of Epidendrum secundum Jacq. (Orchidaceae in association with Epulorhiza mycorrhizal fungi

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    Marlon Corrêa Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Na natureza, as espécies de Orchidaceae estão associadas a fungos micorrízicos. A compreensão da especificidade fungo-planta nessa associação pode auxiliar no desenvolvimento de programas para propagação simbiótica das orquídeas. Fungos micorrízicos Epulorhiza spp. têm sido isolados de Epidendrum secundum Jacq. com maior freqüência. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento de protocormos de E. secundum associados a diferentes isolados de fungos do gênero Epulorhiza. Utilizou-se 16 fungos Epulorhiza spp. isolados de diferentes populações de E. secundum. Após 44 dias, todos os fungos testados induziram a germinação das sementes. Entretanto, observou-se diferença na eficiência desses fungos em promover o desenvolvimento dos protocormos, mesmo entre os fungos que apresentam semelhanças morfológicas. O estágio de desenvolvimento mais avançado dos protocormos e o maior índice de crescimento foram observados quando as sementes foram inoculadas com o isolado M65. Conclui-se que a germinação das sementes e o desenvolvimento dos protocormos de E. secundum dependem do fungo micorrízico e que, apesar da grande freqüência de associação entre essa espécie de orquídea e fungos do gênero Epulorhiza, é importante a seleção de isolados que apresentem maior eficiência simbiótica. Isolados eficientes são úteis na produção de mudas de orquídeas de importância econômica e ornamental e de espécies ameaçadas de extinção.In nature, species of Orchidaceae are always associated with mycorrhizal fungi. The comprehension of fungal-plant specificity in this association can assist with the establishment of programs that focus on symbiotic propagation of orchids. Epulorhiza mycorrhizal fungi have frequently been isolated from Epidendrum secundum Jacq. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the germination of E. secundum seeds and protocorm development associated

  11. Effect of drying and soaking fruits and seeds on germination of macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata [Jacq.] Loddiges ex MART.=Efeito da secagem e embebição de frutos e sementes na germinação de macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata [Jacq.] Loddiges ex MART.

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    Marcus Vinícius Vieira da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated mechanisms of the dehydration and rehydration of fruits and seeds on the resulting embryo viability of the macaw palm, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Loddiges ex Mart. Dehydration was performed in a forced-air oven at 37 ± 2°C for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 or 15 days, and after these periods, the embryo viability was evaluated by the tetrazolium test. The effect of hydration on the germination percentage and velocity index was evaluated by the imbibition of seeds with distilled water in a germinator at 30 ± 2°C for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 days. The seeds were then treated with fungicide and maintained in a Mangelsdorf germinator at 30 ± 2°C. Drying caused a progressive water loss in the fruits and facilitated the extraction of the seeds. Fruits subjected to drying for up to nine days had no loss of vigor; however, after dehydration for 15 days, a loss in seed viability was observed. Simple linear regression estimated the seed water content based on the fruit water content. Seed imbibition in distilled water favored an increase in dead by fungally contaminated seeds.Objetivou-se com esse estudo elucidar os mecanismos de desidratação e hidratação de frutos e sementes na viabilidade de embriões de macaúba Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Loddiges ex Mart. A desidratação foi realizada em estufa de circulação de ar, ajustada a 37 ± 2°C por 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 e 15 dias, após esses períodos, foi avaliada a viabilidade dos embriões pelo teste de tetrazólio. O efeito da hidratação na porcentagem e velocidade de germinação foi avaliado pela embebição das sementes em água destilada em germinador com temperatura a 30 ± 2°C por 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 dias. As sementes foram tratadas com fungicida e mantidas em germinador do tipo Mangelsdorf. A secagem promoveu perda pregressiva no conteúdo de água dos frutos e facilitou a extração das sementes. Quando os frutos foram secos por nove dias não há perda de vigor, no entanto, depois de 15

  12. Avaliação de Três Cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. sob Pastejo: Composição Química e Digestibilidade da Forragem Evaluation of Three Cultivars of Panicum Maximum Jacq. under Grazing: Chemical Composition and in Vitro Organic Matter Digestibility

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    Patrícia Amarante Brâncio

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de estimar o valor nutritivo da MS de três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. submetidas ao pastejo rotativo, através dos teores de proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido, lignina, celulose, sílica e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica em amostras de folhas e colmos. Estudou-se, também, no cultivar Tanzânia, a adubação nitrogenada no final do período chuvoso, adicional à de manutenção comum às demais cultivares. As amostragens foram realizadas em junho, setembro e novembro de 1998 e março de 1999. Algumas diferenças entre tratamentos foram observadas, apresentando, em geral, menor valor nutritivo no cv. Massai, com menores teores de proteína bruta e digestibilidade e maiores teores de fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido e lignina tanto nas folhas, como nos colmos. Sua utilização como opção forrageira deve basear-se em outras características agronômicas. O cv. Mombaça apresentou, em geral, maiores teores de sílica e seu valor nutritivo não foi afetado pela adubação nitrogenada no final do período chuvoso, exceto pelo aumento no teor de proteína bruta e pela redução do conteúdo de lignina e sílica em março. O valor nutritivo dos colmos foi inferior ao das folhas. O início do período chuvoso foi, em geral, a época de maior valor nutritivo da forragem em todos os tratamentos.A study was conducted to evaluate three cultivars of Panicum maximum Jacq. under rotational grazing for the nutritive value,where the estimates of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, cellulose, silica, and in vitro digestibility of the organic material were performed in samples of leaves and stems. Additional nitrogen was applied in cv. Tanzania at the end of the rainny season. Samples were taken in June, September, and October 1998 and in March 1999. Some differences among treatments were observed. In general

  13. Avaliação da produção e de algumas características da rebrota de cultivares e acessos de Panicum maximum Jacq. sob duas alturas de corte Evaluation of production and any physiological characteristics of genotypes of Panicum maximum Jacq. under two cutting heights

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    Ulysses Cecato

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado no período de setembro de 1995 a setembro de 1996, objetivando avaliar a produção de matéria seca total/ha (PMST, folhas/ha (PMSf, vigor da rebrota (VR, número de perfilhos (NP e porcentagem de meristemas apicais eliminados (MAE em seis cultivares de gramíneas (Aruana, Centenário, Colonião, Mombaça, Tanzânia e Tobiatã e dois acessos (K249 e KK8 de Panicum maximum Jacq., em duas alturas de corte (20 e 40 cm, no período seco e chuvoso. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas. A altura de corte influenciou apenas a PMST e PMSf do capim-tanzânia, que foi maior nos cortes mais baixos no período chuvoso. Os capins Centenário e KK8 apresentaram maiores MAE à altura de 20 cm e o capim-Aruana, a 40 cm, nos dois períodos. A menor VR foi apresentada pelo capim-Aruana nas duas alturas, nos dois períodos experimentais. Os capins Centenário, KK8, Mombaça, Tanzânia e Tobiatã mostraram maior produção de matéria seca total e de folhas nos dois períodos avaliados, nas duas alturas de corte. Em função dos resultados obtidos, os capins podem ser manejados em qualquer altura de corte, exceto o capim-tanzânia, que pode ser manejado mais baixo.The experiment was carried out from September 1995 to September 1996, to evaluate the total dry matter/ha (TDM, of leaves/ha (LDM, regrowth vigor (RV, tillers number (TN, and percentage of eliminated apical meristems (AME in six grass cultivars (Aruana, Centenario, Colonião, Mombaça, Tanzania and Tobiatã and two genotypes (K249 and KK8 of Panicum maximum Jacq., at two cutting heights (20 and 40 cm, during dry and rainy season. A split plot experimental design was used. The height cutting only influenced the yield of TDM and LDM of Tanzania grass that was higher in lower cuttings during rainy period. The Centenario and KK8 grasses presented higher AME at 20 cm height and Aruana at 40 cm, in both periods. The lowest RV was to

  14. Composição química do capim-Mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça adubado com diferentes fontes de fósforo sob pastejo = Chemical composition of Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça fertilized with different phosphorus on grazing

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    Fábio Jacobs Dias

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a composição química do Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça, adubado com 140 kg ha-1 de P2O5 com diferentes fontes de fósforo, sob pastejo, no período de dezembro de 2002 a abril de 2003, com intervalo de coleta a cada 28 dias. Tratamentos: 1- termofosfato magnesiano YoorinÒ; 2-fosfato natural GafsaÒ; 3-superfosfato simples + superfosfato triplo (SS + ST; e 4-testemunha. Os teores de proteína bruta na lâmina foliar (PBf e colmo (PBc, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente ácido (NIDA, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose (CEL, hemicelulose (HCEL, lignina (LIG, extrato etéreo (EE, cálcio (Ca, fósforo (P, cinzas e carboidratos não-estruturais (CNE, não foram influenciados pela adubação fosfatada. As variáveis PBc, FDNf, FDNc, LIGf, LIGc, CELf, CELc, NIDAf, EEf, EEc, Caf, Cac, Pf, Pc, CINZAc, CNEc, apresentaram efeito do período de coleta. Não ocorreu diferença nacomposição química da forragem do capim-Mombaça em função das fontes de fósforo utilizadas na adubação da pastagem. As variações qualitativas foram de baixa magnitude.This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça. Grassland was fertilized with 140 kg ha-1 of P2O5 from different phosphorus sources on grazing, in December, 2002, until April, 2003, with a collection interval of every 28 days. Treatments: 1-YoorinÒ magnesium thermophosphate; 2-GafsaÒ natural phosphate; 3-simple superphosphate + triple superphosphate (SS + TS and 4-control. Leaf (lCP and stem (sCP crude protein, acid detergent fiber nitrogen (ADFN, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, cellulose (CEL, hemicellulose (HEM, lignin (LIG, ether extract (EE, calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, ash (A and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC were not influenced by phosphated fertilization. The variables sCP, lNDF, sNDF, sLIG, lLIG, sCEL, lCEL, lADFN, sEE, lEE, lCa, sCa, lP, sP, sA and s

  15. Effets de Panicum maximum Jacq. associé à Euphorbia heterophylla (L. Klotz. & Garcke sur la productivité des femelles durant le cycle de reproduction chez le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L.

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    N'G. D.V. Kouakou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Panicum maximum Jacq. Associated with Euphorbia heterophylla (L. Klotz. & Garcke on Productivity of Females (Cavia porcellus L During the Reproductive Cycle. In Ivory Coast, Guinea pigs reared for meat (Cavia porcellus L. are mainly fed with Panicum maximum Jacq. The association of this forage with Euphorbia heterophylla (L. Klotz. & Garcke improves the organic matter digestibility of the mixed diet compared to P. maximum distributed alone in growing male guinea pigs. In order to determine the effect of this diet during gestation and lactation in female guinea pigs, three diets: P. maximum (PAN basic diet; P. maximum associated to E. heterophylla (PANEUPH and P. maximum associated to pellets for rabbit (PANGRAN, were distributed ad libitum to multiparous guinea pigs (604.9 ± 40.8 g. The daily ingestion during gestation and lactation were 59.8±11.2 and 53.2±8.5; 61.5±5.2 and 72.9±16.4; 83.1±12.9 and 111.3±13.9 g DM.d-1 respectively for PAN, PANEUPH and PANGRAN. Similarly, the rates of fecundity were 111.1±0.9; 188.9±0.6 and 244.4±0.5% respectively for PAN, PANEUPH and PANGRAN. The individual birth weight and weight gain during lactation of the piglets were 58.7±12.4, 75.6±16.2 and 102.5±12 g and 2.4±0.6; 4.1±0.9 and 6.5±1.2 g.d-1 respectively for PAN, PANEUPH, and PANGRAN. In conclusion, the association of P. maximum and E. heterophylla significantly improves ingestion, digestibility, fecundity, birth weight and weaning weight in guinea pigs in comparison to Panicum maximum used as a sole diet.

  16. Spectral radiation of tree leaves in Bogor Agricultural University campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andika Purbaya, Deki; Badriyah Rushayati, Siti; Budi Prasetyo, Lilik

    2017-01-01

    Every anthropogenic activities that use fossil fuels will produce pollutants such as greenhouse gases. CO2 with other greenhouse gases increase urban air temperatures through the greenhouse effect. The aims of this study are to measure spectral radiation of several species of trees leaves in Bogor Agricultural University Campus and determine types of trees that are effective in absorbing CO2. Data was statistically analyzed based on the order of spectral radiation value. Meanwhile, grouping the ability of species to absorb CO2 was done based on normal curve distribution. Spectral radiation value is inversely proportional to the ability of plants to absorb CO2. The tree species classified as having a high ability to absorb CO2 is Tamrindus indica, Adenanthera pavoniana, Samanea saman, and Ceiba pentandra whereas the species classified as low capacity in absorbing CO2 is Annona murricata, Pterocarpus indicus, Acacia mangium, and Canangium odoratum, the rest classified as having moderate capability.

  17. (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) clonal propagation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-02-26

    Feb 26, 2014 ... (Evans et al., 2003). Simply put, somaclonal variation is mutation that occurs in tissue culture. It is not restricted to but is particularly common in plants regenerated from callus such as the ... best procedure (Corley and Tinker, 2003). To date, whole ..... 8) Cloning a large pool of selected palms with different.

  18. Respostas morfológicas do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 irrigado à intensidade de desfolha sob lotação rotacionada Morphological responses of irrigated Tanzaniagrass (Panicum Maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 to grazing intensity under rotational stocking

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    Alexandre Carneiro Leão de Mello

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando quantificar respostas morfológicas de dosséis de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 sob três intensidades de pastejo, lotação rotacionada e irrigação, foi conduzido um experimento em delineamento experimental de blocos completos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram três intensidades de pastejo, representados pelas quantidades de massa seca verde residual pós-pastejo (T1=1000; T2=2500 e T3=4000 kg MSV/ha. Durante oito ciclos de pastejo (rebrotas de 33 dias após três dias de pastejo em cada ciclo, foram realizadas avaliações de altura média do dossel, índice de área foliar (IAF, interceptação luminosa (IL e ângulos foliares médios, em quatro dias dentro do período de rebrota (1, 11, 22 e 33 dias após a saída dos animais. A análise de correlações parciais indicou correlações entre altura e IL, bem como entre IAF e IL. Com o progresso da estação de pastejo, da primavera-verão para outono-inverno, houve reduções nos valores de IAF médio. Valores médios de IAF crítico (95% IL de 3,6 (T1, 4,0 (T2 e 4,5 (T3, foram alcançados por volta do 22º dia das rebrotas. A maior intensidade de pastejo (menor resíduo alterou a estrutura da pastagem no que diz respeito à arquitetura do dossel, evidenciada pela redução nos ângulos foliares médios (folhas mais horizontais ao longo das estações, com plantas passando a interceptar mais luz por unidade de área foliar. Os IAFs críticos medidos sugerem a necessidade de períodos de descanso menores que 33 dias em pastos de capim-Tanzânia, quando submetido a pastejo intensivo sob lotação rotacionada e irrigação.The objective of this research was to quantify morphological responses of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 under three grazing intensities in an irrigated, rotationally stocked setting. Treatments consisted of three grazing intensities represented by three post-graze forage masses (T1=1,000; T

  19. NÍVEIS DE CALAGEM E FONTES DE FÓSFORO NA PRODUÇÃO DO CAPIM TANZÂNIA (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia EFFECTS OF LIMING LEVELS AND PHOSPHORUS SOURCES ON TANZANIA GRASS YIELDS (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania

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    Luiz Augusto Fonseca Magalhães

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A deficiência de fósforo nos solos brasileiros, aliada à acidez natural dos solos de cerrado, contribuem para os baixos índices produtivos da pecuária nacional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da calagem e de diferentes fontes e dosagens de fósforo na produção de matéria seca do capim Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia. O experimento foi dividido em dois grupos, G1 e G2. No grupo G1 avaliaram-se três níveis de calagem (sem correção e com correções para elevar a saturação de bases para 30 e 60%, com doses de calcário de 1,12 e 2,64 t/ha, respectivamente e três fontes de fósforo (superfosfato simples, termofosfato Yoorin e hiperfosfato de Arad. No grupo G2 foram avaliados os mesmos três níveis de calagem e cinco doses de fósforo (0, 30, 60, 120 e 240 kg/ha de P. No G1 não houve interação entre as fontes de fósforo e a calagem, nem ocorreu efeito da calagem. Houve, contudo, diferenças significativas entre as fontes de fósforo, sendo o superfosfato simples superior ao termofosfato Yoorin e ao hiperfosfato de Arad. A produção de matéria seca no grupo G2 não foi influenciada pelos níveis de calagem. Contudo, houve diferença significativa entre os níveis de fósforo, com a máxima produção de matéria seca obtida com 172,8 kg/ha de P (395,6 kg/ha de P2O5. Não houve interação significativa entre calagem e dosagens de fósforo. Esse resultado reafirma a importância da adubação fosfatada para a produção, nos solos dos cerrados.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Fósforo; calagem; forragem; tanzânia.

    The phosphorus deficiency and the natural acidity of Brazilian savannah soils contribute to the low productivity of Brazilian livestock raising. This research evaluated the effects of liming levels and phosphorus sources and levels in

  20. The antidiabetic plants Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth (Bignoniaceae) and Teucrium cubense Jacq (Lamiaceae) induce the incorporation of glucose in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant murine and human adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Romo-Yañez, José; Camarillo-Ledesma, Paul; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A

    2010-01-08

    Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth (Bignoniaceae) and Teucrium cubense Jacq (Lamiaceae) are plants extensively used for the empirical treatment of diabetes mellitus, but their antidiabetic mechanisms remain to be clarified. In this study, the effect of aqueous extracts of Tecoma stans (TSE) and Teucrium cubense (TCE) on the glucose uptake in adipose cells was evaluated. Non-toxic concentrations of TSE and TCE were assayed on the adipogenesis and 2-NBDglucose uptake in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant murine 3T3-F442A and human subcutaneous adipocytes. Both extracts stimulated 2-NBDG uptake by insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant adipocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. In insulin-sensitive cells, TSE 70 microg/ml stimulated 2-NBDG uptake by 193% (murine) and by 115% (human), whereas the same concentration of TCE induced the 2-NBDG uptake by 112% (murine) and 54% (human). In insulin-resistant adipocytes, TSE induced the 2-NBDG uptake by 94% (murine) and 70% (human), compared with the incorporation shown by insulin-sensitive adipocytes stimulated by the hormone, whereas TCE induced the incorporation of 2-NBDG by 69% (murine) and 31% (human). On the other hand, TSE and TCE exerted only minimal or null proadipogenic effects on murine and human preadipocytes. Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense exert their antidiabetic effects stimulating glucose uptake in both insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant murine and human adipocytes without significant proadipogenic or antiadipogenic side effects. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. mRNA Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq. after Treatment with Ganoderma boninense Pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Naher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Basal stem rot (BSR disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from plants treated with G. boninense or T. harzianum alone or both. Methods. The five-month-old oil palm seedlings were treated with Gano-wood blocks inoculum and trichomulch. Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in treated leaves tissue was determined by real-time PCR. Results. Oil palm chitinases were not strongly expressed in oil palm leaves of plants treated with G. boninense alone compared to other treatments. Throughout the 8-week experiment, expression of EgCHI1 increased more than 3-fold in leaves of plants treated with T. harzianum and G. boninense when compared to those of control and other treated plants. Conclusion. The data illustrated that chitinase cDNA expression varied depending on tissue and the type of treatment.

  2. Semi-preparative HPLC purification of δ-tocotrienol (δ-T3) from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. and Bixa orellana L. and evaluation of its in vitro anticancer activity in human A375 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Giangiacomo; Gelmini, Fabrizio; Fontana, Fabrizio; Moretti, Roberta Manuela; Montagnani Marelli, Marina; Limonta, Patrizia

    2017-04-24

    In this work, we report a rapid and convenient HPLC-UV-DAD method for the isolation of δ-T3 on semi-preparative scale from two different vitamin E rich processed, commercially available products obtained from the fruits of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (oil palm) and from the seeds of Bixa orellana L. (achiote tree). Chromatography was run using reverse phase (RP) C-18 columns and HPLC-grade acetonitrile as mobile phase. The purity of the isolated δ-T3, assessed by GC-MS and 1H NMR was above 98%. The δ-T3 cytotoxic activity found in vitro against the proliferation of human A375 melanoma cells compared to that of the other δ-T3 free tocols mixture suggest its primary role in the experimental anticancer activity observed for palm oil derived products. Taken altogether, the results of this study highlight the importance of the application of suitable purification systems for the preparations of tocotrienols prior to their experimental or clinical testing.

  3. Antidiabetic Potentiality of the Aqueous-Methanolic Extract of Seed of Swietenia mahagoni (L. Jacq. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Albino Rat: A Correlative and Evidence-Based Approach with Antioxidative and Antihyperlipidemic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis De

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antidiabetic, antioxidative, and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous-methanolic (2 : 3 extract of Swietenia mahagoni (L. Jacq. (family Meliaceae seed studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Feeding with seed extract (25 mg 0.25 mL distilled water−1100 gm b.w.−1rat−1 day−1 for 21 days to diabetic rat lowered the blood glucose level as well as the glycogen level in liver. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, peroxidase, and levels of the products of free radicals like conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver, kidney, and skeletal muscles were corrected towards the control after this extract treatment in this model. Furthermore, the seed extract corrected the levels of serum urea, uric acid, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoproteins towards the control level in this experimental diabetic model. The results indicated the potentiality of the extract of S. mahagoni seed for the correction of diabetes and its related complications like oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia. The extract may be a good candidate for developing a safety, tolerable, and promising neutraceutical treatment for the management of diabetes.

  4. mRNA expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in oil palm leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) after treatment with Ganoderma boninense pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naher, Laila; Tan, Soon Guan; Ho, Chai Ling; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Ahmad, Siti Hazar; Abdullah, Faridah

    2012-01-01

    Basal stem rot (BSR) disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from plants treated with G. boninense or T. harzianum alone or both. The five-month-old oil palm seedlings were treated with Gano-wood blocks inoculum and trichomulch. Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in treated leaves tissue was determined by real-time PCR. Oil palm chitinases were not strongly expressed in oil palm leaves of plants treated with G. boninense alone compared to other treatments. Throughout the 8-week experiment, expression of EgCHI1 increased more than 3-fold in leaves of plants treated with T. harzianum and G. boninense when compared to those of control and other treated plants. The data illustrated that chitinase cDNA expression varied depending on tissue and the type of treatment.

  5. INTERAÇÃO DO CALCÁRIO E DO SILICATO DE CÁLCIO E MAGNÉSIO COM GESSO AGRÍCOLA NO DESENVOLVIMENTO RADICULAR DE Panicum maximum JACQ. CV. CAPIM MOMBAÇA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Faúla Aguiar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar o efeito das correções do solo efetuadas com calcário e silicato de cálcio e magnésio no desenvolvimento radicular de Panicum maximum Jacq. Cultivar capim Mombaça. Foi adotado delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x5, sendo estudado em quatro blocos o efeito de duas fontes de corretivo e cinco métodos de aplicação, além da testemunha. Nas análises onde foi observada significância estatística, realizou-se teste de Tukey a 5,0% de probabilidade. A unidade experimental é constituída por colunas de tubos de PVC de 15 centímetros de diâmetro por 60 cm de altura, dividida em seis anéis de 10 centímetros, totalizando 44 unidades. Depois de secas em estufa com circulação forçada de ar a 65 ºC até atingir peso constante as raízes foram pesadas em balança de precisão. O T2 resultou em maior incremento de massa seca. O crescimento radicular na faixa de 0 a 20 cm se mostrou superior às faixas de 20 a 40 e 40 a 60 cm.

  6. mRNA Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) after Treatment with Ganoderma boninense Pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naher, Laila; Tan, Soon Guan; Ho, Chai Ling; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Ahmad, Siti Hazar; Abdullah, Faridah

    2012-01-01

    Background. Basal stem rot (BSR) disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from plants treated with G. boninense or T. harzianum alone or both. Methods. The five-month-old oil palm seedlings were treated with Gano-wood blocks inoculum and trichomulch. Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in treated leaves tissue was determined by real-time PCR. Results. Oil palm chitinases were not strongly expressed in oil palm leaves of plants treated with G. boninense alone compared to other treatments. Throughout the 8-week experiment, expression of EgCHI1 increased more than 3-fold in leaves of plants treated with T. harzianum and G. boninense when compared to those of control and other treated plants. Conclusion. The data illustrated that chitinase cDNA expression varied depending on tissue and the type of treatment. PMID:22919345

  7. Butanol fraction of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don leaves enhance pancreatic β-cell functions, stimulates insulin secretion and ameliorates other type 2 diabetes-associated complications in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Habila, James Dama; Koorbanally, Neil Anthony; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2016-05-13

    Ethnopharmacological surveys have reported that Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don (Leguminosae) is among the plants commonly used in the traditional management of diabetes mellitus in Nigeria and Togo. This study investigated the anti-diabetic activity of the butanol fraction of P. biglobosa leaves (PBBF) in a type 2 diabetes (T2D) model of rats and a possible bioactive compound in the fraction. T2D was induced by feeding rats with a 10% fructose solution ad libitum for two weeks followed by an intraperitoneal injection of 40mg/kg body weight streptozotocin and the animals were orally treated with 150 and 300mg/kg BW of the PBBF for five days in a week. Another group of rats was non-diabetic but similarly administered with 300mg/kg BW of the PBBF. Food and fluid intakes, body weight changes and blood glucose levels were monitored during the experiment while other relevant diabetes-associated parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. The PBBF treatments significantly (Pfunction (HOMA-β), stimulate insulin secretions, decrease insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), restore liver glycogen, ameliorate serum dyslipidaemia and prevent hepatic and renal damages compared to untreated diabetic rats. Phytochemical analysis of the fraction led to the isolation of lupeol which inhibited α-glucosidase and α-amylase in non-competitive and uncompetitive inhibition patterns respectively. It was concluded that PBBF possessed remarkable anti-T2D activity which is mediated through modulation of β-cell function and stimulation of insulin secretion and the lower dose (150mg/kg BW) was found optimum for anti-T2D activity compared to the high dose (300mg/kg BW) in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic architecture of palm oil fatty acid composition in cultivated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) compared to its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level.

  9. Genetic architecture of palm oil fatty acid composition in cultivated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. compared to its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K Cortés.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmenza Montoya

    Full Text Available We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL, 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs, 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs, 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL, and 40% (two QTLs for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level.

  10. Estandarización de la técnica molecular de AFLP en palma de aceite tipo Dura (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. y estudio preliminar de caracterización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galeano Carlos Hernando

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    La palma de aceite (Elaeis guinnensis Jacq. desempeña un importante papel en la econo­mía de algunos países tropicales; Colombia ocupa el primer puesto en producción en América Latina y el quinto lugar a nivel mundial. En esta especie el mejo­ramiento genético busca generar materiales con alta producción de aceite y adaptados a las características edafoclimáticas de las diferentes zonas palmeras. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estandarizar la téc­nica de AFLP (Amplified Fragment-Length Polymorphisms en materiales Dura del Programa de Fitomejora­miento de CENIPALMA. Al protocolo de AFLP de la casa comercial se le realizaron algunas modificacio­nes, como el aumento de la concentración del ADN (270 ng· μL-1 y la dilución 1:10 del producto de la preamplificación. De igual forma, se determinó que para teñir los geles de poliacrilamida con nitrato de plata es necesario usar agua destilada deionizada (Milli Q. También se realizó un estudio prelimi­nar de caracterización molecular en 12 palmas de los tipos Dura, Ténera y E. oleifera; según los agrupa­mientos hechos según métodos fenéticos y multiva­riados se encontró que la mayoría de palmas Dura se agrupan según el lugar de colecta, mientras la palma de origen americano se ubica de forma distante al compararla con las palmas de origen africano.

  11. Características de carcaça e de não componentes da carcaça de cordeiros suplementados com sal forrageiro de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G.A. Cirne

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a porcentagem de inclusão da espécie forrageira Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walq na confecção do sal forrageiro de gliricídia, por meio de características de carcaça e de não componentes da carcaça de cordeiros. Foram utilizados 30 cordeiros mestiços da raça Santa Inês, não castrados, com aproximadamente 180 dias de idade, peso vivo médio de 25kg, confinados, num delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, em que os tratamentos foram constituídos de zero (100% de NaCl, 93, 95, 97 e 99% de inclusão de feno de gliricídia (7, 5, 3 e 1% de NaCl na formulação do sal forrageiro, respectivamente. A suplementação com sal forrageiro de gliricídia não afetou (P>0,05 o peso vivo ao abate em jejum (28,39kg, peso de carcaça quente (9,76kg, rendimento de carcaça quente (34,12%, o peso de carcaça fria (9,42kg, o rendimento de carcaça fria (32,95%, as perdas de peso por resfriamento (3,40%, assim como o peso de vísceras brancas (2,19kg e o peso de vísceras vermelhas (1,29kg. Porcentagem de inclusão de até 99% de gliricídia na confecção de sal forrageiro não altera (P>0,05 as características de carcaça e de não componentes da carcaça de cordeiros.

  12. Estimación in vitro de gases con efecto invernadero en frutos y follaje de árboles de un bosque seco tropical de Venezuela In vitro estimation of greenhouse gases in tree fruits and foliage from a tropical dry forest of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ramírez¹

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de estimar la producción de gases con efecto invernadero (GEI en el follaje y los frutos de Calliandra cruegeri, Guazuma ulmifolia, Vachellia macracantha, Senna robiniifolia, Samanea saman, Lonchocarpus sp., Fagara sp., Senna espectabilis, Mangifera indica y Oyedaea verbesinoides, de un bosque seco tropical de Venezuela, se evaluaron estas especies a través de la técnica in vitro de producción de gas; se cuantificó la producción de ácidos grasos volátiles (AGV y se estimaron los GEI. Los sustratos que registraron una mayor producción (P<0,05 de metano (CH4 y dióxido de carbono (CO2 correspondieron a los frutos de S. saman (4,0 y 8,5, Fagara sp. (3,2 y 6,9 y G. ulmifolia (2,9 y 7,2, y al follaje de S. saman (3,6 y 8,2, S. robiniifolia (4,0 y 9,9 y V. macracantha (2,8 y 5,8. La menor cantidad (P<0,05 de CH4 y CO2 la produjeron los frutos de S. espectabilis (2,3 y 5,0 y Lonchocarpus sp. (2,3 y 5,9, y el follaje de: Fagara sp. (1,5 y 3,7, G. ulmifolia (1,4 y 3,5, C. cruegeri (1,6 y 4,0, M. indica (1,7 y 4,1, O. verbesinoides (1,8 y 4,2 y Cassia sp. (1,9 y 4,6. La producción de GEI y el tiempo de incubación estuvieron correlacionados con la producción de metano (r= 0,458; P<0,05. Se concluye que, de todas las especies, S. saman registró los mayores valores (P<0,05 de producción de GEI en los frutos y el follaje. Asimismo, entre las tres y ocho horas de incubación de los sustratos, la tasa de producción de GEI fue alta.

  13. Efficient micropropagation of Epidendrum secundum Jacq. from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protocorms were most effective for regenerating protocorm-like bodies (PLBs; 100.0%), independent of the presence or absence of light. The leaves were less responsive, and the best results were obtained with the youngest leaves (58.0% PLB induction). BA influenced the responses of protocorms and young leaves, and ...

  14. (Jacq) Benth (Mimosaceae) root: Hemoglobin polymerization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: All the solvent-partitioned fractions of C. portoricensis showed a high percentage inhibition of hemoglobin polymerization at 5 mg/mL with the ethyl acetate fraction showing the highest percentage inhibition of 98.97 ± 1.62 % The pooled chromatographic fraction C3 containing two compounds (Rf value: 0.71, 0.83); ...

  15. Efficient micropropagation of Epidendrum secundum Jacq. from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-04-01

    Apr 1, 2015 ... Plant materials, surface sterilization, and culture conditions. Hand pollination of the E. secundum flowers was performed at the. Botanical Institute of São Paulo, ..... The orchids: natural history a classification. Cambridge. University Press, Harvard, USA. Gantait S, Sinniah UR (2012). Rapid micropropagation ...

  16. Insectes ravageurs du piment Capsicum chinense Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from eight families (organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, neonicotinoids, strobilurins, nereitoxins, bipyridylimm, phosphonoglycines). Among the products used, three of these are not recommended for market gardening but rather to growing cotton. The doses and the frequencies used are two to three times higher ...

  17. Reproductive Biology of Varronia curassavica Jacq. (Boraginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCIA P. HOELTGEBAUM

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Varronia curassavica, a subshrubby medicinal species associated with restinga in the Atlantic Forest, has been exploited by local people and the pharmaceutical industry. Indeed, restingas have experienced a continuous process of degradation, and thus, with species and ecosystem both at risk, efforts to support conservation actions are required. The present study aimed to evaluate aspects of V. curassavica reproductive biology. To accomplish this, morphological characterization was performed by monitoring flowering events. The availability of nectar and pollen, as well as the frequency and behavior of floral visitors and dispersers, was also evaluated. This species exhibits both heterostyly and protogyny. Anthesis is diurnal, and flowers last less than a day. The high number of flower and fruit abortions suggests that mechanisms, such as self-incompatibility intra-morphs and easily detached flowers, contribute to reduced fruit production. The high diversity of floral visitors indicate a generalist pollination syndrome. Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera were the main pollinators, and nectar was the main resource sought by these insects. Fruits were dispersed by birds and ants. It can be concluded that the interaction of V. curassavica with several species is a key factor in its own survival and for maintaining the biological diversity of restinga.

  18. Further physicochemical characterization of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DSC) were carried out for morphological and thermal analysis. The release of its vitamin C in water at room temperature and that of commercial vitamin C supplements were monitored as a function of time. The pulp had the following ...

  19. Efficient micropropagation of Epidendrum secundum Jacq. from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-04-01

    Apr 1, 2015 ... Plant materials, surface sterilization, and culture conditions. Hand pollination of the E. secundum flowers was performed at the. Botanical Institute of São Paulo, Brazil (São Paulo, SP, plant numbers 17,480 and 17,672). Fruit harvesting began six months after pollination, and seeds were removed from ...

  20. Insectes ravageurs du piment Capsicum chinense Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... Mémoire Doctorat,. Université De La Réunion, 178p. Maisonneuve et Larose. 183-193. Makondy AER, 2012. Contrôle de la qualité des denrées alimentaires traitées avec les pesticides : cas de la tomate. Mémoire présenté et soutenu en vue de l'obtention du. Diplôme de Professeur de l'Enseignement.

  1. POTENSI PENYERAPAN KARBON PADA KARET POLA TUMPANGSARI TANAMAN HUTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahuri Sahuri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubber plant (Hevea brasilliensis has a very big role in the economy and the absorption of CO2. Rubber plants as well as forest plants capable of processing CO2 as a carbon source that is used for photosynthesis. CO2 absorption can be enhanced through the implementation of intercropping pattern rubber and forest plant. This study aims to determine the potential for carbon sequestration in intercropping pattern rubber and forest plant. The experiment was conducted at the Sembawa Research Station, South Sumatra, with three cropping pattern (PT, namely PT1: rubber plants + teak (Tectona grandis, PT2: rubber plants + trembesi (Samanea saman, PT3: rubber plant monocultures, PT4: teak monocultures, and PT5: trembesi plant monocultures. Measurement of carbon reserves consist of tree biomass and soil organic matter. The results showed that the amount of absorption of CO2/year in the rubber plantations for 10 years for PT1, PT2, PT3, PT4, and PT5, respectively were 86.46 tons/ha, 125.90 tons / ha, 77.90 tons/ha, 36.26 tons/ha and 49.03 tons/ha. The addition of carbon sequestration for 10 years due to intercrop rubber and forest plant was 30.13% or 49.17 tons CO2/ha compared to the rubber plant monocultures. Tanaman karet (Hevea brasilliensis memiliki peran yang sangat besar dalam perekonomian dan penyerapan CO2. Tanaman karet seperti halnya tanaman hutan mampu mengolah CO2 sebagai sumber karbon yang digunakan untuk fotosintesis. Penyerapan CO2 dapat ditingkatkan melalui penerapan pola tumpangsari karet dan tanaman hutan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi penyerapan karbon pada pola tumpangsari karet dan tanaman hutan. Penelitian dilaksanakan di kebun percobaan Balai Penelitian Sembawa, Sumatra Selatan, dengan tiga pola tanam (PT, yaitu PT1: tanaman karet + jati (Tectona grandis, PT2: tanaman karet + trembesi (Samanea saman, PT3: tanaman karet monokultur, PT4: tanaman jati monokultur, dan PT5: tanaman trembesi monokultur. Pengukuran

  2. Dinâmica da pastagem e desempenho de novilhos em pastagem de capim-tanzânia sob diferentes ofertas de forragem Pasture dynamic and performance of steers in Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia under different forage allowances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Alves de Freitas Barbosa

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar a dinâmica de produção da pastagem e o desempenho animal em pastagem de capim-tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia sob lotação contínua, com taxa de lotação variável e quatro ofertas de forragem (3, 7, 11 e 15% do PV. Foram utilizados novilhos mestiços Nelore x Charolês com média de 18 meses de idade e 350 kg de PV. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. O intervalo de 7 a 11% de oferta de forragem consiste na faixa em que o capim-tanzânia deve ser manejado com mínima aplicação de fertilizantes (30 kg/ha/ano de N para obtenção de alto ganho médio diário (GMD, sem afetar demasiadamente o ganho por hectare (G/ha. Nesta condição, a pastagem apresenta-se com 1.528 kg/ha de MSLV; 56 cm de altura; 97% de cobertura de solo; 62 kg/ha/dia de taxa de crescimento de MSLV e 34% de lâminas verdes na MS total, resultando em GMD de 0,5 kg/dia e G/ha de 126 kg.This experiment was carried out from March to August 2000, to study the dry matter yield dynamic and performance of steers grazing Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia, under continuous stocking with variable stocking rate, and four forage allowances (3, 7, 11, and 15% BW. Crossbred Nelore x Charolais steers, averaging 18 months and 350 kg BW, were used. A randomized block design, with three replicates, was used. When tanzaniagrass was managed in the 7 to 11% interval of forage allowance, the fertilizer input was minimal (30 kg/ha/yr N, and high average daily gain (ADG was obtained, with no effect on the gain/ha (G/ha. Under this condition, pasture showed 1,528 kg/ha green leaf lamina dry matter (GLLDM; 56 cm of stubble height; 97% soil cover; 62 kg/ha/day of GLLDM accumulation rate; and 34% green leaf lamina in the total dry matter, with ADG of 0.5 kg/day and 126 kg of G/ha.

  3. Efeitos da irrigação e adubação nitrogenada sobre a massa de forragem de cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. Effects of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on dry matter yield of Panicum maximum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Matsumoto de Souza

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento no período de 06/09/2000 a 18/09/2001, para se avaliar os efeitos da irrigação e da adubação nitrogenada sobre a massa de forragem de cinco diferentes cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. Avaliaram-se cinco cultivares (Guiné, Colonião, Mombaça, Tanzânia e Centauro, três doses de nitrogênio (50, 75 e 100 kg de N/ha/corte e a presença e ausência de irrigação, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial de 5 x 3 x 2, com quatro repetições. A irrigação promoveu aumentos significativos nas produções de massa de forragem (PMF para todos os cultivares. Na estação chuvosa (OUT/00 a MAR/01, as doses de 75 e 100 kg/ha de N por corte proporcionaram maiores PMF que a de 50 kg/ha de N por corte. O cultivar Mombaça apresentou maior PMF, na presença de irrigação, que os demais cultivares, enquanto, na ausência, todos os cultivares apresentaram produções semelhantes. Na estação seca (MAI/01 a AGO/01, a irrigação promoveu aumento significativo na PMF, em relação ao tratamento sem irrigação. À medida que se elevaram as doses de N, aumentou-se a PMF, enquanto, na ausência de irrigação, houve diferença entre as doses de 50 e 100 kg/ha de N por corte. Observou-se o efeito positivo da irrigação sobre a PMF a partir do final da estação seca, quando as temperaturas começaram a se elevar e o fotoperíodo provavelmente não era mais fator limitante; ou seja, foi possível antecipar a estação de crescimento das forrageiras a partir do mês de agosto, com PMF média de 1 a 2 t/ha, para a dose de 75 kg/ha de N por corte e de até 3 t/ha, na dose de 100 kg/ha de N por corte, em relação ao tratamento sem irrigação.This trial was carried out from September 6th (2000 to September 18th (2001 to evaluate the effects of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on drymatter yield of five different cultivars of Panicum maximum. Five cultivars (Guiné, Colonião, Mombaça, Tanzânia and

  4. Preferencia de vacunos por el follaje de doce especies con potencial para sistemas agrosilvopastoriles en el Estado Trujillo, Venezuela Preference of cattle for the foliage of twelve species with potential for agrosilvopastoral systems in the Trujillo State, Venezuela

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    D.E García

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer la preferencia de bovinos jóvenes por doce especies forrajeras en el Estado Trujillo, Venezuela (Chlorophora tinctoria, Morus alba, Pithecellobium pedicellare, Gliricidia sepium, Guazuma ulmifolia, Cordia alba, Trichantera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Azadirachta indica y Samanea saman se efectuó una prueba de cafetería a través de mediciones del consumo de follaje, mediante un diseño cuadrado latino con período de evaluación de 12 días. A los forrajes se les determinó la composición fitoquímica (PB, EB, FDN, fenoles, taninos condensados, taninos que precipitan proteínas y esteroles totales y la degradabilidad ruminal in situ (DMS y DMO. Las especies más preferidas fueron: P. pedicellare (327,98 g MS, L. leucocephala (325,63 g MS, M. alba (293,37 g MS, G. ulmifolia (292,48 g MS, C. tinctoria (277,18 g MS y C. alba (274,49 g MS. Los follajes de G. sepium (108,05 g MS, T. diversifolia (106,09 g MS, M. oleifera (76,28 g MS, A. indica (76,19 g MS y S. saman (58,72 g MS fueron medianamente consumidos. Sin embargo, la biomasa de T. gigantea (1,39 g MS fue prácticamente rechazada. Durante el período experimental se observaron diferentes tendencias en el consumo de cada espe­cie. No obstante, no se observó una relación significativa entre el consumo y la composición química, la concentración de metabolitos secundarios y la degradabilidad ruminal. Se concluye que es importante realizar ensayos de preferencia con animales para la selección de especies con potencial para sistemas silvopastoriles.With the objective of knowing the preference of young cattle for twelve forage species of the Trujillo State, Venezuela (Chlorophora tinctoria, Morus alba, Pithecellobium pedicellare, Gliricidia sepium, Guazuma ulmifolia, Cordia alba, Trichantera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Azadirachta indica and Samanea saman a cafeteria test

  5. Feeding of tropical trees and shrub foliages as a strategy to reduce ruminal methanogenesis: studies conducted in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Denia Caridad; Galindo, Juana; González, Rogelio; González, Niurca; Scull, Idania; Dihigo, Luís; Cairo, Juan; Aldama, Ana Irma; Moreira, Onidia

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the main results obtained in Cuba on the effects of feeding tropical trees and shrubs on rumen methanogenesis in animals fed with low quality fibrous diets. More than 20 tree and shrub foliages were screened for phytochemicals and analyzed for chemical constituents. From these samples, seven promising plants (Samanea saman, Albizia lebbeck, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Trichantera gigantea, Sapindus saponaria, and Morus alba) were evaluated for methane reduction using an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Results indicated that the inclusion levels of 25% of Sapindo, Morus, or Trichantera foliages in the foliages/grass mixtures (grass being Pennisetum purpureum) reduced (P methane production in vitro when compared to Pennisetum alone (17.0, 19.1, and 18.0 versus 26.2 mL CH(4)/g fermented dry matter, respectively). It was demonstrated that S. saman, A. lebbeck, or T. diversifolia accession 23 foliages when mixed at the rate of 30% in Cynodon nlemfuensis grass produced lower methane compared to the grass alone. Inclusion levels of 15% and 25% of a ruminal activator supplement containing 29% of L. leucocehala foliage meal reduced methane by 37% and 42% when compared to the treatment without supplementation. In vivo experiment with sheep showed that inclusion of 27% of L. leucocephala in the diet increased the DM intake but did not show significant difference in methane production compared to control diet without this foliage. The results of these experiments suggest that the feeding of tropical tree and shrub foliages could be an attractive strategy for reduction of ruminal methanogenesis from animals fed with low-quality forage diets and for improving their productivity.

  6. Morfogênese de cultivares de Panicum maximum jacq. Morphogenesis of Panicum maximum jacq. cultivars

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    Carlos Augusto Miranda Gomide

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Quatro cultivares de Panicum maximum, Mombaça, Tanzânia, Vencedor e Centenário, foram cultivados em vasos, sob cobertura plástica transparente, para estudo da dinâmica do crescimento de folhas e perfilhos, em dois tipos de perfilho, o principal e o primário, e dois crescimentos, o de estabelecimento, logo após a emergência das plântulas, e o de rebrota, após corte, a 8 cm do solo, aos 21 dias. Os tratamentos foram estudados, em arranjo fatorial 4 x 2 x 2, segundo delineamento de blocos completamente casualizados com quatro repetições. O comprimento da lâmina foliar cresceu com o nível de inserção até a folha de número 9 ou 10, tornando-se menor nas folhas subseqüentes. O perfilhamento teve início na segunda semana de idade e se estendeu até 22 dias de idade, quando o número de perfilhos por planta se estabilizou. O cultivar Tanzânia apresentou maior número de perfilhos por planta (15, enquanto em Mombaça e Vencedor foram observados apenas 10 perfilhos. Maiores taxas de aparecimento e alongamento de folhas foram observadas durante o crescimento de estabelecimento. Em ambos os crescimentos, o cultivar Vencedor exibiu a maior taxa de aparecimento de folhas. O número médio de folhas verdes por perfilho estabilizou-se em 6,5 no cultivar Vencedor e 3,5 nos demais cultivares, no crescimento de rebrota, em que a vida útil das folhas foi de 29 dias para o cultivar Centenário e 36 dias para os demais.Four cultivars of Panicum maximum: Mombaça, Tanzânia, Centenário and Vencedor were grown in pots, under a transparent plastic cover, to evaluate the dynamic of leaf and tillers growth. Two growths, the establishment and the aftermath, after clipping at the age of 21 days, and two types of tiller, main and primary tillers, were studied. A completely randomized design with four replicates was used to compare the treatments resulting from a 4 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. The leaf blade length increased with insertion level until leaf number nine or ten, decreasing subsequently. The tillering process began during the second week of growth and continued until the 22nd day, when the number of tillers per plant stabilized. Tanzânia tillered the most (15 tillers/plant while Mombaça and Vencedor tillered the least (10 tillers/plant. Higher leaf appearance and elongation rates were observed in the establishment growth. In either growth, the cultivar Vencedor showed the highest leaf appearance rate. In the aftermath growth, the number of green leaves per tiller stabilized at 6.5 for Vencedor and 3.5 for the remaining cultivars. In this growth the leaf life span ranged from 29 days, for the cultivar Centenário, to 36 days, for the remaining cultivars.

  7. KARAKTERISTIK KONSENTRASI CO2 DAN SUHU UDARA AMBIEN DUA TAMAN KOTA DI MALANG

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    Ninuk Herlina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Malang is a city of education and tourism, where the number of residents in Malang increase every year. It caused the number of motor vehicles increased as well and led to an increase in air temperature and CO2 concentration. City parks play a role in lowering the temperature and CO2 in the vicinity. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteritic CO2 concentration and ambient air temperature in Merdeka Square and Trunojoyo Park Malang City. This research was conducted in February - April 2016 in Merdeka Square and Trunojoyo Park, Malang, East Java. The result of this research showed that the dominant tree in Merdeka Square Park was Beringin (Ficus benjamina, while in Trunojoyo Park was Trembesi (Samanea saman. CO2 concentration at 3 AM in Merdeka quare Park was lower than in Trunojoyo Park that was 478.74 and 481.26 ppm. While CO2 concentration at 1 PM was same in both parks. In Merdeka Square with a tree canopy density of 61.20% had a higher ambient air temperature (32.21oC >30.53oC   at 1PM than in Trunojoyo Park with a tree canopy density of 88.25%. While the ambient air temperature at 3 AM was same in both parks.

  8. High carbon stocks in roadside plantations under participatory management in Bangladesh

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    Md. Mizanur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantations are important REDD+strategies for increasing carbon sequestration while enhancing local livelihoods. Reforestation along roads and highways under participatory forest management in southwestern Bangladesh could contribute to REDD+. This study assessed the diversity and structure of roadside plantations in order to develop a basal area based generalized allometric model for estimating above- and below-ground tree biomass carbon in Southwestern Bangladesh. All woody plants with d.b.h. ⩾2cm were identified and their diameters measured in 108 systematically selected zigzag plots of equal size (2×10m. A total of 36 species in 17 families were recorded. Leguminosae accounted for 28% of species and 94% of the total estimated biomass carbon. We estimated a mean stem density of 4528ha−1, basal area of 52.6m2ha−1 and biomass carbon of 192.80 Mg ha−1. Samanea saman, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia nilotica, and Leucaena leucocephala accounted for most density, basal area, and carbon. We developed and validated three allometric models with equal strength (R2 0.94–0.98 using generalized linear regression. Roadside plantations in Bangladesh can now surely participate in the UNFCCC’s carbon mitigation and adaptation mechanism, but challenges to their long-term sustainability must be addressed.

  9. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, IN VITRO RUMEN FERMENTATION, AND DIGESTIBILITY OF SELECTED BROWSE SPECIES BY BUFFALOES (Bubalus bubalis L. AT A SEMI-DECIDUOUS FOREST IN VENEZUELA

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    Álvaro José Ojeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the chemical composition and nutritive value of selected browse species by buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis L. in a silvopastoral system at a semi-deciduous tropical forest (SDTF, epidermal fragments in fecal samples from 14 males of Murrah breed were evaluated. The animals grazed for 91 days in 85 ha located in Portuguesa State, Venezuela, of which 35 ha corresponded to natural grass pastures (969.3 ± 28.6 kg DM ha-1, and the rest to SDTF with 463 plant ha-1. Eleven botanical families and 22 species were identified, 40.9% belonged to the Fabaceae family. The specie Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae had the highest relative dominancy (60.4% and an Importance Value Index of 162.6. 60.4% of epidermal fragments corresponded to herbaceous Poaceae, and the rest was distributed among five different species, with the highest occurrence (94.6% for Samanea saman and Sida acuta. There were differences (P

  10. Temporal and spatial resource use by female three-toed sloths and their young in an agricultural landscape in Costa Rica

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    Oscar Ramirez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The information on ecological behavior of wild sloths is very scarce. In this study we determined the home ranges and resources used by three adult female three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus and their four young in an agricultural matrix of cacao (Theobroma cacao, pasture, riparian forests and living fencerows in Costa Rica. Births occurred during November-December and the young became independent at five to seven months of age. Initially, mothers remained fixed in one or a few trees, but expanded their use of resources as young sloths became independent from them. Mothers initially guided the young to preferred food and cover resources, but they gradually left their young in small nucleus areas and colonized new areas for themselves. Home range sizes for young sloths (up to seven months of age varied between 0.04-0.6 hectares, while home range sizes for mothers varied from 0.04-25.0 hectares. During the maternal care period, 22 tree species were used, with the most common being Cecropia obtusifolia (30.9%, Coussapoa villosa (25.6%, Nectandra salicifolia (12.1%, Pterocarpus officinalis (5.8% and Samanea saman (5.4%. However, young sloths used only 20 tree species, with the most common being C. villosa (18.4%, S. saman (18.5 % and N. salicifolia (16.7%. The cacao agroforest was used only by mother sloths and never by their young following separation. However, in the riparian forest, both mother sloths and young used the tree species. A total of 28 tree species were used by the mother sloth; including the food species: C. obtusifolia, C. villosa, N. salicifolia and P. officinalis. However, the young used 18 trees species in this habitat with N. salicifolia and S. saman most commonly used, although they rested and fed during the day in C. obtusifolia, C. villosa and O. sinnuata. The cacao agroforest with adjacent riparian forests and fencerows provides an important habitat type that links the smaller secondary forests and other patches. Rev

  11. Temporal and spatial resource use by female three-toed sloths and their young in an agricultural landscape in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Ramirez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The information on ecological behavior of wild sloths is very scarce. In this study we determined the home ranges and resources used by three adult female three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus and their four young in an agricultural matrix of cacao (Theobroma cacao, pasture, riparian forests and living fencerows in Costa Rica. Births occurred during November-December and the young became independent at five to seven months of age. Initially, mothers remained fixed in one or a few trees, but expanded their use of resources as young sloths became independent from them. Mothers initially guided the young to preferred food and cover resources, but they gradually left their young in small nucleus areas and colonized new areas for themselves. Home range sizes for young sloths (up to seven months of age varied between 0.04-0.6 hectares, while home range sizes for mothers varied from 0.04-25.0 hectares. During the maternal care period, 22 tree species were used, with the most common being Cecropia obtusifolia (30.9%, Coussapoa villosa (25.6%, Nectandra salicifolia (12.1%, Pterocarpus officinalis (5.8% and Samanea saman (5.4%. However, young sloths used only 20 tree species, with the most common being C. villosa (18.4%, S. saman (18.5 % and N. salicifolia (16.7%. The cacao agroforest was used only by mother sloths and never by their young following separation. However, in the riparian forest, both mother sloths and young used the tree species. A total of 28 tree species were used by the mother sloth; including the food species: C. obtusifolia, C. villosa, N. salicifolia and P. officinalis. However, the young used 18 trees species in this habitat with N. salicifolia and S. saman most commonly used, although they rested and fed during the day in C. obtusifolia, C. villosa and O. sinnuata. The cacao agroforest with adjacent riparian forests and fencerows provides an important habitat type that links the smaller secondary forests and other patches. Rev

  12. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Kedrostis foetidissima (Jacq. Cogn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amutha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosilver was synthesized using the aqueous solution of solvent extracts of leaf and stem of Kedrostis foetidissima. Three different methods of formation of silver nanoparticles such as reaction at (i room temperature, (ii higher temperature, and (iii sonication were employed in the present study. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer, Scherrer’s formula, scanning electron microscopy, and FTIR analysis.

  13. Hypoglycaemic effects of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth seed extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimosoideae), its chloroform, hexane, and mother liquor fractions were evaluated in glucose-loaded and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The methanol extract of the seed exhibited a peak percentage decrease of 64% and 44.1% in blood glucose ...

  14. Inheritance of pigmentation patterns in Talinum triangulare (Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The segregation pattern for stigma colour indicates complete dominance of deep pink over light pink colour. The same gene which is in the homozygous state conditions deep pink pigmentations on the leaf base and panicle junction in the two variants of T. triangulare investigated. Keywords: Intraspecific, Petal Colour, ...

  15. Karyotype studies in Panicum maximum Jacq. | Adedeji | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Genetics Vol. 18 2003: pp. 5-10. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njg.v18i1.42284 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  16. Antifungal activity of essential oil from Artemisia afra Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundidza, M

    1993-07-01

    Artemisia afra is indigenous to the eastern highlands of Zimbabwe where it is used in folk medicine. Hydro-distilled volatile oil from the aerial parts of the plant was tested for antifungal activity against 10 fungal species using the dry weight method. The results obtained showed that the essential oil exhibited significant activity against Aspergillus ochraceus, Candida albicans, Alternaria alternata, Geotrichum candidum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrium and Aspergillus parasiticus.

  17. Flavanones from aerial parts of Cordia globosa (Jacq. Kunth, Boraginaceae

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    Sâmia Andricia S. da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical analysis of aerial parts of Cordia globosa, collected in the Municipality of Picuí, State of Paraíba, Brazil, resulted in the isolation and structural identification of narigenin-4',7-dimethyl ether (0.025 g and eriodictyol (0.015 g. These compounds are the first flavanones aglycones isolated from the genus Cordia.

  18. Flavanones from aerial parts of Cordia globosa (Jacq.) Kunth, Boraginaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Sâmia Andricia S. da; Agra,Maria de Fátima; Josean F. Tavares; Emídio V. L. da-Cunha; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Silva, Marcelo S. da

    2010-01-01

    The phytochemical analysis of aerial parts of Cordia globosa, collected in the Municipality of Picuí, State of Paraíba, Brazil, resulted in the isolation and structural identification of narigenin-4',7-dimethyl ether (0.025 g) and eriodictyol (0.015 g). These compounds are the first flavanones aglycones isolated from the genus Cordia. A análise fitoquímica das partes aéreas de Cordia globosa, coletadas no município de Picuí, PB, Brasil, resultou no isolamento e identificação estrutural da ...

  19. The regulation of starch accumulation in Panicum maximum Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electron microscopic studies of Panicum maximum (PCK C4 photosynthetic type) when grown under controlled growth conditions as low nutrient nitrogen (20 ppm N, KNO3) showed interesting second order bundle sheath cell organisation: the cells were several times bigger than the mesophyll cells and were packed with ...

  20. Economic potential of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq

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    Juan Sierra Márquez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to highlight the economic importance of the optimal use of products and byproducts of oil palm. In Colombia, productive crops per hectare can generate, over one year, an average of 3.14 tons of oil, and up to 21.68 t of solid and liquid waste when the plant is on a productive stage. These data allowed the researcher to estimate that more than nine million of t of solid and liquid waste was produced from the 450 131 ha present in 2014, in Colombia; the produced biomass was used to generate energy and steam, releasing carbon dioxide back again into the environment. These residues have great potential in many industries, some to be developed, therefore, it is of special importance to try to maximize the use of waste produced by oil palm production, to generate economic and environmental benefits. An example of this is the palm kernel cake, with a nutritional potential in animal feed, fiber in the biocompound industry, biomass and stipe in the timber industry, glycerol, biodiesel, and liquid effluents in the chemical and biotechnological industry. The use of these raw materials may help to establish a positive balance in the cultivation of this species of oil palm in the country.

  1. (Jacq) on the flowering and fruiting of okra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-31

    Malasia and Northern Australia (Wills,. 1985). The aqueous leaf and stem extracts of A. lobata have been reported to cause inhibition of germination of seed and stimulate seedling growth of cowpea and maize. (Osuagwu ...

  2. Effect of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud. And Tithonia diversifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the role and function of green manure as soil amendments to improve and maintain the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil, this study was carried out to find out the effect of green manure (G. sepium and T. diversifolia leaves) on the growth performance of Parkia biglobosa. The experiment was laid ...

  3. Molecular markers linked to apomixis in Panicum maximum Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bulked segregant analysis was performed using 184 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers in an F1 population of P. maximum segregating for reproductive mode. Four RAPD markers linked to apomixis were identified and mapped in this population. These markers showed good selection efficiency, ranging ...

  4. (Jacq) Benth (African Locust Bean) on Hypertension in Bogou and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2010-09-09

    Sep 9, 2010 ... Minerals. Plasma potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium and calcium were determined using commercial diagnostic kits (Cypress. Diagnostics Laboratory) on an automated spectrophotometer (Clima Plus, Ral.SA), following the kit manufacturers' guide in each case. For potassium, the absorbance was.

  5. Aproveitamento integral do oleo de palma (Elacis guineensis, Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Anibal Trujillo-Quijano

    1994-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho, basicamente, consistiu em 3 itens: 1. Análise qualitativa e quantitativa de carotenóides e determinação de valor de vitamina A de óleos extraídos de frutos frescos e esterilizados de diferentes palmeiras oleaginosas (guineesis, dura dumpy, tenera e psifera e E. oleifera). 2. Refinação de óleo de palma por extração líquido liquido contra-corrente usando etanol aquoso. 3. fracionamento seco usando filtro de alta pressão e fracionamento em solução de acetona. Em óleos ex...

  6. Cultivation of the oyster mushroom ( pleurotus ostreatus (jacq.) p ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In contrast, the spawn running time, that is, mycelium growth took much longer time (84 days) at Swat compared with Peshawar (44 days). Formation of fruiting bodies at Swat was found later (7 days) than that of Peshawar (4 days). Similarly, the production period (70 days) at Swat exhibited much longer in contrast to ...

  7. Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Kumm. CULTIVATION ON VEGETABLE WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupodorova T. A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the study of influence of cultivation substrates (agriculture wasters on biomass accumulation, amino acid composition, polysaccharide content and sorption ability towards heavy metals for the obtained biomass of edible myshroom P.ostreatus. The intensity of P. ostreatus biomass accumulation (18–24,1 g/L and high conversion of substrates (33,3–44,6% have shown prospects for P. ostreatus cultivation on new substrates such as wheat germ oil meal, CO2-extraction waste — amaranth flour and rapeseed meal. The optimum concentration of selected substrates were 70 g in 1 liter of distilled water for wheat germ oil meal and amaranth flour, 60 g/l — for rapeseed mea. It was foundl 17 amino acids, including 9 essential ones in fungi biomass hydrolyzate. Significant influence of cultivation substrate on quantitative composition of amino acids has been established. To all biomass samples the prevalence of glutamic and aspartic acids, arginine among the nonessential amino-acids, leucine, lysine and cystine among the essential amino-acids were common. Endopolysaccharides content in mushroom biomass and exopolysaccharides in culture liquid were slightly different depending on the selected substrates. Sorption of heavy metals by P. ostreatus biomass was increased in series Hg2+ < Pb2+ < Cd2+. High biological activity of the biomass as a source of important essential amino acids and endopolysaccharides as well as sorption capacity towards toxic ions of Pb2+, Cd2+, Hg2+ were determined. It could be a good purpose for usage of P. ostreatus biomass as an ingredient in the composition of functional food or food for special purpose to enhance both: its nutritional value and excretion of heavy metals from the human body.

  8. Growth Response of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.)Walp to Inoculation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess the variation in performance of four arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus clarum, Glomus etunicatum, Glomus intraradices, and Gigaspora rosea) with and without Rhizobium inoculation in promoting growth and nutrient (N and P) uptake in Gliricidia sepium. Gliricidia seedlings were ...

  9. Fungicidal control of two pathogenic fungi of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The radial growths of the fungi on PDA were compared. Analysis of variance was done on the data and the means were separated with LSD. Benlate was found to be superior to Thiram as it suppressed the growth of both fungi at 10ppm. Key words: Fungicides, pathogenicity, Parkia biglobossa, Corynespora cassiicola, ...

  10. Growth Response of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.)Walp to Inoculation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each week, plants received 50 cm3 of nutrient solution (with N and P additions) according to the treatments. The experimental design was a 4x2 factorial arranged in a randomised complete block design. Seedlings were harvested after 12 weeks. Dry weights of plant parts, nodulation, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal ...

  11. Genotypic value in hybrid progenies of Panicum maximum Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Gomes dos Santos Braz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Genetic breeding of forage plants has increasingly contributed to the release of more productive plants. In this regard, evaluating the genotypic value is essential when aiming to rank genotypes based on the mean free of environmental factors. Therefore, this study aimed to predict the genotypic value of agronomic and nutritive value characters of three progenies of Panicum maximum. Hybrids were evaluated in a clonal test in an incomplete-randomized design with three treatments (progenies 1, 2, and 3 and two replications (clones. Six harvests were performed at 25cm from the ground level throughout one year. Progeny 2 provided better results for total and leaf dry mass yield, regrowth, and height, and lower incidence of leaf spot. Progenies 1 and 3 had a better response for qualitative characters such as higher crude protein and digestibility and lower lignin and fiber content. Hybrid progenies of P. maximum have forage characters of interest for breeding, and when using ‘Mombaça’ grass as parents, the progeny stands out for leaf production and resistance to leaf spot and for ‘Tanzania’ grass as parent has resulted in better forage quality.

  12. Apium repens (Jacq.) Lag. in Zeeuwsch-Vlaanderen teruggevonden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, R.M.; Weeda, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    Apium repens, recorded for the last time in the Netherlands in 1961, was refound in 1983 at some localities in Zeeuwsch-Vlaanderen. In the past it occurred in four kinds of habitat: 1 wet pastures and banks along brooks, inundated in winter; 2 ditches at the fringe of peat areas; 3 wet dune slacks

  13. In vitro antibacterial activity of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) root bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... in treating snake bite (Ajaiyeoba, 2002). Phytochemical results indicated that the root bark of the plant ... snake bites (Isuzu and Harvey, 2003), diabetes (Odetola et al., 2006), fever and infections caused by some sus- ceptible ... Education Publishers pp. 23-27. Alabi DA, Akinsulire OR, Sanyaolu MO (2005).

  14. Extracción y evaluación de taninos condensados a partir de la corteza de once especies maderables de Costa Rica Extraction and evaluation of condensed tannins from bark of eleven species of trees from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Aguilar López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La naturaleza química de los taninos condensados los convierte en una fuente natural de compuestos orgáni- cos, con una aplicación potencialmente amplia para usos medicinales e industriales. La extracción y análisis de este tipo de metabolitos a partir de la flora de diversas regiones del planeta ha sido el objetivo del estudio de diversos grupos de trabajo, y en este caso se ha querido hacer un aporte al estado del conocimiento actual, realizando un estudio sobre la natu- raleza y la cantidad del tanino condensado que se puede extraer de la corteza de 11 especies arbóreas presentes en Costa Rica: guanacaste (Enterolobium cyclocarpum, alcornoque (Licania arborea, jobo (Spondias mom- bin, pochote (Pachira quinata, níspero (Manilkara chicle, almendro (Andira inermis, roble (Tabebuia rosea, cedro (Cedrela odorata, cenízaro (Samanea saman, pino (Pinus caribaea y ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica. Las muestras de corteza fueron preparadas, secadas y extraídas con etanol. Se analizaron los extractos etanóli- cos para determinar el contenido de taninos condensa- dos a través del número de Stiasny, y se caracterizaron mediante espectroscopía infrarroja (FT-IR. Las especies con mayor proporción de material extraído fueron guanacaste (9.5841% m/m, pochote (15.0066% m/m, pino (19.3400% m/m y ciprés (10.5300% m/m, mientras que los extractos con una mayor proporción de taninos condensados correspondieron a alcornoque (61.9% m/m, jobo (66.1% m/m, pochote (72.8% m/m, níspero (50.5% m/m, cedro (72.7% m/m y pino (70.7% m/m.The chemical nature of condensed tannins offers a natural source of such organic compounds, with potential application to medicinal and industrial uses. The extraction and analysis of this type of metabo- lites from plants of many regions of the world have been the objective of researching groups. In this case, it is desired to contribute to present knowledge, establishing the nature and amounts of condensed tannins extracted

  15. Repetibilidade de caracteres agronômicos em Panicum maximum Jacq. Agronomic characters repeatability in Panicum maximum Jacq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Azevedo Martuscello

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o coeficiente de repetibilidade de algumas características agronômicas em híbridos de Panicum maximum. Dez parcelas de plantas sexuais da espécie foram aleatoriamente distribuídas entre as 230 parcelas de acessos apomíticos. Após a fecundação natural, sementes de cada planta sexual constituíram-se uma família de meios-irmãos. Trinta plantas de cada progenitora foram avaliadas em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco plantas por parcela e seis repetições. A partir de cinco cortes, estimou-se o coeficiente de repetibilidade pelos métodos da Análise de Variância, Componentes principais (matriz de correlação e covariância e Análise estrutural. Os coeficientes de repetibilidade (r nos diferentes métodos, para todas as características avaliadas, oscilaram entre 0,51 e 0,86 e podem ser considerados altos, assim como os coeficientes de determinação. As estimativas do coeficiente de repetibilidade obtidas para as quatro características avaliadas pelo método da análise de variância foram quase sempre menores que as obtidas pelos demais métodos. Pelo método dos componentes principais (baseado na matriz de covariância, as estimativas foram sempre maiores em relação aos demais métodos. Considerando satisfatórios níveis de 80 ou 90% de confiabilidade para avaliação da superioridade relativa dos híbridos para todas as características avaliadas, as cinco medições realizadas são suficientes para escolha da melhor planta. A exclusão dos cortes 1 e 2 promove aumento nos coeficientes de repetibilidade e determinação.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the coefficient of repeatability of some agronomic characteristics in Panicum maximum hybrids. Ten plots of sexual plants of this species were randomly distributed among 230 plots of apomitic accessions. After natural hybridization, seeds of each sexual plant constituted a half-sib family. Thirty plants of each female progenitor were evaluated in a randomized blocks design, with five plants per plot and six replications. Based on five evaluation cuts, the coefficient of repeatability was estimated by the methods analysis of variance, principal components (correlation and covariance matrices and structural analyses. The coefficient of repeatability (r estimated by the different methods, for all the characteristics evaluated, was high and varied from 0.51 to 0.86. The estimates of the coefficient of determination were also high. It was verified that the estimates of the repeatability coefficient for the four characteristics evaluated by the analyses of variance method were almost always smaller than the estimates obtained by the other methods. By the principal component method (based on the covariance matrix, the estimates were always the highest. Considering a level of 80 or 90% as satisfactory for the confidence in the decision of the relative superiority of the hybrids based on green matter yield, these five evaluation cuts would be sufficient for the choice of the best plant. The exclusion of the first two cuts will increase the repeatability and determination coefficients.

  16. Análise de crescimento de cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. Growth analysis of Panicum maximum Jacq. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto de Miranda Gomide

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o crescimento de três cultivares de Panicum maximum: Mombaça, Tanzânia e Vencedor cultivados em vasos, sob cobertura de lona plástica transparente. Os vasos foram cheios com 6 dm³ de latossolo vermelho-amarelo, textura argilosa, contendo alto teor de matéria orgânica. O solo, após ser peneirado, recebeu calagem e enriquecimento com N e P, 150 mg/dm³ de cada elemento. As sementes foram plantadas em vasos, num total de 54. Após desbaste, cinco plantas foram deixadas por vaso. Diariamente os vasos foram molhados e quinzenalmente fertilizados, cada um, com 50 mg/dm³ de N e K, em solução aquosa. Cada cultivar foi colhido às idades de 17, 24, 31, 38, 45 e 52 dias após emergência da semente. Houve três repetições para cada cultivar e idade. Em cada colheita, as plantas foram cortadas próximo à superfície do solo e separadas em folhas, colmo, raízes e material morto. A área das lâminas foliares foi medida em integrador de área foliar. Lâminas foliares, colmo e sistema radicular foram pesados após secagem a 60ºC por 72 horas. Valores instantâneos foram estimados para os índices de crescimento: área foliar específica (AFE, razão de peso foliar (RPF, razão de área foliar (RAF, taxa assimilatória líquida (TAL e taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR, de todos três cultivares. Houve diferenças entre os cultivares quanto aos valores instantâneos de RAF e TCR à idade de 17 dias. As variações de AFE foram as principais causas das mudanças em RAF. Nenhuma diferença foi observada entre os cultivares quanto à TAL.The objective of this work was to analyze the growth of three cultivars of Panicum maximum: Mombaça, Tanzânia and Vencedor grown in pots, under a transparent plastic cover. The pots were filled with 6 dm³ of redyellow latossol, clayish texture, with high organic matter content. The soil, after sifted, was limed and enriched with N and P, 150 mg/dm³ of each element. The seeds were seeded in the pots, in a total of 54. After thinning, five seedlings were left per pot. The pots were daily watered and fortnightly fertilized, each one, with 50 mg/dm³ N and K, in aqueous solution. Each cultivar was harvested at the ages of 17, 24, 31, 38, 44 and 52 days after seedlings emergence. There were three replicates for each cultivar and age. In each harvest, the plants were clipped close to the soil surface, and separated into: leaf blades, stem, root system and dead material. The leaf blade area was measured with a digital area meter system. The leaf blade, stem, and root system were weighed after drying at 60ºC for 72 hours. Instantaneous values were estimated for the growth indices: specific leaf area (SLA, leaf weight ratio (LWR, leaf area ratio (LAR, net assimilation rate (NAR and relative growth rate (RGR, of all cultivars. There were differences among cultivars as for the instantaneous values of LAR and RGR at the age of 17 days. Variations of the SLA were the mainly causes in the changes in the LAR. No difference was observed among cultivars for NAR.

  17. Estudio de la flora y la vegetaciòn del bosque en la estaciòn de primates Coloso-Sucre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Alonso José Luis

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en Coloso, Sucre, en la planicie del litoral Caribe, se efectuaron muestreos enla zona del arroyo el “Sereno” de la estación de primates. Se realizaron 14 levantamientos,utilizando el método de parcela y subparcelas, de 50 x 10 m2. Se censaron indivuidos con DAP =10 cm. La vegetación del sector “arroyo Sereno” fitosociológicamente se agrupa en la alianzaPoulsenio armatae- Anacardion excelsi, entre cuyas especies características también figuran: Achrasexcelsi, Brownea ariza, Brosimun guianense, Samanea saman, Pachira acuatica, Erythroxylumamazonicum y Aspidosperma spegazzinii. Comprende las asociaciones Ocoteo glomeratae- Spondietum mombinis entrecuyas especies características figuran: Ficus gigantea, Ocotea glomerata, Platymiscium pinnatumy Xylopiagrandifloray Astronio graveolentis- Guazumetum ulmifoliaecon Pseudobombax septenatum, Trichiliaacuminatay Stemmadenia grandiflora. Las especies con mayores valores de IVI (Índice de valor de im-portancia e IPF (Índice de predominio fisiónomico son Anacardium excelsum, Pulsenia armata,Spondias mombin, Ocotea glomerata, Astronium graveolensy Guazuma ulmifolia.En los censos se encon-traron 38 familias y 80 especies entre las cuales se destacan por número de género y especies Leguminosae, Bombacaceae, Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae. Entre los génerosmás diversificados figuran Xylopia(Anonaceae, Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae y Bombax, Cavanillesia,Ciebas, Pseudobombax (Bombacaceae. En general los tipos de vegetación que se encontrarontambién se distribuyen en localidades de la región tropical de los valles del Magdalena y del Caucaconstituyendo una formación vegetal definida por el dominio de especies como Guazuma ulmifolia,Astronium graveolens, Spondias mombin, Anacardium occidentalisy especies de Tabebuia.

  18. AGROMEMORIA EN ESCENARIOS DE POSTCONFLICTO Usos del suelo y café en Aguadas, Pensilvania y Samaná (Caldas Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta – Nates, Paola Andrea; Martínez –Calderón, Camila Andrea; Vásquez- Valencia, Andrés Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Propósito: el trabajo parte de establecer las implicaciones de la transición de cultivos de tradición (café) como estrategia de los pobladores para permanecer en sus territorios defendiendo lo que hemos denominado la agromemoria, que implica un trabajo real en términos del uso del suelo y el ecosistema. Metodología: la metodología descriptiva utilizada busca especificar las características de los actores locales apoyándose en la entrevista como instrumento de interrelación para conocer la int...

  19. Caracterizacion quimico-nutricional de forrajes leguminosos y de otras familias botanicas empleando analisis descriptivo y multivariado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, D.E; Medina, M.G; Moratinos, P; Cova, L.J; Torres, A; Santos, O; Perdomo, D

    2009-01-01

    ...), se tuvo por objetivo caracterizar la composicion nutricional del follaje de especies leguminosas de los generos Pithecellobium, Gliricidia, Leucaena, Samanea, Acacia, Bauhinia, Cassia y Pentaclethra...

  20. Growth retardants on development and ornamental quality of potted 'Lilliput' Zinnia elegans Jacq. Retardadores de crescimento no desenvolvimento e na qualidade ornamental de Zinnia elegans Jacq. 'Lilliput' envasada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Rossini Pinto

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Zinnias have good potential to be used as flowering, potted plants, being a quick source of novelty for the floriculture industry with the aid of growth retardants. This study evaluated the effect of growth retardants on development and production of short, compact and attractive plants of potted 'Lilliput' Zinnia elegans, a highly ornamental zinnia with low cost seeds. Trials were set up in randomized blocks, with ten treatments (control and three treatments of each retardant: daminozide, paclobutrazol and chlormequat and four replications (two pots per experimental unit, with one plant per 0.6-L pot. Paclobutrazol (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 mg a.i. per pot and chlormequat (1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 g L-1 were applied as a single drench (40 mL per pot, and daminozide (2.5, 3.75 and 5.0 g L-1 as a single foliar spray to runoff (10 mL per pot, at apical flower bud stage. Daminozide (2.5 and 3.75 g L-1, paclobutrazol (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 mg a.i. per pot and chlormequat at 1.0 g L-1 significantly reduced plant height and side branches length, without affecting flower diameter, delaying production cycle and causing phytotoxicity symptoms. However, plants were not short and compact enough to meet market quality demand. Chlormequat (2.0 and 3.0 g L-1 caused phytotoxicity symptoms and daminozide (5.0 g L-1 delayed production cycle.As zínias têm grande potencial como plantas floríferas envasadas e representam rápida fonte de novidade para a floricultura com o auxílio de retardadores de crescimento. Avaliaram-se os efeitos de retardadores de crescimento no desenvolvimento e na produção de plantas envasadas de porte baixo, compactas e atrativas de 'Lilliput' Zinnia elegans, cultivar altamente ornamental, com sementes de baixo custo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com dez tratamentos (controle e três concentrações de cada retardador: daminozide, paclobutrazol e chlormequat e quatro repetições (dois vasos por unidade experimental, com uma planta por vaso de 0,6 L. Paclobutrazol (0,5; 0,75 e 1,0 mg i.a. por vaso e chlormequat (1,0; 2,0 e 3,0 g L-1 foram aplicados ao substrato (40 mL por vaso, enquanto o daminozide (2,5; 3,75 e 5,0 g L-1 foi aplicado através de pulverização foliar (10 mL por vaso, no estádio de gema floral apical visível. Daminozide (2,5 e 3,75 g L-1, paclobutrazol (0,5; 0,75 e 1,0 mg i.a. por vaso e 1,0 g L-1 de chlormequat reduziram significativamente a altura das plantas e o comprimento dos ramos laterais, sem afetar o diâmetro dos capítulos, atrasar o ciclo de produção e causar fitotoxicidade. Entretanto, as plantas não se apresentaram suficientemente baixas e compactas para atender às exigências de qualidade do mercado. Chlormequat (2,0 e 3,0 g L-1 causou fitotoxicidade e daminozide (5,0 g L-1 aumentou o ciclo de produção.

  1. Morfoanatomia da plântula de Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sarg. (Ulmaceae = Morphology and anatomy of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sarg. (Ulmaceae seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemari Pilati

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Celtis iguanaea é uma espécie pioneira, típica de mata ciliar. O presente estudo visa a investigação da morfoanatomia da plântula dessa espécie, pertencente à Ulmaceae. As sementes, coletadas na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, foram germinadas emcâmara de germinação com temperatura constante de 30ºC e mantidas sob luz fluorescente contínua. O desenvolvimento das plântulas ocorreu em casa de vegetação. A análise anatômica foi feita em plântulas fixadas em FAA 50. Esse material foi secionado transversalmente e as seções obtidas foram coradas em safranina e azul de astra. Verificou-seque a plântula é fanerocotiledonar, epigéia, e apresenta raiz ramificada, hipocótilo desenvolvido, cotilédones obovados e persistentes, epicótilo verde e piloso e eofilo oblongo ou lanceolado. A raiz é tetrarca ou diarca. O hipocótilo possui crescimento secundário com periderme de origem profunda. O epicótilo também apresenta crescimento secundário com periderme de origem subepidérmica. Os cotilédones e o eofilo são folhas dorsiventrais comcistólitos.Celtis iguanaea it is a typical arboreal species of ciliar forest, belonging to the family Ulmaceae. This work intends to investigate the morphology and anatomy of seedling species. The seeds used were collected from several trees, in fragments of the Semideciduous Seasonal Alluvial and Submontane Forest located on Upper Paraná Riverfloodplain. The seeds were germinated at constant temperatures (30ºC, using germination chambers and kept under continuous fluorescent light. Seedling development occurred in a greenhouse. Anatomical analysis was made in seedlings fixed in FAA 50. The botanical material was sectioned by microtome and stained with safranin and astra blue. The seedling is phanerocotylar and epigeal, presents ramified root, developed hypocotyl, obovate and persistent cotyledons, green and hairy epicotyl and the first leaf in a shape oblong or lanceolate. Root is tetrarch or diarch. Hypocotyl has secondary growth with deep-origin periderm. Epicotyl also shows secondary growth with periderm of subepidermic origin. Cotyledons and eophyll are dorsiventral leaves with cystolith.

  2. Beberapa sifat fisika kimia tanah yang berpengaruh terhadap model kecepatan infiltrasi pada tegakan mahoni jabon dan trembesi di Kebun Raya Purwodadi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Sri Darmayanti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted at the Purwodadi Botanical Gardens in three areas covered by the dominant vegetation Mahoni(Swietenia macrophylla, Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba and trembesi (Samanea saman in January to May 2012. The purpose of thisstudy was to obtain a model infi ltration rate (cm/h that was infl ued by physical and chemical properties of the soil that exist under thevegetation. Physical and chemicalparameters of soil chemical properties is observed macropore (%, organic matter (%, percentage ofthe fraction silt (%, sand(%, and clay(%, and bulk density (BD (g/cm3. The six factors are thought to differ indirectly because of thespecifi cation and morphology of the dominant plant species shelter. Data infi ltration was collected by using the ring infi ltrometer, whilemacroporosity tested with metylen blue method, the properties of the other physical chemical factortested by laboratory of Departmentof Soil, Brawijaya University. The model derived from the analysis of the regression equation using SPSS software version 17.0. Thestudy produced three different models of infi ltration rate on each plot different, they were Y = - 15,8 + 17,3 X1 - 1,09 X2 + 1,53 X3 +0,001 X4 - 21,3 X6 (Mahoni's plot;Y = - 108 + 53,0 X1 - 0,68 X2 + 5,27 X3 - 0,470 X4 + 59,7 X6 (Jabon's plot; Y = - 20,1 + 17,4X1 - 1,06 X2 + 1,57 X3 + 0,082 X4 - 21,6 X6 (Trembesi's plot. Y= Infi ltration rate (cm/h, X1= macropore (%, X2= organic matter(%, percentage of the fraction silt (% (X3, sand (% (X4, and X6= bulk density (g/cm3. In the equation not found factor X5 (clayfraction helped form a model because of multicollinearity analysis obtained by assuming that the clay fraction still contains a linearrelationship (correlated with other variables.

  3. Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of various extracts of leaves from Kedrostis foetidissima (Jacq. Cogn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaisezhiyen Pavithra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the in vitro free radical scavenging activity of various leaf extracts (aqueous, methanol, acetone chloroform and petroleum ether of Kedrostis foetidissima. In vitro free radical scavenging activities of the extracts were assessed against DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. The metal chelating activity and reducing power ability of the extracts were also determined. The free radical scavenging activity was found to be high in methanolic extract for DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration dependent manner followed by chloroform, aqueous, acetone and petroleum ether extracts. The metal chelating activity and reducing power ability was also found to be high in methanolic extract. The difference in scavenging potential of the extracts may be due to variation in the percentage of phytoconstituents extracted in various solvents. Thus the result suggests that the methanolic leaf extract of K. foetidissima could serve as a potential source of antioxidants and can be explored as a therapeutic agent in free radical induced diseases.

  4. Microbial Inoculation Improves Growth of Oil Palm Plants (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Om, Azlin Che; Ghazali, Amir Hamzah Ahmad; Keng, Chan Lai; Ishak, Zamzuri

    2009-01-01

    Introduction of diazotrophic rhizobacteria to oil palm tissues during the in vitro micropropagation process establishes an early associative interaction between the plant cells and bacteria. In the association, the diazotrophs provide the host plants with phytohormones and fixed nitrogen. This study was conducted to observe growth of bacterised tissue cultured oil palm plants under ex vitro conditions after 280 days of growth. Root dry weight, shoot dry weight, root volume, bacterial colonisa...

  5. Spectral reflectance of oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. bunches as indicator for optimal harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wunsri, S.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the appropriate harvesting time of Tenera oil palm bunches, the spectral reflectance of ripening bunches was investigated from images taken by a digital Canon PowerShot A20 camera. Every second day images were taken from selected bunches at an oil-palm estate during the growth of the bunchesfrom immaturity to the over-ripe phase, to trace the changes in color which correlate with the process of ripening. The images were analyzed measuring the changes in the three basic colors red, green and blue, using a specially developed Color Analysis computer program for Oil-palm 'fruit' (CAOP, and determining the correlation with the measured palm-oil content of the nuts.Of the three color-bands, the red light reflectance showed the best correlation with ripeness, as the red color increased regularly and practically linearly up to the stage of the maximal oil yield. Some seven days after the thus determined optimal harvesting date for the ripe bunches, some of the ripe nuts will detachfrom the bunch and fall, but then it is too late to use the fallen nuts as indicators for harvesting. From our investigations in the field and in the laboratory we recommend that harvesting should follow immediately after the red reflectance starts declining, after having reached its peak value for the Tenera oil-palm some 5±3 days before nuts begin to detach from the bunch.

  6. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of a Na+-Insensitive K+ Transporter of Capsicum chinense Jacq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lau, Nancy; Bojórquez-Quintal, Emanuel; Benito, Begoña; Echevarría-Machado, Ileana; Sánchez-Cach, Lucila A.; Medina-Lara, María de Fátima; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    High-affinity K+ (HAK) transporters are encoded by a large family of genes and are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. These HAK-type transporters participate in low- and high-affinity potassium (K+) uptake and are crucial for the maintenance of K+ homeostasis under hostile conditions. In this study, the full-length cDNA of CcHAK1 gene was isolated from roots of the habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense). CcHAK1 expression was positively regulated by K+ starvation in roots and was not inhibited in the presence of NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis placed the CcHAK1 transporter in group I of the HAK K+ transporters, showing that it is closely related to Capsicum annuum CaHAK1 and Solanum lycopersicum LeHAK5. Characterization of the protein in a yeast mutant deficient in high-affinity K+ uptake (WΔ3) suggested that CcHAK1 function is associated with high-affinity K+ uptake, with Km and Vmax for Rb of 50 μM and 0.52 nmol mg−1 min−1, respectively. K+ uptake in yeast expressing the CcHAK1 transporter was inhibited by millimolar concentrations of the cations ammonium (NH4+) and cesium (Cs+) but not by sodium (Na+). The results presented in this study suggest that the CcHAK1 transporter may contribute to the maintenance of K+ homeostasis in root cells in C. chinense plants undergoing K+-deficiency and salt stress. PMID:28083010

  7. EVALUATION OF WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF FLAVONOIDS FROM IPOMOEA CARNEA Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambiga, S; Narayanan, R; Gowri, Durga; Sukumar, D; Madhavan, S

    2007-01-01

    Natural products have numerous medicinal applications and play important roles in the biology of the organisms that accumulate them. Flavonoids are one large group of natural products with a diverse number of functions in plants and in human health. The isolates of the flowers of Ipomoea carnea (Family: Convolvulaceae) was screened for wound-healing activity on the male wistar rats by Excision wound model and Incision wound model respectively. The studies on excision wound model reveals significant wound healing activity of the extract, which is comparable with the reference control sulphathiazole. The isolates of Ipomoea carnea show significant activity on all wound models.

  8. The investigation of some bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna Jacq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra; Yilmaz, Ökkes; Turkoglu, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant and pharmacological effects of hawthorn have mainly been attributed to the polyphenolic contents. The aim of this research is to determine some bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of hawthorn aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves, flowers, and ripened fruits. For this purpose, antioxidant activities of extracts were assessed on DPPH•, ABTS•+, superoxide scavenging, reducing power and ferrous metal chelating activity assays and phenolic content of extracts was determined by Folin-Cioacalteu's reagent. The flavonoids including rutin, apigenin, myricetin, quercetin, naringenin and kaempferol, were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography in the hawthorn extract. It was observed the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna fruits showed the highest activity in reducing power and metal chelating activity assays. In addition, it was determined that the aqueous flower extract showed higher flavonoid content than aqueous leaves extract. The antioxidant and pharmacological effects of hawthorn have mainly been attributed to the polyphenolic contents.

  9. Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) extract exhibits atropine-sensitive activity in a cultured cardiomyocyte assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Satin; Long, Shannon R; Proteau, Philip J; Filtz, Theresa M

    2009-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) plant extract is used as a herbal alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it was shown that hawthorn extract preparations caused negative chronotropic effects in a cultured neonatal murine cardiomyocyte assay, independent of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effect of hawthorn extract to decrease the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes. To test the hypothesis that hawthorn is acting via muscarinic receptors, the effect of hawthorn extract on atrial versus ventricular cardiomyocytes in culture was evaluated. As would be expected for activation of muscarinic receptors, hawthorn extract had a greater effect in atrial cells. Atrial and/or ventricular cardiomyocytes were then treated with hawthorn extract in the presence of atropine or himbacine. Changes in the contraction rate of cultured cardiomyocytes revealed that both muscarinic antagonists significantly attenuated the negative chronotropic activity of hawthorn extract. Using quinuclidinyl benzilate, L-[benzylic-4,4'-(3)H] ([(3)H]-QNB) as a radioligand antagonist, the effect of a partially purified hawthorn extract fraction to inhibit muscarinic receptor binding was quantified. Hawthorn extract fraction 3 dose-dependently inhibited [(3)H]-QNB binding to mouse heart membranes. Taken together, these findings suggest that decreased contraction frequency by hawthorn extracts in neonatal murine cardiomyocytes may be mediated via muscarinic receptor activation.

  10. The Investigation of Some Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat KESER

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and pharmacological effects of hawthorn have mainly been attributed to the polyphenolic contents. The aim of this research is to determine some bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of hawthorn aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves, flowers and ripened fruits. For this purpose, antioxidant activities of extracts were assessed on DPPH and #8226;, ABTS and #8226;+, superoxide scavenging, reducing power and ferrous metal chelating activity assays and phenolic content of extracts was determined by Folin-Cioacalteu and #8217;s reagent. The flavonoids including rutin, apigenin, myricetin, quercetin, naringenin and kaempferol, were identified by HPLC in the hawthorn extract. It was observed the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna fruits showed highest activity in reducing power and metal chelating activity assays. Additionally, it was determined that the aqueous flower extract showed higher flavonoid content than aqueous leaves extract. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 51-55

  11. Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm (oyster mushroom) on different substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girmay, Zenebe; Gorems, Weldesemayat; Birhanu, Getachew; Zewdie, Solomon

    2016-12-01

    Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) were tested for their efficacy in oyster mushroom production. Pure culture of oyster mushroom was obtained from Mycology laboratory, Department of Plant Biology and Biodiversity Management, Addis Ababa University. The pure culture was inoculated on potato dextrose agar for spawn preparation. Then, the spawn containing sorghum was inoculated with the fungal culture for the formation of fruiting bodies on the agricultural wastes. The oyster mushroom cultivation was undertaken under aseptic conditions, and the growth and development of mushroom were monitored daily. Results of the study revealed that oyster mushroom can grow on cotton seed, paper waste, sawdust and wheat straw, with varying growth performances. The highest biological and economic yield, as well as the highest percentage of biological efficiency of oyster mushroom was obtained from cotton seed, while the least was from sawdust. The study recommends cotton seed, followed by paper waste as suitable substrates for the cultivation of oyster mushroom. It also suggests that there is a need for further investigation on various aspects of oyster mushroom cultivation in Ethiopia to promote the industry.

  12. Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm (oyster mushroom) on different substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Girmay, Zenebe; Gorems, Weldesemayat; Birhanu, Getachew; Zewdie, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) ...

  13. Effect of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. residues on growth and yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data showed a significant increase in chlorophyll - b (Chl.b) and total chlorophyll in leaves of mungbean in mulching treatment as compared to control. Plant height, number of branches per plant, leaf area index, number of seed per pod and 100 seed weight were slightly higher for D. viscosa residues than for the control ...

  14. Physiological quality of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud. (Leguminosae - Papilionoideae seeds subjected to different storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Conduru Ribeiro Reis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of seed physiological processes represent the starting point for the sustainable utilization of native or cultivated plant species from the caatinga biome for which germination studies are still scarce. In order to determine adequate methods for the conservation of Gliricidia sepium seeds, the physiological quality of propagules exposed to different conditions and times of storage were examined. Recently collected seeds of G. sepium were analyzed immediately, while the other sample was stored for three, six, nine, or twelve months in plastic or paper bags under refrigeration or at room temperature for further analysis. The germination rates of seeds from each storage regime were determined and these rates compared to their water content. It was observed that germination capacity was directly related to changes in seed humidity. Storing seeds in plastic bags yielded the best conservation, mainly when they were stored at low temperatures. However, even at temperatures near 25°C it was possible to prolong seed viability when their water content was controlled through the use of impermeable packing.

  15. Stability of Tilo® tablets formulation obtained from dry extract of Justice pectoralis Jacq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodríguez-Chanfrau, Jorge E; Núñez-Figueredo, Yanier; Fuste-Moreno, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    .... The development in a solid pharmaceutical (Tablets 100 mg) using dry extract of Justicia pectolaris aqueous extract is of interest for the development of phytomedicines, which uses this active raw material...

  16. Germination and Seedling Development of Seeds from Different Parkia biglobosa (Jacq G. Don Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana O. ADEYEMI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of daylight, continuous illumination and acid scarification on the seed germination and seedling vegetative growth (epicotyl and hypocotyl lengths, and number of secondary roots of different Parkia biglobosawere investigated in the Plant Physiology Laboratory University of Ilorin, Ilorin Kwara State Nigeria. Seeds from two out of the twenty six Parkia tree samples (trees B and T germinated within 24 hours of planting in the daylight germination study while seeds from another tree (Q did not germinate until the third week after planting (3WAP. Some seeds have higher germination percentage both in the daylight (preliminary germination study and in the continuous light (illuminated study. The treatment with concentrated Sulphric acid (conc. H2SO4was effective in breaking the seed dormancy as seeds from eight (8 trees produced one hundred percent (100% germination. At p= 0.05 the length of epicotyl and hypocoty1 lengths were significantly different as seedling vegetative growth were long in the seedlings from the daylight experiment than the continuous light experiment. The vegetative growths of the seedlings from the scarified seed were longer at 15min of scarification in all except in trees F and Z. It was observed that the time of scarification affect the both seed germination and seedling development.

  17. Incidence, progression and intensity of Bud Rot in Elaeis guineensis Jacq. in San Lorenzo, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rivas Figueroa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BUD rot (BR is the most serious disease of oil palm in Latin America; in Equator has caused more than 150 million USD of losses. The aim of this work was to determine the incidence, progression and disease intensity of BR in E. guineensis. Incidence and disease progression was determined from data of oil palm enterprises: Palesema, PDA, Palpailón, Energy & Palma y Alespalma during 2006-2013. Disease intensity was determined at 2013. Incidence was 66.75 % and disease intensity was 46 %. Based on projections of accumulative incidence a polynomial equation was built that predicted 78.30 % of cumulative incidence for 2014, indicating exponential growth of BR from 2009 to 2013. Magnitude of damages based on incidence, disease progression and infection index indicated the occurrence of a lethal form of BR in San Lorenzo, province of Esmeraldas, Equator.

  18. Incidence, progression and intensity of Bud Rot in Elaeis guineensis Jacq. in San Lorenzo, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Rivas Figueroa; Fabricio Moreno; Galán Álvaro Rivera Casignia; Lidcay Herrera Isla; Michel Leiva Mora

    2017-01-01

    BUD rot (BR) is the most serious disease of oil palm in Latin America; in Equator has caused more than 150 million USD of losses. The aim of this work was to determine the incidence, progression and disease intensity of BR in E. guineensis. Incidence and disease progression was determined from data of oil palm enterprises: Palesema, PDA, Palpailón, Energy & Palma y Alespalma during 2006-2013. Disease intensity was determined at 2013. Incidence was 66.75 % and disease intensity was 46 %. Based...

  19. Germination and Seedling Development of Seeds from Different Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) G. Don Trees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christiana O ADEYEMI; Kehinde S OLORUNMAIYE; Elizabeth O ORHUAMEN; Kike O OGUNSOLA

    2013-01-01

    ... (epicotyl and hypocotyl lengths, and number of secondary roots) of different Parkia biglobosawere investigated in the Plant Physiology Laboratory University of Ilorin, Ilorin Kwara State Nigeria...

  20. Production du palmier a huile ( elaeis guineensis Jacq .) et taux d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le taux d'extraction d'huile, à la presse manuelle, a été de 18 %, avec une production d'huile de 3 l régime-1, permettant de tripler les revenus après vente sur le marché local. La production de régimes est continue sur toute l'année, avec un pic dans le mois de mai, malgré une saison sèche plus rude et plus longue, par ...

  1. A description of the naturalised Clusia rosea Jacq. (Clusiaceae populations in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cheek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clusia rosea is an ornamental plant that has been cultivated in South Africa since the late 19th century. Ornamental plant species are known to be a source of invasive plants.Objectives: To document the current distribution of C. rosea in South Africa and its naturalisation status.Method: Reports of C. rosea were verified in the field and herbarium vouchers were collected. Coordinates were taken for each plant, their reproductive status was assessed and heights were measured. In addition, the Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas database and five herbaria were checked for records.Results: A total of 284 plants were found outside of cultivation, mostly in the KwaZulu-Natal Coastal Belt Grassland. Clusia rosea appears to be reproducing through apomixis. No records of naturalisation could be found elsewhere in Africa.Conclusion: It is recommended that C. rosea be added to the Species Under Surveillance – Possible Eradication or Containment Targets (SUSPECT list to investigate whether it requires formal legal listing.

  2. Polinización del chayote Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Wille, Alvaro; Orozco, Enrique; Raabe, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Pollinating insects of Sechium edule (Cucurbitaceae) were classified into primary and secondary according to their abundance and effectiveness as pollen collectors. Among the total of 55 insect species found in Costa Rica pollinating the plant, 28 were identified as primary meliponid bees of the genus Trigona (Apidae), the rest were secondary pollinators: 15 species of wasps (Vespidae); 5 species of bees of the family Halictidae, 3 species of Anthophori da e and 4 species of Apidae. The plant...

  3. Antioxidant Potential of the Aerial Tissues of the Mistletoe Loranthus europaeus Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Katsarou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of extracts of aerial tissues (i.e. flowers, leaves, stems, twigs and berries of the mistletoe Loranthus europaeus that grow on oak trees in a natural forest, in the mainland of Greece. Total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of aerial issues of L. europaeus was evaluated by the Folin - Ciocalteu method , the Ferric r educing antioxidant power assay , the free radical DPPH · scavenging and the Co(II/EDTA induced luminol plateau chemiluminescence assay. Extracts of twigs and stems of L. europaeus exhibited higher antioxidant activity in comparison to that of fruits, leaves and flowers.

  4. Antioxidant Potential of the Aerial Tissues of the Mistletoe Loranthus europaeus Jacq.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Katsarou; Sophia Rhizopoulou; Panagiotis Kefalas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of extracts of aerial tissues (i.e. flowers, leaves, stems, twigs and berries) of the mistletoe Loranthus europaeus that grow on oak trees in a natural forest, in the mainland of Greece. Total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of aerial issues of L. europaeus was evaluated by the Folin - Ciocalteu method , the Ferric r educing antioxidant power assay , the free radical DPPH · scavenging and the Co(II)/EDTA induced luminol ...

  5. Antimicrobial Constituents of Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. against Periodontal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garland More

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of an ethanol extract of Artemisia afra led to the isolation of six known compounds, acacetin (1, 12α,4α-dihydroxybishopsolicepolide (2, scopoletin (3, α-amyrin (4, phytol (5, and a pentacyclic triterpenoid betulinic acid (6. The compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces israelii, and Streptococcus mutans, Gram negative bacteria (Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans previously known as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Candida albicans. The crude extract of A. afra inhibited the growth of all tested microbial species at concentration range of 1.6 mg/mL to 25 mg/mL. The compounds 1–6 also showed activity range at 1.0 mg/mL to 0.25 mg/mL. Three best compounds (scopoletin, betulinic acid, and acacetin which showed good antimicrobial activity were selected for further studies. Cytotoxicity of extract and compounds was determined using the XTT cell proliferation kit. The antioxidant activity of the extract and compounds was done using the DPPH scavenging method. The extract showed good antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 22.2 μg/mL. Scopoletin had a strong transformation of the DPPH radical into its reduced form, with an IC50 value of 1.24 μg/mL which was significant to that of vitamin C (1.22 μg/mL. Acacetin and betulinic acid exhibited a decreased scavenging activity with the IC50 of 2.39 and 2.42 μg/mL, respectively. The extract and compounds showed moderate toxicity on McCoy fibroblast cell line and scopoletin was relatively nontoxic with an IC50 value of 132.5 μg/mL. Acacetin and betulinic acid also showed a smooth trend of non-toxic effects with IC50 values of 35.44 and 30.96 μg/mL. The obtained results in this study confirm the use of A. afra in the treatment of microbial infections.

  6. Brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity studies on Swietenia mahagoni (Linn.) Jacq. seed methanolic extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahgal, Geethaa; Ramanathan, Surash; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Mordi, Mohd. Nizam; Ismail, Sabariah; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

    2010-01-01

    Background: The seeds of Swietenia mahagoni have been applied in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, malaria, amoebiasis, cough, chest pain, and intestinal parasitism. Here we are the first to report on the toxicity of the Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract. Methods: SMCM seed extract has been studied for its brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity, in mice. Results: The brine shrimp lethality bioassay shows a moderate cytotoxicity at high concentration. The LC50 for the extract is 0.68 mg/ml at 24 hours of exposure. The LD50 of the SMCM seed extract for acute oral toxicity in mice is greater than 5000 mg/kg. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic seed extract may contain bioactive compounds of potential therapeutic significance which are relatively safe from toxic effects, and can compromise the medicinal use of this plant in folk medicine. PMID:21808570

  7. Triagem fitoquímica e atividade antioxidante de Costus spicatus (Jacq. S.w.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F.P. Azevedo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o perfil fitoquímico e a atividade antioxidante comparando-se os resultados obtidos entre diferentes órgãos da Costus spicatus. Foram utilizados caules, folhas e flores da Costus spicatus, colhidos na Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, no município de Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. Os diferentes órgãos foram avaliados quanto ao perfil fitoquímico e atividade antioxidante nas frações hexânica, acetato de etila e butanólica. Os resultados obtidos comprovaram a presença de Triterpenos e Esteróides (Lieberman-Burchard, Flavonóides (Shinoda, Saponinas (Índice de espuma, Alcalóides (Drangendorff e Taninos (Cloreto Férrico. Foi demonstrada a atividade antioxidante potencial. Concluiu-se que a Costus spicatus apresentou todas as classes de metabólitos pesquisadas, dentre as quais, algumas possuem atividade biológica já conhecida, fazendo-se necessária a realização de estudos quantitativos e pesquisas que demonstrem seus efeitos farmacológicos, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos.

  8. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidants activities of aqueous stem bark extract of Schotia latifolia Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaebie, B O; Edeoga, H O; Afolayan, A J

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Schotia latifolia (S. latifolia) bark locally used for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced ailments in South Africa. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the ferric reducing agent. Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins were also determined to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. The activities of plant extract against DPPH, ABTS and NO radicals were concentration dependent with IC50 value of 0.06, 0.05 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was greater than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid which were used as standard drugs in a concentration dependent manner. The total phenolics content of the aqueous bark extract was (193.33±0.03 TE/g), followed by flavonoids (72.70±0.01 QE/g), proanthocyanidins (48.76±0.00 CE/g) and flavonols (47.76±0.21 QE/g). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of percentage tannin (11.40±0.02), alkaloid (9.80±0.01), steroids (18.20±0.01), glycosides (29.80±0.01) and saponins (6.80±0.00). The results exhibited a positive linear correlation between these polyphenols and the free radical scavenging activities. Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of S. latifolia is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its uses in folkloric medicines.

  9. Differential proteomic analysis of embryogenic lines in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hooi Sin; Liddell, Susan; Ong Abdullah, Meilina; Wong, Wei Chee; Chin, Chiew Foan

    2016-06-30

    Oil palm tissue culture is one way to produce superior oil palm planting materials. However, the low rate of embryogenesis is a major hindrance for the adoption of this technology in oil palm tissue culture laboratories. In this study, we use proteomic technologies to compare differential protein profiles in leaves from palms of high and low proliferation rates in tissue culture in order to understand the underlying biological mechanism for the low level of embryogenesis. Two protein extraction methods, namely trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation and polyethylene glycol fractionation were used to produce total proteins and fractionated protein extracts respectively, with the aim of improving the resolution of protein species using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A total of 40 distinct differential abundant protein spots were selected from leaf samples collected from palms with proven high and low proliferation rates. The variant proteins were subsequently identified using mass spectrometric analysis. Twelve prominent protein spots were then characterised using real-time polymerase chain reaction to compare the mRNA expression and protein abundant profiles. Three proteins, namely triosephosphate isomerase, l-ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were identified to be potential biomarker candidates at both the protein abundant and mRNA expression levels. In this study, proteomic analysis was used to identify abundant proteins from total protein extracts. PEG fractionation was used to reveal lower abundant proteins from both high and low proliferation embryogenic lines of oil palm samples in tissue culture. A total of 40 protein spots were found to be significant in abundance and the mRNA levels of 12 of these were assessed using real time PCR. Three proteins namely, triosephosphate isomerase, l-ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were found to be concordant in their mRNA expression and protein abundance. Triosephosphate isomerase is a key enzyme in glycolysis. Both l-ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase play a role in anti-oxidative scavenging defense systems. These proteins have potential for use as biomarkers to screen for high and low embryogenic oil palm samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies on the epidemiology of spear rot in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lande, van de H.L.

    1993-01-01

    The epidemiology of spear rot, an infectious disease of unknown etiology, was studied over 10 years at three government-owned oil palm plantations in Suriname. As with other and similar diseases, amarelecimento fatal in Brazil and pudrición del cogollo in Latin America, which too show rot

  11. Micropropagation of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. 'Dura': Comparison of three basal media for efficient regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniran, F; Bhore, Subhash J; Shah, Farida H

    2008-01-01

    Three basal plant tissue culture media, namely, N6, MS, and modified Y3, were compared to optimize micropropagation protocol for E. guineensis. Full strength media were used separately to regenerate plantlets directly using immature zygotic embryos (IZEs), and through somatic embryogenesis of calli obtained from IZEs. The plantlets regenerated by direct regeneration on three media were examined for shoot length and rooting percentage. For the induction of callus, somatic embryogenesis, and rooting modified Y3 medium was the most effective. In conclusion, the results indicate that modified Y3 medium is the most suitable for direct regeneration, callus induction and somatic embryogenesis in E. guineensis.

  12. Proteomic profiling of mature leaves from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hooi Sin; Jacoby, Richard P; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Taylor, Nicolas L; Liddell, Susan; Chee, Wong Wei; Chin, Chiew Foan

    2017-04-01

    Oil palm is one of the most productive oil bearing crops grown in Southeast Asia. Due to the dwindling availability of agricultural land and increasing demand for high yielding oil palm seedlings, clonal propagation is vital to the oil palm industry. Most commonly, leaf explants are used for in vitro micropropagation of oil palm and to optimize this process it is important to unravel the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying somatic embryo production from leaves. In this study, a proteomic approach was used to determine protein abundance of mature oil palm leaves. To do this, leaf proteins were extracted using TCA/acetone precipitation protocol and separated by 2DE. A total of 191 protein spots were observed on the 2D gels and 67 of the most abundant protein spots that were consistently observed were selected for further analysis with 35 successfully identified using MALDI TOF/TOF MS. The majority of proteins were classified as being involved in photosynthesis, metabolism, cellular biogenesis, stress response, and transport. This study provides the first proteomic assessment of oil palm leaves in this important oil crop and demonstrates the successful identification of selected proteins spots using the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) Elaeis guineensis EST and NCBI-protein databases. The MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium database with the data set identifier PXD001307. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Protein profiling and histone deacetylation activities in somaclonal variants of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati; Loh, Hwei-San; Mat Taha, Rosna

    2013-01-01

    Mantled fruits as a result of somaclonal variation are often observed from the oil palm plantlets regenerated via tissue culture. The mantling of fruits with finger-like and thick outer coating phenotypes significantly reduces the seed size and oil content, posing a threat to oil palm planters, and may jeopardize the economic growth of countries that depend particularly on oil palm plantation. The molecular aspects of the occurrence of somaclonal variations are yet to be known, possibly due to gene repression such as DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone deacetylation. Histone deacetylases (HDACs), involved in eukaryotic gene regulation by catalyzing the acetyl groups are removal from lysine residues on histone, hence transcriptionally repress gene expression. This paper described the total protein polymorphism profiles of somaclonal variants of oil palm and the effects of histone deacetylation on this phenomenon. Parallel to the different phenotypes, the protein polymorphism profiles of the mantled samples (leaves, fruits, and florets) and the phenotypically normal samples were proven to be different. Higher HDAC activity was found in mantled leaf samples than in the phenotypically normal leaf samples, leading to a preliminary conclusion that histone deacetylation suppressed gene expression and contributed to the development of somaclonal variants.

  14. Evaluation of methods and marker Systems in Genomic Selection of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Qi Bin; Teh, Chee Keng; Ong, Ai Ling; Chew, Fook Tim; Mayes, Sean; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Tammi, Martti; Yeoh, Suat Hui; Appleton, David Ross; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2017-12-11

    Genomic selection (GS) uses genome-wide markers as an attempt to accelerate genetic gain in breeding programs of both animals and plants. This approach is particularly useful for perennial crops such as oil palm, which have long breeding cycles, and for which the optimal method for GS is still under debate. In this study, we evaluated the effect of different marker systems and modeling methods for implementing GS in an introgressed dura family derived from a Deli dura x Nigerian dura (Deli x Nigerian) with 112 individuals. This family is an important breeding source for developing new mother palms for superior oil yield and bunch characters. The traits of interest selected for this study were fruit-to-bunch (F/B), shell-to-fruit (S/F), kernel-to-fruit (K/F), mesocarp-to-fruit (M/F), oil per palm (O/P) and oil-to-dry mesocarp (O/DM). The marker systems evaluated were simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). RR-BLUP, Bayesian A, B, Cπ, LASSO, Ridge Regression and two machine learning methods (SVM and Random Forest) were used to evaluate GS accuracy of the traits. The kinship coefficient between individuals in this family ranged from 0.35 to 0.62. S/F and O/DM had the highest genomic heritability, whereas F/B and O/P had the lowest. The accuracies using 135 SSRs were low, with accuracies of the traits around 0.20. The average accuracy of machine learning methods was 0.24, as compared to 0.20 achieved by other methods. The trait with the highest mean accuracy was F/B (0.28), while the lowest were both M/F and O/P (0.18). By using whole genomic SNPs, the accuracies for all traits, especially for O/DM (0.43), S/F (0.39) and M/F (0.30) were improved. The average accuracy of machine learning methods was 0.32, compared to 0.31 achieved by other methods. Due to high genomic resolution, the use of whole-genome SNPs improved the efficiency of GS dramatically for oil palm and is recommended for dura breeding programs. Machine learning slightly outperformed other methods, but required parameters optimization for GS implementation.

  15. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (Oil Palm Leaf Methanol Extract

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    Yeng Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC50 values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively, confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  16. Acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (oil palm leaf) methanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahmi, Abdul Rani Muhamad; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Kwan, Yuet Ping; Lau, Yee Ling; Shin, Lai Ngit; Chen, Yeng

    2010-11-10

    Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC₅₀) values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively), confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  17. Genomic Selection in Commercial Perennial Crops: Applicability and Improvement in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Qi Bin; Ong, Ai Ling; Teh, Chee Keng; Chew, Fook Tim; Tammi, Martti; Mayes, Sean; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Yeoh, Suat Hui; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann; Appleton, David Ross

    2017-06-06

    Genomic selection (GS) uses genome-wide markers to select individuals with the desired overall combination of breeding traits. A total of 1,218 individuals from a commercial population of Ulu Remis x AVROS (UR x AVROS) were genotyped using the OP200K array. The traits of interest included: shell-to-fruit ratio (S/F, %), mesocarp-to-fruit ratio (M/F, %), kernel-to-fruit ratio (K/F, %), fruit per bunch (F/B, %), oil per bunch (O/B, %) and oil per palm (O/P, kg/palm/year). Genomic heritabilities of these traits were estimated to be in the range of 0.40 to 0.80. GS methods assessed were RR-BLUP, Bayes A (BA), Cπ (BC), Lasso (BL) and Ridge Regression (BRR). All methods resulted in almost equal prediction accuracy. The accuracy achieved ranged from 0.40 to 0.70, correlating with the heritability of traits. By selecting the most important markers, RR-BLUP B has the potential to outperform other methods. The marker density for certain traits can be further reduced based on the linkage disequilibrium (LD). Together with in silico breeding, GS is now being used in oil palm breeding programs to hasten parental palm selection.

  18. Natural (13) C distribution in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and consequences for allocation pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamade, Emmanuelle; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Darlan, Nuzul Hijri; Rodrigues, Rosario Lobato; Fresneau, Chantal; Mauve, Caroline; Lamothe-Sibold, Marlène; Sketriené, Diana; Ghashghaie, Jaleh

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm has now become one of the most important crops, palm oil representing nearly 25% of global plant oil consumption. Many studies have thus addressed oil palm ecophysiology and photosynthesis-based models of carbon allocation have been used. However, there is a lack of experimental data on carbon fixation and redistribution within palm trees, and important C-sinks have not been fully characterized yet. Here, we carried out extensive measurement of natural (13) C-abundance (δ(13) C) in oil palm tissues, including fruits at different maturation stages. We find a (13) C-enrichment in heterotrophic organs compared to mature leaves, with roots being the most (13) C-enriched. The δ(13) C in fruits decreased during maturation, reflecting the accumulation in (13) C-depleted lipids. We further used observed δ(13) C values to compute plausible carbon fluxes using a steady-state model of (13) C-distribution including metabolic isotope effects ((12) v/(13) v). The results suggest that fruits represent a major respiratory loss (≈39% of total tree respiration) and that sink organs such as fruits are fed by sucrose from leaves. That is, glucose appears to be a quantitatively important compound in palm tissues, but computations indicate that it is involved in dynamic starch metabolism rather that C-exchange between organs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Induction and characterization of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. pro-embryogenic masses

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    MARLUCIA S. PADUA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Oil palm is one of the most economically valuable oil seed plants, but the expansion of plantations has been limited by availability of seedlings, as the conventional propagation is through seeds, which have low germination rates. One possible solution for the large-scale production is the use of somatic embryogenesis. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects auxins 2,4-D and picloram on the induction of pro-embryogenic masses in E.guineenesis hybrid leaf explants and characterize, regarding embryogenic characteristics, with cytochemical and ultrastructural analisys. Specifically, in vitro plantlets leaves fragments were inoculated in Y3 culture medium supplemented by 2.4-D or picloram at different concentrations (0.0, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 9.0 mg l–1. After 90 days the presence/ absence of cell masses were evaluated. Both growth regulators efficiently induced cellular masses regardless of the concentrations applied. As the cell masses were not homogeneously formed, they were classified according to color and shape into four types: TYPE 1 - elongated and translucent, TYPE 2 – uneven and translucent, TYPE 3 - globular and beige TYPE 4 – globular and white. Based on the anatomical and ultrastructural features, TYPE 2, 3 and 4 cell masses were considered to have the highest embryogenic potential and therefore may be most suited to large-scale vegetative propagation of oil palm.

  20. THE DIVERSITY OF EPIPHYTIC FERN ON THE OIL PALM TREE (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. IN PEKANBARU, RIAU

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    Nery Sofiyanti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis is one  main commodity in Riau Province. Morphologically, the trunk of oil palm  has suitable environment for the growth of epiphytic fern, due to its broaden base of petiole that may accumulate organic and anorganic debrish. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of epiphytic fern on the oil palm tree. A total of 125 oil palm trees from seven  study sites in Pekanbaru, Riau were observed. The number of epiphytic ferns identified in this study was 16 species belongs to six families.

  1. Genomic selection prediction accuracy in a perennial crop: case study of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, David; Denis, Marie; Sánchez, Leopoldo; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Nouy, Bruno; Omoré, Alphonse; Pomiès, Virginie; Riou, Virginie; Suryana, Edyana; Bouvet, Jean-Marc

    2015-03-01

    Genomic selection empirically appeared valuable for reciprocal recurrent selection in oil palm as it could account for family effects and Mendelian sampling terms, despite small populations and low marker density. Genomic selection (GS) can increase the genetic gain in plants. In perennial crops, this is expected mainly through shortened breeding cycles and increased selection intensity, which requires sufficient GS accuracy in selection candidates, despite often small training populations. Our objective was to obtain the first empirical estimate of GS accuracy in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), the major world oil crop. We used two parental populations involved in conventional reciprocal recurrent selection (Deli and Group B) with 131 individuals each, genotyped with 265 SSR. We estimated within-population GS accuracies when predicting breeding values of non-progeny-tested individuals for eight yield traits. We used three methods to sample training sets and five statistical methods to estimate genomic breeding values. The results showed that GS could account for family effects and Mendelian sampling terms in Group B but only for family effects in Deli. Presumably, this difference between populations originated from their contrasting breeding history. The GS accuracy ranged from -0.41 to 0.94 and was positively correlated with the relationship between training and test sets. Training sets optimized with the so-called CDmean criterion gave the highest accuracies, ranging from 0.49 (pulp to fruit ratio in Group B) to 0.94 (fruit weight in Group B). The statistical methods did not affect the accuracy. Finally, Group B could be preselected for progeny tests by applying GS to key yield traits, therefore increasing the selection intensity. Our results should be valuable for breeding programs with small populations, long breeding cycles, or reduced effective size.

  2. Pengaruh Pemberian Pupuk Rock Phosphate terhadap Produksi Tandan Buah Segar (TBS Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq

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    Muhamad Rizal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of rock phosphate fertilizer with various doses of the production of oil palm fresh fruit bunches. Results from this study is the final conclusion of phosphate rock fertilizer does not affect the measurement of the diameterbuah fresh, fresh fruit weight and number brondolan fall and was advised to continue observation until 6 months after treatment applications in order to look the influence of rock phosphate. Rock Phosphate Fertilizers no real effect on the diameter of oil palm fresh fruit bunches in the cultivation of oil palm trees suggested in this study a longer observation that 6 months.Keywords:  Rock Phosphate Fertilizer, Diameter Fresh Fruit, fresh fruit weight, number brondolan

  3. Variations in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) progeny response to high aluminium concentrations in solution culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristancho, R J A; Hanafi, M M; Omar, S R Syed; Rafii, M Y

    2011-03-01

    Aluminium (Al) phytotoxicity is an important soil constraint that limits crop yield. The objectives of this study were to investigate how growth, physiology, nutrient content and organic acid concentration is affected by Al, and to assess the degree of Al tolerance in different oil palm progeny (OPP). Four OPPs ['A' (Angola dura × Angola dura), 'B' (Nigerian dura × Nigerian dura), 'C' (Deli dura × AVROS pisifera) and 'D' (Deli dura × Dumpy AVROS pisifera)] were grown in different Al concentrations (0, 100 and 200 μm) in aerated Hoagland solution, pH 4.4, for 80 days. We observed a severe reduction (57.5%) in shoot dry weight, and root tips were reduced by 46.5% in 200 μm Al. In 'B' and 'C', the majority of macro- and micronutrients in plants were reduced significantly by 200 μm Al, with Mg being lowered by more than 50% in roots and shoots. The 200 μm Al treatment resulted in a 56.50% reduction in total leaf area, a 20% reduction in net photosynthesis and a 17% reduction in SPAD chlorophyll value in the third leaf. Root tips (0-5 mm) showed a significant increase in oxalic acid content with increasing Al concentration (∼ 5.86-fold); progeny 'A' had the highest concentration of oxalic acid. There was a significant interaction between Al concentration × OPP on total leaf number, root volume, lateral root length, Mg and K in root and shoot tissues, and Ca and N in shoots. The OPPs could be ranked in their tolerance to Al as: 'A' > 'D' > 'B' > 'C'. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Induction and characterization of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) pro-embryogenic masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pádua, Marlúcia S; Paiva, Luciano V; Labory, Claúdia R G; Alves, Eduardo; Stein, Vanessa C

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm is one of the most economically valuable oil seed plants, but the expansion of plantations has been limited by availability of seedlings, as the conventional propagation is through seeds, which have low germination rates. One possible solution for the large-scale production is the use of somatic embryogenesis. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects auxins 2,4-D and picloram on the induction of pro-embryogenic masses in E.guineenesis hybrid leaf explants and characterize, regarding embryogenic characteristics, with cytochemical and ultrastructural analysis. Specifically, in vitro plantlets leaves fragments were inoculated in Y3 culture medium supplemented by 2.4-D or picloram at different concentrations (0.0, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 9.0 mg l⁻¹). After 90 days the presence/ absence of cell masses were evaluated. Both growth regulators efficiently induced cellular masses regardless of the concentrations applied. As the cell masses were not homogeneously formed, they were classified according to color and shape into four types: TYPE 1--elongated and translucent, TYPE 2--uneven and translucent, TYPE 3--globular and beige, TYPE 4--globular and white. Based on the anatomical and ultrastructural features, TYPE 2, 3 and 4 cell masses were considered to have the highest embryogenic potential and therefore may be most suited to large-scale vegetative propagation of oil palm.

  5. The history of research on oil palm bud rot (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. in Colombia

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    Édgar Benítez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of the main results obtained from research on oil palm bud rot. Aetiologic studies with biotic and abiotic approaches were explored, aiming for a model that would help in the understanding of the ethology of this disease. It also discusses how the results of the studies are contradictory and how the arguments for biological causes have not shown progress. Furthermore, the results of measuring the influence of abiotic factors, where there is greater consensus, are discussed; however, there is controversy due to the fact that different researchers placed different weight on the final model of this disease. This situation has led to controls being directed toward potential pathogens associated with the disease, as determined by circumstantial evidence, wherein the positive or negative response to the control may be confused with extrinsic factors such as disease escape or foci formation. Even the role played by the insect Rhynchophorus palmarum (L. in the death of palms affected by this disease is in doubt. Finally, this paper shows how the process of general disease research has important biases arising from the risk aversion of palm producers or the lack of continuity in results obtained by different research groups.

  6. Microbial Inoculation Improves Growth of Oil Palm Plants (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Om, Azlin Che; Ghazali, Amir Hamzah Ahmad; Keng, Chan Lai; Ishak, Zamzuri

    2009-12-01

    Introduction of diazotrophic rhizobacteria to oil palm tissues during the in vitro micropropagation process establishes an early associative interaction between the plant cells and bacteria. In the association, the diazotrophs provide the host plants with phytohormones and fixed nitrogen. This study was conducted to observe growth of bacterised tissue cultured oil palm plants under ex vitro conditions after 280 days of growth. Root dry weight, shoot dry weight, root volume, bacterial colonisation, leaf protein and chlorophyll content of the host plants were observed. The results revealed that the inocula successfully colonised roots of the host plants. Plants inoculated with Acetobacter diazotrophicus (R12) had more root dry weight and volume than plants inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense (Sp7). Leaf protein and chlorophyll content were higher in the bacterised plants compared to Control 2 plants (inoculated with killed Sp7). These results suggest that the diazotrophs successfully improved the growth of the host plant (oil palm) and minimised the amount of N fertiliser necessary for growth.

  7. Reuse of degraded Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. P. Kumm. substrate by supplementation with wheat bran. Quantitative parameters

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    Mª Raquel Picornell Buendía

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work was conducted in order to investigate the agronomic feasibility of Pleurotus ostreatus by reusing spent substrates previously in crops of the same mushroom. After the physical and chemical characterization of the substrates, we have evaluated quantitative production parameters in one growing season. As base material, the experiment was arranged in wheat straw (WS and spent Pleurotus substrate (SPS to generate prepared substrates with the participation of the same, alone, and mixed in different proportions with wheat bran (WB. Unsupplemented SPS, supplemented SPS with 600 g of WB, mixture of WS + unsupplemented SPS, and mixture of WS + supplemented SPS with 600 g of WB, are prepared substrates with biological efficiencies (BE ranging between 41 and 66% and an excellent unit weight of sporophores harvested. All correlations established among the germination index (GI, earliness (expressed as days to first harvest, yield components and BE were significant and positive correlation coefficients expressed.

  8. Correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritability for agronomic characters of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

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    Chaumongkol, Y.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritablity for some agronomic characters of oil palm was investigated during February 1998 to January 2002. The oil palm population used in this experiment was derived from F1 tenera hybrids which were collected from various oil palm plantations in Southern Thailand. One good performance bunch (i.e., big bunch, thin shell was selected from each plantation and four to six seeds per selected bunch were used for cultivation. One thousand thirty eight plants were grown at Klong Hoi Khong Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, in 1989. Forty five palms consisted of Dura, Tenera and Pisifera types with 18, 18 and 9 plants respectively, were selected by randomization and tagged for investigation. The oil palm bunch yield and yield component characters were observed from individual palm for 4 years (February 1998 to January 2002. The bunch composition characters were analysed from a single bunch of each palm, sampled between June to October 1999. The results showed that in F2 plants of oil palm, the correlation and the path coefficient between characters relating to oil yield and %oil/bunch varied according to oil palm types (Dura, Tenera and Pisifera. In Dura and Tenera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, %oil/bunch, %fruit/bunch and %oil/fruit. In case of Pisifera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, number of bunches, single bunch weight, %oil/bunch and %fruit/bunch. However, from all investigated characters in F2 plants, only %mesocarp/fruit, %oil/fruit and %fruit/bunch showed the high values of broad sense heritabilities.

  9. Phytoremediation of contaminated soils containing gasoline using Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) in greenhouse pots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansoory, Asia Fadhile; Idris, Mushrifah; Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh; Anuar, Nurina

    2017-05-01

    Greenhouse experiments were carried out to determine the phytotoxic effects on the plant Ludwigia octovalvis in order to assess its applicability for phytoremediation gasoline-contaminated soils. Using plants to degrade hydrocarbons is a challenging task. In this study, different spiked concentrations of hydrocarbons in soil (1, 2, and 3 g/kg) were tested. The results showed that the mean efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal over a 72-day culture period was rather high. The maximum removal of 79.8 % occurred for the 2 g/kg concentration, while the removal rate by the corresponding unplanted controls was only (48.6 %). The impact of gasoline on plants included visual symptoms of stress, yellowing, growth reduction, and perturbations in the developmental parameters. The dry weight and wet weight of the plant slightly increased upon exposure to gasoline until day 42. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated change to the root and stem structure in plant tissue due to the direct attachment with gasoline contaminated compared to the control sample. The population of living microorganisms in the contaminated soil was found to be able to adapt to different gasoline concentrations. The results showed that L. octovalvis and rhizobacteria in gasoline-contaminated soil have the potential to degrade organic pollutants.

  10. Aspectos Estruturais e Fitoquímicos de partes vegetativas de Costus spicatus (Jacq. Sw. (Costaceae

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    L.S. Paes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As folhas de Costus spicatus são amplamente empregadas na medicina popular para o tratamento de várias doenças entre elas: malária, hepatite e doença do aparelho urinário. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar aspectos da anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos (folhas, caules, raízes e rizomas associados à triagem fitoquímica visando contribuir com informações relevantes para o desenvolvimento de estudos taxonômicos e farmacológicos. A análise anatômica por meio da microscopia óptica e de varredura evidenciou folha anfi-hipoestomática, com estômatos e tricomas tectores filamentosos simples. O mesofilo é constituído por parênquima clorofiliano, que se divide em duas regiões intercaladas por cordão de fibras e feixes vasculares. O caule é do tipo atactostélico como no rizoma. A raiz é poliarca. Os testes histoquímicos indicaram a presença de amido, proteínas estruturais, alcaloides, cristais de oxalato de cálcio. A prospecção química com extratos hidroalcoólico e aquoso constatou a presença de saponinas, taninos, alcaloides, compostos fenólicos e heterosídeos cianogênicos.

  11. The chemotaxonomic investigations on the flavonoid compounds in the leaves of Saxifraga aizoon Jacq.

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    Lucyna Pawłowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the investigations on flavonoid compounds a division of Saxifraga aizoon species into two races is proposed one containing cyanidin 3-glucoside and the other devoid of this compound.

  12. Reguladores vegetais e substratos no enraizamento de estacas de erva-baleeira (Varronia curassavica Jacq.

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    A.D.R. Mendes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A erva-baleeira, espécie medicinal anti-inflamatória, pode ser propagada por sementes, no entanto, o desenvolvimento de métodos eficientes para a propagação vegetativa possibilitará a uniformidade nas populações e a clonagem de plantas de interesse quanto aos aspectos agronômico e de composição química. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos do ácido naftaleno acético (NAA e do ácido indolbutírico (IBA e de diferentes substratos no enraizamento de estacas semi-lenhosas de erva-baleeira. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação em Montes Claros em delineamento inteiramente casualizados. Para o experimento teste da influência das auxinas, as estacas foram submetidas a tratamentos com NAA e IBA nas concentrações de 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000 e 4000 mg L-1, e para o experimento dos substratos, cinco substratos foram avaliados (vermiculita expandida + casca de arroz parcialmente carbonizada (proporção de 1:1; vermiculita expandida; substrato orgânico comercial para hortaliça (Tropstrato HT ®; areia; solo + compostagem (proporção de 1:1. Após 90 dias, para ambos os experimentos, foram avaliadas porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, de estacas mortas, de estacas vivas com calos, de estacas mortas com calos, número de raízes formadas por estaca e comprimento das três maiores raízes (cm. O regulador vegetal ideal para o enraizamento da espécie é o IBA, na concentração de 2.000 mg L-1, sendo que o NAA não é recomendado para a indução radicial em estacas erva-baleeira. O substrato vermiculita com casca de arroz carbonizada na proporção de 1:1 proporcionou maior porcentagem de enraizamento nas estacas da erva-baleira que o substrato solo + compostagem (1:1, os demais substratos não diferenciaram entre si.

  13. The Potential Health Effects of Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. Fruits: Phytochemical, Chemotaxonomic and Ethnobotanical Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrom, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Most natural product research is market-driven and thus many plant species are overlooked for their health value due to lack of financial incentives. This may explain the limited information available about the health effects of the edible fruit species Melicoccus bijugatus, a member of the Sapindaceae family that grows mostly in the Caribbean and in parts of South America. However, recent phytochemical studies of these fruits have shed some light on their biological effects. In this review the health effects of M. bijugatus fruit pulp and seeds are assessed in relation to phytochemical and ethnobotanical studies, as well as chemotaxonomic information and medicinal uses of other Sapindaceae species. The chemistry of M. bijugatus fruits was found to be different than the other Sapindaceae fruits, although some of the medicinal uses were similar. Specific phenolics or sugars in M. bijugatus fruits may contribute to their therapeutic uses, especially for gastrointestinal problems, and to some extent toxicological effects. This review focuses our understanding about the specific biological effects of M. bijugatus fruits, which may be useful for predicting other medicinal uses, potential drug or food interactions and may benefit people where the fruits are prevalent and healthcare resources are scarce. PMID:22155593

  14. Diffusion variétale du palmier à huile (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

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    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available La productivité du palmier à huile au cours du siècle passé a connu une croissance importante où l’amélioration génétique a pris une large part. Elle a connu un rythme de croissance assez comparable à celui obtenu pour des plantes annuelles de pays tempérés (blé, maïs, tournesol, etc.. Il est possible de dégager les étapes importantes qui ont marqué l’histoire de l’amélioration. Après une assez longue période de sélection massale, l’exploitation du gène « shell », dont l’hérédité a été découverte par Beirnaert en 1939, a apporté une amélioration de 30% [1]. Vers 1960, l’exploitation de l’hétérosis des croisements inter-origines apporte une nouvelle amélioration de 10% environ [2]. Enfin, deux cycles de sélection récurrente ont été achevés par différentes équipes et chacun a apporté 12 à 18% d’amélioration de la productivité. En 1991, la valeur moyenne des semences commerciales, plantées dans de bonnes conditions, était proche de 6,7 tonnes d’huile par hectare et par an [3]. Aujourd’hui, elle est de l’ordre de 7,2 t/ha/an [4]. Ces gains quantitatifs ont été accompagnés de progrès qualitatifs importants comme la diminution de la vitesse de croissance, l’augmentation du pourcentage d’huile dans les régimes ou l’acquisition d’une forte résistance à la fusariose en Afrique de l’Ouest [5]. La qualité du futur matériel végétal devrait être sensiblement améliorée par l’utilisation d’une base génétique élargie dans les programmes d’amélioration [6]. En effet, les stations de recherche disposent d’une bonne diversité génétique rassemblée lors de nombreuses prospections réalisées en Afrique (pour E. guineensis et sur une espèce apparentée en Amérique latine (pour E. oleifera. Ces collections apportent de nouveaux caractères de qualité de l’huile, de résistance à la fusariose, qui sévit en Afrique, ou à la pourriture du cœur en Amérique latine. Le progrès génétique disponible en expérimentation doit être intégré dans les semences vulgarisées au plus vite et en quantité suffisante. Cependant, pour la reproduction du meilleur matériel, il existe des contraintes liées à la biologie des semences qui compliquent et ralentissent cette vulgarisation. En raison d’une dormance difficile à lever, les semences de palmier à huile sont distribuées sous forme de graines germées et leur distribution demande une organisation particulière.

  15. Metabolismo de carbohidratos en palmas de aceite (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. afectadas por marchitez letal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pèrez Angela Patricia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad conocida como “marchitez letal” se presenta
    en plantaciones de la zona baja del río Upía, en palmas de siete
    años de sembradas. No se conoce el posible agente causal o
    factores que predisponen a las palmas a la enfermedad, y no se
    ha registrado hasta la fecha en otras zonas palmeras del país. Se
    analizó el metabolismo de carbohidratos en palmas de aceite
    con síntomas iniciales de la enfermedad, palmas sospechosas
    de presentar la enfermedad y palmas sanas dentro y fuera de
    un foco. Se tomaron muestras de hojas, raíces y estípite para
    determinar las concentraciones de almidón, azúcares reductores,
    no reductores y totales. La concentración de azúcares
    reductores tuvo un incremento en las palmas con síntomas
    iniciales y sospechosos; los azúcares totales presentaron mayor
    concentración en las palmas sospechosas de tener la enfermedad
    con respecto a las palmas con síntomas iniciales. Los azúcares
    no reductores en los diferentes órganos evaluados tuvieron
    una concentración muy baja. Los resultados observados en la
    alteración del metabolismo de los carbohidratos en las palmas
    enfermas probablemente sugieren que los fitoplasmas estén
    asociados a la enfermedad.

  16. Biologia floral e sistema reprodutivo da erva-baleeira (Varronia curassavica Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. BRANDÃO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO conhecimento do sistema reprodutivo é fundamental para a conservação e manejo de uma espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a fenologia da floração, a antese, registrar os insetos visitantes no período de floração, determinar as características morfométricas das flores e o sistema reprodutivo da erva-baleeira, em um ambiente de Cerrado do Norte de Minas Gerais. Entre maio a dezembro de 2012 foi caracterizado o comportamento fenológico da floração. Na análise da fenologia floral foi determinado: o crescimento da inflorescência, o número de flores e frutos por inflorescências. Utilizou-se seis acessos que tiveram dez inflorescências marcadas em cada acesso, totalizando 60 inflorescências. A antese foi determinada utilizando quatro inflorescências em duas plantas. Os visitantes florais foram observados in loco e capturados em três dias consecutivos de coleta. As características morfométricas foram determinadas com paquímetro utilizando 20 flores, sendo cinco flores de quatro acessos. Para determinar o sistema reprodutivo utilizou-se a razão pólen:óvulo (P:O, utilizando 50 flores, sendo 10 flores de cinco acessos em pré-antese. Nas condições de Montes Claros, o crescimento das inflorescências de erva-baleeira ocorreu entre meados de agosto e início de outubro, totalizando 45 dias. O florescimento foi observado entre meados de setembro e final de outubro, enquanto a frutificação ocorreu de meados de outubro a início de dezembro, sendo que ambos ocorreram de forma irregular. A antese floral de erva-baleeira, neste estudo, ocorre entre 7:00 e 11:00 horas. Os insetos visitantes pertencem as ordens Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera e Hymenoptera. As flores apresentaram o diâmetro de 2,13 ± 0,05 (mm, o comprimento de 3,29 ± 0,08 (mm, diâmetro do ovário de 0,70 ± 0,02 (mm, o comprimento do ovário de 2,48 ± 0,12 (mm, o diâmetro da antera de 0,67 ± 0,01(mm e o comprimento da antera de 0,93 ±0,02 (mm, quatro óvulos e cinco anteras por flor. A razão P:O foi de 576,542, indicando que a espécie é alógama facultativa.

  17. In vivo Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Zapoteca portoricensis (Jacq) HM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These column fractions on phytochemical analysis were shown to contain mainly terpenoids and steroids. Conclusion: Zapoteca portoricensis possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity in acute inflammation in rats. The terpenoids and steroids present in the column fractions may be responsible for the activity.

  18. Identificación de lignanas en hojas de Rollinia mucosa (JACQ bail. Annonaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Villegas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El extracto etanólico obtenido por maceración de las hojas de Rollinia mucosa fue extraído sucesivamente con los siguientes disolventes de polaridad creciente: hexano, cloroformo y acetato de etilo. Diluciones alcohólicas de todos estos extractos, incluyendo el extracto hidroalcohólico remanente, hasta concentraciones de 100μg/mL, fueron evaluadas utilizando el bioensayo de toxicidad hacia camarones Artemia salina Leach, como guía para detectar potencial biológico. Únicamente, el extracto clorofórmico mostró relevante letalidad. La purificación de este extracto por medio de métodos cromatográficos, permitió el aislamiento de dos conocidas lignanas como componentes mayoritarios, las cuales fueron identificadas mediante el análisis de sus correspondientes datos espectroscópicos de ( 1HRMN y 13CRMN como epiudesmina 2 y eudesmina 3. Paradójicamente ambos compuestos, puros y como mezcla, dieron pobre toxicidad hacia estos camarones. Alcaloides de naturaleza aporfínica y oxaporfínica han sido reportados previamente en hojas de otros materiles clasificados como Rollinia mucosa. Sin embargo, los ensayos recomendados para detectar alcaloides en todos nuestros extractos dieron negativo.

  19. Field Development of Oil Palms (Eloeis guineensis Jacq.) Originating from Cryopreserved Stabilized Polyembryonic Cultures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Konan, E.K; Durand-Gasselin, T; Kouadio, Y.J; Niamke, A.C; Dumet, D; Duval, Y; Rival, A; Engelmann, F

    2007-01-01

    ...) of six elite oil palm clones was carried out. Survival of plantlets in the nursery was monitored, then a series of vegetative and floral characteristics of over 440 palms were studied for up to 12 years after field transfer in Côte d'Ivoire...

  20. Micropropagación de chayote (sechium edule jacq. Sw. a partir de brotes vegetativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Abdelnour

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El chayote (Sechium edule es una importante fuente de divisas para los países exportadores, entre los que Costa Rica mantiene el liderazgo mundial. Entre los factores más limitantes para su producci ón se encuentra el material de siembra, tradicionalmente la semilla, que por su naturaleza no permite la obtención de una producción morfológicamente homogénea de frutos (color, forma y textura de la epidermis motivo de los altos porcentajes de rechazo en las plantas empacadoras. El establecimiento de una metodología de propagación vegetativa de la especie ayudaría a resolver los problemas de heterogeneidad. Por lo anterior, la presente investigación se dirigió a desarrollar un método de micropropagación a partir de brotes vegetativos. Se evaluó el efecto de varios desinfectantes y concentraciones de reguladores de crecimiento en las etapas de establecimiento, multiplicación y enraizamiento de dos cultivares comerciales. Se observó que una desinfección con hipoclorito de calcio al 4% permitió el mayor porcentaje de explantes establecidos asépticamente bajo condiciones in vitro (49%. También se observó que durante las etapas posteriores de la micropropagación, los requerimientos de reguladores de crecimiento fueron muy bajos (0,1 mgL-1 de BA en la etapa de brotación de yemas y de 0,1 a 0,2 mgL-1 de AIB durante el enraizamiento o no se requirieron (etapa de multiplicaci ón de microestacas.

  1. Selection of full-sib families of Panicum maximum Jacq under low light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Mochi Victor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The silvopastoral system is a viable technological alternative to extensive cattle grazing, however, for it to be successful, forage grass genotypes adapted to reduced light need to be identified. The objective of this study was to select progenies of Panicum maximum tolerant to low light conditions for use in breeding programs and to study the genetic control and performance of some traits associated with shade tolerance. Six full-sib progenies were evaluated in full sun, 50% and 70% of light reduction in pots and subjected to cuttings. Progeny genotypic values ​​(GV increased with light reduction in relation to plant height (H and specific leaf area (SLA. The traits total dry mass accumulation (DM and leaf dry mass accumulation (LDM had GV higher in 50% shade and intermediate in 70% shade. The GV of tiller number (TIL and root dry mass accumulation (RDM decreased with light reduction. The highest positive correlations were obtained for the traits H and RDM with SLA and DM; the highest negative correlations were between TIL and SLA and RDM, and H and LDM. The progenies showed higher tolerance to 50% light reduction and, among them, two stood out and will be used in breeding programs. It was also found that it is not necessary to evaluate some traits under all light conditions. All traits had high broad sense heritability and high genotypic correlation between progenies in all light intensities. There is genetic difference among the progenies regarding the response to different light intensities, which will allow selection for shade tolerance

  2. Rooting in vitro of zygotic embryos of Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd ex Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fiori Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrocomia aculeata is a potential specie for the energy industry, however, the latency in its seeds delay germination, affecting performance. The experiment was performed in the Biology Laboratory of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences of the National University of Asunción; the objective was to establish a protocol for zygotic embryogenesis and rooting of this species. A completely randomized design was used, applying Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test with 5% error probability, subject to verification of assumptions of distribution The treatments consisted of MS medium (Murashige and Skoog supplemented with benzylaminopurine (BAP of 1, 2 and 4 ppm, MS medium with 2 g/L of active carbon (AC and simple MS mediums. 45 zygotic embryos were initially cultivated on MS medium supplemented with 2 g/L of AC and exposed to initial darkness for 20 days, then subcultured in the mentioned treatments. Root length was the measured variable, assessed in two periods of 20 days. There was no significant effects in the treatments with BAP, the CA suppressed explants oxidation; whereas the best results showed treatments 1 (MS + 1 ppm BAP and 4 (MS + CA 2g/L with 6 and 5 cm of root length respectively, after 40 incubation days.

  3. [Comparative study on the erect and fallen types of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) DC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W; Tang, X; Li, Z; Xiao, P

    1997-03-01

    Based on botanica characters, phenophase, yield and content of active constituents, the erect and fallen types of platycodon grandiflorum were compared. The results show that the comprehensive characters of erect type are better than those of fallen type and the erect type is therefore good for popularization. Some specific characters of the fallen type are better than those of the erect type, and the fallen type is therefore to be preserved as one of the germ plasm resources.

  4. Diallel analyses and estimation of genetic parameters of hot pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa João Alencar de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of heterosis in the genus Capsicum spp. is considered high; however, most of the studies refer to the species Capsicum annuum L. In spite of the potential use of F1 hybrids in pungent peppers of the species Capsicum chinense, few studies are available which assess the magnitude of heterosis in this species . This study was carried out to assess heterosis and its components in F1 hybrids from a diallel cross between hot pepper lines (Capsicum chinense and to obtain data on the allelic interaction between the parents involved in the crosses. Trials were made in Rio Branco-Acre, Brazil, from March through October 1997. A randomized complete block design with fifteen treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were five C. chinense accessions (from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa - BGH/UFV and 10 F1 hybrids derived from single crosses between them (reciprocals excluded. Diallel analyses were performed for total yield, fruit length/diameter ratio, fruit dry matter per plant, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria incidence, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. Non-additive genetic effects were larger than additive effects for all the traits assessed. Epistasis was detected for fruit dry matter per plant, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. In these cases, epistasis seemed to be largely responsible for heterosis expression. Dominant gene action, ranging from incomplete dominance to probable overdominance, was responsible for heterosis in those traits where no epistatic genetic action was detected.

  5. THE DIVERSITY OF EPIPHYTIC FERN ON THE OIL PALM TREE (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) IN PEKANBARU, RIAU

    OpenAIRE

    Nery Sofiyanti

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is one  main commodity in Riau Province. Morphologically, the trunk of oil palm  has suitable environment for the growth of epiphytic fern, due to its broaden base of petiole that may accumulate organic and anorganic debrish. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of epiphytic fern on the oil palm tree. A total of 125 oil palm trees from seven  study sites in Pekanbaru, Riau were observed. The number of epiphytic ferns identified in this stud...

  6. Het voorkomen van Apium repens (Jacq.) Lag. (Kruipend moerasscherm) in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Peter A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1983 Apium repens was rediscovered in 3 localities in Zeeuws-Vlaanderen (Province of Zeeland). Since then it has been recorded in another 4 localities scattered through the country, on 2 of which it is still abundant. In one of the Zeeuws-Vlaanderen localities it declined strongly, to disappear

  7. HONGOS CAUSANTES DE ENFERMEDADES POSTCOSECHA EN CHAYOTE (Sechium edule (Jacq. SW. Y SU CONTROL IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siul D. Romero-Velazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El fruto de chayote (Sechium edule (Jaqc. Sw. es una hortaliza de exportación de importancia para México y Costa Rica. El proceso comercial exige cumplir con estándares de calidad, que implican frutos sanos y libres de defectos. Sin embargo, debido a las condiciones de alta humedad que se desarrollan en los frutos empacados en películas plásticas, se han presentado rechazos en el mercado de exportación, por la presencia de enfermedades fungosas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar morfológica (microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido y molecularmente (PCR: Polimerase Chain Reaction las especies de hongos causales de las principales enfermedades postcosecha de chayote en frutos infectados procedentes de huertas comerciales para exportación, así como probar in vitro la efectividad de diversos productos comerciales en la inhibición del crecimiento de dichos hongos. Los resultados mostraron a Didymella bryoniae como el causante de “gomosis de las cucurbitáceas” y a Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani como causales de fusariosis o ahogamiento de guías; estos patógenos dañan la parte basal y media de frutos comerciales, además de Chaetomium globosum, un asociado al proceso infeccioso de Fusarium sp., como saprófito no patógeno. La inoculación con Bacillus subtilis presentó una inhibición efectiva (0,01 mg.l-1 i.a en las pruebas in vitro contra Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani; el fungicida más efectivo contra los 2 primeros fue Tebuconazole-trifloxystrobin, con una DL50 de 0,0116 y 0,0106 mg.l-1 respectivamente; no así contra F. solani, cuyo mayor control fue registrado con procloraz, con DL50 de 0,0042 mg.l-1. Estos resultados contribuyen al reconocimiento de las enfermedades fungosas más importantes en chayote y su perspectiva de control durante el manejo postcosecha de frutos para exportación.

  8. Involvement of metabolites in early defense mechanism of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) against Ganoderma disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusaibah, S A; Siti Nor Akmar, A; Idris, A S; Sariah, M; Mohamad Pauzi, Z

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the mechanism of interaction between the oil palm and its key pathogen, Ganoderma spp. is crucial as the disease caused by this fungal pathogen leads to a major loss of revenue in leading palm oil producing countries in Southeast Asia. Here in this study, we assess the morphological and biochemical changes in Ganoderma disease infected oil palm seedling roots in both resistant and susceptible progenies. Rubber woodblocks fully colonized by G. boninense were applied as a source of inoculum to artificially infect the roots of resistant and susceptible oil palm progenies. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to measure an array of plant metabolites in 100 resistant and susceptible oil palm seedling roots treated with pathogenic Ganoderma boninense fungus. Statistical effects, univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify key-Ganoderma disease associated metabolic agitations in both resistant and susceptible oil palm root tissues. Ganoderma disease related defense shifts were characterized based on (i) increased antifungal activity in crude extracts, (ii) increased lipid levels, beta- and gamma-sitosterol particularly in the resistant progeny, (iii) detection of heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds, benzo [h] quinoline, pyridine, pyrimidine (iv) elevation in antioxidants, alpha- and beta-tocopherol (iv) degraded cortical cell wall layers, possibly resulting from fungal hydrolytic enzyme activity needed for initial penetration. The present study suggested that plant metabolites mainly lipids and heterocyclic aromatic organic metabolites could be potentially involved in early oil palm defense mechanism against G. boninense infection, which may also highlight biomarkers for disease detection, treatment, development of resistant variety and monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Field development of oil palms (Elaeis guineensis jacq) originating from cryopreserved stabilized polyembryonic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konan, E K; Durand-Gasselin, T; Kouadio, Y J; Niamké, A C; Dumet, D; Duval, Y; Rival, A; Engelmann, F

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the long term observation of plants originating from control and cryopreserved stabilized polyembryonic cultures (SPCs) of six elite oil palm clones was carried out. Survival of plantlets in the nursery was monitored, then a series of vegetative and floral characteristics of over 440 palms were studied for up to 12 years after field transfer in Côte D'Ivoire. The six clones tested showed an average recovery of 34% after freezing in liquid nitrogen. The average survival in the nursery of plantlets originating from pretreated and dehydrated and from cryopreserved SPCs was higher than that of control SPCs. Palm trees originating from control SPCs were found to flower earlier than those originating from pretreated and dehydrated and from cryopreserved SPCs. This delay in flowering disappeared progressively and all palms had flowered 3 years after planting regardless of the SPC treatment. Abnormal palms were observed in one clone only. With this clone, the percentage of abnormal palms originating from cryopreserved SPCs was significantly lower (5%) than that measured on palms originating from control SPCs (29%).

  10. Extracts and Fractions from Edible Roots of Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw. with Antihypertensive Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galia Lombardo-Earl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sechium edule is traditionally used in Mexico as a therapeutic resource against renal diseases and to control high blood pressure. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the roots of this plant, including its fractions and subfractions, on different hypertension models induced with angiotensin II (AG II. The hydroalcoholic extract was tested on an in vitro study of isolated aorta rings denuded of endothelial cells, using AG II as the agonist; this assay proved the vasorelaxant effect of this extract. Vagotomized rats were administered different doses of AG II as well as the Hydroalcoholic extract, which reduced blood pressure in 30 mmHg approximately; subsequently this extract was separated into two fractions (acetone and methanol which were evaluated in the acute hypertension mouse model induced with AG II, where the acetone fraction was identified as the most effective one and was subsequently subfractioned using an open chromatographic column packed with silica gel. The subfractions were also evaluated in the acute hypertension model. Finally, the extract, fraction, and active subfraction were analyzed by MS-PDA-HPLC, identifying cinnamic derivative compounds like cinnamic acid methyl ester.

  11. Efecto alelopático de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud (Madero Negro)

    OpenAIRE

    Inostrosa S., Ivette; Fournier O., Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Se estudió el efecto alelopático de extractos acuosos de partes vegetativas y reproductivas de madero negro, Gliricidia sepium en la germinación de semillas de Bidens pilosa y Lycopersicon esculentum. La concentración de los extractos influyó en la inhibición de la germinación de estas semillas de modo que a mayor concentración el efecto aumentó. La maceración también mostró un aumento en la capacidad inhibitoria de los extractos.Las hojas y la corteza de la raíz fueron las partes de la plant...

  12. Composição química e do conteúdo de energia do cariru (Talinum esculentum, Jacq. Chemical composition and energy content of cariru (Talinum esculentum, Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana R. Trajano Manhães

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos recentes têm relatado o estado pluricarencial da população dos estados da Região Norte do Brasil. Paradoxalmente nessa região encontra-se uma grande biodiversidade da flora com variadas frutas e hortaliças, ainda não tão conhecidas, mas que os pesquisadores acreditam ser altamente nutritivas. Entre elas, tem-se o cariru, planta herbácea da família Portulacea, hortaliça própria da região amazônica e de fácil cultivo. Amostras dessa verdura foram submetidas a determinações analíticas a fim de obter maiores informações sobre seu valor nutricional. A maior fração desse vegetal é a água (92,24%, seguida de lipídeos (3,04%, carboidratos (2,94%, minerais totais (1,71% e de proteína (0,07%, constituindo um alimento de reduzido valor calórico (40 Kcal/100g. Tendo em vista os resultados encontrados na análise de minerais, essa folhosa pode ser considerada como excelente fonte de ferro, zinco e molibdênio, já que o consumo de 200 g/dia desse alimento atenderia as necessidades diárias desses nutrientes. Chama-se atenção para os conteúdos de selênio e manganês, onde 100g dessa biomassa fresca podem fornecer duas e três vezes, respectivamente, as quantidades recomendadas para adultos pelos órgãos internacionais de saúde, com as devidas precauções, já que excessos desses oligominerais podem causar danos à saúde. Sendo assim, recomenda-se a inclusão dessa folhosa no hábito alimentar brasileiro, por apresentar minerais em quantidades suficientes para minimizar o estado carencial de muitas pessoas, residentes na região Norte do país, exatamente onde é encontrada em abundância e com custo reduzido.Recent studies have been related a food lacking state of population in states from north of Brazil. Paradoxically in this region a great biodiversity in the flora can be found with various fruits and vegetables, not very known so far, but researchers believe in their high nutritional values. One of them is Cariru, an herbaceous plant to Portulacea family, vegetable native from Amazon region and easy to grow. Sample of this vegetable was transformed in biomass and submitted to a quantitative analysis in order to have a lot of information about nutritional value. Analysis showed that the biggest amount was moisture (92.44%, followed by lipids (3.04%, carbohydrates (2.94%, total minerals (1.71% and protein (0.07%, compound a reduced caloric food, 40 kcal/100g. Analyzing the mineral results, cariru can be consider as an excellent iron, zinc and molybdenum source, that the consumption of 200 gin the vegetable/day would attend daily needs of these nutrients. This is very important to selenium and manganese contents, because 100g fresh of biomass can supply 2 or 3 times, respectively, the RDI for adult. The excess of this oligominerals can be hazardous for human body. Therefore, the inclusion of this vegetable on a diet of Brazilian is recommended, because it presents enough minerals to minimize the food lacking state of people who lives in North of Brazil.

  13. Métodos de plantio de gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp. em estacas para produção de forragem Establishment methods of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp. from stakes for forage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Marques da Costa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Gliricídia, uma leguminosa arbórea utilizada no sombreamento de cacaueiros e na produção de forragem, é comumente empregada como cerca viva, madeira e lenha e pode ser multiplicada por sementes e por frações do caule ou de estacas. Conduziu-se este estudo na Escola de Agronomia da UFBA, em Cruz das Almas - Bahia, com o objetivo de avaliar métodos de plantio por estaquia, a fim de se identificar aquele de maior índice de pegamento das estacas, maior produção de forragem e menor custo de implantação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: 1 estacas de 1 m de comprimento plantadas verticalmente em covas; 2 estacas de 0,5 m de comprimento plantadas verticalmente em covas; 3 estacas de 0,25 m de comprimento plantadas verticalmente em covas; 4 estacas de 1 m de comprimento plantadas horizontalmente dentro do sulco; 5 estacas de 0,5 m de comprimento plantadas horizontalmente dentro sulco. As estacas de 1,0 m de comprimento plantadas verticalmente dentro de covas (método 1 ou horizontalmente dentro de sulcos (método 4, após 14 dias de colhidas, são os métodos mais recomendáveis por apresentarem menores custos na preparação das estacas e operações de plantio, proporcionando melhores lucros por hectare quando consideradas as receitas das produções de matéria seca.Gliricidia sepium has been used as shade tree in cocoa plantations, living fences, wood, fuel wood and livestock forage. It can be grown from seeds and from cuttings or stakes. This experiment was carried out to evaluate five grown methods from Gliricidia cuttings in other to identify the one showing highest stake sprouting indexes, forage production and least implantation costs. The experiment was in a randomized block design with five treatments and five replications. The treatments were the followings: 1 stakes with 1m in length placed vertically in pits; 2 stakes with .5 m in length placed vertically in pits; 3 stakes with .25 m in length placed vertically in pits; 4 stakes with 1 m in length placed horizontally in furrows; 5 stakes with .5 m in length placed horizontally in furrows. Stakes with 1m in length placed vertically in pits (method 1 or placed horizontally in furrows (method 4, after 14 days from harvesting, are the most recommended methods since they showed the least costs in expending time to prepare the cutting stakes and for planting operations, providing better profits per hectare, when the incomes from dry matter productions are taken into consideration.

  14. Pollen morphology and study of the visitors (Hymenoptera, Apidae of Solanum stramoniifolium Jacq. (Solanaceae in Central Amazon Morfologia polínica e estudo dos visitantes (Hymenoptera, Apidae de Solanum stramoniifolium Jacq. (Solanaceae na Amazônia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Coletto da Silva

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The Solanaceae family has a wide distribution, mainly in the tropical and subtropical areas of South America. Solanum L. is one of the most important genera of the family with approximately 1,200 species. The objective of this work was to study the floral biology, pollen morphology as well as to investigate the bee visitors of S. stramoniifolium. Preliminary data indicate the presence of one species of stinging bee and four species of stingless bees as visitors to S. stramoniifolium. The pollen of S. stramoniifolium is tricolporate and psilate or without ornamentation. In a word, S. stramoniifolium constitutes a potential source of pollen for different species of bees with and without sting, providing an interesting field for germination studies, insect-plant interactions and floral biology that are already under way.A família Solanaceae tem ampla distribuição, principalmente nas áreas tropicais e subtropicais da América do Sul. Solanum L. é um dos mais importantes gêneros desta família com aproximadamente 1.200 espécies. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de estudar a biologia floral com enfoque na morfologia polínica e no registro de algumas abelhas visitantes de S. stramoniifolium. Dados preliminares indicam a presença de uma espécie de abelha com ferrão e quatro espécies sem ferrão como visitantes de S. stramoniifolium. O pólen de S. stramoniifolium é tricolporado e psilado, ou seja, sem ornamentação. Conclui-se, após o estudo da biologia floral, que S. stramoniifolium constitui fonte potencial de pólen para diferentes espécies de abelhas com e sem ferrão, representando interessante campo para estudos de germinação, interações inseto-planta e biologia floral.

  15. Biologia floral e sistema reprodutivo de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud. (Fabaceae- Papilionoidae na região de Petrolina, Pernambuco Floral biology and reproductive system of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud. (Fabaceae-Papilionoidae in region of Petrolina, Pernambuco state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Piedade Kiill

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos da biologia da polinização e do sistema de reprodução de Gliricidia sepium foram estudados no período de março a dezembro de 1999, entre 05:30 e 17:00h., em uma população introduzida na Embrapa Semi-Árido (Petrolina, estado de Pernambuco. Quinze indivíduos da população foram marcados e acompanhados quinzenalmente para as observações dos estudos fenológicos. Para o estudo da morfologia e biologia florais, flores e inflorescências foram marcadas e acompanhadas até a formação dos frutos. Os visitantes florais foram observados ao longo do período do experimento, anotando-se a freqüência, o horário e a duração de suas visitas. G. sepium apresenta floração anual do tipo "cornucópia", com pico desta fenofase no mês de agosto. As flores estão reunidas em racemos axilares, com desenvolvimento centrípeto, ocorrendo a antese de 5 a 45 flores/dia. As flores apresentam a formação típica das papilionáceas, com corola de cor magenta, com a parte central do estandarte de cor creme, o qual funciona como guia de néctar. A antese é diurna, ocorrendo por volta da 06:00h, e a duração das flores é de aproximadamente 10 horas. Abelhas Apidae e Anthophoridae e lepidópteros Hesperiidae são os visitantes mais freqüentes, sendo Xylocopa griscesens, X. frontalis e Eulaema nigrita consideradas como principais polinizadores desta espécie. Quanto ao sistema de reprodução, G. sepium é xenôgama obrigatória, produzindo frutos e sementes somente após polinização cruzada (51,6%.The aspects of floral biology and reproductive system of Gliricidia sepium were studied from March to October of 1999, from 5:30am to 5:00pm, in an introduced population at Embrapa Semi-Árido, Petrolina, in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Fifteen plants were marked and observed every two weeks for the study of phenology. For the study of floral biology and morphology, flowers and inflorescences were marked and observed until fruit set. The visitors of flowers were observed during all time of the experiment, when frequency, time and duration of their visits were registered. G. sepium has a cornucopia pattern of flowering and the peak of this phenophase occurs in August. The flowers are grouped in axilar racemes, with centripetal development, and the anthesis occurs at 5 to 45 flowers/day. The flowers have the typical organization of papilionaceae, corolla of magenta color and the central region of flag of cream color, which functions as nectar guide. The anthesis is diurnal, occurring at around 6:00am, and the lifetime of flowers is around 10 hours. Apidae and Anthophoridae bees and Hesperiidae moths are the most frequent visitors. Xylocopa griscesens, X. frontalis and Eulaema nigrita were considered the main pollinators of this species. G. sepium is a species which produces fruits only after cross-pollination (51.6%.

  16. Estudio de la descomposición de la hojarasca en un pastizal de Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Likoni Study of litter decomposition in a pastureland of Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Likon

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    Saray Sánchez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes ¨Indio Hatuey¨, Matanzas, con el objetivo de determinar la descomposición de la hojarasca de Panicum maximum y su relación con algunos de los factores bióticos y abióticos. La descomposición de la hojarasca se determinó como la pérdida de biomasa a través del tiempo, con relación al peso inicial. Para el estudio de la dinámica de la descomposición se utilizó el método de bolsas de hojarasca (litter bags. Las bolsas medían 10 x 10 x 10 cm, con poros de 1 cm de diámetro, lo cual permite el acceso al interior de un amplio rango de la biota edáfica. Se distribuyeron al azar 40 bolsas que contenían hojarasca de P. maximum. En cada bolsa se colocaron 20 g de hojarasca (base seca previamente colectada. Los resultados demostraron que el proceso de descomposición de la hojarasca de P. maximum fue lento, ya que a los 210 días la hojarasca aún presentaba el 45,3% de su peso inicial, con una mayor tasa de descomposición en los primeros 30 días. En el material remanente del proceso de descomposición de la hojarasca, la concentración del N-FND se incrementó. La composición taxonómica de la fauna asociada al proceso de descomposición estuvo constituida por tres phylum, cinco clases, ocho órdenes, siete géneros y siete especies determinadas. La presencia de una diversa y estable fauna asociada a las bolsas influyó en el proceso de descomposición de la hojarasca. Las especies Venezillo sp., Nagarus sp. y Pycnocelus surinamensis fueron las de mayor presencia durante todo el proceso. El modelo matemático que contempla el efecto de la temperatura, la humedad relativa y la precipitación, mostró el mejor ajuste en el proceso de descomposición de la hojarasca en este pastizal.A study was carried out at the Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages “Indio Hatuey”, Matanzas, with the objective of determining the litter decomposition of Panicum maximum and its relationship to some of the biotic and abiotic factors. The litter decomposition was determined as the loss of biomass in time, with regards to the initial weight. For the study of the decomposition dynamics the method of litter bags was used. The bags measured 10 x 10 x 10 cm, with pores of 1 cm diameter, which allows access inside of a wide range of the edaphic biota. Forty bags that contained litter of P. maximum were distributed randomly. In each bag 20 g of previously collected litter (dry base were put. The results showed that the decomposition process of P. maximum litter was slow, because 210 days after being deposited the litter still showed 45,3% of its initial weight, with a higher decomposition rate in the first 30 days. In the remnant material of the process of litter decomposition, the N-NDF concentration increased. The taxonomic composition of the fauna associated to the decomposition process was constituted by three phyla, five classes, eight orders, seven genera and seven determined species. The presence of a diverse and stable fauna associated to the bags influenced the process of litter decomposition. The species Venezillo sp., Nagarus sp. and Pycnocelus surinamensis were the ones with higher presence during the whole process. The mathematical model that shows the effect of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, showed the best adjustment in the process of litter decomposition in this pastureland.

  17. Ensayo de disolución para las tabletas de Tilo ® elaboradas con extracto seco de Justicia pectoralis Jacq Dissolution Assay for Tilo ® tablets prepared with dry extract of Justicia pectoralis Jacq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Rodríguez Chanfrau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el ensayo de disolución es una técnica analítica de empleo común en un laboratorio farmacéutico. Un proceso tecnológico para la elaboración de tabletas fue desarrollado. El ingrediente farmacéutico activo usado fue Tilo ® extracto seco. Objetivo: el objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar y validar un ensayo de disolución para evaluar la estabilidad y la calidad de dicho producto. Método: se utilizaron muestras de un lote experimental, un lote placebo y lotes pilotos de tabletas de Tilo ® de 100 mg. Se evaluaron como medios de disolución agua destilada y solución de ácido clorhídrico 0,1 mol/L, realizándose perfiles de disolución a 50, 75 y 100 rpm, empleándose los dos tipos de aparatos establecidos en la literatura para este ensayo (cesta y paleta. El contenido de cumarina fue analizado por HPLC. El ensayo fue validado según la USP. Resultados: los resultados mostraron que el agua destilada fue un medio de disolución adecuado, alcanzándose porcientos de disolución de la droga por encima del 85 % a los 30 minutos, no existiendo diferencias significativas entre los tipos de aparatos recomendados por la USP. Mientras que, los perfiles de disolución a diferentes tiempos y velocidades de agitación mostraron una liberación gradual del principio activo en el tiempo, donde a medida que se incrementa la velocidad de agitación, se incrementa el porcentaje de disolución de la droga en el medio. La validación del ensayo demostró que el mismo era específico y preciso. Conclusiones: se estableció como ensayo de disolución las siguientes condiciones de trabajo: Aparato: paleta, 100 rpm; medio: agua destilada, 500 mL; tiempo: 60 minutos y Temperatura: 37 ± 0,5 ºC.Introduction: dissolution testing is one of the most common analytical techniques performed in a pharmaceutical analytical laboratory. A technological process for the production of tablets was developed. The active pharmaceutical ingredient used was Tilo ® dry extract. Objective: to develop and to validate the dissolution assay aimed at evaluating the stability study and the quality of this product. Methods: some samples from the experimental batch, the placebo batch and the pilot batches were used in this study. Distilled water and 0,1 mol/L chlorhidric acid were evaluated as dissolution media. The dissolution profiles at 50, 75 and 100 rpm and two types of dissolution devices (basket and paddle recommended for the USP were evaluated. Coumarin content was analyzed by HPLC method. The dissolution assay was validated according to the United States Pharmacopeia. Results: the results showed that the distilled water was an appropriate dissolution medium, where percentages of released drug higher to 85 % in 30 minutes were obtained; there were no significant differences among the types of dissolution devices recommended by the USP. The dissolution profiles at different shaking times and speeds showed gradual release of the active principle. As the shaking speed increases, the percentage of the drug dissolution increases in the medium. The assay was considered specific and precise. Conclusions: a type II (paddle dissolution device, 500 ml of distilled water at 37 ± 0,5 ºC and 100 rpm, were established as parameters of the dissolution assay.

  18. Ensayo de disolución para las tabletas de Tilo ® elaboradas con extracto seco de Justicia pectoralis Jacq Dissolution Assay for Tilo ® tablets prepared with dry extract of Justicia pectoralis Jacq

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Enrique Rodríguez Chanfrau; Jose Manuel Gil Apan

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: el ensayo de disolución es una técnica analítica de empleo común en un laboratorio farmacéutico. Un proceso tecnológico para la elaboración de tabletas fue desarrollado. El ingrediente farmacéutico activo usado fue Tilo ® extracto seco. Objetivo: el objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar y validar un ensayo de disolución para evaluar la estabilidad y la calidad de dicho producto. Método: se utilizaron muestras de un lote experimental, un lote placebo y lotes pilotos de tableta...

  19. Efeito de dinamizações de Arnica montana L. no metabolismo de chambá (Justicia pectoralis Jacq. Effect of dynamizations of Arnica montana in metabolism of chambá (Justicia pectoralis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M.C. Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou avaliar a resposta do crescimento e do metabolismo secundário de Justicia pectoralis, expresso em produção de cumarina, a crescentes dinamizações de A. montana. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Viçosa. O delineamento estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições e cinco tratamentos, totalizando 30 parcelas experimentais, sendo cada parcela constituída de uma planta por vaso. Os tratamentos foram as dinamizações 3CH, 30CH, 60CH, 100CH e 200CH do preparado homeopático A. montana. Os tratamentos foram aplicados às plantas via pulverização, em intervalos semanais, iniciando logo após o plantio. Após quatro meses do plantio as plantas foram colhidas. As características de crescimento avaliadas foram matérias fresca e seca de folhas e caules, matérias fresca e seca de inflorescências e matérias fresca e seca total. No estudo fitoquímico foi avaliada a produção da cumarina (1-2 benzopirona. Não houve resposta nas variáveis de crescimento aos tratamentos. As dinamizações de A. montana causaram alterações no metabolismo secundário das plantas. Os conteúdos de cumarina das plantas com A. montana 3CH e 30CH foram próximos e mais baixos, aumentando progressivamente a partir de 60CH, chegando ao máximo em 100CH, seguido de redução em 200CH. A preparação homeopática A. montana causa alterações no metabolismo secundário de chambá, sendo as repostas dependentes da dinamização.Were evaluated the responses to dynamizations of Arnica montana in the growth and in the secondary metabolism of Justicia pectoralis expressed as coumarin production. The studies were carried out at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa. The statistical design was completely randomized, with six replicates and five treatments, 30 experimental plots, one plant per pot. The treatments were dynamizations 3CH, 30CH, 60CH, 100CH and 200CH homeopathic preparation of A. montana. The application the treatments begun are planting seedlings, the aerial part being sprayed, at weekly intervals. After four months of planting, the plants were harvested. The evaluated growth characteristics were: fresh and dry matter of leaves and stems, fresh and dry matter of inflorecenses, and fresh and dry matter total. In the phytochemistry study, the production of the coumarin 1,2-benzopyrone was evaluated. Were no responses of growth characteristics. The dynamizations of A. montana caused changes in secondary metabolism of plants. The coumarin production with A. montana plants 3CH and 30CH were lower, increasing progressively from 60CH, and coming to increased in 100CH, followed by a large reduction in the 200CH. The homeopathic preparation A. montana cause change in secondary metabolism of chambá, and the responses depend on dynamizations.

  20. Emergence and initial growth of seedlings of Rollinia mucosa (Jacq. Baill (Annonaceae in different substrates / Emergência e crescimento inicial de plântulas de biribá (Rollinia mucosa (Jacq. Baill (Annonaceae em diferentes substratos

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    Riselane de Lucena Alcântara Bruno

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the influence of different substrates on emergence and initial growth of Rollinia mucosa seedlings. The seeds were scarified in the opposite side of micropylar region and sown in four different substrates: washed sand (T1, vermiculite (T2, bioplant® (T3, plantmax® (T4, washed sand + vermiculite 1:1 (T5, washed sand + bioplant® 1:1 (T6, washed sand + plantmax® 1:1 (T7, washed sand + vermiculite 3:1 (T8, washed sand + bioplant® 3:1 (T9 and washed sand + plantmax® 3:1 (T10. The emergence percentage, the emergence speed index and growth of the seedlings (length and dry mass of root and aerial part were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized with ten treatments and four replications of 25 seeds. The data were submitted to analyses of variance and the averages were compared by the Tukey test. In relation to the emergence percentage and emergence speed index, it was observed that the commercial substrates had presented the lower values, alone or in combination with other substrates and that the sand + vermiculite substrate provided the best results. In general terms, the four substrata evaluated, isolated or in combination, presented no differences for the seedling growth during the 75 days of evaluation.O objetivo desse trabalho foi testar a influência de diferentes substratos na emergência e no crescimento inicial de plântulas de biribá. As sementes foram escarificadas na região oposta à de emissão da radícula e, em seguida, semeadas em diferentes substratos: areia lavada (T1; vermiculita (T2; bioplant® (T3; plantmax® (T4; areia lavada + vermiculita 1:1 (T5; areia lavada + bioplant® 1:1 (T6; areia lavada + plantmax® 1:1 (T7; areia lavada + vermiculita 3:1 (T8; areia lavada + bioplant® 3:1 (T9; e areia lavada + plantmax® 3:1 (T10. Foram avaliados porcentagem de emergência das plântulas, índice de velocidade de emergência e crescimento das plântulas (comprimento e massa seca de raiz e parte aérea. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 10 tratamentos, em quatro repetições de 25 sementes. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e a comparação entre as médias foi feita pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. De modo geral, constatou-se que os substratos comerciais apresentaram as menores porcentagens e velocidades de emergência, sozinhos ou em combinação com outros substratos, sendo que os maiores valores foram observados com o emprego de areia + vermiculita. Em termos gerais, os quatro substratos avaliados, isolados ou em combinação, não divergiram de forma relevante quanto ao crescimento das plântulas, nos 75 dias subsequentes à semeadura.

  1. Determination of the most efficient target tissue and helium pressure for biolistic transformation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornrat Phongdara

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient genetic transformation system for oil palm using particle bombardment was established. The transformation was performed using the pCAMBIA 1302 DNA which contains the green fluorescent protein (mgfp5 reporter gene and the selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph gene. Oil palm explants were bombarded under the following conditions: rupture disk to macrocarrier distance, 11 mm; macrocarrier to target tissue, 90 mm and using 1 μm gold particles as microcarrier. Four different pressures of helium were tested with three types of target tissues (mature embryo, embryogenic callus and young seedlings. From the transformation efficiency, calli were much more efficiently transformed in the biolistic process compared with mature embryos and seedlings. A 100% transformation efficiency for DNA delivery into callus oil palm explants was obtained at 850 psi helium pressures, for embryos a maximum 81.8% efficiency required 850 psi and for seedlings a maximum 75.9% efficiency required 1,550 psi. Using a confocal laser scanning microscope, and appropriate filters to block out the red fluorescence of chlorophyll, expression of the GFP gene was observed in all three bombarded explant types by a bright-green fluorescence. The mgfp5 gene was still present more than 8 months after bombardment, hence it indicated the stability of transgene in those transformants.

  2. Acción biocida de plantas de Pipertuberculatum Jacq. sobre Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidóptera, Pyralidae

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    Gladys V. Soberón

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo evaluamos la acción biocida sobre larvas del III estadío de Diatraea saccharalis, usando extractos acuoso, diclorometano-metanol (DCM:MeOH, 2:1 y alcohólico (EtOH, 96% de hojas, tallos y espigas maduras (con frutos y semillas de Piper tuberculatum, en larvas del III estadío. El método de inoculación del extracto, previamente eluido con agua destilada, fue de aplicación tópica en el mesotorax de las larvas. Solamente los extractos DCM:MeOH y EtOH de espigas maduras y extracto DCM:MeOH de plantas in vitro mostraron niveles significativos de mortalidad larval. El mayor efecto tóxico correspondió a extractos de espigas maduras respecto a plantas in vitro y a extracto EtOH respecto a extracto DCM:MeOH, tal como lo expresan los resultados de las concentraciones letales a 50% (CL50 y 90% (CL90, en 72 h de exposición. Así tenemos que en el caso de espigas maduras fue: CL50 (0,11 mg/mL con EtOH y 0,16 mg/mL con DCM:MeOH y CL90 (0,35 mg/mL con EtOH y 0,55 mg/mL con DCM:MeOH; en el caso de plantas in vitro, unicamente con DCM:MeOH, fue: CL50 0,39 mg/mL y CL90 2,62 mg/mL. Los resultados de las rectas valores probitos-mortalidad expresaron la misma tendencia.

  3. Genetic diversity and gene flow in a Caribbean tree Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq.: a study based on chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, F; Voccia, M; Bâ, A; Bouvet, J-M

    2009-03-01

    We analysed the molecular diversity of Pterocarpus officinalis, a tree species distributed in Caribbean islands, South and Central America to quantify the genetic variation within island, to assess the pattern of differentiation and infer levels of gene flow; with the overall goal of defining a strategy of conservation. Two hundred two individuals of 9 populations were analysed using three chloroplast and six nuclear microsatellite markers. The observed heterozygosity varied markedly among the populations for nuclear (H(Onuc )= 0.20-0.50) and chloroplast microsatellites (H (cp )= 0.22-0.68). The continental population from French Guyana showed a higher value of H(Onuc) than island populations, and the differences were significant in some cases. The fixation index F (IS) ranged from -0.043 to 0.368; a significant heterozygote deficit was detected in 7 populations. The heterozygosity excess method suggested that two populations in Guadeloupe have undergone a recent bottleneck. Global and pairwise F (ST) were high for both nuclear (F(STnuc )= 0.29) and chloroplast microsatellites (F(STcp )= 0.58). The neighbour-joining tree based on both markers, presented a differentiation pattern that can be explained by the seed dispersal by flotation and marine stream. The comparison of Bayesian approach and the method based on allelic frequency demonstrate a very limited number of migrants between populations.

  4. Factors associated with the allocation of carbohydrates to bunch dry matter production in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breure, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis reports on the factors relevant to the allocation of assimilates to oil palm bunch dry matter (DM) production, based on an extensive set of growth and yield records from experiments in Papua New Guinea and Malaysia.
    Basically, assimilates from gross assimilation of the

  5. Adaptive properties of Adansonia digitata L. (Baobab) & Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R.Br. (African Locust Bean) to drought stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouda, Zoewinde Henri-Noel

    of the two species. Three water regimes were applied, corresponding to 100%, 75% and 50% of field capacity. The effects of drought stress on the seedling survival, growth and dry matter partitioning was investigated on both species, and for A. digitata the experiment also included seedling morphology...... and physiology. A. digitata had a much higher survival rate than P. biglobosa. However, both species showed a strong reduction of the relative growth rate (diameter and height) and the total dry weight under the effect of applied water stress. Despite differences between provenances of P. biglobosa...... for planting based on the results can hardly be given, other than to use extreme caution if provenances from East Africa are introduced to West Africa, in the case of A. digitata. Until a better understanding of the two species morphology and physiology under drought stress has been achieved, there seems...

  6. Actividad in vitro de la mezcla de alcaloides de Ervatamia coronaria (Jacq Staff. Apocynaceae sobre amastigotes de Leishmania braziliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Moreno Rodríguez

    Full Text Available A leishmaniose é considerada uma importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade a nível mundial, principalmente nos países tropicais. As formas cutânea e mucocutânea são causadas, entre outras espécies, por Leishmania braziliensis. Na procura de compostos leishmanicidas de origem natural, foi estudada a atividade da mistura de alcalóides de Ervatamia coronaria (Apocynaceae contra amastigotas de L. braziliensis em 6 concentrações diferentes (1, 10, 20, 25, 50 e 100 µg/mL. Foram tratados macrófagos de ratos da linha J774, infectados com promastigotas de L. braziliensis, com a mistura de alcalóides 1 hora após-infecção e diariamente por 3 dias sem mudança de meio. As experiências de citotoxicidade foram efetuadas sobre os macrófagos com azul tripam. Todos os cultivos foram feitos de forma triplicada e os grupos de controle não foram submetidos à mistura de alcalóides. Foi obtido que o composto adicionado exerce atividade doses/dependente sobre a parasita. No entanto, as concentrações mais altas (50 e 100 µg/mL, adicionado durante 3 dias, mostraram os maiores índices de infecção, provavelmente devido a diminuição no número de macrófagos, sobre os quais não foi observado efeito tóxico do tratamento durante 24 horas DL50/24h = 233,52 µg/mL. Os resultados dessa pesquisa revelaram uma nova atividade farmacológica de alcalóides da espécie Ervatamia coronaria sobre a forma amastigota de Leishmania braziliensis, com IC50 = 2,6 e 12,4 µg/mL sem mostrar toxicidade sobre a célula hospedeira.

  7. Fuzzy System of Irrigation Applied to the Growth of Habanero Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) under Protected Conditions in Yucatan, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, Martha Rocio; Gorricho, Juan Luis; Palma Gamboa, Oscar; Huerta, Mónica Karel; Rivas, David; Erazo Rodas, Mayra

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is the largest user of water worldwide by using about 70 percent of total consumption. The world food production depends on the availability of water, considering factors such as demographic and climate change, so the use of efficient irrigation is necessary to apply the correct amount of water to crops. The traditional irrigation systems generally program their scheme based on measurements made at Class A evaporimeter pan. In this paper an irrigation scheme defined by an algorith...

  8. Effet de l'herbe de Guinée ( Panicum maximum Jacq.) associée à l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) on rabbits growth (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.). Objective : The aim of this study was to find an alternative to the use of leaves of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. ) in the diet of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus ...

  9. TÉCNICAS SUSTENTABLES PARA EL MANEJO DE LA PRODUCCIÓN DEL CHILE HABANERO (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna-Esquivel G

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó una revisión de las investigaciones reportadas en diversas áreas de la agronomía que se pueden aplicar al sistema de producción de chile habanero. Se recopilaron algunos trabajos relacionados con la sustentabilidad propuestos para el cultivo en cuanto a nutrición, manejo de humedad, aplicación de productos hormonales, utilización de productos orgánicos y aplicación de microorganismos. Se concluye que es necesario conocer más a fondo los componentes involucrados en el sistema de producción del cultivo y así lograr una mejor relación beneficio-costo para el productor, de una manera realmente sustentable.

  10. The Phenylpropanoid Pathway and Lignin in Defense against Ganoderma boninense Colonized Root Tissues in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha T. Govender

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Basal stem rot, caused by the basidiomycete fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is an economically devastating disease in Malaysia. Our study investigated the changes in lignin content and composition along with activity and expression of the phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes and genes in oil palm root tissues during G. boninense infection. We sampled control (non-inoculated and infected (inoculated seedlings at seven time points [1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-inoculation (wpi] in a randomized design. The expression profiles of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, and peroxidase (POD genes were monitored at 1, 2, and 3 wpi using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Seedlings at 4, 8, and 12 wpi were screened for lignin content, lignin composition, enzyme activities (PAL, CAD, and POD, growth (weight and height, and disease severity (DS. Gene expression analysis demonstrated up-regulation of PAL, CAD, and POD genes in the infected seedlings, relative to the control seedlings at 1, 2, and 3 wpi. At 2 and 3 wpi, CAD showed highest transcript levels compared to PAL and POD. DS increased progressively throughout sampling, with 5, 34, and 69% at 4, 8, and 12 wpi, respectively. Fresh weight and height of the infected seedlings were significantly lower compared to the control seedlings at 8 and 12 wpi. Lignin content of the infected seedlings at 4 wpi was significantly higher than the control seedlings, remained elicited with no change at 8 wpi, and then collapsed with a significant reduction at 12 wpi. The nitrobenzene oxidation products of oil palm root lignin yielded both syringyl and guaiacyl monomers. Accumulation of lignin in the infected seedlings was in parallel to increased syringyl monomers, at 4 and 8 wpi. The activities of PAL and CAD enzymes in the infected seedlings at DS = 5–34% were significantly higher than the control seedlings and thereafter collapsed at DS = 69%.

  11. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) mediated by microprojectile bombardment of PHB biosynthesis genes into embryogenic calli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Bahariah, Bohari; Ayub, Nor Hanin; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Rasid, Omar Abdul; Tarmizi, Ahmad Hashim; Ishak, Zamzuri

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable plastics, mainly polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), which are traditionally produced by bacterial cells, have been produced in the cells of more than 15 plant species. Since the production of biodegradable plastics and the synthesis of oil in plants share the same substrate, acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), producing PHB in oil bearing crops, such as oil palm, will be advantageous. In this study, three bacterial genes, bktB, phaB, and phaC, which are required for the synthesis of PHB and selectable marker gene, bar, for herbicide Basta resistant, were transformed into embryogenic calli. A number of transformed embryogenic lines resistant to herbicide Basta were obtained and were later regenerated to produce few hundred plantlets. Molecular analyses, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot, and real-time PCR have demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes in the oil palm genome. HPLC and Nile blue A staining analyses confirmed the synthesis of PHB in some of the plantlets.

  12. Proteomic identification of differentially expressed proteins during the acquisition of somatic embryogenesis in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rafael de Carvalho; Carmo, Lilian Silveira Travassos; Luis, Zanderluce Gomes; Silva, Luciano Paulino; Scherwinski-Pereira, Jonny Everson; Mehta, Angela

    2014-06-02

    In the present study we have identified and characterized the proteins expressed during different developmental stages of Elaeis guineensis calli obtained from zygotic embryos. We were interested in the possible proteomic changes that would occur during the acquisition of somatic embryogenesis and therefore samples were collected from zygotic embryos (E1), swollen explants 14days (E2) in induction medium, primary callus (E3), and pro-embryogenic callus (E4). The samples were grinded in liquid nitrogen, followed by total protein extraction using phenol and extraction buffer. Proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and the differentially expressed protein spots were analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS and MS/MS). Interestingly, we have identified proteins, which can be used as potential candidates for future studies aiming at the development of biomarkers for embryogenesis acquisition and for the different stages leading to pro-embryogenic callus formation such as type IIIa membrane protein cp-wap13, fructokinase and PR proteins. The results obtained shed some light on the biochemical events involved in the process of somatic embryogenesis of E. guineensis obtained from zygotic embryos. The use of stage-specific protein markers can help monitor cell differentiation and contribute to improve the protocols for successfully cloning the species. Understanding the fate and dynamics of cells and tissues during callus formation is essential to understand totipotency and the mechanisms involved during acquisition of somatic embryogenesis (SE). In this study we have investigated the early stages of somatic embryogenesis induction in oil palm and have identified potential markers as well as proteins potentially involved in embryogenic competence acquisition. The use of these proteins can help improve tissue culture protocols in order to increase regeneration rates. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Environmental and structural proteomics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The early development of inflorescences and flowers of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seen through the scanning electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heel, van W.A.; Breure, C.J.; Menendez, T.

    1987-01-01

    The development of inflorescences and flowers of the African Oil Palm up to anthesis is illustrated by scanning electron microscopy images. The time of origin relative to the development of the foliage leaves of the basipetalous succession of flowering rachillae is determined, as well as the time of

  14. A novel transcript of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), Eg707, is specifically upregulated in tissues related to totipotency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Vinh Thuc; Sarpan, Norashikin; Huynh, Ky; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Napis, Suhaimi; Ho, Chai-Ling; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Chin, Chiew-Foan; Namasivayam, Parameswari

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we report the molecular characterization of clone Eg707 isolated from cell suspension culture of the oil palm. The deduced polypeptide of clone Eg707 is highly similar to an unknown protein from Arabidopsis thaliana. The presence of an Ald-Xan-dh-C2 superfamily domain in the deduced protein sequence suggested that Eg707 protein might be involved in abscisic acid biosynthesis. Eg707 might be present as a single copy gene in the oil palm genome. This gene is highly expressed in tissue cultured materials compared to vegetative and reproductive tissues, suggesting a role of this gene during oil palm somatic embryogenesis or at the early stages of embryo development. Expression analysis of Eg707 by RNA in situ hybridization showed that Eg707 transcripts were present throughout somatic embryo development starting from proembryo formation at the embryogenic callus stages till the maturing embryo stages. Since proembryo formation within the embryogenic callus is one of the first key factors in oil palm somatic embryo development, it is suggested that Eg707 could be used as a reliable molecular marker for detecting early stage of oil palm somatic embryogenesis.

  15. Illegitimacy and sibship assignments in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) half-sib families using single locus DNA microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama-Ali, Emad Omer; Alwee, Sharifah Shahrul Rabiah Syed; Tan, Soon Guan; Panandam, Jothi Malar; Ling, Ho Chai; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Peng, Hoh Boon

    2015-05-01

    Oil palm breeding has been progressing very well in Southeast Asia, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. Despite this progress, there are still problems due to the difficulty of controlled crossing in oil palm. Contaminated/illegitimate progeny has appeared in some breeding programs; late and failure of detection by the traditional method causes a waste of time and labor. The use of molecular markers improves the integrity of breeding programs in perennial crops such as oil palm. Four half-sib families with a total of 200 progeny were used in this study. Thirty polymorphic single locus DNA microsatellites markers were typed to identify the illegitimate individuals and to obtain the correct parental and progeny assignments by using the CERVUS and COLONY programs. Three illegitimate palms (1.5%) were found, and 16 loci proved to be sufficient for sibship assignments without parental genotypes by using the COLONY program. The pairwise-likelihood score (PLS) method was better for half-sib family assignments than the full likelihood (FL) method.

  16. Survey of Basal Stem Rot Disease on Oil Palms (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in Kebun Bukit Kijang,North Sumatera, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisnawita; Hanum, H.; Tantawi, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    Basal stem rot disease caused by Ganoderma sp. is a significant disease on oil palm plantations in Indonesia, especially in North Sumatera. Currently, the pathogen does not only attack the plants that have produced (old plants) but also attacks the plants that have not produced in the first generation yet. A survey of the distribution of the basal stem rot disease in the plantation of the community has been completed in order to illustrate the distribution and the incidence of the basal stem rot disease in 5 locations of the oil palm plantation of the community in Desa Bukit Kijang, Region of Asahan, North Sumatera, Indonesia. From the research, it is revealed that the basal stem rot disease has spread to all of the observed locations with the level of disease incidence between 0.71% in Kebun Bukit Kijang 3 to 50% in the 17 years old oil palm in Kebun Bukit Kijang 4 and Bukit Kijang 5. The observable symptoms of the basal stem rot disease are chlorotic leaves, the appearance of fruiting body, collapsed plants, and the existence of holes on the basal stem. The incidence of basal stem rot disease is higher on land due to a high sand content (>50%).

  17. The Phenylpropanoid Pathway and Lignin in Defense against Ganoderma boninense Colonized Root Tissues in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Nisha T; Mahmood, Maziah; Seman, Idris A; Wong, Mui-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Basal stem rot, caused by the basidiomycete fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is an economically devastating disease in Malaysia. Our study investigated the changes in lignin content and composition along with activity and expression of the phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes and genes in oil palm root tissues during G. boninense infection. We sampled control (non-inoculated) and infected (inoculated) seedlings at seven time points [1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-inoculation (wpi)] in a randomized design. The expression profiles of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), and peroxidase (POD) genes were monitored at 1, 2, and 3 wpi using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Seedlings at 4, 8, and 12 wpi were screened for lignin content, lignin composition, enzyme activities (PAL, CAD, and POD), growth (weight and height), and disease severity (DS). Gene expression analysis demonstrated up-regulation of PAL, CAD, and POD genes in the infected seedlings, relative to the control seedlings at 1, 2, and 3 wpi. At 2 and 3 wpi, CAD showed highest transcript levels compared to PAL and POD. DS increased progressively throughout sampling, with 5, 34, and 69% at 4, 8, and 12 wpi, respectively. Fresh weight and height of the infected seedlings were significantly lower compared to the control seedlings at 8 and 12 wpi. Lignin content of the infected seedlings at 4 wpi was significantly higher than the control seedlings, remained elicited with no change at 8 wpi, and then collapsed with a significant reduction at 12 wpi. The nitrobenzene oxidation products of oil palm root lignin yielded both syringyl and guaiacyl monomers. Accumulation of lignin in the infected seedlings was in parallel to increased syringyl monomers, at 4 and 8 wpi. The activities of PAL and CAD enzymes in the infected seedlings at DS = 5-34% were significantly higher than the control seedlings and thereafter collapsed at DS = 69%.

  18. Impact of different inclusion levels of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fronds on fatty acid profiles of goat muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, M; Rajion, M A; Goh, Y M; Sazili, A Q

    2012-12-01

    The effects of different inclusion levels of oil palm fronds (OPF) on the fatty acid profile of the longissimus dorsi (LD), biceps femoris (BF) and infraspinatus (IS) muscle of goats fed for 100 days are described. Twenty-four individually housed Kacang crossbred male goats (averaged 21.7 ± 0.97 kg BW) were allocated to three groups receiving either a 100% concentrate control diet (CON), diet with 25% inclusion level of OPF (HAF) or a diet with 50% inclusion of OPF. The diets were adjusted to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed at 3.0% of BW daily. Samples of LD, BF and IS muscles were taken at slaughter for the determination of fatty acid profiles. The total saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the LD and BF muscles of the OPF group were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than the CON group. For all muscles, C18:3n-3 and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the OPF group than the CON group with minimal impact on the C18:2n-6 and total n-6PUFA. Consequently, the n-6:n-3 ratio significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in the OPF group compared to the CON group. The LD muscle had a significantly higher conjugated linoleic acid 18:2 c19t11 compared to other muscles. There were no interactions between muscle x diet except for total SFA. It is concluded that OPF at 25-50% inclusion levels may decrease the SFA and increase the n-3PUFA content in chevon, with no apparent adverse effects on the growth performance of the animals, can be used as a feed ingredient to support goat farming in countries that lack grazing pasture. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Hubungan Metilasi DNA dengan Ekspresi Gen MADS-box pada Buah Mantel Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Anischan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The presence of mantled fruit on large-scale clonal production of oil palm had trully decreased the oil productivity. Mantled phenotype is likely to be that of an epigenetic change involving DNA methylation and the MADS-box transcription factor gene which encoded floral organ homeotic transformation. The objectives of this research were to quantify the degree of methylation which determined fruit abnormality through Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC and to study its correlation with the MADS-box EgAGL6, EgAG2, and EgAGA genes expressed on mantled fruit derived from oil palm clonal plants which have been quantified using Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR. This research was arranged in two replications for each gene and cDNA. The expression of the target genes were compared to EF1-α1 as the reference gene. Through the Least Significant Difference (LSD Test at 95% confidence level of qPCR result, EgAGL6 expression was significantly lower in mantled fruit which decreased from 1.88 fold in Abn m to 0.46 fold in Abn. EgAG2 expression was increased non-significantly from 0.91 fold in Abn m to 1.13 fold in Abn, while EgAGA expression was higher in mantled which increased significantly from 1.48 fold in Abn m to 1.71 fold  in Abn. Nuclease S1 digestion and UPLC revealed the genome-wide increase in DNA methylation on mantled fruit (18.33-19.55% compared to its normal counterparts (5.67%. This increased in global DNA methylation was showed by the significant decreased in EgAGL6 transcript level of mantled fruit. This gene assumed to be involved in the development of mantled fruit. Keywords: DNA-methylation, MADS-box genes, Mantled fruit, Quantitative Real-Time PCR

  20. Spatial variability of some soil properties varies in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations of west coastal area of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Sanjib Kumar; Suresh, Kancherla; Narsimha Rao, Bezawada; Mathur, Ravi Kumar; Shukla, Arvind Kumar; Manorama, Kamireddy; Ramachandrudu, Kummari; Harinarayana, Parasa; Prakash, Chandra

    2016-06-01

    Mapping spatial variability of soil properties is the key to efficient soil resource management for sustainable crop yield. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the spatial variability of soil properties such as acidity (pH), salinity (electrical conductivity (EC)), organic carbon, available K, available P, exchangeable Ca2+, exchangeable Mg2+, available S and hot water soluble B in surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-40 cm) soil layers of oil palm plantations in south Goa district of Goa located in west coastal area of India. A total of 128 soil samples were collected from 64 oil palm plantations of Goa located at an approximate interval of 1-2 km and analyzed. Soil was acidic to neutral in reaction. Other soil properties varied widely in both the soil layers. Correlations between soil pH and exchangeable Ca2+, between soil EC and available K, between available P and available S and between exchangeable Ca2+ and exchangeable Mg2+ in both the soil layers were found to be positive and significant (P < 0.01). Geostatistical analysis revealed a varied spatial distribution pattern for the measured soil properties. Best-fit models for measured soil properties were exponential, Gaussian, stable, K-Bessel and spherical with moderate to strong spatial dependency. The results revealed that site-specific fertilizer management options needed to be adopted in the oil palm plantations of the study area owing to variability in soil properties.

  1. SÍNTOMAS ASOCIADOS A LA DEFICIENCIA DE BORO EN LA PALMA ACEITERA (Elaeis guineensis JACQ. EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco V. Guti\\u00E9rrez-Soto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es brindar información fisiológica relativa a las funciones, la disponibilidad, la economía y la deficiencia de boro en las plantas, con énfasis en la palma aceitera cultivada en Coto, Costa Rica. Se exponen las generalidades sobre la química del boro en el suelo y en las plantas, y se discuten sus posibles funciones estructurales, metabólicas y morfogenéticas. Se resalta su papel en la formación y la estabilidad de la pared celular, el transporte de azúcares, el control de los niveles de auxinas y en el desarrollo reproductivo. Se compara la susceptibilidad relativa de las hojas y las raíces a la deficiencia de boro. Se describen los síntomas de la deficiencia de boro observados en la palma aceitera, los posibles mecanismos causales y los métodos apropiados para su diagnóstico. Se discuten además las terapias, formulaciones químicas y métodos agronómicos disponibles para su corrección.

  2. Characterization of promoter of EgPAL1, a novel PAL gene from the oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Chong Yu Lok; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi; Abu Seman, Idris; Abdullah, Mohd Puad

    2018-02-01

    The oil palm EgPAL1 gene promoter and its regulatory region were functional as a promoter in the heterologous system of Arabidopsis according to the cis-acting elements present in that region. The promoter was developmentally regulated, vascular tissue specific and responsive to water stress agents. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.24) is the key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway which plays important roles in plant development and adaptation. To date, there is no report on the study of PAL from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), an economically important oil crop. In this study, the 5' regulatory sequence of a highly divergent oil palm PAL gene (EgPAL1) was isolated and fused with GUS in Arabidopsis to create two transgenic plants carrying the minimal promoter with (2302 bp) and without its regulatory elements (139 bp). The regulatory sequence contained cis-acting elements known to be important for plant development and stress response including the AC-II element for lignin biosynthesis and several stress responsive elements. The promoter and its regulatory region were fully functional in Arabidopsis. Its activities were characterised by two common fundamental features of PAL which are responsive to plant internal developmental programme and external factors. The promoter was developmentally regulated in certain organs; highly active in young organs but less active or inactive in mature organs. The presence of the AC elements and global activity of the EgPAL1 promoter in all organs resembled the property of lignin-related genes. The existence of the MBS element and enhancement of the promoter activity by PEG reflected the behaviour of drought-responsive genes. Our findings provide a platform for evaluating oil palm gene promoters in the heterologous system of Arabidopsis and give insights into the activities of EgPAL1 promoter in oil palm.

  3. IDENTIFIKASI NON-DESTRUCTIVE KANDUNGAN TOTAL KAROTEN PADA BUAH KELAPA SAWIT (ELAEIS GUINEENSIS JACQ BERBASIS ANALISIS CITRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Malin Sutan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh proses penundaan waktu (inap terhadap kandungan total karoten pada buah kelapa sawit serta mengetahui hubungan antara indeks warna RGB, HSV dan L*a*b terhadap kandungan total karoten pada buah sawit. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan adanya pengaruh proses penundaan waktu terhadap kandungan total karoten pada buah sawit, dimana semakin lama penundaan maka kandungan total karoten juga semakin tinggi. Pola hubungan antara indeks warna RGB, HSV dan L*a*b terhadap kandungan total karoten didapatkan trend hubungan terbaik adalah naik secara eksponensial, dimana 4 parameter dengan trend hubungan terbaik adalah Saturation, value, a* dan b*.

  4. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. mediated by microprojectile bombardment of PHB biosynthesis genes into embryogenic calli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Parveez eGhulam Kadir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable plastics, mainly polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB, which are traditionally produced by bacterial cells, have been produced in the cells of more than 15 plant species. Since the production of biodegradable plastics and the synthesis of oil in plants share the same substrate, acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA, producing PHB in oil bearing crops, such as oil palm, will be advantageous. In this study, three bacterial genes, bktB, phaB and phaC, which are required for the synthesis of PHB and selectable marker gene, bar, for herbicide Basta resistant, were transformed into embryogenic calli. A number of transformed embryogenic lines resistant to herbicide Basta were obtained and were later regenerated to produce few hundred plantlets. Molecular analyses, including PCR, Southern blot and real-time PCR have demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes in the oil palm genome. HPLC and Nile Blue A staining analyses confirmed the synthesis of PHB in some of the plantlets.

  5. Analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from multiple tissues of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Weng-Wah

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm is the second largest source of edible oil which contributes to approximately 20% of the world's production of oils and fats. In order to understand the molecular biology involved in in vitro propagation, flowering, efficient utilization of nitrogen sources and root diseases, we have initiated an expressed sequence tag (EST analysis on oil palm. Results In this study, six cDNA libraries from oil palm zygotic embryos, suspension cells, shoot apical meristems, young flowers, mature flowers and roots, were constructed. We have generated a total of 14537 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from these libraries, from which 6464 tentative unique contigs (TUCs and 2129 singletons were obtained. Approximately 6008 of these tentative unique genes (TUGs have significant matches to the non-redundant protein database, from which 2361 were assigned to one or more Gene Ontology categories. Predominant transcripts and differentially expressed genes were identified in multiple oil palm tissues. Homologues of genes involved in many aspects of flower development were also identified among the EST collection, such as CONSTANS-like, AGAMOUS-like (AGL2, AGL20, LFY-like, SQUAMOSA, SQUAMOSA binding protein (SBP etc. Majority of them are the first representatives in oil palm, providing opportunities to explore the cause of epigenetic homeotic flowering abnormality in oil palm, given the importance of flowering in fruit production. The transcript levels of two flowering-related genes, EgSBP and EgSEP were analysed in the flower tissues of various developmental stages. Gene homologues for enzymes involved in oil biosynthesis, utilization of nitrogen sources, and scavenging of oxygen radicals, were also uncovered among the oil palm ESTs. Conclusion The EST sequences generated will allow comparative genomic studies between oil palm and other monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, development of gene-targeted markers for the reference genetic map, design and fabrication of DNA array for future studies of oil palm. The outcomes of such studies will contribute to oil palm improvements through the establishment of breeding program using marker-assisted selection, development of diagnostic assays using gene targeted markers, and discovery of candidate genes related to important agronomic traits of oil palm.

  6. Optimasi Dosis Pupuk Nitrogen dan Fosfor pada Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Belum Menghasilkan Umur Satu Tahun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feni Shintarika

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe accuracy of fertilizer dosage for one-year-old oil palm plants is very important. The objective of the research was to determine the optimum rates of Nitrogen and Phosphorus fertilizers for young oil palm. The experiment was conducted at IPB-Cargill Teaching Farm of Oil Palm at Jonggol, from March 2013-March 2014. This study consisted of two separate experiments namely (1 Optimizing Nitrogen and (2 Optimizing Phosphorus. Both experiments used randomized block design with one factor and three replications. The treatments were five rates of nitrogen or phosphorus (0, 135, 270, 405, 540 g N per plant; 0, 135, 270, 405, 540 g P2O5 per plant. The results showed that nitrogen fertilizer rates increased height linearly at 10 month after treatment (MAT and quadratically at 12 MAT. Stem girth, frond production and leaf area of 9th frond increased quadratically with N rates (9, 10, 12 MAT. Nitrogen fertilizer quadratically increased leaf chlorophyll content (12 MAT, but did not significantly affected leaf-N content. Phosphorus fertilizer increased palm height linearly (9, 10 MAT and quadratically (12 MAT. Phosphorus linearly increased stem girth (12 MAT and quadratically (9, 10 MAT. Frond production was quadratically increased with phosphorus rates (9, 10, 12 MAT. Phosphorus linearly increased leaf area of 9th frond (9 MAT and quadratically (12 MAT. The optimum rates of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers for one year old plant was 382 g N and 331 g P2O5 per plant, respectively.Keywords: inorganic, nutrient, optimum rates, single fertilizer

  7. The Phenylpropanoid Pathway and Lignin in Defense against Ganoderma boninense Colonized Root Tissues in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Nisha T.; Mahmood, Maziah; Seman, Idris A.; Wong, Mui-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Basal stem rot, caused by the basidiomycete fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is an economically devastating disease in Malaysia. Our study investigated the changes in lignin content and composition along with activity and expression of the phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes and genes in oil palm root tissues during G. boninense infection. We sampled control (non-inoculated) and infected (inoculated) seedlings at seven time points [1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-inoculation (wpi)] in a randomized design. The expression profiles of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), and peroxidase (POD) genes were monitored at 1, 2, and 3 wpi using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Seedlings at 4, 8, and 12 wpi were screened for lignin content, lignin composition, enzyme activities (PAL, CAD, and POD), growth (weight and height), and disease severity (DS). Gene expression analysis demonstrated up-regulation of PAL, CAD, and POD genes in the infected seedlings, relative to the control seedlings at 1, 2, and 3 wpi. At 2 and 3 wpi, CAD showed highest transcript levels compared to PAL and POD. DS increased progressively throughout sampling, with 5, 34, and 69% at 4, 8, and 12 wpi, respectively. Fresh weight and height of the infected seedlings were significantly lower compared to the control seedlings at 8 and 12 wpi. Lignin content of the infected seedlings at 4 wpi was significantly higher than the control seedlings, remained elicited with no change at 8 wpi, and then collapsed with a significant reduction at 12 wpi. The nitrobenzene oxidation products of oil palm root lignin yielded both syringyl and guaiacyl monomers. Accumulation of lignin in the infected seedlings was in parallel to increased syringyl monomers, at 4 and 8 wpi. The activities of PAL and CAD enzymes in the infected seedlings at DS = 5–34% were significantly higher than the control seedlings and thereafter collapsed at DS = 69%. PMID:28861093

  8. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) mediated by microprojectile bombardment of PHB biosynthesis genes into embryogenic calli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Bahariah, Bohari; Ayub, Nor Hanin; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Rasid, Omar Abdul; Tarmizi, Ahmad Hashim; Ishak, Zamzuri

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable plastics, mainly polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), which are traditionally produced by bacterial cells, have been produced in the cells of more than 15 plant species. Since the production of biodegradable plastics and the synthesis of oil in plants share the same substrate, acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), producing PHB in oil bearing crops, such as oil palm, will be advantageous. In this study, three bacterial genes, bktB, phaB, and phaC, which are required for the synthesis of PHB and selectable marker gene, bar, for herbicide Basta resistant, were transformed into embryogenic calli. A number of transformed embryogenic lines resistant to herbicide Basta were obtained and were later regenerated to produce few hundred plantlets. Molecular analyses, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot, and real-time PCR have demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes in the oil palm genome. HPLC and Nile blue A staining analyses confirmed the synthesis of PHB in some of the plantlets. PMID:26322053

  9. Rendimiento y calidad de semilla de pasto guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania usando la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertín Maurilio Joaquín Torres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4 en el rendimiento y calidad de semilla en Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. El experimento se realizó durante el 2001 en Tejupilco, Estado de México. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron, T1=testigo, T2=4 mg L-1 de ingrediente activo (i.a. aplicados al inicio de antesis, T3=4 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados antes del espigamiento e inicio de antesis, T4=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados al inicio de antesis, T5=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados antes del espigamiento e inicio de antesis y T6=12 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados únicamente al inicio de antesis. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar, con tres repeticiones. Se evaluó el rendimiento de semilla total (RST, rendimiento de semilla pura (RSP, número de panículas m-2, longitud de panícula, semillas producidas y cosechadas por panícula, peso de 1,000 semillas y germinación. Se detectaron diferencias (P0.05 entre tratamientos. Se concluye que la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4 incrementó el rendimiento de semilla de P. maximum cv. tanzania, independientemente de la concentración y momento de aplicación. La calidad de la semilla, no fue afectada por ninguno de los tratamientos evaluados.

  10. Composition chimique du netetu, condiment alimentaire produit par fermentation des graines de caroubier africain Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wathelet B.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of netetu, a food condiment from fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds. The seed oils and cakes of netetu of different origins available on the Senegalian market have been studied to evaluate the nutritional potentialities of this important food condiment used in many African countries. The total oil content ranged from 141 to 349 g per kg. Careful gas chromatography and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry investigations revealed seven major fatty acids among which linoleic (41.9-46.8/ of the total fatty acids, oleic (12.6-14.6/, palmitic (10.2-11.3/, stearic (10.0-13.4/, and behenic (12.6-13.4/ predominate. Significant differences were observed between fermented and non-fermented seeds as well as between netetu of different origins. The tocopherol content was found very low (17.7 to 30.6 mg per 100g fat. The total amino acid patterns showed that beside high level of proteins (331 a 540 g per kg and interesting levels of essential constituents, there is an important deficiency of tryptophane, cysteine, methionine and threonine.

  11. Comportamiento de 19 accesiones de Panicum maximum Jacq. bajo condiciones de pastoreo en un suelo de mediana fertilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Machado

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el comportamiento de 19 accesiones de Panicum maximum en suelos de mediana fertilidad. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones y parcelas de 20 m². Las rotaciones (pastoreo racional simulado se efectuaron entre 60 y 70 días (época de seca y entre 32 y 40 días (época de lluvia. Se detectó una aceptable variabilidad entre tratamientos (70,7 %. Los indicadores más variables fueron: la disponibilidad, el porcentaje de utilización, el porcentaje de hojas y la altura de las plantas. Se aplicó un análisis de conglomerados y se formaron dos grupos: tipos gigantes (grupo 1 y tipos medianos (grupo 2. Los tratamientos del grupo 1 alcanzaron una disponibilidad media de 5,0 t MS/ha/rotación y superaron en 0,7 t MS/ha/rotación a los del grupo 2. Sin embargo, estos últimos mostraron menores síntomas de clorosis (34,0 %, fueron más tolerantes a los microorganismos patógenos (25,0 % y menos afectados por la sequía (42,0 %, y presentaron mayor vigor (3,8 como media de los tres años. Se concluye que en la variabilidad tuvieron un papel fundamental la disponibilidad, la altura, el porcentaje de hojas y el porcentaje de utilización. El resto de los indicadores fue relativamente poco variable, pero también permitió enjuiciar el comportamiento de estos materiales. Se recomiendan los tipos medianos CIH-6, SIH-810 y CIH-22 como variedades precomerciales para condiciones similares a las aquí utilizadas, e incluir el tipo gigante SIH-759 en ensayos en los que se emplee el corte o el pastoreo con mayor intensidad

  12. Characterization of effluent from food processing industries and stillage treatment trial with Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. and Panicum maximum (Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Noukeu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effluents from 11 food processing industries from various sectors were characterized through analysis of physical and chemical parameters. In general, effluents pHs are between 4.07 and 7.63. Lead (Pb2+ and cadmium (Cd+ concentrations range from 0.083 to 1.025 mg/l and 0.052–0.158 mg/l respectively. The biodegradability of the effluent is very low. The principal component analysis (PCA grouped industries according to their organic matter levels; thus, stillage, livestock, molasses and sugar refinery effluents show some similarities, as well as confectionery, oil mill, dairy and brewery effluents. Forms of nitrogen measured show low levels of nitrites (NO2−, high levels of nitrates (NO3−, ammonium (NH4+ and Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN. Among these effluents, a treatment trial with Eichhornia crassipes and Panicum maximum was applied to stillage effluent from Fermencam distillery. The results show that Panicum maximum and Eichhornia crassipes reduce pollutant loads of Fermencam's wastewater.

  13. Analysis of the genetic effects for several traits in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) populations. I. Population means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, L; Cao, T V; Gallais, A

    1995-03-01

    An oil palm experiment was set up in the Ivory Coast to compare the effects of crossing and selfing within two origins, Deli and La Mé, on the mean and the variability of Deli x Mé between-origin hybrids. The originality of the experiment lay in the crossing plan, which provided access to genetic parameters related to additivity, dominance and different components of epistasis. This first part covers the analysis of the components of the mean. The parents used were obtained from four palms, two from each origin. Those of La Mé origin were half-sibs. The common parent came from a wild stand in the Ivory Coast. Those of Deli origin were from two different populations bred in Southeast Asia for several generations from a narrow genetic base. These four parents gave rise to nine Deli x La Mé hybrid populations with double-cousintype links. The additive component is more important within the Deli origin than within the La Mé origin. This may be explained by the large genetic divergence between the two Deli parent palms. On the other hand, the additive(*) additive epistasis is more substantial within the La Mé origin, probably because of inbreeding. The discussion concentrates on how this information should be used when choosing parents to be crossed and tested and to produce improved populations. The crossing plan proposed can be of general use and is suitable for other species in a reciprocal recurrent selection programme.

  14. THE QUALITY OF COMPOSITE BOARD MADE OF WASTE OIL PALM STEM (Elaeis guineensis Jacq AND RECYCLE POLYETHYLENE (PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jamilah Lubis, Iwan Risnasari, Arif Nuryawan, Fauzi Febrianto

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to find out the substitution of solid wood and it may solve environmental problem. These researches concerned on using waste of oil palm stem particle form and recycle plastic polyetyhlene (PE as raw materials for composite board. In this research, 5% Maleic Anhydride (MAH was added to increase compatibility and 0.75% Dicumyl Peroxide (DCP was added to initiate the reaction of maleolation. The methods of this research followed JIS A 5908 (2003 with ratio of plastic to particle were 50:50, 60:40 and 70:30, respectively, pressed at 30 kgf/cm2 in 165°C for 15 minutes. Evaluation on physical and mechanical properties based on JIS A 5908 (2003, and the result of physical properties as follow : 1 Density met the standard at 0.77 - 0.99 g/cm, 2 The value of moisture content were below on target and the standard because of the hidrofobicity of PE, the range were 0.79 - 3.06%, 3 Thickness swelling of the board for 24 hours fulfill the standard the value were 0.44 - 2.77%. Unfortunatelly the water absorption were 2.82 - 16.19%. Mechanical properties consist of modulus elasticity (MOE, modulus rupture (MOR and screw holding strength didn’t meet the criteria of JIS A 5908 (2003, except MOR with plastic: particle 60:40 with particle made of inner stem. Keywords: Composite board, oil palm stem, polyethylene (PE

  15. Effect of sowing time and crop geometry on the Capsaicinoid content in Bhoot Jolokia (Capsicum chinense Jacq.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moirangthem, Sanju Singh; Gogoi, Sailen; Thongbam, Premila Devi; Ramya, K T; Fiyaz, R Abdul; Pandey, D S

    2014-01-01

    Capsicum species are not only cultivated as vegetable and condiment crop but are also incorporated into a number of medicinal preparations in the ancient literature around the world. ‘Naga chilli’ or ‘Bhoot Jolokia...

  16. Ensayo de disolución para las tabletas de Tilo ® elaboradas con extracto seco de Justicia pectoralis Jacq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Rodríguez Chanfrau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el ensayo de disolución es una técnica analítica de empleo común en un laboratorio farmacéutico. Un proceso tecnológico para la elaboración de tabletas fue desarrollado. El ingrediente farmacéutico activo usado fue Tilo ® extracto seco. Objetivo: el objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar y validar un ensayo de disolución para evaluar la estabilidad y la calidad de dicho producto. Método: se utilizaron muestras de un lote experimental, un lote placebo y lotes pilotos de tabletas de Tilo ® de 100 mg. Se evaluaron como medios de disolución agua destilada y solución de ácido clorhídrico 0,1 mol/L, realizándose perfiles de disolución a 50, 75 y 100 rpm, empleándose los dos tipos de aparatos establecidos en la literatura para este ensayo (cesta y paleta. El contenido de cumarina fue analizado por HPLC. El ensayo fue validado según la USP. Resultados: los resultados mostraron que el agua destilada fue un medio de disolución adecuado, alcanzándose porcientos de disolución de la droga por encima del 85 % a los 30 minutos, no existiendo diferencias significativas entre los tipos de aparatos recomendados por la USP. Mientras que, los perfiles de disolución a diferentes tiempos y velocidades de agitación mostraron una liberación gradual del principio activo en el tiempo, donde a medida que se incrementa la velocidad de agitación, se incrementa el porcentaje de disolución de la droga en el medio. La validación del ensayo demostró que el mismo era específico y preciso. Conclusiones: se estableció como ensayo de disolución las siguientes condiciones de trabajo: Aparato: paleta, 100 rpm; medio: agua destilada, 500 mL; tiempo: 60 minutos y Temperatura: 37 ± 0,5 ºC.

  17. Sechium edule (Jacq. Swartz, a New Cultivar with Antiproliferative Potential in a Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Salazar-Aguilar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sechium edule Perla Negra cultivar is a recently-obtained biological material whose progenitors are S. edule var. nigrum minor and S. edule var. amarus silvestrys, the latter of which has been reported to have antiproliferative activity against the HeLa P-388 and L-929 cancer cell lines. The present study aimed to determine if the methanolic extract of the fruit of the Perla Negra cultivar had the same biological activity. The methanolic extract was phytochemically characterized by thin layer chromatography (TLC and column chromatography (CC, identifying the terpenes and flavonoids. The compounds identified via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were Cucurbitacins B, D, E, and I for the terpene fractions, and Rutin, Phlorizidin, Myricetin, Quercetin, Naringenin, Phloretin, Apigenin, and Galangin for the flavonoid fractions. Biological activity was evaluated with different concentrations of the methanolic extract in the HeLa cell line and normal lymphocytes. The methanolic extract inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells (IC50 1.85 µg·mL−1, but the lymphocytes were affected by the extract (IC50 30.04 µg·mL−1. Some fractions, and the pool of all of them, showed inhibition higher than 80% at a concentration of 2.11 µg·mL−1. Therefore, the biological effect shown by the methanolic extract of the Perla Negra has some specificity in inhibiting tumor cells and not normal cells; an unusual feature among molecules investigated as potential biomedical agents.

  18. Hongos causantes de enfermedades postcosecha en chayote (Sechium edule(Jacq. SW. y su control in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siul D. Romero Velazquez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El fruto de chayote (Sechium edule (Jaqc. Sw. es una hortaliza de exportación de importancia para México y Costa Rica. El proceso comercial exige cumplir con estándares de calidad, que implican frutos sanos y libres de defectos. Sin embargo, debido a las condiciones de alta humedad que se desarrollan en los frutos empacados en películas plásticas, se han presentado rechazos en el mercado de exportación, por la presencia de enfermedades fungosas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar morfológica (microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido y molecularmente (PCR: Polimerase Chain Reaction las especies de hongos causales de las principales enfermedades postcosecha de chayote en frutos infectados procedentes de huertas comerciales para exportación, así como probar in vitro la efectividad de diversos productos comerciales en la inhibición del crecimiento de dichos hongos. Los resultados mostraron a Didymella bryoniae como el causante de “gomosis de las cucurbitáceas” y a Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani como causales de fusariosis o ahogamiento de guías; estos patógenos dañan la parte basal y media de frutos comerciales, además de Chaetomium globosum, un asociado al proceso infeccioso de Fusariumsp., como saprófito no patógeno. La inoculación con Bacillus subtilis presentó una inhibición efectiva (0,01 mg.l-1 i.a en las pruebas in vitro contra Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani; el fungicida más efectivo contra los 2 primeros fue Tebuconazole-trifloxystrobin, con una DL50 de 0,0116 y 0,0106 mg.l-1 respectivamente; no así contra F. solani, cuyo mayor control fue registrado con procloraz, con DL50 de 0,0042 mg.l-1. Estos resultados contribuyen al reconocimiento de las enfermedades fungosas más importantes en chayote y su perspectiva de control durante el manejo postcosecha de frutos para exportación.

  19. Effet de la jachére sur l'expérimentation de la fusariose vasculaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effet de la jachére sur l'expérimentation de la fusariose vasculaire du palmier à huile ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq ) : Effects of the fallow in the expression of oil-palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq ) vascular wilt.

  20. Nutrient and anti-nutritional constituents of Penisetum purpureum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nutritional constituents of some tree plants (Ficus sur, Bridelia macarrantii, Gmelina arborea and Albizia saman) and forage grass (Penisetum purpureum) in south- western Nigeria. Results indicated significant (P<0.05) variability in values of ...

  1. Spatial Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    2001), Las Vegas, June 2001. [BRM+99] Jonathan Babb, Martin Rinard, Csaba Andras Moritz, Walter Lee, Matthew Frank Rajeev Barua, and Saman...Springer Verlag. [CA88] David E. Culler and Arvind. Resource requirements of dataflow programs. In International Symposium on Computer Architecture...Rajeev Barua, Matthew Frank, Devabhaktuni Srikrishna, Jonathan Babb, Vivek Sarkar, and Saman Amarasinghe. Space-time scheduling of instruction-level

  2. Acute oral toxicity and cytotoxicological evaluation of the ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity and cytotoxicity of ethanol extract of Samanea tubulosa (EESt) pods were evaluated in Swiss mice. Acute toxicity studies were conducted based on OECD guidelines 420, where the limit test dose was 5000 mg/kg. Observation was made and recorded systemically for 1, 2, 4 and 24 h after the administration of ...

  3. Possible sources of genetic resistance in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) to basal stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense--prospects for future breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Gasselin, T; Asmady, H; Flori, A; Jacquemard, J C; Hayun, Z; Breton, F; de Franqueville, H

    2005-01-01

    Oil palm estates in southeast Asia suffer from substantial losses due to basal stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense. Field observations have been carried out in North Sumatra, Indonesia, on a series of planting materials of known origin. Differences in susceptibility to the disease have been detected within the two Elaeis species, guineensis and oleifera. Within Elaeis guineensis, material of Deli origin is highly susceptible compared to material of African origin. It is also possible to detect differences in reaction between parents and between crosses within a given origin. The variability of resistance to basal stem rot within the same cross is also illustrated by the diverse responses of clones derived from palms of the same origin. The prospects opened up by these results are discussed, and the importance of performing an early selection test is highlighted.

  4. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content in Fruit Tissues from Accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero Pepper at Different Stages of Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth A. Castro-Concha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k’an-iik (orange and MR8H (red, at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC value of 55.59 μmols TE g−1 FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27 g GAE 100 g−1 FW. The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities.

  5. Topical Analgesic Nanolipid Vesicles Formulation of Capsaicinoids Extract of Bhut Jolokia (Capsicum chinense Jacq): Pharmacodynamic Evaluation in Rat Models and Acceptability studies in Human Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwa, Khomendra Kumar; Mazumder, Bhaskar; Suresh, Preeti K; Kaur, Chanchal Deep

    2016-01-01

    Capsicum fruit is used for treating skeletomuscular disorders as a counterirritant analgesic around the globe. But its concentration-dependent irritation and concomitant withdrawal of therapy by the patients hampers its therapeutic usefulness. In the present study, a novel nanolipid approach based on elastic phospholipid vesicles was employed to encapsulate a semipurified extract of Bhut Jolokia for topical drug delivery application. The working hypothesis was that encapsulation of irritant extract into nanolipid vesicles may prevent the initial rejection of formulation and the elastic vesicles may facilitate deeper skin penetration over a shorter time period. Surface response methodology was adopted to study the effect of selected independent formulation variables on dependent variables like vesicle size and entrapment efficacy. The prepared formulations were characterized for various physicochemical parameters. The efficacy of the newly developed nonolipid vesicle formulation loaded with semipurified extract of Bhut Jolokia was tested on carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced inflammation as well as Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis model. The novel formulations were tested on human volunteers in a Phase I clinical trial and were found to be acceptable. The study indicates that this strategy holds immense potential for topical delivery of the bioactive from Bhut Jolokia and can pave the way for its clinical applications.

  6. Capsaicinoids, amino acid and fatty acid profiles in different fruit components of the world hottest Naga king chilli (Capsicum chinense Jacq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthan, R; Subhash, K; Longvah, T

    2018-01-01

    The world hottest Naga king chilli is cultivated and consumed in Northeast India. Capsaicinoids, amino acids and fatty acids were studied in fruit and fruit components of Naga king chilli. Capsaicinoid content was increased in each ripening stage and maximum level was observed at red color fruits. Total protein and fat content of placenta was 19.41 and 20.36% respectively. Capsaicinoids of placenta (7.35±2.241%) was higher followed by seed (3.83±1.358%) and pericarp (2.91±0.667%). Similarly, essential amino acid content was also higher in placenta compared to other components. Amino acid score ranged from 37 to 38 with cystine and methionine as limiting amino acid. Low level of palmitic, stearic and α-linolenic acid and very high level of linoleic acid were found in seeds. Total polyunsaturates of seeds were higher followed by whole fruit. Naga king chilli is unique due to its high capsaicinoid content and it offers potential crop for the future exploitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pendugaan Cadangan Karbon Pada Tegakan Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Umur 15 Tahun di Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Putri Hijau, Besitang Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Sitanggang, Guswinda Nasari

    2015-01-01

    Forests absorb CO2 during photosynthesis and store it as organic matter in biomass plants, as well as oil palm plantations. This study aimed were to : (1) obtain a model Allometric estimation of carbon stocks in vegetation potential of oil palm plantations in North Sumatra; (2) to obtain the potential carbon stocks in forest conversion to oil palm plantations in North Sumatra. This research was conducted in the area of Oil Palm Putri Hijau, Besitang North Sumatra. The research was carried out...

  8. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in fruit tissues from accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero pepper) at different stages of ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Tuyub-Che, Jemina; Moo-Mukul, Angel; Vazquez-Flota, Felipe A; Miranda-Ham, Maria L

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k'an-iik (orange) and MR8H (red), at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 55.59 μmols TE g(-1) FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27 g GAE 100 g(-1) FW). The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities.

  9. The exotic palm Roystonea oleracea (Jacq. O. F. Cook (Arecaceae on an island within the Atlantic Forest Biome: naturalization and influence on seedling recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Zucaratto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Here, we investigated the population structure of the exotic palm Roystonea oleracea in a swamp on an island within the Atlantic Forest Biome, evaluating its influence on the seedling recruitment of other plant species. The population structure was analyzed in six 4 × 30 m plots, within which we categorized all individuals by ontogenetic stage. The influence of R. oleracea on the seedling recruitment of other plant species was evaluated in 2 × 2 m plots established beneath palm crowns and in adjacent areas without palms. We recorded 53 R. oleracea individuals. The majority (56.6% of the R. oleracea population was composed of immature adults, followed by mature adults. The density, richness and diversity of seedling species differed significantly between areas beneath and away from palms, the values being lower beneath R. oleracea crowns. Our results indicate that R. oleracea recruitment does not require human intervention, the number of reproductive individuals characterizing successful naturalization. This underscores the need for management policies aimed at palm eradication in order to avoid reductions in biodiversity.

  10. The growth and saponin production of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq. A. DC. (Chinese bellflower hairy roots cultures maintained in shake flasks and mist bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Urbańska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth and saponin accumulation were measured in two lines of transgenic hairy roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, Pl 6 and Pl 17, cultured for 8 weeks in 250-ml shake flasks containing 50 ml of hormone-free woody plant medium supplemented with 40 g/l sucrose and in the Pl 17 line cultured for 12 weeks in a 5-l mist bioreactor containing 1.5 l of the same medium. With both methods, the growth of transgenic hairy roots was assessed as both fresh and dry weight and the biomass growth was correlated with the conductivity and sucrose uptake. The accumulation of saponins was measured and compared with that in roots derived from the field cultivation. The saponin concentrations were significantly higher in the two hairy root lines cultured in shake flasks [6.92 g/100 g d.w. (g% and 5.82 g% in Pl 6 and Pl 17, respectively] and the line cultured in the bioreactor (5.93 g% than in the roots derived from the field cultivation (4.02 g%. The results suggest that cultures of P. grandiflorum hairy roots may be a valuable source for obtaining saponins.

  11. Effect of phosphate - solubilizing bacteria and compost on the nutritional characteristics of the oil palm crop (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. in Casanare, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaría García

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with interest to include biological practices in fertilization programs for commercially important crops, the effect of a bioinoculant application based on phosphate solubilizing bacteria along with compost was evaluated on oil palm cultivation in the nursery stage and in a definitive area. The five treatments that were evaluated included: (C compost, (CQ compost and chemical fertilizers 50/50, (IC compost and inoculant, (IQ chemical fertilizers and inoculant and (ICQ inoculant, compost and chemical fertilizers 50/50; as a positive control it was used a plant group fertilized with traditional chemical compounds. Organic matter was added at 2% (w/w at nursery stage and 15 kg/plant in the definitive area. Response variables includedagronomic variables were evaluated (total height, height to bifurcation, bulb diameter and number of leaves and soil physicochemical variables (pH, oxidizable organic carbon (OOC, extractable phosphorus and total boron, measured during 8 months in the nursery area and 6 months in the definitive area. The results showed that the evaluated compost constitutes an alternative for palm fertilization in the definitive area, as source of nutrients that meet crop demand at this stage of the crop, matching the nutritional levels of the control plants (P≥0.005. Meanwhile, in the nursery area, chemical fertilization is essential to ensure the quality of the plants during the first stage of growth, since, at this stage, plants require high amount of N, which is not supplied by the compost. Finally, it was not possible to demonstrate the promoting effect of the microbial inoculant on plant growth, so it is necessary to complement this research in regard to this product

  12. Direct online extraction and determination by supercritical fluid extraction with chromatography and mass spectrometry of targeted carotenoids from red Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Mariosimone; Giuffrida, Daniele; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2017-10-01

    Recently, supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry has gained attention as a fast and useful technology applied to the carotenoids analysis. However, no reports are available in the literature on the direct online extraction and determination by supercritical fluid extraction with chromatography and mass spectrometry. The aim of this research was the development of an online method coupling supercritical fluid extraction and supercritical fluid chromatography for a detailed targeted native carotenoids characterization in red habanero peppers. The online nature of the system, compared to offline approaches, improves run-to-run precision, enables the setting of batch-type applications, and reduces the risks of sample contamination. The extraction has been optimized using different temperatures, starting from 40°C up to 80°C. Multiple extractions, until depletion, were performed on the same sample to evaluate the extraction yield. The range of the first extraction yield, carried out at 80°C, which was the best extraction temperature, was 37.4-65.4%, with a %CV range of 2-12. Twenty-one targeted analytes were extracted and identified by the developed methodology in less than 17 min, including free, monoesters, and diesters carotenoids, in a very fast and efficient way. Quantification of the β-carotene was carried out by using the optimized conditions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Compositional variation of the essential oils of Artemisia afra Jacq. from three provinces in South Africa--a case study of its safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedeji, Adebola O; Afolayan, Anthony J; Hutchings, Anne

    2009-06-01

    Safety of Artemisia afar has been a controversial issue due to its high thujone content. Despite the declaration of the World Health Organization in the 1970s of the plant being unsafe for consumption, it is still commonly used in folklore medication in South Africa, especially in winter. Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from the twigs of A. afra plants from different locations in the Eastern Cape, Free State and KwaZulu-Natal. Analyses of the oils by GC and GCMS revealed compositional variations in the levels of alpha-and beta-thujone, 1,8-cineole and camphor. alpha-Thujone was the major component of the essential oils ofA. afra from Philippolis (Free State) and Keiskammahoek (Eastern Cape) (62-74%), while the camphor content was very low (thujone contents (3.7-20.0%) while 1,8-cineole (13.0-49.5%) and camphor (13.9-21.2%) were the main components of the essential oils. It was further observed that the concentration of alpha-thujone increased significantly in the dry leaves when compared with the fresh leaves. This implies that fresh leaves are better used for infusion than dry leaves. This study reveals that not all A. afra contain high concentrations of alpha- and beta-thujone.

  14. Ciclo de vida, hábitos y enemigos naturales de Omiodes martynalis Lederer (Lep. Pyralidae en matarratón (Gliricidia sepium, Jacq. Stend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrero C. H.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en el laboratorio de Entomología de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia y en el perímetro urbano y rural de la ciudad de Palmira. Para estudiar el estado oval, se usaron jaulas de cría, en el laboratorio y en el campo. Para iniciar el estudio larval se colectaron 30 posturas en el campo, se colocaron en cámaras de eclosión y se les suministró una dieta natural (hojas de Gliricidia sepium y otra artificial la cual no fue aceptada por las larvas. Para la alimentación con la dieta natural se escogieron al azar 1000 larvas con las cuales se inició los estudios de instares, estado prepupal, pupal y adulto. Para el estudio de los hábitos las observaciones se hicieron en el laboratorio y en el campo. Los enemigos naturales se buscaron mediante muestreo en huevos, larvas y pupas tanto en campo como en laboratorio. La postura es ovoidea, de 8.5 ± 0.5 mm de diámetro mayor y 5.3 ± 0.7 mm de diámetro menor, en sus estados iniciales de coloración amarillenta. Oviposita en promedio 324 huevos los cuales se incuban en 7 días. Los instares larvales duraron en promedio 6,4,3,4 y 6 días y su tamaño fue de 2.1, 4.8, 4.8 - 8.5, 10.8 - 16.2 Y 16.2 - 31.0 mm. La prepupa es verde clara, con tamaño promedio de 18 mm y duración promedia de 1.9 días. La pupa es tipo obteta, con un tamaño promedio para el macho y la hembra de 16.5 y 15 mm respectivamente, el macho presenta el ano y el gonoporo en los segmentos 10 y 9 respectivamente; en las hembras el ano se encuentra en ello segmento y el gonoporo está proyectado desde la sutura que separa el noveno segmento hasta la del octavo. En el estado adulto los machos son de color más oscuro, de menor tamaño y de tórax más abultado que las hembras.This study was performed in the entomology laboratory of the National University of Colombia at Palmira, and the urban perimeter and the rural zone of the city of Palmira. To study the egg stage rearing cages were used in the laboratory and outdoors, to promote the adults to layout eggs. To study the larval stage there were 30 eggs colected in the field and they were led into chamber, trying out two diferents diets. There were 1000 larvae in their first instar to study development during the following instars, pupal and adult stage. The average of eggs is the 324 and yellowish color. Incubation period was about 7 days. Instar last in average 6, 4, 3, 4 Y 6 days respectively average sizes for each one were of 2.1- 4.8; 4.8 - 8.5; 10,8 - 16.2 and 16.2 - 31.0 respectively. Pre-pupa is light green, average size of 18 mm and average life of 1.9 days. Pupa is obtect, with an average size for males of 16.5 mm and for females of 15 mm. During the adult stage males and females are morphologically different, male are darker and smaller and the dorsal segment of the torax is wider.

  15. Protective effect of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. ethanolic extracts in oxidant-induced DNA damage evaluated through comet assay with human peripheral lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao C. M. Barreira

    2015-06-01

    The results showed significant differences within the assessed botanical parts and also among the assayed concentrations. The performed investigation might be considered as representing a step further in the evaluation of the in vivo bioactive potential of this highly promising species. Furthermore, it has established some practical bases for the evaluation of additional natural matrices with high scoring in bioactivity screening studies.

  16. Immunological study on the wall proteins of different fruiting portions in Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer and Agaricus bisporus (Lge.) Sing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, G; Marchi, A; Gerola, F M

    1983-01-01

    Immunological techniques are useful to clarify the sistematic scheme utilized for mushrooms. By comparing the various fruiting portions, a different composition in protein was observed in the cell wall of spores, pileus and stipe. The differences were present both in Agaricus bisporus and in Pleurotus ostreatus. The results indicate that a well definite choice of the utilized portions is necessary for comparative studies. In the Basidiomycetes the meiospores represent the more useful development stage to carry out immunological comparisons.

  17. Effects of feeding ground pods of Enterolobium cyclocarpum Jacq. Griseb on dry matter intake, rumen fermentation, and enteric methane production by Pelibuey sheep fed tropical grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albores-Moreno, S; Alayón-Gamboa, J A; Ayala-Burgos, A J; Solorio-Sánchez, F J; Aguilar-Pérez, C F; Olivera-Castillo, L; Ku-Vera, J C

    2017-04-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of supplementing ground pods of Enterolobium cyclocarpum in a basal ration of Pennisetum purpureum grass on feed intake, rumen volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and protozoa and methane (CH 4 ) production by hair sheep. Four male sheep (Pelibuey × Katahdin) with a mean live weight of 27.0 kg (SD ± 0.5) were supplemented with 0.00, 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 kg of dry matter (DM) of E. cyclocarpum pods daily; equivalent to 0.00, 4.35, 8.70, and 13.05 g of crude saponins, respectively. Dry matter intake (DMI), organic matter intake (OMI), and molar proportions of propionic acid increased linearly (P sheep fed tropical grass, it is advisable to supplement the basal ration with up to 0.30 kg DM of E. cyclocarpum pods.

  18. Isolation and characterization of differentially expressed transcripts from the suspension cells of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in response to different concentration of auxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roowi, Siti Habsah; Ho, Chai-Ling; Alwee, Sharifah Shahrul Rabiah Syed; Abdullah, Meilina Ong; Napis, Suhaimi

    2010-09-01

    Oil palm suspension cultures were initiated by transferring the gel-like friable embryogenic tissue onto liquid medium supplemented with auxins. In this study, transcripts that were differentially expressed in oil palm suspension cells cultured at different auxin concentrations were examined using suppression subtractive hybridization. Total RNA was first isolated from oil palm suspension cells proliferated in liquid medium with different hormone concentrations for 6 months. Four different hormone combinations: T1 (0.1 mg/l 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/l NAA), T2 (0.4 mg/l 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/l NAA), T3 (1.0 mg/l NAA), and T4 (0.4 mg/l 2,4-D) were used for the treatments. The first and second subtractions were performed using samples T1 and T2 in forward and reverse order. The other two subtractions were forward and reverse subtractions of T3 and T4, respectively. Reverse northern analyses showed that 14.13% of these clones were preferentially expressed in T1, 13.70% in T2, 14.75% in T3, and 15.70% in T4. Among the 294 cDNA clones that were sequenced, 61 contigs (assembled from 165 sequences) and 129 singletons were obtained. Among the 61 contigs, 10 contigs consist of sequences from treatment T1, 8 contigs were from treatment T2, 10 contigs were contains sequences of treatment T3 and 13 contigs contains sequences of treatment T4. Northern analyses of five transcripts that were shown to be differentially expressed in the oil palm suspension cells by reverse northern analysis revealed that transcripts 16A1 (a putative lignostilbene-alpha,beta-dioxygenase, EgLSD) and 16H12 (a putative ethylene responsive 6, EgER6) were differentially expressed in oil palm suspension cells treated with different levels of auxin.

  19. Effect of fruit ripening on content and chemical composition of oil from three oil palm cultivars (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) grown in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Fausto; Ayala-Diaz, Iván M; Delgado, Wilman; Ruiz-Romero, Rodrigo; Romero, Hernán M

    2011-09-28

    A series of physical and chemical changes occur as oil palm fruits ripen in the bunch. We evaluated changes in lipid content in the mesocarp and fruits, and the chemical composition of fatty acids (FA), triacylglycerol (TAG), tocols, and carotenes of the lipids extracted from fruits of three commercial tenera cultivars, namely, Deli×La Mé, Deli×Ekona, and Deli×Avros, planted in two different geographical regions in Colombia, during the ripening process 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, and 24 weeks after anthesis (WAA). It was found that 12 WAA the mesocarp contained less than 6% of total lipids. Oil content increased rapidly after 16 WAA, reaching the maximum oil content of 55% in fresh mesocarp and 47% in fresh fruits at 22 WAA, which was found the optimal time for harvesting. Changes in FA and TAG showed that total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and triunsaturated triacylglycerols (TUTAG) decreased, while total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and disaturated triacylglycerols (DSTAG) increased, over the ripening period. Changes in FA were mainly observed in palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids, and in POP, POO, POL, and OLL for the TAGs evaluated. Levels of tocols changed depending on whether they were tocopherols or tocotrienols. In the earliest stages tocopherols were predominant but decreased rapidly from 6600 mg kg(-1) of oil at 14 WAA to 93 mg kg(-1) of oil at 22 WAA. Tocotrienols appeared at the same time as oil synthesis started, and became the main source of total tocols, equivalent to 87% in total lipids extracted.

  20. USO DE WINRHIZO® EN LA CUANTIFICACIÓN DE LAS RAÍCES Y SU APLICACIÓN EN LA PALMA ACEITERA (Elaeis guineensis JACQ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco V. Guti\\u00E9rrez-Soto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta nota técnica es introducir el uso de WinRhizo ® para el análisis cuantitativo de muestras del sistema radical de los cultivos en general y de la palma aceitera en particular. Se mencionan las características mor - fológicas, topológicas y funcionales de las raíces de impor - tancia agronómica, y la contribución del análisis cuantitativo realizado por paquetes informáticos especializados como WinRhizo ® . La información sobre la topología, la morfolo - gía, el diámetro, las ramificaciones y el color de las raíces, entre otras variables cuantificadas por WinRhizo ® , es una importante herramienta para el diagnóstico, la prevención y el tratamiento del estrés, y en la evaluación de numerosas prácticas agronómicas como la aplicación de fertilizantes, enmiendas, compostas y coberturas de diversos tipos. Se revisa el procedimiento para el procesamiento de raíces y se indican los ajustes necesarios para la cuantificación de las raíces de la palma aceitera.

  1. Overexpression of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) TAPETUM DEVELOPMENT1-like Eg707 in rice affects cell division and differentiation and reduces fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuc, Le Vinh; Geelen, Danny; Ky, Huynh; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Napis, Suhaimi B; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Namasivayam, Parameswari

    2013-02-01

    The functional analysis of the TAPETUM DEVELOPMENT1-like analog Eg707 of oil palm was carried out in rice by over-expressing Eg707 under the control of a double cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Ectopic expression of Eg707 in rice induced dark green and matured compact brownish calli compared to pale wild type and negative control calli. Regenerated transgenic rice plants exhibited a reduction in organ size and plant height, rolled, erect leaves, less tillers, increased chlorophyll content, and reduced fertility with smaller green seeds. At the molecular level Eg707 overexpression caused an increase in the transcription of SAPK9, a SnRK2 protein kinase family member that is activated by ABA and hyperosmotic stress. Together, the results show that ectopic Eg707 expression influences cell division and differentiation, presumably via altered hormone homeostasis.

  2. In vitro somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration from immature male inflorescence of adult dura and tenera palms of Elaeis guineensis (Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Madhavan; Susanthi, Bollarapu; Murali Mohan, Nandiganti; Mandal, Pranab Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We report here a method for plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis from explants collected from immature male inflorescence of adult oil palm cultivated in India. Callus induction was successful from tissues of immature male inflorescence collected from both dura and tenera varieties of oil palm. A modified Y3 (Eeuwens) media supplemented with several additives and activated charcoal (3%) were used for the experiments. Out of four different auxin treatments, 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid (picloram) produced maximum callus induction (82%) and it was not significantly different from 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and a combination of 2,4-D + picloram. The callus induction obtained with auxin α-naphthalene acetic acid was only 54% and it was significantly low as compared to the other treatments. Highest embryogenesis was obtained with a combination of 2,4-D + picloram (4.9%) followed by picloram (3.4%). Genotypic variation in response to the same auxins was observed both for callus induction and embryogenesis. Callus induction and embryogenesis ranged from 42 to 72% and 6.8 to 9.35%, respectively in tenera. The formation of embryogenic calli was marked by the appearance of white to yellowish globular or nodular structures which subsequently formed clear somatic embryos. Somatic embryogenesis was asynchronous and at one time we could find different stages of embryogenesis like the globular, torpedo and the cotyledonary stages. The somatic embryos when exposed to light in the same basal media along with 6-benzyladenine (18 µM), abscisic acid (3.78 µM) and gibberellic acid (5.78 µM) regenerated into plantlets. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report o f callus induction and somatic embryogenesis from immature male inflorescence of oil palm.

  3. Development, identification and validation of CAPS marker for SHELL trait which governs dura, pisifera and tenera fruit forms in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, B Kalyana; Mathur, R K; Kumar, P Naveen; Ramajayam, D; Ravichandran, G; Venu, M V B; Babu, S Sparjan

    2017-01-01

    The oil palm fruit forms (dura, pisifera and tenera) governed by the shell thickness gene (Sh) plays a major role in identification of fruit type and also influences palm oil yield. Identification of desired fruit type is a major asset to the breeders and oil palm workers for applications in breeding, seed certification and to reduce time, space and money spent on identification of fruit form. In the present study, we developed Sh gene specific primer pairs and bulk segregant analysis was done using 300 genomic and 8 genic SSR markers. We identified one cleaved amplified polymorphic site (CAPS) marker for differentiation of oil palm fruit type which produced two alleles (280 and 250bp) in dura genotypes, three alleles in tenera genotypes (550, 280, and 250bp) and one allele in pisifera genotypes (550bp). The shell allele sequencing results showed that two SNPs were present, of which SNP2 contributed for variation of fruit forms. The nucleotide 'A' was present in only dura genotypes, where as 'T' was present only in pisifera genotypes, which in turn led to the change of amino acid lysine to aspargine. The identified CAPS marker was validated on 300 dura, 25 pisifera and 80 tenera genotypes, 80 dura/ pisifera cross progenies and 60 lines of tenera/ tenera cross progeny. Association mapping of marker data with phenotypic data of eight oil yield related traits resulted in identification of seven significant QTLs by GLM approach, four by MLM approach at a significant threshold (P) level of 0.001. Significant QTLs were identified for fruit to bunch and oil to bunch traits, which explained R2 of 12.9% and 11.5% respectively. The CAPS marker used in the present study facilitate selection and timely distribution of desirable high yielding tenera sprouts to the farmers instead of waiting for 4-5 years. This saves a lot of land, time and money which will be a major breakthrough to the oil palm community.

  4. In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of three herbal remedies for malaria in Ghana: Adenia cissampeloides (Planch.) Harms., Termina liaivorensis A. Chev, and Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Kofi; Sarpong, K; Asare, C; Dickson, R; Amponsah, Ki; Gyan, B; Ofori, M; Gbedema, Sy

    2012-10-01

    Herbal remedies of Adenia cissampeloides, Terminalia ivorensis, and Elaeis guineensis among others have been used in Ghana for the treatment of various ailments including malaria. However, most of these remedies have not been scientifically investigated. This study, therefore, seeks to investigate the anti-plasmodial activity of these plants. The ethanolic extracts of A. cissampeloides stem, T. ivorensis stem bark, and E. guineensis leaves were tested for in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Thin blood films were used to assess the level of parasitemia and growth inhibition of the extracts. The IC (50) of A. cissampeloides, T. ivorensis, and E. guineensis were 8.521, 6.949, and 1.195 μg/ml, respectively, compared to artesunate with IC(50) of 0.031 μg/ml. The result of this study appears to confirm the folkloric anti-malarial use these plants.

  5. ANALISIS ENERGI MASUKAN-KELUARAN PADA PROSES PRODUKSI KELAPA SAWIT (Elaesis guineensis jacq. Input-Output Energy Analyisis in Oil Palm Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Haryanto

    2012-03-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis energi masukan-keluaran dan mengidentifikasi kemungkinan penghematan energi pada proses budidaya kelapa sawit. Penelitian dilakukan di PTPN VII Unit Usaha Rejosari, Lampung Selatan dengan mengamati semua energi yang digunakan dan dihasilkan. Energi masukan terdiri dari tenaga manusia, bahan bakar, energi tidak langsung dari pupuk, pestisida, dan alat-mesin pertanian. Energi keluaran berasal dari tandan buah segar (TBS dengan komponen minyak sawit, minyak inti sawit, serat, cangkang, dan tandan kosong, serta pelepah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa budidaya kelapa sawit memerlukan energi masukan sebesar 57,63 GJ.ha-1  dan menghasilkan energi 339,14 GJ.ha-1. Sebagian besar energi masukan adalah penggunaan pupuk yang mencapai 31,22 GJ.ha-1  (54,18 % dari total energi masukan. Berdasarkan tahapan budidaya, maka pemeliharaan tanaman produktif memerlukan energi yang paling besar yaitu 33,06 GJ.ha-1  (57,37 %. Budidaya kelapa sawit menghasilkan energi neto 281,51 GJ.ha-1 dengan rasio energi 5,88, produktivitas energi 0,258 kg TBS/MJ, dan intensitas energi 3,87 MJ/kg TBS.   Kata kunci: Analisis energi, energi masukan, energi keluaran, indikator energi

  6. Development, identification and validation of CAPS marker for SHELL trait which governs dura, pisifera and tenera fruit forms in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, B. Kalyana; Mathur, R. K.; Kumar, P. Naveen; Ramajayam, D.; Ravichandran, G.; Venu, M. V. B.; Babu, S. Sparjan

    2017-01-01

    The oil palm fruit forms (dura, pisifera and tenera) governed by the shell thickness gene (Sh) plays a major role in identification of fruit type and also influences palm oil yield. Identification of desired fruit type is a major asset to the breeders and oil palm workers for applications in breeding, seed certification and to reduce time, space and money spent on identification of fruit form. In the present study, we developed Sh gene specific primer pairs and bulk segregant analysis was done using 300 genomic and 8 genic SSR markers. We identified one cleaved amplified polymorphic site (CAPS) marker for differentiation of oil palm fruit type which produced two alleles (280 and 250bp) in dura genotypes, three alleles in tenera genotypes (550, 280, and 250bp) and one allele in pisifera genotypes (550bp). The shell allele sequencing results showed that two SNPs were present, of which SNP2 contributed for variation of fruit forms. The nucleotide ‘A’ was present in only dura genotypes, where as ‘T’ was present only in pisifera genotypes, which in turn led to the change of amino acid lysine to aspargine. The identified CAPS marker was validated on 300 dura, 25 pisifera and 80 tenera genotypes, 80 dura/ pisifera cross progenies and 60 lines of tenera/ tenera cross progeny. Association mapping of marker data with phenotypic data of eight oil yield related traits resulted in identification of seven significant QTLs by GLM approach, four by MLM approach at a significant threshold (P) level of 0.001. Significant QTLs were identified for fruit to bunch and oil to bunch traits, which explained R2 of 12.9% and 11.5% respectively. The CAPS marker used in the present study facilitate selection and timely distribution of desirable high yielding tenera sprouts to the farmers instead of waiting for 4–5 years. This saves a lot of land, time and money which will be a major breakthrough to the oil palm community. PMID:28192462

  7. Efeito de diferentes meios nutritivos e fitorreguladores visando à otimização da calogênese de Annona mucosa (Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.J.S. Barboza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Annona mucosa é uma árvore frutífera da família Annonaceae, produtora de importantes metabólitos secundários de interesse medicinal, como lignanas, acetogeninas e alcaloides. A cultura in vitro de calos representa um importante recurso para a produção contínua de metabólitos, viabilizando a conservação da biodiversidade química e a obtenção controlada de material para estudos biológicos e fitoquímicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi otimizar a produção de calos friáveis de A. mucosa, avaliando o efeito de diferentes meios nutritivos e fitorreguladores. Segmentos de folha e de hipocótilo de plântulas germinadas in vivo foram utilizados como explantes e inoculados nos meios de cultura MS, WPM e B5 suplementados com picloram (2 - 20µM isolado ou combinado com as citocininas BAP, KIN ou TDZ (0,2 - 1µM. As culturas foram mantidas a 26±2ºC, no escuro, com subcultivos mensais. A produção de calos foi avaliada por aferição do peso dos calos, após 90 dias. Em todos os tratamentos na presença da auxina picloram, o cultivo de hipocótilos resultou em maior porcentagem de formação de calos, sobretudo no meio de cultura WPM. A associação com TDZ produziu massa calogênica friável altamente proliferativa e ausente de oxidação, alcançando valores superiores àqueles obtidos em trabalhos prévios com a espécie. Os resultados viabilizam o uso do material em suspensões celulares e posterior caracterização fitoquímica para a exploração da produção in vitro de metabólitos da espécie.

  8. Fatty Acids Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Aristolochia longa L. and Bryonia dioïca Jacq. Growing Wild in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhouioui, Mouna; Boulila, Abdennacer; Jemli, Maroua; Schiets, Fréderic; Casabianca, Hervé; Zina, Mongia Saïd

    2016-08-01

    The composition of the fatty acids of the roots and aerial parts of Aritolochia longa (Aristolacheae) and Bryonia dioïca (Cucurbutaceae) was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oils extracted from the aerial parts of both species were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids with the essential linolenic and linoleic acids being the most prominent compounds. Oleic and linoleic acids were the majors fatty acids in the roots of both species. Whatever the plant part analyzed and the species, the saturated fatty acids were predominantly composed of palmitic and stearic acids. The antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the lipid extracts were determined against a panel of five bacterial strains. The results showed that the sensitivity to the lipid extracts was different for the test bacterial strains, and the susceptibility of gram positive bacteria was found to be greater than gram negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity of the root lipid extracts was particularly important against Enterococcus feacium (CMI value of 125 µg/mL; CMB values > 250 µg/mL) and Streptococcus agalactiae (CMI value of 125 µg/mL; CMB values 250 µg/mL for A. longa roots). These results indicate that A. longa and B. dioïca could be considered as good sources of essential fatty acids which can act as natural antibacterial agents.

  9. Optical Analysis of the Oils Obtained from Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd: Mapping Absorption-Emission Profiles in an Induced Oxidation Process

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    Ivan P. de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrocomia aculeata is a palm tree typical of the Brazilian savanna. Oils extracted from the pulp and kernel of Acrocomia aculeata fruits have gained considerable attention mainly due to their nutritional and medicinal features. Despite their potential applications, a detailed analysis of their oxidative stability is still needed. The present study shows a close analysis of the oxidative stability of the oils obtained from the kernel and pulp of Acrocomia aculeata fruits, evaluating the influence of the intrinsic antioxidants and the fatty acid composition on the oil’s thermal stability. A complete characterization of the physical-chemical and optical properties of the oils was performed. The results showed that 66% of the fatty acids present in the pulp oil are unsaturated, while 75% are saturated in the kernel oil. A higher content of intrinsic antioxidants was obtained in the pulp oil, and an induction period (at 110 °C of 65 and 43 h was determined for the pulp and kernel oil, respectively. Additionally, oil absorption increases due to the formation of degradation products, and a new fluorescent compound was formed during the oil oxidation process at 110 °C. Even though the pulp presented a high content of unsaturated fatty acids, the pulp oil was more stable than the kernel oil due to its higher content of intrinsic antioxidant, especially carotenoids. The results also demonstrated that oil oxidation can be optically determined by analyzing the absorption at 232 and 270 nm, as well as the emission at 424 nm.

  10. Evaluating the Effect of Gamma Radiation on the Total Phenolic Content, Flavonoids, and Antioxidant Activity of Dried Pleurotus ostreatus ((Jacq. ex. Fr Kummer Stored in Packaging Materials

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    Nii Korley Kortei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms stored in polythene and polypropylene packs were exposed to gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source at doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 kGy at a dose rate of 1.7 kGy/hr and stored for a period of 1 month. Total phenolic contents, flavonoids, and free radical scavenging activity DPPH (2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl were determined using aqueous, ethanol, and methanol extracts by Folin-Ciocaultaeu method as a source of potential natural antioxidants. Total phenol content ranged 0.56 ± 0.01–10.96 ± 1.7 mg/GAE, flavonoids ranged 1.64 ± 0.05–8.92 ± 0.6 mg/QE, DPPH radical scavenging activity also ranged 7.02 ± 0.10–13.03 ± 0.04%, and IC50 values also ranged 0.08–0.16 mg/mL. Statistical differences (P < 0.05 were recorded for the extracts and the treatment doses of mushrooms stored in polythene and polypropylene packs. A significant linear correlation was confirmed between values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of mushroom extracts. The high contents of phenolic compounds indicated that these compounds contribute to high antioxidant activity. Pleurotus ostreatus can be regarded as a promising candidate for natural mushroom sources of antioxidants with high value. The use of low dose gamma radiation by the local food industry could improve the hygienic quality, extend shelf-life, and preserve nutrients and antinutrients.

  11. The effects of adding lactic acid bacteria and cellulase in oil palm (Elais guineensis Jacq.) frond silages on fermentation quality, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Goh, Yong Meng; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Schonewille, Jan Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the current study was to evaluate whether oil palm frond (OPF) can be successfully ensiled without or with the additives cellulase or lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Thus, fresh OPF was ensiled either without additives or with cellulase or LAB or their combination. Ensiling was

  12. The effects of adding lactic acid bacteria and cellulase in oil palm (Elais guineensis Jacq. frond silages on fermentation quality, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current study was to evaluate whether oil palm frond (OPF can be successfully ensiled without or with the additives cellulase or lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Thus, fresh OPF was ensiled either without additives or with cellulase or LAB or their combination. Ensiling was carried out by storing 2 kg samples in airtight glass jars at 25- 30°C for 12 weeks. Thereafter, the silage samples were subjected to proximate analyses, an in vitro digestibility assay and measures on selected indices of fermentation. Fermentation of OPF without additives appeared to be unsuccessful as both pH and ammonia content were too high (4.9 and 9.9%, respectively. In contrast, the use of cellulase or LAB resulted in silages with a pH<4.5 and ammonia fractions <8.4%, but the lowest values were found when both cellulase and LAB were used, i.e. pH=4.1 and ammonia fraction=6.7%. In vitro digestibility of dry matter was significantly higher in the cellulase treated silages. The process of ensiling was associated with both a significant decrease of the fat content of OPF and a significant change of the fatty acid profile. However, the proportions of major fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:2n-6 were not affected by the process of ensiling. In conclusion, the use of cellulase additive appears a practical tool to safeguard the process of fermentation. Using a cellulase enzyme or its combination with LAB improves the fermentation profile and increases the nutritional value of the OPF silage.

  13. Seedling protection and field practices for management of insect vectors and viral diseases of hot pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karungi, J.; Obua, T.; Kyamanywa, S.

    2013-01-01

    used to evaluate field practices in a split plot randomized controlled block design: (i) weekly foliar applications with dimethoate; (ii) close plant spacing of 60 cm × 50 cm); (iii) 1.5-m high net perimeter screen; (iv) transparent plastic mulch; (v) untreated control. Whiteflies were the vectors most...

  14. Use of Edible and Medicinal Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus(Jacq.: Fr.) Kumm.) Spent Compost in Remediation of Chemically Polluted Soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eggen, T.; Šašek, Václav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2002), s. 255-261 ISSN 1521-9437 Grant - others:GA of the Center for Molecular and Gene Biotechnology(XC) LN00B030; Norwegian Research Founding grant(NO) 113788/720 Program:LN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : biodegradation * bioremediation * contaminated soil Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  15. EVALUACIÓN COMPARATIVA DE LOS ATRIBUTOS NUTRICIONALES Y ANTINUTRICIONALES DE LEGUMINOSAS SUBUTILIZADAS, Canavalia gladiata (JACQ. DC, Erythrina indica LAM. Y Abrus precatorius L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pious Soris Tresina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron muestras de semillas de of Canavalia gladiata, Erythrina indica y Abrus precatorius (roja y negra, semilla de cascara colorada y semilla de cascara blanca de las regiones de Tamil Nadu y se analizó su composición química con la visión de evaluar su potencial nutricional. La composición proximal reveló que todas las muestras investigadas de semillas contenían altos niveles de proteína cruda y grasa. Los perfiles de minerales fueron también analizados en todas las muestras. Todas las muestras parecieron tener buenas fuentes de potasio, magnesio, sodio, calcio, fosforo, hierro, zinc, cobre, el contenido de manganeso fue deficiente cuando se comparó con los requerimentos diarios en la dieta (NRC/NAS, 1980, 1989. Los contenidos de vitaminas (niacina y ácido ascórbico fueron relativamente altos en todas las muestras investigadas. Los perfiles de aminoácidos esenciales del total de proteína de la semilla se compararon favorablemente con los patrones de requerimientos de la FAO/WHO (1991. Los perfiles de ácidos grasos revelaron que todas las muestras de semilla fueron ricas en ácidos grasos insaturados (55.60-72.04 y muy altos niveles de ácido linoleico (24.16-34.14%. El IVPD de las muestras estuvo en un rango de 63.31-71.36%. Se analizaron los factores antinutricionales como fenoles totales, taninos, L-DOPA, ácido fítico, hidrogeno ciánico, inhibidor de tripsina, oligosacáridos y fitohematoaglutinación.

  16. Estudio anatómico preliminar de raíz y brote del anón Amazónico (rollinia mucosa (jacq. Baill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quevedo Enrique

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El anón amazónico es un árbol frutal promisoria de importancia por su rusticidad y producción. Por tales motivos se programó y elaboró el presente trabajo cuyos objetivos fueron la identificación y descripción de los principales tejidos de la planta y su distribución en los diferentes órganos de la misma. Para lograr estos objetivos, se seleccionaron muestras de raíz, tallo, hojas y flores de un árbol de cuatro años de edad, propagado sexualmente por semilla, con una altura aproximada de 2,30 metros. Las muestras de raíces se obtuvieron de las superficiales y las ramas con su respectiva yema terminal y las flores de la porción distal. Este material y las flores de la porción distal se fijaron con una solución de FAA y luego, se les hicieron cortes transversales y longitudinales que se observaron al microscopio y se tomaron las respectivas fotografías. Los resultados de las observaciones fueron: La raíz está constituida por epidermis y cilindro central con floema, poco esclerénquima y abundante parénquima de almacenamiento, proto y metaxilema, médula (poco común en las Dícotyledoneae y carece de parénquima cortical. El tallo posee tejidos protectores formados central, compuesto por floema (líber y xilema (leño y, entre estos tejidos, el cambium vascular. La hoja conformada por la cutícula cerosa, la epidermis adaxial con células secretoras y la epidermis adaxial con pelos glandulares, el mesofilo constituido por los parénquimas esponjoso y en empalizada y el sistema vascular, formado por las nervaduras, que están constituidas por haces fibrovasculares con floema y xilema rodeados de parénquima. La flor es completa, pues posee los cuatro verticilos con sus órganos dispuestos en espiral, los pétalos son carnosos, con una zona de tricomas y poseen tejido de almacenamiento. El fruto es un sincarpio.

  17. Streptomyces sanglieri which colonised and enhanced the growth of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. seedlings was antagonistic to Ganoderma boninense in in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Azura, A B; Yusoff, M; Tan, G Y A; Jegadeesh, R; Appleton, D R; Vikineswary, S

    2016-04-01

    Actinomycete strain AUM 00500 was 99.5 % similar to Streptomyces sanglieri NBRC 100784(T) and was evaluated for antagonistic activity towards Ganoderma boninense, the causative fungus of basal stem rot of oil palm. The strain showed strong antifungal activity towards G. boninense in in vitro and SEM analysis showed various modes of inhibition of the fungus. Ethyl acetate extracts of single culture and inhibition zone of cross-plug culture by HPLC indicated that strain AUM 00500 produced two different antibiotics of the glutarimide group namely cycloheximide and actiphenol. In greenhouse trials, oil palm seed treated with spores of S. sanglieri strain AUM 00500 at 10(9) cfu/ml showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in oil palm seedlings growth when compared to the control. Streptomyces sanglieri strain AUM 00500 successfully colonised the epidermal surface of the roots of treated oil palm seedlings and it was recovered from root fragments plated on starch casein agar.

  18. Fertilización N-P-K en plantaciones de palma de aceite (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) en el norte de Chiapas

    OpenAIRE

    Córdova Sánchez, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Debido a que existe un conocimiento limitado sobre las necesidades nutricionales del cultivo de la palma de aceite en el norte de Chiapas, se realizó el presente estudio con el objetivo de evaluar diferentes tratamientos de fertilización NPK en plantaciones comerciales de palma de aceite, a través del rendimiento y la concentración foliar de NPK. Para ello, se establecieron dos parcelas experimentales en el municipio de Palenque, Chiapas en plantaciones del híbrido Deli x ...

  19. The complete plastome of macaw palm [Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. ex Mart.] and extensive molecular analyses of the evolution of plastid genes in Arecaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana Lopes, Amanda; Gomes Pacheco, Túlio; Nimz, Tabea; do Nascimento Vieira, Leila; Guerra, Miguel P; Nodari, Rubens O; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; Rogalski, Marcelo

    2018-01-16

    The plastome of macaw palm was sequenced allowing analyses of evolution and molecular markers. Additionally, we demonstrated that more than half of plastid protein-coding genes in Arecaceae underwent positive selection. Macaw palm is a native species from tropical and subtropical Americas. It shows high production of oil per hectare reaching up to 70% of oil content in fruits and an interesting plasticity to grow in different ecosystems. Its domestication and breeding are still in the beginning, which makes the development of molecular markers essential to assess natural populations and germplasm collections. Therefore, we sequenced and characterized in detail the plastome of macaw palm. A total of 221 SSR loci were identified in the plastome of macaw palm. Additionally, eight polymorphism hotspots were characterized at level of subfamily and tribe. Moreover, several events of gain and loss of RNA editing sites were found within the subfamily Arecoideae. Aiming to uncover evolutionary events in Arecaceae, we also analyzed extensively the evolution of plastid genes. The analyses show that highly divergent genes seem to evolve in a species-specific manner, suggesting that gene degeneration events may be occurring within Arecaceae at the level of genus or species. Unexpectedly, we found that more than half of plastid protein-coding genes are under positive selection, including genes for photosynthesis, gene expression machinery and other essential plastid functions. Furthermore, we performed a phylogenomic analysis using whole plastomes of 40 taxa, representing all subfamilies of Arecaceae, which placed the macaw palm within the tribe Cocoseae. Finally, the data showed here are important for genetic studies in macaw palm and provide new insights into the evolution of plastid genes and environmental adaptation in Arecaceae.

  20. Distribuição de fotoassimilados de folhas do topo e da base do capim-mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq. em dois estádios de desenvolvimento Distribution of assimilates from top and bottom leaves of mombaçagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq in two stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Cristina Bittencourt Teixeira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a distribuição dos fotoassimilados pelos perfilhos do cultivar Mombaça de Panicum maximum. Os tratamentos experimentais resultaram de um arranjo fatorial 2x2x3 - dois níveis de inserção da folha (topo e base, dois estádios de desenvolvimento da planta e três momentos de colheita (3, 8 e 24 horas após a exposição da folha ao 14CO2. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. A exposição ao 14CO2 teve duração de 20 minutos. Cada planta foi desmembrada em perfilho principal e perfilhos surgidos no primeiro e segundo estádios de desenvolvimento. O perfilho principal foi dividido em: folha adulta, completamente expandida exposta ao 14CO2 (bainha mais lâmina, demais folhas adultas (bainha mais lâmina, meristema terminal (folha emergente mais folha em expansão mais meristema apical, base e raiz. A atividade das amostras foi determinada em espectrômetro de cintilação líquida. A percentagem de fotoassimilados 14C retida na folha exposta não variou com o tempo de colheita, após exposição. Mais da metade da radioatividade recuperada na planta foi retida no perfilho principal. A folha do topo reteve mais assimilados que a folha da base, que translocou maior percentual de assimilados para os perfilhos que a folha do topo. O percentual de assimilados retidos no perfilho principal foi mais alto em plantas do primeiro estádio de desenvolvimento em relação às do segundo estádio. As folhas adultas e a raiz do perfilho principal se constituíram nos seus principais drenos. Apreciável percentagem de assimilados marcados foi encontrada nas folhas adultas não-expostas do perfilho principal.The objective of this work was to evaluate the distribution of assimilates produced by the top and bottom leaves of the main tiller in plants of Monbaçagrass (Panicum maximum, in two stages of plant development, and three harvest times after plant exposure to 14CO2 (three, eight and twenty four hours. The experimental treatments were arranged in a 2X2X3 factorial combination. The experimental design utilized was completely randomized. The exposure time to 14CO2 was 20 minutes. Each plant was separated into shoot (main tiller and tillers developed in the first and second stages of plant development. The shoot was dissected into the following fractions: fully expanded leaves (sheath plus blade, fed leaf (sheath plus blade, terminal meristem (expanding leaves plus emerging leaves plus apical meristem, base and root system. The radioactivity of the samples was determined in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The percentage of 14C-assimilates retained in the fed leaf did not vary with time of harvesting after exposure. Most of the plant 14C assimilates were retained in the main tiller, mainly when the fed leaf was the top one, which retained more assimilates than the bottom leaf. The bottom leaf translocated more assimilates to tillers than the top leaf. Percentage assimilates retained in main tiller was higher in plants of the first developmental stage relative to the second one. Sizeable amount of activity was found in non-fed adult leaves of the main tiller, mainly when the bottom leaf was the fed one.

  1. Farelo de cacau (Theobroma cacao L. e torta de dendê (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq na alimentação de cabras em lactação: consumo e produção de leite Effects of feeding cocoa meal (Theobroma cacao L. and palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq on milk intake and yield for lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herymá Giovane de Oliveira Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados o consumo e a produção de leite de cabras recebendo dietas contendo farelo de cacau (FC ou torta de dendê (TD em substituição ao milho e ao farelo de soja da ração concentrada. Foram utilizadas cinco cabras da raça Saanen, com produção média diária de 2,0 kg de leite e aos 60 dias de lactação, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5 x 5. Os períodos experimentais tiveram duração de 14 dias, em que os dez primeiros foram destinados à adaptação e os quatro últimos, à coleta de amostras. As rações foram isoprotéicas, com 13,2% de proteína bruta. As dietas constituíram-se de 36% de volumoso (silagem de milho e 64% de concentrado na matéria seca. Os tratamentos consistiram de concentrado à base de milho e soja com 0, 15 e 30% de FC ou TD. Os consumos de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, nutrientes digestíveis totais, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos reduziram com a inclusão de 30% de FC. Os consumos de fibra em detergente neutro e extrato etéreo (EE não foram alterados pelas dietas. O consumo de fibra em detergente ácido diferiu apenas entre os tratamentos com 30% de TD e 30% de FC, sendo 0,94 e 0,59% do peso vivo animal, respectivamente. O tratamento com 30% de FC proporcionou menor produção de leite (1,208 kg/dia, se assemelhando apenas ao tratamento com inclusão de 30% de TD quando a produção foi corrigida para 3,5% de gordura. O FC e a TD apresentam viabilidade de uso como alternativa na dieta de cabras em lactação em até 9,13 e 18,81% da matéria seca, respectivamente.The effects of replacing corn and soybean meal with cocoa meal (CF or palm kernel cake (PKC in the concentrate on milk intake and yield of goats were evaluated. Five Saanen goats, averaging 2 kg daily milk yield at 60 days of lactation, were assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square experimental design. The experiment lasted 14 days, with 10 days for adaptation period and four days for sample collection. Diets contained: 36% of roughage (corns silage and 64% of concentrate, dry matter basis, formulated toyield 13.2% of crude protein. The treatments were as follows: 0, 15 and 30% CF or PKC, all with concentrate (corn and soybean meal. Dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, total digestible nutrients, total carbohydrates and nonfiber carbohydrates intakes decreased as affected by the highest replacement level (30% CF. No significant differences on neutral detergent fiber and ether extract intake were observed. Acid detergent fiber intake differed only between 30% PKC and 30% CF-based diets, with 0.94 and 0.59% body weight, respectively. The 30% CF-based diet showed lower milk production value, as kg/dia (1.208 kg, but similar to 30% PKC-based diet, when corrected for 3.5% fat. Replacing corn and soybean with CF and PKC in the diet of lactating goats is viable up to 9.13 and 18.81% dry matter, respectively.

  2. Among and within family selection and combined half-sib family selection in Panicum maximum Jacq. Seleção entre e dentro de famílias e seleção combinada em famílias de meio-irmãos de Panicum maximum Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Azevedo Martuscello

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to select superior genotypes in half-sib populations obtained from crosses between sexual plants and apomictic accessions. The experiment also proposed to compare among and within family and combined selection strategies. Ten plots of sexual plants were randomly distributed among 230 plots of apomictic accessions. After natural pollination, seeds of each sexual plant constituted a half-sib family. Thirty plants of each female progenitor were evaluated in a randomized block design experiment, with five plants per plot and five replications. Five evaluation harvests were made in the rainy seasons and two in the dry seasons of all plants. The production and quality characteristics were evaluated. The selection criteria used was: among and within family selection and combined selection with 50% selection in both. The selection criteria used (among and within family selection and combined selection, were efficient for use in P. maximum breeding, with medium to high gains for most characteristics evaluated. The highest genetic gains were obtained from combined selection. However, among and within family selection promoted high genetic gains and may be used in P. maximum breeding. The sexual progenitors identified as numbers 7, 1, 3 and 5 were promising and may be used in future crosses, as well as to increase the genetic variability in the P.maximum genebank.O experimento foi conduzido objetivando-se selecionar genótipos e genitores superiores de Panicum maximum em populações de meio-irmãos, originárias do cruzamento de plantas sexuais com plantas apomíticas, bem como comparar estratégias de seleção entre e dentro de famílias e seleção combinada. Dez parcelas de plantas sexuais de P. maximum foram aleatoriamente distribuídas entre 230 parcelas de acessos apomíticos. Após a fecundação natural, sementes de cada planta sexual constituíram-se uma família de meio-irmãos. Trinta plantas de cada genitora foram avaliadas em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco plantas por parcela e cinco repetições. A partir da média de sete cortes (cinco na época das chuvas, a cada 35 dias, e dois na época da seca, um em cada seca, avaliaram-se as características de produção e o valor nutritivo dos genótipos. Foram utilizadas as estratégias de seleção entre e dentro de família e a seleção combinada, adotando-se porcentagem de seleção de 50% para ambas as estratégias. Os critérios de seleção utilizados mostraram-se eficientes para aplicação no melhoramento de P. maximum, com ganhos considerados de médio a alto. Os maiores ganhos genéticos foram obtidos com a seleção combinada, entretanto a seleção entre e dentro de família pode promover ganhos genéticos altos e pode ser utilizada no melhoramento de P. maximum. As famílias identificadas pelos números 1, 3, 5 e 7 são promissoras e podem ser utilizadas em futuros programas de melhoramento genético de P. maximum.

  3. Morphomolecular characterization of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr. kummer strains in relation to luminosity and temperature of frutification Caracterização morfomolecular de isolados de Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr. kummer em relação à luminosidade e temperatura de frutificação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Helena Marino

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is one of the main factors affecting mushrooms development and introduction in new areas. Effects of temperature (15ºC and 28ºC and luminosity (120 and 900 lux were evaluated for eight P. ostreatus strains in relation to precocity, yield, pileus area, stalk formation pattern, coloration and handling resistance. Genetic variability of strains was analysed by the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD method. The Pos 98/37 strain was the only to yield white pileus at 28ºC - 900 lux, and grey ones at 15ºC and 120 lux. The Pos 96/05 strain, the latest, produced lead-coloured pileus at 15ºC, as did the remaining strains at this temperature. Strains cultivated at 15ºC did not differ in relation to handling resistance. At 28ºC mushrooms were less resistant. In relation to yield, the Pos 98/38 strain was significantly more efficient. The Pos 98/37 strain, at 28ºC, as compared to the same strain at 15ºC, was more efficient and had an asymmetric stalk formation pattern. Among strains cultivated at 15ºC, the stalk formation pattern was symmetric, except for the Pos 97/15 and Pos 97/17 strains. Molecular characterization of the Pos 98/37 strain was 30% similar to the remaining strains. The temperature of fructification and luminosity influence the induction and development of the isolates.A temperatura é um dos principais fatores que influenciam o desenvolvimento e a introdução de cogumelos em nova áreas. O efeito da temperatura (15ºC e 28ºC e a luminosidade (120 e 900 lux foram avaliados em oito isolados de P. ostreatus quanto à precocidade, eficiência biológica, área do pileus, padrão de formação das pencas, coloração e resistência ao manuseio. A variabilidade genética dos isolados foi analisada pelo método "Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA" ou DNA polimórfico amplificado ao acaso (RAPD. O isolado Pos 98/37 foi o único a produzir a 28ºC e 900 lux, apresentando píleo branco nessa temperatura e cinza a 15ºC e 120 lux. O isolado Pos 96/05, o mais tardio, apresentou píleo chumbo a 15ºC a 120 lux, assim como os demais isolados nesta temperatura. Os isolados cultivados a 15ºC não diferiram quanto à maior resistência ao manuseio, enquanto a 28ºC, os cogumelos obtidos foram mais frágeis. Quanto à eficiência biológica, o isolado Pos 98/38 foi mais eficiente. O isolado 98/37 a 28ºC, comparado com o mesmo isolado a 15ºC, foi mais eficiente e apresentou padrão de formação de pencas assimétrico. Entre os isolados cultivados a 15ºC, o padrão de formação de pencas foi similar exceto nos isolados Pos 97/15 e Pos 97/17. Na caracterização molecular, o isolado Pos 98/37 apresentou 30% de similaridade com os demais. A temperatura de frutificação e a intensidade luminosa influenciaram a indução e o desenvolvimento dos isolados.

  4. Estimativa do Consumo Voluntário do Capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum, Jacq. cv. Tanzânia por Vacas em Lactação sob Pastejo Rotacionado Estimation of Voluntary Intake of Tanzania Grass (Panicum maximum, Jacq. cv. Tanzânia Rotationally Grazed by Lactating Cows

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    Maria Lúcia Pereira Lima

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi conduzido numa área de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum, manejada em pastejo rotacionado para estimar o consumo de matéria seca de vacas em lactação. Os três tratamentos foram: vacas mestiças alimentadas com 3 kg de concentrado e vacas mestiças e Zebu (Gir sem suplementação com concentrado. Observou-se uma quantidade de 7340,2 kg de matéria seca (MS /ha de forragem disponível antes da ocupação e de 5.639,5 após o 3° dia de ocupação. O consumo de MS de capim-Tanzânia foi 8,26 ± 5,66, 11,01 ± 5,37 e 9,55 ± 2,31 kg de MS/vaca/dia ou 2,15%, 2,37% e 2,34% do peso vivo, respectivamente para as vacas suplementadas, cruzadas não suplementadas e vacas Zebu . A média da produção de leite foi maior para o grupo suplementado (11,98 kg/vaca/dia. A produção de leite observada para as vacas não suplementadas foi similar. Produção de leite de 6,53 foi obtida pelas vacas cruzadas não suplementadas e 5,46 por vaca/dia foi produzida pelas vacas Zebu.The trial was carried out in a Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum pasture, rotationally grazed by lactating cows, to estimate the dry matter intake. Three treatments were tested: crossbred cows fed 3 kg per day of concentrate and crossbred and Zebu cows (Gyr without concentrate supplementation. The forage availability was 7,340.2 kg of dry matter (DM /ha before and 5,639.5 after the 3rd grazing day. The Tanzania grass DM intake was 8.26 ± 5.66, 11.01 ± 5.37 and 9.55 ± 2.31 kg of DM/cow/day per day or 2.15, 2.37 and 2.34% of live weight, respectively, for the supplemented crossbred cows and non supplemented crossbred and Zebu cows. The average milk production was higher for the supplemented group (11.98 kg/cow/day. The milk production observed by the non supplemented cows was similar. Milk yield of 6.53 was obtained for non supplemented crossbred cows and 5.46 kg per cow/day was performed for the Zebu cows.

  5. Biologia floral e sistema de polinização de Solanum stramonifolium Jacq. (Solanaceae em remanescente de Mata Atlântica, Pernambuco Floral biology and pollination system of Solanum stramonifolium Jacq. (Solanaceae in an Atlantic Forest remnant in Pernambuco

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    Elisangela Lúcia de S. Bezerra

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A deiscência de anteras através de pequenos poros apicais é uma característica encontrada em várias espécies da família Solanaceae, especialmente no gênero Solanum, característica esta que restringe a polinização a um grupo de abelhas fêmeas capazes de vibrar as anteras para retirada do pólen. A fenologia, biologia floral e a polinização de Solanum stramonifolium foram estudadas entre os meses de agosto/1999 a dezembro/2000 em populações naturais ocorrentes no Parque Estadual de Dois Irmãos, um dos poucos remanescentes de Mata Atlântica localizada em Recife, Pernambuco (8°7'30"S e 34°52'30"W. Solanum stramonifolium é um arbusto com flores dispostas em inflorescências racemosas, apresentando corola branca e cinco estames de um amarelo intenso, com anteras poricidas dispostas ao redor do gineceu. A antese ocorre nas primeiras horas do dia, havendo reflexão de luz ultravioleta e presença de áreas de concentração de emissão de odor por toda a corola e na região apical das anteras. Solanum stramonifolium tem padrão de floração contínuo e apresenta flores hermafroditas (62% e funcionalmente masculinas (38%, o que caracteriza a espécie como andromonóica.Treze espécies de abelhas foram observadas visitando as flores de S. stramonifolium (nove polinizadores e quatro pilhadores. A constante e grande produção de flores faz com que Solamun stramonifolium mantenha sua guilda de polinizadores e garanta assim a sua reprodução, sendo, ao mesmo tempo, uma importante fonte de recursos para a manutenção destas abelhas.The anthers deiscense through two small apical pores is a feature found in many species of Solanaceae, especially in the genus Solanum. This feature restricts pollination to a group of female bees which are able to vibrate the anthers (buzz pollination. The phenology, floral biology and pollination of Solanum stramonifolium were studied between August/1999 and December/2000 in natural populations occurring at Dois Irmãos State Park, one of the last Atlantic forest remnants in Recife city, Pernambuco state (8°7'30"S and 34°52'30"W. Solanum stramonifolium is a shrub whose flowers are arranged in a racemose inflorescence and have white corolla and five stamens with poricide anthers disposed around the gynoecium. Anthesis occur early in the morning and the petals present a ultraviolet reflection pattern. Solanum stramonifolium presents continuous flowering pattern and have hermaphrodite (62% and functional male flowers (38%, therefore the species is andromonoicious. Thirteen species of bees were observed visiting the flowers of S. stramonifolium (nine pollinators and four pollen robbers. The great and constant production of flowers of S. stramonifolium along the year is important to maintain the pollinators guild and to guarantee the plant reproduction.

  6. Constituintes químicos fixos e voláteis dos talos e frutos de Piper tuberculatum Jacq. e das raízes de P. hispidum H. B. K. Fixed and volatile chemical constituents from stems and fruits of Piper tuberculatum Jacq. and from roots of P. hispidum H. B. K.

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    Valdir Alves Facundo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais dos frutos e talos finos de Piper tuberculatum e das raízes de P. hispidum, coletados no estado de Rondônia, foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados por GC e GC-MS. Foram identificados como constituintes majoritários, nos óleos dos frutos e talos finos de P. tuberculatum, o óxido de cariofileno (32,1% e (26,6% e o (E-cariofileno (17,7% e (12,3%, respectivamente. No óleo essencial das raízes de P. hispidum, foram identificados, como constituintes majoritários, o dilapiol (57,5%, a elemicina (24,5% e o apiol (10,2%. Do extrato etanólico dos frutos de P. tuberculatum, foram isolados os esteróides β-sitosterol e estigmasterol, as amidas piplartina e dihidropiplartina e um derivado do ácido cinâmico, o ácido 3,4,5-trimetoxi-dihidrocinâmico.The essential oils of the fruits and fine stems of Piper tuberculatum and of the roots of P. hispidum, collected in the state of Rondônia, had been gotten by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Caryophyllene oxide - 32,1% in fruits and 26,6% in fine stem, and (E-caryophyllene - 17,7% in fruits and 12,3% in fine stems, were identified as the major constituents in such parts of P. tuberculatum. In the essential oil of the roots of P. hispidum, dillapiol (57,5%, elemicine (24,5% and apiole (10,2% were identified as the most abundant constituents. From the ethanolic extract of the fruits of P. tuberculatum, the steroids β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, the amides piplartine and dihidropiplartine and the derivative of the cinâmico acid 3,4,5-trimethoxy-dihidrocinâmic acid were isolated.

  7. Composión trófica de la comunidad insectil en dos agroecosistemas ganaderos con Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de wit y Panicum maximum Jacq. Trophic composition of the insect community in two livestock production agroecosystems with Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de wit and Panicum maximum Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Alonso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de definir los principales grupos funcionales en la comunidad de insectos presentes en dos áreas compuestas por la asociación de Leucaena leucocephala cv. Perú y Panicum maximum cv. Likoni (un sistema silvopastoril y un campo de semilla, respectivamente, ambas localizadas en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes "Indio Hatuey", se muestrearon cada 15 días, durante tres años, las hojas, las inflorescencias y las legumbres de la leguminosa y el follaje de la gramínea, para colectarlos. La clasificación de los grupos se realizó a partir de: la identificación de cada especie insectil, la información que ofrece la literatura acerca de su hábito principal de alimentación y las observaciones realizadas en el campo. Con estos elementos se definieron los fitófagos y los benéficos, y como subgrupos de estos últimos: los depredadores, los parasitoides, los polinizadores, los descomponedores de la materia orgánica, los coprófagos y los micófagos. En total se identificaron 113 especies de insectos, 63 con hábitos fitófagos y los 50 restantes benéficos. En el estrato arbóreo se encontraron 88 especies, 49 fitófagas (56% y 39 benéficas (44%; y 103 en el herbáceo, 59 insectos fitófagos (57% y 44 benéficos (43%; 78 especies coincidieron en los dos estratos. Se destaca que en ambos predominaron los depredadores y los parasitoides de los órdenes Hymenoptera, Coleoptera y Diptera, tales como: Cycloneda sanguinea limbifer Casey, Coccinella maculata (De Geer, Chilocorus cacti Linnaeus, Conura sp., Pimpla marginella (Brullé y Rogas sp. Se concluye que la estructura y función de la comunidad de insectos mostró un número relativamente mayor de insectos fitófagos con respecto a los benéficos; sin embargo, fue importante el predominio de los enemigos naturales, responsables de la actividad reguladora de las poblaciones de fitófagos, a las que mantienen por debajo del umbral de daño económico en el cultivo de la leucaena en el país.

  8. EFEITO DO TIPO DE EMBALAGEM SOBRE A QUALIDADE DAS SEMENTES DE CAPIM COLONIÃO (Panicum maximum Jacq ARMAZENADAS SOB DIFERENTES CONDIÇÕES DE AMBIENTE COLONIÃO GRASS (Panicum maximum JACQ SEED PRESERVATION IN MOISTURE AND PACKAGE EFFECT

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    Sílvio Moure Cícero

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho foi conduzido no Laboratório de Análise de Sementes do Departamento de Agricultura da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, da Universidade de São Paulo, com o objetivo de determinar qual, dentre os materiais testados para a confecção de embalagens para sementes, contribui mais eficazmente para a conservação de sementes de capim-colonião. As sementes oriundas de dois lotes com umidades de 9,7 e 12%, respectivamente, foram acondicionadas nas embalagens confeccionadas com os seguintes materiais: tecido de algodão, papel kraft multifoliado (4 folhas e polietileno (lâmina de 0,35 mm de espessura. As embalagens plásticas foram seladas a quente. As embalagens, com 1,5 kg de sementes, foram mantidas, por um ano, sob três condições distintas: a galpão de alvenaria (sem controle de temperatura e umidade do ar; b câmara seca (temperatura de 25°C e umidade relativa de 45%; c câmara fria (temperatura de 10°C e umidade relativa de 90%. Foram avaliados o grau de umidade das sementes, germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, emergência, envelhecimento acelerado e condutividade elétrica. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 4 repetições. A análise estatística dos dados permitiu concluir: a em ambiente não controlado, as embalagens que mantiveram as sementes com melhor qualidade foram aquelas feitas com papel kraft multifoliado; b quando armazenadas em câmara seca, as sementes apresentaram melhor qualidade quando mantidas nas embalagens de papel e nas de algodão; c em câmara fria, as embalagens que melhor conservaram as sementes foram as de polietileno.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Armazenamento; colonião; semente.

    This research was conducted at Laboratório de Análise de Sementes of Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, University of São Paulo, for the purpose of determining which of the several materials used to seed packaging contributed most efficiently to the preservation of colonião pasture grass seed. Seeds of two lots, with 9.7% e 12% of moisture, were stored in packages made of the following materials: cotton sacks, layered kraft paper (four layers, and polyethylene (bags 0.35 mm thick. The plastic bags were hot sealed. These packages, each with 1.5 kg of seeds, were stored for one year under three conditions: warehouse (without temperature and moisture control; city chamber (temperature of 25°C and moisture of 45% and cold chamber (temperature of 10°C and moisture of 90%. Seed characteristics were tested: moisture level, seed germination, first counting, emergence, accelerated aging and electric conductivity, in a randomized experimental design with four replications. From the statistical analysis of data, the conclusions were the following: a seeds stored in warehouse were better preserved when packed in layered kraft paper; b seeds stored in a dry chamber were better preserved when packed in layered kraft paper and cotton bags; c seeds stored in a cold chamber were better preserved when packed in polyethylene sacks.

    KEY-WORDS: Storage; colonião grass; seed.

  9. Estresse salino no crescimento inicial e nutrição mineral de gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Steud em solução nutritiva(1 Growth and mineral nutrition of (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Steud seedlings in nutrient solution under saline stress

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    Séfora Gil Gomes de Farias

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A salinidade é um dos fatores que mais limitam o crescimento e desenvolvimento de plantas na região semiárida. A sobrevivência destas em ambientes salinos dependerá de processos adaptativos, que envolvem absorção, transporte e distribuição de íons nos vários órgãos da planta. Com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e a nutrição mineral de mudas de gliricídia cultivada em diferentes condições de salinidade, realizou-se um experimento em telado de náilon da Unidade Acadêmica de Engenharia Florestal da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos - PB. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em vasos de Leonard, contendo solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon (50 % da concentração original, com as concentrações de NaCl: 0, 100 200 e 400 mmol L-1. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, com uma planta por vaso. Aos 60 dias após a emergência, as plantas foram colhidas e avaliadas quanto a altura, matéria seca e teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e Na na raiz, no caule e nas folhas. O aumento da salinidade promoveu reduções no crescimento e nos teores de macronutrientes, ocorrendo o inverso nos teores de Na, sobretudo na raiz. A gliricídia mostrou-se sensível à salinidade.Salinity is one of the most limiting factors to plant growth and development. Plant survival in saline environments depends on adaptive processes involving uptake, transport, and distribution of ions in plant organs. To evaluate growth and mineral nutrition of Gliricidia sepium seedlings under saline conditions, an experiment was carried out under nylon-mesh protection, at the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Patos - PB. Seeds were sown in pots containing Hoagland & Arnon nutrient solution with four NaCl levels (0, 100, 200 and 400 mmol L-1, with four replications (1 plant/pot in a completely randomized design. Sixty days after seedling emergence, the plant height and root, stem and leaf dry matter, and nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Na accumulation were measured in the plant tissues. All variables but Na were negatively affected by increasing NaCl levels in the nutrient solution, particularly in the root tissue. Results indicated the sensitivity of Gliricidia sepium to salinity.

  10. The effects of seasonal change of water level in an estuary on Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq. P. H. Raven (Onograceae growth Efeitos da variação sazonal do nível da água de um estuário sobre o crescimento de Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq. P. H. Raven (Onograceae

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    Jose Pedro Nepomuceno Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Massaguaçu River estuary is an irregular estuary with sandbar breaching cycles that are irregular and happen several times each year. The species Ludwigia octovalvis is a perennial weed in several places around the world, but it is seasonal in the Massaguaçu River. In this survey we determined the relationship between the rain, estuary water level variation, and the spatial and temporal distribution of this species. In a laboratory we simulated the water level variation in water tanks in order to understand how this species responds to flooding. In the field, we determined the distribution of L. octovalvis in the higher pluviose season and in the lower pluviose season. This species is relatively common in the higher pluviose season and completely absent in the lower one. There is strong evidence that this happens due to the longer and deeper sandbar breaching cycles during the dry season, which induce this species to etiolation, and, therefore, mechanical fragility. The seasonality of species in aquatic environments that do not have a dry biological season is unusual and little studied.O estuário do rio Massaguaçu é um estuário irregular, e seus ciclos da abertura de barra são irregulares e acontecem várias vezes por ano. A espécie Ludwigia octovalvis é perene em vários lugares do mundo, mas aparece de forma sazonal no estuário em questão. Nesse trabalho determinamos a relação entre o índice pluviométrico, o nível do estuário e a distribuição espacial e temporal dessa espécie. Em laboratório simulamos a variação do nível da água do estuário em aquários, de modo a entender como essa espécie responde ao alagamento. Em campo, determinamos a distribuição de L. octovalvis na estação mais chuvosa e menos chuvosa. A espécie é relativamente comum na estação mais chuvosa, mas ausente na menos chuvosa. Existem fortes evidencias de que isso acontece devido aos ciclos de abertura da barra do inverno, mas fundos e longos, que induz essa espécie ao estiolamento, e conseguintemente, a uma fragilidade mecânica. A sazonalidade de espécies em ambientes aquáticos sem uma estação biologicamente seca é incomum e pouco estudada.

  11. Crescimento e produção de cumarina em plantas de chambá (Justicia pectoralis Jacq. tratadas com isoterápico Growth and production of coumarin in the plants of chambá (Justicia pectoralis Jacq. treated with isoterapic

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    F.M.C. Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a resposta a dinamizações do isoterápico Justicia no crescimento e na produção de cumarina em Justicia pectoralis. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Viçosa. O delineamento estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e seis tratamentos, totalizando 24 parcelas experimentais, sendo cada parcela constituída de uma planta por vaso. Os tratamentos foram constituídos das dinamizações 3CH, 6CH, 12CH, 18CH, 24CH e 30CH, do isoterápico Justicia. A aplicação dos tratamentos iniciou após o plantio das mudas, sendo pulverizada a parte aérea, em intervalos semanais. Após quatro meses do plantio as plantas foram colhidas. Foram avaliadas a matéria fresca e seca das folhas e caules a matéria fresca e seca da inflorescência, e a matéria fresca e seca total. Foram pesadas amostras de 200 mg das folhas e caules das plantas secas. As amostras foram devidamente armazenadas até a realização das análises químicas. A quantificação da cumarina (1-2 benzopirona nas amostras foi feita em Cromatógrafo Líquido de Alta Eficiência. A matéria fresca de folhas e caules, a matéria fresca total e o rendimento de cumarina variaram em função das dinamizações do isoterápico. Os resultados confirmam o efeito de preparações homeopáticas na planta demonstrando que a homeopatia nos vegetais, mesmo na Lei da Igualdade tem efeitos potenciais.The studied aimed to evaluate the responses to dynamizations of Justicia isoterapic in growth and coumarin production in Justicia pectoralis. The studies were carried out at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa. The statistical design was completely randomized, with four replicates and six treatments, 24 experimental plots, one plant per pot. The treatment were dynamizations 3CH, 6CH, 12CH, 18CH, 24CH and 30CH Justicia isoterapic. The applications of the treatments begun are planting seedlings, the aerial part being sprayed, at weekly intervals. After four months of planting, the plants were harvested. Were evaluated fresh and dry matter of stem and leaves, fresh and dry matter of inflorecense, and fresh and dry matter total. Were weighed samples on 200 mg of leaves and stems of dried plants. The samples were properly stored at quimical analyses. The quantification of coumarin (1-2 benzopyrone in the samples was done in High Resolution Liquid Chromatography. The fresh matter of leaves and stems, the fresh matter total and a production of coumarin varied as a function of dynamization of isoterapic. The results confirm the effect of homeopathics preparations in the plants demonstrating that homeopathy in vegetables even in the Equality Law has potential effect.

  12. Índices morfogênicos e de crescimento durante o estabelecimento e a rebrotação do capim-Mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq. Morphogenic traits and growth indices during the establishment and regrowth of Mombaçagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq.

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    Carlos Augusto de Miranda Gomide

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar as características morfogênicas e os índices de crescimento do capim-Mombaça, um ensaio foi conduzido em casa de vegetação. Estudou-se o desenvolvimento das plantas em três crescimentos: o crescimento seminal de estabelecimento (C1, o da brotação após corte ao 16º dia (C2 e 37º dia (C3 do crescimento de estabelecimento. As variáveis estimadas foram: índices de crescimento [taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR, taxa assimilatória líquida (TAL e razão de área foliar (RAF], e os índices morfogênicos [taxa de aparecimento foliar (TApF, taxa de alongamento foliar (TAlF, taxa de expansão da área foliar e taxa de senescência foliar]. Colheitas foram feitas ao longo do desenvolvimento das plantas em cada crescimento considerado: 13, 20, 27, 42, 55, 69 e 83 dias após emergência (C1; 0, 3, 6, 10, 17, 24, 38, 52 e 66 dias após o corte aos 16 dias (C2 e 0, 1, 3, 7, 21, 35, 49, 63 e 77 dias após o corte aos 37 dias (C3. Foram observadas três repetições (vasos, segundo delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Altos valores de TAL, RAF e TCR foram observados no início do crescimento seminal (C1 das plantas, caindo assintoticamente com o avanço da idade. O corte aos 37 dias de idade comprometeu o crescimento das plantas expresso em seus valores de TApF, a TAlF e a taxa de expansão da área foliar, RAF, TAL e TCR, sendo observados valores negativos para estes dois últimos índices, nos primeiros dias de brotação. A baixa demanda respiratória e a alocação de fotoassimilados para o crescimento foliar garantiram às plantas cortadas aos 16 dias, balanço positivo de carbono, possibilitando sua rápida recuperação.A trial was carried out in green-house to estimate morphogenic traits and growth indices of Mombaçagrass development. Three growths were considered: the seminal, establishment growth (G1 and the regrowths following a clipping taken on the 16th (G2 and 37th (G3 days of the seminal growth. The variables assessed were the growth indices: relative growth rate (RGR, net assimilation rate (NAR, leaf area ratio (LAR, and the rates of leaf appearance, elongation, expansion and senescence. Accordingly, harvests were taken at the ages of: 13, 20, 27, 42, 55, 69 and 83 day of the seminal growth (G1; 0, 3, 6, 10, 17, 24, 38, 52 and 66 day of the 2nd regrowth (G2 and 0, 1, 3, 7, 21, 35, 49, 63 and 77 day of the 3rd growth (G3. There were three replications (pots per treatment in a completely randomized design. Figures for NAR, LAR and RGR were high during early seminal growth but declined assynthotically as plant aged. Initial values for these indices were higher in the seminal growth as compared to the 2 regrowths. Cutting taken on the 37th day of the seminal growth hindered the initial growth of the plants regarding leaf appearance and elongation rates, LAR, NAR and RGR. The latter two indices which had negative values during early regrowth, were recovered by the 16th regrowth day.

  13. Det Mangfoldige Kompleks

    OpenAIRE

    Ipsen, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The idea of this master thesis is to investigate how racial identities are negotiated by individuals in a secondary school context in the city of Samaná in the northern part of The Dominican Republic. It is an empirical report, developed on the base of fieldwork conducted in Samaná. The empirical parts consist of interviews with two young teenage girls, two teachers and a secretary from the local JCE office, whom admits id-cards. These interviews are carried out based on prefabricated semi-st...

  14. Papaya Lethal Yellowing Virus (PLYV) Infects Vasconcellea cauliflora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, P.P.R.; Resende, de R.O.; Souza, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) é um dos três vírus descritos infectando mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) no Brasil. Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., antes denominada de Carica cauliflora (Jacq.), é uma reconhecida fonte de resistência natural ao Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), causador da

  15. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences - Vol 14, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud. And Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray used as green manure on the early growth of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. seedlings · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A.O. Ogunsiji, T.O. Ibrahim, O.A Oni, 91-97 ...

  16. Preparation and characterization of activated carbons from albizia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbon was prepared from the pods of Albizia saman for the purpose of converting the waste to wealth. The pods were thoroughly washed with water to remove any dirt, air- dried and cut into sizes of 2-4 cm. The prepared pods were then carbonised in a muffle furnace at temperatures of 4000C, 5000C, 6000C ...

  17. Silica-supported ionic liquid as highly efficient catalyst for one-pot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Reza Sandaroos1 Mohammad Taghi Goldani2 Saman Damavandi3. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Birjand, Birjand 9717851367, Iran; Department of Engineering, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand 9717851367, Iran; Department of Chemistry, Sarvestan Branch, ...

  18. Silica-supported ionic liquid as highly efficient catalyst for one-pot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    supported ionic liquid as highly efficient catalyst for one-pot synthesis of acenaphtho[1,2-b]furan compounds. REZA SANDAROOSa,∗, MOHAMMAD TAGHI GOLDANIb,∗ and SAMAN DAMAVANDIc. aDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, ...

  19. Efficient asymmetric Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of prochiral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 124; Issue 4. Efficient asymmetric Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of prochiral cyclobutanones using new polymer-supported and unsupported chiral co(salen) complexes. Reza Sandaroos Mohammad Taghi Goldani Saman Damavandi Ali Mohammadi. Volume 124 Issue 4 ...

  20. Genetic differentiation of populations residing in areas of high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 88; Issue 1. Genetic differentiation of populations residing in areas of high malaria endemicity in India. Swapnil Sinha Vandana Arya Sarita Agarwal Indian Genome Variation Consortium Saman Habib.

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritive value of ripe and unripe(green) plantain peels (Musa paradisiaca) for broiler chicken. Abstract · Vol 2, No 1 (1999) - Articles Utilization of raw and autoclaved whole pods of Samenea Saman(Jaco Merill) by the domestic rabbit. Abstract · Vol 3, No 2 (2000) - Articles The performance of West African dwarf goat on ...

  2. Bis(imino)pyridine (BIMP) Fe(II) catalyses one-pot green ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    483–486. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Bis(imino)pyridine (BIMP) Fe(II) catalyses one-pot green condensation of resorcinol, malononitrile, aromatic aldehydes and cyclohexanone. SAMAN DAMAVANDIa,∗ and REZA SANDAROOSb. aDepartment of Chemistry, Sarvestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sarvestan, Iran.

  3. Efficient example of cross-linked polymeric catalysed synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indeno[1,2-b]quinolin-8-one and. 8H-naphtho[2,3-h]indeno[1,2-b]quinolin-9-one. REZA SANDAROOSa, MEHDI VADIb and SAMAN DAMAVANDIb,∗. aDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran. bDepartment ...

  4. Effect of smoking on the iodine content of some Ghanaian sea fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Penaeus notialis, Boboe-Brachydeuterus auritus, Saman-Scomber japonicus, Antele-Chloroscombus chrysurus et Antebo- Sardinella eba) de la même pêche étaient fumées et analysées pour l'humidité et l'iode. En tout, à l'exception de ...

  5. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Reza Sandaroos. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 124 Issue 2 March 2012 pp 483-486. Bis(imino)pyridine (BIMP) Fe(II) catalyses one-pot green condensation of resorcinol, malononitrile, aromatic aldehydes and cyclohexanone · Saman Damavandi ...

  6. Revista de Investigacion Educativa, 2002 (Journal of Educational Research, 2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revista de Investigacion Educativa, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This journal, which deals with topics in educational research, includes articles written in Spanish (translated here) such as the following: "Management of the Competence of Professional Action (CAP)]" (Benito Echeverria Samanes); "Concepts and Beliefs of Andalusian Secondary School Teachers on Mathematics Assessments" (Francisco Gil Cuadra, Luis…

  7. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Amir Hossein Ghandi. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 35 Issue 6 November 2012 pp 925-931. Surface modified Al2O3 in fluorinated polyimide/Al2O3 nanocomposites: Synthesis and characterization · Zivar Ghezelbash Davoud Ashouri Saman ...

  8. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pp 213-219. One-pot synthesis of hydroxyapatite–silica nanopowder composite for hardness enhancement of glass ionomer cement (GIC) · Ismail A B Rahman Sam'an Malik ..... 321-325 Electronic Supplementary Material. Effect of chemical composition and alumina content on structure and properties of ceramic insulators.

  9. El componente sistemático de la variabilidad de algunos parámetros de producción en palma africana adulta (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq en Casanare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acevedo A. Néstor

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Mediante análisis de tendencia y geoestadísticos fue evaluado el componente determinístico de la variabilidad del peso de racimos de fruta fresca (PR, de la tasa de extracción de aceite (TEA y de la cantidad de ácidos grasos libres (AGL, en palmas con diferente grado de recuperación de PC en un cultivo ubicado en la región del Bajo Upía, Casanare. Los análisis no detectaron ninguna variabilidad estructural en las propiedades evaluadas por lo que se concluye que las diferencias significativas encontradas por Acevedo (2000 entre ellas, mediante análisis de varianza, si están controladas por el grado de recuperación que muestran las palmas, después de haber sido atacadas por PC.

  10. Viabilidade e ação de lectinas na germinação in vitro de grãos de pólen de dendezeiro (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq. – Arecaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Alexsandro dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    No Brasil, pesquisas com grãos de pólen da família Arecaceae estão relacionados à melissopalinologia e palinotaxonomia, sendo escassos aqueles voltados à fisiologia do pólen. Estudos de biologia reprodutiva relacionados à polinização são de grande importância nas diversas culturas, visto que a partir dos seus resultados pode se obter parâmetros a serem utilizados visando o aumento considerável da produção de plantas cultivadas, bem como no tamanho e na qualidade dos frutos, contribuindo para ...

  11. Development of a Large Set of Microsatellite Markers in Zapote Mamey (Pouteria sapota (Jacq. H.E. Moore & Stearn and Their Potential Use in the Study of the Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée S. Arias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pouteria sapota is known for its edible fruits that contain unique carotenoids, as well as for its fungitoxic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. However, its genetics is mostly unknown, including aspects about its genetic diversity and domestication process. We did high-throughput sequencing of microsatellite-enriched libraries of P. sapota, generated 5223 contig DNA sequences, 1.8 Mbp, developed 368 microsatellites markers and tested them on 29 individuals from 10 populations (seven wild, three cultivated from Mexico, its putative domestication center. Gene ontology BLAST analysis of the DNA sequences containing microsatellites showed potential association to physiological functions. Genetic diversity was slightly higher in cultivated than in the wild gene pool (HE = 0.41 and HE = 0.35, respectively, although modified Garza–Williamson Index and Bottleneck software showed evidence for a reduction in genetic diversity for the cultivated one. Neighbor Joining, 3D Principal Coordinates Analysis and assignment tests grouped most individuals according to their geographic origin but no clear separation was observed between wild or cultivated gene pools due to, perhaps, the existence of several admixed populations. The developed microsatellites have a great potential in genetic population and domestication studies of P. sapota but additional sampling will be necessary to better understand how the domestication process has impacted the genetic diversity of this fruit crop.

  12. Degradabilidad ruminal in vitro de ensilajes de pasto saboya (Panicum maximum jacq. con diferentes niveles de inclusión de cáscara de maracuyá (Passiflora edulis sims.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Barrera-Álvarez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar la composición y degradabilidad ruminal in vitro de la materia seca, materia orgánica y materia inorgánica de los ensilajes de pasto saboya con los tratamientos T1: Pasto saboya 90%+cáscara de maracuyá 10%; T2: Pasto saboya 80%+cáscara de maracuyá 20%; T3: Pasto saboya 70%+cáscara de maracuyá 30% y T4: Pasto saboya 60%+cáscara de maracuyá 40%. Se utilizó el método de microensilaje (silos PVC de 3 kg de capacidad provistos de una válvula bunsen y mecanismo de extracción de efluentes y la técnica de degradación in vitro con el sistema de incubación DAISY II, empleando el líquido ruminal de bovinos brahman de 500±25 kg de peso promedio. Se aplicó un Diseño Completamente al Azar con seis repeticiones. El nivel de inclusión de maracuyá mejoró el contenido de nutrientes en el ensilaje, incrementando la materia orgánica, la proteína bruta y la grasa bruta y disminuyendo las fracciones de fibra. La degradabilidad de la materia seca, materia orgánica y materia inorgánica fue superior (p

  13. Constituintes químicos fixos e voláteis dos talos e frutos de Piper tuberculatum Jacq. e das raízes de P. hispidum H. B. K.

    OpenAIRE

    Facundo,Valdir Alves; Pollli,Aline Roberta; Rodrigues,Rosely Valéria; Militão,Júlio S. L Teixeira; Stabelli,Rodrigo Guerino; Cardoso,Cosuelo Tamiris

    2008-01-01

    Os óleos essenciais dos frutos e talos finos de Piper tuberculatum e das raízes de P. hispidum, coletados no estado de Rondônia, foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados por GC e GC-MS. Foram identificados como constituintes majoritários, nos óleos dos frutos e talos finos de P. tuberculatum, o óxido de cariofileno (32,1%) e (26,6%) e o (E)-cariofileno (17,7%) e (12,3%), respectivamente. No óleo essencial das raízes de P. hispidum, foram identificados, como constituintes majoritários, o...

  14. Models to estimate the bunch dry weight in African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq., American oil palm (Elaeis oleifera H.B.K. Cortes and the interspecific hybrid (E. oleifera x E. guineensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contreras B Ángela P.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Statistical models were used to estimate the bunch dry weight through indirect nondestructive methods in African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis American oil palm (Elaeis oleifera and the interspecific hybrid (E. oleifera x E. guineensis; and compared with the formula proposed by Corley. The studies were conducted at Santa Barbara and Chaparral-Cuernavaca on the Unipalma plantation, located in the eastern palm region of Colombia. Ten palms were selected for each group and 30 bunches were sampled for six months. Polynomial and exponential statistical models were postulated, with the best being linear without intercept. The results confirm and validate the usefulness of the model formulated to estimate the bunch dry weight of African oil palm (E. guineensis, American oil palm (E. oleifera and the interspecific hybrid (OxG; however, it proved more convenient to use the models proposed in this study because they are tailored to the specific environmental conditions of the eastern palm region of Colombia.

  15. The exotic palm Roystonea oleracea (Jacq. O.F. Cook as a rural biotype for Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954, in Caçu, State of Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Neves Vianna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Rhodnius neglectus is a triatomine that colonizes different palm species. In this study, we aimed to describe the presence of this triatomine bug in the royal palms (Roystonea oleracea in a rural region of the State of Goiás. Methods Palm infestation was investigated by dissecting the palms or by using live-bait traps. Results Two palm trees were infested by R. neglectus negative for Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent for Chagas disease. In the study area, R. neglectus is frequently found in households. Conclusions The adaptation of this species to palm trees introduced in Brazil for landscaping purposes poses another challenge for controlling the vectors of Chagas disease.

  16. Evaluation on the effectiveness of 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase (DOG(R)1) gene as a selectable marker for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) embryogenic calli transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawati, Abang Masli Dayang; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Ismanizan, Ismail; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    DOG(R)1, which encodes 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase, has been used as a selectable marker gene to produce transgenic plants. In this study, a transformation vector, pBIDOG, which contains the DOG(R)1 gene, was transformed into oil palm embryogenic calli (EC) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Transformed EC were exposed to 400 mg l(-1) 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) as the selection agent. 2-DOG resistant tissues were regenerated into whole plantlets on various regeneration media containing the same concentration of 2-DOG. The plantlets were later transferred into soil and grown in a biosafety screenhouse. PCR and subsequently Southern blot analyses were carried out to confirm the integration of the transgene in the plantlets. A transformation efficiency of about 1.0% was obtained using DOG(R)1 gene into the genome of oil palm. This result demonstrates the potential of using combination of DOG(R)1 gene and 2-DOG for regenerating transgenic oil palm.

  17. Evaluation on the effectiveness of 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase (DOGR1) gene as a selectable marker for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) embryogenic calli transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawati, Abang Masli Dayang; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Ismanizan, Ismail; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    DOGR1, which encodes 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase, has been used as a selectable marker gene to produce transgenic plants. In this study, a transformation vector, pBIDOG, which contains the DOGR1 gene, was transformed into oil palm embryogenic calli (EC) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Transformed EC were exposed to 400 mg l-1 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) as the selection agent. 2-DOG resistant tissues were regenerated into whole plantlets on various regeneration media containing the same concentration of 2-DOG. The plantlets were later transferred into soil and grown in a biosafety screenhouse. PCR and subsequently Southern blot analyses were carried out to confirm the integration of the transgene in the plantlets. A transformation efficiency of about 1.0% was obtained using DOGR1 gene into the genome of oil palm. This result demonstrates the potential of using combination of DOGR1 gene and 2-DOG for regenerating transgenic oil palm. PMID:26442041

  18. High genetic differentiation in the alpine plant Campanula alpina Jacq. (Campanulaceae): evidence for glacial survival in several Carpathian regions and long-term isolation between the Carpathians and the Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronikier, M; Cieślak, E; Korbecka, G

    2008-04-01

    A survey of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation was conducted to elucidate the phylogeography of Campanula alpina, a key species of silicicolous alpine grasslands in the Carpathians with a disjunct distribution in the Eastern European Alps. The Carpathians experienced a different glacial history from the Alps: local glaciers were present only in the highest massifs, while alpine habitats extended over larger areas related to their present distribution in this region. We asked: (i) whether in the Carpathians a high-mountain plant exhibits a complex phylogeographical structure or rather signatures of recent migrations, and (ii) whether the disjunct part of the species' distribution in the Alps resulted from a recent colonization from the Carpathians or from a restricted expansion from separate Eastern Alpine refugia. Our study revealed a clear phylogeographical pattern in AFLPs supported by congruent groups of distinct cpDNA haplotypes. Highest genetic differentiation was observed between the Alps and the Carpathians, indicating a long-term isolation between populations from these two mountain ranges. Further genetic division within the Carpathians suggests that current species' distribution is composed of several groups which have been isolated from each other for a long period. One genetic break separates Western from Southeastern Carpathian material, which is in line with a classical biogeographical boundary. A further, strongly supported genetic group was identified at the southwestern edge of the Carpathian arch. In the Eastern Alps, genetic traces of glacial survival in separate refugial areas in the calcareous northern part and the siliceous central part were found.

  19. Interacción entre las semillas de Sterculia apetala (Jacq.) H. Karst. y hemípteros del género Dysdercus en el Jardín Botánico

    OpenAIRE

    Piñeres de Cartagena, Guillermo; Fajardo Gutiérrez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Los insectos del género Dysdercus (Hemíptera), conocidos como manchadores del algodón son un grupo tropical especializado en consumir tejidos de semillas y frutos de plantas del orden Malvales. Esta investigación analiza detalladamente la interacción entre los Dysdercus y las semillas de Sterculia apetala, conocida localmente como Camajorú, una especie con gran potencial de usos, que además es importante para la regeneración, restauración y funcionamiento del ecosistema de bosq...

  20. Endophytic bacteria from Piper tuberculatum Jacq.: isolation, molecular characterization, and in vitro screening for the control of Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of root rot disease in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, S B; Lima, A M; Borges, B N; de Souza, C R B

    2015-07-06

    Endophytic bacteria have been found to colonize internal tissues in many different plants, where they can have several beneficial effects, including defense against pathogens. In this study, we aimed to identify endophytic bacteria associated with roots of the tropical piperaceae Piper tuberculatum, which is known for its resistance to infection by Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of black pepper (Piper nigrum) root rot disease in the Amazon region. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we isolated endophytes belonging to 13 genera: Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ralstonia, Serratia, Cupriavidus, Mitsuaria, Pantoea, and Staphylococcus. The results showed that 56.52% of isolates were associated with the phylum Proteobacteria, which comprised α, β, and γ classes. Other bacteria were related to the phylum Firmicutes, including Bacillus, which was the most abundant genus among all isolates. Antagonistic assays revealed that Pt12 and Pt13 isolates, identified as Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp, respectively, were able to inhibit F. solani f. sp piperis growth in vitro. We describe, for the first time, the molecular identification of 23 endophytic bacteria from P. tuberculatum, among which two Pseudomonas species have the potential to control the pathogen responsible for root rot disease in black pepper in the Amazon region.

  1. Ação do flúor dissolvido em chuva simulada sobre a estrutura foliar de Panicum maximum jacq. (colonião e Chloris gayana kunth. (capim-rhodes - Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves Alba Lucilvânia Fonseca

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Panicum maximum e Chloris gayana foram submetidas à chuvas simuladas com soluções de fluoreto de potássio (15mg ml-1 com objetivo de identificar as injúrias causadas pelo flúor (F-, como poluente atmosférico, na estrutura da lâmina foliar e fornecer subsídios para a seleção de características diagnósticas a serem utilizadas na bioindicação. Os principais sintomas foram clorose e necrose, principalmente no ápice e margens das lâminas. Nos cortes transversais, quatro tipos de alterações causadas pelo flúor são relacionadas: redução do número, tamanho e arranjo dos cloroplastos; necrose dos tecidos principalmente nas margens das folhas; erosões na superfície da folha e hipertrofia das células. Em C. gayana, no entanto, não foram observadas as alterações nos cloroplastos e os outros sintomas foram bem mais discretos que em P. maximum. A ocorrência de compostos fenólicos foi registrada pela coloração com fucsina em todas as regiões da lâmina onde foram observadas lesões. Ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura foi observado o achatamento e formação de concavidades nas paredes externas das células. Este experimento confirma a maior sensibilidade de P. maximum ao flúor e revela algumas características anatômicas de C. gayana que, entre outros fatores, podem estar contribuindo para a maior resistência desta espécie a este poluente.

  2. Morfologia, taxonomia, filogenia, anatomia foliar e titoquímica de espécies do gênero Hyptis Jacq. (Labiatae) ocorrentes em em Goiás e Tocantins

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Heleno Dias

    2010-01-01

    O gênero Hyptis, com 280 espécies, pertence à família Labiatae, subfamília Nepetoideae, tribo Ocimae e subtribo Hyptidinae. O gênero Hyptis foi dividido em 27 seções, sendo que 13 seções (Apodotes, Cephalohyptis, Cyanocephalus, Cyrta, Eriosphaeria, Pachyphyllae, Gymneia, Induratae, Mesosphaeria, Polydesmia, Pusilae, Trichosphaeria e Xylodontes) ocorrem em Goiás/Tocantins. Para coleta do material botânico, destinado aos estudos morfológicos, taxonômicos, anatômicos, fitoquímicos, distribuiç...

  3. INFLUÊNCIA DA DISPOSIÇÃO DOS TUBETES E DA APLICAÇÃO DE FERTILIZANTES DE LIBERAÇÃO LENTA, DURANTE O PRÉ-VIVEIRO, NO CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE DENDEZEIRO (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Teixeira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This research had as objective to verify the influence in growth, nutrition and dry matter partition in oil palm seedling by type and dosages of slow release fertilizers (SRF and percentage of tray occupation by plastic containers during pre-nursery. The experiment consisted of 16 treatments, in factorial scheme: two types of SRF (Osmocote® e Basacote mini, two dosages (0 and 3 kg/m3 and four schemes for the container distribution used to attain 100%, 66%, 50% and 25% of tray occupation. An additional treatment composed of 15 x 15 cm plastic bags filled with soil was added. Pre-germinated seeds of oil palm were put in plastic containers of 120 cm3 containing substratum and in plastic bags containing soil. After three months, the seedlings were transplanted to 40 x 40 cm plastic bags containing soil. At this time, height, diameter, dry matter and concentration of N, P, K, Ca and Mg were evaluated. After 10 months, seedlings were evaluated for height and diameter and after 16 months, seedlings had the height, diameter and dry matter weight evaluated. Addition of SRF was fundamental for seedlings development. Different percentages of tray occupation by containers during pre-nursery did not influence height and diameter of oil palm seedlings at 10 and 16 months old. The evaluation after 10 months showed that plants fertilized with Osmocote® were higher than those fertilized with Basacote mini. The evaluations after 16 months showed that plants fertilized during the pre-nursery had higher height, diameter and leaflets, leaf, aboveground and total dry matter than plants not fertilized.

  4. Características Morfogênicas e Acúmulo de Forragem do Capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia em Dois Resíduos Forrageiros Pós-Pastejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Rodrigo Amorim

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no Centro Nacional de Gado de Corte da Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa Gado de Corte. Foram avaliadas as características morfogênicas de folhas e perfilhos, acúmulo de matéria seca verde e índices de crescimento do capim-tanzânia em dois resíduos forrageiros pós-pastejo (Resíduo alto -- RA 3,6 t de MS/ha e Resíduo baixo -- RB 2,3 t de MS/ha, até os 35 dias após o pastejo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados completos com os tratamentos no esquema de parcelas subdivididas com três repetições. Para a dinâmica de perfilhamento houve diferença entre resíduos somente no aparecimento de novos perfilhos basilares. A taxa de aparecimento de novos perfilhos, tanto basilares quanto aéreos, decresceu linearmente com os dias de rebrotação após o pastejo. As taxas de alongamento e senescência de folhas não diferiram entre resíduos e tipos de perfilho. Em contrapartida, a duração de alongamento foliar foi menor no resíduo baixo e no perfilho novo, porém produzindo folhas com menor comprimento final. Houve interação entre resíduo e tipo de perfilho para a taxa de aparecimento de folhas, com maiores valores para o resíduo baixo no perfilho novo e remanescente. O acúmulo de matéria seca verde não diferiu entre resíduos, sendo, em média, 61,4 e 47,9 kg/ha.dia, nos resíduos baixo e alto, respectivamente. A taxa de crescimento relativo e o índice de área foliar não apresentaram diferenças entre resíduos forrageiros, porém apresentaram comportamento inverso em função dos dias após o pastejo.

  5. Comparison of Five Nuclear Isolation Buffers for Flow Cytometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jocky

    2012-02-23

    . INTRODUCTION. Information of ploidy ... structure, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) has been systematically classified into 1) ... similar morphological features at vegetative phase. The only possible way to identify them is ...

  6. Spatio-temporal distribution of the infestations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatio-temporal distribution of the infestations of Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti and Mariau ( Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae ) an oil palm tree ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) pest in Toumanguié (Côte d'Ivoire)

  7. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Achillea moschata Jacq Do. Labdanum Cistus spp Lemon-verbena Lippia citriodora HBK Do. Linaloe wood Bursera delpechiana Poiss. and other Bursera spp Linden leaves Tillia spp Do. Lovage Levisticum officinale Koch...

  8. Oyesiku et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2013) 10(3):144 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    .doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v10i4.23. 144. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE MECHANISM OF LEAF. PAIR UNROLLING IN URARIA PICTA (JACQ.) DESV. EX DC. (PAPILIONACEAE), A. MEDICINAL PLANT IN ...

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) à Coelaenomenodera .... P Akouango. Vol 93 (2015), Bacterial populations concomitant with Sclerotium rolfsii sclerotia in flooded soil, as estimated by 16S rRNA gene, PCR-DGGE and sequence analyses, Abstract PDF.

  10. Phytochemical and antibacterial properties of Parkia biglobosa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jacq) Benth and Parkia bicolor A. Chev (Mimosaceae) with respect to their photochemical and antimicrobial properties was carried out. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed that both plants had similar constituents namely cardiac ...

  11. Comparative study of leaf and stem bark extracts of Parkia biglobosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jacq) Benth. (Mimosaceae) were tested against clinical isolates Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae and Enterococcus faecalis, and corresponding collection strains E. coli CIP 105 182, Salmonella enterica CIP 105 150, ...

  12. SSR markers in transcripts of genes linked to post-transcriptional and transcriptional regulatory functions during vegetative and reproductive development of Elaeis guineensis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tranbarger, Timothy John; Kluabmongkol, Wanwisa; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Morcillo, Fabienne; Tregear, James W; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Billotte, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is a perennial monocotyledonous tropical crop species that is now the world's number one source of edible vegetable oil, and the richest dietary source of provitamin...

  13. Measuring customer satisfaction using SERQUAL survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Tajzadeh Namin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research is on assessing the quality of services of Tehran’s Saman bank and the available gap between customer’s expectation and perception. Also the relationship between customer’s satisfaction and each dimension of service quality (ie: reliability, tangibility, responsiveness, assurance and empathy and ranking them accordingly, is investigated. The statistical population of this research is consisted of Tehran’s Saman bank customers. The research methods of this study are descriptive-survey as well as correlation. The statistical approaches of this study are correlation, t-student as well as Friedman tests. The results from a sample of 276, shows the service quality dimensions affect customers' perception based on SERQUAL. In addition, there are significant relationship between customers' perception and their satisfaction of the offered services. However, there are negative gaps between customers' perception and their level of expectation.

  14. 29th Mid-year meeting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-07-02

    Jul 2, 2016 ... 10.05-10.25, Saman Habib, CDRI, Lucknow A relict organelle that changed the way we thought of malaria. 10.30-10.50, R. Prabhu, IIT, Patna A glimpse into quantum information science. 10.55-11.20, Tea break. 11.20-13.00, Session 2C – Lectures by Fellows/Associates. 11.20-11.40, Subhra Chakraborty, ...

  15. Ilmoittautumisohjelmiston relaatiotietokannan suunnittelu ja toteutus

    OpenAIRE

    Vehmassalo, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Vuoden 2016 helmikuun alusta ja saman vuoden toukokuun alkuun kestäneen ohjelmistokehitysprojektin tavoite, oli luoda ilmoittautumisohjelmisto koiranäyttelyille. Ohjelmiston keskeisiin toteutettaviin toiminnollisuuksiin kuului uusien näyttelyiden luonti ja osallistujien koirien ilmoittaminen niihin. Tässä opinnäytetyössä käsitellään tuon ilmoittautumisohjelmiston relaatiotietokannan suunnittelua ja toteutusta. Teoria osuuteen kuuluu niiden teknologioiden selittäminen, joiden päälle tietok...

  16. Underbody Blast Models of TBI Caused by Hyper-Acceleration and Secondary Head Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    RA, Cantu RC, Geiling J, Blusztajn JK, Wolozin BL, Ikezu T, Stein TD, Budson AE, Kowall NW, Chargin D, Sha- ron A, Saman S, Hall GF, Moss WC...Julie Proctor, Irina Balan, Yi-Chun Hsieh , William Fourney, Adam Puche, Alan I. Faden, Robert Rosenthal, Raymond Fang, Parissa Rangghran, and Gary...Irina Balan, Yi-Chun Hsieh , William Fourney, Adam Puche, Alan I. Faden, Robert E. Rosenthal, Raymond Fang, Parissa Rangghran, and Gary Fiskum

  17. Trincas nas calçadas e espécies muito utilizadas na arborização: comparação entre Sibipiruna ( Caesalpinia pluviosa Dc.) e Falsa-murta (Murraya paniculata (L.) Jacq.), no município de Piracicaba/SP

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Volpe-Filik

    2009-01-01

    A arborização urbana oferece diversos benefícios para a população, e sua necessidade vem aumentando com o crescimento das cidades. Mas como qualquer outro equipamento urbano, existe custo de implantação, manutenção e, também, prejuízos. Dentre os potenciais prejuízos da arborização urbana, estão os danos em calçamentos e estruturas de construção civil. Este trabalho objetivou identificar quais os parâmetros que influenciam esses danos e, auxiliar na definição de políticas públicas para a arbo...

  18. Prospeção da diversidade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em 2 espécies agrícolas (Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vicia faba L.) e 2 espécies nativas (Teline maderensis Webb & Berthel e Genista tenera (Jacq. Ex Murray) Kuntze) da Madeira

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Maria Cristina Ornelas

    2016-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Microbiologia Aplicada, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2016 O Filo Glomeromycota compreende um grupo de fungos que se considera no geral serem biotróficos obrigatórios e que se associam a cerca de 80% das plantas. O fungo e a planta formam uma associação simbiótica conhecida como micorriza arbuscular. Desta associação, o fungo absorve entre 5 a 20% do carbono fotossintetizado pela planta e por outro lado a planta pode beneficiar do aumento da absorção de n...

  19. Variabilidad fitoquímica y repercusión antinutricional potencial en especies del género Albizia Phytochemical variability and potential antinutritional repercussion in species of the Albizia genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.E García

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Mediante los análisis de componentes principales (ACP, clasificación automática (ACA y varianza simple (ANOVA, se estudió el espectro de variaciones de la composición química de once especies del género Albizia (A. berteriana, A. caribaea, A. cubana, A. falcata, A. kalkora, A. lebbeck, A. lucida, A. procera, A. saman, A. semani y A. odoratissima, establecidas en el arboretum de la EEPF "Indio Hatuey" en Matanzas, Cuba. Los indicadores bromatológicos evaluados fueron: PB, FDN, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, ceniza y carbohidratos solubles (CHS; mientras que las concentraciones de los polifenoles totales (FT, los taninos que precipitan las proteínas (TPP, los taninos condensados (TC, los alcaloides (Alc, las saponinas (Sap y las sales nitrogenadas de naturaleza no alcaloidal (SNNA describieron las particularidades fitoquímicas. Se detectó una alta variabilidad para las primeras tres componentes en los indicadores bromatológicos y fitoquímicos (71,19 y 81,95%, respectivamente. Los ACA permitieron identificar cuatro grupos en ambos casos. Las variables que explicaron mejor la varianza fueron los contenidos de K, Ca, ceniza, CHS, FT, TPP y TC. Se concluye que, independientemente que las especies mostraron características particulares en su composición proximal, todas presentaron una aceptable composición bromatológica. Las arbóreas pueden ser divididas por sus características esencialmente polifenólicas (A. berteriana, A. cubana, A. falcata, A. kalkora y A. lucida o saponínicas (A. caribaea, A. procera y A. saman, con elevadas concentraciones de fenoles y Sap (A. odoratissima, o por presentar bajos contenidos de estos últimos metabolitos secundarios (A. lebbeck y A. semani. Desde el punto de vista nutricional A. lebbeck, A. semani, A. caribaea, A. procera y A. saman constituyen las mejores opciones para la alimentación de los rumiantes, y solamente A. lebbeck y A. semani presentan potencialidades para los monogástricos.By means of the

  20. Development and structure of hawthorn seeds (Crataegus L. from species occurring in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Pelc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development, internal and external structure of seeds of Crataegus monogyna Jacq., C. curvisepala Lindm., C. lindmannii Hrabĕt-Uhr., C. oxyacantha L. em. Jacq., C. palmstruchii Lindm., C. macrocarpa Hegetsch were investigated. It was found that the embryo development is specific, and the development of endosperm precedes that of the embryo. In mature seeds of the examined species endosperm is present under the seed coat and the embryo with large cotyledones and radicle is completely immersed in it. The external appearance of the seeds of particular species differs, and on this basis their specific appurtenance may be determined.

  1. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaen, J.A. [Universidad de Panama, Centro de Investigaciones con Tecnicas Nucleares/Depto. de Quimica (Panama); Garcia de Saldana, E.; Hernandez, C. [Universidad de Panama, Maestria en Ciencias Quimicas (Panama)

    1999-11-15

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Moessbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  2. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, J. A.; García de Saldaña, E.; Hernández, C.

    1999-11-01

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe2+ and Fe3+) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  3. Preliminary screening of five ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, C; Gomez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar, A M; Cáceres, A

    2001-01-01

    We performed the Irwin test on some different extracts of the aerial parts of Tridax procumbens L., of the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., of the bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. and of the root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At a dosage of 1.25 g extract/100 g dried plant, the aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and G. sepium Jacq. Walp. showed higher activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis. catalepsy and strong hypothermia.

  4. Papaya Lethal Yellowing Virus (PLYV) Infects Vasconcellea cauliflora

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, P.P.R.; Resende MR; Souza, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) é um dos três vírus descritos infectando mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) no Brasil. Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., antes denominada de Carica cauliflora (Jacq.), é uma reconhecida fonte de resistência natural ao Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), causador da "Mancha Anelar" ou "Mosaico" do mamoeiro. Neste estudo é demonstrado que V. cauliflora pode ser infectada por PLYV mediante inoculação mecânica. Esta é a segunda hospedeira de PLYV descrita até o mome...

  5. Jaktar på gåtene til universet

    CERN Multimedia

    Toft, Martin

    2004-01-01

    50 år har fysikarar frå 80 land og 500 universitet frå heile verda kome saman ved Det europeiske laboratoriet for partikkelfysikk (CERN) for å få testa ut teoriane sine i praksis. Forskinga på CERN har resultert i to Nobelprisar i fysikk og i verdsveven. Den 19. oktober feira laboratoriet 50-årsjubileet med Frankrikes president Jacques Chirac og Spanias kong Juan Carlos som dei mest kjende gjestene. Uniforum har besǿkt partikkelfysikarane sitt templ i Genève

  6. Coordinación de las protecciones de la subestación de distribución del sistema Guayaquil.

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar Tola, Luis Randy; Herrera Calvache, Juan Carlos; Zambrano Miño, Carlos Andrés

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo se desarrolla en torno a la coordinación de protecciones de la Subestación de Distribución de Energía Eléctrica Samanes, que presenta un transformador de 69/13.8 KV, utilizando métodos computarizados que nos permiten una mayor agilidad del proceso y facilitan un reajuste en caso de cambios futuros del sistema eléctrico de distribución. Se recalca que debido a que la subestación a estudiarse se encuentra en funcionamiento por lo tanto sus equipos de protección ya han sid...

  7. Modelamiento y manejo de las interacciones entre la hidrología, la ecología y la economía en una cuenca hidrográfica para la estimación de caudales ambientales.

    OpenAIRE

    Parra , Emerson A; Carvajal Serna, Luis Fernando

    2012-01-01

    El presente documento presenta un proceso de planificación de siete pasos que se implementa en el Proyecto Trasvase Manso, ubicado en el Departamento de Caldas, Municipios de Samaná y Norcasia. En este estudio se involucran varios actores en un intento de encontrar la forma de satisfacer múltiples objetivos económicos, medioambientales y ecológicos. El proceso de planificación de siete pasos trata de proporcionar un enfoque muy trasparente y plenamente participativo hacia el logro de una v...

  8. Modelamiento y manejo de las interacciones entre la hidrología, la ecología y la economía en una cuenca hidrográfica para la estimación de caudales ambientales.

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Rodríguez, Emerson Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Resumen: El presente documento presenta un proceso de planificación de siete pasos que se implementa en el Proyecto Trasvase Manso, ubicado en el Departamento de Caldas, Municipios de Samaná y Norcasia. En este estudio se involucran varios actores en un intento de encontrar la forma de satisfacer múltiples objetivos económicos, medioambientales y ecológicos. El proceso de planificación de siete pasos trata de proporcionar un enfoque muy trasparente y plenamente participativo hacia el logro de...

  9. Balansert målstyring i Helse Vest RHF : korleis kan balansert målstyring bidra til betre styring av Helse Vest RHF

    OpenAIRE

    Myklebust, Knut Øyvind

    2008-01-01

    Det har dei siste åra vore mykje debatt omkring økonomisk styring av sjukehussektoren. Denne utgreiinga tek føre seg bruk av balansert målstyring i Helse Vest RHF, og om dette rammeverket kan gi betre styring for organisasjonen. Eg presenterer først teori knytt til balansert målstyring, og gir eit samandrag av dei viktigaste styringsdokumenta for Helse Vest RHF. Vidare koplar eg saman teori og empiri for å sjå om balansert målstyring er mogleg å bruke i denne organisasjonen, og om det vil gi ...

  10. The Effects of Timing and Grafting Methods on Graft Success and Scion Growth in Walnut (Juglans regia L.)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Khajeali; A. Mohammadkhani

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the best method and time of budding and grafting in walnut under controlled conditions in Saman, Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari Province. The experiment was in completely randomized design with 13 treatments, including cleft, splice and whip-tongue grafting on February 4, chip budding on April 4, 19, May 5 and 20, and T-budding and patch budding each one on first of June, July and August in three replications (each replication, including ten seedlings). All g...

  11. Sinú River raw water treatment by natural coagulants

    OpenAIRE

    Johana Paola Rodiño-Arguello; Jhon Jairo Feria-Diaz; Roberth de Jesús Paternina-Uribe; José Luis Marrugo-Negrete

    2015-01-01

    Se evaluaron cinco extractos coagulantes naturales en solución salina de tallosde Hylocereus cf. trigonus (Cactus), exudado gomoso de Albizia saman (Campano), corteza deGuazuma ulmifolia (Guácimo) y corteza y semilla de Moringa oleífera (Moringa), en muestrasde agua cruda tomadas del río Sinú, con niveles de turbidez inicial entre 56 y 300 unidadesnefelométricas de turbidez (UNT). Con ensayos de jarras, se determinó las efi cienciasde remoción de turbidez, como una función del porcentaje de a...

  12. Laiteliittymien hallintaportaali

    OpenAIRE

    Nuutinen, Ville

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli kehittää laiteliittymien relaatiotietokannan hallintaportaali Mastercom Oy:lle. Tietokanta koostuu liittymän tiedoista ja viittauksesta liittymään liitettyyn IoT laitteeseen. Portaalin käyttöliittymän avulla voi hakea, tarkastella, muokata ja vaihtaa laitteisiin liitettyjen liittymien ominaisuuksia. Työn tavoitteena oli kehittää toimiva, selkeä ja helppokäyttöinen sovellus, jonka avulla pystytään hallinnoimaan usean eri operaattorin liittymiä saman portaalin kaut...

  13. NIFOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), a monocotyledonous plant belonging to the Arecaceae family, is one of the most important oil crops in the world. In Nigeria, oil palm has benefited immensely from conventional breeding efforts resulting in high yields that have been achieved with this breeding material.

  14. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Leibnitz series (2) 116 (GA). Guaiacum officinale L. (6) (FT). Gun-powder (11) 1009 (SA). Gust loads (3) 206 (SA). Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq. (12) FT. Handicap principle (5) 434 (GA). Hands-on learning (4) 351 (CR). Heisenberg (5) 411 (GA).

  15. Geometric, volumetric, colour and frictional properties of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: This study was performed on selected engineering properties of seeds of 6 Salvia species (Salvia viridis L., Salvia aethiopis L., Salvia cryptantha Montbert & Aucher ex Benthan., Salvia tomentosa Mill., Salvia sclarea L., Salvia virgata Jacq.,) cultivated in Turkey. Plants were collected during the ...

  16. Antiproliferative effect of alcoholic extracts of some Gabonese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts from Piptadeniastrum africanum Brenan (Mimosaceae), Petersianthus macrocarpus (Breauv) L. (Lecydaceae), Cissus debilis Planch (Vitaceae) and Dieffenbachia seguine Jacq. (Araceae) were tested in vitro for their antiproliferative activity on human colon cancer cell line (CaCo-2). The highest antiproliferative ...

  17. DONNEES PRELIMINAIRES SUR LES HABITUDES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    grande saison sèche), de Ficus benjamina L. (Moraceae) et de Ficus umbellata Vahl (Moraceae) (grande saison sèche et grande saison de pluies). Par ailleurs, les fleurs de Parkia biglobosa Jacq. (Mimosaceae) sont disponibles en petite saison.

  18. Cocos nucifera L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Koutou A. 1990. Recherche de marqueurs enzymatiques lies à la teneur en huile de la pulpe chez le palmier à huile. (Elaeis guineensis JACQ). Thèse de. Doctorat, Université de Montpellier II,. France, 213 p. Lemordant D. 1988. Le sucre, les sucres, les édulcorants : leurs diverses utilisations. J. Agric Trad. Bota. Appliq.

  19. à Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 oct. 2014 ... Évaluation of seven oil palm clones (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) sensibility to ... suggests good projection for genetic control of C. lameensis with oil palm clone material. Indeed, more ..... in Indonesia and the Côte d'Ivoire. In:.

  20. Pungency in Capsicum Chinense: Variation Among Countries of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruits of 63 accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. from the USDA/ARS Capsicum germplasm collection were analyzed for two major capsaicinoids, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, content using gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detectin (GC/NPD). The objectives of the present investigation were:...

  1. 2690-IJBCS-Article-N'goran David Vincent K

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Reduction of guinea pig food costs (Cavia porcellus L.) by distribution of fodders supplemented by fish meal or/and corn kernels during the reproductive cycle. ABSTRACT. Supplementing Panicum maximum Jacq. with pelleted rabbit concentrate feed has the advantage of inducing better productivity in domestic cavies, but ...

  2. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... Azochil, Axochitl, Ahuejotes, Flor de agua, Palo de agua. 12 Hamelia patens Jacq. Rubiaceae. Coral, Trompetilla, Jicarillo. 13 Swietenia humilis Zucc. Meliaceae. Zopilote, Cóbano, Palo de zopilote. 14 Stemmadenia bella Miers. Apocynaceae. 15 Rupechtia fusca. Polygonaceae. Guayabillo, Azulillo.

  3. Influence of plant growth regulators on indirect shoot organogenesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    2013-10-17

    Oct 17, 2013 ... Influence of plant growth regulators on indirect regeneration and secondary metabolite production in. Aconitum violaceum Jacq. was evaluated. Among the different plant growth regulators studied, 2.5 µM. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 0.25 µM kinetin (Kn) promoted the highest frequency of.

  4. Nodulation, chlorophyll content and nitrogen yield of two woody ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field studies were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria between 2000 and 2002 to compare the growth, nodulation, chlorophyll content and nitrogen accumulation of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit cv. 28 and Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walp cv. ILG50 at the ...

  5. Mechanical properties and chemical composition of beech wood exposed for 30 and 120 days to white-rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan Bari; Hamid Reza Taghiyari; Behbood Mohebby; Carol A. Clausen; Olaf Schmidt; Mohammad Ali Tajick Ghanbary; Mohammad Javad Vaseghi

    2015-01-01

    The effects of exposing specimens of Oriental beech [Fagus sylvatica subsp. orientalis (Lipsky) Greuter and Burdet] to the white-rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kummer and Trametes versicolor (L.: Fr.) Pilát strain 325 have been studied concerning the mechanical properties and...

  6. Evaluation of the Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activity of the Aqueous Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elaeis guineensis- Jacq (Arecaceae) is reported for the treatment of a variety of ailments notable amongst these are diabetes and hyperlipidemia. The present study is aimed at evaluating its anti-hyperlipedemic effect, via olive oil induced hyperlipidemia.The aqueous extract was obtained from a decoction of the roots, and ...

  7. In vitro micropropagation of white dasheen (Colocassia esculenta)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-04

    Jan 4, 2008 ... variation in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.): DNA methylation hypothesis. Plant Cell Rep., 19: 684-690. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962). A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue culture. Physiol. Plant. 15: 473-497. Robin G (2004). Dasheen (Colocasis esculenta (L) Schott var.

  8. Surface sterilization and duration of seed storage influenced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-08-03

    Aug 3, 2006 ... sterilization with three dilution levels of sodium hypochlorite on seedling emergence and seedling quality of African breadfruit were ... guineensis Jacq) as roadside snack. The flour has high potential usage for ..... Response to Water Stress of African breadfruit (Treculia africana. Decne). Afr. J. Biotechnol.

  9. ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION OF FOUR ARTEMISIA SPECIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    leaves of A. absinthium L. from Ethiopia (previously called A. rehan) and A. absinthium (from Europe) was also conducted. ... composition of the essential oils of A. schimperi, A. afra and A. abyssinica are mainly dominated by irregular monoterpenes: ... Sch. Bip. ex A. Rich., A. afra Jacq. ex Willd., and A. absinthium L. [1].

  10. Réduction des coûts alimentaires des lapins ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mots clés: Lapin, fourrage, Euphorbia heterophylla, Panicum maximum, croissance, carcasse. English Title: Reduction of rabbit food costs (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) by distribution of milkweed (Euphorbia heterophylla) associated to Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) Lam. in semi-intensive livestock. English Abstract.

  11. Études de quelques plantes thérapeutiques utilisées dans le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il s\\'agit de Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don, Ageratum conyzoides L., Vernonia colorata (Willd.) Drake, Alchornea cordifolia (Schum. & Thonn.) Müll. Arg., Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. et Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. Investigations on medicinal plants in the markets of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire) allowed the inventory ...

  12. Impact of natural weed infestation on the performance of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    W.D.Clayton, Panicum maximum Jacq, Imperata cylindrica L., Panicum repens L., Cynodon dactylon L. and Cyperus rotundus L. were the major weed problems of sugarcane in Ilorin. The monthly hoe weeded treatment had significantly higher tiller count which translated to higher cane yield (22.61 to 72.54 t/ha) than other ...

  13. Evaluation of the contributions of vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upsurge in population has resulted in pressure on many tree species including Vitellaria paradoxa C.F.Gaertn. and Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. These species are highly valued for their socio economic potentials. The study therefore assessed the contribution of V. paradoxa and P. biglobosa to rural livelihood in Oyo ...

  14. Enige aantekeningen over het geslacht Crataegus L. in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.G.

    1964-01-01

    A preliminary systematic study of the genus Crataegus L. in the Netherlands resulted in the fact that at least 3 taxa can be distinguished, viz. the species C. monogyna Jacq. and C. oxyacantha L., and the hybrid C. calycina Peterm. X C. oxyacantha L. The hybrid was not yet known from this country;

  15. Silicon-inducible defenses of Zinnia elegans against Myzus persicae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several examples exist of silicon (Si) amendment inducing plant chemical defenses against plant pathogens, but few studies have focused on Si-induced defenses against phloem-feeding herbivores. The current study examined Si treatment of Zinnia elegans Jacq. cv. Oklahoma White (Compositae) on the pe...

  16. Influence of Silicon on Resistance of Zinnia Elegans to Myzus Persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to examine the effect of treating Zinnia elegans Jacq. with soluble silicon on the performance of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Zinnia elegans plants were irrigated every 2 days throughout the duration of the experiment with a nutrient solution amended with ...

  17. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    cantalupensis Naud. also including former var. reticulatus, inodorus Jacq., conomon (Thunb.) Makino, chito and dudaim (L.) Naud., flexuosus (L.) Naud., and momordica (Roxb.) Duthie et Fuller. The genetic diversity of melon has been assessed using phenotypic (Escribano and Lazaro, 2009; Szamosi et al., 2010), isozymic ...

  18. Essential oil composition of four Artemisia species from Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil composition of four Artemisia species, namely A. schimperi Sch. Bip. ex Engl. A. abyssinica Sch. Bip. ex A. Rich., A. afra Jacq. ex Willd., and A. absinthium L. (previously called A. rehan) from Ethiopia has been studied. The essential oil obtained from A. absinthium (seedling from Europe) grown in two places ...

  19. Protective Role of Artemisia Afra Aqueous Extract on Tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in antioxidant capacity in the body as a result of oxidative stress play an important role in the development of diabetic complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. on antioxidant defense systems in the liver and kidney of streptozotocin–induced ...

  20. Ethnobotany of pru, a traditional Cuban refreshment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Godínez, D.

    2004-01-01

    Gouania polygama (Jacq.) Urban, Smilax domingensis Willd., and Pimenta dioica Merr., are three species widely used within Cuban ethnobotanical traditions and practices. Pru is a traditional refreshment and medicinal drink produced by their decoction and fermentation with sugar. It is claimed to have