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Sample records for samanea saman jacq

  1. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas in Samanea saman (Jacq. Merr. rhizosphere

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    Juliana Coromoto Mayz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research goal includes isolation, characterization and identification of Pseudomonas species existing in the rhizosphere of a legume present (colonizing or survivor in a savanna soil polluted by an oil spill, in order to explain the support of the growth of this leguminous plant through the reduction of the toxicity of spilled oil (hydrocarbonoclastic effects. The site is located at Amana del Tamarindo village entrance, Monagas State, Venezuela (9 ° 38' 52 "N, 63 ° 7' 20" E, 46 masl. An area of 50 m2 was sampled.  In concordance to the descriptions, keys, and comparison with the UOJ Herbarium exsiccatae, the legume collected was identified as Samanea saman (Jacq. Merr., which belongs to the Fabaceae family. The results of the biochemical characterization and the production of pyocyanine and fluorescein pigments allowed identifying 10 isolates as P. fluorescens, 5 as P. putida and 5 as P. aeruginosa. Samanea saman is recommended for re-vegetation of the contaminated area.

  2. Qualitative Phytochemical Analysis and Microbial Inhibitory Activities of Pacific Rain Tree (Samanea saman (Jacq. Merr. Pods

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    James Kennard S. Jacob

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crop diseases and human health are always at stake and the emerging problem on the use of synthetic anti-pathogens and medicine is one of the most difficult to combat. The first step towards determining such capabilities among plants is to determine their phytochemicals. Methods: Eight preliminary phytochemical tests was done on Samanea saman which includes, test for alkaloids saponins, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids and resins. Powdered pods were subjected to ethanol and aqueous extraction. Extracts were also tested for its antifungal and anti-microbial properties against Fusarium oxysporum, E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. Results: Out of the eight phytochemical tests done, seven (7 were found to be present both on the ethanol and aqueous extracts namely, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids and resins. However, flavonoids is absent. The statistical results exhibited that there is a significant difference on the inhibitory effects against in-vitro bioassay of Fusarium oxysporum which is known to cause crop wilts and the two bacterial pathogens E. coli and S. aureus. Conclusions: The presence of such phytochemicals in Samanea saman pods revealed that it can be a basis of new, natural and non-synthetic treatments. This finding suggests that its pods can be used as antibacterial and antifungal source.

  3. Chemical composition, in vitro gas production and astringency in the foliage of Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merrill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeda, A.; Barroso, J.A.; Obispo, N.; Gil, J.L.; Cegarra, R.

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine the chemical composition, astringency, in vitro gas production and ruminal degradability of the edible fraction of Samanea saman, during 2009, five samplings (February, April, May, June and October) were conducted on plants located in a semideciduous tropical forest in Venezuela. In each sampling 10 different plants were considered, each as a replicate evaluated in a completely randomized design. OM (94,1 ± 1,5%), CP (20,1 ± 1,5%), hemicellulose (17,5 ± 3,7%), cellulose (10,5 ± 2,5%), lignin (11,1 ± 1,8%), and total phenols (2,8 ± 1,1%) did not show variations (P<0,05). From May to October, the highest values (P<0,05) of EE (5,3 ± 0,8%), NDF (44,8 ± 3,3%), ADF (16,7 ± 1,9%), and Ca (1,3 ± 0,2%) were observed; while total (P<0,05) and condensed tannins (P<0,01) increased in October (3,75% and 0,99%, respectively). Astringency was not detected from February to May, and had limited values from June to October (0,4 ± 0,2 g Eta/100 g DM). No differences were observed in b (0,04 ± 0,01 mL/h), To (1,2 ± 0,2 h) and T½ (21,3 ± 3,3 h) with the highest gas potential production in February (63,3 mL/g DM). The OM and NDF degradability was reduced (P<0,05) in April (44,7% and 24,7%, respectively), without differences during the remaining months (51,2 ± 3,4% and 37,7 ± 3,3%, respectively). The edible biomass of S. saman could be used as a nutrient source in silvopastoral systems, with a low condensed tannin content of low biological activity, which causes a positive impact on the non-ammonia nitrogen flow from the rumen. (author)

  4. Composición química, producción de gas in vitro y astringencia en el follaje de Samanea saman (Jacq. Merrill Chemical composition, in vitro gas production and astringency in the foliage of Samanea saman (Jacq. Merrill

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    A Ojeda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la composición química, la astringencia, la producción de gas y la degradabilidad ruminal in vitro de la fracción comestible de Samanea saman, durante el año 2009 se realizaron cinco muestreos (febrero, abril, mayo, junio y octubre en plantas localizadas en un bosque semicaducifolio tropical en Venezuela. En cada muestreo se consideraron 10 plantas diferentes, cada una como una réplica evaluada en un diseño completamente aleatorizado. No hubo variación (P>0,05 en la MO (94,1 ± 1,5%, la PC (20,1 ± 1,5%, la hemicelulosa (17,5 ± 3,7%, la celulosa (10,5 ± 2,5%, la lignina (11,1 ± 1,8% y los fenoles totales (2,8 ± 1,1%. De mayo a octubre se observaron los mayores valores (PIn order to determine the chemical composition, astringency, in vitro gas production and ruminal degradability of the edible fraction of Samanea saman, during 2009, five samplings (February, April, May, June and October were conducted on plants located in a semideciduous tropical forest in Venezuela. In each sampling 10 different plants were considered, each as a replicate evaluated in a completely randomized design. OM (94,1 ± 1,5%, CP (20,1 ± 1,5%, hemicellulose (17,5 ± 3,7%, cellulose (10,5 ± 2,5%, lignin (11,1 ± 1,8%, and total phenols (2,8 ± 1,1% did not show variations (P<0,05. From May to October, the highest values (P<0,05 of EE (5,3 ± 0,8%, NDF (44,8 ± 3,3%, ADF (16,7 ± 1,9%, and Ca (1,3 ± 0,2% were observed; while total (P<0,05 and condensed tannins (P<0,01 increased in October (3,75% and 0,99%, respectively. Astringency was not detected from February to May, and had limited values from June to October (0,4 ± 0,2 g Eta/100 g DM. No differences were observed in b (0,04 ± 0,01 mL/h, To (1,2 ± 0,2 h and T½ (21,3 ± 3,3 h with the highest gas potential production in February (63,3 mL/g DM. The OM and NDF degradability was reduced (P<0,05 in April (44,7% and 24,7%, respectively, without differences during the remaining

  5. Volatile constituents from Samanae saman (Jacq.) Merr. Fabaceae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    Oct 16, 2006 ... Key words: Samanae saman, Fabaceae, volatile oil, fatty acids, terpenoids, palmitic acid, 1,8-cineole. .... Gas chromatography – mass spectrometry analyses (GC/MS) ... this study, is an important constituent of most vegetable.

  6. Effect of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen environment, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous early-lactating dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cross-bred, 75%) with an initial body weight (BW) of 405 ± 40 kg and 36 ± 8 day in milk were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were unsupplemented (control), supplemented with rain tree pod (S. saman) meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplemented with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplemented with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter (DM) intake. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effect on ruminal pH, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen concentration (p > 0.05). However, supplementation with RPM resulted in lower ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) concentration (p rumen environment and increased milk yield, content of milk protein and milk fat. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents of n-butanol extract of Samanea saman leaf and the antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Wiwik Susanah; Swantara, I. Made Dira; Asih, I. A. Raka Astiti; Sinarsih, Ni Ketut; Suteja, I. Kadek Pater

    2016-03-01

    Total flavonoid and phenolic contents in some natural products was suspected of having a positive correlation to its activity in inhibiting the growth of bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the total flavonoid and phenolic contents of n-butanol extract of Samanea saman leaf, and to evaluate the antibacterial activity towards Escherechia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Extraction of compounds was done by ethanol 96%, followed by fractionation into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. Determination of total flavonoid and phenolic contents was done by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer using standard of quersetin and galic acid respectively. In addition, antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar disc diffusion method. Extraction of 1000 g of Samanea saman leaf was obtained 80 g of ethanol extracts, fractionation of the extract was obtained 8.02 g of n-hexane extracts, 7.11 g of ethyl acetate extracts, 13.5 g of n-butanol extracts, and 14.16 g of aqueous extracts. Phytochemical screening of the n-butanol extracts revealed the presence of flavonoid and phenolic compounds. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents were successively 43.5798 mg QE/100g and 34.0180 mg GAE/100g. The butanol extracts inhibited the growth of S.aureus higher than the growth of E.coli. At the concentration of 2, 4, 6, 8 % (b/v), and positive control (meropenem μg/disc), inhibition zone towards S. aureus was successively 5.67, 9.33, 10.33, 12.00, and 32.33 mm, while the inhibition zone towards E. coli was1.33, 3.33, 4.33, 5.43, and 34.00 mm.

  8. Organic Fertilizers Improves Trembesi Samanea Saman Seedling Growth A Case Study Of The Implementation Of Post-Mining Land Reclamation And Revegetation Within The Forest Cultivation Zone

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    Suria Darma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to 1 determine the effect of each organic fertilizer dosage a the growth variables of Trembesi seedlings and b the quality of planting media after 120 days planted Trembesi Seedlings. This study also aimed to 2 obtain the optimum dose of organic fertilizer to be applied to the implementation of post-mining land reclamation and revegetation within the Forest Cultivation Zone. This research used various manure Control without fertilizer NPK synthetic fertilizer control chicken manure cow manure and organic litter compost. Each of the organic fertilizer was given at doses of 125 250 and 375 gpolybag. The test plants used were Trembesi seedlings Samanea saman at 4 months of age.The experimental design was prepared using Randomized Block Design RAK with 5 replications in each test plant group. Data analysis was completed with Fisher LSD Test and Duncan Multiple Range Test DMRT as well as regression analysis.The treatment of organic fertilizer dosage showed significant in all variables of growth of trembesi seedlings except on average of Trembesi seedlings height at 90 days after planting DAP and on average stem diameter of Trembesi seed of 30 60 90 120 DAP. Effect of organic fertilizer dosage to planting medium after 120 days planted Trembesi seedling. All variations of fertilization dose increase the pH value organic C N-total CN ratio available P available K Ca Mg Na K and cation exchange rate CEC. Treatment dose of 375gpolybag of chicken manure was the best treatment dose with the highest number of twigs on Trembesi seedlings at the age of 30 DAP 21.00 twigs 60 DAP 36.40 twigs 90 DAP 63.60 twigs 120 DAP 106.60 twigs The Longest length of twig was found on Trembesi seedlings with age of 30 DAP 17.95 cm 60 DAP21.61 cm 90 DAP 28.49 cm 120 DAP 32.11 cm longest root length and heaviest biomass weight of Trembesi seedling wasfor the age of 120 DAP which were 58.80 cm and 487.22 g respectively.

  9. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  10. Reproductive toxicity of Samanea tubulosa on rats

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    Maria Rafaella Luz de Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Samanea tubulosa is a plant used for medicinal and feeding purposes. However, ingestion of S. tubulosa pods has been associated with bovine abortion. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of diet containing 5% of S. tubulosa pod meal on male and female Wistar rats. Diet was administered to male rats (n = 10 for 60 days before mating. Female rats (n = 10 received the treatment for 30 days, during cohabitation and from gestational day (GD 0 to GD20. Treated animals were mated with untreated rats. In male rats, plant consumption caused decreased food consumption and 20% fertility index reduction. Litters from treated males presented lower body weight and crown–rump length. Female rats treated with the plant increased water and food intake and body weight. Decreases in fertility, fecundity and gestation indices and increase of placenta weight and mean number of corpora lutea were found. Thus, owing to the possible general and reproductive toxic effects, long-term consumption of S. tubulosa is not recommended for phytotherapic or food purposes.

  11. Representasi Seksualitas dalam Novel Saman Karya Ayu Utami

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    Rina Patriana Chairiyani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Saman is a literature written by Ayu Utami. Showing a representation of a female counterpart ideology that differs from what has already been made in heterosexual and patriarchal society. The community considers sex is taboo to talk openly. In this novel it is represented openly. Women are no longer in a weak position, and have choices. In this paper, research methodology used is qualitative method. 

  12. The Translation of Indonesian Cultural Lexicons in the Novel Saman

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    Evert H. Hilman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Article was aimed to explore and identity the manners used by the translator in translating the Indonesian cultural lexicon in the novel Saman into English, and to find out which manners that contained the least semantic shifts concerning the problems of meaning related to cultural differences. Method applied was descriptive qualitative research by collecting and analyzing both the Indonesian and English versions of the novel. The samples were classified by Newmark four categories: loan words, cultural equivalent, functional equivalent, and addition. It can be concluded that there are only seven manners found from the collected data but only four manners used in the analysis, they are loan word, cultural equivalent, functional equivalent, and addition.

  13. Albizia saman

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... determined against the pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus: ATCC 25923; Escherichia coli: ATCC 25922 and ..... Singh S, Jha CS, Firoz N, Tiwari RK. (2013). Effect of certain medicinal plant extracts on bacterial-flora of human oral cavity. Med. Plants Int. J. Phytomed. Relat. Ind. 5(3):168-. 170. D ia.

  14. Molecular markers linked to apomixis in Panicum maximum Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panicum maximum Jacq. is an important forage grass of African origin largely used in the tropics. The genetic breeding of this species is based on the hybridization of sexual and apomictic genotypes and selection of apomictic F1 hybrids. The objective of this work was to identify molecular markers linked to apomixis in P.

  15. Investigation of Energy Indices and Energy Consumption Optimization for Peach Production- Case Study: Saman Region in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari Province

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    M Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important conditions in sustainable agriculture, optimization of energy consumption in agriculture is necessary in order to reduce the production cost and saving non renewable resources as well as reduction of air pollutants. In this regard, this study was conducted in Saman region, Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province. A linear programming based on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA was used for optimization of energy consumption in peach production in order to increase the technical efficiency. By performing a linear regression analysis, some inputs including animal fertilizer, pesticide, human labor and machinery had no significant influence on product yield, while some other inputs including fuel, electricity, water and chemical fertilizer showed a significant effect on the product yield. Therefore, the latter inputs and the product yield were considered as the inputs and output, respectively. Selecting the BCC model (efficiency to variable scale model of input nature and using DEA Solver software, efficient and inefficient farmers were determined. The efficient farmers had the technical efficiency of unit (one and the inefficient farmers had this value within 0.47-0.94. Also, the technical efficiency of inefficient farmers was computed as 0.74. This means that using 74% of the inputs and keeping the current yield, the inefficient farmers can approach to the efficiency limit. Total technical efficiency of all farmers was found to be 0.82. Based on the results, the maximum value of inefficiency belonged to electricity energy with 65.32%.

  16. Biology and Population Dynamics of Mercetaspis halli (Green on Almond and Peach Trees in Saman Region, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province

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    N. Kianpour

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pest and disease problem with the extension of fruit orchards, becomes a serious and restricted factor for orchard growers. Most of the scale insect of cold region fruit trees in Iran belongto family Diaspididae. One of the most important pests in the fruit orchards of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province are scale insects. Hall scale, Mercetaspis halli (Green (Hemiptera: Diaspididae , which is armoured scale, is known as a primarily pest of stone fruits. They are the most prevalent pests on trees mostly on Almond and Nectarine . In Iran, this pest is reported in the regions such as Khorasan, Marcazi, Semnan on Cherry, Almond and Apricot trees . Rajabi also reported the pest in Tehran, Esfahan, Yazd, Kermanshah, Fars and Kerman province on apricot, peach, cherry trees . Moghaddam in 2004 reported the pest distribution in Fars, Isfahan, Kerman, Sistan and Baluchestan on almond, peach and pistacia. Monthly abundance monitoring of M. halli, which was conducted by Berlinger et al in 1996 , indicated that adult population had three generations per year. From the ecological and biological aspects, no enough information is available in Iran about M. halli scale. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate aspects of the biology and ecology and seasonal changes of M. halli on Almond and peach trees to clarify the effectiveness of nonchemical management strategy. Materials and Methods: A field study carried out by weekly sampling of different growth stages of M. halli (egg, nymph, male and female on twigs in two the Almond and the Peach orchards in Saman restrict in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province. Different growth stages of armoured scales (egg, nymph, male and female were counted and its population seasonal changes were studied. The population density was determined and compared on different twigs with different ages. The period for ovoviviparously and emergence of 1st and 2nd nymphal instars and matured insects were estimated

  17. Habib, Dr Saman

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Date of birth: 16 August 1968. Specialization: Parasitology, Molecular & Cell Biology Address: Molecular & Structural Biology Division, Central Drug Research Institute, 10, Janakipuram Extn., Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226 031, U.P.. Contact: Office: (0522) 277 2477/4447. Residence: (0522) 220 4430. Mobile: 93352 48113

  18. Ipomea hederacea Jacq.: A Medicinal Herb with Promising Health Benefits

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    Vincenzo De Feo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ipomea hederacea Jacq. (kaladana or ivy leaf morning-glory, a member of the family Convolvulaceae, is used primarily for its seeds and recognized for its medicinal properties, especially in Asian countries. This medicinal herb contains various valuable chemical constituents such as ecdysteriods, steroidal glycosides, aromatic acids, triterpenes, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. A number of pharmacological properties such as diuretic, anthelmintic, blood purifier, deobstruent, laxative, carminative and anti-inflammatory actions have been ascribed to this plant, besides its use to treat abdominal diseases, fevers, headache and bronchitis. This review focuses on compositional, medicinal and therapeutic properties of this plant, as a potential sources of bioactive molecules for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

  19. Isolation and characterization of metabolites from Croton linearis Jacq. leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Díaz, Jesús; Escalona-Arranz, Julio C.; Rojas-Vargas, Julio; Machado-García, Roberto; Carvallo, Mario G. do; Vega-Acosta, Jorge de la

    2015-01-01

    From an ethanolic extract of Croton linearis Jacq. leaves were isolated and identified a total of 7 compounds: two long chain alcohols: 2-methyl-tretradecan-2-ol (1) y el hexacosanol (3); a linear saturated hydrocarbon: tetracosane (2); three fatty acids: stearic (4), 5,8-dien-tetradecanoic (6) and oleic acid (7); as well as a tri-methoxylated flavone: 5-hydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (5). Structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 1D and 2D (1H and 13C), as well as Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Kovats retention indexes when necessary. The substituent positions were assigned based on combination of heteronuclear HMBC and HMQC as well as homonuclear 1H-1H-COSY experiments. All identified compounds constitute a first report for the specie in study. (author)

  20. Revaluación de Philodendron hederaceum Schott (1829 como transferencia de Arum hederaceum Jacq

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    Dugand Armando

    1945-12-01

    Full Text Available La combinación Philodendron hederaceum: Schott, publicada en 1829 fide Endlicher y Schlechtendal 1831, se considera aquí como transferencia implícita pero válida de Arum hederaceum Jacq. (1760-1763. Los conceptos citados por algunos autores como "Arum hederaceum L." y "Arum hederaceum Willd." representan el mismo Arum hederaceum de Jacquin. "Ph. hederaceum Kunth 1841", excluyendo la referencia a "Martinica", también es el mismo Arum hetieraceum. Jacq. En cuanto a Ph. Jacquinii Schott 1856 es nombre superfluo y sinónimo de Philodendron hederaceum (Jacq, Schott, nombre este que se adopta aquí para la planta típica de Cartagena. EI nombre "Philodendron hederaceum Schott" de 1856, basado en una planta de la Martinica, representa un concepto distinto al de 1829 del mismo autor y por lo tanto se trata aquí como homónimo posterior ilegitimo.   Varios autores han considerado al Arum hetieraceum. Jacq. como especie dudosa, referible al Philodendron Hoftmannii Schott (1858 de Costa Rica. Por falta de material apropiado de aquel país no se puede resolver la cuestión por ahora. Ejemplares topotípicos, recientemente obtenidos no lejos de Cartagena, localidad clásica de Arum hederaceum. Jacq., han servido para esta revaluación.

  1. Antinociceptive effect of extracts of Marrubium astracanicum Jacq. aerial parts

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    Niloofar Kahkeshani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The genus Marrubium is used for treatment of joint pain, gout, stomach-ache and colic in Iranian Traditional Medicine. Marrubium astracanicum Jacq. (M. astracanicum is a native species in the flora of Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive properties of various extracts of aerial parts of M. astracanicum.Materials and Methods: Antinociceptive activities of total hydroalcoholic extract (THE and its n-hexane (non-polar and residual partition (polar fractions were analyzed using formalin test in mice. Morphine (5 mg/kg and normal saline were used as positive and negative controls, respectively.Results: Intraperitoneal administration of THE (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, non-polar fraction (200 mg/kg and polar fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg, 30 min before formalin injection, caused significant analgesic activity in acute phase (0-5 min after formalin injection of formalin test (p0.05 in comparison with morphine.  In chronic phase (15–60 min after formalin injection, non-polar and polar fractions (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg showed significant analgesic activity (p0.05 in comparison with morphine.Conclusion: Different extracts of M. astracanicum demonstrated antinociceptive activity that support the traditional usage of Marrubium genus for the treatment of arthritis, gout and other inflammatory diseases.

  2. Effect of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. residues on growth and yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to evaluate the effect of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. residues on mungbean (Vigna mungo L.Hepper) local cultivar. An experiment [using randomized complete block design (RCBD) design] with three replications was conducted in 2010. The trial comprised of four treatments such as mulching, incorporation into ...

  3. 4-Deoxyaurone formation in Bidens ferulifolia (Jacq. DC.

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    Silvija Miosic

    Full Text Available The formation of 4-deoxyaurones, which serve as UV nectar guides in Bidens ferulifolia (Jacq. DC., was established by combination of UV photography, mass spectrometry, and biochemical assays and the key step in aurone formation was studied. The yellow flowering ornamental plant accumulates deoxy type anthochlor pigments (6'-deoxychalcones and the corresponding 4-deoxyaurones in the basal part of the flower surface whilst the apex contains only yellow carotenoids. For UV sensitive pollinating insects, this appears as a bicoloured floral pattern which can be visualized in situ by specific ammonia staining of the anthochlor pigments. The petal back side, in contrast, shows a faintly UV absorbing centre and UV absorbing rays along the otherwise UV reflecting petal apex. Matrix-free UV laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometric imaging (LDI-MSI indicated the presence of 9 anthochlors in the UV absorbing areas. The prevalent pigments were derivatives of okanin and maritimetin. Enzyme preparations from flowers, leaves, stems and roots of B. ferulifolia and from plants, which do not accumulate aurones e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana, were able to convert chalcones to aurones. Thus, aurone formation could be catalyzed by a widespread enzyme and seems to depend mainly on a specific biochemical background, which favours the formation of aurones at the expense of flavonoids. In contrast to 4-hydroxyaurone formation, hydroxylation and oxidative cyclization to the 4-deoxyaurones does not occur in one single step but is catalyzed by two separate enzymes, chalcone 3-hydroxylase and aurone synthase (catechol oxidase reaction. Aurone formation shows an optimum at pH 7.5 or above, which is another striking contrast to 4-hydroxyaurone formation in Antirrhinum majus L. This is the first example of a plant catechol oxidase type enzyme being involved in the flavonoid pathway and in an anabolic reaction in general.

  4. Reproduction et Diversité Génétique chez Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sina, S.

    2006-01-01

    Parkiabiglobosa(Jacq.)G.Don, African

  5. Search for C4 developmental mutants in Panicum maximum Jacq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fladung, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Mutant plants are useful tools for studying developmental processes in defined genetic backgrounds by comparing them with their respective wild type forms. In this sense, developmental mutants or mutations involved in the establishment of certain leaf or flower specific traits are of special interest. In particular, the evolution of C 4 photosynthesis from C 3 precursors was accompanied by severe developmental changes in leaf morphology and anatomy. Our search of such mutants was followed by the idea to approach the evolution of the C 4 syndrome from a mutagenic point of view. Variants affecting normal development of the C 4 leaf anatomy may, in fact, represent possible regressive steps in C4 photosynthesis. Seeds of the C4 grass Panicum maximum Jacq. were mutagenized using ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) and putative variants were isolated in the M2 generation by visual inspection. Main selection characteristics were whole plant, leaf morphology and pigmentation, and growth characteristics. The choice of a polyploid species for mutagenesis experiments was based on the need of detecting rare mutants, which are possibly lethal when using a diploid plant species. These variants could be of regulatory nature, affecting both morphology and physiology of C 4 photosynthesis early in leaf development. In total, nearly 100 variants were isolated and grown to maturity. Main isolated variants, which conforms to the prediction mentioned above, were as following: large interveinal space-1 and -3 (lis1, lis3), abnormal bundle sheath (abs), midribless (mbl) and variegated leaf -1 (var1). The variant lis1 was a short plant with leaves smaller than the wild type, and had a leaf lamina with a crinkly surface. Photosynthetically, lis1 indicates a clear regression from the C 4 to the C 3 photosynthesis type, which was correlated in the leaf lamina with an increase in the distance between small veins. The variant lis3 was not similar phenotypically to lis1, but it also had very

  6. Effet de l'herbe de Guinée ( Panicum maximum Jacq.) associée à l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effet de l'herbe de Guinée ( Panicum maximum Jacq.) associée à l'herbe de lait ( Euphorbia heterophylla L.) ou aux feuilles de patate douce ( Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) sur la croissance des lapins ( Oryctolagus cuniculus L.)

  7. Polyphenolic Composition of Crataegus monogyna Jacq.: From Chemistry to Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Fazel Nabavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of scientific evidence has shown that many synthetic drugs can cause serious adverse effects in patients. Recently, the search of natural therapeutic agents with low adverse effects has attracted much attention. In particular, considerable interest has focused on edible and medicinal plants, which play an important role in human diet, and have been used for disease treatment since ancient times. Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (hawthorn is one of the most important edible plants of the Rosaceae family and is also used in traditional medicine. Growing evidence has shown that this plant has various interesting physiological and pharmacological activities due to the presence of different bioactive natural compounds. In addition, scientific evidence suggests that the toxicity of hawthorn is negligible. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide a critical review of the available scientific literature about pharmacological activities as well as botanical aspects, phytochemistry and clinical impacts of C. monogyna.

  8. Detection of potassium deficiency on palm oil tree (Elaeis guineensis (jacq)) by laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diomande, K.; Konate, A.; Krou Adjo, V.; Soro, A.; Ebby, N.; Ballo, K.

    1998-02-01

    The potassium is the main nutrient element which plays a significant role on oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis (jacq)) production and its resistance to the dry season. One can observe 30% decrease of the production in case of potassium deficiency. The potassium nutrition control of an oil palm tree field is a very important activity and leads to the fertilization policy. The Laser Induced Fluorescence (L.I.F.) is a fast and simple method compared to the classical one, ''Diagnostic Foliaire'', usually used in agronomy. We used the L.I.F. method to detect the oil palm tree stress caused by potassium deficiency, analysing the fluorescence spectrum of the chlorophyll a. We proved that the intensity ratio of the fluorescence spectrum R=F690/F73S is superior to 0.5 when the tree is under stress and its value is around 0.4 in case of intact tree. (author)

  9. Effect of gamma rays on some qualitative and quantitative characters in Zinnia elegans Jacq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalam, P.; Jayabalan, N.

    1997-01-01

    Mutations were induced in Zinnia elegans Jacq. cv. Crimson Red by using gamma irradiation for plant morphology and flower colour. Significant effects were observed as shown by the increased mean value of plant height, branch number, flower number, and flower diameter up to 7.5 kR dose. Among the gamma-ray doses, only 7.5 kR produced significant morphological changes in Zinnia elegans, which may be due to additive gene effect. Four types of new flower colour mutations were induced: majenta, yellow, red and red with white spots. The number of petals (ray florets) was significantly higher in the mutants over control. Two types of structural anomalies were also identified

  10. Penambahan Sabut Kelapa Pada Media Tanam Dan Frekuensi Penyiraman Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elais guineensis Jacq.) Di Main Nursery

    OpenAIRE

    Juanda, Chriso

    2017-01-01

    100301129 Chriso Juanda, ?Penambahan Sabut Kelapa Pada Media Tanam Dan Frekuensi Penyiraman Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Di Main Nursey? , dibawah bimbingan Charloq dan Revandy I.M. Damanik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui respon penambahan sabut kelapa pada media tanam dan frekuensi penyiraman terhadap pertumbuhan bibit kelapa sawit di main nursery. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Januari 2017 hingga Maret 2017 di PPKS Aek Pancur, Kecamat...

  11. Cryopreservation of chayote (Sechium edule JACQ.SW.) zygotic embryos and shoot-tips from in vitroplantlets

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelnour-Esquivel, Ana; Engelmann, Florent

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the development of cryopreservation protocols for zygotic embryos and apices of chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw.), a tropical plant species with recalcitrant seeds. Zygotic embryos of two cultivars, Ccocro negro (CN) and Claudio (Cl) could withstand cryopreservation, with survival percentages of 10 and 30 %, after desiccation to 23 and 19 % moisture content (fresh weight basis), respectively. Apices sampled on in vitro plantlets of cultivars Cl, 13 and JM we...

  12. Antiproliferative mechanism of the methanolic extract of Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowemimo, Abimbola; Venables, Luanne; Odedeji, Modeola; Koekemoer, Trevor; van de Venter, Maryna; Hongbing, Liu

    2015-01-15

    Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb. is a tropical tree that has folkloric implications against many ailments and diseases including cancer. To explore the ethnopharmacological claims against cancer, the cytotoxicity of the methanolic extract of the leaves, was investigated using the brine shrimp lethality assay, MTT assay using cervical (HeLa) and breast (MCF7) cancer cell lines, cell cycle analysis and Annexin V-FITC/PI assay. In the brine shrimp lethality assay, the extract showed cytotoxic activity with LC50 value of 31.63 µg/mL. Significant growth inhibition was observed in both cell lines with IC50 values of 2.07 ± 1.30 µg/mL and 11.84 ± 1.18 µg/mL for HeLa and MCF7, respectively. Cell cycle analysis indicated that HeLa cells were arrested in the G2/M phase while MCF7 cells arrested in the G1/G0 phase. The Annexin V-FITC/PI assay revealed phosphatidylserine translocation in both cell lines and thus apoptosis induction upon treatment with the extract. The study demonstrated the potential antiproliferative activity of Enterolobium cyclocarpum thereby supporting the traditional claim and provides basis for further mechanistic studies and isolation of active constituents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibitory effect of verbascoside isolated from Buddleja brasiliensis Jacq. ex Spreng on prolyl oligopeptidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Augusto G; Morel, Ademir F; Adolpho, Luciana; Ilha, Vinícius; Giralt, Ernest; Tarragó, Teresa; Dalcol, Ionara I

    2012-10-01

    The phenylpropanoid glycoside verbascoside [2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyl)-1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-(4-O-caffeyl)-glucopyranoside] (1) has been isolated as the main constituent of the crude extract of Buddleja brasiliensis Jacq. ex Spreng from Southern Brazil. The crude extract, main fractions and the compound 1 were evaluated for inhibition of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and prolyl oligopeptidase (POP). Compound 1 showed weak activity against DPP-IV with an IC(50) > 150 µM and was inactive against AChE, with a pMIQ determined by bioautography of 9.6. In contrast, 1 displayed significant inhibition of POP in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 1.3 ± 0.2 µM, similar to the positive control, baicalin, with a POP IC(50) of 12 ± 3 µM. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Comparative Proteome Analysis of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Floret and Fruit Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kok S.Y.; Ong-Abdullah M.

    2012-01-01

    Marked changes are expected when flowers are fertilized and fruit formation is initiated.In this study,differentially expressed proteins between florets (day before pollination and day after pollination) and fruit (2 weeks after pollination) tissues of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were identified and characterized.Proteins were extracted using phenol-based method and subjected to one-and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of protein extracts showed a number of protein bands common to both types of floret and fruit tissues.Subsequently,protein extracts resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in the 4 to 7 pH range revealed about 53 expressed proteins showed significant differences during fertilization and fruit formation.The differentially expressed proteins were excised and digested with trypsin.Proteins were then identified with the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS),resulting in a 73.5% success in protein identification.The identified proteins were mainly involved in protein metabolism,biological regulation,stress response and oxidationreduction process.Further verification of the results are underway but nonetheless this study has provided some valuable information on fertilization and early fruit formation in oil palm.

  15. De novo transcriptome analyses of host-fungal interactions in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chai-Ling; Tan, Yung-Chie; Yeoh, Keat-Ai; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Yee, Wai-Yan; Hoh, Chee-Choong

    2016-01-19

    Basal stem rot (BSR) is a fungal disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) which is caused by hemibiotrophic white rot fungi belonging to the Ganoderma genus. Molecular responses of oil palm to these pathogens are not well known although this information is crucial to strategize effective measures to eradicate BSR. In order to elucidate the molecular interactions between oil palm and G. boninense and its biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum, we compared the root transcriptomes of untreated oil palm seedlings with those inoculated with G. boninense and T. harzianum, respectively. Differential gene expression analyses revealed that jasmonate (JA) and salicylate (SA) may act in an antagonistic manner in affecting the hormone biosynthesis, signaling, and downstream defense responses in G. boninense-treated oil palm roots. In addition, G. boninense may compete with the host to control disease symptom through the transcriptional regulation of ethylene (ET) biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging. The strengthening of host cell walls and production of pathogenesis-related proteins as well as antifungal secondary metabolites in host plants, are among the important defense mechanisms deployed by oil palm against G. boninense. Meanwhile, endophytic T. harzianum was shown to improve the of nutrition status and nutrient transportation in host plants. The findings of this analysis have enhanced our understanding on the molecular interactions of G. boninense and oil palm, and also the biocontrol mechanisms involving T. harzianum, thus contributing to future formulations of better strategies for prevention and treatment of BSR.

  16. Nutraceutic Characteristics of the Extracts and Juice of Chayote (Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw. Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Luz Riviello-Flores

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq. Swartz] are a non-traditional vegetable widely consumed in Latin America, with the state of Veracruz, México being the world’s main producer, but little is known about the nutraceutical potential. This study aimed to determine the chemical compositions and antioxidant activities from the juice fruits from two commercial varieties of chayote cultivated in Mexico, as well as a proposal for the elaboration of chayote juices with stevia leaves and pineapple juice. The physicochemical properties of juice from virens levis (VL and nigrum spinosum (NS varieties were determined using standard methods. The juice of the two varieties differ significantly regarding the concentrations of total soluble solids and total sugars, but not vitamin C. The total concentration of phenolics in NS extracts was slightly higher than in VL (1005 and 856 mg 100 g−1 dry-weight, respectively, but the total flavonoid contents were similar (27 and 26 mg 100 g−1 dry-weight, respectively. Cucurbitacin D was predominant in both varieties. The radical scavenging capacities of VL and NS extracts varied slightly (IC50 = 0.45 to 0.65 mg mL−1, while the antioxidant activities were similar (~80%. The NS variety is particularly promising regarding nutraceutical application. The chayote juice combined with stevia and pineapple maintained the original nutraceutical characteristics of the fruit, but enhanced the organoleptic characteristics like density and sugar/acidity balance.

  17. Pollen viability and its effect on fruit set of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFIN WIDIASTUTI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at studying (1 the decline of pollen viability during storage, and (2 the effect of pollen amount on fruit set of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.. The experiment was conducted at PT. Dami Mas Sejahtera and PT. Sinar Mas Agro Resource and Technology (SMART Tbk, Riau from February to August 2004. The first experiment was investigated up to six months storage period in the refrigerator, whereas in the second experiment a randomized complete block design with two factors was used: length of storage, i.e. 0, 1 and 2 months and amount of pollen, i.e. 0.022, 0.044, 0.066, 0.088, and 0.11 g mixed with powder to 10g to pollinate an inflorescence. The result showed that the viability of pollen started to decline three months after storage from about 92% to 83%, and declined to about 75% after six months of storage. Result of the second experiment showed that storage of pollen up to two months did not affect percentage of normal fruit, although the percentage of parthenocarpic fruits was decreased. This could be due to the high viability of pollen as the viability was remained high (about 90% after being stored for two months in the refrigerator. Pollen with high viability could be used in a smaller amount to pollinate a female inflorescence without affecting fruit set of about 70-76%.SD037 had a higher reproductive success than SD038 and SD39.

  18. The identity of Albuca caudata Jacq. (Hyacinthaceae and a description of a new related species: A. bakeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Martínez-Azorín

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The name Albuca caudata Jacq. has been widely misunderstood or even ignored since its description in 1791. After studying herbarium specimens and living populations in South Africa, plants fitting Jacquin´s concept of that species are found to be widely distributed in the Eastern Cape, mainly in the Albany centre of Endemism. Furthermore, some divergent specimens matching Baker´s concept of A. caudata are described as a new related species: A. bakeri. Data on typification, morphology, ecology, and distribution are reported for both taxa. Affinities and divergences with other close allies are also discussed.

  19. Perfil alimentario y plan de pastoreo para la producción lechera con pasturas Panicum maximum Jacq.

    OpenAIRE

    Nuñez Delgado, Jimny Yoel

    2017-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Producción Animal Se condujo un experimento con el objetivo de diseñar perfiles alimentarios de vacas doble propósito al pastoreo en pasturas de PanicummaximumJacq., asociado con árboles nativos de Acacia macracanthaen la Unidad Agropecuaria San Antonio, provincia de Jaén, región Cajamarca. La toma de datos y colección de muestras se realizaron en las épocas seca, inicio de lluvias y lluviosa. Se instalaron 14 excluid...

  20. Growth, phenology and chlorophyll fluorescence of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. under water stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonzo Pérez-Gutiérrez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The irrigation methods offer a good alternative for increasing water use efficiency. The main purpose of this study was to identify the best irrigation level for Habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. plants based on available water capacity (AWC of substrate. An experiment carried out with three irrigation levels (20, 40 and 60% of AWC and five genotypes (H225, H241, H244, H226 and Jaguar. The irrigation level of 20% decreased the soil water potential to cause water stress in plants. At an irrigation level of 40%, average jaguar plant height (92 cm and H241 (79 cm, genotypes were greater than under the other treatments. Average leaf area of H225, H241 and H244 plants was at least 48% greater than Jaguar plants. Average total dry matter of H241 and Jaguar plants, were 30 and 28% greater than H226 plants; and values of maximum photochemical quantum yield (Fv/Fm, relative electron transport rate and effective photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II were higher in H241, H244 and H226 plants; i.e. they are less probably due to photo inhibition damage. However, flowering time was earlier in plants with an irrigation level (IL of 20% than plants with an IL of 40%, this was a consequence of stress due to water deficit. The 60% irrigation treatment caused flooding and all genotypes died before the inflorescence stage. These results suggest the enforcement of a suitable irrigation level based in available water capacity of substrate coupled with a vigorous genotype can encourage healthy plants and high water use efficiency.

  1. De novo transcriptome assembly for the tropical grass Panicum maximum Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Toledo-Silva

    Full Text Available Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. is a tropical African grass often used to feed beef cattle, which is an important economic activity in Brazil. Brazil is the leader in global meat exportation because of its exclusively pasture-raised bovine herds. Guinea grass also has potential uses in bioenergy production due to its elevated biomass generation through the C4 photosynthesis pathway. We generated approximately 13 Gb of data from Illumina sequencing of P. maximum leaves. Four different genotypes were sequenced, and the combined reads were assembled de novo into 38,192 unigenes and annotated; approximately 63% of the unigenes had homology to other proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Functional classification through COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups, GO (Gene Ontology and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses showed that the unigenes from Guinea grass leaves are involved in a wide range of biological processes and metabolic pathways, including C4 photosynthesis and lignocellulose generation, which are important for cattle grazing and bioenergy production. The most abundant transcripts were involved in carbon fixation, photosynthesis, RNA translation and heavy metal cellular homeostasis. Finally, we identified a number of potential molecular markers, including 5,035 microsatellites (SSRs and 346,456 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize the complete leaf transcriptome of P. maximum using high-throughput sequencing. The biological information provided here will aid in gene expression studies and marker-assisted selection-based breeding research in tropical grasses.

  2. Exogenous nitrate induces root branching and inhibits primary root growth in Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Arámburo, Teresita de Jesús; Carrillo-Pech, Mildred; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel; Echevarría-Machado, Ileana

    2011-12-01

    The effects of nitrate (NO₃⁻) on the root system are complex and depend on several factors, such as the concentration available to the plant, endogenous nitrogen status and the sensitivity of the species. Though these effects have been widely documented on Arabidopsis and cereals, no reports are available in the Capsicum genus. In this paper, we have determined the effect of an exogenous in vitro application of this nutrient on root growth in habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). Exposure to NO₃⁻ inhibited primary root growth in both, dose- and time-dependent manners. The highest inhibition was attained with 0.1 mM NO₃⁻ between the fourth and fifth days of treatment. Inhibition of primary root growth was observed by exposing the root to both homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions of the nutrient; in contrast, ammonium was not able to induce similar changes. NO₃⁻-induced inhibition of primary root growth was reversed by treating the roots with IAA or NPA, a polar auxin transport inhibitor. Heterogeneous NO₃⁻ application stimulated the formation and elongation of lateral roots in the segment where the nutrient was present, and this response was influenced by exogenous phytohormones. These results demonstrate that habanero pepper responds to NO₃⁻ in a similar fashion to other species with certain particular differences. Therefore, studies in this model could help to elucidate the mechanisms by which roots respond to NO₃⁻ in fluctuating soil environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. EX VITRO ROOTING OF OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. PLANTLETS DERIVED FROM TISSUE CULTURE

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    Sumaryono Sumaryono

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Plantlets of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. derived from so-matic embryos sometimes do not form well developed-roots. Root formation of unrooted-plantlets can be induced with aux-in during ex vitro acclimatization period to simplify the proce-dure and to reduce seedling production cost. Experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design to determine the effect of different types of auxin, i.e. indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, and 1-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA at different concentrations, i.e. 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mM on root development of oil palm plantlets. The plantlets used were derived from somatic embryos of MK 649 oil palm clone. The basal end of the shoots was dipped in auxin solution for 10 minutes before the shoot was cultured in a small plastic pot containing a mixed growing medium. The cultures were then placed inside a closed transparent plastic tunnel (240 cm x 100 cm x 95 cm for 12 weeks. The results showed that without auxin treatment only 15% of the shoots formed roots. Dipping in auxin solution increased significantly root frequen-cy to more than 50%. The best root formation was found on the shoots treated with 2 mM NAA by which rooting frequency was 80%. Auxin treatments also increased root quality as indi-cated by more number of primary and secondary roots. IAA, IBA, and NAA treatments at all concentrations tested increased significantly shoot height on average by 42% and shoot diame-ter by 30% compared to control treatment, but did not influ-ence root length. The best treatment for inducing roots of oil palm plantlets ex vitro was by dipping the basal end of the plant-lets in 2 mM NAA solution. The result showed that rooting of oil palm plantlets could be successfully conducted ex vitro that would eliminate sterile rooting stage thus simplify the protocol and reduce seedling production time and cost.

  4. Total number of tillers of different accessions of Panicum maximum Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Perez Granato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of forage grasses is due to continuous emission of leaves and tillers, ensuring the restoration of leaf área after cutting or grazing, thus ensuring the sustainability of forage. This study aimed to asses the total number tillers in different acessions of Panicum maximum Jacq. The experiment was carried in field belonging to the Instituto de Zootecnia located in Nova Odessa / SP. Evaluated two new accesses Panicum maximum, and two commercial cultivars. The cultivars tested were Aruana, Milenio, NO 2487, NO 78, and the two latter belonging to the Germoplasm Collection of the IZ. The experimental desing was in randomized complete block with four replications. The experimental area consisted of 16 plots of 10 m2 (5 x 2 m each. The experimental area was analyzed and according to the results, received dolomitic limestone corresponding 2t /ha, two months before the implementation of the experiment. Sowing was made by broad costing together with 80 kg/ha of P2O5 in the form of single superphosfate. After 60 days of implantation of the experiment it was a made a leveling of the plots to a height of about 15 cm. After this it was applied 250g of the 20-00-20 fertilizer/plot. Thirty days after the standardization it was evaluated the total number of tillers of the cultivars, using a metal frame of 0.5 x 0.5m which was thrown at random on each of the 16 plots, leaving one meter of each extremitly, and all tillers which were within the frame counted. After finished the counting of all tillers, the plots cut again at a height of approximately 15 cm. The second evaluation took place after thirty days, and it was again counted the total number of tillers following the same procedure. The results were analyzed by Tukey test at 5% after transforming the data to log(x. For the first evaluation there was no statistical difference in the total number of tillers between cultivars. But, in the second evaluation, the total number of tillers of NO 78

  5. POLYPHENOLS, ASCORBIC ACID AND CAROTENOIDS CONTENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES IN FRUITS OF CAPSICUM CHINENSE JACQ.

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    M. I. Mamedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum chinense Jacq. is the rich source of phytochemical substances, such as vitamin C, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and occupies a significant place in the cooking of many peoples. The pigment composition, the amount of carotenoids, ascorbic acid and their contribution to the formation of antioxidant properties were studied. The total content of carotenoids and red/yellow pigments varied greatly among the accessions of C. chinense. The highest content of carotenoids 0.581 mg/g was observed in the varieties ‘Ognennaya Deva’ with the red fruit color in the phase of biological ripeness, where red pigments accumulated 56% more than in yellow ones. Fruits of accessions ‘Kolokolchik’ only accumulated yellow pigments, 0.318 mg/g. Presence of significant amount, 2.03 times as much red pigments as yellow ones in the variety ‘Trinidad Scorpion Chocolate’, with protein complex could cause the formation of a brown fruit color. Another tendency was observed in ‘Trinidad Dglahou’. The yellow pigment is 1.5 times as much amount as red, as estimated 0.119 mg/g of yellow and 0.077 mg/g of red pigment. The ascorbic acid content did not depend on the fruit color. Fruits of the ‘Ognennaya Deva’ accumulated the highest amount of ascorbic acid, 301 mg%. The maximum total antioxidant content, was detected in the variety ‘Ognennaya Deva’ 2.65 (TAC, mg.eq. GA/g. Analysis of the dependence of the content of thermo stable antioxidants to the total ones showed the contribution of the unstable antioxidants to thermal effects (particularly ascorbic acid on the level of 16%, on average. A comparative assessment of the pungency level and quantitative capsaicin content in the fruit was carried out by organoleptic, spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. The intervals of observed concentrations of capsaicin were 1.0-7.5 mg/g of dry weight (HPLC, the level of pungency on the Scoville scale was 17440-153120 SHU. There

  6. Climate influence on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Justicia pectoralis Jacq. Influencia del clima en la composición química y la actividad antioxidante de Justicia pectorales Jacq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonh Jairo Méndez Arteaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of the altitude in the phenols and flavonoids contents and the antioxidant activity of the extracts of different polarities of Justicia pectoralis Jacq(Acanthaceae was evaluated. There was found that the plants cultivated under the Ibagué-Tolima's climate and soil conditions, can be a source of antioxidant compounds, especially in water preparations. The chromatographic analysis revealed that J. pectoralis extracts have mainly flavonoids of the flavonone type, as apigenine. A greater (or The greatest content of flavonoids was detected in the ethanolic extract of the plant samples grown at 1 265 m.a.s.l. (meters above sea level (2 748,03 mg/L. The altitude level does not seem to have any influence on the functional properties, neither on the phytophenols content. The J. pectoralis Jacq can be considered one species with a high therapeutic potential and with good commercial opportunities.En este trabajo se evaluó la influencia de la altitud en el contenido de fenoles y flavonoides y la actividad antioxidante de los extractos de diferentes polaridades provenientes de Justicia pectorales (Acanthaceae. Se halló que las plantas cultivadas en las condiciones del suelo y el clima de la zona Ibagué-Tolima pueden constituirse en compuestos antioxidantes, especialmente en preparados acuosos. El análisis cromatográfico reveló que los extractos de J. pectorales poseen en lo fundamental flavonoides del tipo flavona como es la apigenina. Un mayor contenido (sino el mayor de flavonoides se detectó en el extracto etanol obtenido de las muestras de la planta cultivadas a 1 265 metros por encima del nivel del mar (2 748,03 mg/L. La altitud no parece influir en las propiedades funcionales, ni en el contenido de fitofenoles del extracto. La J. pectorales puede considerarse una especie de gran potencial terapéutico y buenas posibilidades de comercialización.

  7. UJI ZPT HANTU DAN PUPUK NPK TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT KELAPA SAWIT (Elaeis guineensis Jacq DI MAIN NURSERY

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    Enny Mutryarny

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq is one of Indonesia's mainstay plantation commodities and plays an important role for the national economy. Oil palm and plantations managed by state-owned enterprises, this is due to the increasing demand for palm oil in the industrial market. With the continuous development of oil palm plantations so that the provision of seeds should be considered because the success of planting in the field and the production of production is highly dependent on the quality of the seeds of oil palm plants used. Efforts that can be done to accelerate the growth of seeds Main Nursery is to provide NPK fertilizer and growth regulatory substances (ZPT Hantu that can help the absorption of nutrients and accelerate the growth of vegetative plants. The aim of this research is to get the interaction of ZPT Hantu concentration and NPK fertilizer dosage which give the best influence to the growth of oil palm seed (Elaeis guineensis Jacq in Main-nursery. The experiment was conducted experimentally with factorial Randomized Design (RAL, consisting of 2 factors ie H factor is ZPT Hantu and N factor is NPK fertilizer (16:16:16 which each consist of 3 levels. Thus obtained 9 treatment combinations with 3 replications. The observed data were analyzed by Duncan's multipoint test and Duncan's multiplexed test of 5%. Test of ZPT Hantu and NPK fertilizer significantly affect the growth of oil palm seedlings in Main Nursery that is on the parameters of seed height, stem diameter, leaf number and leaf area, whereas the combination of both only on bar diameter parameters that gives a real effect, with best treatment is combination giving ZPT Hantu 2 cc / l water and NPK 20 grams / plant.

  8. Studi Sebaran Akar Tanaman Kelapa Sawit(Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Pada Lahan Gambut Di Perkebunan PT. Hari Sawit Jaya Kabupaten Labuhan Batu

    OpenAIRE

    Sinuraya, Zulkasta

    2011-01-01

    ZULKASTA SINURAYA, Study Of Extended Spread of Root System of Oil Palm at Peat Soil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) at Peat Soil in PT. Hari Sawit Jaya Plantation, Kabupaten Labuhan Batu (Advisor EDISON PURBA and ABDUL RAUF). Extended spread of root system of oil palm at peat soil has unknown clearly and no study previously. Amount of roots and extended spread of root system has estimated to influenced by the thickness of peat level, physical and chemical charasteristic of peat. There is estim...

  9. Caracterização morfoanatômica e histoquímica de Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq. J.f. Macbr. (Lythraceae Morphological, anatomical and histochemical characterization of Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq. J.F. Macbr. (Lythraceae

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    Makeli Garibotti Lusa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq. J.F. Macbr. é uma planta herbácea, que ocorre preferivelmente em locais úmidos. Dentre outras espécies do gênero, esta se destaca pelo grande potencial químico e emprego frequente na medicina popular. Neste estudo, descrevem-se aspectos morfológicos, a anatomia e as características histoquímicas dos órgãos vegetativos, na fase de desenvolvimento em que a espécie é comercializada. A partir de plantas adultas, foram coletadas amostras de raiz, caule e folhas. Esse material foi processado para análise anatômica e histoquímica em microscopia de luz e para análise morfológica, em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Considerações morfoanatômicas importantes foram acrescentadas para C. carthagenensis, tais como: a ocorrência de felema aerenquimatoso com camadas suberificadas; a identificação dos tipos de tricomas ocorrentes nos órgãos vegetativos; e a caracterização do tricoma secretor, bem como do material secretado. Os grupos de metabólitos secundários presentes nos tecidos da raiz, do caule e da folha de C. carthagenensis que apresentaram reação histoquímica mais intensa foram: proantocianidinas, compostos fenólicos, polissacarídeos ácidos (especialmente mucilagem e lipídios totais.Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq. J.F. Macbr. is an herb, which occurs preferably in wet places. Amongst other species of the genus, C. carthagenensis is distinguished for its great chemical potential and frequent use in popular medicine. In this study the morphological and anatomical structures were identified, as well as the histochemical characterization was done. Samples of root, stem and leaves were collected from adult plants. This material was processed for anatomical and histochemical analysis in light microscopy and for morphological analysis, in scanning electron microscopy. Important morphological and anatomical considerations were added for C. carthagenensis, such as: the occurrence of

  10. Search for methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphisms associated with the mantled variant phenotype in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaligot, E; Beulé, T; Baurens, F-C; Billotte, N; Rival, A

    2004-02-01

    The methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) technique has been employed on somatic embryo-derived oil palms (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) to identify methylation polymorphisms correlated with the "mantled" somaclonal variation. The variant phenotype displays an unstable feminization of male organs in both male and female flowers. Using MSAP, the methylation status of CCGG sites was compared in three normal versus three mantled regenerants sampled in clonal populations obtained through somatic embryogenesis from four genotypically distinct mother palms. Overall, 64 selective primer combinations were used and they have amplified 23 markers exhibiting a differential methylation pattern between the two phenotypes. Our results indicate that CCGG sites are poorly affected by the considerable decrease in global DNA methylation that has been previously associated with the mantled phenotype. Each of the 23 markers isolated in the present study could discriminate between the two phenotypes only when they were from the same genetic origin. This result hampers at the moment the direct use of MSAP markers for the early detection of variants, even though valuable information on putative target sequences will be obtained from a further characterization of these polymorphic markers.

  11. Conservação de sementes de marizeiro Geoffroea spinosa Jacq. utilizando diferentes embalagens e ambientes

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    Vênia Camelo de Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Geoffroea spinosa Jacq., commonly known as marizeiro in Brazil, is an important tree species, mainly because it is adapted to riparian forest conditions in semi-arid and associated ecosystems. The species occur in large areas of northeastern Brazil and in the São Francisco river valley, always restricted to seasonally flooded environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different types of packaging and storage periods, as well the influence of environments on the process of seed germination and vigor of Geoffroea spinosa. The experiment was carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Ecology - CCA/UFPB, following a completely randomized design. The seeds were distributed among two environments (natural conditions in the laboratory and cold room, packed in two types of packaging (paper bags and plastic bags for five periods of storage: 0; 15; 30; 60 and 90 days. Water content, the emergence velocity index, dry weight and length of seedlings were evaluated. The data were submitted to a polynomial regression analysis. In plastic packaging and the environment of the cold room there was less reduction of viability and vigor during storage. Seeds packed in paper bags and stored in a laboratory rapidly lost viability and vigor, after 30 days of storage.

  12. Preliminary study on biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auliana; Kaonongbua, W.

    2018-04-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the promising crop plants which has been used as raw material for producing daily products. In agricultural ecosystems, crop plants could develop a plant-fungal association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The objectives of this study were to determine the AMF biodiversity and mycorrhizal infection percentage (MIP) from field-collected soil samples of three oil palm plantations from Nong Khai, Surat Thani, and Chiang Rai provinces of Thailand. Soil characteristics (moisture content, pH, and available phosphorus) were also measured. Thirteen AMF species belonging to seven genera were identified from all soil samples, whereas Glomus spp. and Acaulospora spp. were most commonly found species. AMF biodiversity value from Chiang Rai was statistically different from other two provinces (p biodiversity. These results confirmed that AMF normally occurs in oil palm plantations, but at different levels of biodiversity possibly due to different environmental factors in each plantation. Nevertheless, this information could be useful for using AMF in plant growth promoter and pathogen resistance programs in order to achieve the agricultural sustainability, especially in oil palm plantations.

  13. Isolation, expression analysis and characterization of EgNDL, a NDR-like protein in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

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    Kedsirin Ruttajorn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel cDNA of a SF21-like protein or NDR-like protein (EgNDL from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is 1,044 bp in length and encodes a putative protein with a 347-amino-acid open reading frame. The EgNDL showed 93% identity to the pollenspecific SF21-like protein of Phoenix dactylifera and also showed 79% identity to the NDL protein of Theobroma cacao. Expression analysis of the EgNDL gene in various tissues showed that EgNDL was expressed in the anthers, pistils, mesocarp and leaves. The high expression of EgNDL among three oil palm varieties was significantly expressed in Pisifera (P<0.05, which is commonly used as a male parent in crosses. Computational tools were used to predict the protein and concluded that EgNDL is a putative membrane protein that may function in a signal transduction pathway during pollen development. In this context, knowledge regarding EgNDL and its potential role in plant developmental processes will benefit oil palm breeding programs.

  14. THE ROLE OF PLANTATIONS OF THE AFRICAN PALM (ELAEIS GUINEENSIS JACQ. IN THE CONSERVATION OF SNAKES IN COLOMBIA

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    JOHN D. LYNCH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Monocultures of the African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. were studied between 2006 and 2013 so as to determine which species of snakes frequented them and to estimate the abundances of each species encountered. Thirty five species of snakes (three boas, one coral, 27 colubrids, one tropidophid, one typhlopid, and two vipers were captured within palmeras. Palm plantations are revealed to (1 augment the densities of ten species of snakes well beyond the densities found by collectors in natural and/or relatively transformed habitats and (2 to not offer benefits to at least 75% of the snake community found in the vicinities of palm plantations. The majority of snake species (60% found in palmeras are nocturnal species. The most common species (defined by having 15 or more captures were Atractus univittatus, Bothrops asper, B. atrox, Epicrates maurus, Leptodeira annulata, Liophis melanotus, Ninia atrata, Oxyrhopus petolarius, Pseudoboa neuwiedii, and Tantilla melanocephala. Palm plantations permit substantial local population sizes for a fraction (< 25% of the local snake community. Internal practices of such plantations could be modified so as to protect a larger share of the fauna by means of two practices: (1 construction and maintenance of paleras as well as (2 creating a mosaic of palm plantations enclosing "islands" of secondary forests.

  15. Synergistic Effects of n-Hexane Fraction of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. Bark Extract and Selected Antibiotics on Bacterial Isolates

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    Oluwatayo E. Abioye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents by microbial pathogens demands increased effort in the development of effective ways of treating infections and diseases. The n-hexane fraction of lyophilized crude bark extract of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. was prepared and, in combination with selected antibiotics, assayed for antimicrobial activity against some selected bacterial pathogens using time-kill assay. Protein leakage analysis of the combined agents was performed using Bradford protein quantification method. Determination of active compounds present in the n-hexane fraction was done using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. While time-kill assay detected 43.33% synergy; 56.67% indifference and no antagonism at 1/2 × minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, 1 × MIC exhibited 55% synergy, 45% indifference and no antagonism. Protein leakages from the cells of selected bacteria ranged from 1.20 µg/mL to 256.93 µg/mL. The presence of a phenyl group, an aromatic ring and phenolic compounds in the n-hexane fraction was confirmed at 2162 cm−1–2020 cm−1, 1605 cm−1–1533 cm−1 and 1438 cm−1–1444 cm−1 spectra peaks, respectively. The observed antibiotic−n-hexane fraction synergistic interaction revealed the improved antibacterial activity of the selected antibiotics. Hence, exploration of a combination of antibiotics with plant secondary metabolites is hereby advocated in the global quest for means of combating infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens.

  16. Study of flavonoids of Sechium edule (Jacq) Swartz (Cucurbitaceae) different edible organs by liquid chromatography photodiode array mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Tiziana; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Morelli, Ivano; Braca, Alessandra

    2004-10-20

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based method was developed for the characterization of flavonoids from Sechium edule (Jacq) Swartz (Cucurbitaceae) edible organs, a plant cultivated since pre-Colombian times in Mexico where the fruit is called chayote. Chayote is used for human consumption in many countries; in addition to the fruits, stems, leaves and the tuberous part of the roots are also eaten. Eight flavonoids, including three C-glycosyl and five O-glycosyl flavones, were detected, characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic data, and quantified in roots, leaves, stems, and fruits of the plant by LC-photodiode array-MS. The aglycone moieties are represented by apigenin and luteolin, while the sugar units are glucose, apiose, and rhamnose. The results indicated that the highest total amount of flavonoids was in the leaves (35.0 mg/10 g of dried part), followed by roots (30.5 mg/10 g), and finally by stems (19.3 mg/10 g). Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  17. Cryopreservation of chayote (Sechium edule JACQ. SW.) zygotic embryos and shoot-tips from in vitro plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnour-Esquivel, Ana; Engelmann, Florent

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the development of cryopreservation protocols for zygotic embryos and apices of chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw.), a tropical plant species with recalcitrant seeds. Zygotic embryos of two cultivars, Ccocro negro (CN) and Claudio (Cl) could withstand cryopreservation, with survival percentages of 10 and 30 %, after desiccation to 23 and 19 % moisture content (fresh weight basis), respectively. Apices sampled on in vitro plantlets of cultivars Cl, 13 and JM were successfully cryopreserved using a vitrification technique. Optimal conditions included the culture of mother-plants for 22 days on medium containing 0.3 M sucrose, culture of excised apices on the same medium for 1 day, loading of apices for 20 min with 2M glycerol + 0.4M glycerol, treatment with a series of diluted PVS2 solution (60 % PVS2 followed by 80 % PVS2 solution for 15 min (cultivar Cocoro Blanco [CB]) or 30 min (cultivars CN and Cl) at each concentration), rapid freezing and thawing, washing of shoot-tips with a 1.2 M sucrose solution, followed by recovery on media with progressively decreasing sucrose concentrations until the standard concentration of 0.1 M was reached. The highest survival percentages achieved ranged between 17 and 38 %, depending on the cultivar.

  18. Effects of IAA and IBA on the in vitro rooting of stem cuttings of Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw

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    José García García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was carried out with the objective of evaluating the response of shoots of chayote [S. edule (Jacq. Sw.] to the application of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA on the in vitro rooting phase. The effect of three culture media, modified from the proposed of Murashige and Skoog (MS was studied: 1- 65% MS salt base, 2- 65% MS salt base + 0.05 mg l-1 of indolebutyric acid (AIB and 3- 65% MS salt base + 3.0 mg l-1-3-indole acetic acid (IAA. The variables evaluated were: number of roots, length and number of shoots per in vitro seedling. The best result were obtained when using 65% MS salt base with 3.0 mg l-1 of IAA. Significant differences (P<0.05 among treatments containing growth regulators was obtained for the variables number of roots and length of in vitro plantlets. In the UNA-730 accession root induction was obtained in a 65% MS salt base culture medium without growth regulators; however, when IAA and IBA was added the induction was 100%. The differences identified in this work with regards to the root induction were probably the combined result of genotype and specific culture conditions. Key words: auxins, chayote, growth regulators, in vitro culture

  19. Producción de metabolitos secundarios en cultivo de raíces in vitro y suspensiones celulares de Ipomoea carnea spp. carnea Jacq.

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Idrogo, Consuelo; Kato, Massuo J.; Delgado-Paredes, Guillermo E.; Segal Floh, Eny Iochevet; Handro, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Ipomoea carnea spp. carnea Jacq. es un arbusto dominante en el bosque estacionalmente seco del Perú y Ecuador. Los cultivos de raíces fueron establecidos en medio MS con diferentes concentraciones de AIB, sacarosa y combinaciones de AIB-sacarosa. Diversos explantes obtenidos de plántulas in vitro y plantas silvestres se cultivaron en diferentes combinaciones de 2,4-D, AIA, ANA y BAP, para inducir callos friables, dependiendo del tipo de explante y los reguladores de creci...

  20. Composição química quantitativa e avaliação da potencial atividade vasodilatadora de Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) MacBride

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Baier Krepsky

    2011-01-01

    Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) MacBride Lythraceae, denominada popularmente sete-sangrias, tem uso medicinal tradicional no tratamento de doenças cardiovasculares, entre outras. Como não foram encontrados estudos sobre a relação entre composição química quantitativa e atividade biológica, ou sobre identificação de metabólitos secundários polares, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a composição qualitativa e quantitativa de metabólitos secundários da espécie e sua potencial atividad...

  1. Chemical and nutritional evaluation of kernels of bocaiuva, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. Avaliação química e nutricional de amêndoas da bocaiúva, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd.

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    Priscila A. Hiane

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein characterization and results of proximate composition and mineral analyses of fruit kernels of bocaiuva, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd., are reported. The kernels presented high contents of oil (51.7%, protein (17.6% and fiber (15.8%. The seeds´ soluble proteins were isolated according to their solubility. The main separated proteins were globulins (53.5% and glutelins (40.0%. Moreover, the presence of low molecular mass proteases in these two fractions was shown by the SDS-PAGE method. The assays of protease-inhibitory and hemagglutinating activities showed that bocaiuva´s protein fractions were not resistant to trypsin or chymotrypsin activities and that both had low lectin content. The globulin in vitro digestibility assay resembled a casein standard. Neither globulin nor glutelin enzymatic hydrolyses increased significantly (p Caracterização de proteínas e análises da composição centesimal e teores de minerais foram realizados nas amêndoas da bocaiúva, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. As amêndoas apresentaram alto teor de lipídio (51,7%, proteína (17,6% e fibra (15,8%. Proteínas solúveis das sementes foram fracionadas de acordo com a sua solubilidade. As principais proteínas separadas foram as globulinas (53,5% e glutelinas (40,0%, e a presença de proteases de baixo peso molecular nessas duas frações foi revelada por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE. Ensaios da atividade inibitória de proteases e da hemaglutinação mostraram que as frações protéicas da bocaiúva não foram resistentes à ação da tripsina e quimotripsina e apresentaram baixo teor de lectina. A digestibilidade in vitro da globulina foi semelhante à da caseína padrão. Hidrólises enzimáticas da globulina e glutelina não aumentaram significativamente (p < 0,05, com o aquecimento. Treonina e lisina são os aminoácidos mais limitantes, respectivamente, das duas principais frações de proteínas da amêndoa da bocaiúva, a

  2. Produção de forragem do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 pastejado em diferentes alturas Forage production of Tanzaniagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 grazed at different heights

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    Clovenilson Cláudio Perissato Cano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este experimento, avaliar a massa de forragem (MF, massa de lâmina verde (MLV, massa de colmo + bainha verde (MCV, massa de material morto (MMM, massa de forragem verde (MFV, relação folha/colmo (F/C, taxa de acúmulo de massa seca (TAMS, acúmulo de massa de forragem (AMF, índice de área foliar (IAF, porcentagem de solo descoberto (SD e porcentagem de solo coberto com liteira (SCL em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 manejada em quatro alturas do dossel forrageiro (20, 40, 60 e 80 cm. O método de pastejo utilizado foi o de lotação contínua e taxa de lotação variável, com novilhos da raça Nelore com peso médio de 340 kg. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com duas repetições e realizaram-se cinco avaliações. MLV, MCV, MMM, MFV, MF, IAF, TAMS e AMF aumentaram com o avanço da altura do dossel, sendo que a porcentagem de SD, SCL e material morto diminui em pastos mais altos. O manejo do capim-Tanzânia nas alturas de 40 e 60 cm, apresentou as melhores respostas de composição morfológica, garantindo boa oferta de folhas, de cobertura do solo e taxa de acúmulo de massa seca. As alturas de 20 e 80 cm não devem ser recomendadas para o manejo do capim-Tanzânia quando o objetivo for produção com qualidade e quantidade.This experiment was conducted out to evaluate the forage mass (FM, green leaf lamina mass (GLLM, green stem + leaf sheath mass (GSSM, mass of dead material (MDM, green forage mass (GMF, total forage mass (TFM, leaf/stem ratio (L/S, dry matter accumulation rate (DMAR, leaf area index (LAI, % of bare soil (BS and litter cover percentage (LCP in Tanzaniagrass pasture (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 managed at four different sward heights (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm. The grazing method was the continuous stocking with variable stocking rate, and the grazing animals were Nellore steers with average weight of 340 kg. The completely

  3. Producción de semilla de guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq. en un sistema intensivo de ceba de ganado vacuno Seed production of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. in an intensive cattle fattening system

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    G Oquend

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En un suelo Pardo sialítico del subtipo Cambisol cálcico, localizado en la Empresa Pecuaria «Calixto García», en la provincia de Holguín, se estudio la producción de semilla de guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq. en un sistema intensivo de ceba de ganado vacuno, en condiciones de riego. Los tratamientos fueron cinco varieda­des del pasto guinea: A Común; B Likoni; C Mombasa; D Tanzania; y E Tobiatá. Los siguientes métodos se consideraron a su vez como subtratamientos: 1 Siembra con semilla gámica; 2 Plantación por macollas; y 3 Por vía de trasplante. La carga se mantuvo ajustada a 2 UGM/ha. En la producción de semillas existieron interacciones favorables entre los métodos de siembra y las variedades: semilla gámica-guinea Likoni; maco­lla-guinea Mombasa, Tanzania y Tobiatá; trasplante-guinea Común. En todo el sistema de explotación se obtuvo un aporte adicional superior a los $1 000/ha por concepto de producción de semilla, sin afectar la producción animal, en la que se obtuvieron ganancias superiores a los 800 g/animal/día y producciones pro­medio de 46 212 t de carne en pie por ciclo de ceba. Se considera factible la producción de semilla del pasto guinea en sistemas intensivos de ceba de ganado vacuno.On a sialitic Brown soil of the calcic Cambisol subtype, located at the «Calixto García» Livestock Production Enterprise, in the Holguín province, the production of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. was studied in an intensive cattle fattening system, with irrigation. The treatments were five varieties of Guinea grass: A Common; B Likoni; C Mombasa; D Tanzania; and E Tobiatá. The following methods were considered, in turn, sub-treatments: 1 Seeding with gamic seed; 2 Planting with tillers; and 3 Transplanting. The stocking rate remained adjusted at 2 animals/ha. In seed production there were favorable interactions between the planting methods and the varieties: gamic seed-Guinea grass Likoni; tiller-Guinea grass

  4. Aislamiento e identificación de cepas de Azospirillum sp. en pasto guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq. del Valle del Cesar Isolation and identification of Azospirillum sp. in Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. of the Valle del Cesar

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    Diana M Cárdenas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de factores ambientales del Valle del Cesar y el manejo agronómico del pasto guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq., sobre la población bacteriana del género Azospirillum en medios de cultivo semisólidos NFb y LGI, para lo cual se utilizó un diseño experimental en parcelas divididas con un arreglo factorial de 2 (épocas climáticas: lluvia y sequía x 2 (manejos agronómicos: agroecólogico y extractivo x 3 (muestras analizadas: suelo rizosférico, raíces y hojas. Los resultados no revelaron diferencias estadísticas significativas, lo que indica que esta bacteria puede mantener su población en condiciones de estrés por diferentes mecanismos fisiológicos. A partir de estas muestras se obtuvieron 16 aislamientos pertenecientes al género Azospirillum, a los cuales se les evaluó su actividad de reducción de acetileno como indicador de la fijación biológica de nitrógeno y su capacidad en la producción de compuestos indólicos como promotores del crecimiento vegetal. Se seleccionaron las cepas SRGM2, SRGM3 y SRGM4 obtenidas de muestras de suelo rizosférico de pasto guinea de la Estación Experimental Motilonia de Corpoica, municipio Agustín Codazzi, departamento del Cesar. Estos aislamientos se caracterizaron molecularmente por el gen 16S rRNA y según el análisis BLAST en la base de datos del GenBank y presentaron 93% de similitud con A. lipoferum (SRGM2 y SRGM3 y 94% con A. brasilense (SRGM4.The effect of environmental factors of the Valle del Cesar and the agronomic management of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq., on the bacterial population of the Azospirillum genus in semisolid NFb and LGI culture media was evaluated, for which an experimental design was used in divided plots with a 2 (climatic seasons: rainy and dry x 2 (agronomic managements: agroecological and extractive x 3 (analyzed samples: rhizospheric soil, roots and leaves factorial arrangement. The results did not reveal significant statistical

  5. Evaluación fisico-química de la semilla y del aceite de corozo ( Acrocomia aculeata Jacq.

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    Medina, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, physicochemical characteristics of the seed and seed oil of corozo ( Acrocomia aculeata Jacq., a wild palm from Central and South America , were evaluated. Seeds obtained from mature fruits from “El Chaparro” town, Anzoategui state, Venezuela, harvested in March 2003, were decorticated; the endospermus was transformed to meal by means of grinding and then using a sieve (425 µm, and its oil was extracted with n-hexane. The whole seed showed an average weight of 9.67 ± 0.32 (PEl objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar algunas características físicas y químicas de la semilla y del aceite crudo extraído de la semilla del fruto de corozo ( Acrocomia aculeata Jacq., una palmera silvestre distribuida en Centroamérica y Sudamérica. A un lote se semillas obtenidas de frutos maduros procedentes de la población de “El Chaparro”, estado Anzoátegui, Venezuela, cosechados en Marzo 2003, se le separó el pericarpio y el endospermo. El endospermo fue transformado en harina, mediante molienda y tamizado (apertura 425 μm, y a ésta se le extrajo el aceite con n-hexano. A la semilla entera se le determinó la masa promedio (9,67 ± 0,32; P<0,05 y la proporción de pericarpio (75,39 % y endospermo (24,61 %. A la harina del endospermo de le determinó la composición proximal, presentando niveles importantes de grasa (53,13 %, proteína (13,75 % y fibra cruda (25,82 %. El aceite crudo de corozo presentó baja acidez libre (0,40 %, expresada como ácido oleico y alta resistencia a la oxidación (no se detectó peróxidos y el índice de estabilidad OSI fue de 100 h; sus índices de yodo y saponificación fueron 29,87 cg I/g y 205 mg KOH/g, respectivamente. La composición en ácidos grasos, determinada mediante cromatografía de gas, mostró mayor proporción de ácidos saturados (79,6 %, siendo el ácido láurico el de mayor concentración. La semilla de corozo es un recurso oleaginoso que puede ser útil

  6. Feeding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq. fronds alters rumen protozoal population and ruminal fermentation pattern in goats

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    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm fronds (OPF, normally available all the year round, may provide a sustainable ruminant feed for livestock industry in tropical regions. A feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of feeding OPF on the rumen protozoal population, rumen fermentation and fatty acid profiles of rumen fluid in goats. Twentyfour five-month-old Kacang crossbred male goats were individually housed and fed for 100 d with concentrate diets supplemented with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. frond pellets. The treatments were: CON (100% concentrate, MOPF (75% concentrate + 25% OPF, w/w and HOPF (50% concentrate + 50% OPF, w/w. The diets were adjusted to be isocaloric. The pH of rumen fluid was in the order of HOPF (5.90>MOPF (5.74>CON (5.62. Both HOPF (17.75x104/mL and MOPF (17.13x104/mL had significantly (P<0.05 higher population of Entodinium sp. than CON (14.88x104/mL. Although populations of Holotrichs and total protozoa among the three groups did not show any significant difference (P>0.05, populations were in the numerical order of HOPF>MOPF>CON. The molar proportions of acetate were significantly higher (P<0.05 in HOPF animals compared to MOPF and CON. The altered status in the rumen environment due to supplementation of OPF in the diets resulted in the highest (P<0.05 amount of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA in the rumen of animals receiving HOPF and MOPF diet. These results were suggestive of a decreased biohydrogenation in the rumen, resulting in higher levels of UFA available for hindgut absorption, and hence their increased incorporation in the plasma and edible tissues of the HOPF animals.

  7. The Role of Leaf Volatiles of Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven in the Attraction of Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Saubhik; Karmakar, Amarnath; Mukherjee, Abhishek; Barik, Anandamay

    2017-07-01

    Larvae and adults of Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feed on the rice-field weed Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven (Onagraceae), commonly known as willow primrose, which is considered a biocontrol agent of the weed. Volatile organic compounds from undamaged plants, plants after 4, 12, and 36 h of continuous feeding by A. cyanea larvae or adult females and after mechanical damaging were identified by GC-MS and GC-FID analyses. Twenty nine compounds were identified from undamaged plants. 2Z-Penten-1-ol, geraniol, and 1-tridecanol were present in all plants damaged by larvae. In contrast, feeding by adults caused the release of 2Z-penten-1-ol only after 12 and 36 h; whereas geraniol and 1-tridecanol appeared only after 36 h. Farnesyl acetone was detected after 12 and 36 h of feeding by larvae and after 36 h of feeding by adults. Farnesene was detected after 36 h of feeding by larvae and adults. Linalool was unique after 36 h of feeding by larvae. In Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays, A. cyanea females were attracted to volatiles after 36 h of feeding by larvae or adults compared to volatiles released by undamaged plants. The insects were attracted to five synthetic compounds: 3-hexanol, α-pinene, linalool oxide, geraniol, and phytol. Synthetic blends were more attractive than individual compounds. Compared to undamaged plants, volatiles released by plants, damaged by conspecific individuals, were more attractive to A. cyanea females, due to elevated emissions of 3-hexanol, α-pinene, linalool oxide, geraniol, and phytol.

  8. Control de plagas de la jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. con Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. en Chiautla de Tapia, Puebla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aragón-García

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el ciclo agrícola comprendido entre los meses de julio a diciembre de 2005, se generó en el municipio de Chiautla de Tapia, una metodología para el control de plagas insectiles que afectan el follaje del cultivo de jamaica. En el desarrollo de este trabajo se utilizó una parcela ubicada en el mismo municipio, en la que se sembrójamaica criolla -de acuerdo a la tecnología agrícola de la zona- y se controlaron las plagas, realizando cuatro aplicaciones de extracto acuoso de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq., alternándolas con cuatro aplicaciones de jabón neutro. Para verificar la efectividad del tratamiento, los parámetros evaluados fueron: porcentaje de infestación, daños causados por insectos y producción. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la parcela a la cual se consideró como testigo, presentó un porcentaje de infestación del 79%; mientras que la parcela que se le aplicó el tratamiento presentó un 21% de infestación. En cuanto a los daños, en la parcela testigo se presentó en promedio 30.08% de daño por planta y la parcela donde se realizó el control sólo 14.89%. La producción en la parcela tratada fue de 793 kg/ha, presentándose un incremento en la producción con respecto al testigo, del 116%. En los tres parámetros evaluados se observó diferencia significativa ( = 0.05 entre tratamientos. Con la aplicación del tratamiento, se evitan los daños a las plantas, observándose un incremento en la producción.

  9. Chemical Characterization, Antileishmanial Activity, and Cytotoxicity Effects of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Marley; Scull, Ramón; Satyal, Prabodh; Setzer, William N; Monzote, Lianet

    2017-09-01

    Current strategies to control leishmaniasis are mainly based on chemotherapy. However, none of the available drugs can be considered to be ideal to treat this disease. Because of the hydrophobic nature and bioactivities of their components, essential oils (EOs) can be considered as important sources for developing agents against intracellular pathogens, such as Leishmania parasites. In this study, we report the chemical characterization, antileishmanial activities, and cytotoxicity effect of the EO from Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don. (Asteraceae). Chemical analysis revealed that EO from aerial part from P. carolinensis is composed of 44 compounds. The main component was selin-11-en-4α-ol, which made up 51.0%. In vitro antileishmanial studies showed that P. carolinensis EO inhibited the growth of promastigotes (IC 50  = 24.7 ± 7.1 μg/mL) and amastigotes (IC 50  = 6.2 ± 0.1 μg/mL) of Leishmania amazonensis, while cytotoxicity evaluation revealed fivefold higher values than those for the parasites. In a model of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice, five doses of EO at 30 mg/kg by intralesional route demonstrated smaller lesion size and parasite burden (p < 0.05) compared with animals treated with Glucantime® and untreated mice. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo results showed the potentialities of EO from P. carolinensis with the future possibility of a new alternative in the treatment for leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Biochemical characterization and immunolocalization studies of a Capsicum chinense Jacq. protein fraction containing DING proteins and anti-microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito-Argáez, Ligia; Tamayo-Sansores, José A; Madera-Piña, Dianeli; García-Villalobos, Francisco J; Moo-Puc, Rosa E; Kú-González, Ángela; Villanueva, Marco A; Islas-Flores, Ignacio

    2016-12-01

    The DING protein family consists of proteins of great biological importance due to their ability to inhibit carcinogenic cell growth. A DING peptide with Mr ∼7.57 kDa and pI ∼5.06 was detected in G10P1.7.57, a protein fraction from Capsicum chinense Jacq. seeds. Amino acid sequencing of the peptide produced three smaller peptides showing identity to the DING protein family. G10P1.7.57 displayed a phosphatase activity capable of dephosphorylating different phosphorylated substrates and inhibited the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Western immunoblotting with a custom-made polyclonal antibody raised against a sequence (ITYMSPDYAAPTLAGLDDATK), derived from the ∼7.57 kDa polypeptide, immunodetected an ∼ 39 kDa polypeptide in G10P1.7.57. Purification by electroelution followed by amino acid sequencing of the ∼39 kDa polypeptide yielded seven new peptide sequences and an additional one identical to that of the initially identified peptide. Western immunoblotting of soluble proteins from C. chinense seeds and leaves revealed the presence of the ∼39 kDa polypeptide at all developmental stages, with increased accumulation when the organs reached maturity. Immunolocalization using Dabsyl chloride- or Alexa fluor 488-conjugated antibodies revealed a specific fluorescent signal in the cell cytoplasm at all developmental stages, giving support to the idea that the ∼39 kDa polypeptide is a soluble DING protein. Thus, we have identified and characterized a protein fraction with a DING protein from C. chinense. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effects of Organic, Chemical and Biological Fertilizers on Seed Yield and Yield Components of Dwarf Chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farima Doaei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to response to greater demand for wild medicinal plants consumption, it has been recommended that wild medicinal plants can be brought into cultivation systems. Cichorium pumilum Jacq. is an annual species of Asteraceae family, that has a long history of herbal use and is especially of great value for its tonic effects upon the liver and digestive tract. The root and the leaves of chicory are digestive, hypoglycemic, diuretic, laxative and tonic. Using chemical fertilizers can be easily lost from soils through fixation, leaching or gas emission that can lead to reduced fertilizer efficiency. The applications of organic fertilizers such as compost and vermicompost can be considered as a good management practice to increase cropping system sustainability, reducing soil erosion and improving soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Soil microorganisms have a significant role in regulating the dynamics of organic matter breakdown and the availability of plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphate and sulfur. Materials and Methods: For evaluating the effects of organic, mineral and biological fertilizers on seed yield and yield components of dwarf chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq., a field experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (36016/ N, 59036/ E, elevation 985 m during growing season of 2011-2012. The experimental layout was factorial based on randomized complete block design with four replications. The experimental treatments were all combination of organic and chemical fertilizers (compost 4 t/ha, vermicompost 4 t/ha, urea fertilizer 130 kg/ha and control and biological fertilizer (biosulfur biofertilizer + pure sulfur 100 kg/ ha and control. Before conducting the experiment, soil sample were taken from the depth of 0-30 cm, and physical and chemical characteristics of the soil and also used compost and vermicompost were determined. All fertilizer

  12. Physico-chemical, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties and stability of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) procyanidins microcapsules with inulin and maltodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyspiańska, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kolniak-Ostek, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Procyanidins from the bark of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) were isolated and purified. Qualitative and quantitative composition was compared with that of the extract of hawthorn fruit (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). Stability and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of procyanidins before and after micro-encapsulation were estimated. The effects of the carrier type (inulin and maltodextrin) and procyanidins:carrier ratio (1:1, 1:3) and the influence of storage temperature (20 °C, -20 °C, -80 °C) on the content of procyanidins were evaluated. Samples before and after micro-encapsulation contained from 651 to 751 mg of procyanidins in 1 g. Among the procyanidins, (-)-epicatechin, dimer B2, and trimer C1 dominated. The use of inulin during spray drying resulted in greater efficiency of micro-encapsulation than the use of maltodextrin. During storage of the samples at 20 °C degradation of procyanidins was observed, whereas at -20 °C and -80 °C concentrations of them increased. The microcapsules with procyanidins from the bark of hawthorn, as well as the extract of procyanidins, have valuable biological activity, and strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is better to prepare microcapsules with a greater amount of carrier, with the procyanidin/carrier ratio 1:3. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Influence of the extraction mode on the yield of hyperoside, vitexin and vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside from Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (hawthorn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Emanuela; Collina, Simona; Rossi, Daniela; Bazzoni, Deborah; Gaggeri, Raffaella; Bracco, Francesco; Azzolina, Ornella

    2008-01-01

    The extract of Crataegus monogyna shows sedative, hypotensive, vasodilator and cardio-tonic actions. Although several papers dealing with the extraction of metabolites from Crataegus have been published, the plant productivity in terms of bioactive compounds is not easily understandable as yet. To investigate the influence of the extraction mode on the yield of bioactive compounds from Crataegus monogyna Jacq. in order to evaluate plant productivity. Samples were prepared by extraction of powdered material obtained from top branches, flowers and leaves. Soxhlet extraction, maceration and ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction at different experimental conditions were investigated for the exhaustive extraction of hyperoside, vitexin and vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside. The phytocomponents were identified and quantified by HPLC-UV/PAD, comparing HPLC retention times and UV spectra of individual peaks with those of the standards analysed under the same conditions. An easy-to-use HPLC isocratic method suitable for the quantification of hyperoside, vitexin and vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside in raw plant extracts was developed. The optimised HPLC methodology was applied to evaluate different extraction procedures. The ultrasound and microwave-assisted extraction protocols showed higher extraction efficiency than the others. In particular, the optimised microwave protocol gave rise to the highest extraction efficiency with high reproducibility. A microwave protocol combined with isocratic HPLC analysis is proposed for the rapid screening of plant materials collected in different environmental conditions in order to evaluate the productivity of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and to find out the best ecological conditions to cultivate hawthorn in Northern Italy.

  14. OBTENCIÓN DE BIOCOMBUSTIBLES PRODUCTO DE LA PIROLISIS RÁPIDA DE RESIDUOS DE PALMA AFRICANA (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. OBTENÇÃO DE BICOMBUSTÍVEIS POR PIRÓLISE RÁPIDA DE RESÍDUOS DE PALMA DE DENDÊ (Elaeisg uineensis Jacq. BIOFUELS PRODUCTION BY FAST PYROLYSIS OF PALM OIL WASTES (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN C. ARTEAGA V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es la obtención de biocombustibles por medio de la pirólisis rápida de residuos de palma africana (Elaeis guineensis Jacq., en un reactor de caída libre. Previamente la biomasa es sometida a un proceso de tamizado y secado, para luego ser alimentada al reactor. Producto de la pirolisis se obtiene carbonizado, gasesincondensables y un líquido condensado (bio-oil,compuesto de alcoholes, ácidos carboxílicos, alcanos y compuestos aromáticos. Las pruebas se realizaron en un rango de temperaturas entre 500-700°C y se encontró que a 600°C el rendimiento del proceso fue máximo con un 23.3% de biocombustible condensado. La composición de los gases a 600°C fue CO22,720%, H20,703 % , CH41,289%, CO 2,472 % y el resto es N2. La mayor cantidad de gases incondensables se obtuvo a 700°C pero el rendimiento del bio-oil es solo del 14.9% en peso. Los resultados evidencian que la temperatura del reactor es un parámetro importante en la composición de los gases y el rendimiento del bio-oil. Una fase posterior será evaluar costos y beneficios para re-configurar el reactor de manera tal que se optimice el rendimiento en la producción de bio-oil evaluando la posibilidad de usar los gases incondensables como fuente de energía para la pirólisis.O objetivo destetrabalhofoi a obtenção de bicombustíveis a partir da pirólise rápida de resíduos de palma de dendê (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. num reator de queda livre. Inicialmente a biomassa passou por uma serie de peneiras, havendo sido posteriormente secada e finalmente fornecida ao reator. Após da pirólise, foram obtidos um carbonizado solido, uma fração gasosa e um liquido condensado (bio-oil, o qual é composto por alcoóis, ácidos carboxílicos, e hidrocarbonetos de tipo alcanos e aromáticos. Os testes foram feitos entre 500 - 700 ºC, encontrando se o maiorrendimento para o bio-oil a 600 ºCcomum 23.3 % em peso. A composição dos gases para esta temperatura foi

  15. Toxicological assessment of crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. used in deep frying of akara (cowpea paste finger food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felzenszwalb, I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Akara is cowpea paste which is deep-fried in crude palm oil (CPO; Elaeis guineensis Jacq. and sold as a street finger food in Brazil and Africa. During the food frying oils can form toxic decomposition products as total polar compounds (TPC, which can determinate oil degradation. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of CPO used in akara frying for 25 hours. Changes in the oil were determined by TPC quantification and mutagenicity using a Salmonella/microssome assay with Salmonella Typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 with and without exogenous metabolic activation. Assuming that 25% TPC is the maximum level permitted in frying oils and it ranged from 14.08 to 29.81%, frying palm oil exceeded the limit. Nonetheless, no cytotoxic, mutagenic or genotoxic activity were detected in CPO used in the traditional akara frying process.Akara es una tapa hecha de pasta de frijol frito en aceite de palma crudo (CPO; Elaeis guineensis, que se vende en las calles de Brasil y África. Durante la fritura de alimentos, los aceites pueden formar productos de descomposición tóxicos como los compuestos polares totales (TPC, que determinan la degradación del aceite. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la toxicidad de CPO utilizado en 25 horas de frituras de akara. Los cambios en el aceite se determinaron mediante la cuantificación de TPC y ensayos de mutagenicidad en Salmonella microsomas usando cepas de Salmonella Typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 y TA102 con y sin activación metabólica exógena. Se asume que el 25% de TPC es el nivel máximo permitido, los aceites de fritura oscilaron desde 14,08 hasta 29,81%. Ningún CPO utilizado en el proceso de akara tradicional mostró ser citotóxico, ni tener actividad mutagénica o genotóxica.

  16. ESTUDO FITOQUÍMICO, TOXICOLÓGICO E MICROBIOLÓGICO DAS FOLHAS DE Costus spicatus Jacq.

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    Antônio Paulo Ribeiro Bitencourt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A espécie vegetal Costus spicatus Jacq. (cana-do-brejo, espécie pertencente à família Zingiberaceae, é utilizada na medicina popular, principalmente na região amazônica como depurativa e diurética, aliviando infecções urinárias e auxiliando na eliminação de pedras renais. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi realizar o estudo fitoquímico em busca das principais classes de metabólitos secundários, atividade microbiológica e citotóxica frente a Artemia salina do extrato bruto etanóico das folhas de Costus spicatus. O teste fitoquímico foi realizado por métodos químicos, visando determinar os seguintes metabólitos: alcalóides, fenóis e taninos, flavonóides, antraquinonas, saponinas, triterpenos, açucares redutores, polissacarídeos, ácidos orgânicos e esteróides. Quanto ao bioensaio de citotoxicidade foi realizado o teste com Artemia salina, onde se considerou a morte ou vida dos metanáuplios. O teste microbiológico foi utilizado a prática de difusão em disco com linhagens bacterianas padronizadas em concentrações de 25μg/mL, 50μg/mL e 100μg/mL do extrato bruto etanólico. Nessa perspectiva, foi possível observar a presença de alcaloides, e também, fenóis e taninos. O extrato bruto apresentou alto grau de toxicidade nas concentrações A. salina. Para avaliar a presença da atividade antimicrobiana foram medidos os halos de inibição do extrato, verificando que após 24h de incubação não houve formação significativa dos halos, onde foi possível determinar que não há efeito inibidor do extrato frente às linhagens bacterianas e nas concentrações utilizadas. Palavras-chave: Costus spicatus, screening fitoquímico, bioensaio de toxicidade, Artemia salina, ensaio microbiológico. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n4p75-79

  17. Komparasi Laju Pertumbuhan Miselium Jamur Tiram Putih (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr Kummer pada Komposisi Media Bibit (F3 dan Baglog yang Berbeda

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    I MADE SUDARMA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth rate comparison of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex FrKummer mycelium in the composition of different seed (F3 and baglog media . Cultivation ofoyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr Kummer has grown rapidly along with the increasein income and health awareness. Oyster mushrooms growing need for media with a particular compositionin order to grow optimally. Oyster mushroom production is determined by the quality of the seeds (F3is used, which is sourced from the media with good quality and composition. The research aimed todetermine the rate of growth of white oyster mushroom mycelium in the different composition of seedmedium (F3 (sawdust: fine bran: corn flour: CaCO3 . The experiments was conducted at nurseriesand oyster mushroom development, Jl. Siulan Gang Zella No. 7 Denpasar, from June to August 2013.Each treatment contained 50 bottles, and 10 bottles only used as a sample, in environmental conditionswith temperature and humidity ranges, 20-29oC and 59-86% respectively . T-test was used todifferentiate the growth rate of white oyster mushroom mycelium with different compositions. Theresults showed that seeds (F3 derived from the growing media composition, sawdust (1 week old:fine bran: corn flour: CaCO3 (10:4:2:0,5 significantly different and better than the composition sawdust(age 1 month : fine bran: corn flour (20:2:1:0.5, with a growth rate of mycelium in a mean 6.14±0.56cm/week and 1,81±0,82 cm/week, respectively. Spawn running in baglog with media composition10:4:2:0.5 was 2.77±1.22cm/week, but with composition media 20:2:1:0.5 mycelium could not grow.Effect of temperature and humidity on the growth rate of white oyster mushroom mycelium in seedmedia (F3 is not significantly.

  18. Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-09-27

    , osmoregulation and detoxification systems have been well .... water deficit is well known, different effects on Cx+c have been reported for ..... responses of photosynthesis and antioxidant metabolism in higher plants. J. Plant ...

  19. Etude comparative de la digestibilité in vivo de l'herbe de guinée (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associée aux feuilles et tiges de patate douce (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) (régime Panipo) ou à l'herbe de lait (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) (régime Paneuph) chez le lapin (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) et le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kouakou, NGDV.; Kouba, M.; Thys, E.

    2016-01-01

    Digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) (Panipo diet) or poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) (Paneuph diet) in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) and in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.). A comparative study of in vivo digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) (Panipo diet) or with poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L.)...

  20. A densidade básica e característica anatômicas variam radialmente na madeira de Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae). Basic density and anatomical features vary in the radial direction in the wood of Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae).

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Moura SANTOS; Israel Luiz de LIMA; Eduardo Luiz LONGUI; Diego ROMEIRO; Antonio Carlos Scatena ZANATTO; Eurípedes MORAIS; Marcelo ZANATA; Sandra Monteiro Borges FLORSHEIM

    2011-01-01

    Estudos sobre variações nas dimensões celulares de espécies arbóreas de clima tropical são escassos. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a variação da densidade básica e da anatomia no sentido radial da madeira de Astronium graveolens Jacq. Coletaram-se cinco indivíduos da espécie, provenientes da Estação Experimental Luiz Antônio (SP). Os métodos empregados nas análises foram os usualmente utilizados em pesquisas de densidade e anatomia de madeira. De acordo com os result...

  1. A densidade básica e característica anatômicas variam radialmente na madeira de Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae. Basic density and anatomical features vary in the radial direction in the wood of Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Moura SANTOS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre variações nas dimensões celulares de espécies arbóreas de clima tropical são escassos. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a variação da densidade básica e da anatomia no sentido radial da madeira de Astronium graveolens Jacq. Coletaram-se cinco indivíduos da espécie, provenientes da Estação Experimental Luiz Antônio (SP. Os métodos empregados nas análises foram os usualmente utilizados em pesquisas de densidade e anatomia de madeira. De acordo com os resultados foram constatadas altas correlações entre densidade básica, comprimento de fibra, espessura da parede da fibra, diâmetro de vaso e frequência de vaso com a distância da medula. A densidade básica da madeira é altamente dependente do comprimento das fibras, espessura da parede das fibras e diâmetro dos vasos, ocorrendo aumento no sentido da medula para a casca.Studies on variations in cell sizes of tree species in tropical climate are scarce. Thus, the aim was characterize the radial variation of basic density and wood anatomy of Astronium graveolens Jacq. Five specimens were collected at the Luiz Antônio Experimental Station,(SP. Sstandard methods for studying the density and wood anatomy were employed. According to the results we observed high correlation among basic density,fiber length, fiber wall thickness, vessel diameter and vessel frequency with distance fromthe pith. The wood density is highly dependent on fiber length, fiber wall thicknessand vessel diameter, there was an increase towards the pith to bark.

  2. Characterization of phenolics by LC-UV/vis, LC-MS/MS and sugars by GC in Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. 'Montgomery' fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrom, Laura M; Lewis, Betty A; Brown, Dan L; Rodriguez, Eloy; Obendorf, Ralph L

    2008-12-15

    Fruits of the native South American tree Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. (Sapindaceae) are consumed for both dietary and medicinal purposes, but limited information is available about the phytochemistry and health value of M. bijugatus fruits. Fruit tissues of the Florida Montgomery cultivar were assessed for sugars, using gas chromatography, and for total phenolics, using UV spectroscopy. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints of crude methanolic pulp, embryo and seed coat extracts were obtained at 280 nm. Phenolics were characterised by both HPLC UV/vis analysis and HPLC electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Major sugars detected in the pulp and embryo extracts were sucrose, followed by glucose and fructose. The glucose:fructose ratio was 1:1 in the pulp and 0.1:1 in the embryo. Total phenolic concentrations of the fruit tissues were in the order: seed coat > embryo > pulp. Phenolic acids were identified mostly in pulp tissues. Phenolic acids, flavonoids, procyanidins and catechins were identified in embryo tissues, and higher molecular weight procyanidins were identified in seed coat tissues. This study provides new information about the phytochemistry and the potential health value of the Montgomery cultivar M. bijugatus fruit tissues.

  3. Expression profiles of defence related cDNAs in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) inoculated with mycorrhizae and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai T32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yung-Chie; Wong, Mui-Yun; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2015-11-01

    Basal stem rot is one of the major diseases of oil palm (Elaies guineensis Jacq.) caused by pathogenic Ganoderma species. Trichoderma and mycorrhizae were proposed to be able to reduce the disease severity. However, their roles in improving oil palm defence system by possibly inducing defence-related genes in the host are not well characterized. To better understand that, transcript profiles of eleven putative defence-related cDNAs in the roots of oil palm inoculated with Trichoderma harzianum T32 and mycorrhizae at different time points were studied. Transcripts encoding putative Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (EgBBI2) and defensin (EgDFS) increased more than 2 fold in mycorrhizae-treated roots at 6 weeks post inoculation (wpi) compared to those in controls. Transcripts encoding putative dehydrin (EgDHN), glycine-rich RNA binding protein (EgGRRBP), isoflavone reductase (EgIFR), type 2 ribosome inactivating protein (EgT2RIP), and EgDFS increased in the oil palm roots treated with T. harzianum at 6 and/or 12 wpi compared to those in the controls. Some of these genes were also expressed in oil palm roots treated with Ganoderma boninense. This study provides an insight of some defence-related genes induced by Trichoderma and mycorrhizae, and their roles as potential agents to boost the plant defence system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Criterios locales para selección de semillas de chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw. en zonas rurales de Chiapas, México

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    Francisco Guevara Hernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se identificaron y analizaron los criterios socio-antropológicos fundamentados en etnoagronomía y etnobotánica de los productores para seleccionar semillas de chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw. en zonas rurales de los municipios Villa Corzo y Villaflores (Chiapas, México. En entrevistas semi-estructuradas realizadas a 60 productores se describieron los criterios locales para seleccionar las semillas de esta hortaliza, considerando características de color, tamaño y presencia de espinas en los frutos, así como la obtención de variedades y recomendaciones para la siembra. Sin considerar la procedencia de los productores, el cultivo del chayote se realiza independientemente del tamaño, el color o la presencia de espinas en los frutos. Más de 60% de los productores entrevistados compra las semillas y prefieren aquellas variedades que posean frutos con espinas debido a su sabor agradable. Se confirmó la validez de los estudios socio-antropológicos en sistemas agrícolas tradicionales en la zona, particularmente en etnobotánica, para entender las relaciones sociales y productivas a nivel local, y para definir sistemas productivos sostenibles a partir de los criterios propios de las familias campesinas, lo que permite documentar, analizar, validar y entender multi-criterios relacionados con la producción familiar de chayote y su posible mejoramiento.

  5. The Effect of Organic and Biological Fertilizers Application on Biomass Yield and Poly-phenols Contents of Dwarf Chicory Leaves (Cichorium pumilum Jacq.

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    Farima Doaei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dwarf chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq. is an annual species from chicory genus in Asteraceae family grows in Western and Southern parts of Iran which is used as a traditional medicinal herb. To date there are a few studies on this species which have been carried out under field conditions. Dwarf Chicory can be used for cancer treatment. In many studies, the presence of phenolic and terpene lactones has been confirmed in chicory tissue. Each type of fertilizer (chemical, organic and biofertilizer has its advantages and disadvantages but due to the problems caused by the use of chemical fertilizers, organic and biological fertilizers can be used as alternatives to chemical fertilizers to increase soil fertility and produce sustainable agriculture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic and chemical fertilizers and biological fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of dwarf chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq. in different cuttings. Materials and Methods The experiment was carried out in a factorial layout based on randomized complete block design with four replications at the Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (59°28 E and 36°15 N during 2011-2012 growing season. Plots were designed with 4 m long and 2.5 m width, 1 m apart each other. Between blocks, 1 m alley was kept. The experimental treatments were all combination of organic and chemical fertilizers (Urban compost 4 t. ha-1, vermin-compost 4 t. ha-1, urea fertilizer 130 kg. ha-1 and control and biological fertilizer (Biosulfur biofertilizer + pure sulfur 100 kg. ha-1 and control. Seed sowing was performed by hand on the middle of the furrows. Seedlings were thinned at the four-six leaf stage. The irrigation was done after seed sowing two times per week until plant establishment and then with weekly irrigation until maturity stage. Weeds were removed by hand during growing seasons. Harvesting was performed

  6. Caracterização biométrica, física e química de frutos da palmeira bocaiuva Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq Lodd

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    Eliana Janet Sanjinez-Argandoña

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Frutos de palmeira bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd., coletados em Dourados (MS e Presidente Epitácio (SP, foram analisados quanto ao aspecto biométrico, a composição química e as características físicas, visando a avaliar seu potencial alimentício. Os frutos de bocaiuva das regiões de procedência não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre si nas características biométricas. O rendimento médio da polpa foi de 42% em relação ao fruto inteiro, sendo superior ao encontrado na literatura para outros frutos de palmeiras. As determinações físicas e químicas da polpa dos frutos das regiões de Mato Grosso do Sul e São Paulo caracterizam a polpa como sendo pouco ácida (pH 5,70 a 6,29. As amostras de Dourados - MS, foram consideradas mais doces (14,53% de açúcares redutores totais e com maior teor de vitamina C (34,57 mg.100 g-1 em relação às amostras de Presidente Epitácio-SP (11,46 mg.100 g-1. Porém, a intensidade da cor amarelo-laranja foi maior na polpa dos frutos de Presidente Epitácio (SP, sugerindo maior conteúdo de carotenoides.

  7. Mediational influence of spent mushroom compost on phytoremediation of black-oil hydrocarbon polluted soil and response of Megathyrsus maximus Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemoloye, Michael Dare; Jonathan, Segun Gbolagade; Jayeola, Adeniyi A; Ahmad, Rafiq

    2017-09-15

    Ability of a plant to develop different adaptive strategies can also determine its capability for effective soil remediation. In this study, influence of spent mushroom compost (SMC) was tested on the phytoremediation of black oil hydrocarbon polluted soil and the response of Megathyrsus maximus (guinea grass). Studies were carried out in microcosm conditions by mixing different concentration of SMC viz., 10, 20, 30 and 40% in a 5 kg of contaminated soil along with control. Seeds of M. maximus was sown in tray for two weeks and allowed to grow for height of 10 cm and transplanted in to the different experimental pots. Soil nutrient, heavy metal and PAH contents were analyzed before and after the experiment. Ecophysiological and anatomical responses due to the contaminants in the soil by M. Maximus were analyzed after 120 days. Phytomass efficiency, potential photosynthesis (Amax) and contents of chlorophylls (a and b) as well as the total chlorophyll along with anatomical evaluations were recorded. Plant alone (control) reduced the soil heavy metal and PAH contents but further improvements were observed in SMC treatments, similar results were also observed as regards to the plant's phytoremediation efficiency (PE), phytomass and potential photosynthetic rates (m mol O 2  M -2 S -1 ). The plant's root and shoot anatomical responses were enhanced in treatments compared to control, study infers that the treatment enhances the biostimulation and development of adaptive characteristics for M. maximus survival in contaminated soils and promotes its co-degradation of hydrocarbon. SMC supports remediation and as well enhances the anatomical evaluations, we therefore recommend the use of SMC on response of Megathyrsus maximus Jacq for remediation of petrochemical based phytoremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The distribution of 137Cs in maize (Zea mays L.) and two millet species (Panicum miliaceum L. and Panicum maximum Jacq.) cultivated on the cesium-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrzejewska-Nowacka, G.; Nowacka, R.

    2004-01-01

    The plant of three species (Zea mays L., Panicum miliaceum L. and Panicum maximum Jacq.) were grown on the soil contaminated with 0.3 mM CsCl solution traced with 137 Cs, in greenhouse. For all the species, the fresh-to-dry weight ratio was equal in the cesium-treated plants and in the central group after 3 weeks of culture. The shoot-to root fresh weight and dry weight ratios were decreased in maize, unchanged in Panicum miliaceum and increased in Panicum maximum, comparing to the control without cesium treatment. The shoot/soil and also root/soil transfer (TF) for 137 Cs (measured by means of Na I gamma spectrometer) were always the highest in maize, then lower in Panicum miliaceum and the lowest in Panicum maximum. All the plants seem to be hyperaccumulators of cesium. The root/soil Tf was especially high in maize, i.e. 55 (kBq kg -1 biomass)/kBq Kg -1 soil). The shoot/root concentration factor (CF) for 137 Cs was the lowest in maize, higher in Panicum miliaceum and highest in Panicum maximum. The proved ability of the investigated plants for phytoextraction of the soil cesium points to the (author). The detectability and reliin soil bioremediation. From this point of view, Panicum maximum seems to be the most useful plant because it accumulates cesium mainly in the shoot, and maize would be the least useful spices since it has the highest accumulation in root. (author)

  9. Densidade e qualidade dos estratos de forragem do capim Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. Cv. Tanzânia-1 manejado em diferentes alturas, sob pastejo Density bulk and quality of Tanzania grass layers (Panicum maximum Jacq.cv. Tanzania-1, at different heights in grazing

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    Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes alturas (24; 26; 43; 45; 52; 62; 73 e 78 cm do pasto sobre a qualidade de forragem e estrutura do perfil do capim-Tanzânia, (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia – 1 (Poaceae. Foram utilizados novilhos da raça Nelore sob pastejo com carga animal variável, por meio da técnica put and take. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. A densidade de matéria seca total (DMT aumentou com o avanço no período experimental, enquanto a densidade de matéria seca de lâminas (DML não foi influenciada pelo período e pela altura do pasto. O estrato superior da pastagem foi a porção de maior qualidade, apresentando maior DML e maior teor de PB. Os estratos inferiores apresentaram menor qualidade, devido à maior DMT e menor DML, acarretando em maiores valores de FDA e FDN e menores teores de PB. O conteúdo de minerais das lâminas foi superior aos colmos, mantendo-se inalterado com relação aos estratos da pastagem.The effect of different sward heights (24; 26; 43; 45; 52; 62; 73 and 78 cm on forage quality and profile structure Tanzania grass, Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania – 1 (Poaceae is provided. Nelore steers were used in grazing at variable stocking rates with put and take technique. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two replications. Total dry matter bulk densitity (TDMD increased during experimental period, while the leaf blade dry matter bulk density (LDMD was not influenced by period on by sward height. The upper layers had the best quality with higher LDMD and CP levels. Lower layers had the worst quality, due the higher TDMD and lower LDMD. This fact caused higher ADF and NDF levels and lower CP levels. Leaf blade mineral content was higher than that of stem, and remained unaltered in relation to the different layers.

  10. Valor nutritivo do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzânia-1 manejado em alturas de pastejo - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.205 Nutritive value of tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1 handled in different pasture heights - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.205

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    Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes alturas do pasto (24cm e 26cm; 43cm e 45cm; 52cm e 62cm; 73cm e 78cm e períodos de avaliação (28, 56, 84 e 112 dias em capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia - 1 nos teores de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS, Ca, P, K e Mg nas porções lâmina e colmo. Foram utilizados novilhos da raça Nelore (em pastejo contínuo com taxa de lotação variável pela técnica put and take. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com 2 repetições. O aumento na altura de manejo provocou redução dos teores de PB e aumento dos níveis de FDA e FDN nas lâminas e nos colmos. As melhores alturas de manejo, de acordo com os resultados relativos à qualidade da forragem, variaram de 40cm e 60cm.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of different pasture heights (24cm and 26cm; 43cm and 45cm; 52cm and 62cm; 73cm and 78cm and sampling periods (28, 56, 84 and 112 days in Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia - 1 on content of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVMD, Ca, P, K and Mg on leaf blade and stem part. Nelore steers were used (in continuous grazing with variable stocking rates, using put and take technique. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two replications. The increments on the pasture height decreased CP content and increased ADF and NDF contents, both to the leaf blade and to the stems. The leaf blade quality was also influenced by different sampling times. The best pasture management height according to forage quality were between 40cm to 60cm.

  11. Production and bromatologic composition of grass-mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq., submitted to different sources and doses of acidity corrective / Produção e composição bromatológica da forragem do capim-mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq., submetidos a diferentes fontes e doses de corretivo de acidez

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    Francisco Maximino Fernandes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried in protected (greenhouse atmosphere, in University of Engineering, UNESP of Ilha Solteira-SP, with the objective of evaluating sources (limestone and calcium silicate slag and doses (0,0 – 0,5 – 1,0 – 1,5 – 2,0 times the recommended dose of corrective in the bromatologic composition, tillering and production of dry matter of the grass mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq.. The lineation was completely randomized design, with four repetitions. It was evaluated the tiller number, the production of dry matter, the gross protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF. The corrective influenced the tillering in almost all of the countings. The limestone provided larger production of dry matter in the doses of 1,5 and 2,0 times the recommended dose. The bromatologic composition of the forage was not influenced by the corrective and doses.O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido (estufa, na Faculdade de Engenharia, UNESP de Ilha Solteira, com o objetivo de avaliar fontes (calcário e escória silicatada e doses (0,0 – 0,5 – 1,0 – 1,5 – 2,0 vezes a dose recomendada de corretivos na composição bromatológica, perfilhamento e produção de matéria seca do capim-mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq.. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Avaliou-se o número de perfilhos, a produção de matéria seca e os teores de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA. Os corretivos influenciaram o perfilhamento em quase todas as contagens. O calcário proporcionou maior produção de matéria seca nas doses de 1,5 e 2,0 vezes a dose recomendada. A composição bromatológica da forragem não foi influenciada pelos corretivos e doses utilizadas.

  12. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV

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    Laura Mejía-Teniente

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Germin-like proteins (GLPs are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession.

  13. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Teniente, Laura; Joaquin-Ramos, Ahuizolt de Jesús; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G

    2015-11-25

    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession.

  14. Estudio para la propagación vegetativa in vitro de Anón amazónico (Rollinia mucosa (JACQ. BAILL

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    Claudia Patricia Marín Jaramillo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Para lograr la producción de material vegetal de Anón amazónico Rollinia mucosa (Jacq. Baill, se buscó el establecimiento en condiciones in vitro de segmentos nodales de árboles adultos, para lo cual se aplicaron ensayos de desinfección y control de la oxidación. Aunque se logró el control de la contaminación no fue posible el establecimiento in vitro, debido a la perdida de viabilidad. Para facilitar el manejo de los problemas de contaminación durante la fase de establecimiento, se realizaron ensayos para la germinación de semillas en condiciones in vitro, pero no se logró la germinación de estas, razón por la cual se sembraron en tierra estéril. Las semillas germinaron entre los 35 y 50 días. Cuando las plántulas tuvieron dos meses de edad se tomaron explantes de hipocótilos y hojas, a los que se les realizaron ensayos de desinfección y control de oxidación. Fue posible el control de la contaminación en los explantes de hoja y de la oxidación en los de hipocótilo. Se evaluó el efecto de los reguladores de crecimiento ácido naftalenacético, ANA, bencilaminopurina, BAP, ácido diclorofenoxiacético, 2,4-D y thidiazuron, TDZ, sobre la inducción de morfogénesis en segmentos de hipocótilos, para las hojas se evalúo el efecto del BAP, del ácido 3-indol acético, AIA, y de la acción conjunta de estos dos reguladores de crecimiento. En las hojas se logró la inducción de rizogénesis, caulogénesis indirecta y producción de callo friable. En los hipocótilos fue posible la inducción de organogénesis directa, y la obtención de plántulas de aspecto norma.

  15. Estudio preliminar para el establecimiento de un protocolo de crioconservación para palma de aceite (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

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    Villa Alba Lucía

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue desarrollar e implementar un protocolo de crioconservación para embriones cigóticos de palma de aceite (Elaeis guineensis Jacq., como alternativa para complementar la conservación de genotipos de palma ante las dificultades que se presentan en la colección de campo en la actualidad. Se evaluaron las etapas de pre y poscongelación de embriones cigóticos con la metodología de desecación en silica gel a diferentes tiempos de exposición (2, 2,5 y 3 h, seguido de un congelamiento rápido y una etapa de recuperación en un medio de cultivo Murashige y Skoog (1962. Todos los tratamientos de crioconservación fueron evaluados con un fotoperíodo de 16 h luz y 8 h de oscuridad, con una temperatura media de 28 ºC. Previamente se determinó el estado de desarrollo adecuado de los embriones para crioconservar. Además, se realizó la prueba de viabilidad con Tetrazolio para embriones desnudos como un control inicial del lote de semilla solicitado. Se logró establecer un protocolo de crioconservación a partir de embriones cigóticos desnudos de palma, el cual permitió obtener plántulas de embriones congelados en nitrógeno líquido (-196 ºC; alcanzando una sobrevivencia del 84,37% para embriones crioconservados. En cuanto a la diferenciación de estructuras de los embriones crioconservados, el tratamiento de dos horas obtuvo valores para plúmula del 88,9%, radícula del 55,57% y haustorio del 66,7%. Esta metodología permitiría conservar material valioso a largo plazo como copia de seguridad complementaria de la colección de campo y reduciría los costos de mantenimiento y conservación.

  16. MANEJO POSTCOSECHA DE ZAPOTE MAMEY (Pouteria sapota (Jacq. H. E. Moore and Stearn Y SU IMPACTO EN LA CALIDAD DE LA FRUTA

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    Rafael Gómez-Jaimes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En México, la mayoría de los árboles de mamey (Pouteria sapota (Jacq. H. E. Moore and Stearn tienen una altura mayor a 10 m, lo que dificulta la operación de cosecha, por lo que es frecuente el daño en los frutos. Asimismo, su conservación en distintos empaques causa deterioro en grado diferente. Cinco técnicas postcosecha de fruto se evaluaron para medir su efecto en la calidad durante el almacenamiento: T1, cosechados sin daño alguno, empacados individualmente en cajas de cartón; T2, lanzados desde 10 m de altura, capturados en costal de yute y empacados a granel en caja de plástico; T3, lanzados desde 10 m de altura a un colchón y empacados a granel en caja de plástico; T4, lanzados desde 4 m de altura a suelo húmedo y empacados a granel en caja de plástico; y T5, lanzados desde 10 m de altura, capturados en costal de yute y empacados en un costal de yute. Los frutos se almacenaron a temperatura ambiente (25 ± 1 °C; su calidad se evaluó a 1, 3, 5, 7 y 9 días después de la cosecha (DDC. El tratamiento T1 comparado con T4 y T5 (7 y 9 DDC registró la mayor firmeza, menor actividad de pectinmetilesterasa y contenido de sólidos solubles totales (°Brix; así como los menores cambios en brillo (L* y croma (C. En ángulo de tono (H se presentaron diferencias a los 9 DDC, donde T1 mostró valores mayores que T5. No hubo diferencias en porcentaje de ácido málico y pérdida de peso entre tratamientos.

  17. Diversidade e estrutura genética de populações de Varronia curassavica Jacq. em restingas da Ilha de Santa Catarina

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    M.P. HOELTGEBAUM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Varronia curassavica Jacq. (Boraginaceae está presente na vegetação de restinga e apresenta relevantes propriedades medicinais. A espécie é explorada especialmente por comunidades locais e pela indústria farmacêutica, porém, carece de informações ecológicas e genéticas a seu respeito. Nesse contexto, o estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de caracterizar a diversidade genética de três populações de V. curassavica em áreas de restinga na Ilha de Santa Catarina. Foram coletadas folhas de 50 indivíduos adultos em cada uma das três áreas de estudo e as frequências alélicas das populações foram obtidas a partir de 14 locos alozímicos. Foram encontrados 25 alelos distintos nas três populações, sendo dois alelos exclusivos. As populações apresentaram diversidade genética média de 0,111 e índice de fixação médio de -0,060 (-0,273 até 0,222. Os níveis de diversidade são intermediários, semelhantes aos exibidos por espécies da mesma família ou de características ecológicas semelhantes. Os índices de fixação foram todos significativos e discrepantes entre as populações, sendo que duas delas apresentaram excesso de heterozigotos. A divergência genética interpopulacional foi significativa e igual a 0,079, considerada moderada e sugerindo efeitos de subdivisão populacional. Os níveis de diversidade genética encontrados e a redução populacional causada pela redução e fragmentação dos habitats em que a espécie ocorre sugerem medidas de conservação ex situ e demandam maior rigor na proteção legal de áreas de proteção permanente.

  18. Effect of drying and soaking fruits and seeds on germination of macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata [Jacq.] Loddiges ex MART.=Efeito da secagem e embebição de frutos e sementes na germinação de macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata [Jacq.] Loddiges ex MART.

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    Marcus Vinícius Vieira da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated mechanisms of the dehydration and rehydration of fruits and seeds on the resulting embryo viability of the macaw palm, Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Loddiges ex Mart. Dehydration was performed in a forced-air oven at 37 ± 2°C for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 or 15 days, and after these periods, the embryo viability was evaluated by the tetrazolium test. The effect of hydration on the germination percentage and velocity index was evaluated by the imbibition of seeds with distilled water in a germinator at 30 ± 2°C for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 days. The seeds were then treated with fungicide and maintained in a Mangelsdorf germinator at 30 ± 2°C. Drying caused a progressive water loss in the fruits and facilitated the extraction of the seeds. Fruits subjected to drying for up to nine days had no loss of vigor; however, after dehydration for 15 days, a loss in seed viability was observed. Simple linear regression estimated the seed water content based on the fruit water content. Seed imbibition in distilled water favored an increase in dead by fungally contaminated seeds.Objetivou-se com esse estudo elucidar os mecanismos de desidratação e hidratação de frutos e sementes na viabilidade de embriões de macaúba Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Loddiges ex Mart. A desidratação foi realizada em estufa de circulação de ar, ajustada a 37 ± 2°C por 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 e 15 dias, após esses períodos, foi avaliada a viabilidade dos embriões pelo teste de tetrazólio. O efeito da hidratação na porcentagem e velocidade de germinação foi avaliado pela embebição das sementes em água destilada em germinador com temperatura a 30 ± 2°C por 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 dias. As sementes foram tratadas com fungicida e mantidas em germinador do tipo Mangelsdorf. A secagem promoveu perda pregressiva no conteúdo de água dos frutos e facilitou a extração das sementes. Quando os frutos foram secos por nove dias não há perda de vigor, no entanto, depois de 15

  19. Composição química do capim-Mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça adubado com diferentes fontes de fósforo sob pastejo = Chemical composition of Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça fertilized with different phosphorus on grazing

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    Fábio Jacobs Dias

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a composição química do Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça, adubado com 140 kg ha-1 de P2O5 com diferentes fontes de fósforo, sob pastejo, no período de dezembro de 2002 a abril de 2003, com intervalo de coleta a cada 28 dias. Tratamentos: 1- termofosfato magnesiano YoorinÒ; 2-fosfato natural GafsaÒ; 3-superfosfato simples + superfosfato triplo (SS + ST; e 4-testemunha. Os teores de proteína bruta na lâmina foliar (PBf e colmo (PBc, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente ácido (NIDA, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose (CEL, hemicelulose (HCEL, lignina (LIG, extrato etéreo (EE, cálcio (Ca, fósforo (P, cinzas e carboidratos não-estruturais (CNE, não foram influenciados pela adubação fosfatada. As variáveis PBc, FDNf, FDNc, LIGf, LIGc, CELf, CELc, NIDAf, EEf, EEc, Caf, Cac, Pf, Pc, CINZAc, CNEc, apresentaram efeito do período de coleta. Não ocorreu diferença nacomposição química da forragem do capim-Mombaça em função das fontes de fósforo utilizadas na adubação da pastagem. As variações qualitativas foram de baixa magnitude.This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça. Grassland was fertilized with 140 kg ha-1 of P2O5 from different phosphorus sources on grazing, in December, 2002, until April, 2003, with a collection interval of every 28 days. Treatments: 1-YoorinÒ magnesium thermophosphate; 2-GafsaÒ natural phosphate; 3-simple superphosphate + triple superphosphate (SS + TS and 4-control. Leaf (lCP and stem (sCP crude protein, acid detergent fiber nitrogen (ADFN, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, cellulose (CEL, hemicellulose (HEM, lignin (LIG, ether extract (EE, calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, ash (A and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC were not influenced by phosphated fertilization. The variables sCP, lNDF, sNDF, sLIG, lLIG, sCEL, lCEL, lADFN, sEE, lEE, lCa, sCa, lP, sP, sA and s

  20. Avaliação de três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. sob pastejo: composição da dieta, consumo de matéria seca e ganho de peso animal Evaluation of three varieties of Panicum maximum Jacq. under grazing: diet composition, dry matter intake and animal weight gain

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    Patrícia Amarante Brâncio

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. submetidos a pastejo rotativo foram avaliados ao longo do ano, antes e após o período de pastejo, quanto à composição botânica e química da dieta, consumo de matéria seca e ganho de peso animal. Os tratamentos constituíram em: 1 cv. Tanzânia + 50 kg/ha de N, 2 cv. Tanzânia + 100 kg/ha de N, 3 cv. Mombaça + 50 kg/ha de N, e 4 cv. Massai + 50 kg/ha de N. As dietas selecionadas pelos animais na cv. Massai tenderam a apresentar os menores valores de digestibilidade e proteína bruta e os maiores de fibra em detergente neutro, enquanto na cv. Mombaça as dietas continham, em geral, maiores teores de sílica. Os animais selecionaram, em média, 92,4% de folhas verdes, independentemente do tratamento e da época de amostragem. Os animais consumiram semelhantes quantidades de forragem nos diversos tratamentos, apresentando, em média, consumos de 1,9; 2,8; 3,4; e 2,3 kgMS/100kgPV, respectivamente, em junho, setembro e novembro de 1998 e março de 1999. Os piores resultados quanto ao ganho de peso por animal foram verificados na cv. Massai, mas, devido a sua alta capacidade de suporte na época chuvosa, superou a cv. Mombaça e cv. Tanzânia + 50 kg/ha de N, em termos de ganho de peso por área. A participação de folhas, a altura do pasto, o teor de proteína bruta da dieta selecionada pelos animais e o tamanho de bocado foram os fatores que mais influenciaram positivamente o ganho de peso animal.Three varieties of Panicum maximum Jacq. were evaluated by measuring the botanical and chemical composition of the diet, and the dry matter intake and weight gain of the animal under rotational grazing, before and after a period of grazing. The treatments were: 1 v. Tanzânia + 50 kg N/ha, 2 v. Tanzânia + 100 kg N/ha, 3 v. Mombaça + 50 kg N/ha, and 4 v. Massai + 50 kg N/ha. Of the diets selected by the animals, v. Massai tended to show lower values for digestibility and crude protein, and higher values

  1. Effect of light intensity and growth substratum on plant development and production of secondary metabolites in Cordia curassavica (Jacq. Roem. & Schult Efeito da intensidade de luz e substrato no crescimento da planta e produção de metabólitos secundários em Cordia curassavica (Jacq. Roem. & Schult

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    Maria Terezinha Silveira Paulilo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cordia curassavica (Jacq. Roem. & Schult. (Boraginaceae, also referred to as Cordia verbenacea DC, has been traditionally used for medicinal purposes. This study was driven to verify the behavior of the species in similar conditions to its natural environment, such as high light intensity and sandbank soil, and in conditions of low light intensity and fertilized substratum (dystroferric red nitosoil plus earthworm humus. The growth of the plant, the income of leaf crude extracts and, in the alcoholic extract, the number of substances found in thin layer cromatography and the toxicity of the substratum was observed. The results indicated that the growth of the root biomass, stem and leaves in discharge or lower light intensity was similar, but smaller in sandbank soil than in fertilized soil. The relative income of extracts in ether of petroleum and alcohol was larger in high light intensity and fertilized substratum. The light intensity and the substratum type didn't affect the number of substances detected in the alcoholic extract or the toxicity of this extract. Stains corresponding to the rosmarinic acid were only evidenced in some samples of the alcoholic extract, not allowing the verification of the effect of the treatments about its production.Cordia curassavica (Jacq. Roem. & Schult. (= Cordia verbenacea DC., Boraginaceae, tem sido tradicionalmente utilizada com propósitos medicinais. Este estudo verificou o comportamento da espécie em condições similares ao ambiente natural, alta intensidade de luz e solo de restinga e em condição de baixa intensidade de luz e substrato adubado (solo distroférrico mais húmus de minhoca. valiaram-se o crescimento da planta, o rendimento de extratos brutos de folha, o número de substâncias encontradas em cromatografia de placa no extrato alcoólico e a toxicidade do substrato. Os resultados indicaram que o crescimento da biomassa de raiz, de caule e de folhas em alta ou baixa intensidade de luz

  2. Composição químico-bromatológica do feno de cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq. em cinco estádios de corte Chemical composition of the hay of the Bauhinia glabra Jacq. in five periods of cut

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    Jael Soares Batista

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar a composição químico-bromatológica do feno de cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq. aos 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 dias de crescimento, após o corte de uniformização. Delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições foi usado. O feno foi obtido em uma área de pastagem nativa rebaixada/raleada de 7200 m², subdividida em parcelas de 360 m². Não houve diferenças para os teores de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, hemicelulose e fósforo (P. Os teores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose, lignina e cálcio (Ca apresentaram diferenças entre os tratamentos. Os teores médios para a composição químico-bromatológica foram: 88,90% MS, 94,17% MO, 5,51% MM, 17,97% PB, 58,12% FDN, 40,88% FDA, 17,11% hemicelulose, 27,33% celulose, 12,77% lignina, 0,29% Ca e 0,15% P. Os fenos avaliados são recomendáveis para suplementação protéica em dietas para ruminantes. Com o avançar do estádio vegetativo, aumentaram linearmente os constituintes da parede celular e o Ca.This research was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition of cipó-de-escada (Bauhinia glabra Jacq hay at 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days of growth after uniformity cut. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and four replicates, was used. The hay was obtained from an area of native pasture lowed and cleaned of 7200 m², which were subdivided in plots of 360 m². There were no differences for the content of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, hemicellulose and phosphorus (P. However, differences were observed for the neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, cellulose, lignin and calcium (Ca contents among the treatments. The average contents for the chemical composition were: 88.90% DM, 94.17% OM, 5.51% ash, 17.97% CP, 58.12% NDF, 40.88% ADF, 17.11% hemicellulose, 27

  3. Germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento de protocormos de Epidendrum secundum Jacq. (Orchidaceae em associação com fungos micorrízicos do gênero Epulorhiza Seed germination and protocorm development of Epidendrum secundum Jacq. (Orchidaceae in association with Epulorhiza mycorrhizal fungi

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    Marlon Corrêa Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Na natureza, as espécies de Orchidaceae estão associadas a fungos micorrízicos. A compreensão da especificidade fungo-planta nessa associação pode auxiliar no desenvolvimento de programas para propagação simbiótica das orquídeas. Fungos micorrízicos Epulorhiza spp. têm sido isolados de Epidendrum secundum Jacq. com maior freqüência. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento de protocormos de E. secundum associados a diferentes isolados de fungos do gênero Epulorhiza. Utilizou-se 16 fungos Epulorhiza spp. isolados de diferentes populações de E. secundum. Após 44 dias, todos os fungos testados induziram a germinação das sementes. Entretanto, observou-se diferença na eficiência desses fungos em promover o desenvolvimento dos protocormos, mesmo entre os fungos que apresentam semelhanças morfológicas. O estágio de desenvolvimento mais avançado dos protocormos e o maior índice de crescimento foram observados quando as sementes foram inoculadas com o isolado M65. Conclui-se que a germinação das sementes e o desenvolvimento dos protocormos de E. secundum dependem do fungo micorrízico e que, apesar da grande freqüência de associação entre essa espécie de orquídea e fungos do gênero Epulorhiza, é importante a seleção de isolados que apresentem maior eficiência simbiótica. Isolados eficientes são úteis na produção de mudas de orquídeas de importância econômica e ornamental e de espécies ameaçadas de extinção.In nature, species of Orchidaceae are always associated with mycorrhizal fungi. The comprehension of fungal-plant specificity in this association can assist with the establishment of programs that focus on symbiotic propagation of orchids. Epulorhiza mycorrhizal fungi have frequently been isolated from Epidendrum secundum Jacq. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the germination of E. secundum seeds and protocorm development associated

  4. Atributos químicos e físicos de um argissolo cultivado com Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. IPR-86 Milênio, sob lotação rotacionada e adubado com nitrogênio Chemical and physical attributes in an anfisol cultivated with Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. IPR-86 Milênio, under rotational stocking and fertilized with nitrogen

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    Patrícia Sarmento

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação dos atributos químicos e físicos do solo é necessária em estudos que exploram intensivamente os sistemas de pastejo. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar as variações nos atributos físicos e químicos de um Argissolo cultivado com capim-milênio, sob pastejo, no intervalo compreendido entre outubro/2001 e maio/2002, no quinto ano de aplicação sucessiva das seguintes doses de N: 0, 150, 300 e 450 kg ha-1. Após os cinco anos de aplicação de 450 kg ha-1 de N, o teor de MO aumentou em 5 g dm-3, o que resultou em aumento da CTC. No período de outubro/2001 a maio/2002 houve diminuição nos valores de pH e de V com a aplicação de N. A densidade do solo variou pouco com a adubação nitrogenada; a percentagem de microporos aumentou e a de macroporos diminuiu na camada de 0-5 cm com o aumento das doses de N, mas a porosidade total permaneceu constante; e a resistência à penetração, quando o solo apresentava 90 g kg-1 de água, não foi afetada pelas doses de N e não foi restritiva ao crescimento das plantas.It is necessary to evaluate the soil physical and chemical attributes in studies that explore grazing systems intensively. In this work the variation in physical and chemical attributes of an Alfissol cultivated with Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. IPR-86 Milênio under grazing were evaluated from October 2001 to May 2002, in the fifth year of consecutive N application at rates of 0, 150, 300, and 450 kg ha-1. After five successive applications of 450 kg ha-1 N, the OM content increased 5 g dm-3, which resulted in CEC increase. From October 2001 to May 2002 the pH and basis saturation degree decreased with the increasing N rates. The range in soil density with N fertilization was small; the micropore percentage increased and the macropore percentage decreased in the 0-5 cm layer with increasing N rates, but the total porosity remained constant; and the soil penetration resistance at 90 g ha-1 of water was not

  5. PEMANFAATAN DAUN TANAMAN BERKAYU SEBAGAI PUPUK ORGANIK TANAMAN SAYURAN DAN JAGUNG - (UTILIZATION OF WOODY PLANT LEAVES AS ORGANIC FERTILIZER FOR VEGETABLES AND CORN

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    Dody Priadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to use woody plant leaves as organic fertilizer (compost and their effects on vegetables and corn. The compost was made from leaves of Samanea saman, Swietenia macrophylla, Nephelium lappaceum and cow dung (1:3, 2:2 and 3:1 using OrgaDec (0.5% w/w, Decomic (0.1% v/w and Dectro (0.1 v/w as bioactivator. The result showed that compost from Samanea saman leaves and cow dung (1:3 using Decomic (0.1% v/w met the organic fertilizer standard. The compost was applied to Ipomoea reptans, Capsicum annuum and Zea mays on a media from compost and latosol soil (1:3, 2:2 and 3:1 using Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 3 replications. The analyzed data using ANOVA showed no significant difference in the growth parameter of tested plants. The best media for Ipomoea reptans was the mixture of compost and latosol soil (3:1 meanwhile for Zea mays and Capsicum annuum were 1:3 and 2:2, respectively.Keywords: compost, compost application, organic fertilizer, woody plant leavesABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk memanfaatkan daun tumbuhan berkayu menjadi pupuk organik (kompos serta pengaruhnya terhadap tanaman sayuran dan jagung. Kompos dibuat dari daun kihujan (Samanea saman, daun mahoni (Swietenia macrophylla daun rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum dan kotoran sapi (1:3, 2:2 dan 3:1 dengan penambahan bioaktivator OrgaDec (0,5% w/w, Decomic (0,1% v/w dan Dectro (0,1 v/w. Hasil analisis kimia menunjukkan bahwa kompos yang dibuat dari daun kihujan dan kotoran sapi (1:3 yang menggunakan bioaktivator Decomic (0,1% v/w adalah perlakuan yang paling sesuai dengan baku mutu pupuk organik berdasarkan Permentan No.70/Permentan/SR.140/10/2011. Kompos hasil penelitian diujicobakan kepada tanaman kangkung darat (Ipomoea reptans, cabe keriting (Capsicum annuum dan jagung manis (Zea mays pada media campuran kompos dan tanah latosol (1:3, 2:2 dan 3:1 menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan 3 ulangan sedangkan data yang diperoleh diolah dengan ANOVA

  6. Respostas morfológicas do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 irrigado à intensidade de desfolha sob lotação rotacionada Morphological responses of irrigated Tanzaniagrass (Panicum Maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 to grazing intensity under rotational stocking

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    Alexandre Carneiro Leão de Mello

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando quantificar respostas morfológicas de dosséis de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 sob três intensidades de pastejo, lotação rotacionada e irrigação, foi conduzido um experimento em delineamento experimental de blocos completos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram três intensidades de pastejo, representados pelas quantidades de massa seca verde residual pós-pastejo (T1=1000; T2=2500 e T3=4000 kg MSV/ha. Durante oito ciclos de pastejo (rebrotas de 33 dias após três dias de pastejo em cada ciclo, foram realizadas avaliações de altura média do dossel, índice de área foliar (IAF, interceptação luminosa (IL e ângulos foliares médios, em quatro dias dentro do período de rebrota (1, 11, 22 e 33 dias após a saída dos animais. A análise de correlações parciais indicou correlações entre altura e IL, bem como entre IAF e IL. Com o progresso da estação de pastejo, da primavera-verão para outono-inverno, houve reduções nos valores de IAF médio. Valores médios de IAF crítico (95% IL de 3,6 (T1, 4,0 (T2 e 4,5 (T3, foram alcançados por volta do 22º dia das rebrotas. A maior intensidade de pastejo (menor resíduo alterou a estrutura da pastagem no que diz respeito à arquitetura do dossel, evidenciada pela redução nos ângulos foliares médios (folhas mais horizontais ao longo das estações, com plantas passando a interceptar mais luz por unidade de área foliar. Os IAFs críticos medidos sugerem a necessidade de períodos de descanso menores que 33 dias em pastos de capim-Tanzânia, quando submetido a pastejo intensivo sob lotação rotacionada e irrigação.The objective of this research was to quantify morphological responses of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 under three grazing intensities in an irrigated, rotationally stocked setting. Treatments consisted of three grazing intensities represented by three post-graze forage masses (T1=1,000; T

  7. Impacts of Panicum maximum Jacq. invasion and its manual weeding on the wood plant regeneration in the understory of a restoration site Efeitos da invasão por Panicum maximum Jacq. e do seu controle manual sobre a regeneração de plantas lenhosas no sub-bosque de um reflorestamento

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    Gabriela Ribeiro de Andrade

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Responsible for considerable annual losses of biodiversity in natural ecosystems, invasive alien species cause important conservation problems, leading native species to local extinction. This study examined the relationship among the coverage of Guinea-grass (Panicum maximum Jacq., its manual weeding and the woody plant diversity of a restoration site. The site is a reforestation created using native species but due to spacing and species composition grass still dominates its understory more than 17 years after. Preliminary results showed that it is a barrier to the establishment of native species. In this study, we established 20 plots of 5m x 5m divided into two treatments, control and removal of P. maximum, to investigate the impact of manual weeding on the understory in a period of 90 days. Grass cover and canopy openness were also recorded. The grass cover had negative correlation with the abundance of plants, with the species richness and abundance of tree species. Canopy openness had a negative influence on the species richness, on abundance and richness of tree species, but not showed correlation with P. maximum. After grass removal, both abundance of seedling and species richness had no significant differences, so the manual weeding did not cause a negative impact in short time on the regeneration of the understory due to accidental native plant uprooting. However, a positive impact is expected only after a longer period of observation, after successive removals of invasive herbaceous and increased chance of colonization of the area by regenerating seedlings.Responsáveis por perdas anuais consideráveis na biodiversidade dos ecossistemas naturais, as espécies exóticas invasoras causam sérios problemas à conservação, levando muitas espécies à extinção local. Este estudo analisou o efeito da cobertura de capim-colonião (Panicum maximum Jacq. no sub-bosque de um reflorestamento dominado há mais de 17 anos por essa gram

  8. mRNA Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq. after Treatment with Ganoderma boninense Pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

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    Laila Naher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Basal stem rot (BSR disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from plants treated with G. boninense or T. harzianum alone or both. Methods. The five-month-old oil palm seedlings were treated with Gano-wood blocks inoculum and trichomulch. Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in treated leaves tissue was determined by real-time PCR. Results. Oil palm chitinases were not strongly expressed in oil palm leaves of plants treated with G. boninense alone compared to other treatments. Throughout the 8-week experiment, expression of EgCHI1 increased more than 3-fold in leaves of plants treated with T. harzianum and G. boninense when compared to those of control and other treated plants. Conclusion. The data illustrated that chitinase cDNA expression varied depending on tissue and the type of treatment.

  9. mRNA expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in oil palm leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) after treatment with Ganoderma boninense pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naher, Laila; Tan, Soon Guan; Ho, Chai Ling; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Ahmad, Siti Hazar; Abdullah, Faridah

    2012-01-01

    Basal stem rot (BSR) disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from plants treated with G. boninense or T. harzianum alone or both. The five-month-old oil palm seedlings were treated with Gano-wood blocks inoculum and trichomulch. Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in treated leaves tissue was determined by real-time PCR. Oil palm chitinases were not strongly expressed in oil palm leaves of plants treated with G. boninense alone compared to other treatments. Throughout the 8-week experiment, expression of EgCHI1 increased more than 3-fold in leaves of plants treated with T. harzianum and G. boninense when compared to those of control and other treated plants. The data illustrated that chitinase cDNA expression varied depending on tissue and the type of treatment.

  10. Evaluation of shrub and tree species used for revegetating copper mine wastes in the south-western United States. [Dodonea viscosa (L. ) Jacq. , Baccharis sarothroides Gray, Cerdicium microphyllum Torr. , and Nicotiana glauca Grah

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    Norem, M A; Day, A D; Ludeke, K L

    1982-12-01

    The revegetation work begun in 1970 at Cyprus Pima Mine, an open pit copper mine south-west of Tucson, Arizona, was evaluated to determine the effects of slope aspect and mining waste material on plant survival and growth. Only one shrub, Dodonea viscosa (L.) Jacq. (hopbush), survived on the east slope. Baccharis sarothroides Gray (desert broom) was prolific on the north aspect. Cerdicium microphyllum Torr. (palo verde) survived best on the east slope and Nicotiana glauca Grah. (desert tobacco) survived only on the north slope. The survival of the other tree species was not affected by slope aspect. Slope exposure did not affect tree size, except for Eucalyptus microtheca Muell. (tiny capsule eucalyptus) which grew larger on the north slope. E. rostrata Schlechtend (red gum eucalyptus) grew taller in overburden than in tailing on the east slope. Differences in soil material within each slope exposure did not significantly affect growth of the other tree species. In semi-arid regions, such as south-western Arizona, even slight differences in available moisture may determine the survival of a plant species in the area. (Refs. 11).

  11. INTERAÇÃO DO CALCÁRIO E DO SILICATO DE CÁLCIO E MAGNÉSIO COM GESSO AGRÍCOLA NO DESENVOLVIMENTO RADICULAR DE Panicum maximum JACQ. CV. CAPIM MOMBAÇA

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    Vinícius Faúla Aguiar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar o efeito das correções do solo efetuadas com calcário e silicato de cálcio e magnésio no desenvolvimento radicular de Panicum maximum Jacq. Cultivar capim Mombaça. Foi adotado delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x5, sendo estudado em quatro blocos o efeito de duas fontes de corretivo e cinco métodos de aplicação, além da testemunha. Nas análises onde foi observada significância estatística, realizou-se teste de Tukey a 5,0% de probabilidade. A unidade experimental é constituída por colunas de tubos de PVC de 15 centímetros de diâmetro por 60 cm de altura, dividida em seis anéis de 10 centímetros, totalizando 44 unidades. Depois de secas em estufa com circulação forçada de ar a 65 ºC até atingir peso constante as raízes foram pesadas em balança de precisão. O T2 resultou em maior incremento de massa seca. O crescimento radicular na faixa de 0 a 20 cm se mostrou superior às faixas de 20 a 40 e 40 a 60 cm.

  12. mRNA Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) after Treatment with Ganoderma boninense Pat. and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naher, Laila; Tan, Soon Guan; Ho, Chai Ling; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Ahmad, Siti Hazar; Abdullah, Faridah

    2012-01-01

    Background. Basal stem rot (BSR) disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from plants treated with G. boninense or T. harzianum alone or both. Methods. The five-month-old oil palm seedlings were treated with Gano-wood blocks inoculum and trichomulch. Expression of EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 in treated leaves tissue was determined by real-time PCR. Results. Oil palm chitinases were not strongly expressed in oil palm leaves of plants treated with G. boninense alone compared to other treatments. Throughout the 8-week experiment, expression of EgCHI1 increased more than 3-fold in leaves of plants treated with T. harzianum and G. boninense when compared to those of control and other treated plants. Conclusion. The data illustrated that chitinase cDNA expression varied depending on tissue and the type of treatment. PMID:22919345

  13. Antidiabetic Potentiality of the Aqueous-Methanolic Extract of Seed of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Albino Rat: A Correlative and Evidence-Based Approach with Antioxidative and Antihyperlipidemic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Debasis; Chatterjee, Kausik; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Ghosh, Debidas

    2011-01-01

    Antidiabetic, antioxidative, and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous-methanolic (2 : 3) extract of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. (family Meliaceae) seed studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Feeding with seed extract (25 mg 0.25 mL distilled water(-1)100 gm b.w.(-1)rat(-1) day(-1)) for 21 days to diabetic rat lowered the blood glucose level as well as the glycogen level in liver. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, peroxidase, and levels of the products of free radicals like conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver, kidney, and skeletal muscles were corrected towards the control after this extract treatment in this model. Furthermore, the seed extract corrected the levels of serum urea, uric acid, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoproteins towards the control level in this experimental diabetic model. The results indicated the potentiality of the extract of S. mahagoni seed for the correction of diabetes and its related complications like oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia. The extract may be a good candidate for developing a safety, tolerable, and promising neutraceutical treatment for the management of diabetes.

  14. Antidiabetic Potentiality of the Aqueous-Methanolic Extract of Seed of Swietenia mahagoni (L. Jacq. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Albino Rat: A Correlative and Evidence-Based Approach with Antioxidative and Antihyperlipidemic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis De

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antidiabetic, antioxidative, and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous-methanolic (2 : 3 extract of Swietenia mahagoni (L. Jacq. (family Meliaceae seed studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Feeding with seed extract (25 mg 0.25 mL distilled water−1100 gm b.w.−1rat−1 day−1 for 21 days to diabetic rat lowered the blood glucose level as well as the glycogen level in liver. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, peroxidase, and levels of the products of free radicals like conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver, kidney, and skeletal muscles were corrected towards the control after this extract treatment in this model. Furthermore, the seed extract corrected the levels of serum urea, uric acid, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoproteins towards the control level in this experimental diabetic model. The results indicated the potentiality of the extract of S. mahagoni seed for the correction of diabetes and its related complications like oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia. The extract may be a good candidate for developing a safety, tolerable, and promising neutraceutical treatment for the management of diabetes.

  15. Enjeux et amélioration de la réduction de l'acidité dans les fruits mûrs du palmier à huile, Elaeis guineensis, Jacq. (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domonhédo, H.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of acidity in mature oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. fruits: stakes and oil quality improvement. A review. Introduction. Palm oil acidification determines the quality and stability of this important foodstuff. This review article analyzes the causes of acidification, and its effects on the quality and stability of palm oil. The stakes involved in the reduction of acidity in fruits and the approaches used are also analyzed, especially reduction via genetic improvement. Literature. Acidification is mainly due to the action of an endogenous lipase of the fruit's mesocarp, but it can also be caused by microbial lipase or autocatalytic hydrolysis. Many factors, particularly plant material, conditions of harvest and post-harvest bunch treatment, and conditions of oil extraction and storage have an appreciable impact on acidification. Acidification reduces the quality and market value of palm oil and causes important oil losses due to the removal of free fatty acids in the mill. The genetic background of individuals of low oil acidity has been identified. The variability of this trait makes varietal selection possible. One gene implicated in palm oil acidification has been identified, but other genes or genetic factors may also be involved. Conclusions. Such research has led to the recent commercialization of the first oil palms with low acidity. This will improve oil quality, increase yield and facilitate the management of harvest and post-harvest operations, especially for smallholder farmers. There is a need to identify all the genetic factors responsible for the degradation of triglycerides in the Elaeis genus. The validation of genomic tools would allow the marker-assisted selection of oil palm varieties with low acidity.

  16. Butanol fraction of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don leaves enhance pancreatic β-cell functions, stimulates insulin secretion and ameliorates other type 2 diabetes-associated complications in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Habila, James Dama; Koorbanally, Neil Anthony; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2016-05-13

    Ethnopharmacological surveys have reported that Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don (Leguminosae) is among the plants commonly used in the traditional management of diabetes mellitus in Nigeria and Togo. This study investigated the anti-diabetic activity of the butanol fraction of P. biglobosa leaves (PBBF) in a type 2 diabetes (T2D) model of rats and a possible bioactive compound in the fraction. T2D was induced by feeding rats with a 10% fructose solution ad libitum for two weeks followed by an intraperitoneal injection of 40mg/kg body weight streptozotocin and the animals were orally treated with 150 and 300mg/kg BW of the PBBF for five days in a week. Another group of rats was non-diabetic but similarly administered with 300mg/kg BW of the PBBF. Food and fluid intakes, body weight changes and blood glucose levels were monitored during the experiment while other relevant diabetes-associated parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. The PBBF treatments significantly (P<0.05) decreased the blood glucose levels and improved the glucose tolerance ability compared to untreated diabetic rats. Furthermore, the treatments were found to improve pancreatic β cell function (HOMA-β), stimulate insulin secretions, decrease insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), restore liver glycogen, ameliorate serum dyslipidaemia and prevent hepatic and renal damages compared to untreated diabetic rats. Phytochemical analysis of the fraction led to the isolation of lupeol which inhibited α-glucosidase and α-amylase in non-competitive and uncompetitive inhibition patterns respectively. It was concluded that PBBF possessed remarkable anti-T2D activity which is mediated through modulation of β-cell function and stimulation of insulin secretion and the lower dose (150mg/kg BW) was found optimum for anti-T2D activity compared to the high dose (300mg/kg BW) in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic architecture of palm oil fatty acid composition in cultivated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) compared to its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level.

  18. Genetic Architecture of Palm Oil Fatty Acid Composition in Cultivated Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Compared to Its Wild Relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level. PMID:24816555

  19. Estudo das variáveis operacionais dos processos de separação na produção de biodiesel, a partir do óleo de palma bruto (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq) em escala de laboratório

    OpenAIRE

    CASTRO, Douglas Alberto Rocha de

    2013-01-01

    Neste trabalho investigaram-se de forma sistemática as variáveis operacionais de processo envolvidas nas operações de separação aplicadas no pré-tratamento do óleo de palma bruto (Elaeis guineensis, jacq) e na purificação do biodiesel produzido via transesterificação etanólica utilizando NaOH como catalisador, em escala de laboratório. Na etapa de pré-tratamento foram investigados os processos de Filtração e Decantação, sendo a filtração do produto da neutralização realizada a 40ºC, 50ºC e 60...

  20. The utilization of microbes as a fermentation agent to reduce saponin in Trembesi leaves (Sammanea saman)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariri, A. K.; Mulyono, A. M. W.; Tari, A. I. N.

    2018-03-01

    This objective of this research was to observe the utilization of microbes as a fermentation agent of trembesi leaves that can increase the quality of trembesi leaves as ruminants feed. Before fermentation, trembesi leaves were divided into three treatments. They were control = non-agentic in fermentation, D-An = the addition of Aspergillus niger as fermentation agent, and D-Lp = the addition of Lactobacillus plantarum as fermentation agent. Each treatment experienced five repetitions. The experimental design used a randomized direct pattern group design. The analysis included proximate analysis consisting of water content, crude protein content, crude fiber content, lipid content, mineral content (ash) and saponin content after fermentation. It could be concluded that the utilization of Aspergillus niger and Lactobacillus plantarum in fermentation could decrease saponin content and could increase the nutrient content of trembesi leaves by increasing crude protein content otherwise by decreasing crude fiber content of trembesi leaves.

  1. Etude comparative de la digestibilité in vivo de l'herbe de guinée (Panicum maximum Jacq. associée aux feuilles et tiges de patate douce (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam (régime Panipo ou à l'herbe de lait (Euphorbia heterophylla L. (régime Paneuph chez le lapin (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. et le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouakou, NGDV.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam (Panipo diet or poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Paneuph diet in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. and in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.. A comparative study of in vivo digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam (Panipo diet or with poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Paneuph diet was conducted involving 16 rabbits and 16 weaned guinea pigs fed ad libitum. Paneuph was significantly better ingested (P0.05 for guinea pigs. Poison milk was better ingested than the leaves and stems of sweet potato (P0.05. The ADC of DM, OM and MAT of Paneuph exceeded 80% and were higher than those of Panipo in rabbits and guinea pigs (P<0.05. Based on the results obtained, the effects of the distribution of the Guinea grass associated with the poison milk during rabbits growing have to be further studied before recommending this new diet to farmers in areas where poison milk and Guinea grass are present and rabbit breeding enough developed.

  2. Efficient micropropagation of Epidendrum secundum Jacq. from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-04-01

    Apr 1, 2015 ... and P. nebula. In the absence of light, there was a higher percentage of responsive explants. Histological observations using thin sections revealed direct PLB regeneration from both protocorm and leaf explants without mediation of the callus, and PLBs developed from the epidermal cell layers of E.

  3. Crassocephalum rubens (Juss. Ex Jacq.) S. Moore

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    two species and can be valorised for a balanced nutrition of populations. Efforts should be made for ..... maintenance of fluid balance, formation of hormones and enzymes ..... women, nursing mothers, infants convulsing patients and elderly to ...

  4. Reproductive Biology of Varronia curassavica Jacq. (Boraginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCIA P. HOELTGEBAUM

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Varronia curassavica, a subshrubby medicinal species associated with restinga in the Atlantic Forest, has been exploited by local people and the pharmaceutical industry. Indeed, restingas have experienced a continuous process of degradation, and thus, with species and ecosystem both at risk, efforts to support conservation actions are required. The present study aimed to evaluate aspects of V. curassavica reproductive biology. To accomplish this, morphological characterization was performed by monitoring flowering events. The availability of nectar and pollen, as well as the frequency and behavior of floral visitors and dispersers, was also evaluated. This species exhibits both heterostyly and protogyny. Anthesis is diurnal, and flowers last less than a day. The high number of flower and fruit abortions suggests that mechanisms, such as self-incompatibility intra-morphs and easily detached flowers, contribute to reduced fruit production. The high diversity of floral visitors indicate a generalist pollination syndrome. Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera were the main pollinators, and nectar was the main resource sought by these insects. Fruits were dispersed by birds and ants. It can be concluded that the interaction of V. curassavica with several species is a key factor in its own survival and for maintaining the biological diversity of restinga.

  5. Insectes ravageurs du piment Capsicum chinense Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... qui se retrouve sur le marché international (FAO,. 2006). Les fruits de Capsicum ... piment, l'accès facile au site et sur la base d'une expérience dans le ... comprendre le mode d'emploi des pesticides. Pesticides chimiques ...

  6. Reproductive Biology of Varronia curassavica Jacq. (Boraginaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeltgebaum, Marcia P; Montagna, Tiago; Lando, Ana Paula; Puttkammer, Catarina; Orth, Afonso Inácio; Guerra, Miguel P; Reis, Maurício S Dos

    2018-01-01

    Varronia curassavica, a subshrubby medicinal species associated with restinga in the Atlantic Forest, has been exploited by local people and the pharmaceutical industry. Indeed, restingas have experienced a continuous process of degradation, and thus, with species and ecosystem both at risk, efforts to support conservation actions are required. The present study aimed to evaluate aspects of V. curassavica reproductive biology. To accomplish this, morphological characterization was performed by monitoring flowering events. The availability of nectar and pollen, as well as the frequency and behavior of floral visitors and dispersers, was also evaluated. This species exhibits both heterostyly and protogyny. Anthesis is diurnal, and flowers last less than a day. The high number of flower and fruit abortions suggests that mechanisms, such as self-incompatibility intra-morphs and easily detached flowers, contribute to reduced fruit production. The high diversity of floral visitors indicate a generalist pollination syndrome. Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera were the main pollinators, and nectar was the main resource sought by these insects. Fruits were dispersed by birds and ants. It can be concluded that the interaction of V. curassavica with several species is a key factor in its own survival and for maintaining the biological diversity of restinga.

  7. Estimación in vitro de gases con efecto invernadero en frutos y follaje de árboles de un bosque seco tropical de Venezuela In vitro estimation of greenhouse gases in tree fruits and foliage from a tropical dry forest of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ramírez¹

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de estimar la producción de gases con efecto invernadero (GEI en el follaje y los frutos de Calliandra cruegeri, Guazuma ulmifolia, Vachellia macracantha, Senna robiniifolia, Samanea saman, Lonchocarpus sp., Fagara sp., Senna espectabilis, Mangifera indica y Oyedaea verbesinoides, de un bosque seco tropical de Venezuela, se evaluaron estas especies a través de la técnica in vitro de producción de gas; se cuantificó la producción de ácidos grasos volátiles (AGV y se estimaron los GEI. Los sustratos que registraron una mayor producción (P<0,05 de metano (CH4 y dióxido de carbono (CO2 correspondieron a los frutos de S. saman (4,0 y 8,5, Fagara sp. (3,2 y 6,9 y G. ulmifolia (2,9 y 7,2, y al follaje de S. saman (3,6 y 8,2, S. robiniifolia (4,0 y 9,9 y V. macracantha (2,8 y 5,8. La menor cantidad (P<0,05 de CH4 y CO2 la produjeron los frutos de S. espectabilis (2,3 y 5,0 y Lonchocarpus sp. (2,3 y 5,9, y el follaje de: Fagara sp. (1,5 y 3,7, G. ulmifolia (1,4 y 3,5, C. cruegeri (1,6 y 4,0, M. indica (1,7 y 4,1, O. verbesinoides (1,8 y 4,2 y Cassia sp. (1,9 y 4,6. La producción de GEI y el tiempo de incubación estuvieron correlacionados con la producción de metano (r= 0,458; P<0,05. Se concluye que, de todas las especies, S. saman registró los mayores valores (P<0,05 de producción de GEI en los frutos y el follaje. Asimismo, entre las tres y ocho horas de incubación de los sustratos, la tasa de producción de GEI fue alta.

  8. POTENSI PENYERAPAN KARBON PADA KARET POLA TUMPANGSARI TANAMAN HUTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahuri Sahuri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubber plant (Hevea brasilliensis has a very big role in the economy and the absorption of CO2. Rubber plants as well as forest plants capable of processing CO2 as a carbon source that is used for photosynthesis. CO2 absorption can be enhanced through the implementation of intercropping pattern rubber and forest plant. This study aims to determine the potential for carbon sequestration in intercropping pattern rubber and forest plant. The experiment was conducted at the Sembawa Research Station, South Sumatra, with three cropping pattern (PT, namely PT1: rubber plants + teak (Tectona grandis, PT2: rubber plants + trembesi (Samanea saman, PT3: rubber plant monocultures, PT4: teak monocultures, and PT5: trembesi plant monocultures. Measurement of carbon reserves consist of tree biomass and soil organic matter. The results showed that the amount of absorption of CO2/year in the rubber plantations for 10 years for PT1, PT2, PT3, PT4, and PT5, respectively were 86.46 tons/ha, 125.90 tons / ha, 77.90 tons/ha, 36.26 tons/ha and 49.03 tons/ha. The addition of carbon sequestration for 10 years due to intercrop rubber and forest plant was 30.13% or 49.17 tons CO2/ha compared to the rubber plant monocultures. Tanaman karet (Hevea brasilliensis memiliki peran yang sangat besar dalam perekonomian dan penyerapan CO2. Tanaman karet seperti halnya tanaman hutan mampu mengolah CO2 sebagai sumber karbon yang digunakan untuk fotosintesis. Penyerapan CO2 dapat ditingkatkan melalui penerapan pola tumpangsari karet dan tanaman hutan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi penyerapan karbon pada pola tumpangsari karet dan tanaman hutan. Penelitian dilaksanakan di kebun percobaan Balai Penelitian Sembawa, Sumatra Selatan, dengan tiga pola tanam (PT, yaitu PT1: tanaman karet + jati (Tectona grandis, PT2: tanaman karet + trembesi (Samanea saman, PT3: tanaman karet monokultur, PT4: tanaman jati monokultur, dan PT5: tanaman trembesi monokultur. Pengukuran

  9. Preferencia de vacunos por el follaje de doce especies con potencial para sistemas agrosilvopastoriles en el Estado Trujillo, Venezuela Preference of cattle for the foliage of twelve species with potential for agrosilvopastoral systems in the Trujillo State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.E García

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer la preferencia de bovinos jóvenes por doce especies forrajeras en el Estado Trujillo, Venezuela (Chlorophora tinctoria, Morus alba, Pithecellobium pedicellare, Gliricidia sepium, Guazuma ulmifolia, Cordia alba, Trichantera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Azadirachta indica y Samanea saman se efectuó una prueba de cafetería a través de mediciones del consumo de follaje, mediante un diseño cuadrado latino con período de evaluación de 12 días. A los forrajes se les determinó la composición fitoquímica (PB, EB, FDN, fenoles, taninos condensados, taninos que precipitan proteínas y esteroles totales y la degradabilidad ruminal in situ (DMS y DMO. Las especies más preferidas fueron: P. pedicellare (327,98 g MS, L. leucocephala (325,63 g MS, M. alba (293,37 g MS, G. ulmifolia (292,48 g MS, C. tinctoria (277,18 g MS y C. alba (274,49 g MS. Los follajes de G. sepium (108,05 g MS, T. diversifolia (106,09 g MS, M. oleifera (76,28 g MS, A. indica (76,19 g MS y S. saman (58,72 g MS fueron medianamente consumidos. Sin embargo, la biomasa de T. gigantea (1,39 g MS fue prácticamente rechazada. Durante el período experimental se observaron diferentes tendencias en el consumo de cada espe­cie. No obstante, no se observó una relación significativa entre el consumo y la composición química, la concentración de metabolitos secundarios y la degradabilidad ruminal. Se concluye que es importante realizar ensayos de preferencia con animales para la selección de especies con potencial para sistemas silvopastoriles.With the objective of knowing the preference of young cattle for twelve forage species of the Trujillo State, Venezuela (Chlorophora tinctoria, Morus alba, Pithecellobium pedicellare, Gliricidia sepium, Guazuma ulmifolia, Cordia alba, Trichantera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Azadirachta indica and Samanea saman a cafeteria test

  10. Temporal and spatial resource use by female three-toed sloths and their young in an agricultural landscape in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Ramirez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The information on ecological behavior of wild sloths is very scarce. In this study we determined the home ranges and resources used by three adult female three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus and their four young in an agricultural matrix of cacao (Theobroma cacao, pasture, riparian forests and living fencerows in Costa Rica. Births occurred during November-December and the young became independent at five to seven months of age. Initially, mothers remained fixed in one or a few trees, but expanded their use of resources as young sloths became independent from them. Mothers initially guided the young to preferred food and cover resources, but they gradually left their young in small nucleus areas and colonized new areas for themselves. Home range sizes for young sloths (up to seven months of age varied between 0.04-0.6 hectares, while home range sizes for mothers varied from 0.04-25.0 hectares. During the maternal care period, 22 tree species were used, with the most common being Cecropia obtusifolia (30.9%, Coussapoa villosa (25.6%, Nectandra salicifolia (12.1%, Pterocarpus officinalis (5.8% and Samanea saman (5.4%. However, young sloths used only 20 tree species, with the most common being C. villosa (18.4%, S. saman (18.5 % and N. salicifolia (16.7%. The cacao agroforest was used only by mother sloths and never by their young following separation. However, in the riparian forest, both mother sloths and young used the tree species. A total of 28 tree species were used by the mother sloth; including the food species: C. obtusifolia, C. villosa, N. salicifolia and P. officinalis. However, the young used 18 trees species in this habitat with N. salicifolia and S. saman most commonly used, although they rested and fed during the day in C. obtusifolia, C. villosa and O. sinnuata. The cacao agroforest with adjacent riparian forests and fencerows provides an important habitat type that links the smaller secondary forests and other patches. Rev

  11. High carbon stocks in roadside plantations under participatory management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mizanur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantations are important REDD+strategies for increasing carbon sequestration while enhancing local livelihoods. Reforestation along roads and highways under participatory forest management in southwestern Bangladesh could contribute to REDD+. This study assessed the diversity and structure of roadside plantations in order to develop a basal area based generalized allometric model for estimating above- and below-ground tree biomass carbon in Southwestern Bangladesh. All woody plants with d.b.h. ⩾2cm were identified and their diameters measured in 108 systematically selected zigzag plots of equal size (2×10m. A total of 36 species in 17 families were recorded. Leguminosae accounted for 28% of species and 94% of the total estimated biomass carbon. We estimated a mean stem density of 4528ha−1, basal area of 52.6m2ha−1 and biomass carbon of 192.80 Mg ha−1. Samanea saman, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia nilotica, and Leucaena leucocephala accounted for most density, basal area, and carbon. We developed and validated three allometric models with equal strength (R2 0.94–0.98 using generalized linear regression. Roadside plantations in Bangladesh can now surely participate in the UNFCCC’s carbon mitigation and adaptation mechanism, but challenges to their long-term sustainability must be addressed.

  12. Extraction and evaluation of condensed tannins from bark of eleven species of trees from Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar Lopez, Jorge; Vega Guzman, Ileana; Borbon Alpizar, Henry; Soto Fallas, Roy Mario; Jaen Jimenez, Jean Carlo; Vargas Abarca, Ana Sofia; Jimenez Bonilla, Pablo; Herrera Nunez, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    A study is made regarding the nature and the amount of condensed tannin which can extract of bark from 11 tree species present in Costa Rica: guanacaste (Enterolobium cyclocarpum), cork oak (Licania arborea), jobo (Spondias mombin), pochote (Pachira quinata), loquat (Manilkara chicle), almond (Andira inermis), oak (Tabebuia rosea), cedar (Cedrela odorata), cenizaro (Samanea saman), pine (Pinus caribaea) and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica). The cortex samples were prepared, dried and extracted with ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were analyzed for condensed tannin content through the number of Stiasny, and characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The species with the highest proportion of extracted material were: guanacaste (9.5841% w/w), pochote (15.0066% w/w), pine (19.3400% w/w) and cypress (10.5300% w/w). The extracts with a higher proportion of condensed tannins have been: cork oak (61.9% w/w), jobo (66.1% w/w), pochote (72.8% w/w), loquat (50.5% w/w), cedar (72.7% w/w) and pine (70.7% w/w). (author) [es

  13. Nesting tree characteristics of heronry birds of urban ecosystems in peninsular India: implications for habitat management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshnath, Ramesh; Sinu, Palatty Allesh

    2017-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems, particularly the mangrove forest, are the primary wild habitat of heronry birds. However, urban ecosystems have become a favorite breeding habitat of these birds. To provide inputs into the habitat management for conservation of these birds, we investigated the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of nesting trees of heronry birds in the urban environment of the North Kerala region of peninsular India. Census on nesting trees was done in 3 major microhabitats of the urban ecosystem: avenues of national highways and towns, nonresidential plots, and residential areas apart from the mangrove islets in the peri-urban locality. The study found that 174 trees of 22 species hosted 1,928 heronry bird nests in the urban habitats; mangrove forests, although plentiful in the study area, hosted only about 20% of the total nests encountered in the study. Rain trees Samanea saman (43.7%) were the most available nesting tree. The greatest number of nests and nesting trees were encountered on the roads of urban areas, followed by nonresidential areas and residential areas. The differences in the observed frequencies of nesting trees in 3 microhabitats and in 3 types of roads (national highways > state highways > small pocket road) were significant. Canopy spread, girth size, and quality of the trees predicted the tree selection of the heronry birds in urban environments. Therefore, we recommend proper management and notification of the identified nesting trees as protected sites for the conservation of herorny birds.

  14. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, IN VITRO RUMEN FERMENTATION, AND DIGESTIBILITY OF SELECTED BROWSE SPECIES BY BUFFALOES (Bubalus bubalis L. AT A SEMI-DECIDUOUS FOREST IN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro José Ojeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the chemical composition and nutritive value of selected browse species by buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis L. in a silvopastoral system at a semi-deciduous tropical forest (SDTF, epidermal fragments in fecal samples from 14 males of Murrah breed were evaluated. The animals grazed for 91 days in 85 ha located in Portuguesa State, Venezuela, of which 35 ha corresponded to natural grass pastures (969.3 ± 28.6 kg DM ha-1, and the rest to SDTF with 463 plant ha-1. Eleven botanical families and 22 species were identified, 40.9% belonged to the Fabaceae family. The specie Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae had the highest relative dominancy (60.4% and an Importance Value Index of 162.6. 60.4% of epidermal fragments corresponded to herbaceous Poaceae, and the rest was distributed among five different species, with the highest occurrence (94.6% for Samanea saman and Sida acuta. There were differences (P

  15. Feeding of tropical trees and shrub foliages as a strategy to reduce ruminal methanogenesis: studies conducted in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Denia Caridad; Galindo, Juana; González, Rogelio; González, Niurca; Scull, Idania; Dihigo, Luís; Cairo, Juan; Aldama, Ana Irma; Moreira, Onidia

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the main results obtained in Cuba on the effects of feeding tropical trees and shrubs on rumen methanogenesis in animals fed with low quality fibrous diets. More than 20 tree and shrub foliages were screened for phytochemicals and analyzed for chemical constituents. From these samples, seven promising plants (Samanea saman, Albizia lebbeck, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Trichantera gigantea, Sapindus saponaria, and Morus alba) were evaluated for methane reduction using an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Results indicated that the inclusion levels of 25% of Sapindo, Morus, or Trichantera foliages in the foliages/grass mixtures (grass being Pennisetum purpureum) reduced (P lebbeck, or T. diversifolia accession 23 foliages when mixed at the rate of 30% in Cynodon nlemfuensis grass produced lower methane compared to the grass alone. Inclusion levels of 15% and 25% of a ruminal activator supplement containing 29% of L. leucocehala foliage meal reduced methane by 37% and 42% when compared to the treatment without supplementation. In vivo experiment with sheep showed that inclusion of 27% of L. leucocephala in the diet increased the DM intake but did not show significant difference in methane production compared to control diet without this foliage. The results of these experiments suggest that the feeding of tropical tree and shrub foliages could be an attractive strategy for reduction of ruminal methanogenesis from animals fed with low-quality forage diets and for improving their productivity.

  16. Temporal and spatial resource use by female three-toed sloths and their young in an agricultural landscape in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Ramirez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The information on ecological behavior of wild sloths is very scarce. In this study we determined the home ranges and resources used by three adult female three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus and their four young in an agricultural matrix of cacao (Theobroma cacao, pasture, riparian forests and living fencerows in Costa Rica. Births occurred during November-December and the young became independent at five to seven months of age. Initially, mothers remained fixed in one or a few trees, but expanded their use of resources as young sloths became independent from them. Mothers initially guided the young to preferred food and cover resources, but they gradually left their young in small nucleus areas and colonized new areas for themselves. Home range sizes for young sloths (up to seven months of age varied between 0.04-0.6 hectares, while home range sizes for mothers varied from 0.04-25.0 hectares. During the maternal care period, 22 tree species were used, with the most common being Cecropia obtusifolia (30.9%, Coussapoa villosa (25.6%, Nectandra salicifolia (12.1%, Pterocarpus officinalis (5.8% and Samanea saman (5.4%. However, young sloths used only 20 tree species, with the most common being C. villosa (18.4%, S. saman (18.5 % and N. salicifolia (16.7%. The cacao agroforest was used only by mother sloths and never by their young following separation. However, in the riparian forest, both mother sloths and young used the tree species. A total of 28 tree species were used by the mother sloth; including the food species: C. obtusifolia, C. villosa, N. salicifolia and P. officinalis. However, the young used 18 trees species in this habitat with N. salicifolia and S. saman most commonly used, although they rested and fed during the day in C. obtusifolia, C. villosa and O. sinnuata. The cacao agroforest with adjacent riparian forests and fencerows provides an important habitat type that links the smaller secondary forests and other patches. Rev

  17. Economic potential of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sierra Márquez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to highlight the economic importance of the optimal use of products and byproducts of oil palm. In Colombia, productive crops per hectare can generate, over one year, an average of 3.14 tons of oil, and up to 21.68 t of solid and liquid waste when the plant is on a productive stage. These data allowed the researcher to estimate that more than nine million of t of solid and liquid waste was produced from the 450 131 ha present in 2014, in Colombia; the produced biomass was used to generate energy and steam, releasing carbon dioxide back again into the environment. These residues have great potential in many industries, some to be developed, therefore, it is of special importance to try to maximize the use of waste produced by oil palm production, to generate economic and environmental benefits. An example of this is the palm kernel cake, with a nutritional potential in animal feed, fiber in the biocompound industry, biomass and stipe in the timber industry, glycerol, biodiesel, and liquid effluents in the chemical and biotechnological industry. The use of these raw materials may help to establish a positive balance in the cultivation of this species of oil palm in the country.

  18. Inheritance of pigmentation patterns in Talinum triangulare (Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The backcross segregated into ratio of 1 light pink: 1 white for petal and filament colours; and a ratio 1 deep pink: 1light pink for stigma colour. The segregation patterns for petal and filament colour in all the generations indicate incomplete dominance of deep pink colour over white colour showing that the same gene ...

  19. The regulation of starch accumulation in Panicum maximum Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... decrease the starch level. These observations are discussed in relation to the photosynthetic characteristics of P. maximum. Keywords: accumulation; botany; carbon assimilation; co2 fixation; growth conditions; mesophyll; metabolites; nitrogen; nitrogen levels; nitrogen supply; panicum maximum; plant physiology; starch; ...

  20. Flavanones from aerial parts of Cordia globosa (Jacq. Kunth, Boraginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmia Andricia S. da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical analysis of aerial parts of Cordia globosa, collected in the Municipality of Picuí, State of Paraíba, Brazil, resulted in the isolation and structural identification of narigenin-4',7-dimethyl ether (0.025 g and eriodictyol (0.015 g. These compounds are the first flavanones aglycones isolated from the genus Cordia.

  1. In vitro antibacterial activity of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) root bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... There is global resurgence in the use of herbal prepa- rations and in some developing countries like Nigeria; it is being gradually integrated into the primary and secondary health care systems. Nearly all societies have used herbal materials as sources of medicines and the deve- lopment of these herbal ...

  2. Molecular markers linked to apomixis in Panicum maximum Jacq.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... The objective of this work was to identify molecular markers linked to apomixis in ... Four RAPD markers linked to apomixis were identified and mapped in this .... Data analysis. The amplification of the potential markers was analyzed as binary, with 1 for presence and 0 for absence of the marker. The binary.

  3. Extracción y evaluación de taninos condensados a partir de la corteza de once especies maderables de Costa Rica Extraction and evaluation of condensed tannins from bark of eleven species of trees from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Aguilar López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La naturaleza química de los taninos condensados los convierte en una fuente natural de compuestos orgáni- cos, con una aplicación potencialmente amplia para usos medicinales e industriales. La extracción y análisis de este tipo de metabolitos a partir de la flora de diversas regiones del planeta ha sido el objetivo del estudio de diversos grupos de trabajo, y en este caso se ha querido hacer un aporte al estado del conocimiento actual, realizando un estudio sobre la natu- raleza y la cantidad del tanino condensado que se puede extraer de la corteza de 11 especies arbóreas presentes en Costa Rica: guanacaste (Enterolobium cyclocarpum, alcornoque (Licania arborea, jobo (Spondias mom- bin, pochote (Pachira quinata, níspero (Manilkara chicle, almendro (Andira inermis, roble (Tabebuia rosea, cedro (Cedrela odorata, cenízaro (Samanea saman, pino (Pinus caribaea y ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica. Las muestras de corteza fueron preparadas, secadas y extraídas con etanol. Se analizaron los extractos etanóli- cos para determinar el contenido de taninos condensa- dos a través del número de Stiasny, y se caracterizaron mediante espectroscopía infrarroja (FT-IR. Las especies con mayor proporción de material extraído fueron guanacaste (9.5841% m/m, pochote (15.0066% m/m, pino (19.3400% m/m y ciprés (10.5300% m/m, mientras que los extractos con una mayor proporción de taninos condensados correspondieron a alcornoque (61.9% m/m, jobo (66.1% m/m, pochote (72.8% m/m, níspero (50.5% m/m, cedro (72.7% m/m y pino (70.7% m/m.The chemical nature of condensed tannins offers a natural source of such organic compounds, with potential application to medicinal and industrial uses. The extraction and analysis of this type of metabo- lites from plants of many regions of the world have been the objective of researching groups. In this case, it is desired to contribute to present knowledge, establishing the nature and amounts of condensed tannins extracted

  4. Remoción de semillas por roedores en un fragmento de bosque seco tropical (Risaralda-Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Vélez-García

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Los roedores son los mayores depredadores de semillas en ecosistemas neotropicales, sin embargo, la fragmentación afecta su presencia y por ende la depredación de semillas. Materiales y métodos. Se reconoció el porcentaje y la tasa de remoción de semillas por roedores en zonas de interior, borde y pastizal de un fragmento de bosque seco en el sector Cerritos – La Virginia (Risaralda–Colombia. Entre marzo y julio de 2003 se identificaron los roedores presentes en el bosque con la ayuda de 60 trampas Sherman ubicadas en diferentes zonas del fragmento. Para obtener el porcentaje y la tasa de remoción de semillas por roedores fueron aplicados dos experimentos (primero en junio y el segundo en julio con un diseño de bloques aleatorios usando tres tipos de encierros: total (acceso a insectos, parcial (acceso a roedores y control (acceso a cualquier organismo, teniendo en cuenta la ubicación en el fragmento (interior-borde-pastizal. Durante el primer experimento (junio fueron utilizadas7200 semillas de Samanea saman y 6000 semillas durante el segundo (julio. Resultados. Se capturaron 4 individuos de Heteromys australis al interior del bosque. En junio 1577 (44.87% semillas fueron removidas por los roedores al interior del bosque. En julio se removieron 1620 semillas de las cuales el 60.5% fue por roedores al interior del bosque. Conclusiones. Los resultados reflejan una mayor remoción de semillas por roedores al interior del bosque donde el riesgo de depredación y la disponibilidad de refugio son más altos.

  5. Biomass production by Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner in two productives cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Maritza I.; Pérez Díaz, Alberto; Viñals, Rolando; Martín Alonso, Gloria M.; Rivera, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    In areas of the Estación Central de Investigaciones de Café y Cacao located in La Mandarina, Tercer Frente municipality, Santiago de Cuba province, and La Alcarraza, municipality Sagua de Tánamo, Holguín province, the biomass production of Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner var. Robusta was assessed from planting until the fourth year in both locations and after pruning until the fourth year in Alcarraza. The coffee trees were planted at 3 x 1,5 m in Cambisol under Samanea saman Jerr shade in the first town and Leucaena leucocephala Lam de Wit in the second. The biomass was separated into: leaves, branches, stems, fruits and roots. From 24 months and one year after pruning, leaflitter was collected monthly. For the study of the root system soil blocks of 25 x 25 x 25 cm were extracted, in an area formed by 1,5 m (distance to the street) and 0,75 m (between plants), centered relative to the coffee plant and up to a meter deep. The extracted soil represented ¼ of the volume occupied by the plant. The dry mass of each organ was determined. Dry matter production reached values of 25 t dry mass ha-1 regardless of the stage of the plantation. Until the fourth year the root system dominated the biomass, followed by the leaves and then the stems. The participation of the fruits in the biomass increased in the crop stage and when concluding the experiment the coffees had dedicated for its formation among the 16-20 % of the total dry mass, independently of the development cycle. (author)

  6. Emergencia y desarrollo inicial de cuatro leguminosas forrajeras arbóreas presentes en la altiplanicie de Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Ramírez

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar el efecto de diferentes tratamientos pregerminativos, así como las características morfológicas de las plántulas emergidas en cuatro leguminosas forrajeras arbóreas: lara ruidosa (Albizia lebbeck, cují (Prosopis juliflora, samán (Samanea saman y carocaro (Enterolobium cyclocarpum, presentes en la altiplanicie de Maracaibo, estado Zulia, Venezuela. El diseño experimental fue de bloques al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Los tratamientos aplicados fueron: escarificación con lija (EL, remojo en agua (RA e inmersión en agua caliente (IAC, en semillas con distintos tiempos de almacenamiento (TA. Se evaluó el porcentaje de emergencia (PE, la tasa de emergencia (TE, la altura de la plántula (AP, el largo de la raíz (LR, el número de hojas (NH, el número de nudos (NN y el grosor del tallo (GT. En lara ruidosa el tiempo del RA y la interacción entre la EL y la IAC presentaron diferencias significativas en el PE. En las semillas de cují, los efectos individuales del TA, el RA y la IAC mostraron diferencias en el PE. La EL influyó en el PE de las semillas de cují sin artejo, y en las de carocaro y samán. Se concluye que la EL en las semillas de lara ruidosa, cují sin artejo, carocaro y samán; así como la utilización de semillas de cují con artejo frescas o almacenadas durante tres meses y tratadas con agua caliente por cinco minutos permitieron incrementar la emergencia. Las plántulas mostraron un desarrollo normal y homogéneo.

  7. Estudio de la flora y la vegetaciòn del bosque en la estaciòn de primates Coloso-Sucre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Dario Patiño Uribe

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en Coloso, Sucre, en la planicie del litoral Caribe, se efectuaron muestreos enla zona del arroyo el “Sereno” de la estación de primates. Se realizaron 14 levantamientos,utilizando el método de parcela y subparcelas, de 50 x 10 m2. Se censaron indivuidos con DAP =10 cm. La vegetación del sector “arroyo Sereno” fitosociológicamente se agrupa en la alianzaPoulsenio armatae- Anacardion excelsi, entre cuyas especies características también figuran: Achrasexcelsi, Brownea ariza, Brosimun guianense, Samanea saman, Pachira acuatica, Erythroxylumamazonicum y Aspidosperma spegazzinii. Comprende las asociaciones Ocoteo glomeratae- Spondietum mombinis entrecuyas especies características figuran: Ficus gigantea, Ocotea glomerata, Platymiscium pinnatumy Xylopiagrandifloray Astronio graveolentis- Guazumetum ulmifoliaecon Pseudobombax septenatum, Trichiliaacuminatay Stemmadenia grandiflora. Las especies con mayores valores de IVI (Índice de valor de im-portancia e IPF (Índice de predominio fisiónomico son Anacardium excelsum, Pulsenia armata,Spondias mombin, Ocotea glomerata, Astronium graveolensy Guazuma ulmifolia.En los censos se encon-traron 38 familias y 80 especies entre las cuales se destacan por número de género y especies Leguminosae, Bombacaceae, Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae. Entre los génerosmás diversificados figuran Xylopia(Anonaceae, Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae y Bombax, Cavanillesia,Ciebas, Pseudobombax (Bombacaceae. En general los tipos de vegetación que se encontrarontambién se distribuyen en localidades de la región tropical de los valles del Magdalena y del Caucaconstituyendo una formación vegetal definida por el dominio de especies como Guazuma ulmifolia,Astronium graveolens, Spondias mombin, Anacardium occidentalisy especies de Tabebuia.

  8. Efecto bioestimulante de Trichoderma harzianum Rifai en posturas de Leucaena, Cedro y Samán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonides Castellanos González

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo evaluó el efecto bioestimulante de Trichoderma harzianum Rifai en la producción de postura de Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit., Cedrela odorata L. y Albizia saman (Jacq. Merr. Se desarrollaron tres experimentos en condiciones de vivero, uno para cada especie. Se empleó un diseño completamente aleatorio con cuatro parcelas por tratamiento. En cada experimento los tratamientos fueron: Trichoderma harzianum a razón de 20 g.L-1, 40 g.L-1 y un testigo. Se evaluó el porcentaje de germinación y las variables morfométricas diámetro y altura del tallo, así como biomasa seca en raíz y parte aérea de la planta. Los tratamientos con Trichoderma no incrementaron el porcentaje de germinación en cedro, samán y leucaena. T. harzianum incrementó la altura, el número de hojas y la biomasa seca del área foliar en las plántulas de cedro, mientras que en leucaena y samán solo provocó incrementos del diámetro basal de las plántulas.

  9. Morfoanatomia da plântula de Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sarg. (Ulmaceae = Morphology and anatomy of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sarg. (Ulmaceae seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemari Pilati

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Celtis iguanaea é uma espécie pioneira, típica de mata ciliar. O presente estudo visa a investigação da morfoanatomia da plântula dessa espécie, pertencente à Ulmaceae. As sementes, coletadas na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, foram germinadas emcâmara de germinação com temperatura constante de 30ºC e mantidas sob luz fluorescente contínua. O desenvolvimento das plântulas ocorreu em casa de vegetação. A análise anatômica foi feita em plântulas fixadas em FAA 50. Esse material foi secionado transversalmente e as seções obtidas foram coradas em safranina e azul de astra. Verificou-seque a plântula é fanerocotiledonar, epigéia, e apresenta raiz ramificada, hipocótilo desenvolvido, cotilédones obovados e persistentes, epicótilo verde e piloso e eofilo oblongo ou lanceolado. A raiz é tetrarca ou diarca. O hipocótilo possui crescimento secundário com periderme de origem profunda. O epicótilo também apresenta crescimento secundário com periderme de origem subepidérmica. Os cotilédones e o eofilo são folhas dorsiventrais comcistólitos.Celtis iguanaea it is a typical arboreal species of ciliar forest, belonging to the family Ulmaceae. This work intends to investigate the morphology and anatomy of seedling species. The seeds used were collected from several trees, in fragments of the Semideciduous Seasonal Alluvial and Submontane Forest located on Upper Paraná Riverfloodplain. The seeds were germinated at constant temperatures (30ºC, using germination chambers and kept under continuous fluorescent light. Seedling development occurred in a greenhouse. Anatomical analysis was made in seedlings fixed in FAA 50. The botanical material was sectioned by microtome and stained with safranin and astra blue. The seedling is phanerocotylar and epigeal, presents ramified root, developed hypocotyl, obovate and persistent cotyledons, green and hairy epicotyl and the first leaf in a shape oblong or lanceolate. Root is tetrarch or diarch. Hypocotyl has secondary growth with deep-origin periderm. Epicotyl also shows secondary growth with periderm of subepidermic origin. Cotyledons and eophyll are dorsiventral leaves with cystolith.

  10. Beberapa sifat fisika kimia tanah yang berpengaruh terhadap model kecepatan infiltrasi pada tegakan mahoni jabon dan trembesi di Kebun Raya Purwodadi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Sri Darmayanti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted at the Purwodadi Botanical Gardens in three areas covered by the dominant vegetation Mahoni(Swietenia macrophylla, Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba and trembesi (Samanea saman in January to May 2012. The purpose of thisstudy was to obtain a model infi ltration rate (cm/h that was infl ued by physical and chemical properties of the soil that exist under thevegetation. Physical and chemicalparameters of soil chemical properties is observed macropore (%, organic matter (%, percentage ofthe fraction silt (%, sand(%, and clay(%, and bulk density (BD (g/cm3. The six factors are thought to differ indirectly because of thespecifi cation and morphology of the dominant plant species shelter. Data infi ltration was collected by using the ring infi ltrometer, whilemacroporosity tested with metylen blue method, the properties of the other physical chemical factortested by laboratory of Departmentof Soil, Brawijaya University. The model derived from the analysis of the regression equation using SPSS software version 17.0. Thestudy produced three different models of infi ltration rate on each plot different, they were Y = - 15,8 + 17,3 X1 - 1,09 X2 + 1,53 X3 +0,001 X4 - 21,3 X6 (Mahoni's plot;Y = - 108 + 53,0 X1 - 0,68 X2 + 5,27 X3 - 0,470 X4 + 59,7 X6 (Jabon's plot; Y = - 20,1 + 17,4X1 - 1,06 X2 + 1,57 X3 + 0,082 X4 - 21,6 X6 (Trembesi's plot. Y= Infi ltration rate (cm/h, X1= macropore (%, X2= organic matter(%, percentage of the fraction silt (% (X3, sand (% (X4, and X6= bulk density (g/cm3. In the equation not found factor X5 (clayfraction helped form a model because of multicollinearity analysis obtained by assuming that the clay fraction still contains a linearrelationship (correlated with other variables.

  11. Observations on the germination of three species of Citharexylum Jacq. used for ecological restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Suarez, Bibiana

    2011-01-01

    High-quality plant material is needed to allow the development of large-scale projects in ecological restoration. For this reason, three native species from the Andean forest were prioritized to study their germination: Citharexylum montanum, Citharexylum sulcatum and Citharexylum subflavescens. Pyrenes of these species were subjected to different pre-germination methods such as: scarification and hydration, hydration for 96 hours and hydration for 72 hours respectively for each species mentioned.The total percentage of germination, day of initiation of germination and mean germination time (MGT) were assessed for each species. As a result, total germination percentage was low for all species; C. subflavescens was the species that presented the highest value (41.3%). Only the treatment of scarification and hydration applied to C. montanum favored the germination percentage. The fastest time for germination initiation was 20 days for the species C. subflavescens and C. montanum. Due to the fact that the three species showed heterogeneous germination, the mean germination time (MGT) was high for all species. The observations suggest that physical scarification prior to hydration promotes both the percentage and the day of initiation of germination in Citharexylum.

  12. Metabolismo de carbohidratos en palmas de aceite (elaeis guineensis jacq.) afectadas por marchitez letal

    OpenAIRE

    Pèrez, Angela Patricia; Cayòn, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    La enfermedad conocida como “marchitez letal” se presenta
    en plantaciones de la zona baja del río Upía, en palmas de siete
    años de sembradas. No se conoce el posible agente causal o
    factores que predisponen a las palmas a la enfermedad, y no se
    ha registrado hasta la fecha en otras zonas palmeras del país. Se
    analizó el metabolismo de carbohidratos en palmas de aceite
    con síntomas iniciales de la enfermedad, palmas sospechosas&...

  13. Genomic selection prediction accuracy in a perennial crop: case study of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, David; Denis, Marie; Sánchez, Leopoldo; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Nouy, Bruno; Omoré, Alphonse; Pomiès, Virginie; Riou, Virginie; Suryana, Edyana; Bouvet, Jean-Marc

    2015-03-01

    Genomic selection empirically appeared valuable for reciprocal recurrent selection in oil palm as it could account for family effects and Mendelian sampling terms, despite small populations and low marker density. Genomic selection (GS) can increase the genetic gain in plants. In perennial crops, this is expected mainly through shortened breeding cycles and increased selection intensity, which requires sufficient GS accuracy in selection candidates, despite often small training populations. Our objective was to obtain the first empirical estimate of GS accuracy in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), the major world oil crop. We used two parental populations involved in conventional reciprocal recurrent selection (Deli and Group B) with 131 individuals each, genotyped with 265 SSR. We estimated within-population GS accuracies when predicting breeding values of non-progeny-tested individuals for eight yield traits. We used three methods to sample training sets and five statistical methods to estimate genomic breeding values. The results showed that GS could account for family effects and Mendelian sampling terms in Group B but only for family effects in Deli. Presumably, this difference between populations originated from their contrasting breeding history. The GS accuracy ranged from -0.41 to 0.94 and was positively correlated with the relationship between training and test sets. Training sets optimized with the so-called CDmean criterion gave the highest accuracies, ranging from 0.49 (pulp to fruit ratio in Group B) to 0.94 (fruit weight in Group B). The statistical methods did not affect the accuracy. Finally, Group B could be preselected for progeny tests by applying GS to key yield traits, therefore increasing the selection intensity. Our results should be valuable for breeding programs with small populations, long breeding cycles, or reduced effective size.

  14. Evaluation of methods and marker Systems in Genomic Selection of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Qi Bin; Teh, Chee Keng; Ong, Ai Ling; Chew, Fook Tim; Mayes, Sean; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Tammi, Martti; Yeoh, Suat Hui; Appleton, David Ross; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2017-12-11

    Genomic selection (GS) uses genome-wide markers as an attempt to accelerate genetic gain in breeding programs of both animals and plants. This approach is particularly useful for perennial crops such as oil palm, which have long breeding cycles, and for which the optimal method for GS is still under debate. In this study, we evaluated the effect of different marker systems and modeling methods for implementing GS in an introgressed dura family derived from a Deli dura x Nigerian dura (Deli x Nigerian) with 112 individuals. This family is an important breeding source for developing new mother palms for superior oil yield and bunch characters. The traits of interest selected for this study were fruit-to-bunch (F/B), shell-to-fruit (S/F), kernel-to-fruit (K/F), mesocarp-to-fruit (M/F), oil per palm (O/P) and oil-to-dry mesocarp (O/DM). The marker systems evaluated were simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). RR-BLUP, Bayesian A, B, Cπ, LASSO, Ridge Regression and two machine learning methods (SVM and Random Forest) were used to evaluate GS accuracy of the traits. The kinship coefficient between individuals in this family ranged from 0.35 to 0.62. S/F and O/DM had the highest genomic heritability, whereas F/B and O/P had the lowest. The accuracies using 135 SSRs were low, with accuracies of the traits around 0.20. The average accuracy of machine learning methods was 0.24, as compared to 0.20 achieved by other methods. The trait with the highest mean accuracy was F/B (0.28), while the lowest were both M/F and O/P (0.18). By using whole genomic SNPs, the accuracies for all traits, especially for O/DM (0.43), S/F (0.39) and M/F (0.30) were improved. The average accuracy of machine learning methods was 0.32, compared to 0.31 achieved by other methods. Due to high genomic resolution, the use of whole-genome SNPs improved the efficiency of GS dramatically for oil palm and is recommended for dura breeding programs. Machine learning slightly outperformed other methods, but required parameters optimization for GS implementation.

  15. [Comparative study on the erect and fallen types of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) DC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W; Tang, X; Li, Z; Xiao, P

    1997-03-01

    Based on botanica characters, phenophase, yield and content of active constituents, the erect and fallen types of platycodon grandiflorum were compared. The results show that the comprehensive characters of erect type are better than those of fallen type and the erect type is therefore good for popularization. Some specific characters of the fallen type are better than those of the erect type, and the fallen type is therefore to be preserved as one of the germ plasm resources.

  16. Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm (oyster mushroom) on different substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girmay, Zenebe; Gorems, Weldesemayat; Birhanu, Getachew; Zewdie, Solomon

    2016-12-01

    Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) were tested for their efficacy in oyster mushroom production. Pure culture of oyster mushroom was obtained from Mycology laboratory, Department of Plant Biology and Biodiversity Management, Addis Ababa University. The pure culture was inoculated on potato dextrose agar for spawn preparation. Then, the spawn containing sorghum was inoculated with the fungal culture for the formation of fruiting bodies on the agricultural wastes. The oyster mushroom cultivation was undertaken under aseptic conditions, and the growth and development of mushroom were monitored daily. Results of the study revealed that oyster mushroom can grow on cotton seed, paper waste, sawdust and wheat straw, with varying growth performances. The highest biological and economic yield, as well as the highest percentage of biological efficiency of oyster mushroom was obtained from cotton seed, while the least was from sawdust. The study recommends cotton seed, followed by paper waste as suitable substrates for the cultivation of oyster mushroom. It also suggests that there is a need for further investigation on various aspects of oyster mushroom cultivation in Ethiopia to promote the industry.

  17. Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm (oyster mushroom) on different substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Girmay, Zenebe; Gorems, Weldesemayat; Birhanu, Getachew; Zewdie, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) ...

  18. Radical activity evaluation in African Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) using phosphorous - 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez D, C.G.

    1995-01-01

    Low lands, wet and tropical, its are producing potential of oil palm, since this plant is notoriously bearable to poor soils in nutrients. Oil palm cultivation is relatively new at Colombia, commercial sowings date hardly of 1950s and in spite of this, tenacity and futuristic vision of some entrepreneurs have permitted that this activity, in few existence years, may have had a growing dynamics and strengthening of agricultural sector. The objective of this Thesis, it's to evaluate field conditions of radical activity, making an analysis in utilization efficiency of monoammonium phosphate labeled with 32P that was produced at INEA (today Ingeominas) with an activity of 1mCi/gram. Furthermore, its are intended to define differences of absorption in 1,9 and 17 leaves continuing the palm leaves phyto taxis, with the objective to determine the number of leaf for foliate analysis. The work was carried out in a 6-year-old age cultivation belonging to Uni palma company, located at Cumaral Municipality (Meta Department), situated to 500 meters on sea level, being a representative batch of African palm cultivation at Colombia's Eastern Plains. Soil is classified as Oxi sol, with ph of 4.5 and with high iron and aluminum indices. It was used the Isotopic Tracers methodology, the one which was highly effective, inasmuch as was determined that greater radical activity is found 2.5 meters of plant foot, with a percentage absorption average of 60.8 with respect to other treatments. Due to fact that were not found differences in phosphorus absorption between leaves 1,9 and 17, is recommended for foliate analysis to make use of any number of leaf. Efficiency of use of monoammonium phosphate was decreased (2.0710), something which makes necessary to promote tending studies to improve its behavior, more yet taking into account high cost of fertilizers and environmental pollution risks

  19. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of bioactive saponin from mahogany seed (Swietenia mahogany Jacq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waziiroh, E.; Harijono; Kamilia, K.

    2018-03-01

    Mahogany is frequently used for medicines for cancer, tumor, and diabetes, as it contains saponin and flavonoid. Saponin is a complex glycosydic compound consisted of triterpenoids or steroids. Saponin can be extracted from a plant by using a solvent extraction. Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) is a non-conventional extraction method that use micro waves in the process. This research was conducted by a Complete Random Design with two factors which were extraction time (120, 150, and 180 seconds) and solvent ratio (10:1, 15:1, and 20:1 v/w). The best treatment of MAE were the solvent ratio 15:1 (v/w) for 180 seconds. The best treatment resulting crude saponin extract yield of 41.46%, containing 11.53% total saponins, and 49.17% of antioxidant activity. Meanwhile, the treatment of maceration method were the solvent ratio 20:1 (v/w) for 48 hours resulting 39.86% yield of saponin crude extract, 9.26% total saponins and 56.23% of antioxidant activity. The results showed MAE was more efficient (less time of extraction and solvent amount) than maceration method.

  20. Germination and Seedling Development of Seeds from Different Parkia biglobosa (Jacq G. Don Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana O. ADEYEMI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of daylight, continuous illumination and acid scarification on the seed germination and seedling vegetative growth (epicotyl and hypocotyl lengths, and number of secondary roots of different Parkia biglobosawere investigated in the Plant Physiology Laboratory University of Ilorin, Ilorin Kwara State Nigeria. Seeds from two out of the twenty six Parkia tree samples (trees B and T germinated within 24 hours of planting in the daylight germination study while seeds from another tree (Q did not germinate until the third week after planting (3WAP. Some seeds have higher germination percentage both in the daylight (preliminary germination study and in the continuous light (illuminated study. The treatment with concentrated Sulphric acid (conc. H2SO4was effective in breaking the seed dormancy as seeds from eight (8 trees produced one hundred percent (100% germination. At p= 0.05 the length of epicotyl and hypocoty1 lengths were significantly different as seedling vegetative growth were long in the seedlings from the daylight experiment than the continuous light experiment. The vegetative growths of the seedlings from the scarified seed were longer at 15min of scarification in all except in trees F and Z. It was observed that the time of scarification affect the both seed germination and seedling development.

  1. Water use efficiency and productivity of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) based on two transplanting dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Rutilo; Inzunza-Ibarra, Marco Antonio; Sánchez-Cohen, Ignacio; Fierro-Álvarez, Andrés; Sifuentes-Ibarra, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Habanero pepper production was assessed with drip irrigation and plastic mulch, based on two transplanting dates. The objectives of the study were: (i) to evaluate the effect of two transplanting dates and the use of plastic mulch on water productivity and habanero pepper fruit yield under drip irrigation conditions; and (ii) to determine the profitability and economic viability of the product in the regional market. The work was conducted in the municipality of Huimanguillo, state of Tabasco, Mexico, in loam soils classified as Eutric Fluvisol. The Jaguar variety of habanero pepper, developed by INIFAP and possessing better genetic and productive characteristics, was used. Two transplanting dates were studied, (i) 30 January 2013 and (ii) 15 February 2013, with and without plastic mulch. The conclusions were: (i) application of irrigation depths based on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and plastic mulch transplanted on 30 January increased the fruit yield of the crop and improved the benefit-cost ratio of the production system; and (ii) water use efficiency based on the 30 January transplanting date was 8.68 kg m⁻³ of water applied with plastic mulch, 6.51 kg m⁻³ without plastic mulch, and 3.65 kg m⁻³ for the 15 February transplanting date with plastic mulch.

  2. Natural (13) C distribution in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and consequences for allocation pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamade, Emmanuelle; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Darlan, Nuzul Hijri; Rodrigues, Rosario Lobato; Fresneau, Chantal; Mauve, Caroline; Lamothe-Sibold, Marlène; Sketriené, Diana; Ghashghaie, Jaleh

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm has now become one of the most important crops, palm oil representing nearly 25% of global plant oil consumption. Many studies have thus addressed oil palm ecophysiology and photosynthesis-based models of carbon allocation have been used. However, there is a lack of experimental data on carbon fixation and redistribution within palm trees, and important C-sinks have not been fully characterized yet. Here, we carried out extensive measurement of natural (13) C-abundance (δ(13) C) in oil palm tissues, including fruits at different maturation stages. We find a (13) C-enrichment in heterotrophic organs compared to mature leaves, with roots being the most (13) C-enriched. The δ(13) C in fruits decreased during maturation, reflecting the accumulation in (13) C-depleted lipids. We further used observed δ(13) C values to compute plausible carbon fluxes using a steady-state model of (13) C-distribution including metabolic isotope effects ((12) v/(13) v). The results suggest that fruits represent a major respiratory loss (≈39% of total tree respiration) and that sink organs such as fruits are fed by sucrose from leaves. That is, glucose appears to be a quantitatively important compound in palm tissues, but computations indicate that it is involved in dynamic starch metabolism rather that C-exchange between organs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Induction and characterization of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. pro-embryogenic masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARLUCIA S. PADUA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Oil palm is one of the most economically valuable oil seed plants, but the expansion of plantations has been limited by availability of seedlings, as the conventional propagation is through seeds, which have low germination rates. One possible solution for the large-scale production is the use of somatic embryogenesis. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects auxins 2,4-D and picloram on the induction of pro-embryogenic masses in E.guineenesis hybrid leaf explants and characterize, regarding embryogenic characteristics, with cytochemical and ultrastructural analisys. Specifically, in vitro plantlets leaves fragments were inoculated in Y3 culture medium supplemented by 2.4-D or picloram at different concentrations (0.0, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 9.0 mg l–1. After 90 days the presence/ absence of cell masses were evaluated. Both growth regulators efficiently induced cellular masses regardless of the concentrations applied. As the cell masses were not homogeneously formed, they were classified according to color and shape into four types: TYPE 1 - elongated and translucent, TYPE 2 – uneven and translucent, TYPE 3 - globular and beige TYPE 4 – globular and white. Based on the anatomical and ultrastructural features, TYPE 2, 3 and 4 cell masses were considered to have the highest embryogenic potential and therefore may be most suited to large-scale vegetative propagation of oil palm.

  4. In vitro ROOTING OF TENERA HYBRID OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. PLANTS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlúcia Souza Souza Pádua

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Oil palm is a woody monocot of economic importance due to high oil production from its fruits. Currently, the conventional method most used to propagate oil palm is seed germination, but success is limited by long time requirements and low germination percentage. An alternative for large-scale propagation of oil palm is the biotechnological technique of somatic embryogenesis. The rooting of plants germinated from somatic embryos is a difficult step, yet it is of great importance for later acclimatization and success in propagation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the auxins indole acetic acid (IAA and indole butyric acid (IBA on the rooting of somatic embryos of Tenera hybrid oil palm. Plants obtained by somatic embryogenesis were inoculated in modified MS medium with 10% sucrose and 0.6% agar and supplemented with IAA or IBA at concentrations of 5 µM, 10 µM, and 15 µM, and the absence of growth regulators. After 120 days, the presence of roots, root type, length of the longest root, number of roots, number of leaves, and shoot length were analyzed. Growth regulators were favorable to rooting; plants cultivated with IBA growth regulator at 15 µM showed higher rooting percentage (87% and better results for the parameters of number of roots (1.33 and shoot length (9.83.

  5. Optimasi Dosis Pupuk Dolomit pada Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq. Belum Menghasilkan Umur Satu Tahun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sudradjat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kelapa sawit merupakan komoditi perkebunan utama karena sebagai sumber devisa negara dan menyediakan lapangan kerja. Indonesia adalah negara produsen terbesar kelapa sawit di dunia dengan luas areal mencapai 10.1 juta hektar. Peningkatan produktivitas dicapai dengan intensifikasi antara lain dengan melakukan rasionalisasi pemupkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan dosis optimum pupuk dolomit pada tanaman kelapa sawit belum menghasilkan umur satu tahun. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Kebun Pendidikan dan Penelitian Kelapa Sawit IPB-Cargill, Jonggol, Bogor dari bulan Maret 2013 sampai Maret 2014. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Faktorial Tunggal,  dosis pupuk dolomit,  yang disusun dalam lingkungan Acak Kelompok dengan tiga ulangan. Dosis pupuk dolomit yang diuji  terdiri atas 0, 200, 400, dan 600 g tanaman-1 tahun-1. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pupuk dolomit meningkatkan secara nyata terhadap peubah tinggi tanaman, diameter batang, jumlah daun, dan kandungan khlorofil daun, namun tidak berpengaruh terhadap kandungan Mg dalam jaringan daun. Berdasarkan tanggap peubah tinggi tanaman, dosis optimum pupuk dolomit untuk tanaman kelapa sawit pada umur satu tahun adalah 306.4 g dolomit tanaman-1tahun -1. Kata kunci: dolomit, dosis optimum, kelapa sawit, respons fisiologi, respons morfologi.

  6. Selection of full-sib families of Panicum maximum Jacq under low light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Mochi Victor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The silvopastoral system is a viable technological alternative to extensive cattle grazing, however, for it to be successful, forage grass genotypes adapted to reduced light need to be identified. The objective of this study was to select progenies of Panicum maximum tolerant to low light conditions for use in breeding programs and to study the genetic control and performance of some traits associated with shade tolerance. Six full-sib progenies were evaluated in full sun, 50% and 70% of light reduction in pots and subjected to cuttings. Progeny genotypic values ​​(GV increased with light reduction in relation to plant height (H and specific leaf area (SLA. The traits total dry mass accumulation (DM and leaf dry mass accumulation (LDM had GV higher in 50% shade and intermediate in 70% shade. The GV of tiller number (TIL and root dry mass accumulation (RDM decreased with light reduction. The highest positive correlations were obtained for the traits H and RDM with SLA and DM; the highest negative correlations were between TIL and SLA and RDM, and H and LDM. The progenies showed higher tolerance to 50% light reduction and, among them, two stood out and will be used in breeding programs. It was also found that it is not necessary to evaluate some traits under all light conditions. All traits had high broad sense heritability and high genotypic correlation between progenies in all light intensities. There is genetic difference among the progenies regarding the response to different light intensities, which will allow selection for shade tolerance

  7. Micropropagación de chayote (sechium edule jacq. Sw. a partir de brotes vegetativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Abdelnour

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El chayote (Sechium edule es una importante fuente de divisas para los países exportadores, entre los que Costa Rica mantiene el liderazgo mundial. Entre los factores más limitantes para su producci ón se encuentra el material de siembra, tradicionalmente la semilla, que por su naturaleza no permite la obtención de una producción morfológicamente homogénea de frutos (color, forma y textura de la epidermis motivo de los altos porcentajes de rechazo en las plantas empacadoras. El establecimiento de una metodología de propagación vegetativa de la especie ayudaría a resolver los problemas de heterogeneidad. Por lo anterior, la presente investigación se dirigió a desarrollar un método de micropropagación a partir de brotes vegetativos. Se evaluó el efecto de varios desinfectantes y concentraciones de reguladores de crecimiento en las etapas de establecimiento, multiplicación y enraizamiento de dos cultivares comerciales. Se observó que una desinfección con hipoclorito de calcio al 4% permitió el mayor porcentaje de explantes establecidos asépticamente bajo condiciones in vitro (49%. También se observó que durante las etapas posteriores de la micropropagación, los requerimientos de reguladores de crecimiento fueron muy bajos (0,1 mgL-1 de BA en la etapa de brotación de yemas y de 0,1 a 0,2 mgL-1 de AIB durante el enraizamiento o no se requirieron (etapa de multiplicaci ón de microestacas.

  8. Antimicrobial Constituents of Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. against Periodontal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garland More

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of an ethanol extract of Artemisia afra led to the isolation of six known compounds, acacetin (1, 12α,4α-dihydroxybishopsolicepolide (2, scopoletin (3, α-amyrin (4, phytol (5, and a pentacyclic triterpenoid betulinic acid (6. The compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces israelii, and Streptococcus mutans, Gram negative bacteria (Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans previously known as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Candida albicans. The crude extract of A. afra inhibited the growth of all tested microbial species at concentration range of 1.6 mg/mL to 25 mg/mL. The compounds 1–6 also showed activity range at 1.0 mg/mL to 0.25 mg/mL. Three best compounds (scopoletin, betulinic acid, and acacetin which showed good antimicrobial activity were selected for further studies. Cytotoxicity of extract and compounds was determined using the XTT cell proliferation kit. The antioxidant activity of the extract and compounds was done using the DPPH scavenging method. The extract showed good antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 22.2 μg/mL. Scopoletin had a strong transformation of the DPPH radical into its reduced form, with an IC50 value of 1.24 μg/mL which was significant to that of vitamin C (1.22 μg/mL. Acacetin and betulinic acid exhibited a decreased scavenging activity with the IC50 of 2.39 and 2.42 μg/mL, respectively. The extract and compounds showed moderate toxicity on McCoy fibroblast cell line and scopoletin was relatively nontoxic with an IC50 value of 132.5 μg/mL. Acacetin and betulinic acid also showed a smooth trend of non-toxic effects with IC50 values of 35.44 and 30.96 μg/mL. The obtained results in this study confirm the use of A. afra in the treatment of microbial infections.

  9. Studies on the epidemiology of spear rot in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lande, van de H.L.

    1993-01-01

    The epidemiology of spear rot, an infectious disease of unknown etiology, was studied over 10 years at three government-owned oil palm plantations in Suriname. As with other and similar diseases, amarelecimento fatal in Brazil and pudrición del cogollo in Latin America, which too show rot

  10. Spatial undergrowth species composition in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in West Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    Germer, Jörn Uwe

    2003-01-01

    The area planted to oil palm expanded during the last decades substantially, making it become the world's second most important oil crop. Despite its economic significance the oil palm remains remarkably unknown. Little attention is paid also to the oil palm undergrowth, though important in stabilizing the agro-ecosystem in plantations. Comprehensive knowledge of undergrowth species adapted to specific ecological niches in oil palm plantations is essential to investigate their function in ...

  11. Metabolism of carbohydrates in oil palms (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) affected by lethal wilt

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez C, Ángela Patricia; Cayón S, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    La enfermedad conocida como "marchitez letal" se presenta en plantaciones de la zona baja del río Upía, en palmas de siete años de sembradas. No se conoce el posible agente causal o factores que predisponen a las palmas a la enfermedad, y no se ha registrado hasta la fecha en otras zonas palmeras del país. Se analizó el metabolismo de carbohidratos en palmas de aceite con síntomas iniciales de la enfermedad, palmas sospechosas de presentar la enfermedad y palmas sanas dentro y fuera de un foc...

  12. Reproductive Strategy of the Polyploid Species Varronia curassavica Jacq. in Restinga Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeltgebaum, Marcia Patricia; Londoño, Diana Marcela Morales; Lando, Ana Paula; Dos Reis, Maurício Sedrez

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the breeding strategies of Varronia curassavica, an important medicinal species associated with Brazilian restinga. This was accomplished by combining phenological and genetic data. Every 2 weeks over a period of 2 years, we measured flowering and fruiting phenology to evaluate the activity and intensity of phenophases (n = 60). We evaluated the mating system, pollen ovule ratio and genotypes from progeny and mother plants using 8 nuclear microsatellite loci. We observed flowering and fruiting of V. curassavica at low intensity throughout the entire year, but with 2 distinct peaks, one of which was seasonal, corresponding to the period of gradual increase of temperature and photoperiod. Overlapping of flowering and fruiting strategies favors gene flow among different groups of individuals and between populations by attraction of fauna throughout the year. Analysis of the mating system indicates that V. curassavica is a typical outcrossed species (t^ = 0.98; pollen/ovule ratio = 7087.50). Combining phenology with genetic studies improved our understanding of the reproductive strategies of this species. The typical outcrossing system of V. curassavica reflects the existence of functional self-incompatibility mechanisms still unaffected by changes in genetic balance by polyploidy. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Rooting in vitro of zygotic embryos of Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd ex Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fiori Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrocomia aculeata is a potential specie for the energy industry, however, the latency in its seeds delay germination, affecting performance. The experiment was performed in the Biology Laboratory of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences of the National University of Asunción; the objective was to establish a protocol for zygotic embryogenesis and rooting of this species. A completely randomized design was used, applying Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test with 5% error probability, subject to verification of assumptions of distribution The treatments consisted of MS medium (Murashige and Skoog supplemented with benzylaminopurine (BAP of 1, 2 and 4 ppm, MS medium with 2 g/L of active carbon (AC and simple MS mediums. 45 zygotic embryos were initially cultivated on MS medium supplemented with 2 g/L of AC and exposed to initial darkness for 20 days, then subcultured in the mentioned treatments. Root length was the measured variable, assessed in two periods of 20 days. There was no significant effects in the treatments with BAP, the CA suppressed explants oxidation; whereas the best results showed treatments 1 (MS + 1 ppm BAP and 4 (MS + CA 2g/L with 6 and 5 cm of root length respectively, after 40 incubation days.

  14. Evaluation Of The Radical Activity In African Palm (Elaeis Guineensis JACQ) Using Match-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado R, Conrado G.

    1995-01-01

    The low, humid and tropical lands, are potential producers of palm of oil, since this plant is notoriously tolerant to the poor floors in nutritious. The palm of oil cultivation is relatively new, commercial seeding hardly dates of 1950 and in spite of this, the futurist vision of some managers they have allowed that this activity, in few years of existence, have had a growing dynamics of the agricultural sector. The objective of this study, was to evaluate under field conditions the radical activity, making an analysis in the efficiency of use of the mono-ammonic phosphate with 32P that it took place in the INEA with a lmCi/gram activity. it is Also to determine the differences of absorption in the leaves 1,9 and 17 following the phylotaxia of the palm leaves, in order to determine the leaf number for the analysis to foliate. The work was carried out in a 6 year-old cultivation belonging to the company Unipalma, located in the municipality of Cumaral, department of the goal, located to 500 msnm, being a representative lot where African palm is cultivated in the oriental plains. I am accustomed to classified as an Oxi sol, with pH of 4.5 and with high iron contents and aluminum. In this work the methodology isotopic was used of tracer. The study checked that the methodology was highly effective, since it was determined that the biggest radical activity is 2.5 m of the foot of the plant, with a percentage average of absorption of 60.8 with regard to the other treatments. Because they were not differences in match absorption among the leaves 1, 9 and 17, it is recommended for the analysis to foliate to make use of the any leaf number. As for the efficiency of use of the mono-ammonic phosphate it was low (2.0710), it becomes necessary to promote studies tendentious to improve their behavior, stiller keeping in mind the high cost of the fertilizers and the risks of ecological contamination

  15. Incidence, progression and intensity of Bud Rot in Elaeis guineensis Jacq. in San Lorenzo, Ecuador

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    Fernando Rivas Figueroa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BUD rot (BR is the most serious disease of oil palm in Latin America; in Equator has caused more than 150 million USD of losses. The aim of this work was to determine the incidence, progression and disease intensity of BR in E. guineensis. Incidence and disease progression was determined from data of oil palm enterprises: Palesema, PDA, Palpailón, Energy & Palma y Alespalma during 2006-2013. Disease intensity was determined at 2013. Incidence was 66.75 % and disease intensity was 46 %. Based on projections of accumulative incidence a polynomial equation was built that predicted 78.30 % of cumulative incidence for 2014, indicating exponential growth of BR from 2009 to 2013. Magnitude of damages based on incidence, disease progression and infection index indicated the occurrence of a lethal form of BR in San Lorenzo, province of Esmeraldas, Equator.

  16. Genotype selection of Pouteria sapota (Jacq. H.E. Moore & Stearn, under a multivariate framework

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    Renan Mercuri Pinto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The pouteria sapota, also popularly known as sapote or mamey sapote, is a fruit tree of sapotaceae family originally from the tropical region of Central America with a great importance due to the almost complete utilization of the tree (fruit, seeds and wood by industries. Thus, the study of its features becomes indispensable for selecting the most promising genotypes to increase the profitability of its production. In this study, it was used a dataset of 63 sapote trees placed in the botanical garden of Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE, located in Turrialba, Costa Rica. 17 quantitative characteristics were measured from trees, in order to evaluate the yield potential through the application of two multivariate statistical techniques: factor analysis (FA and cluster analysis (CA. Firstly, the FA was performed and the 17 initial characteristics were reduced to four common factors that might describe particular characteristics like “fruit”, “seed”, “wood” and “leaf”. Thereafter, a CA was performed, with scores of FA, allowing the formation of five groups of trees with different traits. This methodology revealed the most promising trees in the economic point of view for every industry that uses the tree as raw material.

  17. Aspectos Estruturais e Fitoquímicos de partes vegetativas de Costus spicatus (Jacq. Sw. (Costaceae

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    L.S. Paes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As folhas de Costus spicatus são amplamente empregadas na medicina popular para o tratamento de várias doenças entre elas: malária, hepatite e doença do aparelho urinário. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar aspectos da anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos (folhas, caules, raízes e rizomas associados à triagem fitoquímica visando contribuir com informações relevantes para o desenvolvimento de estudos taxonômicos e farmacológicos. A análise anatômica por meio da microscopia óptica e de varredura evidenciou folha anfi-hipoestomática, com estômatos e tricomas tectores filamentosos simples. O mesofilo é constituído por parênquima clorofiliano, que se divide em duas regiões intercaladas por cordão de fibras e feixes vasculares. O caule é do tipo atactostélico como no rizoma. A raiz é poliarca. Os testes histoquímicos indicaram a presença de amido, proteínas estruturais, alcaloides, cristais de oxalato de cálcio. A prospecção química com extratos hidroalcoólico e aquoso constatou a presença de saponinas, taninos, alcaloides, compostos fenólicos e heterosídeos cianogênicos.

  18. THE DIVERSITY OF EPIPHYTIC FERN ON THE OIL PALM TREE (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. IN PEKANBARU, RIAU

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    Nery Sofiyanti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis is one  main commodity in Riau Province. Morphologically, the trunk of oil palm  has suitable environment for the growth of epiphytic fern, due to its broaden base of petiole that may accumulate organic and anorganic debrish. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of epiphytic fern on the oil palm tree. A total of 125 oil palm trees from seven  study sites in Pekanbaru, Riau were observed. The number of epiphytic ferns identified in this study was 16 species belongs to six families.

  19. Diallel analyses and estimation of genetic parameters of hot pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.

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    Sousa João Alencar de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of heterosis in the genus Capsicum spp. is considered high; however, most of the studies refer to the species Capsicum annuum L. In spite of the potential use of F1 hybrids in pungent peppers of the species Capsicum chinense, few studies are available which assess the magnitude of heterosis in this species . This study was carried out to assess heterosis and its components in F1 hybrids from a diallel cross between hot pepper lines (Capsicum chinense and to obtain data on the allelic interaction between the parents involved in the crosses. Trials were made in Rio Branco-Acre, Brazil, from March through October 1997. A randomized complete block design with fifteen treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were five C. chinense accessions (from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa - BGH/UFV and 10 F1 hybrids derived from single crosses between them (reciprocals excluded. Diallel analyses were performed for total yield, fruit length/diameter ratio, fruit dry matter per plant, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria incidence, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. Non-additive genetic effects were larger than additive effects for all the traits assessed. Epistasis was detected for fruit dry matter per plant, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. In these cases, epistasis seemed to be largely responsible for heterosis expression. Dominant gene action, ranging from incomplete dominance to probable overdominance, was responsible for heterosis in those traits where no epistatic genetic action was detected.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of Anonna mucosa (Jacq. grown in vivo and obtained by in vitroculture

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    Thiago José de Souza Barboza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian flora includes numerous species of medicinal importance that can be used to develop new drugs. Plant tissue culture offers strategies for conservation and use of these species allowing continuous production of plants and bioactive substances. Annona mucosa has produced substances such as acetogenins and alkaloids that exhibit antimicrobial activities. The widespread use of antibiotics has led to an increase in multidrug-resistant bacteria, which represents a serious risk of infection. In view of this problem, the aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial potential of extracts of A. mucosa obtained by in vitro techniques and also cultured under in vivo conditions. Segments from seedlings were inoculated onto different culture media containing the auxin picloram and the cytokinin kinetin at different concentrations. The calluses obtained were used to produce cell suspension cultures. The materials were subjected to methanol extraction and subsequent fractionation in hexane and dichloromethane. The antimicrobial activity against 20 strains of clinical relevance was evaluated by the macrodilution method at minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations. The extracts showed selective antimicrobial activity, inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus thuringiensis at different concentrations. The plant tissue culture methods produced plant materials with antibacterial properties, as well as in vivo grown plants. The antibacterial activity of material obtained through biotechnological procedures of A. mucosa is reported here for the first time.

  1. Involvement of metabolites in early defense mechanism of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) against Ganoderma disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusaibah, S A; Siti Nor Akmar, A; Idris, A S; Sariah, M; Mohamad Pauzi, Z

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the mechanism of interaction between the oil palm and its key pathogen, Ganoderma spp. is crucial as the disease caused by this fungal pathogen leads to a major loss of revenue in leading palm oil producing countries in Southeast Asia. Here in this study, we assess the morphological and biochemical changes in Ganoderma disease infected oil palm seedling roots in both resistant and susceptible progenies. Rubber woodblocks fully colonized by G. boninense were applied as a source of inoculum to artificially infect the roots of resistant and susceptible oil palm progenies. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to measure an array of plant metabolites in 100 resistant and susceptible oil palm seedling roots treated with pathogenic Ganoderma boninense fungus. Statistical effects, univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify key-Ganoderma disease associated metabolic agitations in both resistant and susceptible oil palm root tissues. Ganoderma disease related defense shifts were characterized based on (i) increased antifungal activity in crude extracts, (ii) increased lipid levels, beta- and gamma-sitosterol particularly in the resistant progeny, (iii) detection of heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds, benzo [h] quinoline, pyridine, pyrimidine (iv) elevation in antioxidants, alpha- and beta-tocopherol (iv) degraded cortical cell wall layers, possibly resulting from fungal hydrolytic enzyme activity needed for initial penetration. The present study suggested that plant metabolites mainly lipids and heterocyclic aromatic organic metabolites could be potentially involved in early oil palm defense mechanism against G. boninense infection, which may also highlight biomarkers for disease detection, treatment, development of resistant variety and monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolismo de carbohidratos en palmas de aceite (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. afectadas por marchitez letal

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    Pèrez Angela Patricia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad conocida como “marchitez letal” se presenta
    en plantaciones de la zona baja del río Upía, en palmas de siete
    años de sembradas. No se conoce el posible agente causal o
    factores que predisponen a las palmas a la enfermedad, y no se
    ha registrado hasta la fecha en otras zonas palmeras del país. Se
    analizó el metabolismo de carbohidratos en palmas de aceite
    con síntomas iniciales de la enfermedad, palmas sospechosas
    de presentar la enfermedad y palmas sanas dentro y fuera de
    un foco. Se tomaron muestras de hojas, raíces y estípite para
    determinar las concentraciones de almidón, azúcares reductores,
    no reductores y totales. La concentración de azúcares
    reductores tuvo un incremento en las palmas con síntomas
    iniciales y sospechosos; los azúcares totales presentaron mayor
    concentración en las palmas sospechosas de tener la enfermedad
    con respecto a las palmas con síntomas iniciales. Los azúcares
    no reductores en los diferentes órganos evaluados tuvieron
    una concentración muy baja. Los resultados observados en la
    alteración del metabolismo de los carbohidratos en las palmas
    enfermas probablemente sugieren que los fitoplasmas estén
    asociados a la enfermedad.

  3. HONGOS CAUSANTES DE ENFERMEDADES POSTCOSECHA EN CHAYOTE (Sechium edule (Jacq. SW. Y SU CONTROL IN VITRO

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    Siul D. Romero-Velazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El fruto de chayote (Sechium edule (Jaqc. Sw. es una hortaliza de exportación de importancia para México y Costa Rica. El proceso comercial exige cumplir con estándares de calidad, que implican frutos sanos y libres de defectos. Sin embargo, debido a las condiciones de alta humedad que se desarrollan en los frutos empacados en películas plásticas, se han presentado rechazos en el mercado de exportación, por la presencia de enfermedades fungosas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar morfológica (microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido y molecularmente (PCR: Polimerase Chain Reaction las especies de hongos causales de las principales enfermedades postcosecha de chayote en frutos infectados procedentes de huertas comerciales para exportación, así como probar in vitro la efectividad de diversos productos comerciales en la inhibición del crecimiento de dichos hongos. Los resultados mostraron a Didymella bryoniae como el causante de “gomosis de las cucurbitáceas” y a Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani como causales de fusariosis o ahogamiento de guías; estos patógenos dañan la parte basal y media de frutos comerciales, además de Chaetomium globosum, un asociado al proceso infeccioso de Fusarium sp., como saprófito no patógeno. La inoculación con Bacillus subtilis presentó una inhibición efectiva (0,01 mg.l-1 i.a en las pruebas in vitro contra Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani; el fungicida más efectivo contra los 2 primeros fue Tebuconazole-trifloxystrobin, con una DL50 de 0,0116 y 0,0106 mg.l-1 respectivamente; no así contra F. solani, cuyo mayor control fue registrado con procloraz, con DL50 de 0,0042 mg.l-1. Estos resultados contribuyen al reconocimiento de las enfermedades fungosas más importantes en chayote y su perspectiva de control durante el manejo postcosecha de frutos para exportación.

  4. Phytoremediation of contaminated soils containing gasoline using Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) in greenhouse pots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansoory, Asia Fadhile; Idris, Mushrifah; Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh; Anuar, Nurina

    2017-05-01

    Greenhouse experiments were carried out to determine the phytotoxic effects on the plant Ludwigia octovalvis in order to assess its applicability for phytoremediation gasoline-contaminated soils. Using plants to degrade hydrocarbons is a challenging task. In this study, different spiked concentrations of hydrocarbons in soil (1, 2, and 3 g/kg) were tested. The results showed that the mean efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal over a 72-day culture period was rather high. The maximum removal of 79.8 % occurred for the 2 g/kg concentration, while the removal rate by the corresponding unplanted controls was only (48.6 %). The impact of gasoline on plants included visual symptoms of stress, yellowing, growth reduction, and perturbations in the developmental parameters. The dry weight and wet weight of the plant slightly increased upon exposure to gasoline until day 42. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated change to the root and stem structure in plant tissue due to the direct attachment with gasoline contaminated compared to the control sample. The population of living microorganisms in the contaminated soil was found to be able to adapt to different gasoline concentrations. The results showed that L. octovalvis and rhizobacteria in gasoline-contaminated soil have the potential to degrade organic pollutants.

  5. Biologia floral e sistema reprodutivo da erva-baleeira (Varronia curassavica Jacq.

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    D. S. BRANDÃO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO conhecimento do sistema reprodutivo é fundamental para a conservação e manejo de uma espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a fenologia da floração, a antese, registrar os insetos visitantes no período de floração, determinar as características morfométricas das flores e o sistema reprodutivo da erva-baleeira, em um ambiente de Cerrado do Norte de Minas Gerais. Entre maio a dezembro de 2012 foi caracterizado o comportamento fenológico da floração. Na análise da fenologia floral foi determinado: o crescimento da inflorescência, o número de flores e frutos por inflorescências. Utilizou-se seis acessos que tiveram dez inflorescências marcadas em cada acesso, totalizando 60 inflorescências. A antese foi determinada utilizando quatro inflorescências em duas plantas. Os visitantes florais foram observados in loco e capturados em três dias consecutivos de coleta. As características morfométricas foram determinadas com paquímetro utilizando 20 flores, sendo cinco flores de quatro acessos. Para determinar o sistema reprodutivo utilizou-se a razão pólen:óvulo (P:O, utilizando 50 flores, sendo 10 flores de cinco acessos em pré-antese. Nas condições de Montes Claros, o crescimento das inflorescências de erva-baleeira ocorreu entre meados de agosto e início de outubro, totalizando 45 dias. O florescimento foi observado entre meados de setembro e final de outubro, enquanto a frutificação ocorreu de meados de outubro a início de dezembro, sendo que ambos ocorreram de forma irregular. A antese floral de erva-baleeira, neste estudo, ocorre entre 7:00 e 11:00 horas. Os insetos visitantes pertencem as ordens Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera e Hymenoptera. As flores apresentaram o diâmetro de 2,13 ± 0,05 (mm, o comprimento de 3,29 ± 0,08 (mm, diâmetro do ovário de 0,70 ± 0,02 (mm, o comprimento do ovário de 2,48 ± 0,12 (mm, o diâmetro da antera de 0,67 ± 0,01(mm e o comprimento da antera de 0,93 ±0,02 (mm, quatro óvulos e cinco anteras por flor. A razão P:O foi de 576,542, indicando que a espécie é alógama facultativa.

  6. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of a Na+-Insensitive K+ Transporter of Capsicum chinense Jacq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lau, Nancy; Bojórquez-Quintal, Emanuel; Benito, Begoña; Echevarría-Machado, Ileana; Sánchez-Cach, Lucila A.; Medina-Lara, María de Fátima; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    High-affinity K+ (HAK) transporters are encoded by a large family of genes and are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. These HAK-type transporters participate in low- and high-affinity potassium (K+) uptake and are crucial for the maintenance of K+ homeostasis under hostile conditions. In this study, the full-length cDNA of CcHAK1 gene was isolated from roots of the habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense). CcHAK1 expression was positively regulated by K+ starvation in roots and was not inhibited in the presence of NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis placed the CcHAK1 transporter in group I of the HAK K+ transporters, showing that it is closely related to Capsicum annuum CaHAK1 and Solanum lycopersicum LeHAK5. Characterization of the protein in a yeast mutant deficient in high-affinity K+ uptake (WΔ3) suggested that CcHAK1 function is associated with high-affinity K+ uptake, with Km and Vmax for Rb of 50 μM and 0.52 nmol mg−1 min−1, respectively. K+ uptake in yeast expressing the CcHAK1 transporter was inhibited by millimolar concentrations of the cations ammonium (NH4+) and cesium (Cs+) but not by sodium (Na+). The results presented in this study suggest that the CcHAK1 transporter may contribute to the maintenance of K+ homeostasis in root cells in C. chinense plants undergoing K+-deficiency and salt stress. PMID:28083010

  7. Kajian Penyebaran Kumbang Tanduk (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) Pada Areal Pertanaman Kelapa Sawit(Elais guinensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Robbin Gafur

    2011-01-01

    Robbin gafur siregar, Study of Spreading of Oryctes rhinoceros beetle on Palm Oil Plantations, with the conseling prof. Dr. Ir. Darma Bakti and Ir. Marheni, MP. Spreading of Oryctes rhinoceros is influenced by environment factor. Research aimed to know the spreading of Oryctes rhinoceros on palm oil.This research was held in Afdeling VII, Kebun Rambutan PTPN III Tebing Tinggi, since Juli to September 2010. The research by using Linier regration to find spreading influence with environment fa...

  8. Ensayo de disolución para las tabletas de Tilo ® elaboradas con extracto seco de Justicia pectoralis Jacq Dissolution Assay for Tilo ® tablets prepared with dry extract of Justicia pectoralis Jacq

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    Jorge Enrique Rodríguez Chanfrau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el ensayo de disolución es una técnica analítica de empleo común en un laboratorio farmacéutico. Un proceso tecnológico para la elaboración de tabletas fue desarrollado. El ingrediente farmacéutico activo usado fue Tilo ® extracto seco. Objetivo: el objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar y validar un ensayo de disolución para evaluar la estabilidad y la calidad de dicho producto. Método: se utilizaron muestras de un lote experimental, un lote placebo y lotes pilotos de tabletas de Tilo ® de 100 mg. Se evaluaron como medios de disolución agua destilada y solución de ácido clorhídrico 0,1 mol/L, realizándose perfiles de disolución a 50, 75 y 100 rpm, empleándose los dos tipos de aparatos establecidos en la literatura para este ensayo (cesta y paleta. El contenido de cumarina fue analizado por HPLC. El ensayo fue validado según la USP. Resultados: los resultados mostraron que el agua destilada fue un medio de disolución adecuado, alcanzándose porcientos de disolución de la droga por encima del 85 % a los 30 minutos, no existiendo diferencias significativas entre los tipos de aparatos recomendados por la USP. Mientras que, los perfiles de disolución a diferentes tiempos y velocidades de agitación mostraron una liberación gradual del principio activo en el tiempo, donde a medida que se incrementa la velocidad de agitación, se incrementa el porcentaje de disolución de la droga en el medio. La validación del ensayo demostró que el mismo era específico y preciso. Conclusiones: se estableció como ensayo de disolución las siguientes condiciones de trabajo: Aparato: paleta, 100 rpm; medio: agua destilada, 500 mL; tiempo: 60 minutos y Temperatura: 37 ± 0,5 ºC.Introduction: dissolution testing is one of the most common analytical techniques performed in a pharmaceutical analytical laboratory. A technological process for the production of tablets was developed. The active pharmaceutical ingredient used was Tilo ® dry extract. Objective: to develop and to validate the dissolution assay aimed at evaluating the stability study and the quality of this product. Methods: some samples from the experimental batch, the placebo batch and the pilot batches were used in this study. Distilled water and 0,1 mol/L chlorhidric acid were evaluated as dissolution media. The dissolution profiles at 50, 75 and 100 rpm and two types of dissolution devices (basket and paddle recommended for the USP were evaluated. Coumarin content was analyzed by HPLC method. The dissolution assay was validated according to the United States Pharmacopeia. Results: the results showed that the distilled water was an appropriate dissolution medium, where percentages of released drug higher to 85 % in 30 minutes were obtained; there were no significant differences among the types of dissolution devices recommended by the USP. The dissolution profiles at different shaking times and speeds showed gradual release of the active principle. As the shaking speed increases, the percentage of the drug dissolution increases in the medium. The assay was considered specific and precise. Conclusions: a type II (paddle dissolution device, 500 ml of distilled water at 37 ± 0,5 ºC and 100 rpm, were established as parameters of the dissolution assay.

  9. Phytochemical analysis and anti-oxidant activities of Albuca bracteata Jacq. and Albuca setosa Jacq bulb extracts used for the management of diabetes in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Samuel Odeyemi

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: This implies that the bulb of Albuca bracteata may serve as a natural source of antioxidants, which together with the numerous phytochemicals present, could account for its folkloric use as a medicinal plant.

  10. Pollen morphology and study of the visitors (Hymenoptera, Apidae of Solanum stramoniifolium Jacq. (Solanaceae in Central Amazon Morfologia polínica e estudo dos visitantes (Hymenoptera, Apidae de Solanum stramoniifolium Jacq. (Solanaceae na Amazônia Central

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    Alexandre Coletto da Silva

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The Solanaceae family has a wide distribution, mainly in the tropical and subtropical areas of South America. Solanum L. is one of the most important genera of the family with approximately 1,200 species. The objective of this work was to study the floral biology, pollen morphology as well as to investigate the bee visitors of S. stramoniifolium. Preliminary data indicate the presence of one species of stinging bee and four species of stingless bees as visitors to S. stramoniifolium. The pollen of S. stramoniifolium is tricolporate and psilate or without ornamentation. In a word, S. stramoniifolium constitutes a potential source of pollen for different species of bees with and without sting, providing an interesting field for germination studies, insect-plant interactions and floral biology that are already under way.A família Solanaceae tem ampla distribuição, principalmente nas áreas tropicais e subtropicais da América do Sul. Solanum L. é um dos mais importantes gêneros desta família com aproximadamente 1.200 espécies. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de estudar a biologia floral com enfoque na morfologia polínica e no registro de algumas abelhas visitantes de S. stramoniifolium. Dados preliminares indicam a presença de uma espécie de abelha com ferrão e quatro espécies sem ferrão como visitantes de S. stramoniifolium. O pólen de S. stramoniifolium é tricolporado e psilado, ou seja, sem ornamentação. Conclui-se, após o estudo da biologia floral, que S. stramoniifolium constitui fonte potencial de pólen para diferentes espécies de abelhas com e sem ferrão, representando interessante campo para estudos de germinação, interações inseto-planta e biologia floral.

  11. Biologia floral e sistema reprodutivo de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud. (Fabaceae- Papilionoidae na região de Petrolina, Pernambuco Floral biology and reproductive system of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud. (Fabaceae-Papilionoidae in region of Petrolina, Pernambuco state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Piedade Kiill

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos da biologia da polinização e do sistema de reprodução de Gliricidia sepium foram estudados no período de março a dezembro de 1999, entre 05:30 e 17:00h., em uma população introduzida na Embrapa Semi-Árido (Petrolina, estado de Pernambuco. Quinze indivíduos da população foram marcados e acompanhados quinzenalmente para as observações dos estudos fenológicos. Para o estudo da morfologia e biologia florais, flores e inflorescências foram marcadas e acompanhadas até a formação dos frutos. Os visitantes florais foram observados ao longo do período do experimento, anotando-se a freqüência, o horário e a duração de suas visitas. G. sepium apresenta floração anual do tipo "cornucópia", com pico desta fenofase no mês de agosto. As flores estão reunidas em racemos axilares, com desenvolvimento centrípeto, ocorrendo a antese de 5 a 45 flores/dia. As flores apresentam a formação típica das papilionáceas, com corola de cor magenta, com a parte central do estandarte de cor creme, o qual funciona como guia de néctar. A antese é diurna, ocorrendo por volta da 06:00h, e a duração das flores é de aproximadamente 10 horas. Abelhas Apidae e Anthophoridae e lepidópteros Hesperiidae são os visitantes mais freqüentes, sendo Xylocopa griscesens, X. frontalis e Eulaema nigrita consideradas como principais polinizadores desta espécie. Quanto ao sistema de reprodução, G. sepium é xenôgama obrigatória, produzindo frutos e sementes somente após polinização cruzada (51,6%.The aspects of floral biology and reproductive system of Gliricidia sepium were studied from March to October of 1999, from 5:30am to 5:00pm, in an introduced population at Embrapa Semi-Árido, Petrolina, in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Fifteen plants were marked and observed every two weeks for the study of phenology. For the study of floral biology and morphology, flowers and inflorescences were marked and observed until fruit set. The visitors of flowers were observed during all time of the experiment, when frequency, time and duration of their visits were registered. G. sepium has a cornucopia pattern of flowering and the peak of this phenophase occurs in August. The flowers are grouped in axilar racemes, with centripetal development, and the anthesis occurs at 5 to 45 flowers/day. The flowers have the typical organization of papilionaceae, corolla of magenta color and the central region of flag of cream color, which functions as nectar guide. The anthesis is diurnal, occurring at around 6:00am, and the lifetime of flowers is around 10 hours. Apidae and Anthophoridae bees and Hesperiidae moths are the most frequent visitors. Xylocopa griscesens, X. frontalis and Eulaema nigrita were considered the main pollinators of this species. G. sepium is a species which produces fruits only after cross-pollination (51.6%.

  12. Comportamiento de 19 accesiones de Panicum maximum Jacq. bajo condiciones de pastoreo en un suelo de mediana fertilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Machado

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el comportamiento de 19 accesiones de Panicum maximum en suelos de mediana fertilidad. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones y parcelas de 20 m². Las rotaciones (pastoreo racional simulado se efectuaron entre 60 y 70 días (época de seca y entre 32 y 40 días (época de lluvia. Se detectó una aceptable variabilidad entre tratamientos (70,7 %. Los indicadores más variables fueron: la disponibilidad, el porcentaje de utilización, el porcentaje de hojas y la altura de las plantas. Se aplicó un análisis de conglomerados y se formaron dos grupos: tipos gigantes (grupo 1 y tipos medianos (grupo 2. Los tratamientos del grupo 1 alcanzaron una disponibilidad media de 5,0 t MS/ha/rotación y superaron en 0,7 t MS/ha/rotación a los del grupo 2. Sin embargo, estos últimos mostraron menores síntomas de clorosis (34,0 %, fueron más tolerantes a los microorganismos patógenos (25,0 % y menos afectados por la sequía (42,0 %, y presentaron mayor vigor (3,8 como media de los tres años. Se concluye que en la variabilidad tuvieron un papel fundamental la disponibilidad, la altura, el porcentaje de hojas y el porcentaje de utilización. El resto de los indicadores fue relativamente poco variable, pero también permitió enjuiciar el comportamiento de estos materiales. Se recomiendan los tipos medianos CIH-6, SIH-810 y CIH-22 como variedades precomerciales para condiciones similares a las aquí utilizadas, e incluir el tipo gigante SIH-759 en ensayos en los que se emplee el corte o el pastoreo con mayor intensidad

  13. Characterization of effluent from food processing industries and stillage treatment trial with Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. and Panicum maximum (Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Noukeu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effluents from 11 food processing industries from various sectors were characterized through analysis of physical and chemical parameters. In general, effluents pHs are between 4.07 and 7.63. Lead (Pb2+ and cadmium (Cd+ concentrations range from 0.083 to 1.025 mg/l and 0.052–0.158 mg/l respectively. The biodegradability of the effluent is very low. The principal component analysis (PCA grouped industries according to their organic matter levels; thus, stillage, livestock, molasses and sugar refinery effluents show some similarities, as well as confectionery, oil mill, dairy and brewery effluents. Forms of nitrogen measured show low levels of nitrites (NO2−, high levels of nitrates (NO3−, ammonium (NH4+ and Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN. Among these effluents, a treatment trial with Eichhornia crassipes and Panicum maximum was applied to stillage effluent from Fermencam distillery. The results show that Panicum maximum and Eichhornia crassipes reduce pollutant loads of Fermencam's wastewater.

  14. Autotetraploidia e número cromossómico em uma cultivar de Panicum maximum Jacq. (Gramineae / Poaceae

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    Caetano Creuci Maria

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o comportamento citológico e em especial o nível de ploidia de uma cultivar de P. maximum, denomi­nada Tanzânia, que, na realidade, é um ecótipo selvagem de origem africana. Foi empregada a metodologia convencional para estudos meióticos. As inflorescências foram fixadas em álcool acético 3:1 por 24 horas, transferidas para álcool a 70% e conservadas sob refrigeração. A técnica de esmaga­mento foi usada no preparo das lâminas. O corante foi o carmim propiônico a 1%. Foi considerado um mínimo de 200 células por planta. De forma geral, anormalidades meióticas ocorreram em 20% das células mães de pólen analisadas. Em todas as plantas avaliadas, o número de cromossomos observado nas diacineses foi 36. Entre 109 diacineses onde se realizou a contagem do número de cromossomos e se verificou os tipos de associações cromossômicas, 99 apresentaram multivalentes, com predomínio de tetravalentes. Tal ocorrência indica autotetraploidia, onde 2n=4x=36.

    Palavras-chave: associações cromossômicas multivalentes, autotetraplóide, cv. Tanzânia, número cromossômico.

  15. Pengaruh Perbandingan Media Tanam Gambut dan Pupuk P Terhadap Pertumbuhan Vegetatif Bibit Kelapa Sawit (Eiaeis guineensis Jacq.) di Main Nursery

    OpenAIRE

    Tirtana, Andang

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research knowing peat land exploiting as media grow and phosphate palm oil seed in Main Nursery. This research executed at green house Faculty of Agriculture North Sumatra of University, Medan started in February 2004 up to May 2004 The research uses the Factorials Group Random Sampling, with two treatment factors. Factor I, treatment media composition peat land, which 4 level, that is Go = top soil ( 100 %), Gx = peat land: top soil ( 25%:75%), G2 = peat land: top s...

  16. The Phenylpropanoid Pathway and Lignin in Defense against Ganoderma boninense Colonized Root Tissues in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha T. Govender

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Basal stem rot, caused by the basidiomycete fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is an economically devastating disease in Malaysia. Our study investigated the changes in lignin content and composition along with activity and expression of the phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes and genes in oil palm root tissues during G. boninense infection. We sampled control (non-inoculated and infected (inoculated seedlings at seven time points [1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-inoculation (wpi] in a randomized design. The expression profiles of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, and peroxidase (POD genes were monitored at 1, 2, and 3 wpi using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Seedlings at 4, 8, and 12 wpi were screened for lignin content, lignin composition, enzyme activities (PAL, CAD, and POD, growth (weight and height, and disease severity (DS. Gene expression analysis demonstrated up-regulation of PAL, CAD, and POD genes in the infected seedlings, relative to the control seedlings at 1, 2, and 3 wpi. At 2 and 3 wpi, CAD showed highest transcript levels compared to PAL and POD. DS increased progressively throughout sampling, with 5, 34, and 69% at 4, 8, and 12 wpi, respectively. Fresh weight and height of the infected seedlings were significantly lower compared to the control seedlings at 8 and 12 wpi. Lignin content of the infected seedlings at 4 wpi was significantly higher than the control seedlings, remained elicited with no change at 8 wpi, and then collapsed with a significant reduction at 12 wpi. The nitrobenzene oxidation products of oil palm root lignin yielded both syringyl and guaiacyl monomers. Accumulation of lignin in the infected seedlings was in parallel to increased syringyl monomers, at 4 and 8 wpi. The activities of PAL and CAD enzymes in the infected seedlings at DS = 5–34% were significantly higher than the control seedlings and thereafter collapsed at DS = 69%.

  17. Rendimiento y calidad de semilla de pasto guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq.) cv. Tanzania usando la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4

    OpenAIRE

    Bertín Maurilio Joaquín Torres; Miguel Angel Moreno Carrillo; Santiago Joaquín Cancino; Alfonso Hernández Garay; Jorge Pérez Pérez; Armando Gómez Vázquez

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4 en el rendimiento y calidad de semilla en Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. El experimento se realizó durante el 2001 en Tejupilco, Estado de México. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron, T1=testigo, T2=4 mg L-1 de ingrediente activo (i.a.) aplicados al inicio de antesis, T3=4 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados antes del espigamiento e inicio de antesis, T4=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados al inicio de antesis, T5=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados ante...

  18. Rendimiento y calidad de semilla de pasto guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania usando la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4

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    Bertín Maurilio Joaquín Torres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4 en el rendimiento y calidad de semilla en Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. El experimento se realizó durante el 2001 en Tejupilco, Estado de México. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron, T1=testigo, T2=4 mg L-1 de ingrediente activo (i.a. aplicados al inicio de antesis, T3=4 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados antes del espigamiento e inicio de antesis, T4=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados al inicio de antesis, T5=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados antes del espigamiento e inicio de antesis y T6=12 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados únicamente al inicio de antesis. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar, con tres repeticiones. Se evaluó el rendimiento de semilla total (RST, rendimiento de semilla pura (RSP, número de panículas m-2, longitud de panícula, semillas producidas y cosechadas por panícula, peso de 1,000 semillas y germinación. Se detectaron diferencias (P0.05 entre tratamientos. Se concluye que la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4 incrementó el rendimiento de semilla de P. maximum cv. tanzania, independientemente de la concentración y momento de aplicación. La calidad de la semilla, no fue afectada por ninguno de los tratamientos evaluados.

  19. Rendimiento y calidad de semilla de pasto guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq.) cv. Tanzania usando la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín Torres, Bertin Maurilio; Moreno Carrillo, Miguel Angel; Joaquín Cancino, Santiago; Hernández Garay, Alfonso; Pérez Pérez, Jorge; Gómez Vázquez, Armando

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4 en el rendimiento y calidad de semilla en Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. El experimento se realizó durante el 2001 en Tejupilco, Estado de México. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron: T1=testigo; T2=4 mg L-1 de ingrediente activo (i.a.) aplicados al inicio de antesis; T3=4 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados antes del espigamiento e inicio de antesis; T4=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados al inicio de antesis; T5=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados ante...

  20. Ensayo de disolución para las tabletas de Tilo ® elaboradas con extracto seco de Justicia pectoralis Jacq

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    Jorge Enrique Rodríguez Chanfrau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el ensayo de disolución es una técnica analítica de empleo común en un laboratorio farmacéutico. Un proceso tecnológico para la elaboración de tabletas fue desarrollado. El ingrediente farmacéutico activo usado fue Tilo ® extracto seco. Objetivo: el objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar y validar un ensayo de disolución para evaluar la estabilidad y la calidad de dicho producto. Método: se utilizaron muestras de un lote experimental, un lote placebo y lotes pilotos de tabletas de Tilo ® de 100 mg. Se evaluaron como medios de disolución agua destilada y solución de ácido clorhídrico 0,1 mol/L, realizándose perfiles de disolución a 50, 75 y 100 rpm, empleándose los dos tipos de aparatos establecidos en la literatura para este ensayo (cesta y paleta. El contenido de cumarina fue analizado por HPLC. El ensayo fue validado según la USP. Resultados: los resultados mostraron que el agua destilada fue un medio de disolución adecuado, alcanzándose porcientos de disolución de la droga por encima del 85 % a los 30 minutos, no existiendo diferencias significativas entre los tipos de aparatos recomendados por la USP. Mientras que, los perfiles de disolución a diferentes tiempos y velocidades de agitación mostraron una liberación gradual del principio activo en el tiempo, donde a medida que se incrementa la velocidad de agitación, se incrementa el porcentaje de disolución de la droga en el medio. La validación del ensayo demostró que el mismo era específico y preciso. Conclusiones: se estableció como ensayo de disolución las siguientes condiciones de trabajo: Aparato: paleta, 100 rpm; medio: agua destilada, 500 mL; tiempo: 60 minutos y Temperatura: 37 ± 0,5 ºC.

  1. Repeatability, number of harvests, and phenotypic stability of dry matter yield and quality traits of Panicum maximum jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Duarte Fernandes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of superior forage genotypes is based on agronomic traits assayed in repeated measures. The questions are how repeatable the performance of individual genotypes is and how many harvests are needed to select the best genotypes. The objectives were to estimate repeatability coefficients of dry matter yield (DMY and forage quality, their phenotypic stability and the number of harvests needed for an accurate selection. Two randomized complete block design experiments data with 24 genotypes each, undergoing 12 and 16 harvests, over a period of 2 and 3 years, respectively, were used. The DMY repeatability estimates ranged from 0.42 to 0.55, suggesting a low heritability. The mean numbers of repeated measures were 5 and 7 harvests for 0.80 and 0.85 accuracy, respectively. The inclusion of the first two harvests negatively affects the estimates. Repeatability for quality traits ranged from 0.30 to 0.69, indicating low to moderate heritability.

  2. EL RIEGO Y FERTILIZACIÓN EN LA CALIDAD POSTCOSECHA DEL ZAPOTE MAMEY [Pouteria sapota (Jacq. H. E. Moore & Stearn

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    M. R. Vallejo-Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del riego y fertilización sobre la calidad en postcosecha del zapote mamey (Pouteria sapota. Árboles de 20 años de edad provenientes de semilla fueron sometidos a dos frecuencias de riego por gravedad: tradicional (cada 10 días y controlado a 20 milibares (cada 3 días; además, se evaluaron cuatro mezclas de nitrógeno (N, fósforo (P y potasio (K: 0, 1, 1.5 y 2 kg de NPK al año, divididas en seis aplicaciones bimestrales. Las variables evaluadas en pulpa de frutos en madurez fisiológica (MF y madurez comercial (MC fueron: acidez, sólidos solubles totales (SST, firmeza, color (L,a,b, fenoles y carotenoides totales, pérdida de peso (PP y concentración de NPK. El riego controlado a 20 mb mejoró la apariencia física de la pulpa (aumento del brillo en MC e incrementó la concentración de carotenoides. La fertilización, también aumentó la concentración de carotenoides en frutos, mejorando su calidad y además, la pérdida de peso por transpiración fue menor respecto a los frutos de árboles no fertilizados. 2 kg de NPK causó mayor luminosidad en MC y 1.5 kg de NPK produjeron frutos con pulpa más roja. La disminución de la firmeza en frutos con MF causado por la fertilización con 1.5 y 2 kg de NPK, condiciona a un manejo cuidadoso del producto durante su cosecha y evitar heridas y golpes que afecten el proceso normal de maduración.

  3. Chloroplast Genome of the Folk Medicine and Vegetable Plant Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) Gaertn.: Gene Organization, Comparative and Phylogenetic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Li, Yuan; Yang, Hongyuan; Zhou, Boyang

    2018-04-09

    The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Talinum paniculatum (Caryophyllale), a source of pharmaceutical efficacy similar to ginseng, and a widely distributed and planted edible vegetable, were sequenced and analyzed. The cp genome size of T. paniculatum is 156,929 bp, with a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,751 bp separated by a large single copy (LSC) region of 86,898 bp and a small single copy (SSC) region of 18,529 bp. The genome contains 83 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and four pseudogenes. Fifty one (51) repeat units and ninety two (92) simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were found in the genome. The pseudogene rpl23 (Ribosomal protein L23) was insert AATT than other Caryophyllale species by sequence alignment, which located in IRs region. The gene of trnK-UUU (tRNA-Lys) and rpl16 (Ribosomal protein L16) have larger introns in T. paniculatum , and the existence of matK (maturase K) genes, which usually located in the introns of trnK-UUU , rich sequence divergence in Caryophyllale. Complete cp genome comparison with other eight Caryophyllales species indicated that the differences between T. paniculatum and P. oleracea were very slight, and the most highly divergent regions occurred in intergenic spacers. Comparisons of IR boundaries among nine Caryophyllales species showed that T. paniculatum have larger IRs region and the contraction is relatively slight. The phylogenetic analysis among 35 Caryophyllales species and two outgroup species revealed that T. paniculatum and P. oleracea do not belong to the same family. All these results give good opportunities for future identification, barcoding of Talinum species, understanding the evolutionary mode of Caryophyllale cp genome and molecular breeding of T. paniculatum with high pharmaceutical efficacy.

  4. Pollen morphology and study of the visitors (Hymenoptera, Apidae) of Solanum stramoniifolium Jacq. (Solanaceae) in Central Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Alexandre Coletto da; Kinupp,Valdely Ferreira; Absy,Maria Lucia; Kerr,Warwick Estevam

    2004-01-01

    The Solanaceae family has a wide distribution, mainly in the tropical and subtropical areas of South America. Solanum L. is one of the most important genera of the family with approximately 1,200 species. The objective of this work was to study the floral biology, pollen morphology as well as to investigate the bee visitors of S. stramoniifolium. Preliminary data indicate the presence of one species of stinging bee and four species of stingless bees as visitors to S. stramoniifolium. The poll...

  5. Hubungan Metilasi DNA dengan Ekspresi Gen MADS-box pada Buah Mantel Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Anischan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The presence of mantled fruit on large-scale clonal production of oil palm had trully decreased the oil productivity. Mantled phenotype is likely to be that of an epigenetic change involving DNA methylation and the MADS-box transcription factor gene which encoded floral organ homeotic transformation. The objectives of this research were to quantify the degree of methylation which determined fruit abnormality through Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC and to study its correlation with the MADS-box EgAGL6, EgAG2, and EgAGA genes expressed on mantled fruit derived from oil palm clonal plants which have been quantified using Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR. This research was arranged in two replications for each gene and cDNA. The expression of the target genes were compared to EF1-α1 as the reference gene. Through the Least Significant Difference (LSD Test at 95% confidence level of qPCR result, EgAGL6 expression was significantly lower in mantled fruit which decreased from 1.88 fold in Abn m to 0.46 fold in Abn. EgAG2 expression was increased non-significantly from 0.91 fold in Abn m to 1.13 fold in Abn, while EgAGA expression was higher in mantled which increased significantly from 1.48 fold in Abn m to 1.71 fold  in Abn. Nuclease S1 digestion and UPLC revealed the genome-wide increase in DNA methylation on mantled fruit (18.33-19.55% compared to its normal counterparts (5.67%. This increased in global DNA methylation was showed by the significant decreased in EgAGL6 transcript level of mantled fruit. This gene assumed to be involved in the development of mantled fruit. Keywords: DNA-methylation, MADS-box genes, Mantled fruit, Quantitative Real-Time PCR

  6. The Phenylpropanoid Pathway and Lignin in Defense against Ganoderma boninense Colonized Root Tissues in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Nisha T; Mahmood, Maziah; Seman, Idris A; Wong, Mui-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Basal stem rot, caused by the basidiomycete fungus, Ganoderma boninense , is an economically devastating disease in Malaysia. Our study investigated the changes in lignin content and composition along with activity and expression of the phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes and genes in oil palm root tissues during G. boninense infection. We sampled control (non-inoculated) and infected (inoculated) seedlings at seven time points [1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-inoculation (wpi)] in a randomized design. The expression profiles of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), and peroxidase (POD) genes were monitored at 1, 2, and 3 wpi using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Seedlings at 4, 8, and 12 wpi were screened for lignin content, lignin composition, enzyme activities (PAL, CAD, and POD), growth (weight and height), and disease severity (DS). Gene expression analysis demonstrated up-regulation of PAL, CAD, and POD genes in the infected seedlings, relative to the control seedlings at 1, 2, and 3 wpi. At 2 and 3 wpi, CAD showed highest transcript levels compared to PAL and POD. DS increased progressively throughout sampling, with 5, 34, and 69% at 4, 8, and 12 wpi, respectively. Fresh weight and height of the infected seedlings were significantly lower compared to the control seedlings at 8 and 12 wpi. Lignin content of the infected seedlings at 4 wpi was significantly higher than the control seedlings, remained elicited with no change at 8 wpi, and then collapsed with a significant reduction at 12 wpi. The nitrobenzene oxidation products of oil palm root lignin yielded both syringyl and guaiacyl monomers. Accumulation of lignin in the infected seedlings was in parallel to increased syringyl monomers, at 4 and 8 wpi. The activities of PAL and CAD enzymes in the infected seedlings at DS = 5-34% were significantly higher than the control seedlings and thereafter collapsed at DS = 69%.

  7. Radiosensibility curve with 60 Co in guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) cv. 'K-249'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajonchere, G.; Mesa, A.R.; Prieto, M.; Sánchez-Quiroz, E.

    1995-01-01

    In order to select the adequate radiosensibility criterion and useful dosis were studied the effects of gamma radiation on the embryogenic callus of guinea cv. K-249. The application dosages were 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 400 Gy and the measures evaluated were: increase of fresh mass of the callus in fresh medium, number of shoots, plantlets and total by callus and by gram of callus in regeneration medium. It was determined that the curves shaped with the number of shoots, plantlets and total by callus and by gram of callus were more radiosensible than that shoped with increase of fresh mass of the callus; as criterion of radiosensibility in this cultivar the total number of shoots and plantlets from gram of callus was selected for it's simplicity and veracity as much as in the evaluation and in the results. The useful dosis that determined one GR 10, 20, 50 and 70 percent were 16, 20, 29 and 160 Gy respectively. Albino shoots were also observed whose values were randomizely showed and it was observed albinism in 0 dosis. (author) [es

  8. TÉCNICAS SUSTENTABLES PARA EL MANEJO DE LA PRODUCCIÓN DEL CHILE HABANERO (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna-Esquivel G

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó una revisión de las investigaciones reportadas en diversas áreas de la agronomía que se pueden aplicar al sistema de producción de chile habanero. Se recopilaron algunos trabajos relacionados con la sustentabilidad propuestos para el cultivo en cuanto a nutrición, manejo de humedad, aplicación de productos hormonales, utilización de productos orgánicos y aplicación de microorganismos. Se concluye que es necesario conocer más a fondo los componentes involucrados en el sistema de producción del cultivo y así lograr una mejor relación beneficio-costo para el productor, de una manera realmente sustentable.

  9. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. mediated by microprojectile bombardment of PHB biosynthesis genes into embryogenic calli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Parveez eGhulam Kadir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable plastics, mainly polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB, which are traditionally produced by bacterial cells, have been produced in the cells of more than 15 plant species. Since the production of biodegradable plastics and the synthesis of oil in plants share the same substrate, acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA, producing PHB in oil bearing crops, such as oil palm, will be advantageous. In this study, three bacterial genes, bktB, phaB and phaC, which are required for the synthesis of PHB and selectable marker gene, bar, for herbicide Basta resistant, were transformed into embryogenic calli. A number of transformed embryogenic lines resistant to herbicide Basta were obtained and were later regenerated to produce few hundred plantlets. Molecular analyses, including PCR, Southern blot and real-time PCR have demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes in the oil palm genome. HPLC and Nile Blue A staining analyses confirmed the synthesis of PHB in some of the plantlets.

  10. Actividad in vitro de la mezcla de alcaloides de Ervatamia coronaria (Jacq Staff. Apocynaceae sobre amastigotes de Leishmania braziliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Moreno Rodríguez

    Full Text Available A leishmaniose é considerada uma importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade a nível mundial, principalmente nos países tropicais. As formas cutânea e mucocutânea são causadas, entre outras espécies, por Leishmania braziliensis. Na procura de compostos leishmanicidas de origem natural, foi estudada a atividade da mistura de alcalóides de Ervatamia coronaria (Apocynaceae contra amastigotas de L. braziliensis em 6 concentrações diferentes (1, 10, 20, 25, 50 e 100 µg/mL. Foram tratados macrófagos de ratos da linha J774, infectados com promastigotas de L. braziliensis, com a mistura de alcalóides 1 hora após-infecção e diariamente por 3 dias sem mudança de meio. As experiências de citotoxicidade foram efetuadas sobre os macrófagos com azul tripam. Todos os cultivos foram feitos de forma triplicada e os grupos de controle não foram submetidos à mistura de alcalóides. Foi obtido que o composto adicionado exerce atividade doses/dependente sobre a parasita. No entanto, as concentrações mais altas (50 e 100 µg/mL, adicionado durante 3 dias, mostraram os maiores índices de infecção, provavelmente devido a diminuição no número de macrófagos, sobre os quais não foi observado efeito tóxico do tratamento durante 24 horas DL50/24h = 233,52 µg/mL. Os resultados dessa pesquisa revelaram uma nova atividade farmacológica de alcalóides da espécie Ervatamia coronaria sobre a forma amastigota de Leishmania braziliensis, com IC50 = 2,6 e 12,4 µg/mL sem mostrar toxicidade sobre a célula hospedeira.

  11. Analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from multiple tissues of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Weng-Wah

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm is the second largest source of edible oil which contributes to approximately 20% of the world's production of oils and fats. In order to understand the molecular biology involved in in vitro propagation, flowering, efficient utilization of nitrogen sources and root diseases, we have initiated an expressed sequence tag (EST analysis on oil palm. Results In this study, six cDNA libraries from oil palm zygotic embryos, suspension cells, shoot apical meristems, young flowers, mature flowers and roots, were constructed. We have generated a total of 14537 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from these libraries, from which 6464 tentative unique contigs (TUCs and 2129 singletons were obtained. Approximately 6008 of these tentative unique genes (TUGs have significant matches to the non-redundant protein database, from which 2361 were assigned to one or more Gene Ontology categories. Predominant transcripts and differentially expressed genes were identified in multiple oil palm tissues. Homologues of genes involved in many aspects of flower development were also identified among the EST collection, such as CONSTANS-like, AGAMOUS-like (AGL2, AGL20, LFY-like, SQUAMOSA, SQUAMOSA binding protein (SBP etc. Majority of them are the first representatives in oil palm, providing opportunities to explore the cause of epigenetic homeotic flowering abnormality in oil palm, given the importance of flowering in fruit production. The transcript levels of two flowering-related genes, EgSBP and EgSEP were analysed in the flower tissues of various developmental stages. Gene homologues for enzymes involved in oil biosynthesis, utilization of nitrogen sources, and scavenging of oxygen radicals, were also uncovered among the oil palm ESTs. Conclusion The EST sequences generated will allow comparative genomic studies between oil palm and other monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, development of gene-targeted markers for the reference genetic map, design and fabrication of DNA array for future studies of oil palm. The outcomes of such studies will contribute to oil palm improvements through the establishment of breeding program using marker-assisted selection, development of diagnostic assays using gene targeted markers, and discovery of candidate genes related to important agronomic traits of oil palm.

  12. SÍNTOMAS ASOCIADOS A LA DEFICIENCIA DE BORO EN LA PALMA ACEITERA (Elaeis guineensis JACQ. EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco V. Guti\\u00E9rrez-Soto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es brindar información fisiológica relativa a las funciones, la disponibilidad, la economía y la deficiencia de boro en las plantas, con énfasis en la palma aceitera cultivada en Coto, Costa Rica. Se exponen las generalidades sobre la química del boro en el suelo y en las plantas, y se discuten sus posibles funciones estructurales, metabólicas y morfogenéticas. Se resalta su papel en la formación y la estabilidad de la pared celular, el transporte de azúcares, el control de los niveles de auxinas y en el desarrollo reproductivo. Se compara la susceptibilidad relativa de las hojas y las raíces a la deficiencia de boro. Se describen los síntomas de la deficiencia de boro observados en la palma aceitera, los posibles mecanismos causales y los métodos apropiados para su diagnóstico. Se discuten además las terapias, formulaciones químicas y métodos agronómicos disponibles para su corrección.

  13. The Susceptibility of Some Oil Palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq Progenies to Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti and Mariau, (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    OpenAIRE

    S.O.N. Dimkpa

    2010-01-01

    Damage by the oil palm leaf miner C. lam eensis has been observed in all oil palm growing countriesin Africa causing wide spread defoliation and result to considerable reduction in the yield of fresh fruit bunches(ffb). The understanding of the susceptibility levels of different oil palm progenies to the oil palm leaf minerC. lameensis become highly imperative in the development and incorporation of host plant resistance in theintegrated pest management strategy for the management of the oil ...

  14. Cytokinin Differences in In Vitro Cultures and Inflorescences from Normal and Mantled Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ooi, S. E.; Novák, Ondřej; Doležal, Karel; Ishak, Z.; Ong-Abdullah, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2013), s. 865-874 ISSN 0721-7595 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cytokinin * Elaeis guineensis * Inflorescence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.058, year: 2013

  15. Preliminary studies on nitrogenous fertilization of oil palm (Eleais guineensis Jacq) with the use of N-15 as tracer element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basantes, Emilio; Calvache, Marcelo

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out at INIAP-Santo Domingo Experimental Station to study the effect of total and partial fertilization with N and to determine the absorption of N applied 2 and 3 m from the trunck. The obtained results point out that in 5 year old oil palm partial fertilization, and that in 8 year old oil palms fertilizer applied about 3 meters from the trunck was 44 percent better used by the plant. The absorbed 1 5 N is stored in the new leaves and transported preferably from the old tissues to other plant organs; where from severe N-defficiency in these tissues can cause yellowing leaves and dryness of leaves

  16. Characterization of promoter of EgPAL1, a novel PAL gene from the oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Chong Yu Lok; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi; Abu Seman, Idris; Abdullah, Mohd Puad

    2018-02-01

    The oil palm EgPAL1 gene promoter and its regulatory region were functional as a promoter in the heterologous system of Arabidopsis according to the cis-acting elements present in that region. The promoter was developmentally regulated, vascular tissue specific and responsive to water stress agents. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.24) is the key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway which plays important roles in plant development and adaptation. To date, there is no report on the study of PAL from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), an economically important oil crop. In this study, the 5' regulatory sequence of a highly divergent oil palm PAL gene (EgPAL1) was isolated and fused with GUS in Arabidopsis to create two transgenic plants carrying the minimal promoter with (2302 bp) and without its regulatory elements (139 bp). The regulatory sequence contained cis-acting elements known to be important for plant development and stress response including the AC-II element for lignin biosynthesis and several stress responsive elements. The promoter and its regulatory region were fully functional in Arabidopsis. Its activities were characterised by two common fundamental features of PAL which are responsive to plant internal developmental programme and external factors. The promoter was developmentally regulated in certain organs; highly active in young organs but less active or inactive in mature organs. The presence of the AC elements and global activity of the EgPAL1 promoter in all organs resembled the property of lignin-related genes. The existence of the MBS element and enhancement of the promoter activity by PEG reflected the behaviour of drought-responsive genes. Our findings provide a platform for evaluating oil palm gene promoters in the heterologous system of Arabidopsis and give insights into the activities of EgPAL1 promoter in oil palm.

  17. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) mediated by microprojectile bombardment of PHB biosynthesis genes into embryogenic calli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Bahariah, Bohari; Ayub, Nor Hanin; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Rasid, Omar Abdul; Tarmizi, Ahmad Hashim; Ishak, Zamzuri

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable plastics, mainly polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), which are traditionally produced by bacterial cells, have been produced in the cells of more than 15 plant species. Since the production of biodegradable plastics and the synthesis of oil in plants share the same substrate, acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), producing PHB in oil bearing crops, such as oil palm, will be advantageous. In this study, three bacterial genes, bktB, phaB, and phaC, which are required for the synthesis of PHB and selectable marker gene, bar, for herbicide Basta resistant, were transformed into embryogenic calli. A number of transformed embryogenic lines resistant to herbicide Basta were obtained and were later regenerated to produce few hundred plantlets. Molecular analyses, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot, and real-time PCR have demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes in the oil palm genome. HPLC and Nile blue A staining analyses confirmed the synthesis of PHB in some of the plantlets. PMID:26322053

  18. Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) on the main nursery in a greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigalingging, R.; Sumono; Rahmansyah, N.

    2018-02-01

    The estimation of crop water requirement is an important part of oil palm plantation because fruit yield of oil palm can be affected by water stress. Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of oil palm using Tenera variety at 7-12 months old was determined. Soil texture was sandy loam with 73.8 % sand, 10.8 % silt, 15.77 % clay and 1.41 % organic matter. The results showed that the oil palm getting older decreased significantly in bulk density, particle density and porosity of soil caused the root of oil palm enlarged (19.42 g to 53.37 g). This was indicated by increased the dry root weight. On the other hand, the value of evapotranspiration and crop coefficient increased significantly, that was 1.85 to 2.00 mm/day and 0.8 to 0.87 respectively.

  19. Population dynamics of weeds in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) circle weeding area affected by herbicide application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, S.; Purba, E.; Yakub, E. N.

    2018-02-01

    Weed problems in oil palm field were mainly overcomed by herbicide application. The application certain herbicides may lead to rapid population dynamic of certain species due to their different response to herbicides. Some species may less susceptible to certain herbicide whereas other species more susceptible. The objective of this study was to determine the population dynamic of weed species in circle weeding of oil palm in Serdang Bedagai, North Sumatra. Six treatments using glyphosate singly and mixture compared with manual weeding were evaluated for weed control. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with four replicates. Each treatment consisted of four circle weedings. The results showed that glyphosate 720 g a.i/ha + indaziflam 50 g a.i/hareduced seedbank and regrowth of weeds. Up to 12 weeks after application glyphosate 720 g a.i/ha + indaziflam 50 g a.i/ha is 29.46% total weeds dry weight compared to manual weeding. The effect of herbicide application on changes on the weed composition and weed seedbank are affected by the characteristic of herbicides and weed response to herbicide application.

  20. Adaptive properties of Adansonia digitata L. (Baobab) & Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R.Br. (African Locust Bean) to drought stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouda, Zoewinde Henri-Noel

    been suggested as a strategy to improve local population livelihoods. The present thesis studies the adaptive properties to drought stress of A. digitata and P. biglobosa at nursery level, two species native to African savannas. Nursery trials were established with seeds of seven provenances of each...... of the two species. Three water regimes were applied, corresponding to 100%, 75% and 50% of field capacity. The effects of drought stress on the seedling survival, growth and dry matter partitioning was investigated on both species, and for A. digitata the experiment also included seedling morphology...... and physiology. A. digitata had a much higher survival rate than P. biglobosa. However, both species showed a strong reduction of the relative growth rate (diameter and height) and the total dry weight under the effect of applied water stress. Despite differences between provenances of P. biglobosa...

  1. Genetic characterization of chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz.] landraces of North Eastern Hills of India and conservation measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Veerendra Kumar; Pandey, Avinash; Jha, Anjani Kumar; Ngachan, S V

    2017-10-01

    Chayote or chow-chow is an underutilized cucurbit vegetable crop, widely cultivated by farmers in the backyards and Jhum lands for its tender leaves, fruits and tuberous root. In order to initiate crop improvement program in this crop, the present study was undertaken to assess the genetic variations in the 74 chow-chow landraces collected from the North Eastern Hill region of India. Wide variations for fruit colors, fruit length (6.5-21.5 cm), fruit width (4.2-10.7 cm), fruit weight (60-560 g), vitamin-C (2.6-13.8 mg/100 g), reducing sugar (0.18-2.77%), total sugar (1.09-2.94%) and phenol content (0.17-3.85 mg/100 g FW) were recorded among the landraces. All the landraces were also characterized using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. In RAPD analyses, out of 28 primers a total of 198 reproducible amplicons were formed at an average of 7.01 per primer and an overall polymorphism of 88.38%. Eight fragments were specific to landraces with light green fruits. Four fragments were observed to be specific to RCSC-22 (dark green fruits) and another four specific to a RCSC-30 (pale yellow fruits). Out of 30 ISSR, only 5 primers generated a total of 32 reproducible amplicons with an average of 6.4 per primer and overall polymorphism of 62.5%. The pair wise similarity coefficient values ranged from 0.55 to 0.96. The grouping of landraces in cluster analysis was found to be independent of their respective geographic locations. The cuttings of suckers and shoot top (2 months old) treated with indole-3-butyric acid (200 mg l -1 ) provide an alternative for the conservation of the diverse genetic materials to the researchers.

  2. Traditional knowledge on integrated pest and weed management in chayote (Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw. crops from localities of Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alfredo Rodríguez-Larramendi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in Villaflores and Villa Corzo, located in Chiapas State of Mexico. Specifically, throughout an ethno-agronomical approach, semi-structured interviews were designed and applied to the chayote producers who were selected by random routes. The results indicate the 57.89% of chayote producers in both municipalities, have allowed to control weeds in their crops, and being a higher proportion represented by Villaflores. Given these concerns, they prefer to control weeds throughout traditional methods, basically using mattocks with frequencies of 15 to 30 days after sowing or two to four times per cycle of crop production. Both pest and diseases are mainly controlled throughout chemical methods application. A preference to perform control among periods of higher rainfall or drought is not distinguished. A considerable percentage, which reaches 44% of the interviewed population among both municipalities, report they do not need to control pests and crop diseases.

  3. Sechium edule (Jacq. Swartz, a New Cultivar with Antiproliferative Potential in a Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Salazar-Aguilar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sechium edule Perla Negra cultivar is a recently-obtained biological material whose progenitors are S. edule var. nigrum minor and S. edule var. amarus silvestrys, the latter of which has been reported to have antiproliferative activity against the HeLa P-388 and L-929 cancer cell lines. The present study aimed to determine if the methanolic extract of the fruit of the Perla Negra cultivar had the same biological activity. The methanolic extract was phytochemically characterized by thin layer chromatography (TLC and column chromatography (CC, identifying the terpenes and flavonoids. The compounds identified via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were Cucurbitacins B, D, E, and I for the terpene fractions, and Rutin, Phlorizidin, Myricetin, Quercetin, Naringenin, Phloretin, Apigenin, and Galangin for the flavonoid fractions. Biological activity was evaluated with different concentrations of the methanolic extract in the HeLa cell line and normal lymphocytes. The methanolic extract inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells (IC50 1.85 µg·mL−1, but the lymphocytes were affected by the extract (IC50 30.04 µg·mL−1. Some fractions, and the pool of all of them, showed inhibition higher than 80% at a concentration of 2.11 µg·mL−1. Therefore, the biological effect shown by the methanolic extract of the Perla Negra has some specificity in inhibiting tumor cells and not normal cells; an unusual feature among molecules investigated as potential biomedical agents.

  4. Hongos causantes de enfermedades postcosecha en chayote (Sechium edule(Jacq. SW. y su control in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siul D. Romero Velazquez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El fruto de chayote (Sechium edule (Jaqc. Sw. es una hortaliza de exportación de importancia para México y Costa Rica. El proceso comercial exige cumplir con estándares de calidad, que implican frutos sanos y libres de defectos. Sin embargo, debido a las condiciones de alta humedad que se desarrollan en los frutos empacados en películas plásticas, se han presentado rechazos en el mercado de exportación, por la presencia de enfermedades fungosas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar morfológica (microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido y molecularmente (PCR: Polimerase Chain Reaction las especies de hongos causales de las principales enfermedades postcosecha de chayote en frutos infectados procedentes de huertas comerciales para exportación, así como probar in vitro la efectividad de diversos productos comerciales en la inhibición del crecimiento de dichos hongos. Los resultados mostraron a Didymella bryoniae como el causante de “gomosis de las cucurbitáceas” y a Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani como causales de fusariosis o ahogamiento de guías; estos patógenos dañan la parte basal y media de frutos comerciales, además de Chaetomium globosum, un asociado al proceso infeccioso de Fusariumsp., como saprófito no patógeno. La inoculación con Bacillus subtilis presentó una inhibición efectiva (0,01 mg.l-1 i.a en las pruebas in vitro contra Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani; el fungicida más efectivo contra los 2 primeros fue Tebuconazole-trifloxystrobin, con una DL50 de 0,0116 y 0,0106 mg.l-1 respectivamente; no así contra F. solani, cuyo mayor control fue registrado con procloraz, con DL50 de 0,0042 mg.l-1. Estos resultados contribuyen al reconocimiento de las enfermedades fungosas más importantes en chayote y su perspectiva de control durante el manejo postcosecha de frutos para exportación.

  5. Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz, a New Cultivar with Antiproliferative Potential in a Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Aguilar, Sandra; Ruiz-Posadas, Lucero Del Mar; Cadena-Iñiguez, Jorge; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Aguiñiga-Sánchez, Itzen; Rivera-Martínez, Ana Rocío; Aguirre-Medina, Juan Francisco

    2017-07-25

    The Sechium edule Perla Negra cultivar is a recently-obtained biological material whose progenitors are S. edule var. nigrum minor and S. edule var. amarus silvestrys, the latter of which has been reported to have antiproliferative activity against the HeLa P-388 and L-929 cancer cell lines. The present study aimed to determine if the methanolic extract of the fruit of the Perla Negra cultivar had the same biological activity. The methanolic extract was phytochemically characterized by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography (CC), identifying the terpenes and flavonoids. The compounds identified via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were Cucurbitacins B, D, E, and I for the terpene fractions, and Rutin, Phlorizidin, Myricetin, Quercetin, Naringenin, Phloretin, Apigenin, and Galangin for the flavonoid fractions). Biological activity was evaluated with different concentrations of the methanolic extract in the HeLa cell line and normal lymphocytes. The methanolic extract inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells (IC 50 1.85 µg·mL -1 ), but the lymphocytes were affected by the extract (IC 50 30.04 µg·mL -1 ). Some fractions, and the pool of all of them, showed inhibition higher than 80% at a concentration of 2.11 µg·mL -1 . Therefore, the biological effect shown by the methanolic extract of the Perla Negra has some specificity in inhibiting tumor cells and not normal cells; an unusual feature among molecules investigated as potential biomedical agents.

  6. Composition chimique du netetu, condiment alimentaire produit par fermentation des graines de caroubier africain Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wathelet B.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of netetu, a food condiment from fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds. The seed oils and cakes of netetu of different origins available on the Senegalian market have been studied to evaluate the nutritional potentialities of this important food condiment used in many African countries. The total oil content ranged from 141 to 349 g per kg. Careful gas chromatography and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry investigations revealed seven major fatty acids among which linoleic (41.9-46.8/ of the total fatty acids, oleic (12.6-14.6/, palmitic (10.2-11.3/, stearic (10.0-13.4/, and behenic (12.6-13.4/ predominate. Significant differences were observed between fermented and non-fermented seeds as well as between netetu of different origins. The tocopherol content was found very low (17.7 to 30.6 mg per 100g fat. The total amino acid patterns showed that beside high level of proteins (331 a 540 g per kg and interesting levels of essential constituents, there is an important deficiency of tryptophane, cysteine, methionine and threonine.

  7. Acute oral toxicity and cytotoxicological evaluation of the ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucas Nicolau

    2015-02-02

    Feb 2, 2015 ... anatomic differences between S. saman, S. innopinada and S. tubulosa. ... Preparation of the extract. The ethanolic extract of the pods ... voucher specimen was deposited under TEPB number – 27.261. Animals. Female mice ...

  8. Measuring customer satisfaction using SERQUAL survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ardeshir Tajzadeh Namin; Niko Pilevary; Aidin Tajzadeh Namin

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this research is on assessing the quality of services of Tehran’s Saman bank and the available gap between customer’s expectation and perception. Also the relationship between customer’s satisfaction and each dimension of service quality (ie: reliability, tangibility, responsiveness, assurance and empathy) and ranking them accordingly, is investigated. The statistical population of this research is consisted of Tehran’s Saman bank customers. The research methods of this study are...

  9. Effect of phosphate - solubilizing bacteria and compost on the nutritional characteristics of the oil palm crop (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. in Casanare, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaría García

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with interest to include biological practices in fertilization programs for commercially important crops, the effect of a bioinoculant application based on phosphate solubilizing bacteria along with compost was evaluated on oil palm cultivation in the nursery stage and in a definitive area. The five treatments that were evaluated included: (C compost, (CQ compost and chemical fertilizers 50/50, (IC compost and inoculant, (IQ chemical fertilizers and inoculant and (ICQ inoculant, compost and chemical fertilizers 50/50; as a positive control it was used a plant group fertilized with traditional chemical compounds. Organic matter was added at 2% (w/w at nursery stage and 15 kg/plant in the definitive area. Response variables includedagronomic variables were evaluated (total height, height to bifurcation, bulb diameter and number of leaves and soil physicochemical variables (pH, oxidizable organic carbon (OOC, extractable phosphorus and total boron, measured during 8 months in the nursery area and 6 months in the definitive area. The results showed that the evaluated compost constitutes an alternative for palm fertilization in the definitive area, as source of nutrients that meet crop demand at this stage of the crop, matching the nutritional levels of the control plants (P≥0.005. Meanwhile, in the nursery area, chemical fertilization is essential to ensure the quality of the plants during the first stage of growth, since, at this stage, plants require high amount of N, which is not supplied by the compost. Finally, it was not possible to demonstrate the promoting effect of the microbial inoculant on plant growth, so it is necessary to complement this research in regard to this product

  10. ANALISIS ENERGI MASUKAN-KELUARAN PADA PROSES PRODUKSI KELAPA SAWIT (Elaesis guineensis jacq. Input-Output Energy Analyisis in Oil Palm Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Haryanto

    2012-03-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis energi masukan-keluaran dan mengidentifikasi kemungkinan penghematan energi pada proses budidaya kelapa sawit. Penelitian dilakukan di PTPN VII Unit Usaha Rejosari, Lampung Selatan dengan mengamati semua energi yang digunakan dan dihasilkan. Energi masukan terdiri dari tenaga manusia, bahan bakar, energi tidak langsung dari pupuk, pestisida, dan alat-mesin pertanian. Energi keluaran berasal dari tandan buah segar (TBS dengan komponen minyak sawit, minyak inti sawit, serat, cangkang, dan tandan kosong, serta pelepah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa budidaya kelapa sawit memerlukan energi masukan sebesar 57,63 GJ.ha-1  dan menghasilkan energi 339,14 GJ.ha-1. Sebagian besar energi masukan adalah penggunaan pupuk yang mencapai 31,22 GJ.ha-1  (54,18 % dari total energi masukan. Berdasarkan tahapan budidaya, maka pemeliharaan tanaman produktif memerlukan energi yang paling besar yaitu 33,06 GJ.ha-1  (57,37 %. Budidaya kelapa sawit menghasilkan energi neto 281,51 GJ.ha-1 dengan rasio energi 5,88, produktivitas energi 0,258 kg TBS/MJ, dan intensitas energi 3,87 MJ/kg TBS.   Kata kunci: Analisis energi, energi masukan, energi keluaran, indikator energi

  11. CONTROL DE Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann Y CALIDAD DE LOS FRUTOS DE ZAPOTE MAMEY Pouteria sapota (Jacq Moore & Stearn TRATADOS CON AIRE CALIENTE FORZADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ariza-Flores

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este estudio fue evaluar la efectividad de tratamientos térmicos con aire caliente forzado húmedo en el combate de la mosca de los zapotes (Anastrepha serpentina Wiedemann "in vivo" y determinar la tolerancia a las condiciones aplicadas de frutos de zapote mamey. Los frutos no fueron dañados internamente por el tratamiento térmico cuando fueron expuestos a 43 °C·120 min-1. Los frutos alcanzaron su madurez de consumo a los ocho días a 25 °C, presentaron cambios rápidamente en color y perdieron más peso; mientras que, a 10 °C se mantuvieron con mayor firmeza, prolongaron su vida de anaquel y mostraron mayores daños en los haces vasculares. Con respecto a la mortandad de los huevos y larvas de mosca de la fruta A. serpentina, éstas fueron del 100 % con la atmósfera controlada (CA de aire caliente a 43 °C·120 min-1, igualmente los frutos no fueron dañados por la aplicación de la CA; las larvas murieron fácilmente por el calor a 40 °C·120 min-1, mientras que los huevos fueron más resistentes ya que ocurrieron larvas emergidas a 25 °C para los ocho días de almacenados.

  12. Protective effect of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. ethanolic extracts in oxidant-induced DNA damage evaluated through comet assay with human peripheral lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao C. M. Barreira

    2015-06-01

    The results showed significant differences within the assessed botanical parts and also among the assayed concentrations. The performed investigation might be considered as representing a step further in the evaluation of the in vivo bioactive potential of this highly promising species. Furthermore, it has established some practical bases for the evaluation of additional natural matrices with high scoring in bioactivity screening studies.

  13. Área foliar de Zinnia elegans Jacq. em diferentes épocas de semeadura e sistemas de condução.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Rossini Pinto

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, estudaram-se os efeitos de épocas de semeadura e sistemas de condução sobre a área foliar de Zinnia elegans e determinaram-se equações de regressão para a estimativa da área foliar de plantas submetidas a diferentes sistemas de condução. Definiram-se três estádios de desenvolvimento da planta para coleta das folhas: anterior à visualização da gema florífera apical, com gema florífera apical visível e em floração. Em cada estádio, foram coletadas, respectivamente, 45, 50 e 140 folhas por tratamento, num experimento em blocos casualizados com cinco repetições, analisado em esquema fatorial 3 X 3 (3 épocas de semeadura e 3 sistemas de condução. Determinaram-se o comprimento ao longo da nervura principal (C, a largura máxima perpendicular à nervura principal (L e a área foliar real (AFR. Estudaram-se as relações existentes entre a área foliar real e o produto do comprimento pela largura da folha, por meio de modelos de regressão linear. Concluiu-se que a área foliar foi influenciada pela época de semeadura, no estádio anterior à visualização dagema florífera apical e no de gema florífera apical visível, e pela época de semeadura e sistema de condução, no estádio de floração plena. Embora todos os modelos de regressão obtidos fossem adequados para estimar a área foliar real, recomendam-se, pela sua simplicidade, os modelos lineares sem intercepto AFR = 0,808907 CL, para o estádio anterior à visualização da gema florífera apical, AFR = 0,814309 CL, para o estádio de gema florífera apical visível, e AFR = 0,806762 CL, para o estádio de floração plena.

  14. Seedling protection and field practices for management of insect vectors and viral diseases of hot pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karungi, J.; Obua, T.; Kyamanywa, S.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study was on nursery and field management of seed and insect vectors of viruses on hot pepper. Seedlings raised from hypochlorite-treated seeds under a net tunnel nursery were compared with seedlings raised from untreated seeds in an open nursery. The two groups of seedlings were...

  15. GENE FLOW AS A GENETIC HOMOGENIZATION EVENT BETWEEN POPULATIONS OF ACROCOMIA ACULEATA (JACQ.) LODD. EX MART AND A. TOTAI MART (ARECACEAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Abstract The taxonomy of species of the genus Acrocomia (Arecaceae) is unclear. Some authors recognize two species: the caulescent Acrocomia aculeata and the acaulescent A. hassleri (Barb. Rodr.) W. J. Hahn; while others in recognition of the high phenotypic diversity assume the presence o...

  16. Possible sources of genetic resistance in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) to basal stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense--prospects for future breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Gasselin, T; Asmady, H; Flori, A; Jacquemard, J C; Hayun, Z; Breton, F; de Franqueville, H

    2005-01-01

    Oil palm estates in southeast Asia suffer from substantial losses due to basal stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense. Field observations have been carried out in North Sumatra, Indonesia, on a series of planting materials of known origin. Differences in susceptibility to the disease have been detected within the two Elaeis species, guineensis and oleifera. Within Elaeis guineensis, material of Deli origin is highly susceptible compared to material of African origin. It is also possible to detect differences in reaction between parents and between crosses within a given origin. The variability of resistance to basal stem rot within the same cross is also illustrated by the diverse responses of clones derived from palms of the same origin. The prospects opened up by these results are discussed, and the importance of performing an early selection test is highlighted.

  17. EVALUACIÓN COMPARATIVA DE LOS ATRIBUTOS NUTRICIONALES Y ANTINUTRICIONALES DE LEGUMINOSAS SUBUTILIZADAS, Canavalia gladiata (JACQ. DC, Erythrina indica LAM. Y Abrus precatorius L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pious Soris Tresina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron muestras de semillas de of Canavalia gladiata, Erythrina indica y Abrus precatorius (roja y negra, semilla de cascara colorada y semilla de cascara blanca de las regiones de Tamil Nadu y se analizó su composición química con la visión de evaluar su potencial nutricional. La composición proximal reveló que todas las muestras investigadas de semillas contenían altos niveles de proteína cruda y grasa. Los perfiles de minerales fueron también analizados en todas las muestras. Todas las muestras parecieron tener buenas fuentes de potasio, magnesio, sodio, calcio, fosforo, hierro, zinc, cobre, el contenido de manganeso fue deficiente cuando se comparó con los requerimentos diarios en la dieta (NRC/NAS, 1980, 1989. Los contenidos de vitaminas (niacina y ácido ascórbico fueron relativamente altos en todas las muestras investigadas. Los perfiles de aminoácidos esenciales del total de proteína de la semilla se compararon favorablemente con los patrones de requerimientos de la FAO/WHO (1991. Los perfiles de ácidos grasos revelaron que todas las muestras de semilla fueron ricas en ácidos grasos insaturados (55.60-72.04 y muy altos niveles de ácido linoleico (24.16-34.14%. El IVPD de las muestras estuvo en un rango de 63.31-71.36%. Se analizaron los factores antinutricionales como fenoles totales, taninos, L-DOPA, ácido fítico, hidrogeno ciánico, inhibidor de tripsina, oligosacáridos y fitohematoaglutinación.

  18. Comparative mineral and hormonal analyses of wild type and TLS somaclonal variant derived from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. var. tenera) tissue culture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Habib, S. H.; Ooi, S. E.; Novák, Ondřej; Tarkowská, Danuše; Rolčík, Jakub; Doležal, Karel; Syed-Alwee, S. S. R.; Ho, C. L.; Namasivayam, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 2 (2012), s. 313-317 ISSN 0167-6903 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : truncated leaf syndrome * boron * zinc Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.670, year: 2012

  19. Same-vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of organosolv/H2O2 pretreated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fronds for bioethanol production: Optimization of process parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofori-Boateng, Cynthia; Lee, Keat Teong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Same vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SVSF) of pretreated OPFs. • Optimum conditions:37 °C, 8.0% solid loading, 14.0 g/l yeast concentration, pH 5.3. • Optimum bioethanol concentration and yield of 21.96 g/l and 84.65% respectively. • Organosolv/H 2 O 2 pretreatment of OPFs improved SVSF yield at high solid loading. - Abstract: Based on optimized pretreatment process, oil palm fronds (OPFs) were sequentially pretreated with 1.4% (w/v) aq. NaOH in 80% ethanol with ultrasound assistance (at 75 °C for 30 min) and 3% (v/v) aq. H 2 O 2 . Using the Box–Behnken design (BBD) of response surface methodology (RSM), bioethanol production from the sono-assisted organosolv/H 2 O 2 OPFs were optimized using same-vessel enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SVSF) where both the hydrolysis and fermentation processes were carried out in one vessel simultaneously. Throughout the SVSF process, the incubation time and enzyme loading were kept at 72 h and 15 filter paper unit (FPU)/g substrate respectively. The other SVSF parameters which affect bioethanol yield such as temperature (X 1 : 30–50 °C), solid loading (X 2 : 5.0–10.0% w/v), yeast concentration (X 3 : 5.0–20 g/l) and pH (X 4 : 4.0–7.0) were optimized. Well fitted regression equations (R 2 > 0.97) obtained were able to predict reliable optimum bioethanol concentration and yield. The predicted optimum bioethanol concentration (i.e., 20.61 g/l) and yield (i.e., 84.60%) were attained at 36.94 °C (∼37 °C), 7.57% w/v solid loading (∼8.0% w/v), 13.97 g/l yeast concentration (∼14.0 g/l) and pH of 5.29 (∼5.30). Validated results indicated a maximum ethanol concentration and yield of 21.96 g/l and 84.65% respectively, which were closer to the predicted optimum responses. Using the optimum conditions, the highest bioethanol productivity of 0.76 g/l/h was observed at 12 h of SVSF process

  20. Use of Edible and Medicinal Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus(Jacq.: Fr.) Kumm.) Spent Compost in Remediation of Chemically Polluted Soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eggen, T.; Šašek, Václav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2002), s. 255-261 ISSN 1521-9437 Grant - others:GA of the Center for Molecular and Gene Biotechnology(XC) LN00B030; Norwegian Research Founding grant(NO) 113788/720 Program:LN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : biodegradation * bioremediation * contaminated soil Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  1. The effects of adding lactic acid bacteria and cellulase in oil palm (Elais guineensis Jacq.) frond silages on fermentation quality, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Goh, Yong Meng; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Schonewille, Jan Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the current study was to evaluate whether oil palm frond (OPF) can be successfully ensiled without or with the additives cellulase or lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Thus, fresh OPF was ensiled either without additives or with cellulase or LAB or their combination. Ensiling was

  2. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content in Fruit Tissues from Accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero Pepper at Different Stages of Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth A. Castro-Concha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k’an-iik (orange and MR8H (red, at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC value of 55.59 μmols TE g−1 FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27 g GAE 100 g−1 FW. The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities.

  3. Floral nectar of the obligate outcrossing Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) DC. (Fabaceae) contains only one predominant protein, a class III acidic chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X L; Milne, R I; Zhou, H X; Fang, J Y; Zha, H G

    2017-09-01

    Floral nectar can affect the fitness of insect-pollinated plants, through both attraction and manipulation of pollinators. Self-incompatible insect-pollinated plants receive more insect visits than their self-compatible relatives, and the nectar of such species might face increased risk of infestation by pathogens carried by pollinators than self-compatible plants. Proteins in nectar (nectarins) play an important role in protecting the nectar, but little is known regarding nectarins in self-incompatible species. The nectarins from a self-incompatible and insect-pollinated leguminous crop, Canavalia gladiata, were separated using two-dimensional electrophoresis and analysed using mass spectrometry. The predominant nectarin gene was cloned and the gene expression pattern investigated using quantitative real-time PCR. Chitinolytic activity in the nectar was tested with different substrates. The C. gladiata nectar proteome only has one predominant nectarin, an acidic class III chitinase (CaChi3). The full-length CaChi3 gene was cloned, coding for a protein of 298 amino acids with a predicted signal peptide. CaChi3 is very similar to members of the class III chitinase family, whose evolution is dominated by purifying selection. CaChi3 was expressed in both nectary and leaves. CaChi3 has thermostable chitinolytic activity according to glycol-chitin zymography or a fluorogenic substratem but has no lysozyme activity. Chitinase might be a critical protein component in nectar. The extremely simple nectar proteome in C. gladiata disproves the hypothesis that self-incompatible species always have more complex nectar proteomes. Accessibility of nectar might be a significant determinant of the evolutionary pressure to develop nectar defence mechanisms. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Fatty Acids Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Aristolochia longa L. and Bryonia dioïca Jacq. Growing Wild in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhouioui, Mouna; Boulila, Abdennacer; Jemli, Maroua; Schiets, Fréderic; Casabianca, Hervé; Zina, Mongia Saïd

    2016-08-01

    The composition of the fatty acids of the roots and aerial parts of Aritolochia longa (Aristolacheae) and Bryonia dioïca (Cucurbutaceae) was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oils extracted from the aerial parts of both species were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids with the essential linolenic and linoleic acids being the most prominent compounds. Oleic and linoleic acids were the majors fatty acids in the roots of both species. Whatever the plant part analyzed and the species, the saturated fatty acids were predominantly composed of palmitic and stearic acids. The antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the lipid extracts were determined against a panel of five bacterial strains. The results showed that the sensitivity to the lipid extracts was different for the test bacterial strains, and the susceptibility of gram positive bacteria was found to be greater than gram negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity of the root lipid extracts was particularly important against Enterococcus feacium (CMI value of 125 µg/mL; CMB values > 250 µg/mL) and Streptococcus agalactiae (CMI value of 125 µg/mL; CMB values 250 µg/mL for A. longa roots). These results indicate that A. longa and B. dioïca could be considered as good sources of essential fatty acids which can act as natural antibacterial agents.

  5. Uji Beberapa Konsentrasi Ekstrak Tepung Akar Tuba (Derris Eliptica Benth.) untuk Mengendalikan Hama Ulat Api Setora Nitens Wlk. (Lepidoptera; Limacodidae) pada Tanamankelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    ', Wahyudianto; Laoh, Jeltje Hennie; Rustam, Rusli

    2014-01-01

    Nettle caterpillar Setora nitens Walker. is one of the major pests of oil palm plant. The use of synthetic chemical pesticides to control pest has many negative impacts such a pest resistance, pest resurgence and environmental pollution. To reduce the negative impacts cause by synthetic chemical pesticides, then application of the alternative pest control using botanical insecticides such as Derris eliptica Benth. Which is environmentally friendly is needed. This research is aims to test the ...

  6. Rapid in vitro production of cloned plants of Uraria picta (Jacq.) DC-A rare medicinal herb in long-term culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Santosh Kumar; Sharma, Meena; Jain, Madhu; Awasthi, Abhishek; Purshottam, Dharmendra Kumar; Nair, Narayanan Kuttanpillai; Sharma, Ashok Kumar

    2010-11-01

    An efficient in vitro process for rapid production of cloned plants of Uraria picta has been developed employing nodal stem segments taken from field-grown plants. Explants showed bud-break followed by regeneration of shoots with restricted growth within 12 days on modified Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with 0.25 mg l(-1) each of 6-benzylaminopurine and indole-3-acetic acid and 25 mg l(-1) adenine sulfate. Normal growth of shoots with good proliferation rate was achieved by reducing the concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine and indole-3-acetic acid to 0.1 mg l(-1) each and incorporating 0.5 mg l(-1) gibberellic acid in the medium in which, on an average, 19.6 shoots per explant were produced. Further, during successive subcultures, increased concentrations of adenine sulfate (50 mg l(-l)) and gibberellic acid (2 mg l(-l)) along with the addition of 20 mg l(-l)  DL: -tryptophan were found conducive to control the problem of necrosis of shoots. In this treatment, several "crops" of shoots were obtained from single culture by repeated subculturing of basal portion of stalk in long-term. Isolated shoots rooted 100% in 0.25 mg l(-1) indole-3-butyric acid. In vitro-raised plants after hardening in inorganic salt solution grew normally in soil and came to flowering. Genetic fidelity of in vitro-raised plants was ascertained by rapid amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Also, quantitative estimation of two isoflavonones in their root extracts further confirmed true-to-type nature of plantlets.

  7. Capsaicinoids, amino acid and fatty acid profiles in different fruit components of the world hottest Naga king chilli (Capsicum chinense Jacq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthan, R; Subhash, K; Longvah, T

    2018-01-01

    The world hottest Naga king chilli is cultivated and consumed in Northeast India. Capsaicinoids, amino acids and fatty acids were studied in fruit and fruit components of Naga king chilli. Capsaicinoid content was increased in each ripening stage and maximum level was observed at red color fruits. Total protein and fat content of placenta was 19.41 and 20.36% respectively. Capsaicinoids of placenta (7.35±2.241%) was higher followed by seed (3.83±1.358%) and pericarp (2.91±0.667%). Similarly, essential amino acid content was also higher in placenta compared to other components. Amino acid score ranged from 37 to 38 with cystine and methionine as limiting amino acid. Low level of palmitic, stearic and α-linolenic acid and very high level of linoleic acid were found in seeds. Total polyunsaturates of seeds were higher followed by whole fruit. Naga king chilli is unique due to its high capsaicinoid content and it offers potential crop for the future exploitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content in Fruit Tissues from Accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero Pepper) at Different Stages of Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyub-Che, Jemina; Moo-Mukul, Angel; Vazquez-Flota, Felipe A.; Miranda-Ham, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k'an-iik (orange) and MR8H (red), at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 55.59 μmols TE g−1 FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27 g GAE 100 g−1 FW). The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. PMID:24683361

  9. Disease epidemiology and genetic diversity of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaeidis, cause of fusarium wilt of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hefni Rusli, M.; Wheals, Alan E.; Sharma, Sweta; Seman, Idris A.; Cooper, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Vascular wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. elaeidis (Foe) has devasted oil palm in west and central Africa. This study investigates the spatial distribution of Foe, whereby non-random, clustered patterns of the disease were recorded in four separate plantations in Ghana; infection from tree to tree via elongating roots therefore plays a more significant role than aerial distribution by conidiospores, with management implications. Control of Foe with disease-resistant palm lines...

  10. Streptomyces sanglieri which colonised and enhanced the growth of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. seedlings was antagonistic to Ganoderma boninense in in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Azura, A B; Yusoff, M; Tan, G Y A; Jegadeesh, R; Appleton, D R; Vikineswary, S

    2016-04-01

    Actinomycete strain AUM 00500 was 99.5 % similar to Streptomyces sanglieri NBRC 100784(T) and was evaluated for antagonistic activity towards Ganoderma boninense, the causative fungus of basal stem rot of oil palm. The strain showed strong antifungal activity towards G. boninense in in vitro and SEM analysis showed various modes of inhibition of the fungus. Ethyl acetate extracts of single culture and inhibition zone of cross-plug culture by HPLC indicated that strain AUM 00500 produced two different antibiotics of the glutarimide group namely cycloheximide and actiphenol. In greenhouse trials, oil palm seed treated with spores of S. sanglieri strain AUM 00500 at 10(9) cfu/ml showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in oil palm seedlings growth when compared to the control. Streptomyces sanglieri strain AUM 00500 successfully colonised the epidermal surface of the roots of treated oil palm seedlings and it was recovered from root fragments plated on starch casein agar.

  11. Cultivo de meristemas, termo y quimioterapia en chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw.) para la erradicación del virus del mosaico del chayote (ChMV)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelnour-Esquivel, Ana; Bermudez, L.C.; Rivera, C; Alvarenga-Venutolo, Silvana

    2006-01-01

    Recientemente se identificó en Costa Rica una nueva enfermedad viral en chayote, denominada "virus del mosaico del chayote" (ChMV, Chayote mosaic virus). Además de disminuir los rendimientos, esta enfermedad causa reducciones y malformación de los frutos, lo que eventualmente podría incidir en el incremento de frutos rechazados para la exportación. La enfermedad puede ser transmitida durante la propagación vegetativa y por la semilla. El cultivo de meristemas se utiliza en muchas ...

  12. Mechanisms of salt tolerance in habanero pepper plants (Capsicum chinense Jacq.): Proline accumulation, ions dynamics and sodium root-shoot partition and compartmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojórquez-Quintal, Emanuel; Velarde-Buendía, Ana; Ku-González, Angela; Carillo-Pech, Mildred; Ortega-Camacho, Daniela; Echevarría-Machado, Ileana; Pottosin, Igor; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Despite its economic relevance, little is known about salt tolerance mechanisms in pepper plants. To address this question, we compared differences in responses to NaCl in two Capsicum chinense varieties: Rex (tolerant) and Chichen-Itza (sensitive). Under salt stress (150 mM NaCl over 7 days) roots of Rex variety accumulated 50 times more compatible solutes such as proline compared to Chichen-Itza. Mineral analysis indicated that Na(+) is restricted to roots by preventing its transport to leaves. Fluorescence analysis suggested an efficient Na(+) compartmentalization in vacuole-like structures and in small intracellular compartments in roots of Rex variety. At the same time, Na(+) in Chichen-Itza plants was compartmentalized in the apoplast, suggesting substantial Na(+) extrusion. Rex variety was found to retain more K(+) in its roots under salt stress according to a mineral analysis and microelectrode ion flux estimation (MIFE). Vanadate-sensitive H(+) efflux was higher in Chichen-Itza variety plants, suggesting a higher activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, which fuels the extrusion of Na(+), and, possibly, also the re-uptake of K(+). Our results suggest a combination of stress tolerance mechanisms, in order to alleviate the salt-induced injury. Furthermore, Na(+) extrusion to apoplast does not appear to be an efficient strategy for salt tolerance in pepper plants.

  13. SYNTHESIS OF AROMA COMPOUNDS BY Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.:Fr. Kumm. CULTURED ON VARIOUS SUBSTRATES E. N. Vlasenko, J. V. Stepnevskaya, O. V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Vlasenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the intensity of synthesis of volatile aroma compounds by Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom on sunflower husks and barley straw using sensory profile analysis and UV spectroscopy. The main cultural and morphological characteristics of the mycelial growth and development of fruiting bodies are determined: the period of mycelial development on the substrate, the time of primordial formation, the number of mushroom bunches per unit volume of substrate, the morphology of carpophores. Characteristic attributes of the aroma of dried fruiting bodies (mushroom, woody, sweet, herbaceous, fish, meat, floral, earthy, acidic, putrescent are established and their aroma profiles are built. Sensory profile analysis of flavor of dried samples showed that the mushroom flavor of fungi cultivated on the sunflower husk is more pronounced than of those grown on barley straw. The light absorption maxima are recorded in the ranges 204–210 and 250–290 nm according to UV absorption spectra. Optimal conditions for extracting aromatics from dried fungi samples are the extraction time of 20–35 min at the boiling point of the solvent. Analysis of the UV spectra of fungal alcohol and hexane extracts showed that the intensity of the synthesis of volatile compounds is higher for strains cultivated on sunflower husks than for samples obtained on barley straw.

  14. The complete plastome of macaw palm [Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. ex Mart.] and extensive molecular analyses of the evolution of plastid genes in Arecaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana Lopes, Amanda; Gomes Pacheco, Túlio; Nimz, Tabea; do Nascimento Vieira, Leila; Guerra, Miguel P; Nodari, Rubens O; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; Rogalski, Marcelo

    2018-04-01

    The plastome of macaw palm was sequenced allowing analyses of evolution and molecular markers. Additionally, we demonstrated that more than half of plastid protein-coding genes in Arecaceae underwent positive selection. Macaw palm is a native species from tropical and subtropical Americas. It shows high production of oil per hectare reaching up to 70% of oil content in fruits and an interesting plasticity to grow in different ecosystems. Its domestication and breeding are still in the beginning, which makes the development of molecular markers essential to assess natural populations and germplasm collections. Therefore, we sequenced and characterized in detail the plastome of macaw palm. A total of 221 SSR loci were identified in the plastome of macaw palm. Additionally, eight polymorphism hotspots were characterized at level of subfamily and tribe. Moreover, several events of gain and loss of RNA editing sites were found within the subfamily Arecoideae. Aiming to uncover evolutionary events in Arecaceae, we also analyzed extensively the evolution of plastid genes. The analyses show that highly divergent genes seem to evolve in a species-specific manner, suggesting that gene degeneration events may be occurring within Arecaceae at the level of genus or species. Unexpectedly, we found that more than half of plastid protein-coding genes are under positive selection, including genes for photosynthesis, gene expression machinery and other essential plastid functions. Furthermore, we performed a phylogenomic analysis using whole plastomes of 40 taxa, representing all subfamilies of Arecaceae, which placed the macaw palm within the tribe Cocoseae. Finally, the data showed here are important for genetic studies in macaw palm and provide new insights into the evolution of plastid genes and environmental adaptation in Arecaceae.

  15. Direct online extraction and determination by supercritical fluid extraction with chromatography and mass spectrometry of targeted carotenoids from red Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Mariosimone; Giuffrida, Daniele; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2017-10-01

    Recently, supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry has gained attention as a fast and useful technology applied to the carotenoids analysis. However, no reports are available in the literature on the direct online extraction and determination by supercritical fluid extraction with chromatography and mass spectrometry. The aim of this research was the development of an online method coupling supercritical fluid extraction and supercritical fluid chromatography for a detailed targeted native carotenoids characterization in red habanero peppers. The online nature of the system, compared to offline approaches, improves run-to-run precision, enables the setting of batch-type applications, and reduces the risks of sample contamination. The extraction has been optimized using different temperatures, starting from 40°C up to 80°C. Multiple extractions, until depletion, were performed on the same sample to evaluate the extraction yield. The range of the first extraction yield, carried out at 80°C, which was the best extraction temperature, was 37.4-65.4%, with a %CV range of 2-12. Twenty-one targeted analytes were extracted and identified by the developed methodology in less than 17 min, including free, monoesters, and diesters carotenoids, in a very fast and efficient way. Quantification of the β-carotene was carried out by using the optimized conditions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Estudio anatómico preliminar de raíz y brote del anón Amazónico (rollinia mucosa (jacq. Baill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quevedo Enrique

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El anón amazónico es un árbol frutal promisoria de importancia por su rusticidad y producción. Por tales motivos se programó y elaboró el presente trabajo cuyos objetivos fueron la identificación y descripción de los principales tejidos de la planta y su distribución en los diferentes órganos de la misma. Para lograr estos objetivos, se seleccionaron muestras de raíz, tallo, hojas y flores de un árbol de cuatro años de edad, propagado sexualmente por semilla, con una altura aproximada de 2,30 metros. Las muestras de raíces se obtuvieron de las superficiales y las ramas con su respectiva yema terminal y las flores de la porción distal. Este material y las flores de la porción distal se fijaron con una solución de FAA y luego, se les hicieron cortes transversales y longitudinales que se observaron al microscopio y se tomaron las respectivas fotografías. Los resultados de las observaciones fueron: La raíz está constituida por epidermis y cilindro central con floema, poco esclerénquima y abundante parénquima de almacenamiento, proto y metaxilema, médula (poco común en las Dícotyledoneae y carece de parénquima cortical. El tallo posee tejidos protectores formados central, compuesto por floema (líber y xilema (leño y, entre estos tejidos, el cambium vascular. La hoja conformada por la cutícula cerosa, la epidermis adaxial con células secretoras y la epidermis adaxial con pelos glandulares, el mesofilo constituido por los parénquimas esponjoso y en empalizada y el sistema vascular, formado por las nervaduras, que están constituidas por haces fibrovasculares con floema y xilema rodeados de parénquima. La flor es completa, pues posee los cuatro verticilos con sus órganos dispuestos en espiral, los pétalos son carnosos, con una zona de tricomas y poseen tejido de almacenamiento. El fruto es un sincarpio.

  17. Índices morfogênicos e de crescimento durante o estabelecimento e a rebrotação do capim-Mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq. Morphogenic traits and growth indices during the establishment and regrowth of Mombaçagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto de Miranda Gomide

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar as características morfogênicas e os índices de crescimento do capim-Mombaça, um ensaio foi conduzido em casa de vegetação. Estudou-se o desenvolvimento das plantas em três crescimentos: o crescimento seminal de estabelecimento (C1, o da brotação após corte ao 16º dia (C2 e 37º dia (C3 do crescimento de estabelecimento. As variáveis estimadas foram: índices de crescimento [taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR, taxa assimilatória líquida (TAL e razão de área foliar (RAF], e os índices morfogênicos [taxa de aparecimento foliar (TApF, taxa de alongamento foliar (TAlF, taxa de expansão da área foliar e taxa de senescência foliar]. Colheitas foram feitas ao longo do desenvolvimento das plantas em cada crescimento considerado: 13, 20, 27, 42, 55, 69 e 83 dias após emergência (C1; 0, 3, 6, 10, 17, 24, 38, 52 e 66 dias após o corte aos 16 dias (C2 e 0, 1, 3, 7, 21, 35, 49, 63 e 77 dias após o corte aos 37 dias (C3. Foram observadas três repetições (vasos, segundo delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Altos valores de TAL, RAF e TCR foram observados no início do crescimento seminal (C1 das plantas, caindo assintoticamente com o avanço da idade. O corte aos 37 dias de idade comprometeu o crescimento das plantas expresso em seus valores de TApF, a TAlF e a taxa de expansão da área foliar, RAF, TAL e TCR, sendo observados valores negativos para estes dois últimos índices, nos primeiros dias de brotação. A baixa demanda respiratória e a alocação de fotoassimilados para o crescimento foliar garantiram às plantas cortadas aos 16 dias, balanço positivo de carbono, possibilitando sua rápida recuperação.A trial was carried out in green-house to estimate morphogenic traits and growth indices of Mombaçagrass development. Three growths were considered: the seminal, establishment growth (G1 and the regrowths following a clipping taken on the 16th (G2 and 37th (G3 days of the seminal growth. The variables assessed were the growth indices: relative growth rate (RGR, net assimilation rate (NAR, leaf area ratio (LAR, and the rates of leaf appearance, elongation, expansion and senescence. Accordingly, harvests were taken at the ages of: 13, 20, 27, 42, 55, 69 and 83 day of the seminal growth (G1; 0, 3, 6, 10, 17, 24, 38, 52 and 66 day of the 2nd regrowth (G2 and 0, 1, 3, 7, 21, 35, 49, 63 and 77 day of the 3rd growth (G3. There were three replications (pots per treatment in a completely randomized design. Figures for NAR, LAR and RGR were high during early seminal growth but declined assynthotically as plant aged. Initial values for these indices were higher in the seminal growth as compared to the 2 regrowths. Cutting taken on the 37th day of the seminal growth hindered the initial growth of the plants regarding leaf appearance and elongation rates, LAR, NAR and RGR. The latter two indices which had negative values during early regrowth, were recovered by the 16th regrowth day.

  18. Farelo de cacau (Theobroma cacao L. e torta de dendê (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq na alimentação de cabras em lactação: consumo e produção de leite Effects of feeding cocoa meal (Theobroma cacao L. and palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq on milk intake and yield for lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herymá Giovane de Oliveira Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados o consumo e a produção de leite de cabras recebendo dietas contendo farelo de cacau (FC ou torta de dendê (TD em substituição ao milho e ao farelo de soja da ração concentrada. Foram utilizadas cinco cabras da raça Saanen, com produção média diária de 2,0 kg de leite e aos 60 dias de lactação, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5 x 5. Os períodos experimentais tiveram duração de 14 dias, em que os dez primeiros foram destinados à adaptação e os quatro últimos, à coleta de amostras. As rações foram isoprotéicas, com 13,2% de proteína bruta. As dietas constituíram-se de 36% de volumoso (silagem de milho e 64% de concentrado na matéria seca. Os tratamentos consistiram de concentrado à base de milho e soja com 0, 15 e 30% de FC ou TD. Os consumos de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, nutrientes digestíveis totais, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos reduziram com a inclusão de 30% de FC. Os consumos de fibra em detergente neutro e extrato etéreo (EE não foram alterados pelas dietas. O consumo de fibra em detergente ácido diferiu apenas entre os tratamentos com 30% de TD e 30% de FC, sendo 0,94 e 0,59% do peso vivo animal, respectivamente. O tratamento com 30% de FC proporcionou menor produção de leite (1,208 kg/dia, se assemelhando apenas ao tratamento com inclusão de 30% de TD quando a produção foi corrigida para 3,5% de gordura. O FC e a TD apresentam viabilidade de uso como alternativa na dieta de cabras em lactação em até 9,13 e 18,81% da matéria seca, respectivamente.The effects of replacing corn and soybean meal with cocoa meal (CF or palm kernel cake (PKC in the concentrate on milk intake and yield of goats were evaluated. Five Saanen goats, averaging 2 kg daily milk yield at 60 days of lactation, were assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square experimental design. The experiment lasted 14 days, with 10 days for adaptation period and four days for sample collection. Diets contained: 36% of roughage (corns silage and 64% of concentrate, dry matter basis, formulated toyield 13.2% of crude protein. The treatments were as follows: 0, 15 and 30% CF or PKC, all with concentrate (corn and soybean meal. Dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, total digestible nutrients, total carbohydrates and nonfiber carbohydrates intakes decreased as affected by the highest replacement level (30% CF. No significant differences on neutral detergent fiber and ether extract intake were observed. Acid detergent fiber intake differed only between 30% PKC and 30% CF-based diets, with 0.94 and 0.59% body weight, respectively. The 30% CF-based diet showed lower milk production value, as kg/dia (1.208 kg, but similar to 30% PKC-based diet, when corrected for 3.5% fat. Replacing corn and soybean with CF and PKC in the diet of lactating goats is viable up to 9.13 and 18.81% dry matter, respectively.

  19. The effects of seasonal change of water level in an estuary on Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq. P. H. Raven (Onograceae growth Efeitos da variação sazonal do nível da água de um estuário sobre o crescimento de Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq. P. H. Raven (Onograceae

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    Jose Pedro Nepomuceno Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Massaguaçu River estuary is an irregular estuary with sandbar breaching cycles that are irregular and happen several times each year. The species Ludwigia octovalvis is a perennial weed in several places around the world, but it is seasonal in the Massaguaçu River. In this survey we determined the relationship between the rain, estuary water level variation, and the spatial and temporal distribution of this species. In a laboratory we simulated the water level variation in water tanks in order to understand how this species responds to flooding. In the field, we determined the distribution of L. octovalvis in the higher pluviose season and in the lower pluviose season. This species is relatively common in the higher pluviose season and completely absent in the lower one. There is strong evidence that this happens due to the longer and deeper sandbar breaching cycles during the dry season, which induce this species to etiolation, and, therefore, mechanical fragility. The seasonality of species in aquatic environments that do not have a dry biological season is unusual and little studied.O estuário do rio Massaguaçu é um estuário irregular, e seus ciclos da abertura de barra são irregulares e acontecem várias vezes por ano. A espécie Ludwigia octovalvis é perene em vários lugares do mundo, mas aparece de forma sazonal no estuário em questão. Nesse trabalho determinamos a relação entre o índice pluviométrico, o nível do estuário e a distribuição espacial e temporal dessa espécie. Em laboratório simulamos a variação do nível da água do estuário em aquários, de modo a entender como essa espécie responde ao alagamento. Em campo, determinamos a distribuição de L. octovalvis na estação mais chuvosa e menos chuvosa. A espécie é relativamente comum na estação mais chuvosa, mas ausente na menos chuvosa. Existem fortes evidencias de que isso acontece devido aos ciclos de abertura da barra do inverno, mas fundos e longos, que induz essa espécie ao estiolamento, e conseguintemente, a uma fragilidade mecânica. A sazonalidade de espécies em ambientes aquáticos sem uma estação biologicamente seca é incomum e pouco estudada.

  20. Estresse salino no crescimento inicial e nutrição mineral de gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Steud em solução nutritiva(1 Growth and mineral nutrition of (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Steud seedlings in nutrient solution under saline stress

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    Séfora Gil Gomes de Farias

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A salinidade é um dos fatores que mais limitam o crescimento e desenvolvimento de plantas na região semiárida. A sobrevivência destas em ambientes salinos dependerá de processos adaptativos, que envolvem absorção, transporte e distribuição de íons nos vários órgãos da planta. Com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e a nutrição mineral de mudas de gliricídia cultivada em diferentes condições de salinidade, realizou-se um experimento em telado de náilon da Unidade Acadêmica de Engenharia Florestal da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos - PB. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em vasos de Leonard, contendo solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon (50 % da concentração original, com as concentrações de NaCl: 0, 100 200 e 400 mmol L-1. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, com uma planta por vaso. Aos 60 dias após a emergência, as plantas foram colhidas e avaliadas quanto a altura, matéria seca e teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e Na na raiz, no caule e nas folhas. O aumento da salinidade promoveu reduções no crescimento e nos teores de macronutrientes, ocorrendo o inverso nos teores de Na, sobretudo na raiz. A gliricídia mostrou-se sensível à salinidade.Salinity is one of the most limiting factors to plant growth and development. Plant survival in saline environments depends on adaptive processes involving uptake, transport, and distribution of ions in plant organs. To evaluate growth and mineral nutrition of Gliricidia sepium seedlings under saline conditions, an experiment was carried out under nylon-mesh protection, at the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Patos - PB. Seeds were sown in pots containing Hoagland & Arnon nutrient solution with four NaCl levels (0, 100, 200 and 400 mmol L-1, with four replications (1 plant/pot in a completely randomized design. Sixty days after seedling emergence, the plant height and root, stem and leaf dry matter, and nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Na accumulation were measured in the plant tissues. All variables but Na were negatively affected by increasing NaCl levels in the nutrient solution, particularly in the root tissue. Results indicated the sensitivity of Gliricidia sepium to salinity.

  1. Evidencia de dispersión de semillas de Sterculia apetala (Jacq. Karst. por Ramphastos toco (Muller 1776, en la región del Pantanal / Evidence of Seed Dispersion in Sterculia apetala (Jacq. Karst. by Rampahstos toco (Muller 1776, in The Pantanal Region

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    Antônio dos Santos Júnior

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available El comportamiento de alimentación del Ramphastos toco en frutas del Sterculia apetala fue observado en la Estancia Caiman (19°51’ 05” S - 56°16’ 10” W, Miranda - MS, en el Medio oeste de Brasil. El R. toco es un visitante frecuente de las frutas del S. apetala en busca de sus semillas nutritivas. El pájaro ingiere las semillas enteras, quita la sarcotesta que cubre las semillas y comienza a regurgitar las semillas enteras y intactas. Esta información sugiere que el R. toco sea un dispersor potencial de semillas de S. apetala, aunque investigaciones acerca de la germinación de semillas regurgitadas sean necesarias para explicar si el R. toco es un dispersor efectivo del S. apetala en el Pantanal.

  2. Evidencia de dispersión de semillas de Sterculia apetala (Jacq.) Karst. por Ramphastos toco (Muller 1776), en la región del PantanalEvidence of Seed Dispersion in Sterculia apetala (Jacq.) Karst. by Rampahstos toco (Muller 1776), in The Pantanal Region

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Júnior, Antônio dos

    2009-01-01

    ResumenEl comportamiento de alimentación del Ramphastos toco en frutas del Sterculia apetala fue observado en la Estancia Caiman (19°51’ 05” S - 56°16’ 10” W), Miranda - MS, en el Medio oeste de Brasil. El R. toco es un visitante frecuente de las frutas del S. apetala en busca de sus semillas nutritivas. El pájaro ingiere las semillas enteras, quita la sarcotesta que cubre las semillas y comienza a regurgitar las semillas enteras y intactas. Esta información sugiere que el R. toco sea un disp...

  3. Constituintes químicos fixos e voláteis dos talos e frutos de Piper tuberculatum Jacq. e das raízes de P. hispidum H. B. K. Fixed and volatile chemical constituents from stems and fruits of Piper tuberculatum Jacq. and from roots of P. hispidum H. B. K.

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    Valdir Alves Facundo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais dos frutos e talos finos de Piper tuberculatum e das raízes de P. hispidum, coletados no estado de Rondônia, foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados por GC e GC-MS. Foram identificados como constituintes majoritários, nos óleos dos frutos e talos finos de P. tuberculatum, o óxido de cariofileno (32,1% e (26,6% e o (E-cariofileno (17,7% e (12,3%, respectivamente. No óleo essencial das raízes de P. hispidum, foram identificados, como constituintes majoritários, o dilapiol (57,5%, a elemicina (24,5% e o apiol (10,2%. Do extrato etanólico dos frutos de P. tuberculatum, foram isolados os esteróides β-sitosterol e estigmasterol, as amidas piplartina e dihidropiplartina e um derivado do ácido cinâmico, o ácido 3,4,5-trimetoxi-dihidrocinâmico.The essential oils of the fruits and fine stems of Piper tuberculatum and of the roots of P. hispidum, collected in the state of Rondônia, had been gotten by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Caryophyllene oxide - 32,1% in fruits and 26,6% in fine stem, and (E-caryophyllene - 17,7% in fruits and 12,3% in fine stems, were identified as the major constituents in such parts of P. tuberculatum. In the essential oil of the roots of P. hispidum, dillapiol (57,5%, elemicine (24,5% and apiole (10,2% were identified as the most abundant constituents. From the ethanolic extract of the fruits of P. tuberculatum, the steroids β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, the amides piplartine and dihidropiplartine and the derivative of the cinâmico acid 3,4,5-trimethoxy-dihidrocinâmic acid were isolated.

  4. Composión trófica de la comunidad insectil en dos agroecosistemas ganaderos con Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de wit y Panicum maximum Jacq. Trophic composition of the insect community in two livestock production agroecosystems with Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de wit and Panicum maximum Jacq.

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    O Alonso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de definir los principales grupos funcionales en la comunidad de insectos presentes en dos áreas compuestas por la asociación de Leucaena leucocephala cv. Perú y Panicum maximum cv. Likoni (un sistema silvopastoril y un campo de semilla, respectivamente, ambas localizadas en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes "Indio Hatuey", se muestrearon cada 15 días, durante tres años, las hojas, las inflorescencias y las legumbres de la leguminosa y el follaje de la gramínea, para colectarlos. La clasificación de los grupos se realizó a partir de: la identificación de cada especie insectil, la información que ofrece la literatura acerca de su hábito principal de alimentación y las observaciones realizadas en el campo. Con estos elementos se definieron los fitófagos y los benéficos, y como subgrupos de estos últimos: los depredadores, los parasitoides, los polinizadores, los descomponedores de la materia orgánica, los coprófagos y los micófagos. En total se identificaron 113 especies de insectos, 63 con hábitos fitófagos y los 50 restantes benéficos. En el estrato arbóreo se encontraron 88 especies, 49 fitófagas (56% y 39 benéficas (44%; y 103 en el herbáceo, 59 insectos fitófagos (57% y 44 benéficos (43%; 78 especies coincidieron en los dos estratos. Se destaca que en ambos predominaron los depredadores y los parasitoides de los órdenes Hymenoptera, Coleoptera y Diptera, tales como: Cycloneda sanguinea limbifer Casey, Coccinella maculata (De Geer, Chilocorus cacti Linnaeus, Conura sp., Pimpla marginella (Brullé y Rogas sp. Se concluye que la estructura y función de la comunidad de insectos mostró un número relativamente mayor de insectos fitófagos con respecto a los benéficos; sin embargo, fue importante el predominio de los enemigos naturales, responsables de la actividad reguladora de las poblaciones de fitófagos, a las que mantienen por debajo del umbral de daño económico en el cultivo de la leucaena en el país.

  5. Papaya Lethal Yellowing Virus (PLYV) Infects Vasconcellea cauliflora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, P.P.R.; Resende, de R.O.; Souza, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) é um dos três vírus descritos infectando mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) no Brasil. Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., antes denominada de Carica cauliflora (Jacq.), é uma reconhecida fonte de resistência natural ao Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), causador da

  6. El componente sistemático de la variabilidad de algunos parámetros de producción en palma africana adulta (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq en Casanare.

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    Acevedo A. Néstor

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Mediante análisis de tendencia y geoestadísticos fue evaluado el componente determinístico de la variabilidad del peso de racimos de fruta fresca (PR, de la tasa de extracción de aceite (TEA y de la cantidad de ácidos grasos libres (AGL, en palmas con diferente grado de recuperación de PC en un cultivo ubicado en la región del Bajo Upía, Casanare. Los análisis no detectaron ninguna variabilidad estructural en las propiedades evaluadas por lo que se concluye que las diferencias significativas encontradas por Acevedo (2000 entre ellas, mediante análisis de varianza, si están controladas por el grado de recuperación que muestran las palmas, después de haber sido atacadas por PC.

  7. Development of a Large Set of Microsatellite Markers in Zapote Mamey (Pouteria sapota (Jacq. H.E. Moore & Stearn and Their Potential Use in the Study of the Species

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    Renée S. Arias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pouteria sapota is known for its edible fruits that contain unique carotenoids, as well as for its fungitoxic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. However, its genetics is mostly unknown, including aspects about its genetic diversity and domestication process. We did high-throughput sequencing of microsatellite-enriched libraries of P. sapota, generated 5223 contig DNA sequences, 1.8 Mbp, developed 368 microsatellites markers and tested them on 29 individuals from 10 populations (seven wild, three cultivated from Mexico, its putative domestication center. Gene ontology BLAST analysis of the DNA sequences containing microsatellites showed potential association to physiological functions. Genetic diversity was slightly higher in cultivated than in the wild gene pool (HE = 0.41 and HE = 0.35, respectively, although modified Garza–Williamson Index and Bottleneck software showed evidence for a reduction in genetic diversity for the cultivated one. Neighbor Joining, 3D Principal Coordinates Analysis and assignment tests grouped most individuals according to their geographic origin but no clear separation was observed between wild or cultivated gene pools due to, perhaps, the existence of several admixed populations. The developed microsatellites have a great potential in genetic population and domestication studies of P. sapota but additional sampling will be necessary to better understand how the domestication process has impacted the genetic diversity of this fruit crop.

  8. Endophytic bacteria from Piper tuberculatum Jacq.: isolation, molecular characterization, and in vitro screening for the control of Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of root rot disease in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, S B; Lima, A M; Borges, B N; de Souza, C R B

    2015-07-06

    Endophytic bacteria have been found to colonize internal tissues in many different plants, where they can have several beneficial effects, including defense against pathogens. In this study, we aimed to identify endophytic bacteria associated with roots of the tropical piperaceae Piper tuberculatum, which is known for its resistance to infection by Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of black pepper (Piper nigrum) root rot disease in the Amazon region. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we isolated endophytes belonging to 13 genera: Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ralstonia, Serratia, Cupriavidus, Mitsuaria, Pantoea, and Staphylococcus. The results showed that 56.52% of isolates were associated with the phylum Proteobacteria, which comprised α, β, and γ classes. Other bacteria were related to the phylum Firmicutes, including Bacillus, which was the most abundant genus among all isolates. Antagonistic assays revealed that Pt12 and Pt13 isolates, identified as Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp, respectively, were able to inhibit F. solani f. sp piperis growth in vitro. We describe, for the first time, the molecular identification of 23 endophytic bacteria from P. tuberculatum, among which two Pseudomonas species have the potential to control the pathogen responsible for root rot disease in black pepper in the Amazon region.

  9. Ação do flúor dissolvido em chuva simulada sobre a estrutura foliar de Panicum maximum jacq. (colonião e Chloris gayana kunth. (capim-rhodes - Poaceae

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    Chaves Alba Lucilvânia Fonseca

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Panicum maximum e Chloris gayana foram submetidas à chuvas simuladas com soluções de fluoreto de potássio (15mg ml-1 com objetivo de identificar as injúrias causadas pelo flúor (F-, como poluente atmosférico, na estrutura da lâmina foliar e fornecer subsídios para a seleção de características diagnósticas a serem utilizadas na bioindicação. Os principais sintomas foram clorose e necrose, principalmente no ápice e margens das lâminas. Nos cortes transversais, quatro tipos de alterações causadas pelo flúor são relacionadas: redução do número, tamanho e arranjo dos cloroplastos; necrose dos tecidos principalmente nas margens das folhas; erosões na superfície da folha e hipertrofia das células. Em C. gayana, no entanto, não foram observadas as alterações nos cloroplastos e os outros sintomas foram bem mais discretos que em P. maximum. A ocorrência de compostos fenólicos foi registrada pela coloração com fucsina em todas as regiões da lâmina onde foram observadas lesões. Ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura foi observado o achatamento e formação de concavidades nas paredes externas das células. Este experimento confirma a maior sensibilidade de P. maximum ao flúor e revela algumas características anatômicas de C. gayana que, entre outros fatores, podem estar contribuindo para a maior resistência desta espécie a este poluente.

  10. Characterization of Proanthocyanidins from Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. G. Don. (Fabaceae by Flow Injection Analysis — Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

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    Wagner Vilegas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the chemical composition of the African plant Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae roots and barks by Liquid Chromatography - Electrospray Ionization and Direct Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry analysis. Mass spectral data indicated that B-type oligomers are present, namely procyanidins and prodelphinidins, with their gallate and glucuronide derivatives, some of them in different isomeric forms. The analysis evidenced the presence of up to 40 proanthocyanidins, some of which are reported for the first time. In this study, the antiradical activity of extracts of roots and barks from Parkia biglobosa was evaluated using DPPH method and they showed satisfactory activities.

  11. Características Morfogênicas e Acúmulo de Forragem do Capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia em Dois Resíduos Forrageiros Pós-Pastejo

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    Barbosa Rodrigo Amorim

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no Centro Nacional de Gado de Corte da Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa Gado de Corte. Foram avaliadas as características morfogênicas de folhas e perfilhos, acúmulo de matéria seca verde e índices de crescimento do capim-tanzânia em dois resíduos forrageiros pós-pastejo (Resíduo alto -- RA 3,6 t de MS/ha e Resíduo baixo -- RB 2,3 t de MS/ha, até os 35 dias após o pastejo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados completos com os tratamentos no esquema de parcelas subdivididas com três repetições. Para a dinâmica de perfilhamento houve diferença entre resíduos somente no aparecimento de novos perfilhos basilares. A taxa de aparecimento de novos perfilhos, tanto basilares quanto aéreos, decresceu linearmente com os dias de rebrotação após o pastejo. As taxas de alongamento e senescência de folhas não diferiram entre resíduos e tipos de perfilho. Em contrapartida, a duração de alongamento foliar foi menor no resíduo baixo e no perfilho novo, porém produzindo folhas com menor comprimento final. Houve interação entre resíduo e tipo de perfilho para a taxa de aparecimento de folhas, com maiores valores para o resíduo baixo no perfilho novo e remanescente. O acúmulo de matéria seca verde não diferiu entre resíduos, sendo, em média, 61,4 e 47,9 kg/ha.dia, nos resíduos baixo e alto, respectivamente. A taxa de crescimento relativo e o índice de área foliar não apresentaram diferenças entre resíduos forrageiros, porém apresentaram comportamento inverso em função dos dias após o pastejo.

  12. Methods of quantification by means of spectroscopy of nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography of the active principles of Justice pectoralis Jacq. Acanthaceae and Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E.Brownw ex Brit and Wils Verbenaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Lopez, Ligia de los Angeles

    2008-01-01

    The quality control of the vegetable material, presence and concentration of the active principles of Justice pectoralis and Lippia alba were studied for the use and marketing as herbal products. The method of analysis of the Justice pectoralis and Lippia alba was carried out by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the gas chromatography. Coumarin and essential oils were determinate in the plants extracts. Different samples were collected throughout one year to evaluate the variation of concentration of the active principles of the plant and there was evaluated a method of extraction of solvents [es

  13. Degradabilidad ruminal in vitro de ensilajes de pasto saboya (Panicum maximum jacq. con diferentes niveles de inclusión de cáscara de maracuyá (Passiflora edulis sims.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Barrera-Álvarez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar la composición y degradabilidad ruminal in vitro de la materia seca, materia orgánica y materia inorgánica de los ensilajes de pasto saboya con los tratamientos T1: Pasto saboya 90%+cáscara de maracuyá 10%; T2: Pasto saboya 80%+cáscara de maracuyá 20%; T3: Pasto saboya 70%+cáscara de maracuyá 30% y T4: Pasto saboya 60%+cáscara de maracuyá 40%. Se utilizó el método de microensilaje (silos PVC de 3 kg de capacidad provistos de una válvula bunsen y mecanismo de extracción de efluentes y la técnica de degradación in vitro con el sistema de incubación DAISY II, empleando el líquido ruminal de bovinos brahman de 500±25 kg de peso promedio. Se aplicó un Diseño Completamente al Azar con seis repeticiones. El nivel de inclusión de maracuyá mejoró el contenido de nutrientes en el ensilaje, incrementando la materia orgánica, la proteína bruta y la grasa bruta y disminuyendo las fracciones de fibra. La degradabilidad de la materia seca, materia orgánica y materia inorgánica fue superior (p

  14. Comparative effect of steam and gamma irradiation sterilization of sawdust compost on the yield, nutrient and shelf-life of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Ex.Fr) Kummer stored in two different packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortei, J. N. K.

    2015-06-01

    The conventional method of decontamination of the spawn substrate sorghum and compost of 'wawa' (Triplochiton scleroxylon) sawdust by the use of steam sterilization has attendant problems. In this thesis the possibility of using gamma radiation to decontaminate sorghum based spawn substrate and the compost before cultivation of the fruit bodies was determined as well as its effectiveness on selected nutritional, physical and organoleptic properties of the fruit bodies. A survey was carried out using the rapid appraisal method to determine the existing methods of sterilization, use of gamma radiation in food preservation, preference of mushrooms in Ghana by consumers and nutritional and medicinal attributes of the mushroom. The resident mycoflora in the sorghum grains and 'wawa' sawdust as well as in the fresh and dry fruitbodies of P. ostreatus was determined by using Standard Decimal Series Dilution technique on two media (Cooke's and DRBC). At the end of the prescribed incubation period of the compost bags, the following parameters were determined: surface mycelia density and contamination, total number of fruit bodies, number of primordial formed, total yield, Biological Efficiency, mycelia growth rate, average stipe length, average cap diameter and mushroom size at each dose applied. The bacterial loads were determined by the conventional microbiological techniques and identification was by the use of the API 20E system. The D IO dose requirement for reduction of fungi and Baccillus cereus were also carried out on the preserved fresh and dry mushroom using Fricke Dosimetry. To ascertain the influence of the different combinations of radiation and steam treatments and packaging material on the nutritional quality of the sporophore formed, proximate analysis and mineral elements composition (Na, Ca, K, P, N, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Pb) were determined by using the International Standard Methods in the Mushroom Industry. Dry curves showing the influence of radiation on drying rate of oyster mushrooms were determined by five non- linear regression models (Lewis, Page, Henderson and Pabis, Diffussion and Wang and Singh by the estimation of R 2 , X 2 and RMSE). The total phenolic contents, flavonoids and free radical scavenging activity DPPH (2, 2' - diphenyl- 1- picrylhydrazyl) as sources of natural antioxidant of stored mushroom in polypropylene and polythene packs were determined using aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts by Folin- Ciocalteau method. Finally, the influence of gamma irradiation on the colour characteristics were determined by the Hunter L * a* b* and Browning Index (BI) method while textural characteristics were determined mechanically by measuring Texture Hardness (kgf), Fracturability (N), Cohesiveness, Chewiness (N), Springiness (mm), Gumminess, Adhesiveness (kgf.s) and Resilience of fresh, dry and rehydrated mushrooms. The mechanical estimation to textural characters obtained were compared mean scores on 9-point Hedonic scale of sensory acceptability attributes (appearance, colour, aroma, taste, mouthfeel and overall acceptability of coded samples in two packaging containers. The survey demonstrated the popularity of drum (moist heat) technique of sterilization in Ghana. Majority (64%) of the respondents were dissatisfied with the method of sterilization of compost and spawn substrate with 36% indicated the method was alright by them. Majority (82%) of the respondents have never heard of sterilization of food or mushroom by gamma irradiation technique. Because of the high contamination rate of the steam sterilized compost and spawn substrate, the farmers indicated the need to achieve better sterilization for these starting material for mushroom cultivation. Drying was selected as the most popular preservation method as the fresh fruiting bodies have short shelf-life and P. ostreatus was found to be the most preferred mushroom followed by the termite mushroom (Termitomyces sp.). The medicinal and nutritional value of mushrooms was underscored by this survey. Consumers seem to prefer mushroom on the basis of taste, appearance, texture, aroma or combination of these. A dose of 32 kGy was effective in decontamination of sorghum grains, The fastest rate of mycelia growth was 0.71 em/day recorded by a single treatment of gamma radiation of 15 kGy on soaked raw sorghum. The slowest growth rate of 0.3 cm/day was recorded on raw non- irradiated and non- autoclaved sorghum grains (nl). The best treatment was the set of experiment which was steamed and irradiated at a dose of 25 kGy (S+I) which produced a growth rate of 11.8 mm/day and colonized completely in 7 days. The slowest treatment combination was the set of experiment of non-irradiated sorghum treatment (nI) which produced a mycelium growth rate of 10.0 mm/day and used 13 days to completely colonize and produced poor mycelia density and about 80% contamination. Fungal counts on composted sawdust ranged from 4.72- 5.17 log CFU/g and 3.4- 4.1 log CFU/g on Cooke's and Oxytetracycline Glucose Yeast Extract agar respectively. Irradiation was more effective in reducing the fungal load by up to 3 log cycles than steam (1.1 log cycles) with D 10 values ranging 5.64±1.12- 5.94±2.06 kGy. Ten encountered species belonging to 4 genera (Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Fusarium and Mucor) were predominated by Aspergillus (A. alutaceus, A. fumigatus, A. jlavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. ustus). Economic yield, biological efficiency, total fresh weight and flush weight of the fruiting bodies were recorded from the various interactions of irradiation and steam treatment of the compost showed significant differences (P<0.05). Autoclaved spawn + steam sterilized sawdust (A+S) of the 32 kGy treated set up recorded the highest yield of 1779g of total fresh weight (economic yield) and corresponding biological efficiency of 99.8%. Autoclaved spawn + non- steamed sterilized (A+nS) and irradiated spawn + non- steamed (I+nS) both recorded the least total fresh weight (economic yield, Og) and biological efficiency (0%) respectively from the non-irradiated (0 kGy) set up. Microbes such as Staphylococcus aureus, Coliforms and Salmonella were not detected in the fresh and dry mushroom samples but aerobic mesophiles, Bacillus cereus and yeasts and moulds were encountered. The mean D 10 values of B.cereus on fresh mushrooms were 3.21± 0.8 kGy (polypropylene bag), 0.76± 0.04 kGy (polythene). Low dose radiation of 1-2 kGy were effective in reducing the contaminants stored in polypropylene and polythene packs sufficiently to achieve the recommended levels of the International Commission for Microbiological Specification for Food (ICMSF). Polypropylene pack was preferred because of its rigidity and aesthetic quality. P.ostreatus contains significant amounts of ash, fat, protein, fibre, carbohydrate, metabolic activity as well as mineral elements (Ca, K, Mg, N, P, Na) and heavy metals (Zn, Mn, Pb, Fe, Cu) to merit its use in medicinal therapy. The drying characteristics of sliced mushroom exposed to low doses (0- 1.0 kGy) could be described by Page's Model while the Diffussion Model best fitted samples exposed to higher doses. The Effective Diffusivity (D eff ) (which describes the rate of moisture movement in foods) was enhanced by gamma irradiation. The textural profile of fresh and dry mushrooms (hardness, fracturability, chewiness, resilience, cohesiveness measured by instruments varied but data matched the same parameters using sensory analysis by trained panelists. Panelists found no difference between irradiated and the control samples. The colour change of fresh and dried mushrooms measured by L *a*b* values kept in two packaging materials varied little with radiation treatment and Browning Index (BI) was low showing a slow rate of enzymatic reaction after irradiation. Total phenolic contents of dry mushrooms kept in two packaging materials ranged from 0.56±0.01- 1O.96±1.7 mgGAE/g, flavonoids ranged from l.64±O.O5- 8.92±0.6 mgQE/g; DPPH radical scavenging activity also ranged from 7.02±0.1- 13 .03±0.04% and IC 50 values ranged from 0.08- 0.16 mg/ml. A significant linear correlation was found between values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The high content of phenolic compounds indicates that these compounds contribute to the high antioxidant activity of P. ostreatus which can be promising candidate for natural mushroom source of antioxidant with high value. Owing to the fact that in most instances there were only marginal differences in nutritional, microbiological and textural properties of the irradiated mushrooms stored in polypropylene and polythene packs, the former is recommended for use as packaging material because of its rigidity and aesthetic value. (au)

  15. Evaluation on the effectiveness of 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase (DOGR1) gene as a selectable marker for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) embryogenic calli transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawati, Abang Masli Dayang; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Ismanizan, Ismail; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    DOGR1, which encodes 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase, has been used as a selectable marker gene to produce transgenic plants. In this study, a transformation vector, pBIDOG, which contains the DOGR1 gene, was transformed into oil palm embryogenic calli (EC) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Transformed EC were exposed to 400 mg l-1 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) as the selection agent. 2-DOG resistant tissues were regenerated into whole plantlets on various regeneration media containing the same concentration of 2-DOG. The plantlets were later transferred into soil and grown in a biosafety screenhouse. PCR and subsequently Southern blot analyses were carried out to confirm the integration of the transgene in the plantlets. A transformation efficiency of about 1.0% was obtained using DOGR1 gene into the genome of oil palm. This result demonstrates the potential of using combination of DOGR1 gene and 2-DOG for regenerating transgenic oil palm. PMID:26442041

  16. Carotenoids and carotenoid esters of orange- and yellow-fleshed mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H.E. Moore & Stearn) fruit and their post-prandial absorption in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Ordóñez, Tania; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Jiménez, Víctor M; Carle, Reinhold; Esquivel, Patricia

    2017-04-15

    Although different genotypes of mamey sapote with distinct pulp colors are consumed in countries from Central to South America, in-depth knowledge on genotype-related differences of their carotenoid profile is lacking. Since the fruit was found to contain the potentially vitamin A-active keto-carotenoids sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin, we sought to qualitatively and quantitatively describe the carotenoid profile of different genotypes by HPLC-DAD-MS n . Sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin were present in all genotypes. Keto-carotenoids such as cryptocapsin, capsoneoxanthin, and their esters were most abundant in orange-fleshed fruit, whereas several carotenoid epoxides prevailed in yellow-fleshed fruit. Differing carotenoid profiles were associated with different color hues of the fruit pulp, while the widely variable carotenoid content (3.7-8.0mg/100gFW) was mainly reflected by differences in color intensity (chroma C ∗ ). Furthermore, the post-prandial absorption of sapotexanthin to human plasma was proven for the first time. Besides sapotexanthin, cryptocapsin was found to be resorbed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation and characterization of activated carbons from albizia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbon was prepared from the pods of Albizia saman for the purpose of converting the waste to wealth. The pods were thoroughly washed with water to remove any dirt, air- dried and cut into sizes of 2-4 cm. The prepared pods were then carbonised in a muffle furnace at temperatures of 4000C, 5000C, 6000C ...

  18. Effects of selected multipurpose, medicinal and aromatic plants on in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of selected multipurpose, medicinal and aromatic plants on the in vitro methane production and microbial diversity. The plants include multi-purpose trees; Pterocarpus santallinoides, Leucaena leucocephala, Albizia lebbek, Albizia saman, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, ...

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 781 ... Vol 28, No 1 (2001), Effects of Albizia saman pods supplementation on feed intake and live weight changes of White Fulani calves, Abstract. BA Adebiyi, JA Adeneye. Vol 40, No 2 (2013), Effects of alphamune g on the performance, serum and haematological parameters of Escherichia coli challenged ...

  20. Sorghum cobalt analysis on not determined wave length with atomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-24

    Aug 24, 2011 ... 2SamAn Inc, Nonsan, ChungcheongNam-do, Republic of Korea. 3Echo Information ... concentrations of 0.1 to 7 ppm can be quantitated. *Corresponding ... Eleven samples were air-dried and milled for Co analysis using an.

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Albizia saman pods supplementation on feed intake and live weight changes of White Fulani calves. Abstract · Vol 23 (1996) - Articles The Effects of broiler litter as protein source on the performance of Bunaji (White Fulani) bull calves. Abstract · Vol 20, No 1 (1993) - Articles Effect of parity on intake and utilization ...

  2. Revista de Investigacion Educativa, 2002 (Journal of Educational Research, 2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revista de Investigacion Educativa, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This journal, which deals with topics in educational research, includes articles written in Spanish (translated here) such as the following: "Management of the Competence of Professional Action (CAP)]" (Benito Echeverria Samanes); "Concepts and Beliefs of Andalusian Secondary School Teachers on Mathematics Assessments" (Francisco Gil Cuadra, Luis…

  3. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    Activated carbon was prepared from the pods of Albizia saman for the purpose of converting the waste to wealth. The pods were thoroughly washed with water to remove any dirt, air- dried and cut into sizes ... treatment processes (Markovska et al., 2006). Activated ..... preparation of activated carbons from coal by chemical ...

  4. The Effect of Processing Method of Dolichos Bean (Lablob Growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four diets were formulated to contain the control diet with 0.09 soybean meal or ... nutrient availability and overall utilisation of dolichos bean meal for pigs. ..... quick-cooking moth bean (Phaseolus aconitifolius Jacq.). The Indian Journal of Nu-.

  5. Genetic determinism of oil acidity among some DELI oil palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic determinism of oil acidity among some DELI oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) progenies. Benoit Constant Likeng-Li-Ngue, Joseph Martin Bell, Georges Franck Ngando-Ebongue, Godswill Ntsefong Ntsomboh, Hermine Bille Ngalle ...

  6. jfewr ©2016 - jfewr Publication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OKUTEKPA

    Experimental Design and Data Collection. P. biglobosa(Jacq) Benth seeds for the experiment ... The untreated seeds (con- trol) having a .... were capable of breaking seed dormancy and pro- ... Sacande, M. and Clethero, C, (2007): Parkia big-.

  7. Noticias botánicas colombianas, II: Especies nuevas y críticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1943-12-01

    Full Text Available Orbignya Cuatrecasana Dugand, sp. nov. / Syagrus Sancona. (RBK. Karst. / Synechanthus Warscewiczianus / Manicaria saccifera / Socratea elegans / Trichilia lamellulata Dugand, sp. nov. / Euphorbia mesembryanthemifolia / Pseudobombax subandinum Dugand, sp, nov. / Bombax obtusum / Peschiera cymosa (Jacq. Dugand, comb. nov.

  8. Antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum sp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... are regarded as waste after plants' fruits or seeds have been harvested. AMPs from ... including bacteria, fungi, viruses and oomycetes causing ..... Antibacterial effect of protein fraction from seeds of Capsicum chinense Jacq.

  9. Measuring customer satisfaction using SERQUAL survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Tajzadeh Namin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research is on assessing the quality of services of Tehran’s Saman bank and the available gap between customer’s expectation and perception. Also the relationship between customer’s satisfaction and each dimension of service quality (ie: reliability, tangibility, responsiveness, assurance and empathy and ranking them accordingly, is investigated. The statistical population of this research is consisted of Tehran’s Saman bank customers. The research methods of this study are descriptive-survey as well as correlation. The statistical approaches of this study are correlation, t-student as well as Friedman tests. The results from a sample of 276, shows the service quality dimensions affect customers' perception based on SERQUAL. In addition, there are significant relationship between customers' perception and their satisfaction of the offered services. However, there are negative gaps between customers' perception and their level of expectation.

  10. Salt tolerances of some mainland tree species select as through nursery screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Md Abdul Quddus

    2013-09-15

    A study of salt tolerance was carried out on germination, survival and height growth performance of important mesophytic species such as Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Acacia nilotica, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolaia, Emblica officinalis, Leucaena leucocephala, Samania saman, Swetenia macrophylla, Terminalia arjuna, Tamarindus indica, Terminalia bellirica and Thespesia populnea in nursery stage using fresh water and salt (NaCl) solutions of 10, 15 and 20 ppm. Effect of salt on germination, survival performance and height growth performance were examined in this condition. Based on the observation, salt tolerance of these species has been determined Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Tamarindus indica has showed the best capacity to perform in different salinity conditions. Acacia nilotica, Emblica officinalis, Thespesia populnea has performed better. Albizia procera, Samania saman and Terminalia bellirica, germination and height performance showed good but when salinity increases survivability were decreases.

  11. Liigapörssi-pelin verkkopelaamisen työkalu

    OpenAIRE

    Finning, J. (Jaakko)

    2015-01-01

    Tiivistelmä Liigapörssin, ja saman valmistajan muiden vastaavien pelien, pelaaminen on suosittu harrastus penkkiurheilijoiden keskuudessa. Pelaaminen sisältää paljon haasteita. Ongelmia aiheuttavat jakson pelilistan läpikäynti, joukkueiden kokoaminen sekä vaihtojen tekeminen. Näitä haasteita kohdataan pelissä päivittäin. Monet yksittäiset pelaajat ovatkin laatineet itselleen alkeellisia tilastoja ja taulukoita, joiden avull...

  12. Avaimet menestykseen : Case Bar Cave

    OpenAIRE

    Rossinen, Henna; Pulkkanen, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    Tiivistelmä Nykyisin markkinointi ei ole vain huolimattomasti koottu lista yrityksen toimintaa jaottelevista perusedellytyksistä, vaan se on kokonaisvaltaista toimintaa, jossa on huomioitava yrityksen liikeidea sekä toiminta-ajatus. Jokainen ravintola pystyy peruslähtökohdiltaan tarjoamaan asiakkailleen saman tuotteen, joten erottuminen massasta on elintärkeää. Varsinkin pienemmissä kaupungeissa, erottumalla kilpailijoista saadaan sekä entiset, että uudet asiakkaat astumaan juuri omaan ra...

  13. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaen, J.A. [Universidad de Panama, Centro de Investigaciones con Tecnicas Nucleares/Depto. de Quimica (Panama); Garcia de Saldana, E.; Hernandez, C. [Universidad de Panama, Maestria en Ciencias Quimicas (Panama)

    1999-11-15

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Moessbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  14. Preliminary screening of five ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, C; Gomez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar, A M; Cáceres, A

    2001-01-01

    We performed the Irwin test on some different extracts of the aerial parts of Tridax procumbens L., of the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., of the bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. and of the root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At a dosage of 1.25 g extract/100 g dried plant, the aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and G. sepium Jacq. Walp. showed higher activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis. catalepsy and strong hypothermia.

  15. Variabilidad fitoquímica y repercusión antinutricional potencial en especies del género Albizia Phytochemical variability and potential antinutritional repercussion in species of the Albizia genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.E García

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Mediante los análisis de componentes principales (ACP, clasificación automática (ACA y varianza simple (ANOVA, se estudió el espectro de variaciones de la composición química de once especies del género Albizia (A. berteriana, A. caribaea, A. cubana, A. falcata, A. kalkora, A. lebbeck, A. lucida, A. procera, A. saman, A. semani y A. odoratissima, establecidas en el arboretum de la EEPF "Indio Hatuey" en Matanzas, Cuba. Los indicadores bromatológicos evaluados fueron: PB, FDN, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, ceniza y carbohidratos solubles (CHS; mientras que las concentraciones de los polifenoles totales (FT, los taninos que precipitan las proteínas (TPP, los taninos condensados (TC, los alcaloides (Alc, las saponinas (Sap y las sales nitrogenadas de naturaleza no alcaloidal (SNNA describieron las particularidades fitoquímicas. Se detectó una alta variabilidad para las primeras tres componentes en los indicadores bromatológicos y fitoquímicos (71,19 y 81,95%, respectivamente. Los ACA permitieron identificar cuatro grupos en ambos casos. Las variables que explicaron mejor la varianza fueron los contenidos de K, Ca, ceniza, CHS, FT, TPP y TC. Se concluye que, independientemente que las especies mostraron características particulares en su composición proximal, todas presentaron una aceptable composición bromatológica. Las arbóreas pueden ser divididas por sus características esencialmente polifenólicas (A. berteriana, A. cubana, A. falcata, A. kalkora y A. lucida o saponínicas (A. caribaea, A. procera y A. saman, con elevadas concentraciones de fenoles y Sap (A. odoratissima, o por presentar bajos contenidos de estos últimos metabolitos secundarios (A. lebbeck y A. semani. Desde el punto de vista nutricional A. lebbeck, A. semani, A. caribaea, A. procera y A. saman constituyen las mejores opciones para la alimentación de los rumiantes, y solamente A. lebbeck y A. semani presentan potencialidades para los monogástricos.By means of the

  16. Jaktar på gåtene til universet

    CERN Multimedia

    Toft, Martin

    2004-01-01

    50 år har fysikarar frå 80 land og 500 universitet frå heile verda kome saman ved Det europeiske laboratoriet for partikkelfysikk (CERN) for å få testa ut teoriane sine i praksis. Forskinga på CERN har resultert i to Nobelprisar i fysikk og i verdsveven. Den 19. oktober feira laboratoriet 50-årsjubileet med Frankrikes president Jacques Chirac og Spanias kong Juan Carlos som dei mest kjende gjestene. Uniforum har besǿkt partikkelfysikarane sitt templ i Genève

  17. N-Terminal Tau Fragments as Biomarkers for Alzheimer’s Disease and Neurotrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    from the Tau Front: Cantoblanco 2013 J Alzheimers Dis Parkinsonism 4, e133 3. Saman S, Lee N, Inoyo I, Jin J, Li Z, Doyle T, McKee AC, Hall GF...diseases, as mitochondrial markers are prominently associated with Parkinsons Disease (hsa05012) and Huntington’s Disease (hsa05016) as well as AD...connectivity in Figure 2b, the 1” boxes (shaded) were placed so as to maximize icon inclusion (black dots) for each 1.9” diagram shown. The

  18. Impacts des caractéristiques physico-chimiques des eaux sur la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mart.) and Panicum maximum (Jacq.). Water Resources and Industry, 16: 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wri.2016.07.001. Priso RJ, Dibong SD, Tchinda-Metagne C,. Taffouo VD, Ndongo D, Amougou A. 2010. Impacts des eaux polluées sur la.

  19. Mechanical properties and chemical composition of beech wood exposed for 30 and 120 days to white-rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan Bari; Hamid Reza Taghiyari; Behbood Mohebby; Carol A. Clausen; Olaf Schmidt; Mohammad Ali Tajick Ghanbary; Mohammad Javad Vaseghi

    2015-01-01

    The effects of exposing specimens of Oriental beech [Fagus sylvatica subsp. orientalis (Lipsky) Greuter and Burdet] to the white-rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kummer and Trametes versicolor (L.: Fr.) Pilát strain 325 have been studied concerning the mechanical properties and...

  20. 7 CFR 201.2 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... antidotale Retz. Panicgrass, green—Panicum maximum Jacq. var. trichoglume Robyns Pea, field—Pisum sativum L.... Chard, Swiss—Beta vulgaris L. subsp. cicla (L.) Koch Chicory—Cichorium intybus L. Chives—Allium....) Laterrade Cowpea—Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Cress, garden—Lepidium sativum L. Cress...

  1. Assessment of an oil palm population from Nigerian Institute for Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), a monocotyledonous plant belonging to the Arecaceae family, is one of the most important oil crops in the world. In Nigeria, oil palm has benefited immensely from conventional breeding efforts resulting in high yields that have been achieved with this breeding material. However, oil palm ...

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hounhouigan, DJ. Vol 75 (2014) - Articles Caractérisation physique et composition chimique des graines de Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R. Br. en usage au Nord-Bénin Abstract PDF · Vol 86 (2015) - Articles Effet des opérations unitaires d'extraction sur le rendement et la qualité du beurre de Pentadesma butyracea produit en ...

  3. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 3, No 3 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] ... be distinguished by DGGE analysis of PCR-amplified 18S rDNA fragments · EMAIL FREE FULL ... Isolation of a kernel oleoyl-ACP thioesterase gene from the oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

  4. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowering Trees. Gliricidia sepium(Jacq.) Kunta ex Walp. (Quickstick) of Fabaceae is a small deciduous tree with. Pinnately compound leaves. Flower are prroduced in large number in early summer on terminal racemes. They are attractive, pinkish-white and typically like bean flowers. Fruit is a few-seeded flat pod.

  5. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq. (Helicopter Tree) of Hernandiaceae is a moderate size deciduous tree that grows to about 12 m in height with a smooth, shining, greenish-white bark. The leaves are ovate, rarely irregularly ... flowers which are unpleasant smelling. Fruit is a woody nut with two long thin wings.

  6. Genetic determinism of oil acidity among some DELI oil palm (Elaeis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-08-24

    Aug 24, 2016 ... Key words: Elaeis guineensis Jacq., free fatty acid content, crude palm oil, inheritance. INTRODUCTION. The oil palm (Elaeis ... of world's production of vegetable oils. The highest palm oil producing countries ... Without prior refining, acidic palm oil is improper for human consumption (Anonymous, 2005).

  7. Effect of carbohydrate source on the in vitro germination of Elaeis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uche okafor

    2016-07-20

    Jul 20, 2016 ... and starch were screened for the most suitable carbon source for the in vitro culture of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. ..... environmentally friendly substitute for fossil fuel and a source of commercial vegetable oil. Conflict of Interests. The authors have not declared any conflict of interests. REFERENCES.

  8. Effects of cutting frequency and fertilizer-N application on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N rates on growth and production of guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq). The experiment was conducted in Nsukka, Nigeria. Treatments comprised four levels of fertilizer N (0, 150, 300 and 450 kg N ha- 1) and four cutting intervals (3, 6, ...

  9. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 14, No 8 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in spent and fresh cutting fluids contaminated soils by Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fries). Quelet and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) Fr. P. Kumm · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. CO Adenipekun, AR ...

  10. Oryctolagus cuniculus L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 mars 2016 ... heterophylla) associated to Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) Lam. in semi-intensive ... une stratégie de réduction du coût de l'alimentation des lapins ..... gain in guinea pigs fed diets containing different fiber sources.

  11. Euphorbia heterophylla L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... dans l'alimentation des lapins (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) dont la récolte non contrôlée des ... Effect of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associated with ..... fed to Guinea pigs in periurban rearing systems of Kinshasa.

  12. The semi-wild oil palm and its industry in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.

    1967-01-01

    The oil palm (Elaeis quineensis Jacq.) is of great importance to the people of West Tropical and Equatorial Africa. This palm is there a major food crop under semi-wild conditions and since the end of the 18th century a principal commercial crop. In the first chapters the centres of

  13. Molecular markers developed for Pouteria sapota

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tropical plant Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) is known for its edible fruits that contain unique carotenoids, and for the chemicals extracted from its bark, leaves and roots having fungitoxic, insecticidal, anti-inflamatory, anti-oxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. We reported high throughpu...

  14. Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: The content of total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins of the alcohol, hydroalcohol and aqueous extracts of ... Keywords: Crataegus oxyacantha L.; Natural phenolic compounds; Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, Southeast Serbia. ..... Antioxidant activities of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swart extracts, Food ...

  15. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activities of Curculigo pilosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... Phenolic, flavonoids and proanthocyanidin contents were 65.17, 23.17 and 4.23 mg/g .... The total phenol content in the extract was determined by the modified Folin-Ciocalteu method (Wolfe et al., 2003). 0.5 ml ( ..... activities of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swart extracts. Food Chem. 97: 452–458. Palazzino G ...

  16. EFFECT OF Dactyladenia barteri (Hook. f. ex Oliv.), Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two year field study was conducted to investigate the effects of prunings of Dactyladenia barteri (Hook. f. ex Oliv.), Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.), and Senna siamea (Lam.) on the activity of earthworms and soil and worm cast properties. Earthworm activity was measured by quantifying ...

  17. Domestication of perennial fruit trees: the case of mamey (Pouteria sapota) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tropical plant Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) is known for its edible fruits that contain unique carotenoids, and for the chemicals extracted from its bark, leaves and roots having fungitoxic, insecticidal, anti-inflamatory, anti-oxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Currently, there is no gen...

  18. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 5. Cytomixis impairs meiosis and influences reproductive success in Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb) Jacq. – an additional strategy and possible implications. S K Lattoo S Khan S Bamotra A K Dhar. Reviews Volume 31 Issue 5 December 2006 pp 629-637 ...

  19. Height Growth of Mahogany Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. B. Briscoe; R. W. Nobles

    1962-01-01

    Since the recognition of natural hybridization of small-leaf (West Indies) mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni Jacq.) with bigleaf (Honduras) mahogany (S. macrophylla King) there has been conjecture about their relative growth rates. One would expect small-leaf to be the fastest growing on dry sites, the hybrids to be fastest on intermediate sites, and bigleaf to excel on wet...

  20. Fred-Jaiyesimi, AA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fred-Jaiyesimi, AA. Vol 12 (2008) - Articles Hypoglycaemic And Alpha-Amylase Inhibitory Activities Of Fermented Seeds Of Parkia Biglobosa (Jacq) Benth Abstract. ISSN: 1118-6267. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  1. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science - Vol 31, No 1 (1998)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen distribution in the milk and blood of Bunaji (White Fulani) cattle fed broiler-litter-based concentrate diets as supplement to Panicum maximum (Jacq) hay · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... The nutritive value of raw Mucuna pruriens (var. utilis) for broiler finishers · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  2. Phytochemical And Ethnobotanical Evaluation Of The Leaves Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis and ethnobotanical survey of the leaves of Talinum triangulare (Jacq) Wild were investigated. Qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenols, flavonoids and saponins while the leaf extract was devoid of glycosides, steroids and carbohydrates. Quantitative ...

  3. Ethnobotany of pru, a traditional Cuban refreshment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Godínez, D.

    2004-01-01

    Gouania polygama (Jacq.) Urban, Smilax domingensis Willd., and Pimenta dioica Merr., are three species widely used within Cuban ethnobotanical traditions and practices. Pru is a traditional refreshment and medicinal drink produced by their decoction and fermentation with sugar. It is claimed to have

  4. Antiproliferative effect of alcoholic extracts of some Gabonese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts from Piptadeniastrum africanum Brenan (Mimosaceae), Petersianthus macrocarpus (Breauv) L. (Lecydaceae), Cissus debilis Planch (Vitaceae) and Dieffenbachia seguine Jacq. (Araceae) were tested in vitro for their antiproliferative activity on human colon cancer cell line (CaCo-2). The highest antiproliferative ...

  5. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. P Ryser. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 34 Issue 4 August 2009 pp 677-687. Sensors and packages based on LTCC and thick-film technology for severe conditions · C Jacq Th Maeder P Ryser · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Reliable operation in harsh environments such as high ...

  6. Neuropharmacological profile of ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Cifuentes, C; Gómez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar del Fresno, A M; Morales, C; Paredes, M E; Cáceres, A

    2001-08-01

    We carried out the Irwin's test with some different extracts of the aerial parts of Thidax procumbens L., the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp., and root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At dosage of 1.25 g dried plant/kg weight aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. demonstrated the most activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis, catalepsy and strong hypothermia. These extracts of both plants were assayed for effects on CNS and they caused very significant reductions in spontaneous locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and rectal temperature and they increased the sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time.

  7. Efeito tóxico de alimentos alternativos para abelhas Apis mellifera Toxic effect of alternative feeds for honeybees Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia de Mello Pereira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar a existência de efeito tóxico em alimentos protéicos alternativos fornecidos para abelhas Apis mellifera. Medindo-se o tempo médio de mortalidade e o índice de mortalidade de abelhas confinadas, avaliou-se a existência de efeito tóxico do: (a feno das folhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta; (b feno das folhas de leucena (Leucaena leococephala; (c farinha de vagem de algaroba (Prosopis juliflora; (d farinha de vagem de bordão-de-velho (Pithecellobium cf. saman; (e farelo de babaçu (Orbygnia martiana e (f sucedâneo do leite para bezerros da marca Purina®. O tempo médio de mortalidade variou de 4,46 a 11,74 e o índice de mortalidade variou de 4,58 a 12,80. Durante o experimento, obsevou-se que as abelhas alimentadas com farinha de bordão-de-velho ficavam envoltas em uma crosta de alimento, morrendo asfixiadas posteriormente. Os resultados demonstraram que a farinha de bordão-de-velho não deve ser fornecida às abelhas. Não foi observado efeito tóxico nos demais alimentos estudados.The objective of this research was to study toxic effects of alternative feeds for honeybees Apis mellifera. The average mortality time and the mortality index of cagged honeybees were assessed to evaluate any possible toxic effect of: (a cassava hay (Manihot esculenta; (b leucaena hay (Leucaena leococephala; (c mesquite pod meal (Prosopis juliflora; (d "bordão-de-velho" pod meal (Pithecellobium cf. saman; (e babassu bran (Orbygnia martiana and (f succedaneous for calfskin from Purina®. The mortality time average varied from 4.46 to 11.74 and the mortality index varied between 4.58 and 12.80. It was obseved that honeybees fed with "bordão-de-velho" pod meal got involved by stichy layer of food and died asphyxiated. Results showed that the flour of Pithecellobium cf. saman should not be used for feeding honeybees, considering the early mortality of workers fed with this meal. The other food studied

  8. Characterizing haploinsufficiency of SHELL gene to improve fruit form prediction in introgressive hybrids of oil palm

    OpenAIRE

    Teh, Chee Keng; Muaz, Siti Dalila; Tangaya, Praveena; Fong, Po-Yee; Ong, Ai Ling; Mayes, Sean; Chew, Fook Tim; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Appleton, David Ross

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental trait in selective breeding of oil palm (Eleais guineensis Jacq.) is the shell thickness surrounding the kernel. The monogenic shell thickness is inversely correlated to mesocarp thickness, where the crude palm oil accumulates. Commercial thin-shelled tenera derived from thick-shelled dura???shell-less pisifera generally contain 30% higher oil per bunch. Two mutations, sh MPOB (M1) and sh AVROS (M2) in the SHELL gene ? a type II MADS-box transcription factor mainly present in ...

  9. Reclamation status of a degraded pasture based on soil health indicators.

    OpenAIRE

    SANTOS, C. A. dos; KRAWULSKI, C. C.; BINI, D.; GOULART FILHO, T.; KNOB, A.; MEDINA, C. C.; ANDRADE FILHO, G.; NOGUEIRA, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Pasture degradation is a concern, especially in susceptible sandy soils for which strategies to recover them must be developed. Microbiological and biochemical soil health indicators are useful in the guindace of soil management practices and sustainable soil use. We assessed the success of threePanicum maximum Jacq. cultivars in the reclamation of a pasture in a sandy Typic Acrudox in the northwest of the state of Paraná, Brazil, based on soil health indicators. On a formerly degraded p...

  10. article ndiayeoumar.MDI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    L'alimentation hydrique est le principal facteur limitant la productivité du palmier à huile (Elaeis guineensis. Jacq.). Les réponses physiologiques des plantules, soumises à un déficit hydrique, ont été évaluées sous serre, dans des pots durant 4 mois. En vue d'identifier des critères discriminants au jeune âge pour une.

  11. Компонентный состав эфирного масла полыни австрийской, произрастающей в Ставропольском крае

    OpenAIRE

    Коновалов, Д.; Коновалов, Ю.

    2006-01-01

    The componental structure of essential oil of Artemisia austriaca Jacq. growing in Stavropol region was investigated by GC-MS method. 31 compounds are identified. The basic components are: a-thujone (55,26%), eucalyptol (12,01%), b-thujone (7,21%), terpineol-4 (4,32%), (+)-camphor (4,11%), (S)-cis-verbenol (2,68%), borneol (1,94%), o-cymene (1,72%), (-)-cis-sabinol (1,25%).

  12. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening Comparação de bioensaios com os crustáceos Artemia salina e Thamnocephalus platyurus para abordagem de extratos de plantas com toxicidade

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Mayorga; Karen R. Pérez; Sully M. Cruz; Armando Cáceres

    2010-01-01

    Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest) and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest), were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex ...

  13. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga,Pablo; Pérez,Karen R.; Cruz,Sully M.; Cáceres,Armando

    2010-01-01

    Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest) and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest), were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex ...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Réduction des coûts alimentaires des lapins (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) par la distribution de l'herbe de lait (Euphorbia heterophylla (L.) Klotz. & Garcke) associée à l'herbe de Guinée (Panicum maximum Jacq.) Lam... Abstract PDF · Vol 101 (2016) - Articles Effet d'un aliment commercial de poules pondeuses sur la teneur ...

  15. Preclinical validation of antinociceptive, antiinflammatory, and antipyretic activities of Cordia martinicensis leave decoction

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Hormaza, Ioanna; Victoria Amador, María del Carmen; Brito Álvarez, Gisselle; Morón Rodríguez, Francisco; López Barreiro, Marisol; García Hernández, Ana Ibis; Duménigo González, Abel; Morejón Rodríguez, Zulema; Bacallao Elguea, Yunier; Nossin, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: leave decoction of Cordia martinicensis (Jacq.) Roem. & Schult. is commonly used in Dominica, Martinique and St. Lucia to relieve thoracic pain and fever. Objectives: to validate the antiinflammatory, antinociceptive (analgesic), and antipyretic ethnobotanical uses of Cordia martinicensis in experimental animal models. Methods: 30 % aqueous extract of Cordia martinicensis dry leaves was prepared just before use. Analgesic activity was assayed by writhing and tail flick, and anti...

  16. Trustworthy Critical Infrastructures via Physics-Aware Just-Ahead-Of-Time Verification

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Dr. Saman Zonouz, assistant professor at Rutgers University, NJ and the director of the 4N6 Cyber Security and Forensics Laboratory is visiting CERN for a collaboration meeting. His previous works and research interests include PLC program analysis, security of embedded systems, and malware analysis and reverse engineering. Before the collaboration meeting, Dr. Zonouz is giving a 30-minutes-long talk, titled 'Trustworthy Critical Infrastructures via Physics-Aware Just-Ahead-Of-Time Verification', followed by Q&A and discussions. You can find the abstract of the talk below. The presentation is open to anyone interested, but please register on Indico to know the size of the room needed. (Please note the new room: 31/3-004, IT Auditorium.) Abstract Critical cyber-physical infrastructures, such as the power grid, integrate networks of computational and physical processes to provide the people across the globe with essential functionalities and services. Protecting these critical infrastructu...

  17. NOHUT SAMANI TARLA ATIĞININ SULU ÇÖZELTİLERDEN METİLEN MAVİSİ GİDERİMİNDE DÜŞÜK MALİYETLİ BİYOSORBENT OLARAK DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ

    OpenAIRE

    KILIÇ, Murat; ÇEPELİOĞULLAR, Özge; ÖZSİN, Gamzenur; UZUN, Başak Burcu; E. PÜTÜN, Ayşe

    2014-01-01

    Yapılan bu çalışmada tarımsal bir atık olan nohut samanı, sulu çözeltilerden boyar madde gideriminde biyosorbent olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Çözelti pH’ı, biyosorbent miktarı, başlangıç boyar madde derişimi, temas süresi ve çözelti sıcaklığının biyosorpsiyon işlemine olan etkileri incelenmiştir. Ayrıca, metilen mavisi biyosorpsiyonuna ait denge izoterm, termodinamik ve kinetik çalışmalar gerçekleştirilmiştir. Biyosorpsiyon denge verilerinin Freundlich izotermi ile uyumlu olduğu belirlenmiş, b...

  18. A study on the effects of human resource management on making change within organization: A case study of banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Eyvazi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to find the effects of human resource management on empowering employees in banking industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 243 randomly selected employees of the first Iranian private banks called Saman. There are four hypotheses in this survey. The first hypothesis investigates whether employment type influences customer satisfaction or not. The second hypothesis of the survey studies whether training as well as empowering employees could increase organizational commitment or not. The third hypothesis of the survey investigates whether there is a positive relationship between creating motivation as well as job security and profitability. Finally, the last hypothesis of this survey tries to find out whether there is a positive and meaningful relationship between leadership style and supplier satisfaction. The implementation of some statistical tests confirms all four hypotheses of the survey.

  19. The reformasi of Ayu Utami; Attacking the monopoly of the great religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Steenbrink

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In eight novels, Ayu Utami has presented critical attacks on doctrines and practices of the major religions in Indonesia. The two books, that describe the spiritual struggle of the Catholic priest Saman (1998–2002, call for a religion that is more active in the political arena, but leaves sexual rules to the individual people. The novel Bilangan Fu (2008 condemns the monopoly of the great religions in favour of local and individual spirituality. This is developed in a series of novels of which two more have already appeared. A third cycle of three more or less autobiographic novels (2003–2013 sketch her personal quest from atheism towards a critical but positive spirituality condemning a clerical and monopolist trend in Catholicism. Utami’s criticism of the great religions is external (more players in the field should be recognised and internal (religious leaders should have more modest claims towards their faithful and leave more space for personal choice.

  20. Impacts of floods on forest trees and their coping strategies in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rani Basak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, the Government of Bangladesh, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs, semi-government organizations, private organizations and individuals have established a large number of plantations under different programs viz. social forestry, agro-forestry and avenue plantations with indigenous and exotic tree species without considering their habit and habitats. Along with the indigenous species like Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Mangifera indica, Azadirachta indica, Gmelina arborea, Trewia nudiflora and Artocapus heterophyllus and many exotic species e.g. Swietenia macrophylla, Albizia saman, Dalbergia sissoo, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Acacia auriculiformis, Melia sempervirens, Acacia mangium etc. have been planted randomly. With increasing trend of climate-induced floods, millions of trees have been dying due to floods and water-logging. The most affected species are Dalbergia sissoo, Albizia saman, Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia mangium and Artocarpus heterophyllus etc. This situation has caused severe impacts on socio-economic conditions of Bangladesh. The impacts involved a significant loss in terms of investment, biodiversity and afforestation program. Little investigations have been conducted to find out the causes of the deaths and also to find out the suitable adaptation practices to reduce impacts of floods on trees. This synthesis focused on the impacts of floods on plantations and also assessed the potential role of traditional forest management practices in addressing the effects flooding on forests in Bangladesh. The study added important information and revealed knowledge gaps on the causes of large forest deaths. It also provided recommendations for policy on the establishment of frequent floods resilient tree crop plantations.

  1. Auget som arrangement – om blikk, makt og skjønn i profesjonsutøvinga til barnehagelæraren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Ulla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrakt: This article explores knowledge related to the gaze of the kindergarten teachers. By considering performances of the eyes as aspects of professionalism, the article discusses how different arrangements of the gaze are generated in complex conditions of judgment and power. Just as the eyeballs lies deeply tied into the corpus, both the gaze and the knowledge of the kindergarten teachers are deeply tied together in a comprehensive body of knowledge. This article draws upon interviews of kindergarten teachers related to mapping of children’s skills in a Norwegian context.  However, the statements in the study bring in a larger web of judgements in kindergarten. Foucault's theories are chosen as step stones for the discussion.Samandrag: Denne artikkelen handlar om kunnskapskonstruksjonar knytte til barnehagelæraren sitt blikk, og tek føre seg korleis barnehagelæraren bruker blikket i utøvinga av profesjonen sin. Ulike ordningar av blikk kan få grobotn i samansette konstruksjonar av skjønn og makt. Slik augeepla ligg djupt kopla saman med resten av kroppen, er også blikket og kunnskapen til barnehagelæraren djupt kopla saman i ein omfattande kunnskapskropp. Artikkelen tek utgangspunkt i gruppeintervju med barnehagelærarar om kartlegging av barn i ein norsk barnehagekontekst, men utsegnene frå intervjua bringar òg inn ein større vev av vurderingsarbeid i barnehagen. Teoriane til Foucault er nytta som reiskap i drøftinga.

  2. The population of Jernang rattan (Daemonorops draco in Jebak Village, Batanghari District, Jambi Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IIK SRI SULASMI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research of Rattan Jernang (Daemonorops draco Willd. population in Jebak Village, Batanghari District, Jambi had never been done before. Daemonorops draco is a plant that produces sap called dragon blood. Dragon blood is very useful for the the lives of people of Anak Dalam Tribe in Jambi. This research used purposive random sampling method. All of data wer analyzed descriptively. The results showed that beside D. draco, there were other six species of rattan in Jebak forest. The population of D. draco in Jebak forest was only 8 clumps, consisting of 82 individuals. D. draco had the smallest population among all rattan species. Calamus javensis had the highest population, namely 11 clumps, consisting of 197 individuals. The research location had air temperature of 20.20C-28.90C, realtive humidity of 58%-68%, and pH of 4.60-4.81. In this location, there were 35 tree species (73 individuals as supporting trees for D. draco to climb. The number of D. draco’s supporting trees and D. draco was not balanced, causing the death of D. draco in Jebak forest. Vegetation analyses showed that there were 51 tree species with diameter > 10 cm, consisting of 69 individuals. Pithecolobium saman had the highest importance value index (11 among all trees. There were also 33 tree species with diameter < 10 cm, consisting of 60 individuals. Pithecolobium saman also had the highest importance value index (20 in this group. Based on the interview, it is showed that the population of D. draco in Jebak forest declined because of illegal logging and forest encroachment.

  3. Una nueva Caparidácea (Steriphoma de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1944-12-01

    Full Text Available La planta colombiana que describo arriba había sido anteriormente identificada con el S. paradoxum (Jacq. EndI. por Triana & Planchon y otros autores. Al principio creí que estuvieran en lo cierto pero, comparándola con las descripciones originales de Capparis paradoxa Jacq. y de su sinónimo Stephania cleomoides Willd. (ambas descritas de los alrededores de Caracas, Venezuela, nuestra planta . tiene los pedicelos florales y el cáliz algo más largos, los pétalos obtusos, los filamentos estaminales casi el doble de largos y los racimos florales desprovistos de hojas coetáneas con las flores como aparecen en el dibujo de Jacquin (Hort. Schoenbr. 1: tab. 111. 1797. EI senor Tobías Lasser, del Servicio Botánico de Venezuela, a quien envié. un duplicado de la planta de Tocaima para que me hiciera el favor de compararlo con los ejemplares de Steriphoma existentes en el Herbario de aquel país, diligentemente me informó que es distinto a todos los que tienen allá, representativos de S. paradoxum (Jacq. Endl, y de S. venezuelanum. Briq. Por otra parte, el Dr. Ellsworth P. Killip, quien llevó consigo a Washington varios duplicados de nuestras recientes colecciones, me avisa que no son comparables ni a la especie de Jacquin ni a Ios ejemplares de S. ellipticum Spreng., S. peruvianum Spruce ex Eichl. y S. venezuelanum Briq. del Herbario Nacional de los Estados Unidos.

  4. Revalidacion de Bombax Ceiba L. como especie típica del genero Bombax L. y descripcion de Pseudobombax gen. nov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1943-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se determina por razones históricas que Bombax Ceiba L. es la especie típica del genero Bombax L. y se tipifica dicha especie a su vez sobre Bombax quinatum Jacq. Refútase así la recomendación de B. malabaricum DC. como lectotipo de Bombax. Se propone una nueva definición, sensu maxime strictissimo, de Bombax L. y de B. Ceiba L. fundada en B. quinatum Jacq.; se mencionan los sinónimos conocidos y los ejemplares botánicos examinados. Esta tipificación causa una completa alteración del concepto genérico de Bombax por cuanto B. quinatum ha sido considerado generalmente como representativo de un género intermedio (Bombacopsis Pittier cuya definición sistemática resulta ahora justamente aplicable al genera linneano. Por consiguiente es necesario hacer un ajuste nomenclatural y se propone una nueva denominación genérica (Pseudobombax Dugand que abarca, por lo pronto, tres especies: septenatum Jacq. (como tipo , ellipticum HBK. y Palmeri S. Wats., antes considerados como verdaderos Bombax. La preparación de este estudio fue realizada en su mayor parte compilando numerosos datos históricos en las bibliotecas del Arnold Arboretum y del Gray Herbarium, merced a las prerrogativas que me fueron generosamente concedidas por la Universidad de Harvard al designarme Research Fellow del Arnold Arboretum durante la visita que hice recientemente a varias instituciones botanicas de los Estados Unidos como invitado del Comité de Relaciones Artísticas e Intelectuales Inter-Americanas.

  5. [Estimation of maximum acceptable concentration of lead and cadmium in plants and their medicinal preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitkevicius, Virgilijus; Savickiene, Nijole; Abdrachmanovas, Olegas; Ryselis, Stanislovas; Masteiková, Rūta; Chalupova, Zuzana; Dagilyte, Audrone; Baranauskas, Algirdas

    2003-01-01

    Heavy metals (lead, cadmium) are possible dashes which quantity is defined by the limiting acceptable contents. Different drugs preparations: infusions, decoctions, tinctures, extracts, etc. are produced using medicinal plants. The objective of this research was to study the impurities of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in medicinal plants and some drug preparations. We investigated liquid extracts of fruits Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and herbs of Echinacea purpurea Moench., tinctures--of herbs Leonurus cardiaca L. The raw materials were imported from Poland. Investigations were carried out in cooperation with the Laboratory of Antropogenic Factors of the Institute for Biomedical Research. Amounts of lead and cadmium were established after "dry" mineralisation using "Perkin-Elmer Zeeman/3030" model electrothermic atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ETG AAS/Zeeman). It was established that lead is absorbed most efficiently after estimation of absorption capacity of cellular fibers. About 10.73% of lead crosses tinctures and extracts, better cadmium--49.63%. Herbs of Leonurus cardiaca L. are the best in holding back lead and cadmium. About 14.5% of lead and cadmium crosses the tincture of herbs Leonurus cardiaca L. We estimated the factors of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in the liquid extracts of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and Echinacea purpurea Moench., tincture of Leonurus cardiaca L. after investigations of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in drugs and preparations of it. The amounts of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) don't exceed the allowable norms in fruits of Crataegus monogyna Jacq., herbs of Leonurus cardiaca L. and Echinacea purpurea Moench. after estimation of lead and cadmium extraction factors, the maximum of acceptable daily intake and the quantity of drugs consumption in day.

  6. Cephaloleia sp. Cerca a Vagelineata Pic*, una Plaga de la Palma Africana

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    Urueta Sandino Eduardo

    1972-08-01

    Full Text Available Cephalolia sp. y Cephaloleila sp, se han empleado como sinónimos del género Cepaloleia sp. (Lepesme. 1947. Se sabe que los estados de larva y adulto atacan el follaje de la palma africana (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. trayendo muchas veces como consecuencia secamientos en los folíolos o su invasión por hongos. En Colombia el Cephaloleia próximo a vagelineata Pic se presenta en la zona de Urabá y posiblemente en el Departamento de Santander.

  7. Evaluación de la toxicidad aguda de extractos de plantas medicinales por un método alternativo (Evaluation of acute toxicity of extracts of medicinal plants by an alternative testing)

    OpenAIRE

    Deodelsy Bermúdez Toledo:; |Emilio Monteagudo Jimenez; Maria Boffill Cárdenas; Luis E. Díaz Costa; Alexander Roca Simeón; Emoe Betancourt Morgado; Enrique A Silveira Prado

    2007-01-01

    Se evaluó la toxicidad a dosis única de seis extractos de plantas medicinales: Psidium guajava L. (guayaba), Eucalyptus citriodoraHooker (eucalipto de limón), Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (caña santa, hierba de limón), Hibiscus elatus Sw. (majagua), Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (tilo), Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng (orégano francés) mediante un método alternativo e internacionalmente validado y aceptado (procedimiento de dosis fijas) en ratasSprague Dawley. El grupo tratado recibió po...

  8. EPR investigation of some desiccated Ascomycota and Basidiomycota gamma-irradiated mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bercu, V., E-mail: vbercu@gmail.co [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania); Negut, C.D., E-mail: dnegut@nipne.r [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania); Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania); Duliu, O.G., E-mail: duliu@b.astral.r [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania)

    2010-12-15

    The suitability of the EPR spectroscopy for detection of {gamma}-irradiation in five species of dried mushroom, currently used in gastronomy: yellow morel-Morchella esculenta, (L.) Pers. (Phylum Ascomycota), button mushroom-Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange), Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Fr., golden chantarelle-Cantharellus cibarius Fr., as well as oyster mushroom-Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) (Phylum Basidiomycota) is presented and discussed. Although after irradiation at doses up to 11 kGy, all specimens presented well defined EPR spectra, only A. bisporus EPR signal was enough stable to make detection possible after 18 months.

  9. EPR investigation of some desiccated Ascomycota and Basidiomycota gamma-irradiated mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercu, V.; Negut, C. D.; Duliu, O. G.

    2010-12-01

    The suitability of the EPR spectroscopy for detection of γ-irradiation in five species of dried mushroom, currently used in gastronomy: yellow morel— Morchella esculenta, (L.) Pers. (Phylum Ascomycota), button mushroom— Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange), Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Fr., golden chantarelle— Cantharellus cibarius Fr., as well as oyster mushroom— Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) (Phylum Basidiomycota) is presented and discussed. Although after irradiation at doses up to 11 kGy, all specimens presented well defined EPR spectra, only A. bisporus EPR signal was enough stable to make detection possible after 18 months.

  10. EPR investigation of some desiccated Ascomycota and Basidiomycota gamma-irradiated mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bercu, V.; Negut, C.D.; Duliu, O.G.

    2010-01-01

    The suitability of the EPR spectroscopy for detection of γ-irradiation in five species of dried mushroom, currently used in gastronomy: yellow morel-Morchella esculenta, (L.) Pers. (Phylum Ascomycota), button mushroom-Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange), Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Fr., golden chantarelle-Cantharellus cibarius Fr., as well as oyster mushroom-Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) (Phylum Basidiomycota) is presented and discussed. Although after irradiation at doses up to 11 kGy, all specimens presented well defined EPR spectra, only A. bisporus EPR signal was enough stable to make detection possible after 18 months.

  11. 2487-IJBCS-Article-Mkalao Mouti Marceline

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Il n'y a pas une grande variation de la teneur en lipides entre les fruits secs et frais. L'analyse des vitamines et minéraux pour 100 g de matières sèches montrent que les fruits de Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth. sont aussi les plus riches en vitamine C (208,71 mg±0,19) et en zinc. (47,65 mg±0,16). Les fruits de Tamarindus ...

  12. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Elamurajoon Witbrant (Jacq de Brouwer, Erna van Sambeek) Tilburgis Lõuna-Hollandis. Kaubakonteineritest kokkuopandav reisimuuseum (Shigeru Ban). Säästlik, kerge, transporditav ja vähese materjalikuluga näidismaja (Richard Horden, saksa AB Haack + Höpfner). Ristikujuline maja (Bevk Perovic Arhitektid) Ljubljanas. Onnist inspireeritud pargikeskus (Chris Thurlbourne) Taani Rahvuspargis. Eestile ja muuseumidele pühendatud Soome arhitektuuriajakirja Arkkitehti 2006. a. 3. numbrist. Autoritest nimetatud Jorma Mukala, Pekka Vapaavuori, Leonhard Lapin, Triin Ojari, Tarja Nurmi (retsensioon Karin Hallas-Murula raamatule "Soome-Eesti : sajand arhitektuurisuhted)

  13. Characterization of tropical forage grass development pattern through the morphogenetic and structural characteristics Caracterização do padrão de desenvolvimento de gramíneas forrageiras tropicais por meio das características morfogênicas e estruturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlindo Santos Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out with the objective to evaluate growth pattern of tropical forage grass under free growth by using morphogenetic and structural characteristics with the expectation of using this study for forage grass evaluation protocol. The experimental area was established with two cultivars of Panicum maximum Jacq. (Mombaca and Aruana, a hybrid cultivar of P. maximum Jacq. and P. Infestum BRA-7102 (Massai, two cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha (A. Rich. Stapf (Marandu and Xaraes and Molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora Beauv. and jaragua grass (Hyparrhenia rufa (Nees Stapf.. The grasses were planted in 1.0-m² experimental units with 24 plants arranged in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Growth pattern of the grasses was evaluated through mass development, tiller mortality, development stage and leaf longevity. Development patterns differed significantly among groups of grasses, indicating that the same available resources can be used in different manners by grasses from the same genus and/or species.Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o padrão de desenvolvimento de gramíneas forrageiras tropicais em crescimento livre por meio das características morfogênicas e estruturais, com expectativa de uso desse estudo no protocolo de avaliação de gramíneas forrageiras. A área experimental foi estabelecida com dois cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. (Mombaça e Aruana, um cultivar híbrido de P. maximum Jacq. e P. infestum BRA-7102 (Massai, dois cultivares de Brachiaria brizantha (A. Rich. Stapf (Marandu e Xaraés e com os capins gordura (Melinis minutiflora Beauv. e jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa (Nees Stapf.. As gramíneas foram plantadas em unidades experimentais de 1,0 m² com 24 plantas arranjadas em delineamento de blocos completos casualizados com três repetições. O padrão de desenvolvimento das gramíneas foi avaliado por meio do desenvolvimento de massa, da mortalidade de

  14. Early Stages of Morpho amathonte (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Morphinae and its Variation on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica

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    Jim Córdoba-Alfaro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Pacific Coast of Costa Rica shows some local variations in its four Morpho species. The goal of this article is to compare the life cycle of M. amathonte from different areas in Costa Rica and South America. The immature stages were found on Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. and then photographed and described so as to illustrate its morphology and behavior. It is clear, that M. amathonte from the South Pacific side of Costa Rica comes from one isolated population and demonstrates a cryptic nature between the two forms present in Costa Rica.

  15. As espécies de Coccoloba P. Browne (Polygonaceae) da Amazônia brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Melo,Efigênia de

    2004-01-01

    O gênero Coccoloba está representado na Amazônia brasileira por 23 espécies: Coccoloba acuminata Kunth, C. arborescens (Vell.) R. A. Howard, C. ascendens Duss ex Lindau, C. brasiliensis Nees & Mart., C. charitostachya Standl., C. conduplicata Maguire, C. coronata Jacq., C. declinata (Vell.) Mart., C. densifrons Mart. ex Meisn., C. excelsa Benth., C. gentryi R. A. Howard, C. latifolia Lam., C. lehmannii Lindau, C. lucidula Benth., C. marginata Benth., C. mollis Casar., C. ovata Benth., C. ...

  16. The Species of Cocoloba P. Browne (Polygonaceae) from brasilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Efigênia de

    2004-01-01

    O gênero Coccoloba está representado na Amazônia brasileira por 23 espécies: Coccoloba acuminata Kunth, C. arborescens (Vell.) R. A. Howard, C. ascendens Duss ex Lindau, C. brasiliensis Nees & Mart., C. charitostachya Standl., C. conduplicata Maguire, C. coronata Jacq., C. declinata (Vell.) Mart., C. densifrons Mart. ex Meisn., C. excelsa Benth., C. gentryi R. A. Howard, C. latifolia Lam., C. lehmannii Lindau, C. lucidula Benth., C. marginata Benth., C. mollis Casar., C. ovata Benth., C. para...

  17. A survey for potential biological control agents of Pereskia aculeata Miller (Cactaceae) in Brazil reveals two new species of Horismenus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikart, Tiago G; Costa, Valmir A; Hansson, Christer; Cristo, Sandra C DE; Vitorino, Marcelo D

    2017-05-30

    This paper deals with the description of two new species of Horismenus Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Brazil, parasitoids of larvae of Adetus analis (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Both species are similar to Horismenus steirastomae (Girault), a species that also parasitizes cerambycids. Adetus analis is a pest of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz (Cucurbitaceae), a minor crop in Brazil, Argentina and U.S.A., but also feeds in stems of Pereskia aculeata Miller (Cactaceae), an ornamental plant that has become a problematic weed species in Africa, where it was introduced. The two new Horismenus species are described, diagnosed, and compared to H. steirastomae.

  18. Pleurotus ostreatus Yetiştiriciliğinde Katkı Maddesi Olarak Mısır Silajının Kullanımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyhan Kibar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma Pleurotus ostreatus mantarı yetiştiriciliğinde mısır silajının katkı maddesi olarak kullanım durumunu belirlemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Çalışmada buğday samanına farklı oranlarda (%5, 10, 15 ve 20 mısır silajı ilave edilerek hazırlanan yetiştirme ortamları, verim ve morfolojik özellikler bakımından kontrol ile (%95 buğday samanı+%5 buğday kepeği karşılaştırılmıştır. Yetiştirme ortamlarının hazırlanmasında kullanılan materyallerin her birinin başlangıçtaki ve hazırlanan yetiştirme ortamlarının sterilizasyondan sonraki pH, karbon (C ve azot (N miktarı, C:N oranı ve mineral madde (K, P, Mg, Zn, Fe ve Mn içerikleri tespit edilmiştir. Verim bakımından kontrol ve farklı oranlarda mısır silajı ilave edilerek hazırlanan yetiştirme ortamları arasındaki farklılık istatistiki olarak önemli (P<0.05, morfolojik özellikler (şapka uzunluğu, sap uzunluğu ve sap kalınlığı bakımından ise önemsiz bulunmuştur. En yüksek verim (220.13 g kg-1 ortam buğday samanına %10 oranında mısır silajının ilave edilmesiyle hazırlanan yetiştirme ortamından, en düşük verim (153.75 g kg-1 ortam ise kontrol ortamından elde edilmiştir. Mısır silajının P. ostreatus yetiştiriciliğinde buğday kepeğine alternatif iyi ve ucuz bir katkı maddesi olarak kullanılabileceği sonucuna varılmıştır.

  19. Comparing fishers' and scientific estimates of size at maturity and maximum body size as indicators for overfishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclean, Elizabeth L; Forrester, Graham E

    2018-04-01

    We tested whether fishers' local ecological knowledge (LEK) of two fish life-history parameters, size at maturity (SAM) at maximum body size (MS), was comparable to scientific estimates (SEK) of the same parameters, and whether LEK influenced fishers' perceptions of sustainability. Local ecological knowledge was documented for 82 fishers from a small-scale fishery in Samaná Bay, Dominican Republic, whereas SEK was compiled from the scientific literature. Size at maturity estimates derived from LEK and SEK overlapped for most of the 15 commonly harvested species (10 of 15). In contrast, fishers' maximum size estimates were usually lower than (eight species), or overlapped with (five species) scientific estimates. Fishers' size-based estimates of catch composition indicate greater potential for overfishing than estimates based on SEK. Fishers' estimates of size at capture relative to size at maturity suggest routine inclusion of juveniles in the catch (9 of 15 species), and fishers' estimates suggest that harvested fish are substantially smaller than maximum body size for most species (11 of 15 species). Scientific estimates also suggest that harvested fish are generally smaller than maximum body size (13 of 15), but suggest that the catch is dominated by adults for most species (9 of 15 species), and that juveniles are present in the catch for fewer species (6 of 15). Most Samaná fishers characterized the current state of their fishery as poor (73%) and as having changed for the worse over the past 20 yr (60%). Fishers stated that concern about overfishing, catching small fish, and catching immature fish contributed to these perceptions, indicating a possible influence of catch-size composition on their perceptions. Future work should test this link more explicitly because we found no evidence that the minority of fishers with more positive perceptions of their fishery reported systematically different estimates of catch-size composition than those with the more

  20. Fósforo total, fósforo fítico y actividad fitásica en los frutos de árboles forrajeros de los Llanos Centrales de Venezuela Total phosphorus, phytic phosphorus and phytase activity in the fruits of forage trees from the Central Plains, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Pizzani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer la concentración de fósforo total (PT, fósforo fítico (PF y la actividad fitásica intrínseca (AFi de algunos frutos de árboles de interés forrajero de los Llanos Centrales de Venezuela: samán (Pithecellobium saman, carocaro (Enterolobium cyclocarpum, cují hediondo (Acacia macracantha, cañafistolillo (Cassia emarginata, caruto (Genipa americana, dividive (Caesalpinia coriaria, granadillo (Caesalpinia granadillo, guamacho (Pereskia guamacho, tiamo (Acacia glomerosa, guácimo (Guazuma ulmifolia, merecure (Licania pyrifolia y cují blanco (Prosopis juliflora, se realizó un ensayo mediante un diseño totalmente aleatorizado y diez réplicas. Los resultados indicaron valores de PT entre 0,08 y 0,38% y los contenidos de PF oscilaron entre 0,02 y 0,28%; ambas variables presentaron diferencias significativas entre especies (PWith the objective of learning the total phosphorus (TP and phytic phosphorus (PP concentrations and the intrinsic phytase activity (PAi in some fruits of forage trees from the Central Plains, Venezuela: Pithecellobium saman, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Acacia macracantha, Cassia emarginata, Genipa americana, Caesalpinia coriaria, Caesalpinia granadillo, Pereskia guamacho, Acacia glomerosa, Guazuma ulmifolia, Licania pyrifolia and Prosopis juliflora, a trial was conducted by means of a completely randomized design and ten replications. The results indicated TP values between 0,08 and 0,38% and the PP contents oscillated between 0,02 and 0,28%; both variables showed significant differences among species (P<0,05. P. guamacho had the highest TP and PP concentration. The PAi of 91,7% of the fruits was higher than 100 Ukg-1; the rest showed values between 94 and 95 Ukg-1. The PP content was highly correlated to TP concentration (r = 0,97; P<0,01. However, the PAi did not show significant relationship to the TP and PP values. Only L. pyrifolia recorded a lower value (0,08%. The PP content, as percentage

  1. Albucacrispa and A. grandis (Hyacinthaceae: Omithogaloideae, two new species of subgenus Albuca, the rediscovery of A. albucoides (sub­ genus Osmyne, and the identity of A. reflexa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Albuca crispa is a new species of section Falconera series Trianthera with crispulate leaves from the Great Karoo, known  at least since 1947 but overlooked until now. A second new species. A grandis. from the southwestern Cape was previously included in  A. fragrans Jacq. (section  Falconera series  Falconera. It is a robust species that flowers in winter and early spring and the styles are rugulose with ± isodiametric epidermal cells, unlike typical  A. fragrans which is a more slender species flowering in early summer and with derived, smooth styles with fusiform epidermal cells. The recent discovery of a flowering population matching the type of A. albucoides (Aiton J.C.Manning & Goldblatt (subgenus Osmyne allows for a full description and illustration of this poorly know n and taxonomically neglected species that has often been included in A. suaveolens (Jacq. J.C.Manning & Goldblatt. Lastly, examination of the type  of A. reflexa Krause & Dinter from Namibia shows it to be conspecific w ith Drimia indica (Roxb. Jessop.

  2. Anatomy of Subterranean Organs of Medicinally Used Cardueae and Related Species and its Value for Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Elisabeth; Saukel, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Numerous species of the Asteraceae, the composites, are famous for their use in both traditional and conventional medicine. Reliable anatomical descriptions of these plants and of possible adulterations provide a basis for fast identification and cheap purity controls of respective medicinal drugs by means of light microscopy. Nevertheless, detailed comparative studies on root and rhizome anatomy of valuable as well as related inconsiderable composite plants are largely missing yet. The presented study aims to narrow this gap by performing anatomical analyses of roots and rhizomes of 16 species belonging to the tribe Cardueae, of formerly and currently used drugs as well as their near relatives as potential adulterations (Carlina acaulis L., Carlina vulgaris L., Arctium lappa L., Arctium tomentosum Mill., Carduus defloratus L., Carduus personata (L.) Jacq, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten., Cirsium erisithales (Jacq.) Scop., Onopordum acanthium L., Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Rhaponticum scariosum Lam., Centaurea jacea L., Centaurea scabiosa L., Centaurea cyanus L., Cnicus benedictus L.). A detailed verbal and graphical survey of the analysed anatomical features is provided. Several characters were finally extracted which allow for discrimination of the examined species and may be effectively used for drug quality controls. PMID:21617780

  3. Efficacy of woody biomass and biochar for alleviating heavy metal bioavailability in serpentine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, Tharanga; Herath, Indika; Kumarathilaka, Prasanna; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Ok, Yong Sik; Vithanage, Meththika

    2017-04-01

    Crops grown in metal-rich serpentine soils are vulnerable to phytotoxicity. In this study, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) biomass and woody biochar were examined as amendments on heavy metal immobilization in a serpentine soil. Woody biochar was produced by slow pyrolysis of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) biomass at 300 and 500 °C. A pot experiment was conducted for 6 weeks with tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) at biochar application rates of 0, 22, 55 and 110 t ha -1 . The CaCl 2 and sequential extractions were adopted to assess metal bioavailability and fractionation. Six weeks after germination, plants cultivated on the control could not survive, while all the plants were grown normally on the soils amended with biochars. The most effective treatment for metal immobilization was BC500-110 as indicated by the immobilization efficiencies for Ni, Mn and Cr that were 68, 92 and 42 %, respectively, compared to the control. Biochar produced at 500 °C and at high application rates immobilized heavy metals significantly. Improvements in plant growth in biochar-amended soil were related to decreasing in metal toxicity as a consequence of metal immobilization through strong sorption due to high surface area and functional groups.

  4. Boraginaceae s.l. A. Juss. em uma área de Caatinga da ESEC Raso da Catarina, BA, Brasil Boraginaceae s.l. A. Juss. in the Caatinga of the Raso da Catarina Ecological Station, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Iranildo Miranda de Melo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata do levantamento florístico-taxonômico da família Boraginaceae em um trecho de Caatinga da Estação Ecológica Raso da Catarina, Bahia, Brasil. Foram encontrados sete espécies e três gêneros de Boraginaceae: Cordia (C. globosa (Jacq. Kunth, C. leucocephala Moric. e C. rufescens A.DC., Heliotropium (H. angiospermum Murray e Heliotropium elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst. e Tournefortia (T. rubicunda Salzm. ex A.DC. e T. salzmannii DC.. São apresentadas chaves para identificação de gêneros e espécies, além de descrições, ilustrações, comentários, dados de distribuição e hábitat.A floristic-taxonomic survey of the family Boraginaceae was carried out in a fragment of Caatinga vegetation of the Raso da Catarina Ecological Station, Bahia, Brazil. Seven species and three genera of Boraginaceae were found: Cordia (C. globosa (Jacq. Kunth; C. leucocephala Moric.; C. rufescens A.DC., Heliotropium (H. angiospermum Murray; H. elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst. and Tournefortia (T. rubicunda Salzm. ex A.DC.; T. salzmannii DC.. Keys to identify genera and species are presented together with descriptions, illustrations, and comments on relationships among these taxa, distribution and habitat.

  5. Pengaruh penggunaan bahan pewarna alam dari ekstrak kayu terhadap sifat fisis kulit ikan kakap merah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this research is to identify the effect of some natural dye of wood extract to the physical properties (tensile strength, elongation and rub fastness resistance of kakap (Lutjanidae fish skin leather. Fifteen pieces of dry preserved kakap fish skin were used in this research, and tanned using syntan and alum. The dyeing process was done using natural dyes of wood extract of Caesalpinia sappan L, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Swietenia mahagoni JACQ, Maclura cochinensis, and Ceriops tagal. The result of research indicated that the kind of applied natural dyes were not affect the physical properties of Kakap fish skins. The fish skins dyed using the such natural dyes was able be utilised as material in leather goods manufacturing. One of the five types of natural dye used in this research, Swietenia mahagoni JACQ wood extract produced the best dyed leather having good tensile strength, elongation/flexibility and the colour fastness. The tensile strength was 213,15 kg/cm2, flexibility 56% and colour fastness with wet white cloth 3/4 (grey scale value and with dry white cloth 4/5 (grey scale value, respectively

  6. Levantamento de iridaceae Juss. no Núcleo Curucutu, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, São Paulo. Survey of the family iridaceae Juss., in Curucutu Nucleous, Serra do Mar State Park, São Paulo.

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    Cátia TAKEUCHI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no levantamentoflorístico e estudo taxonômico de Iridaceae Juss. noNúcleo Curucutu, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar,São Paulo. Foram reconhecidos quatro gêneros e seisespécies para a área: Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora(Lemoine ex Morren N.E.Br., Neomarica rigida(Ravenna Capellari Jr., Sisyrinchium commutatumKlatt, S. micranthum Cav., S. vaginatum Spreng. eTrimezia martinicensis (Jacq. Herb. Parareconhecimento das espécies são apresentadaschaves de identificações, descrições, ilustrações,distribuição geográfica e fenologia, contribuindopara a pesquisa da família.This paper consists of a floristic surveyand taxonomical study of the Iridaceae Juss.at Núcleo Curucutu, Parque Estadual da Serra doMar, São Paulo. Four genera and six species werefound: Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (Lemoine exMorren N.E.Br., Neomarica rigida (RavennaCapellari Jr., Sisyrinchuim commutatum Klatt, S.micranthum Cav., S. vaginatum Spreng. andTrimezia martinicensis (Jacq. Herb. Keys ofidentification, descriptions, illustrations, geographicdistribution and phenology are presented, contributingfor the family research.

  7. Evaluation of the Effect of Agroforestry and Conventional System on Yield and Yield Components of Barley Hordeum vulgare L. (and Wheat Triticum

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    monir nazari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low sustainability, soil erosion and loss of soil fertility in conventional systems are the major threats to the agricultural production systems. These threats leads researchers towards more attention to different agroforestry systems including alley cropping as a solution in different regions of the world. Agroforestry has attracted considerable attentions because of its potential to maintain or increase productivity in areas with high energy input in which large scale agricultural systems are impractical. It is often assumed that appropriate agroforestry systems can provide the essential ecological functions needed to ensure sustainability and maintain microclimatic and other favorable influences, and that such benefits may outweigh their enhanced use of water in areas of limited water availability. Evidences suggest that diversity in agroecosystems, in particular the integration of different perennial crops or trees (agroforestry, augments nutrient capture and cycling processes; processes that in turn lead to reduced reliance on nutrient or water inputs, abatement of air and water pollution, and enhancement of other ecosystem services across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Agroforestry is viewed as providing ecosystem services, has many environmental benefits and economic advantages as part of a multifunctional agroecosystem. Conventional cultivation of barley and wheat systems in Saman Region has many problems about sustainability of production, erosion of soil, yield stability and soil nutrient properties. On the other hand, planting of Almond is a good option for farmers to make orchards, in compare to Nut. Although some farmers do Agroforestry as an innovative practice, but studying the advantages of these systems and finding their rewards, because of its unique benefits in dry, poor and endangered areas, could help farmers to increase their cultivation area as they wish, particularly in Saman region. Materials and

  8. Thomas Piketty: Capital in the Twenty-First Century (Le Capital au XXIe siècle. (Ensk þýðing: Arthur Goldhammer.

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    Gylfi Magnússon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Í umsögn gagnrýnanda kemur meðal annars eftirfarandi fram: Ritinu er ekki ætlað að vera lokaorðin um viðfangsefnið heldur miklu frekar grunnur að frekari umræðu og rannsóknum. Það hefur tekist. Capital in the Twenty-First Century er verk sem hefur þegar vakið mikla umræðu og verður vafalaust rætt áfram árum saman. Það er raunar nánast skyldulesning fyrir þá sem ætla sér að fjalla um þjóðhagfræði og hlutverk hins opinbera, hversu sammála eða ósammála sem þeir eru höfundinum.

  9. Physical Characters of Trees And Their Effects on Micro-Climate (Case Study at Urban Forest and Green Open Space at Semarang City

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    Endes N Dahlan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Air temperature in cities are increasing which can cause reduce the human comfort and productivity. Urban forest can make the environment comfortable. The objectiveof the researc hwere: (1. To Determine the effects of urban forest on air temperature and relative humidity, (2. To analyze the effects of physical characters of trees ont he micro-climate amelioration and(3. To Determine species of trees which are very effective for micro-climate amelioration.The results of the research revealed that the average of daily air temperature in the urban forest was 30.2 C with arelative humidityof 74.0%, while the daily air temperature around the urban forest was 31.8 Karakter Fisik Pohon ... (Dahlan E o C with relative humidityof 71.1%. Tree composisitin of all study sites consist of192trees, 29 speciesand 13families. The TinjomoyoForest Tourism has the highest density of trees(406trees/ha, while the lowest in the Parks Minister Supeno (316trees/ha. Value of Key Performance Indicator (KPI of trees based on calculation of tall of trees, diameter of canopies, total leaves area and canopy forms noticed that very effective trees for micro-climate amelioration were: Angsana(Pterocarpus indicus, beringin(Ficus benjamina, flamboyan(Delonix regia , ketapang(Terminalia catappa, mahoni (Swietenia mahogany, andtrembesi (Albizia saman.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments of the Tam Giang-Cau Hai Lagoon (Central Vietnam). First results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frignani, M.; Bellucci, L.G.; Albertazzi, S. [Istituto di Scienze Marine, Sezione di Geologia Marina, CNR, Bologna (Italy); Piazza, R.; Moret, I. [Univ. Ca Foscari, Venezia (Italy). Dip. Scienze Ambientali; Huu, Cu Nguyen [Haiphong Institute of Oceanology, Haiphong City (Viet Nam); Zangrando, R. [Istituto per la Dinamica dei Processi Ambientali, CNR, Venezia (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    The Tam Giang-Cau Hai (TG-CH) Lagoon, a typical tropical coastal wetland, is the largest in southeast Asia, being 70 km long with a surface of 216 km{sup 2}. This system is quite complex because it is composed of four parts with different shapes and extension called Pha Tam Giang (27 km long, 0.6-3.5 km wide, up to 2m deep), Dam Sam-An Truyen (5x5.5 km, 2 m deep), Dam Thuy Tu (24.5 km long, 0.8-2.6 km wide, up to 4 m deep) and Dam Cau Hai (a southernmost, semi circular basin 17 km wide and 1-1.5 m deep). Characteristics and problems of the TG-CH lagoon were extensively described by Frignani et al. In particular, this environment is now facing many critical problems such as oil pollution, coliform contamination, eutrophication and presence of anthropogenic chemicals. This situation requires a management, capable to reverse the negative trend, that should be based on a sound scientific background. However, so far, the research-based knowledge on the key environmental processes and the levels, sources and trends of contamination is rather poor, especially regarding the most dangerous organic species. The purpose of this work was to provide a first insight on the presence of PCBs in lagoon sediments with a particular attention to the history and trends of the inputs.

  11. Nutritive value and qualitative assessment of secondary compounds in seeds of eight tropical browse, shrub and pulse legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayemi, O J; Demeyer, D; Fievez, V

    2004-01-01

    Seeds of four tropical multipurpose trees (Albizia saman, Albizia lebbeck, Albizia rhizonse, Leucaena leucocephala), two shrubs (Tephrosia candida, Tephrosia bracteolata) and two pulse legume (Lablab purpureus, Canavalia ensiformis) were chemically analysed for dry matter (DM), ash, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and ether extract (EE). Qualitative evaluation of secondary metabolites (saponins, phenols, steroids, and alkaloids) was elucidated. The DM, ash, CP, NDF and EE ranged between 88.9-93.6 %, 3.0-5.4 %, 24.8-38.2 %, 22.1-46.9 % and 2.0-17.0 % respectively. All seed species contained at least one group of secondary plant metabolites and steroids were common to all except C. ensiformis that was not implicated for any. A. lebbeck and A. rhizonse showed low saponin content. Indications for water soluble tannins were reported for L. leucocephala while the two species of Tephrosia contained flavonoids or condensed tannins. The study suggested the potentials of the legumes seed species as a feed source for ruminants.

  12. UPAYA PENINGKATAN KECERDASAN EMOSI SISWA SEKOLAH DASAR MELALUI PENDIDIKAN JASMANI HARMONI

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    Eunike R. Rustiana

    2013-05-01

    EFFORTS TO INCREASE THE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS THROUGH HARMONY PHYSICAL EDUCATION Abstract: This study is aimed to ascertain the effectiveness of Harmony Physical Education (HPE program to increase primary school students’ emotional intelligence (EI. This study is based on Bandura’s social cognitive theory, The material of HPE is consist of games, sports, and group dance(Saman Dance. The subjects of the study were fifth grade students from different Public Elementary Schools. They were randomly assigned into control group (three classrooms who received regular PE program, and intervention group (another three classrooms who received HPE program. The treatment was conducted in 14 weeks. Emotional intelligence was assessed before and after the treatment using Emotional Scale that was modified from Bar-On EQ inventory. The results show that HPE Program is effective in increasing primary school students’ Emotional Intelegency which consists of intrapersonal, interpersonal, self adjustment, stress management, and positive attitudes. There were no gender role, but there is a relation between school acreditation level and the treatment used towards the improvement of emotional intelegency. Harmony Physical Education is recommended to be used by teachers in semarang as a supplement for KTSP 2006 Keywords: harmony physical education, emotional intelligence

  13. Carbohydrate Detection and Lectin Isolation from Tegumental Tissue of Fasciola hepatica

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    MB Molaei Rad

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Fascioliasis is a chronic hepatic disease and may be resulted from mechani­cal/molecular parasite adhesion to host liver tissue. The aim of this study was to detect surface car­bohydrate and lectin, carbohydrate-binding protein isolation that might be responsible of this molecular binding."nMethods: The present experimental work was conducted in the Department of Medical Parasitol­ogy and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Te­hran, Iran.  Fasciola hepatica parasites were collected from abattoir (Saman, Tehran, Iran and surface mannose-carbohydrate was detected by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC conju­gated lectin (Lentil. Lectin of tegumental tissue from F. hepatica was isolated by affinity chroma­tography and detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE."nResults: Mannose carbohydrate was observed on the surface of tegumental tissue from para­site under fluorescence microscope. Carbohydrate-binding protein or lectin with MW of 50 kDa also was isolated from homogenized tegument of helminth."nConclusion: These results are important for understanding of molecular pathogenesis of F. hepat­ica at the chronic phase of fascioliasis

  14. Novel formulation and evaluation of a Q10-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle cream: in vitro and in vivo studies

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    Farboud ES

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Effat Sadat Farboud, Saman Ahmad Nasrollahi, Zahra TabbakhiDepartment of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranAbstract: Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 were formulated by a high-pressure homogenization method. The best formulation of SLN dispersion consisted of 13% lipid (cetyl palmitate or stearic acid, 8% surfactant (Tween 80 or Tego Care 450, and water. Stability tests, particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy, and release study were conducted to find the best formulation. A simple cream of CoQ10 and a cream containing CoQ10-loaded SLNs were prepared and compared on volunteers aged 20–30 years. SLNs with particle size between 50 nm and100 nm exhibited the most suitable stability. In vitro release profiles of CoQ10 from simple cream, SLN alone, and CoQ10-loaded SLN cream showed prolonged release for SLNs compared with the simple cream, whereas there was no significant difference between SLN alone and SLN in cream. In vitro release studies also demonstrated that CoQ10-loaded SLN and SLN cream possessed a biphasic release pattern in comparison with simple cream. In vivo skin hydration and elasticity studies on 25 volunteers suggested good dermal penetration and useful activity of Q10 on skin as a hydratant and antiwrinkle cream.Keywords: coenzyme Q10, SLN, release study 

  15. EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL PARA LA CONSERVACIÓN DE LA FAUNA VERTEBRADA EN NORCASIA-SAMANÁ (CALDAS

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    Estefania Espitia Martínez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La educación ambiental ha ido cambiando desde un enfoque conservacionista a hacia una actitud crítica, una capacidad creadora y un nuevo sistema de valores y de comportamientos en los sujetos, lo que es esencial para una conservación integral. Por lo tanto, el objetivo del estudio fue sensibilizar a las comunidades sobre la importancia de conocer, proteger y conservar la fauna de la región. El área de estudio se encuentra ubicada en el departamento de Caldas en los municipios de Samaná y Norcasia, específicamente en el trasvase de las aguas del río Manso al embalse Amaní que sirve a la Central Hidroeléctrica Miel I de la empresa ISAGEN.  El trabajo se realizó en 15 veredas, en las que se hizo un diagnóstico participativo complementado con una encuesta estructurada, analizando las variables univariadas y bivariadas en el programa SPSS. Tanto con la población adulta como infantil se realizaron actividades de conservación, integración y sensibilización ambiental, las cuales fueron analizadas mediante la Matriz de Marco Lógico.

  16. Workplace spirituality and organizational citizenship behavior: Evidence from banking industry

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    Mohammad Ghorbanifar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between workplace Spirituality and Organization Citizenship behavior (OCB in banks located in province of Sari, Iran. The statistical population of research includes the employees of Sari's Banks including Melli, Ghavamin, Saderat, Keshavarzi, Mellat,Tejarat, Saman, Parsian, Sarmaye, Pasargad and Karafarin. We used a questionnaire with 45 questions as an instrument for collecting research data. The questionnaire was designed based on workplace spirituality (Milliman et al., 2003 [Milliman, J., Czaplewski, A., & Ferguson, J. (2003. Workplace spirituality and employee work attitudes, an exploratory empirical assessment. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 16(4, 426-447.] and organizational citizenship behavior (Podsakoff et al., 1990 [Podsakoff, P., MacKenzie, S., Paine, J., & Bachrach, D. (2000. Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management, 26(3, 513–563.]. Findings show that there was a meaningful relationship between workplace Spirituality and Organization Citizenship behavior. The results also indicated that there was a positive relationship between work spirituality and Organization Citizenship behavior in Sari's Bank.

  17. Growth rates and morphological measurements of Porcupine caribou calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L. Parker

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Body weights, leg lengths, and surface area were monitored for bottle-raised barren-ground caribou calves (Rangifer tarandus granti from the Porcupine herd up to 1 year of age. Body weights were compared with maternally-raised calves from the same cohort in the wild and from the Delta herd. A successful feeding regime for bottle-raising caribou calves is presented.Veksthastigheter og morfologiske mål hos Porcupine karibu-kalver.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Kroppsvekter, visse knokkel-lengder og kropps-overflate areal ble målt hos flaske-oppfødde kalver av barren-ground karibu (Rangifer tarandus granti fra Porcupine-stammen opp til 1 års alder. Kroppsvekter ble sammelignet med normalt oppfødde kalver av samme type i det fri og fra Delta-stam-men. Det presenteres et vellykket system for flaske-oppforing av karibu-kalver.Porcupine-lauman karibuvasojen kasvunopeus ja morfologiset mitat.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Porcupine -lauman pulloruokinnalla olleiden tundrakaribuvasojen ruumiinpainot, jalanpituu-det ja ruumiin pinta-alat mitattiin 1 vuoden ikäään saakka. Ruumiinpainoja verrattiin vastaaviin luonnon-oloissa kasvaneisiin saman lauman ja Delta -lauman vasoihin. Tutkimus kuvaa toimivan vasojen pulloruo-kintamenetelmän.

  18. Comparative leaf anatomy in argentine Galactia species Anatomía comparada de hoja en especies argentinas de Galactia

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    G. M. Tourn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of anatomical characters of the leaves of argentine species of Genera Galactia was carried out in order to evaluate their potential value in Taxonomy. In Argentine 14 species and some varieties from Sections Odonia and Collaearia can be found. Section Odonia: G. benthamiana Mich., G. dubia DC., G. fiebrigiana Burkart var. correntina Burkart, G. glaucophylla Harms, G. gracillima Benth., G. latisiliqua Desv., G. longifolia (Jacq. Benth., G. marginalis Benth., G. striata (Jacq. Urban, G. martioides Burkart, G. neesi D. C. var. australis Malme, G. pretiosa Burkart var. pretiosa, G. texana (Scheele A. Gray and G. boavista (Vell. Burkart from Section Collaearia. The characterization of sections is mainly based on reproductive characters, vegetative ones (exomorphological aspects are scarcely considered. The present paper provides a description of anatomical characters of leaves in argentine species of Galactia. Some of them, may have diagnostic value in taxonomic treatment. Special emphasis is placed on the systematic significance of the midvein structure. The aim of the present study, covering 10 species (named in bold, is a to add more data of leaf anatomy characters, thus b to evaluate the systematic relevance and/ or ecological significance.Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la anatomía foliar de especies argentinas del género Galactia (Fabaceae, a fin de evaluar su potencial en taxonomía. En la Argentina se reconocen 14 especies (con algunas variedades, 13 de la sección Odonia -G. benthamiana Mich., G. fiebrigiana Burkart var. correntina Burkart , G. gracillima Benth., G. latisiliqua Desv., G. marginalis Benth., G. striata (Jacq. Urban y G. texana (Scheele A. Gray, G. dubia DC., G. glaucophylla Harms, G. longifolia (Jacq. Benth., G. martioides Burkart, G. neesi DC. var. australis Malme, G. pretiosa Burkart var. Pretiosa- y G. boavista (Vell. Burkart de la sección Collaearia (Burkart, 1971. Los estudios se realizaron en

  19. PRODUCTIVITY OF A SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM UNDER INTENSIVE MIXED SPECIES GRAZING BY CATTLE AND SHEEP

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    Leonor Yalid Manriquez-Mendoza

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of forage trees in pastures enhances yield and nutritional quality of forage available for animal feeding. We assessed forage yield and nutritional quality, and weight gain of cattle and sheep foraging in a silvopastoral system containing Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. and the grasses Digitaria eriantha Stent (cv. Pangola, Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich. Stapf (cv. Insurgentes and Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq. B.K. Simon & S.W.L. Jacobs (cv. Tanzania, during three seasons (windy, dry and rainy in two grazing treatments: 1 mixed species grazing by four to five Criollo Lechero Tropical heifers and six female Pelibuey lambs, and 2 simple species grazing by 12 female Pelibuey lambs. Weight gain was greater (P

  20. Análise da expansão do cultivo da palma de óleo no Nordeste do Pará (2008 a 2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Lameira, Wanja Janayna de Miranda; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Toledo, Peter Mann de

    2015-01-01

    A palma de óleo (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) ganhou maior visibilidade e incentivos na região nor­deste da Amazônia nos últimos dez anos e um conjunto de ações políticas recentes per­mitiram a formação de territórios da palma. O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a expansão dessa cultura no período 2008 a 2013, na re­gião conhecida como polo do dendê no Pará, utilizando Sensoriamento Remoto e Sistema de Informação Geográfica. O polo está loca­lizado no nordeste do estado e abrange cerca de 59.60...

  1. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE VASCULAR FLORA OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIOCÂRLAN VASILE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are present and discussed the fact that the legitimate name is Cirsium heterophyllum (L. Hill and the synonime name is Cirsium helenioides auct., non (L. Hill.In the flora of Romania, as well as in Europe, is growing Cirsium heterophyllum (L. Hill; Cirsium helenioides (L. Hill is growing in Central Asia and in Siberie.Follow, it is showed that the taxa Juncus trifidus L. ssp. monanthos (Jacq. Asch. & Graebn. is not growing in the flora of Romania. There is presented an infraspecific taxa, new for the science, namely: Juncus trifidus L. ssp. trifidus var. brevifolia Ciocârlan var. nova., discovered in the Mountains of Cozia (Vâlcea county.Also, in this paper is presented two rare plants in the flora of Romania: Dianthus kladovanus Degen and Thymus longicaulis C. Presl, species listed in the “Red Lists”, discovered by the author in new localities.

  2. Analysis the organochlorine insecticide residual quantity in traditional Chinese herbs and soil around Nanjing%南京周边地区中药材及土壤有机氯杀虫剂残留分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张良; 王韶阳

    2004-01-01

    Using gas chromatography, the organochlorine insecticide residual quantity was determined in some traditional Chinese medicinal herbs and soil samples gathered from three plantations in Qixia, Jiangning and Jurong around Nanjing City of Jiangsu Province. The results show that the amount of organochlorine insecticide in all soil samples is less than 0.5mg·kg-1, and that in crude drugs of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl., Isatis indigotica Fort. and Platycodon grandiflorus (Jacq.) A. DC. is less than 0.1mg·kg-1. The soil condition reached the second standard of GB 15618—1995. It suggests that Yuanxiang town in Jurong is more suitable for planting traditional Chinese medicinal herbs.

  3. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma

    2015-11-16

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae).

  4. CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOGÉNICAS Y SU INFLUENCIA EN EL RENDIMIENTO DEL PASTO MOMBAZA, COSECHADO A DIFERENTES INTERVALOS DE CORTE

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    Omar Ramírez Reynoso

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el flujo de tejidos y rendimiento por corte del pasto Mombaza (Panicum maximum Jacq., cosechado a tres intervalos de corte (IC: 3, 5 y 7 semanas, durante un año, en las épocas de sequía (10-nov-2006 a 09-jun-2007 y lluvias (10-jun a 06-nov-2007. Los tratamientos (IC se distribuyeron en 12 parcelas de 17.5 m2, mediante un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. El IC de 3 semanas promedió mayor tasa de aparición de hojas (0.185 hojas tallo-1 d-1 durante el estudio (P

  5. Serotonin transporter protein (SERT) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) binding activity of montanine and coccinine from three species of Haemanthus L. (Amaryllidaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafford, Gary Ivan; Birer, C.; Brodin, Birger

    2013-01-01

    The alkaloid rich extracts from an acid/base extraction of bulb material of Haemanthus coccineus L., H. montanus Baker and H. sanguineus Jacq. revealed that two montanine type Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, montanine (1) and coccinine (2) were the major alkaloid constituents. Together these two...... to the relative proportions of coccinine and montanine in the extracts and thus are likely to be due to more potent unidentified minor constituents. Both alkaloids exhibited low binding affinity to P-glycoprotein (P-gp) as demonstrated by low inhibition of calcein-AM efflux in the MDCK-MDR1 cell line....... This indicates that P-gp efflux will not be limiting for blood-brain-barrier passage of the alkaloids....

  6. A probe into biochemical potential of Aconitum violaceum: A medicinal plant from Himalaya

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    Sidra Sabir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum violaceum Jacq. ex Stapf belonging to family Ranunculaceae is an important medicinal plant of Himalaya regions. Its medicinal potential is due to the presence of pharmacologically active compounds such as At, aconitine, benzoic acid, aconine and flavanoids. This plant has notable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Traditionally, this plant is used for the treatment of asthma, cough, neuraldisorders, cardiac diseases as well as for curing sciatica and joint pain. Due to remarkable medicinal values and commercialization, this plant is threatened and it is at high risk of extinction. Conservation practices and management techniques should be carried out to protect this important plant from extinction. Recent biotechnological approaches will be quite helpful for its conservation.

  7. Uso de plantas medicinais por pessoas com hipertensão

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    Marília Gabrielle Santos Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir el uso de plantas medicinales en el tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial por personas con hipertensión inscritas en el Programa de Salud Familiar en una ciudad del interior de Pernambuco. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, cuyos datos se obtuvieron a través de guía de entrevistas semiestructuradas aplicada a 172 pacientes. Resultados: el uso de plantas medicinales para el control de la hipertensión fue informado por 39,5%, de los cuales 57,4% utiliza sólo una planta medicinal. Entre las especies citadas predominó el uso de chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw.-34.8%]. Conclusión: plantas medicinales constituyen terapia coadyuvante en el tratamiento de hipertensión, sin embargo requiere monitoreo del manejo y de las especies seleccionadas.

  8. Use of medicinal plants by people with hypertension

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    Marília Gabrielle Santos Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of high blood pressure for people with hypertension enrolled in the Family Health Program in a city in Pernambuco State. Methods: a descriptive study, whose data were obtained through semi-structured interview script applied to 172 patients. Results: the use of medicinal plants for hypertension control was reported by 39.5%, of which 57.4% used only one medicinal plant. Among the species cited, there was predominant use of chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw.-34.8%]. Conclusion: medicinal plants constitute an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of hypertension. However, there is need for monitoring of handling and listed species.

  9. Two Trypanocidal Dipeptides from the Roots of Zapoteca portoricensis (Fabaceae

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    Ngozi Justina Nwodo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Zapoteca portoricensis (Jacq HM Hernández is used with remarkable efficacy in ethnomedicinal management of tonsillitis in the Eastern part of Nigeria. Previous pharmacological studies have validated the antiinflammatory and antimicrobial activities of the crude extract. In this study, two dipeptides, saropeptate (aurantiamide acetate and anabellamide, were isolated from the methanol root extract of Zapoteca portoricensis and their chemical structures deduced by one dimensional and two dimensional NMR and mass spectrometry. These compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant, and no report has been found on their previous isolation from the genus Zapoteca. Evaluation of their trypanocidal activity showed that compound 1 exhibited potent activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense with an IC50 value of 3.63 μM and selectivity index of 25.3.

  10. Light affects Varronia curassavica essential oil yield by increasing trichomes frequency

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    Emily V.R. da S. Feijó

    Full Text Available Light can act on essential oil yield directly on synthesis of secondary metabolites, or indirectly on plant growth. Varronia curassavica Jacq., Boraginaceae, is a native medicinal species from Brazil known as “erva-baleeira”, with anti-inflammatory activity related to its essential oil. Despite pharmacological evidences of this species and its economic importance for herbal medicine production, little is known about the effect of light on growth and essential oil production. This study aimed to analyze the influence of different irradiances on growth, frequency of trichomes, essential oil yield and composition of V. curassavica. The irradiance affected plant growth, but no significant alteration on leaf biomass was detected. The increase in essential oil content under higher irradiance reflected on essential oil yield, and is associated with higher frequency of glandular, globular trichomes. The essential oil composition, rich in caryophyllene derivatives was affected by irradiance, but α-humulene, the constituent of pharmaceutical interest, remained unchanged.

  11. The Amoebicidal Effect of Ergosterol Peroxide Isolated from Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Menchaca, Thuluz; Suárez-Medellín, Jorge; Del Ángel-Piña, Christian; Trigos, Ángel

    2015-12-01

    Dysentery is an inflammation of the intestine caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica and is a recurrent health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. Because of the magnitude of this disease, finding novel strategies for treatment that does not affect human cells is necessary. Ergosterol peroxide is a sterol particularly known as a major cytotoxic agent with a wide spectrum of biological activities produced by edible and medicinal mushrooms. The aim of this report is to evaluate the amoebicidal activity of ergosterol peroxide (5α, 8α-epidioxy-22E-ergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol isolated from 5α, 8α-epidioxy-22E-ergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol) (Jacq.) P. Kumm. f. sp. Florida. Our results show that ergosterol peroxide produced a strong cytotoxic effect against amoebic growth. The inhibitory concentration IC50 of ergosterol peroxide was evaluated. The interaction between E. histolytica and ergosterol peroxide in vitro resulted in strong amoebicidal activity (IC50  = 4.23 nM) that may be due to the oxidatory effect on the parasitic membrane. We also tested selective toxicity of ergosterol peroxide using a cell line CCL-241, a human epithelial cell line isolated from normal human fetal intestinal tissue. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the cytotoxicity of ergosterol peroxide against E. histolytica, which uncovers a new biological property of the lipidic compound isolated from Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. f. sp. Florida. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. FORAGE PRODUCTIVITY IN AGROECOSYSTEMS USING TRADITIONAL AND ROTATIONAL CATTLE GRAZING IN PASO DE OVEJAS, VERACRUZ, MEXICO

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    Marcelo Bautista-Tolentino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Forage biomass and chemical composition of Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq. B.K. Simon & S.W.L. Jacobs were assessed in monoculture (P or associated with trees of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (PGu or Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp (PGs, under traditional (TG or rotational (RG cattle grazing regimes, by season of the year (windy: October-February, dry: March-June, and rainy: July-September and annually. Annual forage production (kg DM ha-1 under RG and TG was 8049±586 and 4170±319, respectively; 5441±2225 in P-TG, 2022±82 in PGs-TG, 12326±2094 in PGu-TG, 9612±1331 in PGs-RG, and 7976±737 in PGu-RG. Gliricidia sepium produced 1448±2 and 1660±3 kg DM ha-1 year-1 under PGs-TG and PGs-RG, respectively. Forage yield across plant associations and grazing regimes was higher in the rainy season (5333.6±56.7 kg DM ha-1, and decreased in the windy (2462±349.0 kg DM ha-1 and dry seasons (252.9±2 kg DM ha-1. The PGu system had the highest crude protein content annually (21.8 % and by season (23.1 %, windy, and also showed the least neutral detergent fiber content during the year (55.2 % and by season (55.2 %, rainy. Biomass production and chemical composition of M. maximus in monoculture or associated with G. ulmifolia and G. sepium can be increased by modifying the traditional grazing regimes to a more intensive rotational system during the growth period of the year.

  13. Screening of plants found in the State of Amazonas, Brazil for activity against Aedes aegypti larvae Triagem de plantas encontradas no Estado do Amazonas para atividade larvicida contra Aedes aegypti

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    Adrian Martin Pohlit

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol, methanol and water extracts representing mostly native plant species found in the Amazon region were prepared, respectively, by maceration, continuous liquid-solid extraction and infusion, followed by evaporation and freeze-drying. The freeze-dried extracts were tested for lethality toward Aedes aegypti larvae at test concentrations of 500 mg / mL. In general, methanol extracts exhibited the greatest larvicidal activity. The following 7 methanol extracts of (the parts of the indicated plant species were the most active, resulting in 100% mortality in A. aegypti larvae: Tapura amazonica Poepp. (root, Piper aduncum L. (leaf and root, P. tuberculatum Jacq. (leaf, fruit and branch. and Simaba polyphylla (Cavalcante W.W. Thomas (branch.Extratos aquosos, etanólicos e metanólicos, representando principalmente espécies vegetais nativas encontradas na região Amazônica, foram preparados, respectivamente, por infusão, maceração e extração contínua líquido-sólido, seguida de evaporação e liofilização. Os extratos liofilizados foram testados para atividade contra larvas de Aedes aegypti, na concentração única de 500 mg / mL. Os extratos metanólicos foram, em geral, os que apresentaram maior atividade larvicida. Os seguintes 7 extratos metanólicos das (partes das espécies vegetais indicadas foram os mais ativos, provocando 100% de mortalidade em larvas de A. aegypti: Tapura amazonica Poepp. (raiz, Piper aduncum L. (folha e raiz, P. tuberculatum Jacq. (folha, fruto e galho e Simaba polyphylla (Cavalcante W.W. Thomas (galho.

  14. A família Rubiaceae na Reserva Biológica Guaribas, Paraíba, Brasil: subfamílias Antirheoideae, Cinchonoideae e Ixoroideae The family Rubiaceae in the Guaribas Biological Reserve, Paraíba State, Brazil: subfamilies Antirheoideae, Cinchonoideae and Ixoroideae

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    Maria do Socorro Pereira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no levantamento dos representantes das subfamílias Antirheoideae, Cinchonoideae e Ixoroideae na Reserva Biológica Guaribas, Paraíba, Brasil. Foram realizadas coletas intensivas no período de outubro/2000 a outubro/2001, as quais resultaram no reconhecimento de 12 espécies, 10 gêneros e cinco tribos, distribuídos nas três subfamílias. A subfamília melhor representada foi Antirheoideae, com cinco espécies, quatro gêneros e duas tribos. Os gêneros com maior número de espécies foram Guettarda L. (2 e Tocoyena Aubl. (2. Alibertia A. Rich. ex DC., Alseis Schott, Chiococca P. Browne, Chomelia Jacq., Coutarea Aubl., Posoqueria Aubl., Sabicea Aubl. e Salzmannia DC. apresentaram uma única espécie cada. São apresentadas chaves para identificação, descrições, comentários sobre morfologia e distribuição das espécies, e ilustrações dos táxons verificados.This paper is a survey of Rubiaceae subfamilies Antirheoideae, Cinchonoideae and Ixoroideae in the Guaribas Biological Reserve, Paraíba, Brazil. Intensive collections were made from October/2000 to October/2001. Twelve species, 10 genera and five tribes were recognized. The most diverse subfamily was Antirheoideae, with five species, four genera and two tribes. The genera with the most species were Guettarda L. (2 and Tocoyena Aubl. (2. Alibertia A. Rich. ex DC., Alseis Schott, Chiococca P. Browne, Chomelia Jacq., Coutarea Aubl., Posoqueria Aubl., Sabicea Aubl., and Salzmannia DC. were represented by only one species each. Keys, descriptions, comments on morphology and species distributions, as well as illustrations of the taxa are provided.

  15. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Methods Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Results Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl) were Crescentia cujete L. (flu), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough), Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation), Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq.) Kunth (pruritic ailments), Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites) Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation), Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic) Mentha sativa L. (nervousness), Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites), Origanum vulgare L. (earache), Plantago major L. (inflammation) and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation). The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. Conclusions This study presents new

  16. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview

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    Medina José

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Methods Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Results Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl were Crescentia cujete L. (flu, Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough, Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation, Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq. Kunth (pruritic ailments, Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation, Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic Mentha sativa L. (nervousness, Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites, Origanum vulgare L. (earache, Plantago major L. (inflammation and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation. The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. Conclusions This study

  17. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Estrada, Harold; Díaz-Castillo, Fredyc; Franco-Ospina, Luís; Mercado-Camargo, Jairo; Guzmán-Ledezma, Jaime; Medina, José Domingo; Gaitán-Ibarra, Ricardo

    2011-09-22

    Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl) were Crescentia cujete L. (flu), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough), Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation), Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq.) Kunth (pruritic ailments), Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites) Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation), Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic) Mentha sativa L. (nervousness), Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites), Origanum vulgare L. (earache), Plantago major L. (inflammation) and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation). The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. This study presents new research efforts and perspectives on the

  18. Estimation of carbon allocation of Macauba palm (Acrocomia aculeata) - A new Brazilian biofuel alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbuzeiro, H. A.; Moreira, S. L. S.; Motoike, S. Y.; Fernandes, R. B. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Macauba palm (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lood. ex Mart) is a native oil palm of the tropical America growing in anthropic areas, especially in grazing lands of Brazilian Cerrado. Macauba palm displays intense fruiting which results in high fruit and oil yield (3.0 - 6.0 ton/ha/year). The main Macauba palm differentials are: it is adapted to the environment with marked water restriction (1000 mm annual precipitation) which makes it resistant to drought and it does not compete with areas of rainforest; the oil is similar in composition to the African palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and can be used in several industrial applications such as biofuels, food, cosmetics, pharmaceutics and oil chemistry. Additionally, Macauba fruit processing generates several by-products like edible pulp bran, high-protein edible kernel bran, dense endocarp biomass, and husk biomass, all valuable products. Today, 172 million hectares of Brazilian land are used for grazing, of which 30 million hectares of these lands are degraded due to poor land use, 6 million in the state of Minas Gerais, in Brazil. Macauba could be cultivated in these degraded lands and is a candidate to become the main raw material for production of biokerosene. A new productive chain is forming in Brazil, the first commercial plantation of Macauba was implemented last year in Minas Gerais state and it is important to estimate the environmental impacts of this plantation, in terms of carbon (C) allocation. There is a lack of experimental data on Macauba carbon allocation and this study aimed to estimate the carbon allocation (leaves, stems and roots) of Macauba palm. The results suggest that Macauba palm is important in contributing to the carbon allocation.

  19. Adaptability of some legume trees on quartz tailings of a former tin mining area in Bangka Island, Indonesia

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    B H Narendra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tin mining activities in Bangka Island, besides their important role in contributing to state revenues, also caused damage to the environment, among others in the form of quartz tailings overlay. To rehabilitate this land, in addition to the necessary efforts to improve soil conditions, success is also determined by the selection of appropriate plant species. This study was aimed to determine the adaptability of some legume trees grown on the quartz tailings in land rehabilitation trials in the post tin mining areas of Bangka Island. The legume trees tested were Calliandra calothyrsus Meisn., Caesalpinia sappan L., Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq. Griseb., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp., Delonix regia ( Hook. Raf., and Cassia siamea Lamk. Treatments of growing media applied  in  the field were medium I (a mixture of 20% organic material, 20% top soil, 1% NPK fertilizer, 5% calcium, and 54% quartz tailings, media II (a mixture of 25%organic material, 25%top soil, 2% NPK fertilizer, 6% calcium, 42% quartz tailings, and media III (a mixture of 30% organic material, 30% top soil, 3% NPK fertilizer, 7% calcium, and 30% quartz tailings. The observation was done by measuring the height and diameter of the stem of the plants, as well as the viability of one year after planting. Analysis of the results of measurements of stem height and diameter showed their diversity. Enterolobium cyclocarpum had the largest dimensions, while the lowest was Caesalpinia sappan. At the age of one year in the field, Gliricida sepium and Enterolobium cyclocarpum showed the average ability of the high life of up to 100%, whereas Calliandra calothyrsus was totally death. In general, the types of legumes selected in this trial showed good adaptability, except for of Calliandra calothyrsus

  20. Caracterización químico-nutricional de forrajes leguminosos y de otras familias botánicas empleando análisis descriptivo y multivariado

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    D. E. García

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el análisis descriptivo (AD, de componentes principales (ACP y correlaciones lineales (CL, se tuvo por objetivo caracterizar la composición nutricional del follaje de especies leguminosas de los géneros Pithecellobium, Gliricidia, Leucaena, Samanea, Acacia, Bauhinia, Cassia y Pentaclethra; y otras no leguminosas: Chlorophora, Morus, Guazuma, Cordia, Trichantera, Tithonia, Moringa, Azadirachta, Bulnesia, Capparis, Hibiscus y Wedelia. Se determinó la composición química, los niveles de metabolitos secundarios y la digestibilidad de la materia seca (DMS y de la proteína bruta (DPB. Las especies evaluadas presentaron excelente composición química para ser utilizadas como suplemento en la alimentación animal (PB: 23.46 ±4.43%; FDN: 39.33 ±2.55%; cenizas: 9.78 ±4.35%; DMS: 64.98 ±14.42%; DPB: 69.15 ±15.89%. Sin embargo, las especies leguminosas, comparadas con las no leguminosas, exhibieron numéricamente mayor concentración de taninos condensados (4.06 ±4.01 vs 0.49 ±0.31%, taninos que precipitan proteínas (1.95 ±1.37 vs 0.28 ±0.23% y digestibilidad de la proteína con pepsina (72.51 ±14.64 vs 66.90 ±16.92%. Aunque el porcentaje de inhibición de la tripsina fuese similar entre los dos grupos (50.84 ±6.81 vs 50.92 ±8.94, la actividad de estos inhibidores (3.29 ±2.76 vs 1.55 ±0.39 tripsina inhibida/ gMS y la cantidad de unidades inhibidas (625.10 ±524.01 vs 323.33 ±135.31 unidades/ gMS fueron superior en los forrajes leguminosos. Mediante el AD, ACP y las CL sepudo comprobar que las especies leguminosas exhibieron diferencias acentuadas en el patrón fitoquímico de la biomasa, comparadas con el resto. Los taninos precipitantes de las leguminosas afectaron la digestibilidad de las fracciones nutritivas, mientras que los fenoles y los esteroles presentes en las no leguminosas exhibieron mayor potencial antinutricional en ese tipo de especies.

  1. CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF UKRAINIAN NATIONAL HOUSING (PRYDNIPROVSK REGION IS AS AN EXAMPLE

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    EYVSEYEVA G. P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Nowadays it is difficult to see a typical, old peasant house, or different types of national confident buildings. It will take a little time and some monuments of national architecture will be difficult to find. Meanwhile, rural housing was the most massive object of traditional construction. It embodies the best achievements and experience of national architects; it is of great value for the history of Ukrainian culture, history of Ukrainian art, architecture and ethnography, sustainable construction. National art of peasant house construction of Prydniprovsk region of Ukraine, is multidimensional space and time in an array of hand-made Ukrainian art is a national architecture, its decoration, clothing filling of the interior of the house and estate, as well as plastic and spatial formation, determining loci ritual of family life of Ukrainian village since the ancient times to the present. Analysis of publications. The first publications about the Ukrainian national housing, was made in the late nineteenth - early twentieth century. These were the works of ethnographers and historians M.Sumtsova [17] and D. Bagalіya [1-4], G.Lukomskogo a little [12]. B. Kharuzin’s work is interesting in the context of our study .[19]. The interesting materials were found by us in the series of publications that have appeared in the end of XIX and beginning of XX centures and are associated with vital trend to build fire-resistant housing, and ukrainian peasant house was such kind of housing. "Nowadays such kind of peasant houses and storages are put because they cheap, strong and good and the most important is to be resistant to fire. Houses with brick and stone trying to be built by reach people, and houses with the clay and saman are built by poor people,they are elegant, strong, cheap long-existed and non-flammable " that is stated in the foreword to a small edition by I. Ulashivsky "Saman building" [18]. A small booklet" Valkovi

  2. Preparation, characterization, and efficient transfection of cationic liposomes and nanomagnetic cationic liposomes

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    Samadikhah HR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hamid Reza Samadikhah1,*, Asia Majidi2,*, Maryam Nikkhah2, Saman Hosseinkhani11Department of Biochemistry, 2Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Cationic liposomes (CLs are composed of phospholipid bilayers. One of the most important applications of these particles is in drug and gene delivery. However, using CLs to deliver therapeutic nucleic acids and drugs to target organs has some problems, including low transfection efficiency in vivo. The aim of this study was to develop novel CLs containing magnetite to overcome the deficiencies. Patients and methods: CLs and magnetic cationic liposomes (MCLs were prepared using the freeze-dried empty liposome method. Luciferase-harboring vectors (pGL3 were transferred into liposomes and the transfection efficiencies were determined by luciferase assay. Firefly luciferase is one of most popular reporter genes often used to measure the efficiency of gene transfer in vivo and in vitro. Different formulations of liposomes have been used for delivery of different kinds of gene reporters. Lipoplex (liposome–plasmid DNA complexes formation was monitored by gel retardation assay. Size and charge of lipoplexes were determined using particle size analysis. Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected by lipoplexes (liposome-pGL3; transfection efficiency and gene expression level was evaluated by luciferase assay. Results: High transfection efficiency of plasmid by CLs and novel nanomagnetic CLs was achieved. Moreover, lipoplexes showed less cytotoxicity than polyethyleneimine and Lipofectamine™. Conclusion: Novel liposome compositions (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [DPPC]/dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide [DOAB] and DPPC/cholesterol/DOAB with high transfection efficiency can be useful in gene delivery in vitro. MCLs can also be used for targeted gene delivery, due to

  3. Production of Sophorolipid from an Identified Current Yeast, Lachancea thermotolerans BBMCZ7FA20, Isolated from Honey Bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Fereshteh; Beheshti-Maal, Keivan; Massah, Ahmadreza

    2015-08-01

    Biosurfactants are a family of diverse amphipathic molecules that are produced by several microorganisms such as bacteria, molds, and yeasts. These surface active agents have several applications in agriculture, oil processing, food, and pharmaceutical industries. In this research using YMG and YUG culture media, a native yeast strain, HG5, was isolated from honey bee. The oil spread test as a screening method was used to evaluate biosurfactant production by the yeast HG5 isolate. The 5.8s-rDNA analysis confirmed that the isolated yeast was related to Lachancea thermotolerans. We named this strain Lachancea thermotolerans strain BBMCZ7FA20 and its 5.8s-rDNA sequence was deposited in GenBank, NCBI under accession number of KM042082.1. The best precursor of biosurfactant production was canola oil and the sophorolipid amount was measured for 24.2 g/l. The thin layer chromatography and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis showed that the extracted biosurfactant from Lachancea thermotolerans was sophorolipid. In conclusion, this is the first report of sophorolipid production by a native yeast Lachancea thermotolerans BBMCZ7FA20 we isolated from the honey bee gut collected from an apiary farm in Saman, Chaharmahal Bakhtiari province, Iran. We suggested that some cost-effective supplements such as canola oil, sunflower oil, and corn oils could be applied for increasing the sophorolipid production by this native yeast strain. According to several applications of biosurfactants in today world, the production of sophorolipid by Lachancea thermotolerans could be considered as a potential in the current industrial microbiology and modern microbial biotechnology.

  4. Modulbaserte kurs for PhD-studentar ved Matematisk-naturvitskapleg fakultet, UiB

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    Hege Folkestad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Universitetsbiblioteket i Bergen har utarbeidd eit modulbasert kurs for PhD-studentar ved Matematisk-naturvitskapleg fakultet. Biblioteket har samarbeidd med fakultetet om innhald, tidspunkt og annonsering, for i størst mogeleg grad å nå studentane og tilpasse til deira behov. Kurset er ikkje obligatorisk, men anbefalast sterkt av fakultetet, som vektlegg overførbare ferdigheiter hjå doktorandane. Evalueringane så langt er svært gode, og kurset vidareførast derfor i noverande form. Generell teori er skilt ut, og presentert i tre plenumssesjonar over til saman 5 timar: 1 Strukturelle trekk ved vitskapleg litteratur, generell søketeknikk, reiskapar for søk og gjenfinning, oppdateringstenester og evaluering av skriftleg materiale 2 Siteringsstatistikk 3 Publisering, inklusive opphavsrettslege problemstillingar, Open Access, sjølvarkivering og institusjonelle arkiv. Stoff som knyttast til praktiske ferdigheiter vert presentert i workshop-form for mindre grupper i kursrom med PC-tilgang. Vi tilbyr såleis valfrie, separate, 1-2 t workshops i databasesøking, inndelt etter plattform (i.e. alle Thomson-Reutersbasane samla, alle CSA-basane samla osb.. Vidare tilbyr vi 2 t workshops i referansehandtering (EndNote. For nye brukarar vektleggast innlegging av referansar, val av stil, generering av referanselister og bruk av EndNote med Word, for erfarne brukarar vektleggast fulltekstnedlasting, oppretting av bibliografi frå fleire dokument, samarbeid om EN-bibliotek og oppretting av nye stilar. Med modulbasert kurs står studentane fritt til å stå over kjent stoff, kombinere databasekurs eller EndNote-nivå, eller kome tilbake for modular som er meir relevante seinare i løpet. I denne presentasjonen leggast vekta på plenumssesjon 1 og workshop-modulane.

  5. Estudios preliminares para la crioconservación de especies forestales arbóreas

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    Ana Abdelnour Esquivel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available La crioconservación presenta numerosas ventajas con respecto a otras técnicas que se utilizan rutinariamente para la conservación y almacenamiento de germoplasma. Algunas de estas ventajas son los bajos costos de labor durante el mantenimiento de las colecciones y la conservación de la estabilidad genética por tiempo indefinido. El presente estudio muestra los resultados obtenidos en la crioconservación de frutos y semillas de melina (Gmelina arborea, teca (Tectona grandis, pilón (Hyeronima alchorneoides, cenízaro (Pithecellobium saman y madero negro (Gliricidia sepium utilizando la técnica de desecación y congelamiento rápido en nitrógeno líquido. Los frutos recibieron un tratamiento previo a la congelación con 10 mgL-1 de ácido giberélico (GA3 o agua, o el lijado del endocarpo duro. Una vez descongelados, los materiales fueron sembradas en el invernadero para evaluar la sobrevivencia. Se encontró que tanto los frutos como las semillas de las especies evaluadas sobrevivieron al congelamiento. El estudio también mostró la importancia de la colecta y el manejo que se dé a las semillas antes de realizar experimentación en crioconservación. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron la factibilidad de utilizar esta técnica para la conservación de forestales y el potencial que presenta para que pueda ser evaluada en otras especies forestales de interés.

  6. New synonyms and a new name in Asteraceae: Senecioneae from the southern African winter rainfall region

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    J. C. Manning

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A review of the genera Othonna and Senecio undertaken for the forthcoming Greater Cape plants 2: Namaqualand-southern Namib and western Karoo (Manning in prep. led to a re-examination of the taxonomic status of several species. This was facilitated by the recent availability of high-resolution digital images on the Aluka website (www.aluka.org of the Drege isotypes in the Paris Herbarium that formed the basis of many species described by De Candolle in his Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis. These images made it possible to identify several names whose application had remained uncertain until now. Each case is briefly discussed, with citation of additional relevant herbarium specimens. The following species are reduced to synonomy: O. incisa Harv. is included in O. rosea Harv.; O. spektakelensis Compton and O. zeyheri Sond. ex Harv. are included in O. retrorsa DC.; S. maydae Merxm. is included in S. albopunctatus Bolus, which is now considered to include forms with radiate and discoid capitula; S. cakilefolius DC. is included in  O. arenarius Thunb.; S. pearsonii Hutch, is included in O. aspertdus DC.; S. parvifolius DC. is included in S. carroensis DC.; S. eriobasis DC. is included in S. erosus L.f.; and S. lobelioides DC. is included in S. flavus (Decne. Sch.Bip. The name S. panduratus (Thunb. Less, is identified as a synonym of S. erosus L.f. and plants that are currently know n under this name should be called S. robertiifolius DC. The confusion in the application o f the names O. perfoliata (L.f. Jacq. and O. filicaulis Jacq. is examined. O. perfoliata is lecto- typified against a specimen in the Linnaean Herbarium (LINN  w ith radiate capitula. The name O. filicaulis correctly applies to a radiate species and is treated as a synonym of O. perfoliata. The vegetatively similar taxon with disciform capitula that is currently known as O. filicaulis should be known as (  undulosa (DC. J.C.Manning  & Goldblatt, comb. nov. The

  7. Uji Kandungan Timbal (Pb dalam Daun Tanaman Peneduh di Jalan Protokol Kota Semarang

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    Pawit Dwi Istiaroh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas buang yang dihasilkan oleh kendaraan bermotor pengguna bahan bakar bensin bertimbal mengemisikan Pb ke dalam lingkungan dan berpotensi terserap ke dalam jaringan daun tanaman peneduh jalan. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menguji kandungan timbal (Pb dalam daun tanaman peneduh di jalan protokol Kota Semarang. Sampel penelitian adalah daun angsana (Pterocarpus indicus Willd, glodokan (Polyalthia longifolia Bent & Hook. F dan mahoni (Swietenia mahagoni (L. Jacq. yang dominan digunakan sebagai peneduh di lima jalan protokol Kota Semarang yaitu Jl. Kalibanteng, Jl. Pemuda, Jl. Brigjen Katamso, Jl. Kaligawe dan Jl. Setyabudi. Kandungan Pb dalam daun tanaman angsana, glodokan dan mahoni diuji menggunakan metode AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometery di Laboratorium Balai Besar Teknologi Pencegahan Pencemaran Industri (BBTPPI Semarang. Hasil penelitian ditemukan kandungan Pb dalam daun tanaman peneduh di jalan protokol Kota Semarang. Kandungan Pb dalam daun tertinggi 0,05 ppm/g daun basah terdapat pada tanaman angsana dan terendah sebesar 0,01 ppm/g terdapat pada tanaman glodokan dan mahoni. Dari hasil penelitian disimpulkan bahwa kandungan Pb dalam daun tanaman peneduh di jalan protokol Kota Semarang berkisar 0,01-0,05 ppm/g daun basah dan tergolong rendah dibawah kadar normal Pb dalam tanaman yaitu 0,5-3,0 ppm.Exhaust gases produced by motor vehicle users leaded gasoline emits Pb into the environment and potentially absorbed into the leaf tissue of plants along the roadside. The study aimed to examine the content of lead (Pb in the shade plant leaves in the Semarang City road protocol. Samples were angsana leaves (Pterocarpus indicus Willd, glodokan (Polyalthia longifolia Bent & Hook. F and mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni (L. Jacq.. They were predominantly used as a shade in five main streets of Semarang is Kalibanteng St, Youth St, Brig Katamso St, Kaligawe St and Setyabudi St. The content of Pb in the Angsana, glodokan and mahogany leaves were

  8. DEGRADABILIDADE IN SITU DA MATÉRIA SECA, DA PROTEÍNA BRUTA E DA FRAÇÃO FIBROSA DE CONCENTRADOS E SUBPRODUTOS AGROINDUSTRIAIS IN SITU DEGRADABILITY OF DRY MATTER, CRUDE PROTEIN AND FIBROUS FRACTION OF CONCENTRATE AND AGROINDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS

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    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho Carvalho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, da proteína bruta (PB, da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e da fibra em detergente ácido (FDA do milho (Zea mays, do farelo de soja (Glicyne max L., da torta de dendê (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. e do farelo de cacau (Theobroma cacao L.. Incubaram-se amostras de cada alimento no rúmen de três novilhos por períodos de 0; 3; 6; 12; 24 e 48 horas. As degradabilidades efetivas da MS, PB, FDN e FDA, para a taxa de passagem de 5%/hora, foram relativamente baixas (abaixo de 60%, exceto para a PB do farelo de soja (acima de 65%. O farelo de soja apresentou os maiores coeficientes de degradação, tanto para MS e PB como também para os constituintes da parede celular, seguido do milho, torta de dendê e farelo de cacau. O farelo de cacau apresentou as menores taxas de degradação ruminal.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Farelo de cacau, incubação ruminal, torta de dendê. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF ruminal degradability of corn (Zea mays, soybean meal (Glicyne max L., palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. and cocoa meal (Theobroma cacao L.. Samples of each feed were incubated in rumens of three steers for periods of 0; 3; 6; 12; 24 and 48 hours. The DM, CP, NDF and ADF effective degradabilities, for a passage rate of 5%/hour, were relatively low (lower than 60%, except for soybean meal CP (higher than 65%. Soybean meal showed the greatest degradation coefficients for DM and CP as so as for cellular wall constituents, followed by corn, palm kernel cake and cocoa meal. Cocoa meal showed the lowest ruminal degradation rates.

    KEY WORDS: Cocoa meal, incubation ruminal, palm kernel cake.

  9. Anatomía y usos de la madera de ocho especies tropicales de Quintana Roo, México

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    Silvia Rebollar

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la anatomía de la madera de ocho especies procedentes de asociaciones secundarias de las selvas alta y mediana subperennifolia del estado de Quintana Roo: Acacia gaumeri, Diphysa carthagenensis Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena glauca, Senna racemosa, Murraya paniculata, Maytenus guatemalensis, y Pimenta dioica, de acuerdo con la metodología establecida. Son especies de interés por su distribución, abundancia en el estado, y por los usos que tradicionalmente les han dado los campesinos mayas en postería, cercas, construcción rural durmintes, tablones y leña, debido a las cualidades de dureza y resistencia a la humedad y a los insectos. Las especies presentan porosidad difusa, los vasos con puntuaciones areoladas opuestas y alternas, la placa perforada es simple; el parénquima axial se presenta aliforme y en bandas; con cristales en todas las especies a excepción de Acacia gaumeri y Senna racemosa. Los rayos son bajos finos y numerosos; las fibras son de tipo libriforme. Las diferencias encontradas son: el arreglo de los poros, tipo de parénquima axial y radial, la presencia de fibrotraqueidas y traqueidas vasculares y tílides.This paper describes the wood anatomy of Acacia gaumeri Blake, Diphysa carthagenensis Jacq., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud., Leucaena glauca (L. Benth., Senna racemosa (Mill Irwin & Barneby, Murraya paniculata L.Mant., Maytenus guatemalensis Lundell, and Pimenta dioica (L. Merr. These species are aesthetically attractive as well as hard, highly durable and resistant to insects and locally are widely used in posts, fences, sleepers and rural buildings. Samples were collected from the rainforest in Quintana Roo, Mexico. One tree for each species was collected, and macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were described and measured in wood samples, permanent slides and macerated material. Woods have diffuse porosity, simple perforation plates, alternate and opposite vessel pits and small rays. Crystals

  10. Flutuação Populacional de Rhynchophorus palmarum L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em Plantios de Palma de Óleo em Roraima

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    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a flutuação populacional de Rhynchophorus palmarum L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em plantios de Elaeis guineensis Jacq, em ecossistemas de savana e floresta no estado de Roraima. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida durante o período de janeiro de 2011 a fevereiro de 2012 nos campos experimentais da Embrapa Roraima: Monte Cristo e Caroebe, numa área de 2 hectares com a cultura da Palma de Óleo, em cada campo. Foram distribuídas armadilhas iscadas com roletes de cana-de-açúcar e feromônio de agregação para captura dos insetos no entorno dos plantios. Ocorreu flutuação de R. palmarum com picos populacionais nos meses de julho e agosto no ecossistema de savana e de abril a setembro no ambiente de floresta. A população de R. palmarum foi menor em meses de baixa precipitação pluviométrica nos dois ambientes avaliados com a Palma de Óleo em Roraima Population Fluctuation of Rhynchophorus palmarum L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Plantations of Oil Palm in Roraima Abstract. This research aimed to evaluate the population fluctuation Rhynchophorus palmarum L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Elaeis guineensis Jacq plantations in forest and savanna ecosystems in the state of Roraima. The research was conducted during the period from January 2011 to February 2012 in the experimental field of Embrapa Roraima: Monte Cristo and Caroebe in an area of 2 hectares with culture Oil Palm in each field. Traps baited with rollers cane sugar and aggregation pheromone for capturing insects in the vicinity of the plantations were distributed. Fluctuation occurred R. palmarum with population peaks in the months of July and August in the savanna ecosystem and from April to September in the forest environment. The population of R. palmarum was lower in months of low rainfall in the two environments assessed with a palm-oil-in Roraima.

  11. Vegetative propagation of native species potentially useful in the restoration of México City's vegetation Propagación vegetativa de especies nativas potencialmente útiles en la restauración de la vegetación de la ciudad de México

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    Renato Ramos-Palacios

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hardwood and softwood cuttings of Buddleja cordata HBK, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq and Senecio praecox D.C. were tested to know their ability to form adventitious roots. Cuttings were prepared in 2 different seasons (wet and dry and treated with different microclimatic conditions and auxin concentrations (IBA and NAA. Hardwood and softwood cuttings of B. cordata rooted during the dry and wet season, whilst hardwood and softwood cuttings of D. viscosa rooted only in the wet season, cuttings of S. praecox rooted only in wet season with a higher rooting for hardwood than softwood cuttings. Low hormone concentrations (10 - 100 ppm favored the rooting percentage more than high concentrations (1000 - 10 000 ppm. However, high hormone concentrations favored number, length of roots and number of developed shoots. Natural regeneration of these species is limited and the species are difficult to propagate from seeds. Vegetative propagation of these species could be an alternative to get clonal planting stock for reforestation programs in some Mexico City areas.Se probó la habilidad de estacas lignificadas y suaves de Buddleja cordata HBK, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq y Senecio praecox D.C. para formar raíces adventicias. Las estacas se prepararon en las estaciones húmeda y seca; se trataron con diferentes concentraciones de auxinas (IBA y NAA y en diferentes condiciones microclimáticas. Las estacas de madera lignificadas y madera suave de B. cordata enraizaron durante la estación seca y húmeda, mientras que las de D. viscosa lo hicieron sólo en la época húmeda, las estacas de S. praecox sólo en la estación seca teniendo las estacas lignificadas un mayor enraizamiento que las de madera suave. Las concentraciones bajas de hormonas (10 - 100 ppm favorecieron más el porcentaje de enraizamiento que las altas concentraciones (1000 - 10 000 ppm. . Sin embargo, las concentraciones altas de hormonas favorecieron el número y la longitud de las raíces, además del

  12. Elementos biológicos na configuração do território do rio Doce Biological elements in the River Doce's territory configuration

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    Haruf Salmen Espindola

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available No médio rio Doce, entre 1930 e 1960, as terras de floresta foram ocupadas pela agricultura e pecuária. No início as culturas agrícolas encontraram condições favoráveis para se expandir, mas não suficientes para se consolidar, antes de dar lugar à pecuária, como é comum na história da agricultura brasileira. As terras cobertas pela floresta foram tomadas pelo capim-colonião (Panicum maximum Jacq. var. maximum num ritmo maior que o avanço da atividade humana. A gramínea africana encontrou condições excepcionais para se alastrar, dadas pelo relevo, pelo clima e pelo manejo praticado por agricultores e fazendeiros. As suas características biológicas favoreceram o avanço das pastagens. O capim-colonião não diminui a força dos elementos socioeconômicos, marcados por relações de poder em que o fazendeiro levava nítida vantagem, mas entender sua biologia contribui para a compreensão da configuração do território do rio Doce.At the middle Doce river , between 1930 and 1960, the forest lands had been occupied by agriculture and cattle raising. First, the agricultural cultures had found favorable conditions to enlargement, but not enough for consolidating itself, before giving place to cattle, as it is common in the history of Brazilian agriculture. The lands covered by the forest had been invaded by the capim-colonião (Panicum maximum Jacq. var. maximum in a bigger rhythm than the advance of the human activity. The African grassy found very good conditions to spreading (the relief, the climate and the practices of the farmers. Its biological characteristics had favored the advance of the grass. The capim-colonião does not diminished the force of the socioeconomics elements, marked for power relations where the farmer took clear advantage, but understand its biological aspects contributes for the understanding of the configuration of the territory of the river Doce.

  13. Análise de repetibilidade de caracteres forrageiros de genótipos de Panicum maximum, avaliados com e sem restrição solar Repeatability analysis of forage traits of Panicum maximum genotypes evaluated under natural and attenuated solar radiation

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    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o número de medições necessárias à predição do desempenho de cinco genótipos de Panicum maximum Jacq. Os genótipos (Gatton, Vencedor, Mombaça, Tanzânia e Tobiatã foram avaliados sob os sistemas de cultivo com e sem restrição solar, na Fundação Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária, situada em Tupanciretã - Rio Grande do Sul. No sistema de cultivo com restrição solar, os genótipos foram avaliados sob um bosque de eucalipto. Em cada uma das oito medições (cortes, foram avaliadas a matéria seca total, matéria seca de folhas, matéria seca de colmo, matéria seca folha + colmo, altura de planta e relação matéria seca folha/colmo. As estimativas dos coeficientes de repetibilidade foram obtidas por três métodos - análise da variância, componentes principais e análise estrutural. Concluiu-se que os oito cortes possibilitaram selecionar genótipos superiores em relação a todas as características, com 80% de exatidão no prognóstico de seu valor real.The objective of this study was to determine how many evaluations were necessary to predict the performance of Panicum maximum Jacq. genotypes. The genotypes Gatton, Vencedor, Mombaça, Tanzânia, and Tobiatã were evaluated under natural and attenuated solar radiation at the Fundação Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Tupanciretã, RS. Attenuated solar radiation was obtained when plants were grown in Eucalyptus woods. Genotypes in both crop systems were evaluated eight times. Total dry matter production, leaf, stem, and leaf plus stem dry matter, plant height and index of leaf and stem dry matter were recorded each evaluation time. Repeatability estimations were obtained through variance, structural, and principal component analysis. In conclusion, eight evaluations permit to select superior Panicum maximum genotypes, considering all characteristics, with 80% accuracy of the real value.

  14. LA SUCESIÓN VEGETAL EN LOS LODOS FLUVIOVOLCÁNICOS DE ARMERO-TOLIMA-COLOMBIA 30 AÑOS DESPUÉS DE LA ERUPCIÓN DEL VOLCÁN ARENAS DEL NEVADO DEL RUIZ

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    Héctor Eduardo Esquivel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la dinámica sucesional y la evolución edafológica de una zona de bosque seco tropical afectada por lodos de la erupción volcánica del nevado del Ruiz el 13 de noviembre de 1985. La zona de estudio está ubicada en el municipio de Armero con una extensión de 3500 hectáreas a 450 msnm. Se levantaron 10 parcelas de muestreo de 10 x 20 m, acorde con las consociaciones establecidas por el IGAC. En total los cuatro estudios florísticos reportan 565 especies distribuidas en 72 familias, de las cuales sobresalen la familia Asteraceae, Malvaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae y Poaceae. El número de especies ha variado significativamente, para el primer estudio 294 distribuidas en 66 familias, para el segundo 332 especies, para el tercer estudio 284 especies y para el cuarto estudio un total de 217. Al comienzo se confirma lo que Braun Blanquet planteó según la Fitosociología, que en áreas fuertemente disturbadas la vegetación inicialmente se establece en montículos; cinco años después el segundo estudio mostró la formación de asociaciones así: Rhynchelytretum, por estar dominada por el pasto Rhynchelytrum repens (Will Hubb., la asociación Indigoferetum por la alta presencia de Indigofera hirsuta Jacq., Panicetum, por el dominio de Panicum maximum Jacq. y la asociación Ficetum, por la presencia de varias especies de cauchos. La vegetación ha presentado un recambio constante y se reconoce actualmente una formación sucesional avanzada donde domina el hábito de crecimiento arbóreo, conformando relictos de bosque. El pH del suelo ha variado de 3.2 a 6.5, como también varios de los elementos evaluados.

  15. Formas de aplicação de calcário nos teores de minerais da forragem do capim-tanzânia Forms of limestone application on mineral contents on forage of tanzania grass

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    Ronan Magalhães de Souza

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar a qualidade da forragem do capim-tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia 1, em função de doses, formas de aplicação e granulometrias de calcário, foi conduzido um experimento em área do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras-UFLA, Lavras-MG, constituído por doze tratamentos, com quatro repetições. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso no esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 2, sendo três saturações por bases (40%, 60% e 80%, incorporado ou não ao solo e dois calcários com PRNT de 88,15% e 107,73%. As variáveis foram avaliadas em três cortes a cada 42 dias. Em geral, os teores de P e K diminuíram com o aumento das doses de calcário. Os teores de Ca e Mg aumentaram com o aumento das doses dos corretivos. Os melhores resultados ocorreram na saturação de 60% e a incorporação tornou mais eficiente o uso dos corretivos.With objective of evaluate the dry matter (DM production, density, weight and height of tillers and leaf/stem ratio of tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania 1 in function of levels, placement and grainy lime an experiment was carried out in the field of Animal Science Department of Federal University of Lavras-UFLA, Lavras, MG. The experiment was constituted by twelve treatments in four replications. The experimental design used was a randomized complete block, in factorial scheme 3 x 2 x 2, with three base saturations (40%, 60% and 80%, lime placement, either on the surface of the soil or incorporated and two limestones with diferent LTRN (lime's total relative neutralization- 88.15 and 107.73%. Three cuts were realized at each 42 days. Over all treatments tested the P and K contents shown reduction with the increase of limestone. The results also shown that Ca and Mg contents increase with doses of lime. The better results occurred in the saturation of 60% and de incorporation was more efficient at liming.

  16. Avaliação de gramíneas forrageiras na região sul de Minas Gerais Evaluation of forage grasses for the south region of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton de Andrade Botrel

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos na região do sul de Minas Gerais para avaliar o potencial de gramíneas forrageiras. No experimento 1 foram avaliadas as seguintes espécies, consideradas de baixa exigência nutricional: Andropogon gayanus, Kunt; Brachiaria brizantha, Stapf; Brachiaria decumbens, Stapf; Brachiaria ruziziensis, Germain Evrard; Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle Schweickt e Melinis minutiflora, Beauv. No experimento 2 foram avaliadas as gramíneas consideradas de média e alta exigência nutricional, a saber: Setaria sphacelata (Schum. Moss; Hemarthria altissima (Poir. Stapf; Chloris gayana, Kunt; Cynodon nlemfuensis, Vanderyst var. nlemfuensis; Hyparrhenia rufa, (Ness Stapf. e as cultivares de Panicum maximum, Jacq.: Tobiatã, Green Panic e Makueni. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Os níveis de calagem e de adubação para estabelecimento e manutenção foram diferenciados para os dois experimentos. Cada espécie foi avaliada nos seguintes aspectos: produção de forragem e teor de proteína bruta no período da seca e das chuvas e cobertura vegetal do solo. As gramíneas do experimento 1 que se destacaram na maioria dos aspectos avaliados foram: B. brizantha, B. decumbens, A. gayanus enquanto que no experimento 2 as espécies que apresentaram maior potencial forrageiro foram: S. sphacelata, P. maximum cv. Tobiatã.experiments were undertaken in the South region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, to evaluate the yield potential of forage grasses. In experiment 1, the following species, considered as having low nutritional requirements, were evaluated: Andropogon gayanus, Kunt; Brachiaria brizantha, Stapf; Brachiaria decumbens, Stapf; Brachiaria ruziziensis, Germain Evrard; Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle Schweickt and Melinis minutiflora, Beauv. In experiment 2, the species considered as having medium and high nutritional requirements, that is: Setaria sphacelata (Schum.; Hemarthria altissima

  17. Estudo da concordância das citações de uso e importância das espécies e famílias utilizadas como medicinais pela comunidade do bairro Ponta Grossa, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

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    Giovana Secretti Vendruscolo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferramentas para quantificar dados etnobotânicos estão sendo usadas como complementares aos levantamentos sobre a utilização de plantas por populações. Neste trabalho são utilizadas técnicas para avaliar a concordância das citações de uso e a importância das espécies e famílias para as 51 pessoas entrevistadas no bairro Ponta Grossa, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Para tal, foram utilizados os cálculos de Valor de Uso (UV e a porcentagem corrigida de Concordância quanto aos Usos Principais (CUPc para as 142 espécies mencionadas no levantamento. As espécies Aloe arborescens Mill., Citrus × aurantium L., Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Eugenia uniflora L., Cunila microcephala Benth., Citrus limon (L. Osveck, Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, Psidium guajava L., Artemisia absinthium L., Ocimum basilicum L., Plantago tomentosa Lam., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Persea americana Mill., Aloysia citrodora Palau, Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl., Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq. J.F. Macbr., Petroselinum crispum (Mill. Nyman ex A.W. Hill, Ocimum selloi Benth. e Tanacetum vulgare L., nesta ordem de Valor de Uso, foram consideradas como as mais importantes para a população estudada. As famílias mais importantes foram Asphodelaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Rutaceae e Lythraceae. Para o cálculo da porcentagem a corrigida de Concordância quanto aos Usos Principais (CUPc foram consideradas como espécies principais as que apresentaram valores acima de 24%: Eugenia uniflora, Achyrocline satureioides, Psidium guajava, Cunila microcephala, Plectranthus barbatus, Citrus × aurantium, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon citratus, Punica granatum L., Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw., Sphagneticola trilobata (L. Pruski, Aloysia citrodora, Foeniculum vulgare, Plectranthus neochilus Schltr., Artemisia absinthium, Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br., Mikania laevigata Sch. Bip ex Baker, Aloe arborescens e Petroselinum

  18. AISLADOS BACTERIANOS CON POTENCIAL BIOFERTILIZANTE PARA PLÁNTULAS DE TOMATE

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    José Noh Medina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se aislaron rizobacterias en diversos medios de cultivo y se resembraron en medios selectivos para estudiar su capacidad de solubilización de fosfato y de producción de ácido indolacético (AIA, con el fin de probarlas como promotoras del crecimiento vegetal en plántulas de tomate. Se obtuvieron 83 aislados bacterianos del rizoplano de plantas de chile habanero (Capsicum chinense Jacq., maíz (Zea mays y calabaza (Cucurbita pepo, de los cuales 15 sintetizaron AIA con un rango de concentración de 0.17 a 12.51 µg L-1 y 33 solubilizaron fosfato inorgánico. El uso de los aislados KCH3 y TSACH2 inoculados a las semillas de tomate, y que solubilizaron fosfato in vitro, incrementaron significativamente la biomasa de la parte aérea de las plántulas de tomate (42 y 32% respectivamente, permitiendo obtener plántulas más vigorosas que las plántulas sin inoculación de rizobacterias. Ambos aislados mostraron potencial para ser utilizados como biofertilizantes en la producción de plántulas de tomate.

  19. Morphology of seeds and seedlings of four species of Vigna Savi (Leguminosae, Phaseolinae

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    Fabiana Soledad Ojeda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Four neotropical species of Vigna Savi (Leguminosae, Phaseolinae have potential value as forage crops or ornamentals and could be cultivated in tropical or subtropical areas, even on floodplains. In order to obtain useful data for their culture and taxonomy, the seed morphology, germination pattern (hypogeal or epigeal and seedling development were studied. The studied species belong to different sections of the genus: V. adenantha (G.F.W. Meyer Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier (Sect. Leptospron; V. candida (Vell. Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier (Sect. Sigmoidotropis; V. caracalla (L. Verdc. (Sect. Caracallae and V. luteola (Jacq. Benth. (Sect. Vigna. The seeds were collected during fieldwork conducted in northwestern and northeastern Argentina. The qualitative and quantitative characters of the seeds were registered, after which they were sown. The development of the emerged seedlings was followed, first in a greenhouse and thereafter in open field. We recorded the type of germination, the thigmotropic movements of the hypocotyl and of the stem, seedling architecture and plant longevity. These traits allowed us to differentiate the species and construct an identification key that could be useful for agronomic or floricultural purposes. The data obtained partially support the current taxonomic treatment of the genus.

  20. Construction and analysis of an SSH cDNA library of early heat-induced genes of Vigna aconitifolia variety RMO-40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampuria, Sakshi; Joshi, Uma; Palit, Paramita; Deokar, Amit A; Meghwal, Raju R; Mohapatra, T; Srinivasan, R; Bhatt, K V; Sharma, Ramavtar

    2012-11-01

    Moth bean ( Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal) is an important grain legume crop grown in rain fed areas of hot desert regions of Thar, India, under scorching sun rays with very little supplementation of water. An SSH cDNA library was generated from leaf tissues of V. aconitifolia var. RMO-40 exposed to an elevated temperature of 42 °C for 5 min to identify early-induced genes. A total of 488 unigenes (114 contigs and 374 singletons) were derived by cluster assembly and sequence alignment of 738 ESTs; out of 206 ESTs (28%) of unknown proteins, 160 ESTs (14%) were found to be novel to moth bean. Only 578 ESTs (78%) showed significant BLASTX similarity (pathways. Four hundred and fifty-two ESTs were further annotated with InterProScan (IPS), and no IPS was assigned to 153 ESTs. In addition, the expression level of 27 ESTs in response to heat stress was evaluated through semiquantitative RT-PCR assay. Approximately 20 different signaling genes and 16 different transcription factors have been shown to be associated with heat stress in moth bean for the first time.

  1. Error in interpreting field chlorophyll fluorescence measurements: heat gain from solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marler, T.E.; Lawton, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    Temperature and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics were determined on leaves of various horticultural species following a dark adaptation period where dark adaptation cuvettes were shielded from or exposed to solar radiation. In one study, temperature of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. leaflets within cuvettes increased from approximately 36C to approximately 50C during a 30-minute exposure to solar radiation. Alternatively, when the leaflets and cuvettes were shielded from solar radiation, leaflet temperature declined to 33C in 10 to 15 minutes. In a second study, 16 horticultural species exhibited a lower variable: maximum fluorescence (F v :F m ) when cuvettes were exposed to solar radiation during the 30-minute dark adaptation than when cuvettes were shielded. In a third study with S. mahagoni, the influence of self-shielding the cuvettes by wrapping them with white tape, white paper, or aluminum foil on temperature and fluorescence was compared to exposing or shielding the entire leaflet and cuvette. All of the shielding methods reduced leaflet temperature and increased the F v :F m ratio compared to leaving cuvettes exposed. These results indicate that heat stress from direct exposure to solar radiation is a potential source of error when interpreting chlorophyll fluorescence measurements on intact leaves. Methods for moderating or minimizing radiation interception during dark adaptation are recommended. (author)

  2. Esterification Optimization of Crude African Palm Olein Using Response Surface Methodology and Heterogeneous Acid Catalysis

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    Francisco Anguebes-Franseschi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of zeolite montmorillonite KSF in the esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs of crude African palm olein (Eleaias guinnesis Jacq was studied. To optimize the esterification of FFAs of the crude African palm olein (CAPO, the response surface methodology (RSM that was based on a central composite rotatable design (CCRD was used. The effects of three parameters were investigated: (a catalyst loading (2.6–9.4 wt %, (b reaction temperature (133.2–166.2 °C, and (c reaction time (0.32–3.68 h. The Analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated that linear terms of catalyst loading (X1, reaction temperature (X2, the quadratic term of catalyst loading ( X 1 2 , temperature reaction ( X 2 2 , reaction time ( X 3 2 , the interaction catalyst loading with reaction time ( X 1 * X3, and the interaction reaction temperature with reaction time ( X 2 * X3 have a significant effect (p < 0.05 with a 95% confidence level on Fatty Methyl Ester (FAME yield. The result indicated that the optimum reaction conditions to esterification of FFAs were: catalyst loading 9.4 wt %, reaction temperature 155.5 °C, and 3.3 h for reaction time, respectively. Under these conditions, the numerical estimation of FAME yield was 91.81 wt %. This result was experimentally validated obtaining a difference of 1.7% FAME yield, with respect to simulated values.

  3. pH effects of the addition of three biochars to acidic Indonesian mineral soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, V; Alling, V; Nurida, N L

    2015-01-01

    of increasing amounts (0–30%; weight:weight) of three types of field-produced BCs (from cacao (Theobroma cacao. L.) shell, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis. Jacq.) shell and rice (Oryza sativa. L.) husk) on soil pH and CEC. Soils were sampled from croplands at Java, Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia. All BCs caused...... a significant increase in mean soil pH with a stronger response and a greater maximum increase for the cacao shell BC addition, due to a greater acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and larger amounts of extractable base cations. At 1% BC addition, corresponding to about 30 tons ha−1, the estimated increase in soil...... pH from the initial mean pH of 4.7 was about 0.5 units for the cacao shell BC, whereas this was only 0.05 and 0.04 units for the oil palm shell and rice husk BC, respectively. Besides depending on BC type, the increase in soil pH upon the addition of each of the three BCs was mainly dependent...

  4. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening

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    Pablo Mayorga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest, were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp., Fabaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass., Asteraceae, Petiveria alliacea L., Phytolaccaceae, and Ocimum campechianum Mill., Lamiaceae. The five others: Curatella americana L., Dilleniaceae, Prunus barbata Koehne, Rosaceae, Quercus crispifolia Trel., Fagaceae, Rhizophora mangle L., Rhizophoraceae, and Smilax domingensis Willd., Smilacaceae, do not. All plants without anti-Artemia activity had no lethal effects in both assays with A. salina. For the plants with anti-Artemia activity the Artoxkit M was not sensitive to G. sepium and the conventional Artemia test was not sensitive to S. americanum, G. sepium and N. lobata. All the plant extracts, except for that of C. americana, had lethal effects on T. platyurus and the lethal median concentration (LC50 levels for this organism were in all cases substantially lower than those of the salt-water test species. This study revealed that T. platyurus is a promising test species worth further in depth investigation for toxicity screening of plant extracts with potential medicinal properties.

  5. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd) is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83%) and lipid (40.45%), with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%), antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae) and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae. PMID:26974840

  6. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Vieira Alves

    Full Text Available Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83% and lipid (40.45%, with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%, antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae.

  7. Production of ligninolytic enzymes by solid state fermentation using Pleurotus ostreatus

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    Seyma Ozcirak Ergun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentation (SSF stands out in the production of lignocellulolytic and other industrially important enzymes. SSF, an alternative culture method, has several advantages over the conventional submerged ones, like higher yields of enzymes. The production of ligninolytic enzymes, such as laccase (Lac, manganese peroxidase (MnP, lignin peroxidase (LiP and aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO by Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Pleurotus Kumm. (MCC16 was investigated under SSF, which was performed using a support-substrate from potato peel waste (PPW. PPW as dry and fresh was pretreated with base to neutralize organic acids and distilled water. Chemical content of PPW was investigated. Ligninolytic enzyme production patterns were investigated during the growth of the organism for a period of 23 days at 25 °C in the stationary SSF using pretreated PPW. The highest Lac and MnP activities were determined in dry PPW, pretreated with distilled water as 6708.3 ± 75 U/L and 2503.6 ± 50 U/L on day 17, respectively. In addition, amylase and protease enzyme activities were detected under same conditions. According to the results, PPW has a potential as supports for ligninolytic enzyme production by P. ostreatus under SSF.

  8. The effect of continuous feeding of gliricidia on reproduction and production performances of Javanese Fat-Tailed sheep: Impact on the second breeding

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    Supriyati

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of continuous feeding of gliricidia on reproduction and production performances in second breeding of Javanese Fat-Tailed (JFT sheep through the second breeding period was studied. Twenty six ewes post lactation at first lambing (body weight 22.5-26.5 kg were divided into four treatment groups. Each group consisted of 6 animals except Group D had 8 animals. They were given King grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides and gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium Jacq. leaf with ratio of 100:0 (Group A = control, 75:25 (Group B, 50:50 (Group C and 0:100 (Group D. Forages were given 2.5-3% (dry matter of liveweight. All groups were supplemented with 100g/head/day concentrate (crude protein = 16%, but during late pregnancy and lactation they were supplemented at 200 g/head/day. Results showed that feeding gliricidia 25-100% of total forages improved body weight due to the increasing protein intake. The maximum concentration of progesteron increased from 0.81 to 2.78 ng/ml. The ovulation rate and prolification also increased significantly (P<0.05 from 1.6 to 3.0 and 1.33 to 2.38, respectively. Individual birth and weaning weights of the lambs were not affected. It is concluded that feeding gliricidia continuously up to 100% as forages and supplemented with concentrate gives positive effect on bodyweight gain, reproduction and production performances in second breeding of JFT sheep.

  9. Phospholipidic signaling and vanillin production in response to salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate in Capsicum chinense J. cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altúzar-Molina, Alma R; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-González, Miriam; Racagni-Di Palma, Graciela; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2011-02-01

    The phospholipidic signal transduction system involves generation of second messengers by hydrolysis or changes in phosphorylation state. Several studies have shown that the signaling pathway forms part of plant response to phytoregulators such as salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), which have been widely used to stimulate secondary metabolite production in cell cultures. An evaluation was made of the effect of SA and MJ on phospholipidic signaling and capsaicinoid production in Capsicum chinense Jacq. suspension cells. Treatment with SA inhibited phospholipase C (PLC) (EC: 3.1.4.3) and phospholipase D (PLD) (EC: 3.1.4.4) activities in vitro, but increased lipid kinase activities in vitro at different SA concentrations. Treatment with MJ produced increases in PLC and PLD activities, while lipid kinase activities were variable and dose-dependent. The production of vanillin, a precursor of capsaicinoids, increased at specific SA or MJ doses. Preincubation with neomycin, a phospholipase inhibitor, before SA or MJ treatment inhibits increase in vanillin production which suggests that phospholipidic second messengers may participate in the observed increase in vanillin production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Synanthropization of dendroflora near main roads in Białystok (NE Poland

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    Łaska Grażyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the species composition of the dendroflora near four main roads in the city of Białystok, taking into regard their geographical and historical origin. The wildlife inventory was conducted in the vegetation season of 2011. The inventory revealed presence of a total of 837 trees and bushes representing 36 species and 18 families. The most abundant trees were those from the family Aceraceae (63.8%, while the most abundant bushes were those representing Rosaceae (48.9%. The contribution of native species (65.7% was found to be about twice as high as that of alien ones (34.3%. The dominant species among the native trees was Acer platanoides L., while the principal bush species was Crataegus monogyna Jacq. The alien tree species were most commonly represented by Acer negundo L., and bushes - by Ligustrum vulgare L. Spontaneously settled trees and bushes were clearly dominant (59.9% over those originating from plantations (40.1%. Among the native species of local origin, the prevailing species were synanthropic spontaneophytes (52%, including Acer platanoides and Tilia cordata Mill. Anthropophytes were more abundantly represented by diaphytes (22.7%, followed by kenophytes (10.4%. The most abundant species among diaphytes was Ligustrum vulgare, and among kenophytes - Acer negundo.

  11. KARO’S LOCAL WISDOM: THE USE OF WOODY PLANTS FOR TRADITIONAL DIABETIC MEDICINES

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    Rospita Odorlina Situmorang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the plant species used traditionally by Karo people in North Sumatra, to cure diabetes, analyses the cultural significance index of those plants for the Karo, and clarifies phytochemical contents of the plants. Data were collected using survey method from selected respondents (n=54 based on their knowledge and practices in utilising medicinal plants to cure diabetic disease. Index of Cultural Significance (ICS of plants was determined using the method proposed by Turner. Results showed that twelve woody plant species have been used to cure diabetes: loning leave (Psychotria sp., kacihe leave (Prunus accuminta Hook, umbrella tree leave (Maesopsis eminii Engl, mutamba leave (Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk, cepcepan leave (Villebrunea subescens Blume, pirdot/cepcepan lembu leave (Saurauia vulcani Korth, raru bark (Cotylelobium melanoxylo, breadfruit leave (Artocarpus altilis, salam leave (Syzygium polyanthum Wight, mahogany seed (Swietenia mahagoni (L. Jacq, cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmani, and yellow bamboo rod (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. Five of those plants: loning, umbrella tree, mutamba, raru and salam have the highest cultural significance level. These five plants are highly needed in large quatities by the Karo people, so their availability in the forest should be securely conserved and protected. The plants used contained alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics and terpenoids which can help to lower blood sugar level.

  12. Características de carcaça, componentes não-carcaça e composição tecidual e química da 12ª costela de cordeiros Santa Inês terminados em pasto com três gramíneas no período seco Carcass traits, non-carcass components and tissues and chemical composition the 12th rib of Santa Inês sheep finished on three different grasses during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luizângele Figueiredo de Oliveira Menezes

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as características de carcaça, os componentes não-carcaça e o rendimento da 12ª costela de cordeiros Santa Inês terminados em pastejo rotacionado com três forrageiras tropicais (A. gayanus Kunth, cv. Planaltina, P. maximum Jacq., cv. Aruana e P. maximum Jacq., cv. Tanzânia, no período seco do ano. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 11 ovinos (3 meses de idade e 18,8 ± 2,88 kg PV em cada tratamento. Os animais receberam suplementação com concentrado em níveis crescentes, conforme o avançar do período seco, além de sal mineral à vontade. Ao final de 82 dias de experimento, os animais foram abatidos; no dia anterior ao abate, a área de olho-de-lombo (AOL foi mensurada com ultra-som (AOLUS. Avaliaram-se o peso ao abate (PA, o peso de carcaça quente (PCQ, o rendimento de carcaça quente (RCQ, o comprimento da carcaça (CC, o escore de gordura subcutânea (EGS, o peso da meia-carcaça quente (PMCQ, os cortes da meia-carcaça (costela/fralda, costeleta, lombo, paleta, pernil, e pescoço e os pesos da pele (PELE, das vísceras torácicas (VT e abdominais (VA e dos testículos (TE. A 12ª costela foi avaliada quanto ao peso total (PT, AOL, aos pesos e às porcentagens de músculo (MUSC, osso (OSSO e gordura (GORD e os constituintes químicos. As características PA, PCQ, RCQ, PELE e GORD não diferiram entre os animais terminados em pastos de capim-aruana e capim-tanzânia, mas foram superiores nos animais terminados em pasto de capim-andropogon. Os rendimentos de pescoço, costela/fralda e costeleta dos animais terminados em capim-tanzânia foram superiores aos obtidos nos animais terminados em capim-andropogon e aruana, que não diferiram entre si. As demais características de carcaça, dos componentes não-carcaça e da 12ª costela não diferiram entre os tratamentos. Os ovinos mantidos em pastagem de capim-aruana e capim-tanzânia apresentaram melhores características de carcaça e desempenho

  13. Os fatores de repercussão da cadeia produtiva do dendê no desenvolvimento local do Baixo Tocantins

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    Vanilda Araújo Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to identify economic, social and environmental factors produced by "palm oil (Elaeis guianensis Jacq. agrobusiness", from the integration of family agriculture to the activity, evaluating its effect on the dynamics of local development in Baixo Tocantins. The data were collected on field research with the social subjects linked to the chain. The results revealed that the chain governance, the social sustainability, the environmental sustainability, the climate change and the technical qualification are the factors that negatively affect the organization of socio-economic and environmental space of the farming families. The latent factors allowed us to construct the Local Development Sustainability Index (LDSI to evaluate the degree of influence of the productive chain of palm oil in configuring people’s quality of life. The LDSI has highlighted the palm oil inability to become a socio-economic and environmentally sustainable alternative, creating employment opportunities, income and improvement in the local population quality of life.

  14. Effect of supplementing crop substrate with defatted pistachio meal on Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Giménez, Arturo; Catalán, Luis; Carrasco, Jaime; Álvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Zied, Diego; Pardo, José

    2016-08-01

    This work assesses the agronomic performance of defatted pistachio meal, after oil extraction, as a nutritional substrate supplement when growing the mushroom species Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. Materials were applied at different doses at spawning. Along with non-supplemented substrates, commercial nutritional supplements were used as controls. Proximate analysis of mushrooms is also considered. For the cultivation of champignon, defatted pistachio meal has provided larger mushrooms (unitary weight and cap diameter) with firmer texture and greater content in dry weight and protein, without significant alterations in quantitative parameters. For Pleurotus ostreatus, the supplement led to significant yield increase, even providing up to 34.4% of increment compared to non-supplementation with meal, reaching a biological efficiency of 129.9 kg dt(-1) , when applied to the 15 g kg(-1) compost dose. Supplementation has also been conducted to increase dry weight, protein and fibre within carpophores and to decrease the energy value. Defatted pistachio meal has similar or better results compared to the commercial supplements used as reference. Compost supplementation with defatted pistachio meal in A. bisporus concerns mainly the quantitative parameters (size, texture, dry weight and protein). Based on the results obtained, this technique has greater potential of development for P. ostreatus commercial crops, basically due to expected increases in production, with a direct impact on benefits and crop profitability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Characterizing haploinsufficiency of SHELL gene to improve fruit form prediction in introgressive hybrids of oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Chee-Keng; Muaz, Siti Dalila; Tangaya, Praveena; Fong, Po-Yee; Ong, Ai-Ling; Mayes, Sean; Chew, Fook-Tim; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Appleton, David

    2017-06-08

    The fundamental trait in selective breeding of oil palm (Eleais guineensis Jacq.) is the shell thickness surrounding the kernel. The monogenic shell thickness is inversely correlated to mesocarp thickness, where the crude palm oil accumulates. Commercial thin-shelled tenera derived from thick-shelled dura × shell-less pisifera generally contain 30% higher oil per bunch. Two mutations, sh MPOB (M1) and sh AVROS (M2) in the SHELL gene - a type II MADS-box transcription factor mainly present in AVROS and Nigerian origins, were reported to be responsible for different fruit forms. In this study, we have tested 1,339 samples maintained in Sime Darby Plantation using both mutations. Five genotype-phenotype discrepancies and eight controls were then re-tested with all five reported mutations (sh AVROS , sh MPOB , sh MPOB2 , sh MPOB3 and sh MPOB4 ) within the same gene. The integration of genotypic data, pedigree records and shell formation model further explained the haploinsufficiency effect on the SHELL gene with different number of functional copies. Some rare mutations were also identified, suggesting a need to further confirm the existence of cis-compound mutations in the gene. With this, the prediction accuracy of fruit forms can be further improved, especially in introgressive hybrids of oil palm. Understanding causative variant segregation is extremely important, even for monogenic traits such as shell thickness in oil palm.

  16. Foraging behavior of bee pollinators on the tropical weed Triumfetta semitriloba: flight distance and directionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collevatti, R G; Schoereder, J H; Campos, L A

    2000-02-01

    We studied flight distance and directionality of bee pollinators on the tropical shrub weed Triumfetta semitriloba Jacq. (Tiliaceae), addressing (1) within- and between-plant movement pattern; (2) distances flown between plants; (3) flight directionality. Flowering plants were distributed in well-delimited clumps, in each of two pasture areas (A1 and A2) and one area of forest gap (A3), in Viçosa, southeastern Brazil. Five solitary bee species, Augochlorella michaelis, Augochloropsis cupreola, Pseudocentron paulistana, Ceratinula sp., Melissodes sexcincta, and two social bee, Plebeia droryana, P. cf. nigriceps were observed. All species moved mainly to the nearest flower on the same individual plant and, in between-plant movements, to the first or second nearest neighbor. All species moved non-randomly, presenting a flight directionality in departures (maintenance of flight direction), but with a high frequency of turn angles. It is suggested that this foraging behavior pattern occurred because of the resource quantity and quality (pollen or nectar), and environmental characteristics such as flower density and resource distribution.

  17. Experiences in the containerized tree seedlings forest nurseries production

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    Eduardo González-Izquierdo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The work summarizes the results of the research carried out by the team of forest nurseries at Sustainable Forest Management Group in Pinar del Río University Forest Research Centre in the last 25 years. The characteristics of seedlings quality are presented, the best growing media, the water management to harden the forest species under the ecological conditions of more and more lingering periods of drought. The studied forest species were: Talipariti elatum (Sw. Fryxell, Pinus tropicalis Morelet , Swietenia mahagon(L.Jacq. Swietenia macrophylla King, Caesalpinia violacea (Mill. Stand, Genipa americana L, Gerascanthus gerascanthoides (Kunth Borhidi y Cedrela odorata L. y Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden. The main results can be summarized in the following way: the size of the containers oscillates between 90 and 300 cubic centimeters; the growing media combines organic and composted components fundamentally of Pinus caribaea and Eucalyptus ssp bark., with proportions that they vary according to the species and the disposability of these components in the nurseries where the plants take place; for the water management hardening procedures were used by watering in last month of the cultivation. In general the economic analyses demonstrated the decrease of the production costs for seedlings with the employment of this novel technology, the same as their advantages on the traditional technology of seedlings production in polybags: humanization of manpower work in forest nursery, reduction of costs production, improvement of produced seedling quality and productivity increase of their workers.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in an Agroforestry System Reveals the Predominance of Funneliformis spp. Associated with Colocasia esculenta and Pterocarpus officinalis Adult Trees and Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Sanguin, Hervé; Galiana, Antoine; Bâ, Amadou

    2017-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq.) is a leguminous forestry tree species endemic to Caribbean swamp forests. In Guadeloupe, smallholder farmers traditionally cultivate flooded taro ( Colocasia esculenta ) cultures under the canopy of P. officinalis stands. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the sustainability of this traditional agroforestry system has been suggested but the composition and distribution of AM fungi colonizing the leguminous tree and/or taro are poorly characterized. An in-depth characterization of root-associated AM fungal communities from P. officinalis adult trees and seedlings and taro cultures, sampled in two localities of Guadeloupe, was performed by pyrosequencing (GS FLX+) of partial 18S rRNA gene. The AM fungal community was composed of 215 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), belonging to eight fungal families dominated by Glomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Gigasporaceae. Results revealed a low AM fungal community membership between P. officinalis and C. esculenta . However, certain AM fungal community taxa (10% of total community) overlapped between P. officinalis and C. esculenta , notably predominant Funneliformis OTUs. These findings provide new perspectives in deciphering the significance of Funneliformis in nutrient exchange between P. officinalis and C. esculenta by forming a potential mycorrhizal network.

  19. Fungal diversity in oil palm leaves showing symptoms of Fatal Yellowing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis Costa, Ohana Yonara; Tupinambá, Daiva Domenech; Bergmann, Jessica Carvalho; Barreto, Cristine Chaves; Quirino, Betania Ferraz

    2018-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is an excellent source of vegetable oil for biodiesel production; however, there are still some limitations for its cultivation in Brazil such as Fatal Yellowing (FY) disease. FY has been studied for many years, but its causal agent has never been determined. In Colombia and nearby countries, it was reported that the causal agent of Fatal Yellowing (Pudrición del Cogollo) is the oomycete Phytophthora palmivora, however, several authors claim that Fatal Yellowing and Pudrición del Cogollo (PC) are different diseases. The major aims of this work were to test, using molecular biology tools, Brazilian oil palm trees for the co-occurrence of the oomycete Phytophthora and FY symptoms, and to characterize the fungal diversity in FY diseased and healthy leaves by next generation sequencing. Investigation with specific primers for the genus Phytophthora showed amplification in only one of the samples. Analysis of the fungal ITS region demonstrated that, at the genus level, different groups predominated in all symptomatic samples, while Pyrenochaetopsis and unclassified fungi predominated in all asymptomatic samples. Our results show that fungal communities were not the same between samples at the same stage of the disease or among all the symptomatic samples. This is the first study that describes the evolution of the microbial community in the course of plant disease and also the first work to use high throughput next generation sequencing to evaluate the fungal community associated with leaves of oil palm trees with and without symptoms of FY.

  20. DESIGN OF OYSTER (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS PRODUCTION UNIT TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ITS AGROTECHNIC OF GROWIGN AND QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF ITS PRODUCTION

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    Marcel Golian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available According to influence of population increasing followed by agricultural soils decreasing there is noticed a necessity of individual food commodities production intensification. There is also needed to think about some new unconventional and alternative sort of food-stuff. An edible mushroom growing is one of the relatively new agricultural branches, whereby on a large scale there are grown species which belong to saprophytic group. The aim of task was the building – technological and equipment – technological proposal of oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus, Jacq. P. Kumm production unit with taking account to its specific agro technical requirements and valid legislative. In the next part of task there were evaluated and compared qualitative and quantitative parameters of sporocarps from two variants which were collected in the first growth wave and accuracy of the proposed oyster production unit. In case of variant A there were used sacks with substrates, which have been exposed to cold shock by 6°C temperature for 4 days and in variant B were used substrates without cold shock. According to reached results the cold shock had almost neither influence on production quantity. There was found out an important fact that crop height from first growth wave wasn´t identical with well-known literature sources. The low crop is connected with high CO2 content in oyster production unit room, according to our opinion. Other equipment aimed to air humidity regulation, air temperature regulation and room lights was designed correctly.

  1. The possibility of palm oil mill effluent for biogas production

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    EDWI MAHAJOENO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Indonesia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil (Elaeis guiinensis Jacq.. The aims of the research were to (i characterize palm oil mill effluent which will be used as source of biogas production, (ii know the biotic and abiotic factors which effect POME substrate for biogas production by anaerobic digestion in bulk system. The results show that POME sludge generated from PT Pinago Utama mill is viscous, brown or grey and has an average total solid (TS content of, 26.5-45.4, BOD is 23.5-29.3, COD is 49.0-63.6 and SS is 17.1-35.9 g/L, respectively. This substrate is a potential source of environmental pollutants. The biotic factors were kind and concentration of the inoculums, i.e. seed sludge of anaerobic lagoon II and 20% (w/v respectively. Both physical and chemical factors such as pre-treated POME pH, pH neutralizer matter Ca (OH2, temperature ≥40oC, agitation effect to increase biogas production, but in both coagulant concentration, FeCl2 were not.

  2. Phenolic extract of Parkia biglobosa fruit pulp stalls aflatoxin B1 – mediated oxidative rout in the liver of male rats

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    Taofeek O. Ajiboye

    Full Text Available The effect of phenolic extract of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. R. Br. ex G. Don, Fabaceae, pulp on aflatoxin B1 induced oxidative imbalance in rat liver was evaluated. Thirty-five male rats were randomized into seven groups of five animals each. Rats in group A served as control and received vehicle for drug administration (0.5% DMSO once daily at 24 h intervals for six weeks. Rats in groups B, D, E, F and G, received aflatoxin B1 (167 μg/kg body weight in 0.5% DMSO for three weeks, starting from the third week of the experimental period. Rats in Group C received 400 mg/kg bodyweight of the extract for six weeks, while groups D, E and F rats were treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight of the extract for six weeks respectively. Group G rats received 100 mg/kg body weight of vitamin C. Aflatoxin B1-mediated decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly attenuated. Aflatoxin B1 mediated the elevation in malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl, and significantly lowered DNA fragmentation percentage. Overall, the phenolic extract of P. biglobosa pulp stalls aflatoxin B1-mediated oxidative rout by enhancing antioxidant enzyme activities leading to decreased lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA fragmentation.

  3. Stem rots of oil palm caused by Ganoderma boninense: pathogen biology and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, C A

    2005-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) has been grown in Papua New Guinea since the early 1960s. The most important disease of oil palm in PNG is a stem rot of the palm base. This is the same disease that constitutes a major threat to sustainable oil palm production in SE Asia. Investigations into the causal pathogen have revealed that the stem rots in PNG are caused predominantly by the basidiomycete Ganoderma boninense, with a minor pathogen identified as G. tornatum G. tornatum was found to have a broad host range whereas G. boninense appears to be restricted to palms. The population structure of G. boninense was investigated using inter-fertility studies between isolates collected from basal stem rots on oil palm. Although the G. boninense field populations are predominantly comprised of distinct individuals, a number of isolates were found that share single mating alleles. This indicates that out-crossing had occurred over several generations in the resident or wild population of G. boninense prior to colonization of oil palm. No direct hereditary relationship between isolates on neighbouring diseased palms was found, although an indirect link between isolates causing upper stem rot and basal stem rot was detected.

  4. Symbiotic interaction of endophytic bacteria with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and its antagonistic effect on Ganoderma boninense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Shamala; Meon, Sariah; Seman, Idris Abu; Othman, Radziah

    2011-08-01

    Endophytic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 and Burkholderia cepacia UMPB3), isolated from within roots of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were tested for their presymbiotic effects on two arbuscular mcorrhizal fungi, Glomus intraradices UT126 and Glomus clarum BR152B). These endophytic bacteria were also tested for antagonistic effects on Ganoderma boninense PER 71, a white wood rot fungal pathogen that causes a serious disease in oil palm. Spore germination and hyphal length of each arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) pairing with endophytic bacteria was found to be significantly higher than spores plated in the absence of bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the endophytic bacteria were scattered, resting or embedded on the surface hyaline layer or on the degraded walls of AMF spores, possibly feeding on the outer hyaline spore wall. The antagonistic effect of the endophytic bacteria was expressed as severe morphological abnormalities in the hyphal structures of G. boninense PER 71. The effects of the endophytic bacteria on G. boninense PER 71 hyphal structures were observed clearly under SEM. Severe inter-twisting, distortion, lysis and shriveling of the hyphal structures were observed. This study found that the effect of endophytic bacteria on G. intraradices UT126 and G. clarum BR152B resembled that of a mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB) association because the association significantly promoted AMF spore germination and hyphal length. However, the endophytic bacteria were extremely damaging to G. boninense PER 71.

  5. Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Improves Learning and Memory by Enhancing Synaptogenesis in Mice Hippocampus

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    Jin-il Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Platycodon grandiflorus (Jacq. A.DC. (PG has long been used as an ingredient of foods and is known to have beneficial effects on cognitive functions as well. The present study examined the effect of each PG extract (PGE from root, aerial part, and seeds on cognitive functions in mice. Changes in spatial learning and memory using a Y-maze test, and markers of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptogenesis were examined. Moreover, changes in neuritogenesis and activation of the ERK1/2 pathway were investigated. Results indicated that mice administered PGE (root showed increased spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze test and synaptogenesis in the hippocampus. In addition, PGE (root and platycodin D, the major bioactive compound from the PG root, significantly stimulated neuritic outgrowth by phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in vitro. These results indicate that the PGE (root, containing platycodin D, enhances cognitive function through synaptogenesis via activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

  6. Specific characteristics of essential oils of four Artemisia species from the Mongolian Trans-Altai Gobi

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    N. Javzmaa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil compositions of four Artemisia species in Mongolian Trans-Altai Gobi were studied by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The oil from A.macrocephala Jacq and A.dracunculus Ledeb. were characterized by the presence of monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpeneoids predominately. E-nerolidol (26.95%, methyleugenol (23.29% and sabinene (13.21% were found as main components in the essential oils of A.dracunculus. A.macrocephalla was characterized by the presence of chamazulene (13.8%, cineol (11.7%, myrcene (9.0%, germacrene-D (7.1%. A.anethifolia Web was characterized by the presence of fragrant compounds as camphor (26.05%, α-thujone (10.1%, borneol (5.1%. Davanone and davanone derivatives were also detected in the sample in amount of 7.7% in total. A.scoparia Waldst differed by domination of monoterpene hydrocarbons (78.9% with (Z- β-ocimene (29.24%, α-pinene (15.19%, limonene (10.27% and myrcene (9.61%.Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 16 (42, 2015, 34-38

  7. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais na comunidade quilombola Carreiros, Mercês – Minas Gerais

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    Flávia M. C. Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi identificar as espécies medicinais utilizadas pela comunidade quilombola Carreiros, bem como traçar o perfil social das famílias desta comunidade. Para tanto, foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas da comunidade, sendo um representante de cada família. Para fins de registro foram coletados dois exemplares de cada espécie medicinal identificada, os quais foram conservados na forma de exsicatas e mantidos no Laboratório de Ecologia do IF Sudeste MG – Campus Rio Pomba. As mulheres aparentemente desempenham importante papel social e estão bastante envolvidas no conhecimento das plantas medicinais. Nota-se, que o conhecimento existente foi adquirido de forma empírica e éevidente entre as famílias a preocupação em repassar os conhecimentos tradicionais sobre o uso das plantas medicinais aos jovens. Dentre as principais espécies utilizadas pela comunidade estão: Citrus Sinensis L., Psidium guajava L., Leonurus sibiricus L., Citrus Limonia (Osbeck, Carica sp., Vernonia condensataBacker, Sechuium edule (Jacq. Sw, Sansevieria trifasciata Prain, Malpighia glabra L., e Saccharum zofficinarum L..

  8. The phylogenetic relationships among germplasm resources of wild ramie (boehmeria nivea l. gaud) in china based on trnl-f and its sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runqing, Y.; Baloch, S.U.; Lijun, L.; Dingxiang, P.

    2015-01-01

    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud) is an important fiber crop in China, which also possesses many wild species in genus Boehmeria Jacq. However, the taxonomic position of these species has not been settled. To determine the evolutionary relationships among the members of the genus Boehmeria, the combination of ITS and trnL-F sequences were used for molecular phylogenetic analyses of 31 ramie accessions (28 species and three varieties) including multiple materials collected in high-altitude regions that have not been previously reported (B. clidemioides var. diffusa, B. bicuspis and B. longispica). The ITS and trnL-F trees produced showed that Boehmeria was classified into four separate clusters. The Sect. Duretia, which has a high evolutionary level, clustered with Sects Zoilingeriana and Phyllostachys. The grouping pattern of clustering differed from traditional taxonomy and indicated possible interspecific hybridization among Boehmeria. We found that B. malabarica Wedd. var. leioclada of Sect. Boehmeria clustered into a clade with Sect. Tilocnide, providing solid support for the expansion of wild ramie core germplasm resources. The molecular results did not support the intraspecific geographic migration of Boehmeria. This study, therefore, established relationships among wild species which will help in ramie crop improvement programs. The results will be important for the collection and conservation of germplasm resources of Chinese wild ramie. (author)

  9. The Effects of Gliricidia-Derived Biochar on Sequential Maize and Bean Farming

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    Ana Castro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The addition of biochar to soils can improve soil fertility and increase agricultural productivity. We carried out a field experiment in which biochar produced from Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp. was added to low-fertility Brazilian planosol and tested to increase the yield of maize (Zea mays and snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in sequential, organic cultivation. Biochar was applied at a 15 t/ha rate, combined or not with Azospirillum Brasiliense inoculation and organic fertilizer (Bokashi. The application of biochar resulted in an increase in soil pH and of the content of macronutrients such as phosphorus and potassium. Contrary to evidence from elsewhere, biochar had a limited effect on increasing maize yield. In the case of beans, when combined with fertilizer, biochar increased the production of beans pods and biomass, but the significant increase was observed only for inoculation. Beans are the principal component of Brazilian diet and increasing productivity of beans is of upmost importance for the poorest in Brazil, and in other tropical countries.

  10. Content of atropine and scopolamine in poisonous solanaceae plants from Slovenia

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    Javor Kac

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some species from the Solanaceae family are still the cause of serious poisoning among youth in Slovenia. Usually intoxication is due to abuse of these plants to provoke hallucinations. There is still not enough data about the alkaloid content of these plants growing in Slovenia.Methods: Different plant samples were analyzed for the content of atropine and scopolamine with capillary electrophoresis after solid phase extraction of alkaloids. Plants were gathered from different areas of Slovenia between April and September 2004.Results: Results were compared and possible correlations between the alkaloid content and species, plant parts, growth conditions, and time of harvest were suggested. Atropine and scopolamine contents were assessed in deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna L., thorn apple (Datura stramonium L., scopolia (Scopolia carniolica Jacq. and angel trumpet. The common name angel trumpet is used for Datura inoxia Mill. as well as for different Brugmansia Pers. species. The most intriguing results were the variable alkaloid content in various Brugmansia species and generally great differences in alkaloid content among various plants and their plant parts.Conclusions: All investigated plants have noticeable atropine and/or scopolamine content. The content is variable between various plants and their plant parts and therefore special care should be taken in cases of possible intoxication. It was shown that smaller or greater amounts of ingested drug can cause the same level of intoxication due to the variability in alkaloid content.

  11. Macauba gasification; Gaseificacao da macauba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Filho, Jaime dos; Oliveira, Eron Sardinha de [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil)], E-mail: jaime@ifba.edu.br; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Galvarro, Svetlana Fialho Soria [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil); Chaves, Modesto Antonio [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos

    2009-07-01

    For development of a productive activity, with reduced environmental degradation, the use of renewable energy sources as an important option. The gasification has been increasing among the ways of obtaining energy from biomass, and consists of a process where the necessary oxygen to the complete combustion of a fuel it is restricts and, in high temperatures it generates fuel gas of high-quality. In this direction, this work is justified and has its importance as the study of a renewable energy source, macauba coconut (Acrocomia aculeata [Jacq] Lodd), with the gasification process. The objective of this study is to build a biomass concurrent gasifier and evaluate the viability to provide heating for dehydration of fruits, using the macauba coconut as fuel. It was measured the temperature in five points distributed in both gasifier and combustor chamber, being the input area of primary combustor air and also the speed of rotation of the electric motor, using a factorial 3X3 experimental design with three repetitions and interval of measurements of five minutes. The analytical results take to infer that the macauba coconut have potential to be gasified and used for the dehydration of fruits. (author)

  12. PRELIMINARY FLORA OF ORCHIDACEAE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ABAETETUBA, PARÁ, BRAZIL

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    Edgar Augusto Lobato Afonso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orchidaceae is one of the largest plant families in the world with approximately 20,000 species, of which 2,462 Occur in Brazil and 421 in the Pará State. Despite this large number of species, many municipalities in the State have never been sampled floristically, among them is the municipality of Abaetetuba, located in the middle region northeast Pará. Thus, this work aimed to conduct the floristic and taxonomic preliminary study of the Orchidaceae species in the Abaetetuba, Pará, Brazil. Were conducted 41 field collections between January 2012 and May 2014. For collection and specimens herborization were followed usual techniques for vascular plants, and species identification were consulted specific bibliography and experts. For all species recorded are provided descriptions, taxonomic and ecological comments, information on geographical distribution in Brazil. In addition, it presents an identification key for the species Orchidaceae of Abaetetuba. In the municipality Orchidaceae is represented by 23 species belonging to 17 genera, being Epidendrum L. the more rich with three species. The most frequent species were Catasetum macrocarpum Rich. ex Kunth and Polystachya concreta (Jacq. Garay & H.R.Sweet. Except to Vanilla mexicana Mill. and V. palmarum (Salzm. ex Lindl. Lindl. classified as hemiepiphytes, all the other species were classified as holoepiphytes. Keywords: Eastern Amazon; Epiphytes, Orchids; Nort region.

  13. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd) is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83%) and lipid (40.45%), with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%), antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae) and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae.

  14. Effect of Nitrogen and Potassium Rates on Early Development of Macaw Palm

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    Leonardo Duarte Pimentel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The economic exploitation of macaw palm [Acrocomia aculeate(Jacq. Lodd. ex Mart.] is currently in transition, from extractivism to agricultural cultivation, thus requiring studies on the fertilization of the crop. This study evaluated the response of three genotypes of macaw palm to increasing rates of nitrogen and potassium, grown in the field until the 2nd year and to establish reference contents of mineral nutrients in the leaf. The experiment was a split-plot randomized block design with five main treatments (N and K rates and three secondary treatments (genotypes, with three replications, each plot containing three plants. Plant height, leaf number, vigor, and nutrient contents in leaf tissues were evaluated at the end of 2nd year of cultivation. Differential responses were observed among genotypes, indicating that some genotypes are more efficient in the use of mineral inputs. There was a differentiated and positive response to increasing side-dressed N and K rates in the vegetative development of macaw genotypes until the 2nd year of field cultivation, indicating variability in the species in terms of nutrient use efficiency. The N and K fertilization rate corresponding to 360 g N + 480 g K2O per plant, in four split applications over the two years of cultivation, was insufficient to induce maximum vegetative development in the three macaw genotypes. There was no variation in macro- and micronutrient contents in leaf dry matter of the three macaw genotypes.

  15. Wood anatomy of lianas of sapindaceae commercially used in São Paulo - SP

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    Neusa Tamaio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We performed an anatomical survey of Sapindaceae species growing on the private property that supplies liana fragments to the Adere (Association for the Development and Recovery for the Intellectually Disabled, one of the major producer of art wood marquetry made from the lianas from Sao Paulo. Based on species identification, we carried out both morphological and microscopic analyses of the transversal section of lianas stems, with the aim of separating the species based on wood characters. Only one of the seven analyzed species had no cambial variant (Paullinia trigonia Vell.; the rest presented cambial variant of the compound vascular cylinder type. Also, the six remaining species belong to the following genera: Serjania (Serjania caracasana (Jacq. Willd., Serjania lethalis A. St.-Hill., Serjania laruotteana Cambess., and Serjania multiflora Cambess. These genera could be distinguished by pith configuration, arrangement and quantity of peripheral vascular cylinders, as well as two statistically significant quantitative features: the diameter and frequency of vessel elements. In this work, a key for species identification and illustrations are presented, in addition to comments about the extractivism carried out by Adere.

  16. A taxonomic revision of the southern African native and naturalized species of Silene L. (Caryophyllaceae

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    J. C. Manning

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The native and naturalized species of Silene L. in southern Africa are reviewed, with full synonomy and the description of two new species from the West Coast of Western Cape. Eight native species and three naturalized species are recognized, including the first identification in southern Africa of the Mediterranean S. nocturna L. The identity of S. aethiopica Burm., which has remained unknown since its description, is established and is found to be the oldest name for S. clandestina Jacq. Patterns of morphological variation within each species are discussed and subspecies are recognized for geographically segregated groups of populations that are ± morphologically diagnosable. The following new names or combinations are made among the southern African taxa: S. aethiopica subsp. longiflora; S. burchellii subsp. modesta, subsp. multiflora, and subsp. pilosellifolia; S. crassifolia subsp. primuliflora; S. saldanhensis; S. rigens; and S. undulata subsp. polyantha. Each taxon is described, with information on ecology and distribution, and most species are illustrated, including SEM micrographs of the seeds.

  17. Panorama da Sustentabilidade na Fronteira Agrícola de Bioenergia na Amazônia

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    Wanja Janayna de Miranda Lameira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa apresenta um panorama da sustentabilidade em sete municípios paraenses, que fazem parte do polo de produção do dendê (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. na Amazônia oriental. Trata-se de uma área com aproximadamente 46.000 km² que apresenta diferentes padrões de usos da terra, considerada prioritária para a implementação da política nacional dos biocombustíveis por apresentar grandes extensões de terras em condições edafoclimáticas favoráveis. A pesquisa, utilizando o Barômetro da Sustentabilidade – BS, faz uma avaliação ex ante do nível de desenvolvimento dos municípios, analisando dados quantitativos e qualitativos de diferentes fontes a partir de 2010. Foram empregados dezesseis indicadores para o bem-estar humano (social e nove para o bem-estar ecológico (ambiental, ajustados à escala do Barômetro. Os resultados do BS mostraram que os municípios ocupam posições intermediárias e potencialmente insustentáveis, o que reflete a fragilidade socioeconômica e ambiental da região estudada.

  18. Justicia pectoralis, a coumarin medicinal plant have potential for the development of antiasthmatic drugs?

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    Luzia Kalyne Almeida Moreira Leal

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Justicia pectoralis Jacq., Acanthaceae, is a medicinal plant found Central America. In the Northeast of Brazil, it is popularly known as “chambá” being extensively used in homemade preparations for the treatment of cough, bronchitis and asthma. The species is part of a public phytotherapy program in Brazil entitled “Farmácias Vivas”, National Record of Plants of Interest to the National Health System and the National Formulary of Herbal medicines. This paper aims to critically review the available scientific literature regarding the health promoting effects of J. pectoralis var. stenophylla. The traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, toxicology, quality control and potential interactions with conventional drugs were included in the present review. Botanical, chemical and pharmacognostical studies stablished several parameters useful for quality control of plant drug, extracts and phytomedicine from aerial parts of J. pectoralis using as markers two bioactive coumarins. A wide range of evidence have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, anti-spasmodic, smooth muscle relaxant and anxiolytic effects of J. pectoralis and its chemical constituents. Pilot clinical studies showed the efficacy of a syrup preparation of J. pectoralis in the treatment of mild and moderate asthma. The pharmacological potential make these medicinal plants good candidates for the development of new phytomedicine for the treatment of asthma. However, a strong collaboration to bridge the gap between preclinical and clinical study is still necessary for the development of an effective medicine from J. pectoralis.

  19. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Edmilson; Garcia, Cristina C; Pimenta, José A; Torezan, José M D

    2010-09-01

    Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment in Paraná State, South Brazil (23°16'S and 51°01'W). The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng) Harms (emergent species); Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species); Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq.) Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species); Sorocea bonplandii (Baill.) Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species). Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurred in specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.

  20. DESCRIPTION OF SOME SPONTANEUS SPECIES AND THE POSSIBILITIES OF USE THEM IN THE ROCKY GARDENS

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    BUTA ERZSEBET

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania’s spontaneous flora are reported over 3759 species of plants, of which 3136 species are spontaneous [CIOCÂRLAN, 2000], 23 have been declared nature monuments, 74 are extinct, 39 endangered, 171 are vulnerable and 1253 are rare. Characteristic grassland species is approximately 37% of total existent plants in Romania, and alpine species is 14%. It was identified a total of 57 endemic taxons (species and subspecies and 171 subendemic taxons [www.wikipedia.org].The floristic ranges adapted to the unfavorable conditions dictated by nature, with the possibility to use in rocky gardens, are: Campanula carpatica Jacq., Dianthus callizonus Schott et Kotschy, Gentiana acaulis L., Leontopodium alpinum Cass., Phlox amoena Sims., Saxifraga oppositifolia L., Sedum alpestre Vill., Sempervivum montanum L., Viola odorata L. Species that grow on alpine meadows in the spring until late autumn, recommended in landscape arrangements are: Adonis vernalis L., Carlina acaulis L., Paeonia tenuifolia L., Primula elatior Hill., Primula veris L., species that impress through form and the chromatic variety.This paper contains a brief description of some native species used or recommended for rocky gardens.

  1. Chemical composition of Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr. Quél., substrates and residue after cultivation

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    Silva Sueli Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of Pleurotus pulmonarius was carried out on different substrate: cotton waste (A leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (B and leaves of Panicum maximum Jacq. (C. The mushroom had a varied chemical composition; nevertheless they contained a good composition for to be used as a good source of protein for human kind. The results showed the higher protein content (29.19% and fibre (9.0% for the mushroom that were cultivated on cotton peel. The substrate composition and the residue composition after the mushroom harvest were: Protein for the substrate "A" (10.63% and 9.35%, "B" (7.87% and 4.24% and "C" (7.55% and 5.90 %; Lipids "A" (4.17% and 2.03%, "B"(2.77% and 3.20% and "C" (0.91% and 2.05%; Fibres "A" (49.02% and 37.02%, "B" (28.40% and 23.26% and "C" (37.50% and 26.66% respectively. The substrate "A" showed 0.048% of iron and "C" 0.14% of magnesium, 0.31% of potassium and 0.26% of calcium. In the substrate "B" the quantity of the minerals were very low in comparison to the other substrates. The residues after the harvest of mushroom could be used as fertiliser or as complement in the composition for animal feed.

  2. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extract of Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzid, W.; Yahia, M.; Abdeddaim, M.; Aberkane, M.C.; Ayachi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Various biological activities are attributed to a great variety of compounds isolated from natural plants. This study presents an attempt to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of organic and aqueous extract prepared from the edible part of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Gualitative analysis of extracts by high performance liquid chromatography revealed the probable presence of quercetin in the EDm. The quantitative estimation of polyphenols (by the Folin-Ciocalteu method),total flavonoids (by the method of aluminium trichloride) and condensed tannins (by the method of iron trichloride) showed that the EDm and EMe extracts are richer in these compounds. The inhibition of couple oxidation of linoleic acid β-carotene was evaluated by the bleaching test of β-carotene, which showed a significant antioxidant activity for the EDm (48.46% inhibition) and EMe (36.40% inhibition). The evaluation of the antimicrobial potency of the extracts by the agar diffusion method showed that the extracts EEp EDm and EMe have an antibacterial activity on staphylococcus aureus strain at high concentration, whereas all extracts tested were inactive on Candida albicans. (author).

  3. Tillering dynamics of Tanzania guinea grass under nitrogen levels and plant densities - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i4.13382

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    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of nitrogen levels (N and plant density (D on the tillering dynamics of Tanzania guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with 12 treatments and two replicates in a factorial scheme (4 × 3 with four levels of N (0, 80, 160 or 320 kg ha-1 N and three plant densities (9, 25, and 49 plant m-². Higher number of tillers was observed in the treatment with 9 plants m-² and under higher levels of N, especially in the second and third generations. Still, the N influenced quadratically the appearance rate of basal and total tillers, which were also affected by plant density and interaction N × D. However, the appearance rate of aerial tiller was not influenced by factors evaluated. The mortality rate of total tiller was influenced quadratically by the nitrogen levels and plant densities. The mortality rate of basal tiller responded quadratically to plant density, whereas the mortality rate of aerial tiller increased linearly with fertilization. Pastures with low or intermediate densities fertilized with nitrogen, presented a more intense pattern of tiller renewal.

  4. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity, liver profile test, and mutagenic activity of five plants used in traditional Mexican medicine

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    Jorge Cornejo-Garrido

    Full Text Available Berberis hartwegii Benth., Berberidaceae, Hamelia patens Jacq., Rubiaceae, Dendropanax arboreus (L. Decne & Planch., Araliaceae, Erythrina herbacea L., Fabaceae, and Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lam., Rutaceae, acetone extracts were selected on the basis of their use in traditional Mexican medicine to treat scabies or skin diseases. Anti-dermatophyte activity in vitro was evaluated using the agar dilution assay, and the therapeutic efficacy of B. hartwegii and Z. caribaeum were tested against experimental tinea pedis. The infected animals were treated intragastrically daily for seven days with 2.5 and 5 mg/kg of acetone extracts. The acetone extract of H. patens exhibited 100% growth inhibition against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum at 100.0 and 50.0 µg/ml, respectively, and B. hartwegii inhibited growth of M. canis and T. mentagrophytes at 100.0 µg/ml. Effective treatments with 2.5 mg/kg of Z. caribaeum and B. hartwegii extract were comparable with 1 mg/kg of clotrimazole in mice. Liver profile tests and histological analyses did not exhibit any signs of toxicity and the Ames test indicated that both extracts were safe when evaluated in strains TA98, TA100 and TA102. Our results suggest the potential for the future development of new antifungal drugs from B. hartwegii or Z. caribaeum.

  5. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of the methanolic extracts of Piper alatabaccum branches and P. tuberculatum leaves and compounds isolated against Anopheles darlingi

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    Frances T. T. Trindade

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Piper is a notable genus among Piperaceae due to their secondary metabolites such as lignans, amides, esters and long chain fatty acids used as anti-herbivore defenses with comparable effects of pyrethroids, that holds a promise in insect control, including malaria vectors such as Anopheles darlingi, the main vector in the North of Brazil. Methanolic extracts of Piper tuberculatum Jacq., Piperaceae, and P. alatabaccum Trel. & Yunck., Piperaceae, and some isolated compounds, i.e, 3,4,5-trimetoxy-dihydrocinamic acid, dihydropiplartine; piplartine, piplartine-dihydropiplartine and 5,5',7-trimetoxy-3',4'-metilenodioxiflavone were tested as larvicides against A. darlingi. The Lethal Concentrations (LC50 and LC90 of methanolic extracts were 194 and 333 ppm for P. tuberculatum and 235 and 401 ppm for P. alatabacum, respectively. Isolated compounds had lower LC values, e.g. the LC50 and LC90 of the piplartine-dihidropiplartine isolated from both plant species was 40 and 79 ppm, respectively.

  6. Chemical Composition and Food Potential of Pachymerus nucleorum Larvae Parasitizing Acrocomia aculeata Kernels.

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    Ariana Vieira Alves

    Full Text Available Insect consumption as food is culturally practiced in various regions of the world. In Brazil, there are more than 130 species of edible insects registered, from nine orders, among which stands out the Coleoptera. The larva of the beetle Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1792, grows into the bocaiuva fruit (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd. Ex Mart., 1845, which has proven nutritional quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritional potential of P. nucleorum larvae compared to bocaiuva kernels for human consumption. Proteins were the second largest portion of the larvae nutritional composition (33.13%, with percentage higher than the bocaiuva kernels (14.21%. The larval lipid content (37.87% was also high, very close to the kernels (44.96%. The fraction corresponding to fatty acids in the oil extracted from the larvae was 40.17% for the saturated and 46.52% for the unsaturated. The antioxidant activity value was 24.3 uM trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae. The larvae tryptic activity was 0.032±0.006 nmol BAPNA/min. Both the larvae and the bocaiuva kernel presented absence of anti-nutritional factors. These results favor the use of P. nucleorum larvae as food, which are a great protein and lipid sources with considerable concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids compared to the bocaiuva kernel.

  7. Toxicity and antinociceptive effects of Hamelia patens

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    Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro

    Full Text Available Abstract Many medicinal herbs are used in folk medicine without taking into account their toxicity. Hamelia patens Jacq. (Rubiaceae, a Mexican endemic species, is used for the empirical treatment of pain. The aim of this work was to evaluate the toxicity and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extracts of H. patens leaves. The toxicity of H. patens leaves (500–5000 mg/kg was evaluated in acute (14 days and subacute (28 days assays. In the subacute assay, a blood analysis (both hematology and chemistry was carried out. The antinociceptive effects of H. patens leaves (50–200 mg/kg were evaluated using thermal-induced nociception (hot plate and the chemical-induced nociceptive tests (acid acetic and formalin. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 estimated for H. patens leaves was 2964 mg/kg i.p. and >5000 mg/kg p.o., whereas in the subacute test HPE did not affect hematological or biochemical parameters. In chemical-induced nociception models, H. patens (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. showed antinociceptive effects with similar activity than 100 mg/kg naproxen. In the hot plate test, HPE at 100 mg/kg (17% and 200 mg/kg (25% showed moderate antinociceptive effects. HPE could be a good source of antinociceptive agents because of its good activity and low toxicity.

  8. Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) reverses angiotensin II-induced apoptosis by repressing IGF-IIR expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chuan; Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Shen, Chia-Yao; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Padma, V Vijaya; Lin, Yu-Chen; Huang, Chih-Yang; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2017-06-09

    Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) is a Chinese medical plant used for decades as a traditional prescription to eliminate phlegm, relieve cough, reduce inflammation and lower blood pressure. PG also has a significant effect on the cardiovascular systems. The aqueous extract of Platycodon grandiflorum (JACQ.) A. DC. root was screened for inhibiting Ang II-induced IGF-IIR activation and apoptosis pathway in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. The effects were also studied in spontaneously hypertensive rats (five groups, n=5) using low and high doses of PG for 50 days. The Ang II-induced IGF-IIR activation was analyzed by luciferase reporter, RT-PCR, western blot and surface IGF-IIR expression assay. Furthermore, the major active constituent of PG was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Our results indicate that a crude extract of PG significantly suppresses the Ang II-induced IGF-IIR signaling pathway to prevent cardiomyocyte apoptosis. PG extract inhibits Ang II-mediated JNK activation and SIRT1 degradation to reduce IGF-IIR activity. Moreover, PG maintains SIRT1 stability to enhance HSF1-mediated IGF-IIR suppression, which prevents cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In animal models, the administration of PG markedly reduced this apoptotic pathway in the heart of SHRs. Taken together, PG may be considered as an effective treatment for cardiac diseases in hypertensive patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro and in silico characterization of metagenomic soil-derived cellulases capable of hydrolyzing oil palm empty fruit bunch

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    Laura Marcela Palma Medina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of raw material for biofuel production is of interest to both academia and industry. One attractive substrate is a renewable lignocellulosic material such as oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. empty fruit bunch (OPEFB, which is a byproduct of the palm oil industry. This study aimed to characterize cellulases active against this substrate. Cellulases with activity against OPEFB were identified from a metagenomic library obtained from DNA extracted from a high-Andean forest ecosystem. Our findings show that the highest cellulolytic activities were obtained at pH and temperature ranges of 4–10 and 30 °C–60 °C, respectively. Due to the heterogeneous character of the system, degradation profiles were fitted to a fractal-like kinetic model, evidencing transport mass transfer limitations. The sequence analysis of the metagenomic library inserts revealed three glycosyl hydrolase families. Finally, molecular docking simulations of the cellulases were carried out corroborating possible exoglucanase and β-glucosidase activity.

  10. Genetic similarity among commercial oil palm materials based on microsatellite markers

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    Diana Arias

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers are used to determine genetic similarities among individuals and might be used in various applications in breeding programs. For example, knowing the genetic similarity relationships of commercial planting materials helps to better understand their responses to environmental, agronomic and plant health factors. This study assessed 17 microsatellite markers in 9 crosses (D x P of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. from various commercial companies in Malaysia, France, Costa Rica and Colombia, in order to find possible genetic differences and/or similarities. Seventy-seven alleles were obtained, with an average of 4.5 alleles per primer and a range of 2-8 amplified alleles. The results show a significant reduction of alleles, compared to the number of alleles reported for wild oil palm populations. The obtained dendrogram shows the formation of two groups based on their genetic similarity. Group A, with ~76% similarity, contains the commercial material of 3 codes of Deli x La Mé crosses produced in France and Colombia, and group B, with ~66% genetic similarity, includes all the materials produced by commercial companies in Malaysia, France, Costa Rica and Colombia

  11. Role of bioinoculants and organic fertilizers in fodder production and quality of leguminous tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Seema; Sharma, Satyawati; Vasudevan, Padma

    2011-01-01

    The comparative effect of dual inoculation of native N fixer (Rhizobium) and AM fungi consortia with different organic fertilizers (vermicompost and farm yard manure) on fodder production and quality of two leguminous tree species (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de. Wit. and Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr.) in silvopastoral system and their impact on the fodder production of un-inoculated Panicum maximum Jacq. under cut and carry system. After three years of plantation maximum tree survival was in L. leucocephala in all the treatments in comparison to S. sesban while fodder production was more in S. sesban for initial two years and in third year it accelerated in L. leucocephala. Dual inoculation with vermicompost significantly improved fodder production, fodder quality and rhizosphere microflora in L. leucocephala but in S. sesban dual inoculation was at par with single inoculation of N fixer, AM fungi and control (without inoculation). The grass production was higher with L. leucocephala for two years while in third year it was more with S. sesban. The association of Rhizobium with AM fungi in L. leucocephala was better than in S. sesban.

  12. Pollen morphology of the subfamily arecoideae griff. (family-arecaceae) from pakistan and kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheed, A.A.; Perveen, A.; Abid, R.

    2016-01-01

    Pollen morphological characters are potentially informative in the systematic of monocotyledons including (Arecaceae), at supra and infra familial level. The pollen morphology of 8 species (subfamily Arecoideae) clearly shows that the qualitative pollen characters (such as aperture, exine pattern and shape) are found to be taxonomically important as compared to the quantitative characters (such as size of the grain and exine thickness).Considerable pollen variations have been found within the subfamily Arecoideae with regard to size, shape, aperture type and exine pattern. For instance, 7 out of 8 species have monosulcate pollen (i.e., 87.5%) and a remaining species (viz., Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) have trichotomosulcate pollen. The pollen are frequently elliptical, but in some cases rounded-triangular pollen were also found. Similarly, there is a great diversity in exine pattern such as punctate, reticulate, vermiculate, spinose, rugulate and perforate or combination of these types have also been found, but the most predominant pattern is the reticulate type. On the basis of pollen aperture, size and exine pattern, four pollen types have been recognized such as Areca-type, Dypsis-type, Cocos-type and Elaies-type. The data obtained from the palynological studies have been analyzed by Agglomerative cluster analysis choosing the Euclidean distance and Ward's method for a group linkage method. The objective of the present work is to classify studied taxa on the basis of pollen characters and to quantify the species relationships representing the subfamily Arecoideae based on numerical techniques. (author)

  13. Floral ontogeny of two Jatropha species (Euphorbiaceae s.s) and its systematic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.; Liao, J.

    2015-01-01

    Floral ontogeny of Jatropha multifida L. and Jatropha integerrima Jacq. (Euphorbiaceae) was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These two species possess unisexual male flowers and bisexual (with unfunctional staminodes) female flowers. In both male and female flowers, five sepal primordia arise in a 2/5 sequence on the periphery of the floral apex and initiate anticlockwise or clockwise in different floral buds. Five petal primordia initiate simultaneously alternate to sepals. Dicyclic stamens (obdiplostemony) arise in both male and female flowers. In J. multifida, five outer stamen primordia arise first simultaneously and then three inner stamens initiate simultaneously. However, in J. integerrima, ten stamen primordia arranged in two whorls initiate simultaneously. While the ovary is absent in the male flowers, in the female flowers, three carpel primordia appear simultaneously. With further development of the ovary the stamens degenerate in the female flowers, whereas in the male flowers, the stamens grow normally. Ancestral state reconstruction using MacClade indicates that stamen simultaneous vs. non-simultaneous initiation supports the phylogenetic analysis based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequence. (author)

  14. Honeybees Increase Fruit Set in Native Plant Species Important for Wildlife Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, Luis; Ruiz-Arriaga, Sarah; Ozers, Christian P.

    2011-11-01

    Honeybee colonies are declining in some parts of the world. This may have important consequences for the pollination of crops and native plant species. In Spain, as in other parts of Europe, land abandonment has led to a decrease in the number of non professional beekeepers, which aggravates the problem of honeybee decline as a result of bee diseases In this study, we investigated the effects of honeybees on the pollination of three native plant species in northern Spain, namely wildcherry Prunus avium L., hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq., and bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. We quantified fruit set of individuals from the target species along transects established from an apiary outwards. Half the samples were bagged in a nylon mesh to avoid insect pollination. Mixed-effects models were used to test the effect of distance to the apiary on fruit set in non-bagged samples. The results showed a negative significant effect of distance from the apiary on fruit set for hawthorn and bilberry, but no significant effects were detected for wildcherry. This suggests that the use of honeybees under traditional farming practices might be a good instrument to increase fruit production of some native plants. This may have important consequences for wildlife conservation, since fruits, and bilberries in particular, constitute an important feeding resource for endangered species, such as the brown bear Ursus arctos L. or the capercaillie Tetrao urogallus cantabricus L.

  15. Key factors that influence for seasonal production of Guinea grass

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    Leandro Coelho de Araujo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Climate, soil and management are the main drives for growth and production of tropical pastures. Thus, a better understanding of the effects of these factors and their interactions under climate conditions is required to obtain effective management options. Here, we used data from two field trials to research on climate and management interactions on the production seasonality of Panicum maximum Jacq. Treatments included four sampling times (250, 500, 750, and 1000 °C accumulated during eight regrowth period, under irrigated and rainfed conditions and, cuts were made to simulate grazing intensity. All treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with four replications. At each sampling time, basal tillers were sampled to observe meristematic differentiation and were linked with the respective daylength. Soil moisture was determined, and the water availability index (WAI was calculated. The dry matter production (DMP was taken and relative productivity was calculated. Soil moisture was the key seasonal drive in spring-summer and the WAI could be used to adjust the maximum production for that season. The major drive for DMP in fall was the daylength, which was found at 11.81 h. For all seasons, DMP correlated better with the residues in early regrowth phase (r = 0.82 and p < 0.0001 and with degree-days at final regrowth phase (r = 0.73 p < 0.01. Applying these critical values to management guidelines should make Guinea grass DMP more efficient on tropical farms.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and extracts of Cordia curassavica (Boraginaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Tzasna; Canales, Margarita; Teran, Barbara; Avila, Olivia; Duran, Angel; Garcia, Ana Maria; Hernandez, Hector; Angeles-Lopez, Omar; Fernandez-Araiza, Mario; Avila, Guillermo

    2007-04-20

    In traditional Mexican medicine Cordia curassavica (Jacq) Roemer & Schultes is used to treat gastrointestinal, respiratory and dermatological disorders in Zapotitlán de las Salinas, Puebla (México). The aim of this work was to investigate antimicrobial activity of the essential oil, obtained by using Clevenger distillation apparatus, and hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from aerial parts of Cordia curassavica. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against 13 bacteria and five fungal strains. The oil and extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and five fungal strains. Sarcina lutea and Vibrio cholerae were the strains more sensitive to the essential oil effect (MIC=62 microg/mL) and Vibrio cholerae for the hexane extract (MIC=125 microg/mL). Rhyzoctonia solani was the strain more sensitive to the essential oil effect (IC(50)=180 microg/mL) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes for the hexane extract (IC(50)=230 microg/mL). The essential oil was examined by GC and GC-MS. A total 11 constituents representing 96.28% of the essential oil were identified: 4-methyl,4-ethenyl-3-(1-methyl ethenyl)-1-(1-methyl methanol)cyclohexane (37.34%), beta-eudesmol (19.21%), spathulenol (11.25%) and cadina 4(5), 10(14) diene (7.93%) were found to be the major components. The present study tends to confirm the use in the folk medicine of Cordia curassavica in gastrointestinal, respiratory and dermatological diseases.

  17. Quali-quantitative characterization of the volatile constituents in Cordia verbenacea D.C. essential oil exploiting advanced chromatographic approaches and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarrone, Danilo; Giuffrida, Daniele; Rotondo, Archimede; Micalizzi, Giuseppe; Zoccali, Mariosimone; Pantò, Sebastiano; Donato, Paola; Rodrigues-das-Dores, Rosana Goncalves; Mondello, Luigi

    2017-11-17

    Cordia verbenacea D.C. (Boraginaceae, Varronia curassavica Jacq. synonym) is a medicinal plant, native from Brazil, especially the leaves are used in folk medicine. The aim of this study was to extend the characterization of the volatile fraction of the essential oil obtained from this plant, by using GC-FID, GC-MS, and chiral GC. Moreover, to further clarify the composition of the volatile fraction, preparative multidimensional-GC (prep-MDGC) was used to collect unknown compounds, followed by NMR characterization. Specifically, the chemical characterization, both qualitative and quantitative, of the volatile fraction of the essential oil obtained from Cordia verbenacea cultivated in the Minas Gerais area (central area of Brazil) was investigated for the first time. The principal components from a quantitative point of view were α-pinene (25.32%; 24.48g/100g) and α-santalene (17.90%; 17.30g/100g), belonging to the terpenes family. Chiral-GC data are reported for the enantiomeric distribution of 7 different components. Last, to obtain the complete characterization of the essential oil constituents, prep-MDGC analysis was used to attain the isolation of two compounds, not present in the principal MS databases, which were unambiguously identified by NMR investigation as (E)-α-santalal and (E)-α-bergamotenal, reported for the first time in Cordia verbenacea essential oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemomics-Integrated Proteomics Analysis of Jie-Geng-Tang to Ameliorate Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

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    Jin Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jie-Geng-Tang (JGT, a classic and famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM prescription composed of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq. A. DC. (PG and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. (GU, is well known for “clearing heat and relieving toxicity” and its ability to “diffuse the lung and relieve sore throat.” However, the mechanism underlying its action remains unclear. In this study, potential anti-inflammatory ingredients were screened and submitted to PharmMapper and the KEGG bioinformatics website to predict the target proteins and related pathways, respectively. Differentially expressed candidate proteins from acute lung injury (ALI mice treated with JGT were identified by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ and LC Triple-TOF. Eleven potential anti-inflammatory ingredients were found, including the derivatives of glycyrrhizic acid, licorice-saponin, liquiritin, and platycodigenin. A total of sixty-seven differentially expressed proteins were confirmed after JGT treatment with four therapeutic functions, including immunoregulation, anti-inflammation, ribosome, and muscle contraction. PG and GU comediate PI3K/Akt signal pathway inhibition of NF-κB, VCAM1, and ICAM1 release which primarily act on PI3K, PDK1, AKT, and GSK3β. GU markedly inhibits the ERK/MAPK signaling pathways and primarily acts on LCK, RAS, and MEK. A network was constructed using bioactive ingredients, targets, and pathways to determine the mechanism underlying JGT treatment of ALI.

  19. Effectiveness of vegetable extracts for the control of Praticolella griseola (Pfeiffer (Gastropoda: Polygyridae

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    Carmen Verónica Martín Vasallo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Molluscs have become a serious problem for vegetable crops, especially the species Praticolella griseola (Pfeiffer. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the percentage of mortality of the plant extracts on P. griseola in both laboratory and field conditions. An "in vitro" assay was performed with vegetable extracts of maguey (Furcraea hexapetala (Jacq. Family: Agavaceae, spiny güirito (Solanum globiferum L., Family: Solanaceae, chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L., Solanaceae, cardon (Euphorbia lactea Haw., Family: Euphorbiaceae. When evaluating three concentrations of the extract of each botanical species, a completely randomized design was used in "in vitro" conditions and random blocks on the field. The extraction of the chili pepper extract was carried out using the fruit baking method, the S. globiferum was obtained from the milling of the dried fruits and the F. hexapetala and E. lactea were obtained through the fragmentation of stalks. Extracts of F. hexapetala, S. globiferum, C. frutescens, E. lactea, are alternatives to be used by producers in the control of P. griseola. The highest percentages of mortality are reached with the extracts of C. frutescens and S. globiferum at 72 hours of application.

  20. Nitrate Promotes Capsaicin Accumulation in Capsicum chinense Immobilized Placentas

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    Jeanny G. Aldana-Iuit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In chili pepper’s pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs, the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq. were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium’s nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod’s placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis.

  1. OBSERVAÇÕES EPIDEMIOLÓGICAS DE HELMINTOS GASTRINTESTINAIS EM OVELHAS MESTIÇAS MANEJADAS EM PASTAGENS COM DIFERENTES HÁBITOS DE CRESCIMENTO

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    Francisco de Assis Fonseca de Macedo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Ovelhas, provenientes do acasalamento de fêmeas Corriedale com machos das raças Bergamácia e Hampshire Down, foram divididas em três grupos e manejadas em piquetes compostos exclusivamente por uma das seguintes espécies de gramíneas: Panicum maximun Jacq., Cynodon dactylon Pers. e Paspalum notatum Flueeg., com o objetivo de avaliar a infecção por helmintos gastrintestinais. A cada 28 dias, durante um período de um ano, foram obtidas informações sobre o número de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG e realizadas culturas de larvas a partir das amostras de fezes de todos os animais. Os animais que pastejaram Paspalum notatum Flueeg. apresentaram a maior contagem de OPG e não houve diferença estatística (P>0.05 entre os grupos genéticos empregados. O gênero Haemonchus predominou nas culturas de larvas. Foi observada também a influência do mês de coleta sobre o OPG (P<0.05. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Epidemiologia, Haemonchus, OPG, ovinos, Trichostrongylus.

  2. EL DECLIVE DEL PADRE UNA REFLEXIÓN PSICOANALÍTICA

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    Karina García Méndez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente se aprecia un aumento de síntomas denominados a veces como «de fin de milenio», tales como: las toxicomanías, la homosexualidad, el sufrimiento de la soledad y el apetito de éxito económico, social y estético, entre otros. Esta situación nos lleva directamente a preguntarnos por el significado y las implicaciones de la misma, lo cual remite, según el psicoanálisis, al tema del declive del padre, lo que a su vez se refleja en nuestra época, en la que la figura del padre ha sido colocada en una posición desde la cual sigue ejerciendo su reinado pero sin gobernar. El padre, en cuanto figura que representa la ley y coloca los límites, aparece minimizado. Esto ha generado profundas implicaciones y consecuencias psicológicas, las cuales serán analizadas en nuestro actual periódo histórico y cultural desde la perspectiva de Jacqes Lacan.

  3. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Behavioral responses of Schistocerca americana (Orthoptera: Acrididae) to Azadirex (neem)-treated host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capinera, John L; Froeba, Jason G

    2007-02-01

    Azadirex (azadirachtin and other biologically active extracts from neem trees) has been shown to have considerable potential to be used in integrated pest management systems based on its growth regulator/insecticide properties. Less well known are the antifeedant properties. The feeding-deterrent properties of a commercial azadirex formulation (Azatrol EC) were evaluated using both no-choice and choice tests, the American grasshopper, Schistocerca americana (Drury), and four host plants [savoy cabbage, Brassica oleracea variety capitata L.; cos (romaine) lettuce, Lactuca sativa variety longifolia Lam.; sweet orange, Citrus sinensis variety Hamlin L.; and peregrina, Jatropha integerrima Jacq.]. These studies demonstrated that azadirex application can significantly affect the feeding behavior of grasshoppers. Some degree of protection can be afforded to plants that differ markedly in their innate attractiveness to the insect, although the level of protection varies among hosts. The tendency of grasshoppers to sometimes feed on azadirex-treated foliage suggests that it will be difficult to prevent damage from occurring at all times, on all hosts. No evidence of rapid habituation to azadirex was detected. Rapid loss of efficacy was observed under field conditions, suggesting that daily retreatment might be necessary to maintain protection of plants from feeding.

  5. Stem CO2 efflux in six co-occurring tree species: underlying factors and ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Calcerrada, Jesús; López, Rosana; Salomón, Roberto; Gordaliza, Guillermo G; Valbuena-Carabaña, María; Oleksyn, Jacek; Gil, Luis

    2015-06-01

    Stem respiration plays a role in species coexistence and forest dynamics. Here we examined the intra- and inter-specific variability of stem CO2 efflux (E) in dominant and suppressed trees of six deciduous species in a mixed forest stand: Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea [Matt.] Liebl, Quercus pyrenaica Willd., Prunus avium L., Sorbus aucuparia L. and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. We conducted measurements in late autumn. Within species, dominants had higher E per unit stem surface area (Es ) mainly because sapwood depth was higher than in suppressed trees. Across species, however, differences in Es corresponded with differences in the proportion of living parenchyma in sapwood and concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC). Across species, Es was strongly and NSC marginally positively related with an index of drought tolerance, suggesting that slow growth of drought-tolerant trees is related to higher NSC concentration and Es . We conclude that, during the leafless period, E is indicative of maintenance respiration and is related with some ecological characteristics of the species, such as drought resistance; that sapwood depth is the main factor explaining variability in Es within species; and that the proportion of NSC in the sapwood is the main factor behind variability in Es among species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Aplicación de un modelo experimental de valoración económica del uso y manejo de la flora colombiana. Estudio de caso: Meliaceae y Anacardiaceae

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    Nydia Johanna Muñoz Castaño

    2006-07-01

    (L. Sleumer (trompillo, Anacardium occidentale L. (marañón, Anacardium giganteum Hancock ex Engler (marañón gigante, Spondias mombin L. (hobo, Camnosperma panamense Standl. (sajo y Astronium graveolens Jacq. (diomate o quiebracha. El modelo y el indicador propuestos integran todos los tópicos que se consideraron partícipes del valor económico de las especies en dos grandes aspectos: el biológico y el biocultural y socioeconómico. El indicador produce un valor aproximado de la especie valorando los aspectos contemplados en el modelo a través de cinco componentes: valor actual de uso, valor actual de importancia cultural, valor actual de los productos y servicios, valor potencial de los productos y servicios y estatus de la información. Con su aplicación en el estudio de caso se determinó a Cedrela odorata como la especie más valiosa.

  7. Hydrolysis of cellulose and oil palm empty fruit bunches by using consortia of fungi isolated from the soil of Colombian high andean forest

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    Luz Aida Moya A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolytic activity was evaluated in a mixture of supernatants produced by filamentous fungi grown individually on microcrystalline cellulose and empty fruit bunches. The strains that were used correspond to two types of isolates; the first was made from soil samples from a transect of a high andean forest of Colombia, in the Parque Natural Nacional de Los Nevados, where, based on previous studies, we selected the strains B7, B11, B11M and B19. The second isolate was obtained from a pool of oil palm empty fruit bunches (Eleaeis guinensis Jacq. in different states of decomposition on the Unipalma plantation located in the eastern plains; strains TA1 and TA2. To perform the hydrolysis of cellulose and empty fruit bunches, the previously obtained supernatants from each of the selected strains were cultivated for 300 hours in cellulose and characterized individually by endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase activity. Individual supernatants were mixed at a 1:1 ratio to form consortia; and hydrolytic activity was evaluated in the substrates at two hours. The glucose concentration was determined by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS method. The results show that hydrolysis of empty fruit bunch to glucose was favored by three pools of supernatants, with increases greater than 400% in comparison with the hydrolysis obtained by individual supernatants, demonstrating the potential to decompose palm empty fruit bunches; thereby contributing to the reduction of decay time of empty fruit bunches and the decrease of environmental and health problems

  8. Milk production, intake, digestion, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of cows supplemented with by-products from the biodiesel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sá; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Viégas, Júlio; do Nascimento, Nilton Guedes; de Freitas Neto, Marcondes Dias

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein × Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended.

  9. Icelandic organizational culture; Clear strategic direction and intent but lack of coordination and integration Íslensk vinnustaðamenning. Skýr og markviss stefna en skortur á samhæfingu og samþættingu

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    Gylfi Dalmann Aðalsteinsson

    2010-12-01

    beint að megineinkennum vinnustaðamenningar íslenskra skipulagsheilda. Stuðst er við aðferð Denison til að varpa ljósi á íslenska vinnustaðamenningu. Ýmislegt bendir til að íslenskar skipulagsheildir eigi margt sameiginlegt þegar kemur að vinnustaðamenningu, að hægt sé að benda á sameiginleg megineinkenni í vinnustaðamenningu hérlendis. Helstu niðurstöður eru þær að skipulagsheildir sem skoðaðar voru hafa skýra og markvissa stefnu en ferlar virðast ekki vera vel skilgreindir, illa gengur að útfæra eða inn leiða stefnuna og ólíkum einingum innan skipulagsheildarinnar gengur illa að vinna saman. Í niðurstöðum rannsóknarnefndar Alþingis kemur fram að vinnustaðamenning og viðskiptasiðferði íslensku bankanna hafi orðið til þess að starfsemi þeirra fór að mörgu leyti á skjön við lög og reglur og í bága við eðlilega og heilbrigða viðskiptahætti. Því er áhugavert að skoða mælingar fyrir og eftir efnahagshrun. Þessar mælingar sýna ekki mikinn mun. Sá þáttur sem lendir á styrkleikabili á báðum tímabilunum er undirvíddin skýr og markviss stefna, þ.e. allir meðlimir skipulagsheildarinnar hafa skýra framtí��arsýn og þeir eru reiðubúnir að fara eftir stefnunni. Stefnan sé líkleg til að skapa samkeppnisyfirburði og hún virðist vera skýr í hugum starfsmanna. Á hinn bóginn er afar athyglisvert hversu lágt skor er í undirvíddinni samhæfing og samþætting. Það bendir til þess að þrátt fyrir skýra og markvissa stefnu séu ferlar ekki vel skilgreindir, illa gangi að útfæra eða innleiða stefnuna og ólíkum einingum innan skipulagsheildarinnar virðist ganga illa að vinna saman. Enn fremur er lágt skor í undirvíddunum gildi og breytingar sem getur verið vísbending um að sameiginleg gildi skorti innan skipulagsheilda og grunngildum sé ekki fylgt sem og til tregðu til að fara út í breytingar og taka áhættu.

  10. Diversidad, composición y estructura de la vegetación en un agropaisaje ganadero en Matiguás, Nicaragua

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    Dalia Sánchez Merlos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó la diversidad, composición y estructura de la vegetación en un paisaje ganadero en Matiguás, Nicaragua, y se comparó las diferencias florísticas y estructurales de seis tipos de hábitats (bosques secundarios, bosques ribereños, charrales, cercas vivas y potreros con alta y baja cobertura arbórea. Se registraron un total de 3 949 árboles de 180 especies y 52 familias. El 46% del total de especies informadas para el paisaje fueron representadas por Guazuma ulmifolia (18.5%, Bursera simaruba (13.2%, Tabebuia rosea (6.3%, Enterolobium cyclocarpum (4.2% y Albizia saman (3.4%. Muchas de las especies dominantes en el paisaje son típicas de áreas abiertas y perturbadas. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los diferentes hábitats en los patrones de riqueza, abundancia, diversidad, estructura y composición florística. Los bosques ribereños tuvieron mayor riqueza (p=0.0001 y diversidad de especies (p=0.0009, que los demás hábitats. La composición florística vario entre hábitats, con pares de hábitats compartiendo solamente entre 18.4 y 51.6% de las mismas especies arbóreas, y con claras diferencias en composición entre los hábitats forestados (ribereños y bosques secundarios y los hábitats agropecuarios. De los hábitats estudiados los bosques ribereños y bosques secundarios parecen ser los hábitats que tienen mayor valor para la conservación de la flora en el agropaisaje porque tienen la mayor riqueza de especies, además de que mantienen poblaciones bajas de especies maderables en peligro de extinción. En base a este estudio, recomendamos incluir los paisajes agrícolas en estrategias de conservación y sugerimos algunos criterios para asegurar el mantenimiento de la flora en el paisaje de Matiguás.Vegetation diversity, composition and structure in a cattle agro-landscape of Matiguás, Nicaragua. The diversity, composition and structure of vegetation in a cattle landscape in Matiguás, Nicaragua

  11. Desempenho de bovinos em capim-tanzânia adubado com nitrogênio ou consorciado com Estilosantes Performance of beef cattle grazing Tanzania grass fertilized with nitrogen or intercropped with Stylo

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    Clóves Cabreira Jobim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Com este estudo objetivou-se avaliar a massa seca de forragem e lâminas foliares, ganho médio diário, taxa de lotação e ganho de peso vivo em capim-tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. no período de novembro de 2008 a julho de 2009 sob lotação contínua. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso em parcela subdivididas, com três repetições, e como tratamentos: Tanzânia + Estilosantes Campo Grande; Tanzânia + 75kg/ha de N; Tanzânia + 150kg/ha de N e Tanzânia + 225kg/ha de N, e nas sub-parcelas os períodos do ano: primavera, verão e outono. No verão, a massa seca de forragem e lâminas foliares foram superiores à primavera e outono. O tratamento com 225kg de N apresentou maior massa seca de forragem e massa seca de lâminas foliares no verão e outono. Obteve-se maior ganho médio diário no verão. Na primavera e no verão não houve diferença entre os tratamentos para o ganho médio diário, e no outono o tratamento com 225kg/ha de N foi superior. A taxa de lotação foi semelhante no verão e outono, e menor na primavera. O tratamento com 225kg de N apresentou maior taxa de lotação na primavera e verão. O tratamento com 225kg de N apresentou maior ganho de peso vivo no outono, na primavera e verão o 150 kg de N foi semelhante. A disponibilidade de massa seca de forragem e o desempenho animal proporcionado pelo Estilosantes foram equivalentes à adubação nitrogenada até a dose de 75kg de N.This study aimed to evaluate the dry mass of forage and leaf blade dry mass, average daily gain, stocking rate and live weight gain in Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. from November/2008 to July/2009, on continuous stocking. The experimental design was a split-plot arrangement in a randomized blocks design, with three replications and four treatments: Tanzania + Campo Grande Stylo; Tanzania + 75kg/ha of N; Tanzania + 150kg/ha of N and Tanzania + 225kg/ha of N, subplots were the seasons of the year: Spring, Summer and

  12. Efeitos de doses e épocas de aplicação do bentazon na produção de duas cultivares de cebola (Allium cepa L. Effects of doses and time of application of bentazon on the yield of two onion cultivars

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    M.H.T. Mascarenhas

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Em um solo aluvião eutrófico de classificação textural argilo siltoso, com 2,75% de M.O. foram estudados os efeitos de doses do herbicida bentazon (3 - isopropi l - 2,1,3 - benzotio-diazinona - (4 - 2,2 - dióxido aplicado em pós-emergência. no controle de plantas daninhas dicotiledôneas na cultura da cebola. O delineamento experimental adotado foi um fatorial 2 x 5 x 2 + 4. constituído por duas cultivares: 'Baia Pe ri forme' e 'Texas Grano': cinco épocas de aplicação do produto: aos 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 dias após a emergência das plantas daninhas: duas doses de bentazon: 0,46kg. i.a./ha e 0,96 kg. i.a./ha e quatro tratamentos adicionais: 'Baia Periforme' capinada e sem capina e 'Texas Grano'. capinada e sem capina. . As plantas daninhas predominantes no experimento foram: botão -de-ouro (Galinsoga parviflora Cav., picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia prunifoiia Jacq.(, mostarda (Brassica campestris L., joá (Physalis angulata L. fedegoso (Cassia tora L.(, serralha falsa (Emilia sonchifolia (L . DC e mentruz (Lepidium virginicum L. Nas condições em que foi realizado o ensaio, o herbicida bentazon nas duas doses aplicadas mostrou-se eficiente no controle das plantas daninhas até 60 dias após o transplante. Nas doses empregadas o bentazon não apresentou efeito fitotóxico sobre a produção das cultivares 'Baia Periforme' e 'Texas Grano'.The effects of doses of the herbicide bentazon applied at post-emergence in the control of dycotiledonous weeds in onion crops were studied on a alluvial eutrophic soil with a clay silt texture. and 2.75%% of organic matter. The experiment was set according to a complete randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 5 x 2- 4 (two onion varieties: 'Bala Periforme' and 'Texas Grano': five herbicide application dates: 10. 20. 30, 40 and 50 days after emergence of the weeds: bentazon doses were 0,46g a.i./ha and 0.96 g a.i./ha: and four more tre atments: 'Baia Periforme

  13. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening Comparação de bioensaios com os crustáceos Artemia salina e Thamnocephalus platyurus para abordagem de extratos de plantas com toxicidade

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    Pablo Mayorga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest, were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp., Fabaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass., Asteraceae, Petiveria alliacea L., Phytolaccaceae, and Ocimum campechianum Mill., Lamiaceae. The five others: Curatella americana L., Dilleniaceae, Prunus barbata Koehne, Rosaceae, Quercus crispifolia Trel., Fagaceae, Rhizophora mangle L., Rhizophoraceae, and Smilax domingensis Willd., Smilacaceae, do not. All plants without anti-Artemia activity had no lethal effects in both assays with A. salina. For the plants with anti-Artemia activity the Artoxkit M was not sensitive to G. sepium and the conventional Artemia test was not sensitive to S. americanum, G. sepium and N. lobata. All the plant extracts, except for that of C. americana, had lethal effects on T. platyurus and the lethal median concentration (LC50 levels for this organism were in all cases substantially lower than those of the salt-water test species. This study revealed that T. platyurus is a promising test species worth further in depth investigation for toxicity screening of plant extracts with potential medicinal properties.Três bioensaios de letalidade com o crustáceo de água salgada Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (teste convencional em microplaca de 96 poós Artoxkit microbiotest M e o crustáceo de água doce Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae (Thamnotoxkit microbiotest F, foram comparados utilizando extratos de dez espécies de plantas da Guatemala. Foi previamente observado que cinco delas possuem atividade anti

  14. Repetibilidade da produção de cachos de híbridos interespecíficos entre o caiaué e o dendezeiro Repeatability for bunch production in interspecific hybrids between caiaué and african oil palm

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    Gilson Sánchez Chia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A hibridação interespecífica entre o caiaué (Elaeis oleífera (Kunth Cortés e o dendezeiro (E. guineensis Jacq. tem sido explorada com o objetivo de desenvolver cultivares tão produtivas quanto as de dendezeiro, aliada à resistência a pragas e doenças, principalmente o amarelecimento fatal, elevada taxa de ácidos graxos insaturados e redução de porte características do caiaué. Por ser uma cultura perene com longo ciclo de produção, além dos altos custos para manutenção e avaliação dos experimentos de melhoramento genético, é necessário definir o período mínimo de avaliação para que a seleção dos híbridos seja realizada com eficiência e mínimo dispêndio de tempo e recursos. Este estudo teve como objetivo estimar os coeficientes de repetibilidade dos caracteres número de cachos, peso total de cachos e peso médio de cachos de híbridos interespecíficos e definir o número de anos consecutivos de avaliação necessário para seleção eficiente dos melhores cruzamentos e indivíduos. Os coeficientes de repetibilidade foram estimados pelos métodos da análise de variância, componentes principais com base na matriz de covariância (CPCV e de correlações, e análise estrutural com base na matriz de correlações. O método dos CPCV demonstrou ser o mais adequado para o estudo da repetibilidade da produção de cachos, indicando quatro anos consecutivos de avaliação para selecionar progênies, representadas por dez plantas, com coeficientes de determinação (R² superiores a 85%, e que para seleção individual de plantas são necessários pelo menos seis anos consecutivos de avaliação para atingir R² superior a 80%.Interspecific hybridization between the caiaué (Elaeis oleífera (Kunth Cortés and the african oil palm (E. guineensis Jacq. has been exploited with the objective of developing varieties as productive as African oil palm and with the pest and disease resistance, reduced height and high levels

  15. Compressibilidade de um solo sob sistemas de pastejo rotacionado intensivo irrigado e não irrigado Soil compressibility under non-irrigated and irrigated short duration grazing systems

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    C. L. R. Lima

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O incremento da produtividade das pastagens tem sido associado ao comportamento à compressão dos solos. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: quantificar as curvas de compressão e a pressão de preconsolidação em sistemas de pastejo intensivo rotacionado irrigado e não irrigado. Foram coletadas 96 amostras indeformadas de solo em quatro ciclos sucessivos de pastejo instalado com capim Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. em um Argissolo Vermelho. Após saturadas com água e equilibradas no potencial (psi: -10 kPa, as amostras foram pesadas e submetidas ao ensaio de compressão uniaxial com a aplicação sucessiva e contínua de pressões de 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1.000, 1.300 e 1.600 kPa. Os resultados comprovaram a hipótese de que houve diferença na compressibilidade do solo sob os sistemas de pastejo rotacionado intensivo irrigado e não irrigado. A maior compactação inicial verificada no sistema de pastejo rotacionado intensivo irrigado favoreceu o deslocamento das curvas de compressão uniaxial para valores superiores de densidade do solo. A pressão de preconsolidação foi significativamente superior no quarto ciclo de pastejo no sistema de pastejo rotacionado intensivo irrigado em relação ao sistema pastejo rotacionado intensivo não irrigado.Increment in pasture productivity has been associated with the understanding of the soil behavior under compression. The objective of this research was to quantify (a the compression curves and (b the preconsolidation pressure of the soils under non-irrigated and irrigated short duration grazing systems. Ninety-six undisturbed soil samples were taken from the four successive pasture cycles of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. in a Hapludalf. The samples were saturated in water and equilibrated at the matrix potential (psi: -10 kPa and then were weighed and submitted to an uniaxial compression test, applying the following pressures: 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1,000, 1,300, and

  16. The availability of Piperaceae and the search for this resource by Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae, Carolliinae in Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

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    Isaac Passos de Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A study about the species of Piperaceae that are consumed by a colony of Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 in Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas (82,72 ha was carried out. Five available species of Piperaceae were found in the park: Piper aduncum Linnaeus, Piper amalago (Jacq. Yuncker, Piper crassinervium H.B.K., Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth and Piper sp. C. perspicillata fed on all of these species. During the spring, the most abundant item was P. amalago, but the consumption of P. aduncum was the highest. At the beginning of the summer, P. crassinervium was the most abundant and most consumed item. At the end of the summer and during the fall, P. gaudichaudianum was the most abundant and consumed item, even in May, when P. amalago was the most abundant item. During the winter, the most highly available items were P. aduncum, Piper sp. and P. amalago, and the ones that were consumed the most were Piper sp., P. gaudichaudianum and P. aduncum. The results have shown that the preferences of C. perspicillata in the park are related to the greater abundance or the higher energetic value of the available Piperaceae. The greater search for the most energetic and least abundant species, which happened in the spring and winter, is related to the energy gain, that is, the species searches for food that will provide a greater quantity of energy per unit of consumption; and the greater search for the most abundant item, which occurred in the summer and fall, is related to saving the energy used in the search for food.Estudou-se quais espécies de piperáceas são consumidas por uma colônia de Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 localizada do Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas (82,72ha. Foram encontradas no parque: Piper aduncum Linnaeus, Piper amalago (Jacq. Yuncker, Piper crassinervium H.B.K., Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth e Piper sp. C. perspicillata alimentou-se de todas essas espécies. Durante a primavera, o item mais abundante foi P. amalago, porém o

  17. Estratégias anatômicas foliares de treze espécies de Orchidaceae ocorrentes em um campo de altitude no Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro (PESB: MG, Brasil Strategies anatomy from thirteen Orchidaceae species occurring in a "high altitude grasslands" in the State Park of Serra do Brigadeiro (PESB: Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Ivone Vieira da Silva

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou caracterizar, anatomicamente, as folhas de Orchidaceae ocorrentes em um campo de altitude (PESB, identificando caracteres anatômicos úteis na interpretação das estratégias adaptativas. As treze espécies estudadas vivem em condições ambientais extremas tendo sido estudados apenas indivíduos terrestres, exceto Pleurothallis teres Lindl. espécie exclusivamente rupícola. Avaliando os caracteres anatômicos adaptativos, dois grupos podem ser distinguidos, os das espécies perenes (Epidendrum secundum Jacq., Epidendrum xanthinum Lindl., Oncidium barbaceniae Lindl., Oncidium blancheti Rchb. F., Pleurothallis prolifera Lindl., Pleurothallis teres Lindl., Zygopetalum brackypetalum Lindl. e Zygopetalum mackaii Hook. e os das espécies com redução das partes aéreas no período seco (Cleistes gracilis Schdl., Habenaria hydrophila Barb. Rodr., Habenaria janeirensis Kraenzl, Habenaria macronectar Hoehne e Prescottia montana Barb. Rodr.. As espécies perenes apresentam caracteres xeromórficos: folhas coriáceas ou coriáceas suculentas, cutícula espessa e estriada, hipoderme, grupos de fibras esparsas no mesofilo homogêneo, parênquima aqüífero com espessamento em barras ou espiralados nas paredes, idioblastos de ráfides e feixes vasculares colaterais circundados e com calotas de fibras. Nas espécies com redução das partes aéreas ocorrem investimentos diferenciados e os caracteres xeromórficos não são acentuados. As folhas são delgadas, com células epidérmicas adaxiais altas sendo a cutícula delgada geralmente desprovida de estriamentos e a presença de idioblastos de ráfides freqüentes no mesofilo. Não ocorre hipoderme e os feixes vasculares são reduzidos e sem associações com fibras.The purpose of this work was to characterize the leaf anatomy of thirteen Orchidaceae species in a "high altitude grasslands", located at State Park of Serra do Brigadeiro, and identify anatomical characteristics helpful to

  18. Vegetative development of cultivars of palm oil from 14 to 34 months of age in ecosystems Roraima = Desenvolvimento vegetativo de cultivares de palma de óleo dos 14 aos 34 meses de idade em ecossistemas de Roraima

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    Francisco Clemilto da Silva Maciel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the vegetative development of cultivars oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq from 14 to 34 months of age in the field in two ecosystems of Roraima. Two experiments were conducted, one in another area of savanna and forest area changes in the assessment of BRS C-2528, C-3701 and BRS BRS C-2301, in experimental design of randomized blocks with six replications. 18 reviews were conducted monthly from August 2008 to April 2010, the number of sheets issued, four leaf length (cm and girth circumference (cm. Analyses of variance individual and joint. For the statistical analysis of the characteristics evaluated test was used Scott-Knott at 5% probability. By comparing the averages of the characteristics evaluated in two environments, we found that, at 34 months old, the forest ecosystem plants had a higher number of leaves, leaf length greater than 4 and greater girth circumference, differing significantly the results obtained in the savanna ecosystem. In forest area changes, independent of cultivar evaluated, plants showed, 3.0 leaves emitted / month, four leaf growth of 8.9 cm / month and girth circumference of 9.6 cm / month, while in savanna, issued 2.5 leaves / month, 4 leaf length of 7.5 cm / month and girth circumference of 6.1 cm / month. It is concluded that changes in forest environment, cultivars have vegetative growth higher than in the environment of savanna. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo de cultivares de palma de óleo Elaeis guineensis Jacq dos 14 aos 34 meses de idade no campo, em dois ecossistemas de Roraima. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, sendo um em área de savana e outro em área de floresta alterada com a avaliação das cultivares BRS C-2528, BRS C-3701 e BRS C-2301, em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com seis repetições. Foram realizadas 18 avaliações mensais, no período de agosto de 2008 a abril de 2010, quanto ao número de folhas

  19. Composição bromatológica e produção de efluente de silagens de capim-tanzânia sob efeitos do emurchecimento, do tamanho de partícula e do uso de aditivos biológicos Chemical composition and effluent yield of Tanzaniagrass silages affected by wilting, particle size and enzymatic/microbial additive

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    Daniele Rebouças Santana Loures

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido para se avaliar o efeito do emurchecimento, da redução do tamanho das partículas e da adição de enzimas fibrolíticas (com ou sem inoculante bacteriano Lactobacillus plantarum sobre a composição bromatológica da silagem e a produção de efluente em silagens de capim-tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia. A forragem foi cortada aos 45 dias de crescimento vegetativo e armazenada em silos experimentais (50 L durante 136 dias. O efluente foi coletado e quantificado no 1º, 2º, 7º, 14º, 21º, 60º, 90º e 136º dias de armazenamento. A adição de enzimas fibrolíticas, associadas ou não ao inoculante bacteriano, promoveu redução da fração fibrosa (FDN, FDA, celulose e hemicelulose, que foi mais acentuada nas silagens emurchecidas. Contudo, não houve aumento da digestibilidade in vitro da MS com a adição de enzimas fibrolíticas. Embora tenha havido diferenças no tamanho de partícula, a amplitude alcançada não foi suficiente para provocar alterações significativas na composição química e no efluente das silagens. Observou-se que a quantidade total de efluente produzida foi maior (250L/t forragem ensilada em silagens não-emurchecidas e esporádica nas emurchecidas. A adição de enzimas com ou sem inoculante bacteriano não aumentou as perdas por efluente. Os valores médios de DBO (11.289 mg/L, DQO (36.279 mg/L, DQO/DBO (3, 35, pH (4, 9 e de sólidos totais (34.395 mg/L e sólidos totais fixos (16.533 mg/L foram observados no efluente das silagens não-emurchecidas. As silagens não-emurchecidas apresentaram efluente com elevado potencial poluidor para o meio ambiente.The present trial aimed to evaluate the effects of wilting (wet vs. wilted, particle size reduction (small vs. large and the addition of fibrolytic enzymes (alone vs. combined with Lactobacillus plantarum on the chemical composition and effluent yield of Tanzaniagrass silages (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania

  20. Estudios morfo-anatómicos en nectarios florales y extraflorales de Triumfetta rhomboidea (Malvaceae, Grewioideae Morpho-anatomical studies of the floral and extrafloral nectaries of Triumfetta rhomboidea (Malvaceae, Grewioideae

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    Elsa Lattar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La morfo-anatomía de los nectarios florales y extraflorales tricomáticos de Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. se estudió con microscopio óptico y microscopio electrónico de barrido. Las cinco glándulas nectaríferas florales, están localizadas en el androginóforo, mientras que los nectarios extraflorales se hallan en los márgenes de la base de la lámina en la hoja y en los márgenes de la bráctea. Las diferencias observadas entre ellos están dadas por el tamaño y la forma de las células epidérmicas basales, el número de las células del pie y de la cabezuela de los tricomas glandulares, los idioblastos del parénquima secretor y el tejido vascular que inerva los nectarios. El análisis de la varianza mostró diferencias significativas entre los nectarios florales y extraflorales en las siguientes variables: longitud y diámetro de la cabezuela, longitud y ancho del pie, pared periclinal de la célula epidérmica basal. Estos resultados fueron congruentes con el análisis de componentes principales (ACP. La longitud de cabezuela y la pared periclinal de la célula basal permitieron reconocer los tres tipos de nectarios, mientras el diámetro de cabezuela y la longitud y ancho de pie sólo diferenciaron los nectarios florales de los extraflorales. Los resultados de este trabajo se discuten en relación a información previa sobre el género.The morpho-anatomy of the floral and extrafloral trichomatic nectaries of Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. was studied by light and scanning electron microscope. Five nectariferous glands are located on the androgynophore, whereas extrafloral nectaries are on the margins at the base of the leaf and on the margins of the bract. The differences observed between them are the size and shape of the epidermal basal cells, the number of the foot and the head cells of the glandular trichomes, the idioblasts of the secretor parenchyma and the vascular tissue which innervates the nectaries. The analysis of variance