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Sample records for salviaefolia cham verbenaceae

  1. Ecophysiological, anatomical and ultrastructural characteristics of Vitex polygama Cham. (Verbenaceae submitted to different concentrations of fluoride

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    Zélia Terezinha Teixeira Rossi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluorides released during the manufacture of aluminum, fertilizers, glass and ceramics are considered to be highly toxic to plants, causing damages in relatively small concentrations. This study aimed to evaluate fluoride (F accumulation and its effects on Vitex polygama Cham. (Verbenaceae exposed to simulated rain containing potassium fluoride in concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L-1. Vitex polygama presented no visual symptoms of foliar injury and accumulated a relatively small amount of F-, significant only for the treatments with higher concentrations of the pollutant.  F- promoted an increase in non-photochemical quenching (qN and in the coefficient due to non-photochemical extinction (NPQ, which indicates higher dissipation of radiant energy in the heat form. Damages in the chloroplast structure, in cellular membranes and in epicuticular waxes, besides cytoplasm granulation and irregularities in the epidermal cell walls were also detected in plants exposed to the pollutant. The results show a considerable resistance of Vitex polygama to F and reinforce the prognostic value of physiological, anatomical and ultrastructural analysis in the detection of damages caused by the pollutant in the leaf structure of this species.

  2. Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil from Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae Leaves Cultivated in Hidrolândia, Goiás, Brazil

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    Sandra Ribeiro de Morais

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies involving the family Verbenaceae, occurring in the Brazilian Cerrado, have emphasized the popular use of many aromatic species. We highlight the use of Lippia sidoides Cham., known as “alecrim pimenta,” native to northeastern Brazil and northern Minas Gerais. Leaves of this species were collected in antropized Brazilian Cerrado area, in Hidrolândia, Goiás, and their essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and thereafter analyzed GC/MS. Among the compounds identified in this study were the most abundant oxygenated monoterpenes, followed by sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons. The oxygenated monoterpene 1,8-cineole was the major constituent followed by isoborneol and bornyl acetate. The chemical composition of essential oil described in this paper differs from that described in the literature for L. sidoides found in its native environment, where the major constituents are thymol and carvacrol.

  3. Structurally Related Monoterpenes p-Cymene, Carvacrol and Thymol Isolated from Essential Oil from Leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) Protect Mice against Elastase-Induced Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Games, Ellen; Guerreiro, Marina; Santana, Fernanda R; Pinheiro, Nathalia M; de Oliveira, Emerson A; Lopes, Fernanda D T Q S; Olivo, Clarice R; Tibério, Iolanda F L C; Martins, Mílton A; Lago, João Henrique G; Prado, Carla M

    2016-10-20

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction and inflammation. Natural products, such as monoterpenes, displayed anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities and can be used as a source of new compounds to COPD treatment. Our aim was to evaluate, in an elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice, the effects of and underlying mechanisms of three related natural monoterpenes ( p -cymene, carvacrol and thymol) isolated from essential oil from leaves Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae). Mices received porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and were treated with p -cymene, carvacrol, thymol or vehicle 30 min later and again on 7th, 14th and 28th days. Lung inflammatory profile and histological sections were evaluated. In the elastase-instilled animals, the tested monoterpenes reduced alveolar enlargement, macrophages and the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and collagen fibers, MMP-9 and p-65-NF-κB-positive cells in lung parenchyma ( p < 0.05). All treatments attenuated levels of 8-iso-PGF2α but only thymol was able to reduced exhaled nitric oxide ( p < 0.05). Monoterpenes p -cymene, carvacrol and thymol reduced lung emphysema and inflammation in mice. No significant differences among the three monoterpenes treatments were found, suggesting that the presence of hydroxyl group in the molecular structure of thymol and carvacrol do not play a central role in the anti-inflammatory effects.

  4. Essential Oil Composition, Antimicrobial and Pharmacological Activities of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) From São Gonçalo do Abaeté, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

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    de Morais, Sandra Ribeiro; Oliveira, Thiago Levi Silva; de Oliveira, Lanussy Porfiro; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Rezende, Maria Helena; Fiuza, Tatiana de Sousa; Costa, Elson Alves; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; de Paula, José Realino

    2016-01-01

    Lippia sidoides (Verbenaceae) is used in Brazilian folk medicine as an antiseptic, and it is usually applied topically on skin, mucous membranes, mouth, and throat, or used for vaginal washings. To analyze the chemical composition of the essential oil from L. sidoides collected in São Gonçalo do Abaeté, Minas Gerais and grown in Hidrolândia, Goiás; to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil, crude ethanol extract, and hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl-acetate, and aqueous fractions (AFs); to study the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and central nervous system activities of the crude ethanol extract. The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity in vitro was performed by broth microdilution method. The pharmacological tests were performed using female Swiss albino mice. The major components of the essential oil were isoborneol (14.66%), bornyl acetate (11.86%), α-humulene (11.23%), α-fenchene (9.32%), and 1.8-cineole (7.05%), supporting the existence of two chemotypes of this species. The hexane fraction (HF) had good antifungal activity against Cryptococcus sp. ATCC D (MIC = 31.25 μg/mL) and Cryptococcus gatti L48 (MIC = 62.5 μg/mL). In the pharmacological tests, the crude ethanol extract presented antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Given that the ethanol extract of L. sidoides is included in the Formulary of Phytotherapeutic Agents of the Brazilian Pharmacopeia as an anti-inflammatory for oral cavities, the present work provides scientific evidence to back this use and highlight the importance of selecting the appropriate chemotype on the basis of the expected biological response. The major components of the essential oil of L. sidoides were isoborneol bornyl acetate, α-humulene, α-fenchene, and 1.8-cineole. The HF had good antifungal activity against Cryptococcus sp. ATCC D and C. gatti L4.The crude ethanol extract of L. sidoides

  5. Analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oils extracted from Lippia lacunosa Mart. and Schauer and Lippia rotundifolia Cham. (Verbenaceae) by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

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    Leitao, Suzana G.; Barbosa, Ymira Galico [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia; Oliveira, Danilo R. de; Leitao, Gilda G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais]. E-mail: sgleitao@pharma.ufrj.br; Suelsen, Valeria; Martino, Virginia [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica; Bizzo, Humberto R.; Lopes, Daise [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Viccini, Lyderson F.; Salimena, Fatima R.G.; Peixoto, Paulo H.P. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biolgicas

    2008-07-01

    Lippia lacunosa and L. rotundifolia (Verbenaceae) are two Brazilian species of complex taxonomic delimitation. The composition of the essential oils from leaves and flowers of these plants was investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The major components of the essential oils of flowers and leaves of L. lacunosa were: myrcene (14.7% and 11.9%), myrcenone (45.2% and 64.2%), Z-ocimenone (5.7% and 5.2%), and E-ocimenone (14.7% and 4.1%), respectively; whereas in L. rotundifolia (flowers and leaves) were ..-pinene (8.7% and 1.8%), myrcene (5.1% and 3.6%), limonene (26.0% and 7.9 %), cis-pinocamphone (4.5% and 3.1%) and myrtenal (22.3% and 16.7%), respectively. The essential oils from L. lacunosa exhibited a strong and pleasant mango aroma, which was related to the presence of myrcene and myrcenone. The marked differences in the chemical composition of their essential oils may represent a powerful tool for the botanical classification. (author)

  6. Karyological studies in Brazilian species of Lippia L. (Verbenaceae

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    Saulo M. Sousa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Lippia (Verbenaceae comprise around 160 species spread out mainly in South and Central Americas with few African species, some of them with potential medicinal use. Brazil is one the most important centers of diversity with approximately 75% of the species described so far. Innumerous species are endemic and poorly studied especially at a cytological level. Here, chromosomal length, karyomorphology and chromosome asymmetry of twelve Brazilian species of Lippia were evaluated [L. alba (Miller N.E.Brown, L. diamantinensis Glaz., L. florida Cham., L. hermanioides Cham., L. lacunosa Mart. & Schauer, L. lupulina Cham., L. pohliana Schauer, L. pseudothea (St. Hil Schauer, L. rosella Moldenke, L. rotundifolia Cham., L. rubella Moldenke and L. sidoides Cham.]. The analysis suggested that the genus has a variable chromosome number (from 2n = 20 to 2n = 56 originated by dysploidy and polyploidy. This is the first description of chromosome morphology for 11 of the 12 Lippia species studied.O gênero Lippia (Verbenaceae possui cerca de 160 espécies distribuídas principalmente nas Américas Central e do Sul com poucas espécies Africanas, algumas delas com potencial uso medicinal. O Brasil é um dos mais importantes centros de diversidade com aproximadamente 75% das espécies descritas. Inúmeras espécies são endêmicas e pouco estudadas, principalmente a nível citológico. Aqui, o comprimento cromossômico, a cariomorfologia e a assimetria cromossômica de doze espécies brasileiras de Lippia foram avaliados [L. alba (Miller N.E.Brown, L. diamantinensis Glaz., L. florida Cham., L. hermanioides Cham., L. lacunosa Mart. & Schauer, L. lupulina Cham., L. pohliana Schauer, L. pseudothea (St. Hil Schauer, L. rosella Moldenke, L. rotundifolia Cham., L. rubella Moldenke e L. sidoides Cham.]. As análises sugeriram que o gênero tem um número cromossômico variável (de 2n = 20 a 2n = 56 originado por disploidia e poliploidia. Esta é a primeira

  7. Notes on Javanese Verbenaceae

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    Meeuse, A.D.J.

    1942-01-01

    On preparing the manuscript of the Verbenaceae for Dr C. A. Backer’s ”Flora van Java” it appeared to me that — in comparison with the monographic treatments of this family by Lam (5) and by Lam & Bakhuizen van den Brink (6) — several changes in the nomenclature and in the interpretation or

  8. VERBENACEAE SENSU LATO EM UM TRECHO DA ESEC RASO DA CATARINA, BAHIA, BRASIL

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    JOSÉ IRANILDO MIRANDA DE MELO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work carried out a floristic-taxonomic survey of the family Verbenaceae sensu lato in a stretch at the Ecological Station Raso da Catarina, Bahia State, Brazil. Four genera and six species were recorded: Aegiphila, with one species (A. sellowiana Cham.; Lantana, with one species (L. fucata Lindl.; Lippia, with three species (L. gracilis Schauer, Lippia cf. schomburgkiana Schauer and L. thymoides Mart. & Schauer and Stachytarpheta, with one species (S. caatingensis S. Atkins. A key for recognition of the species, descriptions and illustrations, beyond data about flowering and fruiting, geographical distribution and habitat are provided.

  9. Quantitative descriptive analysis and principal component analysis for sensory characterization of Indian milk product cham-cham

    OpenAIRE

    Puri, Ritika; Khamrui, Kaushik; Khetra, Yogesh; Malhotra, Ravinder; Devraja, H. C.

    2015-01-01

    Promising development and expansion in the market of cham-cham, a traditional Indian dairy product is expected in the coming future with the organized production of this milk product by some large dairies. The objective of this study was to document the extent of variation in sensory properties of market samples of cham-cham collected from four different locations known for their excellence in cham-cham production and to find out the attributes that govern much of variation in sensory scores ...

  10. Biomedical properties and potentiality of Lippia microphylla Cham. and its essential oils

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    Simões, Evelyne Rolim Braun; Santos, Evelyne Alves; de Abreu, Maria Carolina; Silva, Jurandy do Nascimento; Nunes, Nárcia Mariana Fonseca; da Costa, Marcília Pinheiro; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia Loiola; Pessoa, Cláudia; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    Lippia microphylla Cham. (Verbenaceae) is an endemic underexploited Brazilian vegetal. This work reviewed the biological potentialities of Lippia microphylla, emphasizing the properties of essential oils (EOs) and analyzed scientific indicators about genus Lippia and L. microphylla. Databases from 1948 to the present were searched and a software (vantage point 7.1) associated with Derwent Innovation Index was used to identify the indicators of the genus Lippia, and biological activities and compounds in the L. macrophylla species. Ethnopharmacological records report use of L. microphylla leaves to treat gastrointestinal disorders, influenza, bronchitis, cough, nasal congestion, and sinusitis during vaporization, whose aromatic volatile oils are rich in monoterpenes, especially cineole, terpineol, and thymol. Other EOs have larvicidal activity on Aedes aegypti larvae, and antifungal, antibacterial and cytotoxic and antitumor action on human and murine cancer cells. Brazil is the country with more articles about Lippia species, but it deposited only 9 patents since 1993. Most of the publications about L. microphylla are concentrated in food and chemical sciences. This bioprospection helps to choice areas of interest for capital investment and to give support for Brazilian Institutions to establish cooperation and improve technological impact at the point of view of creation and innovation. PMID:26401417

  11. Análise de timol por CLAE na tintura de Lippia sidoides Cham. (alecrim-pimenta) produzida em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento da planta

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    Leal, L.K.A.M.; Oliveira,V.M.; Araruna,S.M.; M.C.C. Miranda; F.M.A. Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    O teor de timol, princípio ativo usado como marcador nas tinturas das folhas de Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) preparadas com material coletado antes, durante e após a floração e designadas como T1, T2 e T3, foi determinado por CLAE, utilizando-se cromatógrafo Shimadzu CLASS-VP, coluna RP-18 (Supelco), com fase móvel isocrática acetonitrila:água (78:22) e fluxo 0,8 ml/min com detecção em 254 nm. As amostras foram injetadas num volume de 20 μl e analisadas em triplicata. Os teores de...

  12. Lantana camara L.(Verbenaceae) invasion along streams in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Verbenaceae) ... not affect lantana abundance. Understanding the spatially variable environmental factors in a heterogeneous landscape influencing the distribution of lantana would aid in making informed management decisions at this scale.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial de Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae contra Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli

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    C.E Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial effect of Lippia sidoides (rosemary pepper essential oil was tested against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated from homemade Minas cheese produced in Brazil. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC determined in the Dilution Test was 13 µL oil mL-1 for both bacteria, which characterizes inhibitory action in broth for a 24-hour interaction period. The Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC determined in the Suspension Test, with one minute of contact, was 25 µL oil mL-1 for both tested bacteria, obtaining at this concentration a bactericidal effect of 99.9% on the viable bacterial cells from each sample. Results demonstrated the bacterial activity of Lippia sidoides essential oil against S. aureus and E. coli, suggesting its use as an antibacterial agent in foods.O efeito antibacteriano do óleo essencial da Lippia sidoides (alecrim-pimenta foi testado contra as bactérias Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli isoladas de queijo minas artesanal, produzido no Brasil. A Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM determinada por Teste de Diluição foi de 13 µL de óleo mL-1 para as duas bactérias, o que caracteriza ação inibitória em caldo durante vinte quatro horas de interação. A Concentração Bactericida Mínima (CBM determinada através de Teste de Suspensão, com um minuto de contato, foi de 25 µL de óleo mL-1 para ambas as bactérias testadas, obtendo-se a esta concentração o efeito bactericida de 99,9% sobre as células bacterianas viáveis em cada uma das amostras. Os resultados demonstraram atividade bactericida do óleo essencial de Lippia sidoides contra S. aureus e E. coli, sugerindo a possibilidade do uso como agente antibacteriano em alimentos.

  14. Aqueous stem bark extract of Stereospermum kunthianum (cham ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stereospermum kunthianum, Cham Sandrine Petit (Bignoniaceae) known in English as pink jacaranda is used in traditional medicine to treat an array of ailments including febrile convulsions in infants and young children by the rural dwellers in Nigeria. This study examined the anticonvulsant activity of its aqueous stem ...

  15. Phytochemical investigation on leaf extract of Cordia salicifolia Cham.

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    Menghini, Luigi; Epifano, Francesco; Leporini, Lidia; Pagiotti, Rita; Tirillini, Bruno

    2008-03-01

    The dichloromethane extract of leaves of Cordia salicifolia Cham. (Family Boraginaceae) was fractionated by SiO(2) column chromatography and analyzed by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The apolar extract is characterized by a very high content of (+)-spathulenol (0.53%). The major component of the extract exhibited a very weak activity as an inhibitor of growth of Helicobacter pylori in vitro (minimum inhibitory concentration = 200 microg/mL).

  16. Análise de timol por CLAE na tintura de Lippia sidoides Cham. (alecrim-pimenta produzida em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento da planta

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    L.K.A.M. Leal

    Full Text Available O teor de timol, princípio ativo usado como marcador nas tinturas das folhas de Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae preparadas com material coletado antes, durante e após a floração e designadas como T1, T2 e T3, foi determinado por CLAE, utilizando-se cromatógrafo Shimadzu CLASS-VP, coluna RP-18 (Supelco, com fase móvel isocrática acetonitrila:água (78:22 e fluxo 0,8 ml/min com detecção em 254 nm. As amostras foram injetadas num volume de 20 μl e analisadas em triplicata. Os teores de timol encontrados foram 1,97 ± 0,07 em T1; 2,00 ± 0,03 em T2 e 2,34 ± 0,06 mg/ml em T3. Os resultados mostram discretas diferenças nas concentrações de timol nas tinturas das folhas de alecrim-pimenta preparadas em diferentes momentos de seu desenvolvimento. Contudo, observou-se que o melhor momento para a coleta da planta parece ser após a sua floração (T3, que mostrou o maior teor de timol.

  17. THE METRIC DOCUMENTATION OF CHAM TOWERS IN VIETNAM BY SPHERICAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY

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    G. Fangi; E. S. Malinverni; Tassetti, A. N.

    2013-01-01

    The Università Politecnica delle Marche is charged of the study, survey and documentation of the Chan towers in Vietnam. The towers are spread near the coastline from latitude 16° 30', to latitude of 10° 56'. The Champa civilization flourished from 8th century till 17th century produced the Cham towers, places of religious worship. The ancient Cham people created a developed culture expressed in the architecture in the towers, which were Buddhist temples. Roughly there are six differ...

  18. Antimicrobial activity of Aegiphila sellowiana Cham., Lamiaceae, against oral pathogens

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    Marcele A. Ferreira

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of Aegiphila sellowiana Cham., Lamiaceae, against oral pathogens is reported. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs for inhibiting the microorganisms growth were determined using the broth microdilution method from the CLSI M7-A7 protocol. Chlorhexidine was used as the positive control. The ethanol crude extract of the aerial parts of A. sellowiana exhibited activity against the microorganisms tested in this work; however, the activity decreased after partition with n-hexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate. Among the tested fractions, the n-hexane fraction was found to be the most effective against the evaluated oral pathogens. GC-MS analysis of this latter fraction revealed that fatty acids esters, steroids, and aliphatic sesquiterpene hydrocarbons are its major constituents. These compounds may be responsible for the activity of the n-hexane fraction, but other chemical constituents of the dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and hydroalcoholic fraction may potentialize their activities in the crude extract.

  19. Evidences that human disturbance simplify the ant fauna associated a Stachytarpheta glabra Cham. (Verbenaceae compromising the benefits of ant-plant mutualism

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    BC. Barbosa

    Full Text Available Interaction among species, like ants and plants through extrafloral nectaries (EFNs, are important components of ecological communities’ evolution. However, the effect of human disturbance on such specific interactions and its ecological consequences is poorly understood. This study evaluated the outcomes of mutualism between ants and the EFN-bearing plant Stachytarpheta glabra under anthropogenic disturbance. We compared the arthropod fauna composition between two groups of twenty plant individuals, one in an area disturbed by human activities and one in a preserved area. We also check the plant investment in herbivory defense and the consequential leaf damage by herbivore. Our results indicate that such disturbances cause simplification of the associated fauna and lack of proper ant mutualist. This led to four times more herbivory on plants of disturbed areas, despite the equal amount of EFN and ant visitors and low abundance of herbivores. The high pressure of herbivory may difficult the re-establishment of S. glabra, an important pioneer species in ferruginous fields, therefore it may affect resilience of this fragile ecological community.

  20. AHP 28: The Cham's First Highland Sovereign: Po Romé (r. 1627-1651

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    William Noseworthy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From 1627 to 1651, a member of the highland Austronesian Churu peoples, Po Romé, ruled over the lowland Austronesian Cham peoples' kingdom of Panduranga (now Khánh Hòa, Bình Thuận, and Ninh Thuận provinces in Việt Nam. Po Romé has been referred to as the 'Charlemagne' of Cham studies (Bruckmayr, 2013, indicative of his importance in larger understandings of the Cham and their role in Southeast Asian history. The Cham have generally been understood as a lowland people who brought highland peoples into their cultural sphere through conquest and trade. Scott (2009 has recently critiqued such simplistic presentations of the 'civilizing' of the highlands, and argued for a more nuanced understanding of highland identity. However, one conspicuous absence in Scott's portrayal is an examination of highland-lowland relations through the biographies of figures such as Po Romé. I argue that an examination of Po Romé's life and its ethnographic and historiographic contexts deepens our understanding of upland peoples and Cham history.

  1. Chemical constiuents from Richardia grandiflora (Cham. & Schltdl. Steud. (Rubiaceae

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    Anna Cláudia de A. Tomaz

    Full Text Available Amongst the different forms of therapy to prevent and cure illnesses, plants have been, undoubtedly, the most utilized ones since the beginning of mankind. Brazil has a great diversity on plants that possess non-researched medicinal potential and are promising sources of therapeutic and pharmacological innovations. The Rubiaceae family is considered the biggest one of the order Gentianales, presenting around 637 genera and 10,700 species. Richardia grandiflora (Cham. & Schltdl. Steud., known popularly as "ervanço", "poaia" or "ipeca-mirim", has ethnopharmacological indications to use as decoction against hemorrhoids and as vermifuge. Aiming at contributing to the chemotaxonomic study of the family Rubiaceae and considering the absence of data in literature about the chemical constitution of the species Richardia grandiflora, the latter was submitted to a phytochemical study to isolate its chemical constituents, through usual chromatographic methods, and after identifying them by means of spectroscopic methods such as ¹H and 13C NMR, with the add of two-dimensional techniques, besides comparison with literature data. Five constituents were isolated through this first phytochemical study with R. grandiflora: a mixture of the steroids beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol, o-hydroxy-benzoic acid, m-methoxy-p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and phaeophitin A, all of them isolated for the first time from the genus Richardia.

  2. Modulation of the norfloxacin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by Cordia verbenaceae DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Edinardo F F; Santos, Karla K A; Falcão-Silva, Vivyanne S; Siqueira-Junior, Jose P; Costa, Jose G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2013-01-01

    Several chemical compounds isolated from natural sources have antibacterial activity and some enhance the antibacterial activity of antibiotics reversing the natural resistance of bacteria to certain antibiotics. In this study, the hexane and methanol extract of Cordia verbenaceae were assessed for antibacterial activity alone and combinated with norfloxacin against the Staphylococcus aureus strain SA1199B. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of extracts was assayed using microdilution assay and the modulatory activity was evaluated using plate diffusion assay. The MIC observed varied between 256 to >1024 μg/ml. However, the antibiotic activity of norfloxacin was enhanced in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of hexane extract of C. verbenaceae (HECV). INTERPRETATIONS & CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that Cordia verbenaceae DC. can be a source of plant derived products with antibiotic modifying activity.

  3. Atividade antimicrobiana de Lippia alba (Mill. N. E. Brown (Verbenaceae

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    Jaciana S. Aguiar

    Full Text Available Lippia alba (Mill. N. E. Brown (Verbenaceae, amplamente distribuída em todo o território brasileiro, é conhecida popularmente como erva cidreira e utilizada na medicina popular como analgésica, febrífuga, antiinflamatória, antigripal e nas afecções hepáticas. Extratos brutos foram preparados a partir de plantas cultivadas, de modo padronizado, em horta medicinal do Laboratório de Fitoterapia da Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária (IPA para a verificação da atividade antimicrobiana, in vitro, pelo método de difusão em disco de papel. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM foi determinada para os extratos que exibiram melhores atividades. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os extratos clorofórmico, acetônico e etanólico da raiz foram ativos frente a Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Candida albicans e Monilia sitophila e os extratos hexânicos, etanólicos e metanólicos das folhas inibiram S. aureus, M. luteus, B. subtilis, M. smegmatis e M. sitophila. A menor concentração inibitória (CIM = 31,2 µg/mL, foi obtida para o extrato clorofórmico da raiz frente a B. subtilis e M. luteus.

  4. The Metric Documentation of Cham Towers in Vietnam by Spherical Photogrammetry

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    Fangi, G.; Malinverni, E. S.; Tassetti, A. N.

    2013-07-01

    The Università Politecnica delle Marche is charged of the study, survey and documentation of the Chan towers in Vietnam. The towers are spread near the coastline from latitude 16° 30', to latitude of 10° 56'. The Champa civilization flourished from 8th century till 17th century produced the Cham towers, places of religious worship. The ancient Cham people created a developed culture expressed in the architecture in the towers, which were Buddhist temples. Roughly there are six different architectonic styles and two different layouts in plan. One lay-out is that one main tower is surrounded by smaller service buildings, like walls, doors, gates; the other layout is a set of three aligned towers. We carried out the documentation with three different techniques, laser scanning, dense point clouds generation with SfM (Structure from Motion) algorithm, and mainly by Panoramic Spherical Photogrammetry (PSP). Laser scanning is indeed the best instrument but sometimes its availability is very limited for different practical and logistic reasons. The point cloud generation produced good results, but it has some problems and limitations of management too. On the other hand PSP is very quick technique in the taking phase, but the restitution is rather slow. PSP is suitable for a good metric documentation, making the Cham tower project the main project of documentation executed with spherical photogrammetry.

  5. Histología de agallas en dos especies de Verbenaceae

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    Eucariz Esther Villazón de Pinzón

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show, by the histological study of the stem of two different species of Verbenaceae, the morphological changes undergone by the plant tissues caused by the Arthropods'larvae. Such larvae induce and organize the morphogenesis of the gall for their own benefit. As the larva is nourished, the plant's responses is to increase the number of cells in the affected organ.

  6. Propriété du sol et domestication de Lippia multiflora (Verbenaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lippia multiflora (Verbenaceae) communement connu sous le nom de « thé de savane », offre une diversité d\\'usages en pharmacopée et en médecine. Toutefois, en dépit d\\'un intérêt grandissant, le thé de savane demeure un produit de cueillette. Dès lors, il apparaît opportun de procéder à sa domestication, dans une ...

  7. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal activities of essential oil from Cordia verbenacea DC leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fabiola F G; Oliveira, Liana G S; Rodrigues, Fábio F G; Saraiva, Manuele E; Almeida, Sheyla C X; Cabral, Mario E S; Campos, Adriana R; Costa, Jose Galberto M

    2012-07-01

    Cordia verbenacea is a Brazilian coastal shrub popularly known as "erva baleeira". The essential oil from fresh leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by CG/MS. The main components were identified as β-caryophyllene (25.4%), bicyclogermacrene (11.3%), δ-cadinene (9.%) and α-pinene (9.5%). In this study, the antimicrobial activity of Cordia verbenacea was evaluated. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil was obtained using the broth microdilution assay (from 512 to 8 μg/ml). The results showed that the essential oil presented fungistatic activity against Candida albicans and Candida krusei and antibacterial activity against Gram-positive strains (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and against multiresistant Gram-negative (Escherichia coli 27), in all tests the MIC was 64 μg/ml. When the essential oil was associated to aminoglycosides (subinhibitory concentrations, MIC/8), a synergic and antagonic activity was verified. The synergic effect was observed to the amikacin association (MIC reduction from 256 mlto 64 μg/ml) in all strains tested. The essential oil of Cordia verbenacea influences the activity of antibiotics and may be used as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against respiratory tract bacterial pathogens.

  8. Evaluation of the antiulcerogenic and analgesic activities of Cordia verbenacea DC. (Boraginaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldão, Erika de Freitas; Witaicenis, Aline; Seito, Leonardo Noboru; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio

    2008-09-02

    Cordia verbenacea is a medicinal plant popularly used in Brazil as anti-inflammatory, antiulcer and anti-rheumatic agent without detailed pharmacological and toxicological studies. The study was aimed to investigate the effects of Cordia verbenacea in antiulcer, analgesic and antioxidant assays, as well as to evaluate its toxic effects and phytochemical profile. Antiulcer activity of plant extract was evaluated using ethanol/HCl, ethanol and piroxican-induced gastric lesions methods. The pH, volume and total acid of gastric juice were determined by pylorus-ligated assay. Analgesic activity was evaluated by writhing, tail-flick and hot-plate tests. Antioxidant activity was determined by in vitro lipoperoxidation assay. Acute toxicity and number of deaths were evaluated by Hippocratic screening. The ethanol leaf extract shows a potent antiulcer activity in the ethanol/HCl and absolute ethanol-induced gastric lesions. The IC(50) value of plant extract on the lipid peroxidation was 76.11mug/ml. Preliminary phytochemical tests were positive for flavonoids, steroids, saponins, fixed acids, alkaloids and phenols. In the analgesic models the extract did not present any activity. Cordial verbenaceae showed a potent antiulcer activity at the dose of 125mg/kg and this effect may be associated with an improvement in stomach antioxidant mechanisms.

  9. Histología de agallas en dos especies de Verbenaceae Histología de agallas en dos especies de Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villazón de Pinzón Eucariz Esther

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available

    El propósito de este trabajo es dar a conocer, mediante el estudio histológico del tallo en dos especies de Verbenaceae, los cambios morfológicos que sufren los tejidos vegetales, ocasionados por las larvas de los Artrópodos. Dichas larvas inducen y dirigen la morfogénesis de la agalla en su propio beneficio. A medida que la larva se nutre, la planta responde aumentando el número de células en el órgano parasitado.

    The purpose of this paper is to show, by the histological study of the stem of two different species of Verbenaceae, the morphological changes undergone by the plant tissues caused by the Arthropods'larvae. Such larvae induce and organize the morphogenesis of the gall for their own benefit. As the larva is nourished, the plant's responses is to increase the number of cells in the affected organ.

  10. Cordia verbenacea and secretion of mast cells in different animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Déborah Mara Costa; Luchini, Ana Carolina; Seito, Leonardo Noboru; Gomes, José Carlos; Crespo-López, María Elena; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio

    2011-05-17

    Different plant species from Cordia genera are used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory medication throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Brazil, Cordia verbenacea is a medicinal plant known as "erva-baleeira". The alcoholic extracts, decoctions and infusions with leaves of C. verbenacea are used in Brazilian traditional medicine for treatment of cough, pneumonia, parasitic diseases and, especially, the inflammatory processes. Anti-inflammatory activity was already demonstrated; however, molecular mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Considering the importance of histamine in early events of inflammation and in allergic diseases, we evaluated the effect of ethanol extract of leaves of C. verbenacea on histamine release (in vitro and in vivo studies) from different types of mast cells induced by chemical agents using several species of rodents. The extraction and quantification of histamine were performed by using an automatic fluorometric continuous flow system. The extract of C. verbenacea (30 μg/ml) reduced the in vitro secretion of histamine from rat mast cells induced by ionophore A23187, concanavalin A and compound 48/80, respectively, to 22.1 ± 2.2%, 24.3 ± 2.5% and 21.4 ± 2.1%. At the same concentration, the extract also inhibited the secretion of histamine from mast cells of guinea pig induced by ionophore A23187 to 33.3 ± 2.2%, and mast cells of hamster induced by ionophore A23187 and concanavalin A to 15.8 ± 2.5% and 10.8 ± 2.6%, respectively. The oral treatment with the extract (300 mg/kg) also inhibited the secretion of histamine induced by A23187 about to 36.3 ± 3.2% in rats. C. verbenacea inhibits the in vitro secretion of histamine from mast cells of different animal species, as well as the secretion of mast cells from animals treated with the extract, which gives not only the proven anti-inflammatory effect of the plant, but also anti-allergic effect, opening new possibilities for future anti

  11. Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties of the essential oil and active compounds from Cordia verbenacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Giselle F; Fernandes, Elizabeth S; da Cunha, Fernanda M; Ferreira, Juliano; Pianowski, Luiz F; Campos, Maria M; Calixto, João B

    2007-03-21

    The anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects of the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea (Boraginaceae) and some of its active compounds were evaluated. Systemic treatment with the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea (300-600mg/kg, p.o.) reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema, myeloperoxidase activity and the mouse oedema elicited by carrageenan, bradykinin, substance P, histamine and platelet-activating factor. It also prevented carrageenan-evoked exudation and the neutrophil influx to the rat pleura and the neutrophil migration into carrageenan-stimulated mouse air pouches. Moreover, Cordia verbenacea oil inhibited the oedema caused by Apis mellifera venom or ovalbumin in sensitized rats and ovalbumin-evoked allergic pleurisy. The essential oil significantly decreased TNFalpha, without affecting IL-1beta production, in carrageenan-injected rat paws. Neither the PGE(2) formation after intrapleural injection of carrageenan nor the COX-1 or COX-2 activities in vitro were affected by the essential oil. Of high interest, the paw edema induced by carrageenan in mice was markedly inhibited by both sesquiterpenic compounds obtained from the essential oil: alpha-humulene and trans-caryophyllene (50mg/kg, p.o.). Collectively, the present results showed marked anti-inflammatory effects for the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea and some active compounds, probably by interfering with TNFalpha production. Cordia verbenacea essential oil or its constituents might represent new therapeutic options for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  12. Protective effect of topical Cordia verbenacea in a rat periodontitis model: immune-inflammatory, antibacterial and morphometric assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Suzana Peres; Barrella, Guilherme Emerson; Casarin, Renato Corrêa Viana; Cirano, Fabiano Ribeiro; Casati, Márcio Zaffalon; Foglio, Mary Ann; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Ribeiro, Fernanda Vieira

    2012-11-21

    This study evaluated the effects of C. verbenacea essential oil topically administered in a rat periodontitis model. Periodontitis was induced on rats in one of the mandibular first molars assigned to receive a ligature. Animals were randomly divided into two groups: a) non-treatment group (NT) (n = 18): animals received 1mL of vehicle; b) C. verbenacea group (C.v.) (n = 18): animals received 5mg/Kg of essential oils isolated from C. verbenacea. The therapies were administered topically 3 times daily for 11 days. Then, the specimens were processed for morphometric analysis of bone loss. The ligatures were used for microbiological assessment of the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia and Porphyromonas gingivalis using PCR. The gingival tissue was collected to Elisa assay of interleukin (IL)-1α and IL-10 levels. Bone loss was inhibited by C. verbenacea when compared to the NT group (p < 0.05). A decrease in the levels of IL-1α and increase in the IL-10 amounts was observed in the C.v. group as compared to NT group (p < 0.05). A lower frequency of P. gingivalis was found in C.v. group (p < 0.05). C. verbenacea essential oil topically administered diminished alveolar bone resorption, promoting a positive local imbalance in the pro/anti-inflammatory system and reducing the frequency of detection of P. gingivalis.

  13. Potentiation of antibiotic activity of aminoglycosides by natural products from Cordia verbenacea DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Edinardo F F; Alves, Erivania F; Silva, Maria K N; Carvalho, Victoria R A; Medeiros, Cassio R; Santos, Francisco A V; Bitu, Vanessa C N; Souza, Celestina E S; Figueredo, Fernando G; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2016-06-01

    Medicinal plants are often the only therapeutic resource for many communities and ethnic groups. Cordia verbenacea DC., "Erva-baleeira," is one of the species of plants currently used to produce a phytotherapeutic product extracted from its leaves. The present study aimed to establish its chemical profile, antibacterial activity and resistance-modulating potential. The C. verbenacea extracts were prepared from fresh leaves using solvents as methanol and hexane. Ethyl Acetate was used for the preparation of the fraction. Phytochemical screening was carried out using HPLC-DAD for determination and quantification of the secondary metabolites present in the fractions. Antibacterial and resistance-modulation assays were performed to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using a microdilution assay. The data were subjected to statistical analysis with two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni posttests. Results of phytochemical prospecting and HPLC analysis of the fractions were in agreement with the literature. The natural products presented moderate antibacterial activity when considering the clinical relevance of a MIC of 256 μg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 512 μg/mL against P. aeruginosa. However, when the fractions were combined with antibiotics we observed a synergic effect, as natural products enhanced the antibacterial effect of aminoglycosides, significantly decreasing the MIC of antibiotics at 12.5%-98.4%. We believe that the data obtained from phytochemical analysis and from antibacterial and resistance modulation assays of C. verbenacea extracts new can open perspectives in the search for new alternatives for the treatment of bacterial infections and stimulate the renewed use of antibiotics with reduced effectiveness due to resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Regeneración in vitro de plantas de Aloysia citriodora Palau (Verbenaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Severin, Cecilia; Bruzzese, Daniela; Di Sapio, Osvaldo; Giubileo, María Graciela; Gattusso, Susana

    2005-01-01

    Las plantas de la familia Verbenaceae llaman la atención de los investigadores no sólo por su alta diversidad botánica y amplia distribución, sino también por su variable uso. La infusión o decocción de las hojas de Aloysia citriodora se utiliza en medicina popular como antiespasmódico, calmante nervioso, expectorante y estomacal. La esencia es una de las más costosas y raras en el mercado de aceites esenciales. Este trabajo propone estimular la regeneración de plantas in vitro de A. citriodo...

  15. "PhD Comics" author Jorge Cham on the power of procrastination

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    From Tuesday, 22 to Friday, 25 September, Jorge Cham visited CERN. The PHD Movie 2 was screened in the Main Auditorium  and the cartoonist also took part in one of the Researchers' Night events.    Jorge Cham in the CERN Control Centre. On the first day, the author of the comic strip Piled Higher and Deeper (PhD Comics) visited the CERN Control Centre, the Synchrocyclotron, the CMS Service Cavern and the ATLAS control room. On Thursday, he had a busy afternoon, starting with signing copies of his books and then giving a talk entitled “The Power of Procrastination” in a packed Main Auditorium. He made the audience laugh by narrating his experience as a graduate student in robotics at Stanford University, recounting how he started drawing PhD Comics and how it rapidly became popular in universities all over the world. He then analysed the frustrations and anxieties commonly experienced by any graduate student, causing...

  16. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Cordia verbenacea extracts obtained by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielin, Eliane M Z; Salvador, Ana A; Riehl, Carlos A S; Smânia, Artur; Smânia, Elza F A; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2009-12-01

    The present study describes the chemical composition and the antibacterial activity of extracts from Cordia verbenacea DC (Borraginaceae), a traditional medicinal plant that grows widely along the southeastern coast of Brazil. The extracts were obtained using different extraction techniques: high-pressure operations and low-pressure methods. The high-pressure technique was applied to obtain C. verbenacea extracts using pure CO(2) and CO(2) with co-solvent at pressures up to 30MPa and temperatures of 30, 40 and 50 degrees C. Organic solvents such as n-hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, acetone and dichloromethane were used to obtain extracts by low-pressure processes. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was also subjected to screening against four strains of bacteria using the agar dilution method. The extraction yields were up to 5.0% w/w and up to 8.6% w/w for supercritical fluid extraction with pure CO(2) and with ethyl acetate as co-solvent, respectively, while the low-pressure extraction indicates yields up to 24.0% w/w in the soxhlet extraction using water and aqueous mixture with 50% ethanol as solvents. The inhibitory activity of the extracts in gram-positive bacteria was significantly higher than in gram-negative. The quantification and the identification of the extracts recovered were accomplished using GC/MS analysis. The most important components identified in the extract were artemetin, beta-sitosterol, alpha-humulene and beta-caryophyllene, among others.

  17. Estudo farmacognóstico das raízes de Jacaranda decurrens Cham. (carobinha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estabelece parâmetros farmacognósticos para as raízes de Jacaranda decurrens Cham., Bignoniaceae, conhecida na medicina popular como carobinha. Características morfológicas e histológicas, prospecção fitoquímica, teor de cinzas e de açúcares redutores são descritos. Encontrou-se presença de esteróides/triterpenos, açúcares redutores, amido, mucilagem e saponinas. O teor de cinzas totais foi de 2,21%, e insolúveis em ácido de 0,63%; a umidade, de 6,42% e o teor de açúcares redutores foi de 2,77%.

  18. Estudo farmacognóstico das raízes de Jacaranda decurrens Cham. (carobinha)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,T.B.; Netto,H.J.C. Bezerra; Xavier,M.A.; Prado,D.S.; Garrote,C.F.D.; Asquieri,E.R.; Rezende,M.H.; Ferreira,H. D.; Paula,J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Este trabalho estabelece parâmetros farmacognósticos para as raízes de Jacaranda decurrens Cham., Bignoniaceae, conhecida na medicina popular como carobinha. Características morfológicas e histológicas, prospecção fitoquímica, teor de cinzas e de açúcares redutores são descritos. Encontrou-se presença de esteróides/triterpenos, açúcares redutores, amido, mucilagem e saponinas. O teor de cinzas totais foi de 2,21%, e insolúveis em ácido de 0,63%; a umidade, de 6,42% e o teor de açúcares reduto...

  19. Morphology Of The Dispersion Unit And Germination Of Cordia Sellowiana Cham. And Cordia Myxa L. [morfologia Da Unidade De Dispersão E Germinação De Cordia Sellowiana Cham. E Cordia Myxa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Barroso I.C.E.; Oliveira F.; Ciarelli D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Cordia sellowiana Cham, and Cordia myxa L. (Boraginaceae Jussieu) had their dispersion units studied, with emphasis on their morphology and seed germination process. The fruits from both Cordia sellowiana and Cordia myxa are of the drupoid nuculanium type. The protrusion of the primary root in the former species occurs through a pyrene longitudinal fissure; in the latter it is one through an opening in the operculum. In both species, seed germination is of the epigel phanerocotylar type. The ...

  20. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea from the Venezuelan Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meccia, Gina; Rojas, Luis B; Velasco, Judith; Díaz, Tulia; Usubillaga, Alfredo; Arzola, Juan Carmona; Ramos, Sulymar

    2009-08-01

    The essential oil of Cordia verbenacea D.C. (Boraginaceae) that grows in Mérida-Venezuela was obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of the plant, yielding 0.21%. The oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Thirty one components which made up 94.3% of the oil were identified. The most abundant constituents found were: tricyclene (23.9%), bicyclogermacrene (11.7%), germacrene D (9.9%) and beta-caryophyllene (8.2%). Antibacterial activity determination was carried out according to the disc diffusion assay. Activity against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, at a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 170 microg/mL and 200 microg/mL, was found.

  1. Development of Microsatellites for Verbenoxylum reitzii (Verbenaceae, a Tree Endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica A. Thode

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for Verbenoxylum reitzii (Verbenaceae, a tree endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, to investigate their usefulness in population genetic studies. The loci were tested for cross-amplification in the related genera Recordia and Duranta. Methods and Results: Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated from an enriched library of V. reitzii and characterized. The primers were tested on 60 individuals from three populations of this species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 11, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.0 to 1.0 and from 0.088 to 0.758, respectively. Ten loci successfully amplified in R. boliviana and all failed in D. vestita. Conclusions: Our results suggest the usefulness of the microsatellite loci developed here to access genetic variability for phylogeographic and population genetic studies in V. reitzii, which are important for the conservation of this rare species.

  2. Aqueous extracts of Lippia turbinata and Aloysia citriodora (Verbenaceae): assessment of antioxidant capacity and DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, Erika; Nigro, Marcela M López; Reides, Claudia G; Llesuy, Susana; Ricco, Rafael A; Wagner, Marcelo L; Gurni, Alberto A; Carballo, Marta A

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to make a contribution to the knowledge of aqueous extracts of Lippia turbinata and Aloysia citriodora (Verbenaceae; infusion and decoction) in relation with the establishment of its antioxidant activity and lack of DNA damage, for its potential use in therapeutics. The cytogenotoxic profile was evaluated through genotoxic biomarkers such as mitotic index, cellular proliferation kinetics, sister chromatid exchanges, single-cell gel electrophoresis assay, and micronucleus test in human peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures. No statistical differences were found (P > .05) between control and exposed cultures, even between both aqueous extracts. The total antioxidant capacity was shown to be higher in the decoction than in the infusion and both aqueous extracts protected against protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation, the decoction being more efficient than the infusion (P < .005). These results suggest the safe use of these medicinal plants as chemoecologic agents in therapeutics.

  3. Effects of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) on general reproductive performance and teratology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Fernanda B; Jacobus, Daniela; Carvalho, Kelly; Mello, João R B

    2005-03-15

    Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) possesses several medicinal properties and it is used in folk medicine with antipyretic, antimicrobial and antimutagenic properties. This plant is one of the 10 most noxious weeds in the world. Lantana poisoning have caused severe economic losses and was the major cause of livestock mortality and morbidity. In this article we report the effects of hydroalcoholic extract from Lantana camara var. aculeata leaves on fertility, general reproductive performance and teratology in the rat. The data showed that the extract interfered in the frequency of fetal skeleton anomalies from dams treated with the extract and induced embryotoxicity as indicated by post-implantation loss, without any signs of maternal toxicity. The other parameters evaluated did not suggest modifications.

  4. Insecticidal and insect-repellent activities of essential oils from Verbenaceae and Anacardiaceae against Rhizopertha dominica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzi, Verónica S; Murrayb, Ana P; Ferrero, Adriana A

    2009-09-01

    Essential oils extracted from leaves of Aloysia polystachya and A. citriodora (Verbenaceae) and from leaves and fruits of Schinus molle var. areira (Anacardiaceae) were tested for their repellent and toxic activities against adults of Rhizopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Topical application and filter paper assays were employed for contact toxicity studies; filter paper impregnation was also used for fumigant and repellent assays. In topical tests A. polystachya was as effective as S. molle leaves. In the case of repellent assays, A. citriodora was the most effective oil based on the class scale. A. polystachya was the most toxic plant on contact toxicity by filter paper assay (LC50 26.6 mg/cm2). Fumigant toxicity was only evaluated with fruits and leaves of S. molle, and no significant differences were found between them. Published data are included to compare the fumigant toxicity of S. molle with that of A. citridora and A. polystachya.

  5. Uso popular de espécies medicinais da família Verbenaceae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.B. SANTOS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Com o presente trabalho objetivou-se realizar um levantamento bibliográfico acerca das espécies da família Verbenaceae utilizadas na medicina popular nas diversas regiões do Brasil. Os trabalhos acadêmicos utilizados para elaboração desta pesquisa foram extraídos de revistas indexadas junto ao Scielo publicadas no período de 2000 a 2012, sendo também realizada busca no Google acadêmico. Os dados foram compilados e organizados em ordem alfabética por espécies, seguidas do nome popular, forma de uso, parte usada, indicações e área de estudo. Foram encontrados um total de 85 publicações indicando 55 espécies distribuídas em oito gêneros. A espécie com maior número de citações foi Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Br., com 56 registros. Das plantas descritas na literatura, a folha foi o órgão mais citado como parte usada e o chá, o modo de preparo mais utilizado. Dentre as categorias de indicações medicinais, as plantas que mereceram destaque foram às relacionadas ao tratamento das doenças do sistema respiratório e digestório. Constatou-se que o Rio de Janeiro foi o estado que contou com o maior número de publicações na área. O uso de plantas medicinais está cada vez mais presente entre as diversas comunidades. Com isso, as informações contidas neste trabalho servirão para auxiliar na elaboração de banco de dados sobre o modo de uso das plantas pertencentes à família Verbenaceae com potencial medicinal encontradas nos Estados brasileiros.

  6. Biomedical properties and potentiality of Lippia microphylla Cham. and its essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Rolim Braun Sim and otilde;es

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lippia microphylla Cham. (Verbanaceae is an endemic underexploited Brazilian vegetal. This work reviewed the biological potentialities of Lippia microphylla, emphasizing the properties of essential oils (EOs and analyzed scientific indicators about genus Lippia and L. microphylla. Databases from 1948 to the present were searched and a software (Vantage Point 7.1 associated with Derwent Innovation Index was used to identify the indicators of the genus Lippia, and biological activities and compounds in the L. macrophylla species. Ethnopharmacological records report use of L. microphylla leaves to treat gastrointestinal disorders, influenza, bronchitis, cough, nasal congestion and sinusitis during vaporization, whose aromatic volatile oils are rich in monoterpenes, especially cineole, terpineol and thymol. Other EOs have larvicidal activity on Aedes aegypti larvae, and antifungal, antibacterial and cytotoxic and antitumor action on human and murine cancer cells. Brazil is the country with more articles about Lippia species, but it deposited only 9 patents since 1993. Most of the publications about L. microphylla are concentrated in food and chemical sciences. This bioprospection helps to choice areas of interest for capital investment and to give support for Brazilian Institutions to establish cooperation and improve technological impact at the point of view of creation and innovation. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 256-263

  7. Percepción de la imagen corporal en Embera Chamí: dimensiones corporales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Salazar-Duque

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Los embera chamí de Cristianía integran una comunidad ubicada en la jurisdicción de Jardín, suroriente antioqueño. Este estudio integra las concepciones que la comunidad tiene de su cuerpo y la percepción de la imagen corporal. Se realizó estudios antropológicos que evidencian la relación entre la percepción del cuerpo sentido y vivido, la prevención y el seguimiento de las recomendaciones preventivas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar en hombres y mujeres cómo autoperciben las dimensiones corporales. Se diseñó un estudio que comprendiera la observación etnográfica y entrevistas, combinando la información cualitativa con la información cuantitativa y la medición por antropometría del tamaño y forma corporal. De acuerdo a los resultados, la percepción del Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC es muy similar al de otras sociedades no indígenas, ya que los hombres tienden a subestimar su IMC y las mujeres a sobrestimarlo. Es prevalente el aumento de peso con relación a la edad en mujeres y el patrón dietario.

  8. Insecticidal Properties of a Highly Potent Wax Isolated from Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Díaz Napal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham. (Bignoniaceae led to the isolation of a natural wax with anti-insect activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Noctuidae and Epilachna paenulata (Coleptera. The compound was identified spectroscopically as an ester of a C27 fatty acid and a C25 alcohol, pentacosyl heptacosanoate (1. The effective doses of 1 for 50% feeding inhibition (ED50 of S. frugiperda and E. paenulata were 0.82 and 8.53 µg/cm2, respectively, in a choice test, while azadirachtin showed ED50 of 0.10 and 0.59 µg/cm2, respectively. In a no-choice test, both insects refused to feed on leaves treated with 1 at doses of 0.1 µg/cm2 or greater inhibiting larval growth and dramatically reducing survival. The lethal doses 50 (LD50 of 1 were 0.39 and 0.68 µg/cm2 for S. frugiperda and E. paenulata, respectively. These results indicate that 1 has potential for development as botanical insecticides. Similar esters might be obtainable in large quantities as many edible crops produce wax esters that are discarded during food processing. Research on these materials could lead to the detection of similar waxes with insecticidal activity.

  9. Insecticidal Properties of a Highly Potent Wax Isolated from Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Napal, Georgina; Carpinella, María C; Palacios, Sara M

    2016-08-11

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham. (Bignoniaceae) led to the isolation of a natural wax with anti-insect activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Noctuidae) and Epilachna paenulata (Coleptera). The compound was identified spectroscopically as an ester of a C27 fatty acid and a C25 alcohol, pentacosyl heptacosanoate (1). The effective doses of 1 for 50% feeding inhibition (ED50) of S. frugiperda and E. paenulata were 0.82 and 8.53 µg/cm², respectively, in a choice test, while azadirachtin showed ED50 of 0.10 and 0.59 µg/cm², respectively. In a no-choice test, both insects refused to feed on leaves treated with 1 at doses of 0.1 µg/cm² or greater inhibiting larval growth and dramatically reducing survival. The lethal doses 50 (LD50) of 1 were 0.39 and 0.68 µg/cm² for S. frugiperda and E. paenulata, respectively. These results indicate that 1 has potential for development as botanical insecticides. Similar esters might be obtainable in large quantities as many edible crops produce wax esters that are discarded during food processing. Research on these materials could lead to the detection of similar waxes with insecticidal activity.

  10. Leishmanicidal activity of carvacrol-rich essential oil from Lippia sidoides Cham

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    Paulo A Farias-Junior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishamaniasis is a disease that affects more than 2 million people worldwide, whose causative agent is Leishmania spp. The current therapy for leishmaniasis is far from satisfactory. All available drugs, including pentavalent antimony, require parenteral administration and are potentially toxic. Moreover, an increase in clinical resistance to these drugs has been reported. In this scenario, plant essential oils used traditionally in folk medicine are emerging as alternative sources for chemotherapeutic compounds. In this study, in vitro leishmanicidal effects of a thymol- and a carvacrol-rich essential oil from leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. were investigated. The essential oils were extracted and their constituents were characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Both essential oils showed significant activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi. However, we found that carvacrol-rich essential oil was more effective, with IC50/72 h of 54.8 μg/mL compared to 74.1 μg/mL for thymol-rich oil. Carvacrol also showed lower IC50 than thymol. Our data suggest that L. sidoides essential oils are indeed promising sources of leishmanicidal compounds.

  11. Leishmanicidal activity of carvacrol-rich essential oil from Lippia sidoides Cham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias-Junior, Paulo A; Rios, Marcos C; Moura, Tauanny A; Almeida, Roque P; Alves, Pericles B; Blank, Arie F; Fernandes, Roberta P M; Scher, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Leishamaniasis is a disease that affects more than 2 million people worldwide, whose causative agent is Leishmania spp. The current therapy for leishmaniasis is far from satisfactory. All available drugs, including pentavalent antimony, require parenteral administration and are potentially toxic. Moreover, an increase in clinical resistance to these drugs has been reported. In this scenario, plant essential oils used traditionally in folk medicine are emerging as alternative sources for chemotherapeutic compounds. In this study, in vitro leishmanicidal effects of a thymol- and a carvacrol-rich essential oil from leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. were investigated. The essential oils were extracted and their constituents were characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Both essential oils showed significant activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi. However, we found that carvacrol-rich essential oil was more effective, with IC50/72 h of 54.8 μg/mL compared to 74.1 μg/mL for thymol-rich oil. Carvacrol also showed lower IC50 than thymol. Our data suggest that L. sidoides essential oils are indeed promising sources of leishmanicidal compounds.

  12. Experimental results for the extraction of essential oil from Lippia sidoides cham. using pressurized carbon dioxide

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    Sousa EMBD.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The odoriferous species Lippia sidoides Cham. is abundant in the Brazilian Northeast. Its essential oil possesses antiseptic activity due to the presence of thymol. In this work, thermodynamic and kinetic data were experimentally determined for the CO2 + L. sidoides system. Solubility was determined using the dynamic method at pressures of 66.7 and 78.5 bar and temperatures of 283.15, 288.15, 293.15, 295.15, and 298.15 K. SFE kinetic data were obtained at 288.15 K and 66.7 bar. The composition of the multicomponent solute mixture was determined by GC-MS and compared to the composition of both the volatile oil obtained by steam distillation and the oleoresin obtained using ethanol. The SFE process yield was higher than the yield of either the steam distillation or the ethanol extraction. The solubilities were correlated using the Peng-Robinson equation of state with one binary interaction parameter for the attractive term, considering the essential oil as a pseudo-component. Sovová?s model quantitatively described the overall extraction curve.

  13. Biological Activities and Chemical Characterization of Cordia verbenacea DC. as Tool to Validate the Ethnobiological Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Edinardo Fagner Ferreira; Alves, Erivânia Ferreira; Santos, Beatriz Sousa; Sobral de Souza, Celestina Elba; de Alencar Ferreira, João Victor; Santos de Lavor, Anne Karyzia Lima; Figueredo, Fernando Gomes; Ferreira de Lima, Luciene; Vieira Dos Santos, Francisco Antônio; Neves Peixoto, Flórido Sampaio; Viana Colares, Aracélio; Augusti Boligon, Aline; Saraiva, Rogério de Aquino; Athayde, Margareth Linde; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Alencar Menezes, Irwin Rose; Douglas Melo Coutinho, Henrique; da Costa, José Galberto Martins

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of medicinal plants is often the only therapeutic resource of many communities and ethnic groups. "Erva-baleeira", Cordia verbenacea DC., is one of the species of plants currently exploited for the purpose of producing a phytotherapeutic product extracted from its leaves. In Brazil, its major distribution is in the region of the Atlantic Forest and similar vegetation. The crude extract is utilized in popular cultures in the form of hydroalcoholic, decoctions and infusions, mainly as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. The aim of the present study was to establish a chemical and comparative profile of the experimental antibacterial activity and resistance modifying activity with ethnopharmacological reports. Phytochemical prospecting and HPLC analysis of the extract and fractions were in agreement with the literature with regard to the presence of secondary metabolites (tannins and flavonoids). The extract and fraction tested did not show clinically relevant antibacterial activity, but a synergistic effect was observed when combined with antibiotic, potentiating the antibacterial effect of aminoglycosides. We conclude that tests of antibacterial activity and modulating the resistance presented in this work results confirm the ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological information, serving as a parameter in the search for new alternatives for the treatment of diseases.

  14. Validated HPTLC Method for Quantification of Luteolin and Apigenin in Premna mucronata Roxb., Verbenaceae

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    Nayan G. Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, and precise high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method was developed for quantitative estimation of luteolin and apigenin in Premna mucronata Roxb., family Verbenaceae. Separation was performed on silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates using toluene : ethyl acetate : formic acid (6 : 4 : 0.3 as mobile phase for elution of markers from extract. The determination was carried out in fluorescence mode using densitometric absorbance-reflection mode at 366 nm for both luteolin and apigenin. The methanolic extract of Premna mucronata was found to contain 10.2 mg/g % luteolin and 0.165 mg/g % of apigenin. The method was validated in terms of linearity, LOD and LOQ, accuracy, precision, and specificity. The calibration curve was found to be linear between 200 and 1000 ng/band for luteolin and 50 and 250 ng/band for apigenin. For luteolin and apigenin, the limit of detection was found to be 42.6 ng/band and 7.97 ng/band while the limit of quantitation was found to be 129.08 ng/band and 24.155 ng/band, respectively. This developed validated method is capable of quantifying and resolving luteolin and apigenin and can be applicable for routine analysis of extract and plant as a whole.

  15. Photoacoustic Analysis of the Penetration Kinetics of Cordia verbenacea DC in Human Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, S. S.; Barja, P. R.

    2012-11-01

    Phonophoresis consists of the utilization of ultrasound radiation associated to pharmacological agents in order to enhance transdermal penetration of applied drugs. It is a widely employed resource in physiotherapy practice, normally associated with anti-inflammatory drugs, such as Acheflan. This drug was developed in Brazil from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea DC, a native plant of the Brazilian southern coast. In previous studies, the photoacoustic (PA) technique proved effective in the study of the penetration kinetics of topically applied products and in the evaluation of drug delivery after phonophoresis application. The present work aimed to evaluate the penetration kinetics of Acheflan in human skin, employing in vivo PA measurements after massage application or phonophoresis application. Ten volunteers (aged between 18 and 30 years) took part in the study. Time evolution of the PA signal was fitted to a Boltzmann curve, S-shaped. After statistical analysis, PA measurements have shown drug penetration for both application forms, but drug delivery was more evident after phonophoresis application, with a characteristic penetration time of less than 15 min for the stratum corneum.

  16. Palinotaxonomia de representantes das tribos Coussareeae. Benth. Hook. F. e Psychotrieae Cham. & Schtdl (Rubiaceae Juss.) ocorrentes no Sudeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle Reboredo Menezes Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Rubiaceae Juss. é a quarta família em número de espécies entre as Angiospermas no Mundo e no Neotrópico, apresentando grande diversidade de espécies com representantes na maioria dos biomas. No Brasil são registrados 124 gêneros e 1.395 espécies sendo considerada uma das principais famílias da flora brasileira. O presente trabalho trata do estudo palinológico de 61 espécies da família Rubiaceae subordinadas às tribos Coussareeae Benth. & Hook.f e Psychotrieae Cham. & Schltdl. o...

  17. Avaliação do óleo essencial de Aloysia sellowii (Briquet moldenke (Verbenaceae do Sul do Brasil Evaluation of the essential oil of Aloysia sellowii (Briquet moldenke (Verbenaceae from South Brazil

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    Marcelo Rossato

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This work was performed with the aim of evaluating the chemical variability among samples of Aloysia sellowii (Verbenaceae collected in different geographical regions as well as the application of supercritical CO2 for obtaining essential oil. Thus, samples were collected in different localities and oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and supercritical CO2. Results showed existence of two chimiotypes in the species (cineole and sabinene. The supercritical CO2 extraction process was appropriate for extraction of A. sellowii essential oil at 40 ºC, 110 bar, 2 mL/min of flow and 10 min of extraction time.

  18. Estudo farmacobotânico das folhas de Tocoyena formosa (Cham. & Schltdl. K.Schum. (Rubiaceae

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    Victor Peçanha de Miranda Coelho

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo um estudo farmacobotânico das folhas de Tocoyena formosa (Cham. & Schltdl. K. Schum., espécie usada na medicina popular do Nordeste do Brasil no tratamento das dores reumáticas. Realizaram-se estudos morfológicos para a identificação da espécie e para a morfodiagnose macroscópica. Cortes paradérmicos e transversais do pecíolo e da lâmina foliar, à mão livre, foram corados com safranina ou com uma mistura de safranina e azul de astra para a morfodiagnose microscópica. A lâmina foliar é subcoriácea, oblongo-lanceolada a elíptica, densamente tomentosa na face abaxial. T. formosa possui folhas hipoestomáticas, com estômatos do tipo paracítico; epiderme unisseriada com células de paredes poligonais; mesofilo dorsiventral com idioblastos cristalíferos, esparsos, isolados ou aos pares, no estrato superior do parênquima paliçádico; tricomas simples são evidentes na epiderme, em ambas faces. A vascularização é formada por dois feixes assessórios na posição adaxial e um feixe central em arco com as terminações invaginadas, na porção proximal do pecíolo, ou em forma de "V-fechado" na porção distal e na nervura principal. A morfologia das estruturas vegetativas e reprodutivas associada à anatomia do mesofilo e do sistema vascular, em conjunto, são caracteres distintivos para esta espécie.

  19. Does the essential oil of Lippia sidoides Cham. (pepper-rosmarin) affect its endophytic microbial community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Thais Freitas; Vollú, Renata Estebanez; Jurelevicius, Diogo; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-02-07

    Lippia sidoides Cham., also known as pepper-rosmarin, produces an essential oil in its leaves that is currently used by the pharmaceutical, perfumery and cosmetic industries for its antimicrobial and aromatic properties. Because of the antimicrobial compounds (mainly thymol and carvacrol) found in the essential oil, we believe that the endophytic microorganisms found in L. sidoides are selected to live in different parts of the plant. In this study, the endophytic microbial communities from the stems and leaves of four L. sidoides genotypes were determined using cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent approaches. In total, 145 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated and further grouped using either ERIC-PCR or BOX-PCR, resulting in 76 groups composed of different genera predominantly belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria. The endophytic microbial diversity was also analyzed by PCR-DGGE using 16S rRNA-based universal and group-specific primers for total bacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria and 18S rRNA-based primers for fungi. PCR-DGGE profile analysis and principal component analysis showed that the total bacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and fungi were influenced not only by the location within the plant (leaf vs. stem) but also by the presence of the main components of the L. sidoides essential oil (thymol and/or carvacrol) in the leaves. However, the same could not be observed within the Actinobacteria. The data presented here are the first step to begin shedding light on the impact of the essential oil in the endophytic microorganisms in pepper-rosmarin.

  20. Tibouchina sellowiana (Cham. Cogn,: ROOTING, ANATOMY AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSES IN THE FOUR SEASONS

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    Michele Fernanda Bortolini

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work tried to verify the effects of application of different concentration of indolebutyric acid (IBA in talc in solution, in the rooting of cutting of Tibouchina sellowiana (Cham. Cogn.  collected in the four seasons, as well as its anatomical and biochemical variation. The semiharwood cuttings were treated with 0, 1500 and 3000 mg L-1 indolebutyric acid (IBA, in powder and alchoolic solutions. After 65 days in a greenhouse, rooting percentage, length and number of roots, cutting with callus percentage and survival, were evaluated. The use of the IBA was efficient in the induction radicial, being indifferent the form in which it was applied. The most promising stations in the formation of the system radicial were the spring (78,75% with 3000 mg L-1 or mg kg-1 IBA and the summer (63,12 %  with 1500 mg L-1 or mg kg-1 IBA.  (82,50% with 3000 mg kg-1 IBA. Considering the cutting in the base of the stakes, in the moment of the cutting, no possible anatomical barrier or structural difference were detected so that it should promoted variations in the answers of the rooting uring the four seasons. Biochemical analyses done from the cuttings collected in the four seasons revealed that the largest concentrations of total sugars were obtained in the winter (83,21 mg g-1 and in the autumn (72,79 mg g-1. The same stations also presented the largest protein concentrations (4,69 and 3,95 mg g-1 respectively.

  1. Antibacterial activity and chemical composition of essential oil of Lippia microphylla Cham =Atividade antibacteriana e composição química do óleo essencial de Lippia microphylla Cham

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    Fabiola Fernandes Galvão Rodrigues

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the fresh leaves of Lippia microphylla Cham. was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Major constituents of the oil were 1.8-cineole (18.12%, ƒÒ-ocimene (15.20%, bicyclogermacrene (11.63% and caryophyllene oxide (8.32%. Antimicrobial activity of the oil against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was determined by gel diffusion method. The oil showed good antibacterial activity against Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogenes and very good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.O oleo essencial das folhas frescas de Lippia microphylla Cham. foi obtido por hidrodestilacao e caracterizado por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas (CG-EM. O constituinte majoritario do oleo foi 1.8-cineol (18,12%, ƒÒ-ocimeno (15,20%, bicyclogermacreno (11,63% e oxido de caryophylleno (8,32%. A atividade antimicrobiana do oleo frente as bacterias Gram-positivas e Gramnegativas foi determinada pelo metodo de difusao em gel. O oleo apresentou uma boa atividade antibacteriana frente a Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli e Streptococcus pyogenes sendo o melhor resultado frente a Staphylococcus aureus.

  2. Aplicación de parámetros cuantitativos en el estudio de Aloysia citrodora Palau (Verbenaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, Roxana A.; Bassols, Graciela B.; Gurni, Alberto Angel

    2005-01-01

    Aloysia citrodora Palau (Verbenaceae) es vulgarmente conocida como "cedrón", "hierba Luisa" y "poleo de Castilla". Las hojas se emplean en forma de infusión como digestivas, sedantes, carminativas y tónicas. El objetivo de este trabajo es estimar los índices de empalizada, de venación y de estomas como parámetro cuantitativo para el control de calidad, especialmente para hojas fragmentadas. El método empleado es una diafanización con hidrato de cloral y posterior tinción con safranina. Los re...

  3. RESPUESTAS FENOTÍPICAS DE Lippia alba Y Lippia origanoides (VERBENACEAE) A LA DISPONIBILIDAD DE AGUA EN EL SUELO

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo Parra Andres Alejandro; Rodriguez Lopez Nelson Facundo

    2008-01-01

    La capacidad de un genotipo particular de producir diferentes fenotipos es conocido como plasticidad fenotípica (PF). Este trabajo evaluó la PF a través de la ontogenia vegetativa en dos especies de la familia Verbenaceae, Lippia alba ampliamente distribuida en habitats favorables y Lippia origanoides ampliamente distribuida en habitats con bajo disponibilidad de recursos. Se evaluó si la PF está correlacionada con distribución ecologica, en respuesta al contenido relativo de agua en el suelo...

  4. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae and Synergistic Effect of the Aminoglycosides Gentamicin and Amikacin

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    Erlânio O. Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae were subjected to hydrodistillation, and the essential oil extracted was examined with respect to chemical composition, antibacterial and antibiotic modifying activity by gaseous contact. Among the 25 identified components, bicyclogermacrene (26.1%, β-caryophyllene (24.4%, germacrene D (19.2% and valecene (12.0% were the main constituents. The essential oil volatile constituents inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC of 1 and > 1 mg/L, respectively. The activity of the antibiotic amikacin was increased by 65% against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa after contact with the volatile components.

  5. Karyotype analysis, DNA content and molecular screening in Lippia alba (Verbenaceae

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    Patrícia M.O. Pierre

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic analyses, of pollen viability, nuclear DNA content and RAPD markers were employed to study three chemotypes of Lippia alba (Mill. (Verbenaceae in order to understand the genetic variation among them. Different ploidy levels and mixoploid individuals were observed. This work comprises the first report of different chromosome numbers (cytotypes in L. alba. The chromosome numbers of La2-carvone and La3-linalool chemotypes suggested that they are polyploids. Flow cytometric analysis showed an increase of nuclear DNA content that was not directly proportional to ploidy level variation. A cluster analysis based on RAPD markers revealed that La3-linalool shares genetic markers with La1-citral and La2-carvone. The analysis showed that the majority of genetic variation of La3-linalool could be a consequence of ixoploidy. ur data indicates that sexual reproduction aong those three chemotypes is unlikely and suggests the beginning of reproductive isolation. The results demonstrated that chromosome analysis, nuclear DNA content estimation and RAPD markers constitute excellent tools for detecting genetic variation among L. alba chemotypes.Análises citogenéticas, de viabilidade do pólen, do conteúdo de DNA nuclear e marcadores RAPD foram empregadas no estudo de três quimiotipos de Lippia alba (Mill. (Verbenaceae visando contribuir para o entendimento da variação genética entre os mesmos. Diferentes níveis de ploidia e indivíduos mixoploides foram observados. Este trabalho compreende o primeiro relato de diferentes números cromossômicos (citótipos em L. alba. Os números cromossômicos dos quimiotipos La2-carvona e La3-linalol sugere que eles seja poliploides. A análise da citometria de fluxo mostrou um aumento do conteúdo de DNA nuclear que não foi diretamente proporcional à variação no nível de ploidia. A análise de agrupamento baseada nos marcadores RAPD demonstrou que La3-linalol compartilha marcadores genéticos com La1

  6. Cinética de secagem de folhas de erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea DC.

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    A.L.D. Goneli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a cinética de secagem das folhas de erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea DC. bem como ajustar diferentes modelos matemáticos aos valores experimentais de razão de umidade. As folhas de erva baleeira foram colhidas com teor de água inicial de 75% b.u., sendo submetidas à secagem sob condições controladas de temperatura (40, 50, 60 e 70°C, até o teor de água aproximado de 10% b.u.. Aos dados experimentais foram ajustados oito modelos matemáticos citados na literatura específica e utilizados para a representação do processo de secagem de produtos agrícolas. Com base nos resultados obtidos pôde-se concluir que o modelo de Midilli é o que melhor representa a cinética de secagem das folhas de erva baleeira. O aumento da temperatura do ar de secagem promoveu maior taxa de remoção de água do produto. O coeficiente de difusão efetivo aumenta com a elevação da temperatura, sendo que sua relação com a temperatura de secagem pode ser descrita pela equação de Arrhenius. A energia de ativação para a difusão líquida durante a secagem das folhas de erva baleeira foi de 62,89 kJ mol-1 .

  7. The Verbenaceae, collected in Papua by L. J. Brass for the Archbold Expedition. (American Museum of Natural History), 1933—1934

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, Eva; Lam, H.J.

    1936-01-01

    Mr. BRASS’S New Guinea collection has yielded valuable data to our knowledge of the Verbenaceae. He discovered one new genus (Archboldia), 3 new species (Clerodendron Brassii, C. populneum and Premna inaequilateralis) and some interesting additions to the area’s of earlier described species, among

  8. NÚMERO CROMOSSÔMICO DE Lippia gracilis Schauer (VERBENACEAE OCORRENTES NO ESTADO DO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE, BRASIL

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    LUIS EDUARDO DE SOUSA SOARES

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Lippia (Verbenaceae comprises about 200 species of pantropical distribution. Lippia gracilis Schauer, popularly known as the mountain balm, is an aromatic plant, native of northeastern Brazil, used in folk medicine as an antiseptic and to treat dermatitis. Although cytogenetic serve as a tool in taxonomy rate, cytogenetical studies of genus Lippia are restricted. Given the above, the present study aimed to determine, at the first time, the chromosome number of copies of L. gracilis, and thereby contribute to a better taxonomic understanding of this genus. In this sense root tips collected from newly planted specimens were pretreated with a solution of 2mM 8-hydroxyquinoline for 4 hours, fixed in Carnoy 3:1 (ethanol: acetic acid for 24 hours and stored in the same fixative for later analysis. The roots were hydrolyzed in 5N HCl for 20 minutes and the slides, prepared by squashing in acetic acid (45% and stained with 2% Giemsa. The best metaphases were photographed and pointed to the chromosome number 2n = 24. Moreover, were observed metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes. Because there are several chromosome numbers in the genus, from n=10 to n=30, and as the same is little known cytogenetically, f more comprehensive cytogenetic studies are necessary, involving a larger number of species, so these data may help to clarify taxonomic inconsistencies in the family Verbenaceae.

  9. The safety of Homnawakod herbal formula containing Aristolochia tagala Cham. in Wistar rats

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    Tripatara Pinpat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A dried root of Aristolochia tagala Cham. (ATC is often used in Thai traditional medicine as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory agent, muscle relaxant, appetite-enhancing agent, and analeptic. Homnawakod, an important herbal recipe, originally contains ATC in its formula, however, some Aristolochia species have been reported to cause nephrotoxicity due to aristolochic acid (AA and its derivatives, resulting in ATC removal from all formulae. Therefore, this study investigates the chemical profiles of ATC, the original (HNK+ATC and the present Homnawakod Ayurved Siriraj Herbal Formulary™ (HNK, and investigates whether they could cause nephrotoxicity or aggravate LPS-induced organ injuries in vivo. Methods HPLC and LC/MS were used for chemical profile study. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups in which the rats were intragastrically administered distilled water (2 groups, ATC (10 or 30 mg/kg, HNK+ATC (540 or 1,620 mg/kg, or HNK (1,590 mg/kg for 21 days. A positive control group was administered with single dose 100 mg/kg standard AA-I intragastrically at day 1. Serum creatinine and urea were measured at baseline and at 7, 14 and 21 days of the treatment. On day 22, a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced endotoxemia was used. One-way and two-way analyses of variance were performed and a P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results The similarity of the HPLC chromatograms of HNK+ATC and HNK could suggest that the qualities of both formulae are nearly the same in terms of chemical profile. The amount of AA-I found in ATC is 0.24%w/w. All experimental groups exhibited similar levels of serum urea at baseline and 7 and 14 days of the treatment. At 21 days, rats received AA exhibited a significant increase in serum urea, whereas the others did not exhibit such toxicity. On day 22, there were no significant changes in LPS-induced renal and liver dysfunction, or LPS-induced mean arterial

  10. Cordiamyia globosa gen.n. e sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associado com Cordia Verbenacea DC. (Boraginaceae no Brasil Cordiamyia globosa gen.n. and sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Cordia verbekacea DC. (Boraginaceae in Brazil

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    Valéria Cid Maia

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordiamyia globosa gen.n., sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associated with Cordia verbenacea (Boraginaceae, in Brazil, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall.

  11. Estabelecimento de alecrim-pimenta in vitro In vitro establishment of Lippia sidoides Cham

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    Andréa S da Costa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. é um arbusto nativo da região do semi-árido do nordeste brasileiro, cujo óleo essencial possui elevado valor comercial devido aos seus constituintes majoritários, o timol e o carvacrol, de potente propriedade antimicrobiana e anti-séptica. Avaliou-se os efeitos de concentrações e tempos de imersão em hipoclorito de sódio, de meios de cultivo e da utilização de antibiótico e antioxidantes no estabelecimento in vitro de alecrim-pimenta. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Foram avaliadas as concentrações 0,2; 0,4; 0,6 e 0,8% de hipoclorito de sódio e 8; 12; 16 e 20 minutos de imersão, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4; as concentrações 0; 50; 100; 150 e 200 mg L-1 do antibiótico cefatoxima sódica; os meios-de-cultura MS, B5 e WPM; e o efeito de antioxidantes (PVP: 0,5 e 2 g L-1; e carvão ativado: 3 e 12 g L-1. A concentração de 0,8% de hipoclorito de sódio proporcionou um número significativamente maior (pLippia sidoides Cham. is a native shrub from the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil. Its essential oil has high commercial value, due to the major compounds thymol and carvacrol, which have strong antimicrobial and antiseptic properties. The effect of concentrations and immersion time in sodium hypochlorite, culture media, the use of antibiotic and antioxidants on in vitro establishment of L. sidoides were evaluated. The assays were conducted in a completely randomized design. We evaluated the concentrations 0.2; 0.4; 0.6 and 0.8% of sodium hypochlorite and 8; 12; 16 and 20 minutes of immersion, in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme; the concentrations 0; 50; 100; 150 and 200 mg L-1 of cefotaxime sodium; the medium cultures MS, B5 and WPM; and the effect of antioxidants (PVP: 0.5 and 2 g L-1; and activated charcoal: 3 and 12 g L-1. The concentration of 0.8% of sodium hypochlorite resulted in a significantly higher (p<0.01 number of leaves per shoot: 1

  12. La cura chamánica: una interpretación psicosocial The shamanic cure: a psychological interpretation

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    Blanca Pelcastre-Villafuerte

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo constituye básicamente un análisis teórico de la cura chamánica en el que se propone la comunicación como base del proceso de curación, descrito este último a partir de los actos comunicativos, con énfasis en la interpretación de los elementos simbólicos. Se da cuenta de la dimensión en la cual se inscribe este proceso, la modalidad lingüística que se emplea, el tipo de relación que se establece entre el/la chamán, el/la paciente y el grupo, la manera como se construye una realidad simbólica compartida, la visión de mundo del chamán y el efecto que tiene sobre las personas. Se toma el enfoque psicosocial como marco interpretativo y se propone una explicación en términos de la fundación de un acto comunicativo como escenario donde se construye una realidad simbólica, constituida por la cura propiamente, a la que ingresa el paciente en cada sesión. Se analiza la visión mágica del chamanismo y su influencia sobre el proceso salud-enfermedad.The present paper is basically a theoretical analysis of the shamanic cure, which proposes communication as the basis of the healing process. This process is described as a communicative act focusing on the interpretation of symbolic elements. The context is the social dimension in which the process is inscribed, the linguistic mode employed, and the type of relationship established between the shaman, the patient and the people. We also recount the way in which a shared symbolic reality is built, and how the shaman's world view has important effects on people. The interpretative framework is the psychosocial focus and an explanation is offered in terms of the establishment of a communicative act as a scenario in which the symbolic reality is constructed, and in itself constitutes the cure into which the patient enters every session. The magical vision of shamanism is analyzed and its influence on the health-illness process.

  13. Morfologia da unidade de dispersão e germinação de Cordia sellowiana cham. e Cordia myxa l Morphology of the dispersion unit nd germination of Cordia sellowiana cham. and Cordia myxa l

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Cristina Ercolini Barroso; Fernando Oliveira; Deborah Maria Ciarelli

    2009-01-01

    As unidades de dispersão das espécies Cordia sellowiana Cham. e Cordia myxa L. (Boraginaceae Jussieu) foram estudadas com ênfase em sua morfologia e no processo de germinação. Os frutos de Cordia sellowiana e de Cordia myxa são do tipo drupóide nuculânio. A protrusão da raiz primária, na primeira espécie, ocorre através de fenda longitudinal do pirênio, e na segunda, através de abertura do opérculo. A germinação, nas duas espécies, é do tipo fanerocotiledonar epígea. As plântulas apresentam c...

  14. Clerodendron glandulosum Coleb., Verbenaceae, ameliorates high fat diet-induced alteration in lipid and cholesterol metabolism in rats

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    RN Jadeja

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of freeze dried extract of Clerodendron glandulosum Coleb., Verbenaceae, leaves (FECG on alteration in lipid and cholesterol metabolism in high fat diet fed hyperlipidemic rats. Plasma and hepatic lipid profiles, lipid and cholesterol metabolizing enzymes in target tissues and fecal total lipids and bile acid contents were evaluated in FECG treated normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic rats. These results were compared with synthetic hypolipidemic drug Lovastatin (LVS. Results indicate that FECG was able to positively regulate induced experimental hyperlipidemia by significant alteration in plasma and tissue lipid profiles. These results can be attributed to reduced absorption, effective elimination and augmented catabolism of lipids and cholesterol possibly due to high content of saponin and phytosterols in C. glandulosum. Use of C. glandulosum extract as a potential therapeutic agent against hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia is indicated.

  15. Rosmarinic acid, a new snake venom phospholipase A2 inhibitor from Cordia verbenacea (Boraginaceae): antiserum action potentiation and molecular interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticli, Fábio K; Hage, Lorane I S; Cambraia, Rafael S; Pereira, Paulo S; Magro, Angelo J; Fontes, Marcos R M; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Giglio, José R; França, Suzelei C; Soares, Andreimar M; Sampaio, Suely V

    2005-09-01

    Many plants are used in traditional medicine as active agents against various effects induced by snakebite. The methanolic extract from Cordia verbenacea (Cv) significantly inhibited paw edema induced by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom and by its main basic phospholipase A2 homologs, namely bothropstoxins I and II (BthTXs). The active component was isolated by chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and by RP-HPLC on a C18 column and identified as rosmarinic acid (Cv-RA). Rosmarinic acid is an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid [2-O-cafeoil-3-(3,4-di-hydroxy-phenyl)-R-lactic acid]. This is the first report of RA in the species C. verbenacea ('baleeira', 'whaler') and of its anti-inflammatory and antimyotoxic properties against snake venoms and isolated toxins. RA inhibited the edema and myotoxic activity induced by the basic PLA2s BthTX-I and BthTX-II. It was, however, less efficient to inhibit the PLA2 activity of BthTX-II and, still less, the PLA2 and edema-inducing activities of the acidic isoform BthA-I-PLA2 from the same venom, showing therefore a higher inhibitory activity upon basic PLA2s. RA also inhibited most of the myotoxic and partially the edema-inducing effects of both basic PLA2s, thus reinforcing the idea of dissociation between the catalytic and pharmacological domains. The pure compound potentiated the ability of the commercial equine polyvalent antivenom in neutralizing lethal and myotoxic effects of the crude venom and of isolated PLA2s in experimental models. CD data presented here suggest that, after binding, no significant conformation changes occur either in the Cv-RA or in the target PLA2. A possible model for the interaction of rosmarinic acid with Lys49-PLA2 BthTX-I is proposed.

  16. Quali-quantitative characterization of the volatile constituents in Cordia verbenacea D.C. essential oil exploiting advanced chromatographic approaches and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarrone, Danilo; Giuffrida, Daniele; Rotondo, Archimede; Micalizzi, Giuseppe; Zoccali, Mariosimone; Pantò, Sebastiano; Donato, Paola; Rodrigues-das-Dores, Rosana Goncalves; Mondello, Luigi

    2017-11-17

    Cordia verbenacea D.C. (Boraginaceae, Varronia curassavica Jacq. synonym) is a medicinal plant, native from Brazil, especially the leaves are used in folk medicine. The aim of this study was to extend the characterization of the volatile fraction of the essential oil obtained from this plant, by using GC-FID, GC-MS, and chiral GC. Moreover, to further clarify the composition of the volatile fraction, preparative multidimensional-GC (prep-MDGC) was used to collect unknown compounds, followed by NMR characterization. Specifically, the chemical characterization, both qualitative and quantitative, of the volatile fraction of the essential oil obtained from Cordia verbenacea cultivated in the Minas Gerais area (central area of Brazil) was investigated for the first time. The principal components from a quantitative point of view were α-pinene (25.32%; 24.48g/100g) and α-santalene (17.90%; 17.30g/100g), belonging to the terpenes family. Chiral-GC data are reported for the enantiomeric distribution of 7 different components. Last, to obtain the complete characterization of the essential oil constituents, prep-MDGC analysis was used to attain the isolation of two compounds, not present in the principal MS databases, which were unambiguously identified by NMR investigation as (E)-α-santalal and (E)-α-bergamotenal, reported for the first time in Cordia verbenacea essential oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Efeito de thidiazuron na indução e manutenção de calos de erva-baleeira (Cordia verbenacea L. Effects of thidiazuron on callus induction and maintenance of Cordia verbenacea L

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    Osmar Alves Lameira

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do Thidiazuron (TDZ na formação e manutenção de calos de Cordia verbenacea. Segmentos caulinares com 3 a 4cm de comprimento provenientes de mudas cultivadas em casa de vegetação foram desinfestados em solução contendo hipoclorito de sódio comercial a 30% e duas gotas de detergente por 10 minutos, sendo 5 minutos em agitação. Posteriormente, foram excisados e inoculados com 5mm de tamanho em meio sólido a 0,6% de Murashige & Skoog (MURASHIGE & SKOOG, 1962 - MS, complementado com 0,22; 0,68: 2,04 e 6,l3uM de TDZ. A formação de calos ocorreu em todos os tratamentos com 10 a 15 dias de cultivo Os tratamentos que apresentaram o explante com a maior área coberta com calos, em média 75%, foram 2,04 e 6,13miM de TDZ. Somente nesses tratamentos os calos aumentaram de volume e mantiveram a coloração inicial quando transferidos para o meio fresco de cultura. Os tratamentos com menores concentrações de TDZ apresentaram explantes com 50% da área coberta com calos e quando transferidos para o meio fresco de cultura ocorreu a paralisação do crescimento com a posterior morte dos calos.The influence of thidiazuron on calius formation and maintenance of Corola verbenacea was evaluated. Stem segments with 3 to 4cm length were excisedfrom greenhouse plants and surface sterilized with 30% commercial sodium hypochiorite for 10 minutes. Explants were inoculated with 5mm on Murashige and Skoog (MVRASHIGE & SKOOG, 1962 - MSsolid médium (0.6% suppiemented with 0.22, 0.68, 2.04 and 6.13muM TDZ. Calius induction was observed 10 to 15 days after incubation. The media contaming, 2.04 and 6.13uM TDZ induced 75% expiam with calius. The calius when transferred to fresh culture médium exhibited active growth. The treatments containing lower concentration induced 50% expiam with caltus that when transferred to fresh culture médium, showed no development.

  18. SEEDLINGS GROWTH OF Prunus brasiliensis (Cham. & Schltdl. D. Dietr. IN SEWAGE SLUDGE-BASED COMPOST AND MINERAL FERTILIZER

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    Maurício Bergamini Scheer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987555The increasing amount of solid waste generates the need for its use. An opportunity is the use of sewage sludge to attend the demand for alternative inputs in the agricultural and forestry practices. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Prunus brasiliensis (Cham. & Schltdl. D. Dietr. (pessegueiro – bravo grown on substrates prepared from aerobic sewage sludge composted with ground tree pruning and with different levels of a granulated fertilizer, and to compare its performance with those grown on commercial substrate, which is widely used in forest nurseries. The experiment was conducted in a shadehouse (from July/08 to Oct/08 and in an outdoor growing area (from Nov/08 to Feb/09 at Sanitation Company of Paraná State, located in Araucária, southern Brazil. Three different substrates were used: commercial substrate, consisting of composted pine bark and vermiculite, and 3:1 (v:v and 2:1 (v:v composted substrate based on crushed tree pruning and sewage sludge. The following variables were measured: seedling height, diameter and biomass of leaves and branches. The results showed higher growth rates of seedlings grown on substrates containing sewage sludge than on those grown on commercial substrate. Both composts with sewage sludge, using the two levels of fertilization (2,7 and 4 g dm-3, present similar results for the majority of the variables tested.

  19. Efeito do Hidrogel e Ureia na Produção de Mudas de Handroanthus ochraceus (Cham. Mattos

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    Cândida Lahís Mews

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou a produção de mudas de Handroanthus ochraceus (Cham. Mattos submetidas à diferentes doses de hidrogel e adubação nitrogenada em viveiro. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em um fatorial com cinco concentrações de hidrogel (0 a 4 g e seis de adubação (0 a 5 g, totalizando 30 tratamentos e cinco repetições compostas por quatro mudas. Foram avaliados altura, diâmetro do coleto, número de folhas, massa seca da parte aérea, de raiz e total, relações entre altura/diâmetro do coleto, altura/massa seca da parte aérea, parte aérea/raiz, índice de qualidade de Dickson e incremento em altura e diâmetro em três etapas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância (p < 0,05 e regressão. Os diferentes tratamentos geraram respostas distintas e, no geral, influenciaram positivamente o crescimento e a qualidade das mudas. Os 80 dias iniciais sob sombra proporcionaram maior crescimento em altura e diâmetro das mudas.

  20. Variation in plant defenses of Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl. Seem. (Apiaceae across a vegetation gradient in a Brazilian cerrado

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    Pais Mara Patrícia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerrado vegetation is composed of a mosaic of vegetation types, from campo sujo, dominated by herbs; campo cerrado and cerrado sensu stricto, with shrubby vegetation; to cerradão, with trees forming a denser forest. This physiognomic mosaic is related to differences in the water availability in the soil. Cerrado plants are considered physically and chemically well defended against herbivores, but there are no studies showing how plants allocate investment to various types of defensive mechanisms in different habitat physiognomies. The defensive mechanisms and the nutritional traits of a cerrado plant, Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl. Seem. (Apiaceae, were compared along a vegetation gradient. Toughness, as well as water, nitrogen, cellulose, lignin, and tannin contents were measured in young and mature leaves of D. vinosum collected in campo cerrado, cerrado sensu stricto (s.s. and cerradão. Plants from cerrado s.s. and cerradão were of better nutritional quality but also had higher tannin contents than campo cerrado plants. Some type of compensation mechanism could have been selected to provide an optimum investment in defense, according to limitations imposed by water deficits in the habitat.

  1. Evaluation of antimicrobial, antioxidant and phototoxic activities of extracts and isolated compounds from Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae

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    Pierre André De Souza

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae, plant extract, is a Brazilian medicinal plant externally used in folk medicine for purulent ulcers, skin lesions and internally for inflammations, fever, renal disorders and atherosclerosis. S. cayennesis was studied to identify potential bioactive compounds that may justify their therapeutic use against skin lesions and atherosclerosis. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and phototoxicity capacities of the crude ethanolic extract, fractions and isolated compounds from roots of S. cayennesis were evaluated through in vivo and in vitro tests. Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an eukaryotic cell model, were used to assess both the phototoxicity and the capacity to protect against the lethal oxidative stress caused by menadione and hydrogen peroxide. The extract, fractions and the two major isolated compounds, verbascoside and betulinic acid, of S. cayennensis were able to increase the tolerance and decrease the lipid peroxidation of S. cerevisiae to reactive oxygen species (ROS. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•. Verbascoside exhibited a moderate antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, S.epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. Neither the ethanolic extract nor fractions showed phototoxicity, indicating that the S. cayennensis extract is safe for use in the treatment of skin lesions and as an active cosmetic ingredient.

  2. In vitro antifungal activity of four chemotypes of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae essential oils against Alternaria solani (Pleosporeaceae isolates

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    ELISA Z. TOMAZONI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Several volatile natural compounds produced by plant secondary metabolism have been proven to present antimicrobial action, enabling their use in phytopathogen control. They also present low environmental impact when compared to conventional pesticides. Essential oils contain these compounds and can be found in several plant species, such as Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae. Essential oils of four chemotypes of L. alba, characterized by their major compounds, namely camphor, citral, linalool and camphor/1,8-cineole, were tested against the phytopathogen Alternaria solani Sorauer (Pleosporaceae, which causes early blight on tomatoes and is responsible for great economic losses regarding production. Essential oils antifungal action was tested in vitro using potato dextrose agar medium with essential oil concentrations at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 µL mL-1. The chemotype that had the best performance was citral, showing significant inhibition compared to the others, starting at the 0.5 µL mL-1 concentration. The essential oil belonging to the linalool chemotype was efficient starting at the 1.5 µL mL-1 concentration. Conversely, the camphor chemotype did not show any action against the phytopathogen. Moreover, the essential oils had no remarkable effect on tomato germination and growth. In conclusion, these essential oils presented fungicidal action against A. solani.

  3. Essential oils from Hyptis marrubioides, Aloysia gratissima and Cordia verbenacea reduce the progress of Asian soybean rust

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    André Costa da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of essential oils derived from Hyptis marrubioides, Aloysia gratissima and Cordia verbenacea for controlling Asian soybean rust. The inhibitory activities of the essential oils (applied in a concentration range of 0.05 - 2% on the germination of Phakopsora pachyrhizi urediniospores were investigated using in vitro assays. The curative and eradicating properties of the oils (applied in a concentration range of 0.05 - 0.5% were studied under greenhouse conditions using the P. pachyrhizi-susceptible soybean cultivar MG/BR 46 (Conquista. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to investigate the effects of the essential oils on the morphology of the P. pachyrhizi urediniospores. The treatment with the essential oils at all concentrations tested led to the total inhibition of spore germination in vitro. The curative application of the essential oils reduced the disease severity, expressed as the area under the disease-progress curves, by 33 to 41%, whereas the commercial fungicide (pyraclostrobin + epoxyconazole employed as a positive control reduced the severity by 61%. The treatment of infected plants with the essential oils resulted in morphological alterations in the fungal structures that were similar to those produced by the commercial fungicide, namely, a shrivelling of the urediniospores, appressoria, germ tubes and paraphyses.

  4. Chemical Composition and Allelopathyc Activity of Essential Oil of Lippia sidoides Cham Composición química y actividad alelopática del aceite esencial de Lippia sidoides Cham

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    Cláudia Araújo Marco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathy is a process for which products of the secondary metabolism, as terpenes phenolic, of a certain vegetal intervene significantly, generally of antagonistic form, in the development of other species of plants. The objective of this work was to chemically characterize the essential oil of Lippia sidoides Cham. growing in the Cariri cearense region, Brazil, and evaluate the allelopathyc effect of this oil on the germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., arugula (Eruca sativa Mill., and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L., in pre-plantation application. The monoterpene thymol (84.90% has been identified as the principal constituent in the essential oil. The experiment was done in randomized complete block, in 4 x 3 factorial; being used four essential oil combinations applied in three different species in pre-plantation applications. Emergence velocity index (EVI, germination percentage and mean time to germination (MTG, had been analyzed through daily counting carried out until the 14th day after sowing. Through qualitative analysis performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS were identified seven chemical constituents representing 97.82% of essential oil of L. sidoides, being that the constituent present in greater concentration in oil was the thymol (84.90%. Could be verified the occurrence of the negative allelopathyc effect of lettuce crop, because its present low EVI and greater MTG, for the other vegetable species there were no allelopathic effect.La alelopatía es un proceso mediante el cual productos metabólicos secundarios, tales como terpenos fenoles, producidos por una planta en particular interfieren significativamente, y de manera antagónica, en el desarrollo de otras especies vegetales. Nuestros objetivos fueron caracterizar químicamente el aceite esencial de Lippia sidoides Cham., cultivada en la región de Cariri Ceará, y evaluar el efecto alelopático del aceite aplicado en pre-siembra en

  5. Efeito do volume do tubete no crescimento inicial de plântulas de Cordia trichotoma (Vell. Arrab. ex Steud e Jacaranda micranta Cham

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    Ubirajara Contro Malavasi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of container volume upon initial seedling growth of Cordia trichotoma (Vell. Arrab. ex Steud and Jacaranda micranta Cham. 180 days after the planting. The plastic containers used were filled with commercial nursery substrate and displayed volumes of 55, 120, 180 and 300 cm3. No mortality was recorded among seedlings of all container sizes. There were no statistical differences in respect of height and stem diameter from seedlings cultivated in 120, 180 and 300 cm3 containers 180 days after the planting date.

  6. Caracterização farmacognóstica dos frutos de Cordia sellowiana Cham. e de Cordia myxa L. (Boraginaceae Jussieu)

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Cristina Ercolini Barroso; Fernando Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Os frutos de Cordia sellowiana Cham. e Cordia myxa L. utilizados como emolientes demulcentes, béquicos e expectorantes foram estudados morfológico-anatomicamente, visando sua caracterização farmacognóstica. Foram fornecidos subsídios à identificação destes órgãos vegetais no estado natural e quando transformados em droga. A abordagem fitoquímica realizada permitiu por em evidência a presença de alcalóides, flavonóides, taninos e mucilagens. Em decorrência da presença de mucilagens, foi determ...

  7. Desarrollo y verificación de concentraciones críticas y normas DRIS para brinzales y latizales de Pinus patula Schl. et Cham.

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Parada, Agustina

    2013-01-01

    El diagnóstico nutrimental es una herramienta fundamental para el uso eficiente de fertilizantes. Ayuda a incrementar la productividad y a disminuir la contaminación de suelos y agua por exceso de fertilización. Se desarrollaron y verificaron concentraciones críticas y normas DRIS para árboles de P. patula Schl. et Cham. de aproximadamente 10 años de edad. Se generó una base de datos de 50 árboles de P. patula distribuidos en estados del centro de México. Las concentraciones críticas y normas...

  8. Caracterização botânica e química de Rudgea viburnoides (Cham. Benth., (Rubiaceae

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    R.M.S. Alves

    Full Text Available Congonha, congonha-de-bugre e bugre são nomes populares atribuídos a várias espécies medicinais, incluindo Rudgea viburnoides (Cham. Benth. (Rubiaceae, cujas folhas são utilizadas na medicina popular como diuréticas, hipotensoras, antireumáticas e depurativas do sangue. Esta espécie vem sendo comercializada como porangaba e utilizada em regimes de emagrecimento, substituindo Cordia ecalyculata Vell. (Boraginaceae. Neste estudo, foram determinadas as características botânicas, fisico-químicas e químicas para R. viburnoides com o objetivo de auxiliar sua identificação taxonômica e o controle de qualidade de produtos preparados com esta planta. Uma amostra referência foi coletada e submetida à caracterização macroscópica, microscópica e organoléptica, determinação de cinzas totais e umidade, prospecção fitoquímica e determinação dos perfis cromatográficos em CCD. Amostras de R. viburnoides podem ser reconhecidas pela epiderme pilosa com marcantes estrias cuticulares, estômatos paracíticos, presença de idioblastos com ráfides no mesofilo e pela configuração em arco dos tecidos vasculares da nervura de primeira ordem, caracteres ausentes em C. ecalyculata. A presença de cistólitos e canais mucilaginosos na medula diferem prontamente C. ecalyculata de R. viburnoides. A análise por CCD evidenciou a presença de flavonóides e saponinas. Amostras adquiridas no comércio e submetidas aos mesmos ensaios permitiram validar os métodos propostos e confirmaram a ampla comercialização de R. viburnoides em Minas Gerais.

  9. Plasticidad fenotípica en lippia alba y lippia origanoides (verbenaceae): respuesta a la disponibilidad de nitrógeno

    OpenAIRE

    CARLOS ANDRÉS ANTOLINEZ-DELGADO; NELSON RODRÍGUEZ-LÓPEZ

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo comparó la plasticidad fenotípica (PF) a través de la etapa vegetativa de dos especies del genero Lippia (Verbenaceae) que presentan amplitud ecológica contrastante con respecto a la disponibilidad de nitrógeno. Lippia alba, especie distribuida en suelos de alta a baja disponibilidad de nitrógeno y Lippia origanoides distribuida en suelos con baja disponibilidad de nitrógeno. Nuestra hipótesis de trabajo p...

  10. Estabelecimento de cultura de células em suspensão e identificação de flavonóides em Cordia verbenacea DC. Establishment of cell suspension cultures and flavonoid identification in Cordia verbenacea DC.

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    O.A. Lameira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivos o estabelecimento de culturas de células em suspensão, extração, separação e identificação de flavonóides em extratos de folhas e de células em suspensão de Cordia verbenacea. Células dessa espécie, após terem sido subcultivadas três vezes no meio MS suplementado com 2,32 µM de cinetina + 10,74 µM de ANA a intervalos de 28 dias, apresentaram cinco estágios de crescimento: as fases lag, exponencial, linear, desaceleração e estacionária. O maior percentual de crescimento (37% ocorreu no período exponencial entre o quarto e o décimo segundo dia e o menor (3% na fase lag até o quarto dia. Para identificação de flavonóides, foram usados extratos submetidos à separação e purificação por CCD e CCL e os componentes obtidos submetidos à Espectroscopia de Ultravioleta, Espectrometria de Infravermelho e Massa e Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Hidrogênio. Após as frações das amostras de folhas e células terem sido separadas pelo eluente ácido acético, foram identificados os componentes 7,4'-diidróxi-5'-carboximetóxi isoflavona e 7,4'-diidróxi-5'-metil isoflavona. Foi detectado maior concentração dessas substâncias nas células cultivadas in vitro.The aims of this study were to establish cell suspension cultures, as well as to extract, separate and identify flavonoids in Cordia verbenacea leaf extracts and cell suspensions. Cells of this species were subcultivated three times in MS culture medium supplemented with 2.32 µM kinetin + 10.74 µM NAA at 28-day intervals, showing five growth stages: lag, exponential, linear, deceleration and stationary phases. The highest growth rate (37% occurred in the exponential phase between the fourth and the twelfth day and the lowest growth rate (3%, in the lag phase until the fourth day. For flavonoid identification, extracts were separated and purified by TLC and LC and the obtained compounds were subjected to Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

  11. RESPUESTAS FENOTÍPICAS DE Lippiaalba Y Lippiaoriganoides(VERBENACEAE A LA DISPONIBILIDAD DE AGUA EN EL SUELO Phenothypical Responses of Lippiaalbaand Lippiaoriganoides(Verbenaceae to Water Availability in the Soil

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    ANDRÉS ALEJANDRO CAMARGO PARRA

    Full Text Available La capacidad de un genotipo particular de producir diferentes fenotipos es conocido como plasticidad fenotípica (PF. Este trabajo evaluó la PF a través de la ontogenia vegetativa en dos especies de la familia Verbenaceae, Lippia alba ampliamente distribuida en habitats favorables y Lippia origanoides ampliamente distribuida en habitats con bajo disponibilidad de recursos. Se evaluó si la PF está correlacionada con distribución ecologica, en respuesta al contenido relativo de agua en el suelo. Se distribuyeron aleatoriamente 40 clones por tratamiento en tres condiciones experimentales que variaron en la disponibilidad de agua en el suelo, evaluándose distintos caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa. Los resultados demuestran una falta de asociación entre PF y distribución ecología de ambas especies. Se observó una mayor PF en L. alba en la etapa temprana de la ontogenia vegetativa, demostrando que la PF a través de la ontogenia vegetativa no se presenta de forma uniforme, la amplia distribución ecológica de esta especie se explica por una mayor PF y asignación de biomasa en los diferentes componentes de la tasa de crecimiento relativa (RGR, ya que estos pueden ser ventajosos para alcanzar una rápida madurez sexual y colonizar nuevos hábitats con condiciones favorables. Contrario a nuestra hipótesis, L. origanoides presentó una mayor PF durante la ontogenia vegetativa, los resultados demuestran una posible estrategia de tolerancia al estrés que le permite un bajo desempeño en el RGR en habitats con baja disponibilidad de recursos.The capacity of genotype to produced different phenotypes is denominated Phenotypic Plasticity (PP. The present study evaluates the PP during the vegetative ontogeny in two species of the family Verbenaceae, Lippia alba which occurs in favorable habitats and L. origanoides which occurs in unfavorable habitats. We compare the PP and its ecological distribution, in response to availability

  12. RESPUESTAS FENOTÍPICAS DE Lippia alba Y Lippia origanoides (VERBENACEAE A LA DISPONIBILIDAD DE AGUA EN EL SUELO

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    Camargo Parra Andres Alejandro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La capacidad de un genotipo particular de producir diferentes fenotipos es conocido como plasticidad fenotípica (PF. Este trabajo evaluó la PF a través de la ontogenia vegetativa en dos especies de la familia Verbenaceae, Lippia alba ampliamente distribuida en habitats favorables y Lippia origanoides ampliamente distribuida en habitats con bajo disponibilidad de recursos. Se evaluó si la PF está correlacionada con distribución ecologica, en respuesta al contenido relativo de agua en el suelo. Se distribuyeron aleatoriamente 40 plantas por tratamiento en tres tratamientos que variaron en la disponibilidad de agua en el suelo, evaluando distintos caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa, los resultados demuestran una falta de asociación entre PF y distribución ecología. Se observó una mayor PF en L. alba en la etapa temprana de la ontogenia vegetativa, demostrando que la PF a través de la ontogenia vegetativa no se presenta de forma uniforme, la amplia distribución ecológica de esta especie se explica por una mayor PF y asignación de biomasa en los diferentes componentes de la tasa de crecimiento relativa (RGR, ya que estos pueden ser ventajosos para alcanzar una rápida madurez sexual y colonizar nuevos hábitats con condiciones favorables. Contrario a nuestra hipótesis L. origanoides presentó una mayor PF durante la ontogenia vegetativa, los resultados demuestran una posible estrategia de tolerancia al estrés que le permite un bajo desempeño en el RGR en habitats con baja disponibilidad de recursos.

  13. RESPUESTAS FENOTÍPICAS DE Lippia alba Y Lippia origanoides (VERBENACEAE A LA DISPONIBILIDAD DE AGUA EN EL SUELO

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    Andres Alejandro Camargo Parra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La capacidad de un genotipo particular de producir diferentes fenotipos es conocido como plasticidad fenotípica (PF. Este trabajo evaluó la PF a través de la ontogenia vegetativa en dos especies de la familia Verbenaceae, Lippia alba ampliamente distribuida en habitats favorables y Lippia origanoides ampliamente distribuida en habitats con bajo disponibilidad de recursos. Se evaluó si la PF está correlacionada con distribución ecologica, en respuesta al contenido relativo de agua en el suelo. Se distribuyeron aleatoriamente 40 plantas por tratamiento en tres tratamientos que variaron en la disponibilidad de agua en el suelo, evaluando distintos caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa, los resultados demuestran una falta de asociación entre PF y distribución ecología. Se observó una mayor PF en L. alba en la etapa temprana de la ontogenia vegetativa, demostrando que la PF a través de la ontogenia vegetativa no se presenta de forma uniforme, la amplia distribución ecológica de esta especie se explica por una mayor PF y asignación de biomasa en los diferentes componentes de la tasa de crecimiento relativa (RGR, ya que estos pueden ser ventajosos para alcanzar una rápida madurez sexual y colonizar nuevos hábitats con condiciones favorables. Contrario a nuestra hipótesis L. origanoides presentó una mayor PF durante la ontogenia vegetativa, los resultados demuestran una posible estrategia de tolerancia al estrés que le permite un bajo desempeño en el RGR en habitats con baja disponibilidad de recursos.

  14. Alternating temperature combined with darkness resets base temperature for germination (Tb ) in photoblastic seeds of Lippia and Aloysia (Verbenaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galíndez, G; Seal, C E; Daws, M I; Lindow, L; Ortega-Baes, P; Pritchard, H W

    2017-01-01

    Thermal time models for seed germination assume a continuum of rate responses in the sub-optimal temperature range. Generally, the models describe germination performance in non-dormant seeds at constant temperatures, yet alternating temperature (AT) is a feature of many natural environments. We studied the possible interacting effects of AT on germination progress in photoblastic seeds of three aromatic-medicinal Verbenaceae species in the genera Lippia and Aloysia. For Lippia turbinata f. turbinata and L. turbinata f. magnifolia seed, germination only occurred in light conditions, while for L. integrifolia and Aloysia citriodora it was significantly higher in the light than in darkness. Although relative light germination (RLG) was not different between constant and AT in the sub-optimal range, AT raised the base temperature for germination progress (Tb ) from ca. 3-6 °C in constant temperature to 7-12 °C in AT. Among the species, thermal time for 50% seed germination [θT(50) ] was 55-100 °Cd at constant temperature. Although AT resulted in slight modifications to θT(50) , the germination rate at comparable average temperatures in the sub-optimal range was slower than under constant temperatures. For all species, the proportion of germinated seeds was similar for constant and AT. Our results suggest that an interaction between cool temperature and darkness during AT treatment limits the temperature range permissive for germination in these positively photoblastic seed, reflecting both close adaptation to the natural ecology and niche requirements of the species. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. PLASTICIDAD FENOTÍPICA EN Lippia alba Y Lippia origanoides (VERBENACEAE: RESPUESTA A LA DISPONIBILIDAD DE NITRÓGENO

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    CARLOS ANDRÉS ANTOLINEZ-DELGADO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo comparó la plasticidad fenotípica (PF a través de la etapa vegetativa de dos especies del genero Lippia (Verbenaceae que presentan amplitud ecológica con- trastante con respecto a la disponibilidad de nitrógeno. Lippia alba , especie distribuida en suelos de alta a baja disponibilidad de nitrógeno y Lippia origanoides distribuida en suelos con baja disponibilidad de nitrógeno. Nuestra hipótesis de trabajo planteó que la magnitud de la plasticidad fenotípica en estas especies podría correlacionarse con su amplitud ecológica. Treinta y cinco clones de Lippia alba y Lippia origanoides fueron asignado aleatoriamente en tres tratamientos que variaron en la disponibilidad de ni- trógeno en el suelo así: 0,5; 2,5 y 5 mM. A los 25, 35, 50 y 70 días cinco clones de cada especie por tratamiento fueron colectadas. Se evaluó el numero de hojas, área foliar, fracción masa de las hojas, fracción masa de la raíz, razón raíz/parte aérea, volumen de la raíz, longitud de la raíz, masa seca total y tasa de crecimiento relativo. Los resul- tados indican que ambas plantas presentan una alta PF a la disponibilidad de nitró- geno; sin embargo, las normas de reacción de los caracteres estimados variaron dependiendo de la especie y la edad de la planta. Contrario a nuestra hipótesis no en- contramos una correlación entre la PF y la distribución ecológica de estas especies.

  16. RESPUESTAS FENOTÍPICAS DE Lippia alba Y Lippia origanoides (VERBENACEAE A LA DISPONIBILIDAD DE AGUA EN EL SUELO

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    ANDRÉS ALEJANDRO CAMARGO PARRA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La capacidad de un genotipo particular de producir diferentes fenotipos es conocido como plasticidad fenotípica (PF. Este trabajo evaluó la PF a través de la ontogenia vegetativa en dos especies de la familia Verbenaceae, Lippia alba ampliamente distribuida en habitats favorables y Lippia origanoides ampliamente distribuida en habitats con bajo disponibilidad de recursos. Se evaluó si la PF está correlacionada con distribución ecologica, en respuesta al contenido relativo de agua en el suelo. Se distribuyeron aleatoriamente 40 plantas por tratamiento en tres tratamientos que variaron en la disponibilidad de agua en el suelo, evaluando distintos caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa, los resultados demuestran una falta de asociación entre PF y distribución ecología. Se observó una mayor PF en L. alba en la etapa temprana de la ontogenia vegetativa, demostrando que la PF a través de la ontogenia vegetativa no se presenta de forma uniforme, la amplia distribución ecológica de esta especie se explica por una mayor PF y asignación de biomasa en los diferentes componentes de la tasa de crecimiento relativa (RGR, ya que estos pueden ser ventajosos para alcanzar una rápida madurez sexual y colonizar nuevos hábitats con condiciones favorables. Contrario a nuestra hipótesis L. origanoides presentó una mayor PF durante la ontogenia vegetativa, los resultados demuestran una posible estrategia de tolerancia al estrés que le permite un bajo desempeño en el RGR en habitats con baja disponibilidad de recursos.

  17. Pharmacological assay of Cordia verbenacea V: oral and topical anti-inflammatory activity, analgesic effect and fetus toxicity of a crude leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertié, J A A; Woisky, R G; Wiezel, G; Rodrigues, M

    2005-05-01

    Cordia verbenacea D.C. (Borraginaceae) is a perennial bush plant that grows widely along the southeastern coast of Brazil. Its leaves have been used in folk medicine for their anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory and cicatrizing activities. We have already described the anti-inflammatory properties of C. verbenacea and its low toxicity in different acute animal models. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity in sub-chronic animal models of a crude leaf lyophilized extract when administered by oral route or topically applied, and concomitantly, its analgesic potency and toxicity to the fetus. Topical administration of the extract inhibited nystatin-induced edema proportionally to the doses used, and this effect at a dose of 4.56 mg/kg body wt. was similar to that observed with 6.0 mg/kg body wt. of naproxen. In miconazole-induced edema, the leaf extract at a dose of 1.24 mg/kg body wt., orally administered, has a very similar effect as compared to nimezulide (2.5 mg/kg body wt.) and dexamethasone (0.2 mg/kg body wt.). At an oral dose of 2.48 mg/kg body wt. the extract showed a very low analgesic effect, and total absence of fetus toxicity at doses of less than 7.44 mg/kg body wt.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Elizabeth S; Passos, Giselle F; Medeiros, Rodrigo; da Cunha, Fernanda M; Ferreira, Juliano; Campos, Maria M; Pianowski, Luiz F; Calixto, João B

    2007-08-27

    This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of two sesquiterpenes isolated from Cordia verbenacea's essential oil, alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene. Our results revealed that oral treatment with both compounds displayed marked inhibitory effects in different inflammatory experimental models in mice and rats. alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene were effective in reducing platelet activating factor-, bradykinin- and ovoalbumin-induced mouse paw oedema, while only alpha-humulene was able to diminish the oedema formation caused by histamine injection. Also, both compounds had important inhibitory effects on the mouse and rat carrageenan-induced paw oedema. Systemic treatment with alpha-humulene largely prevented both tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) generation in carrageenan-injected rats, whereas (-)-trans-caryophyllene diminished only TNFalpha release. Furthermore, both compounds reduced the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) expression, induced by the intraplantar injection of carrageenan in rats. The anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene were comparable to those observed in dexamethasone-treated animals, used as positive control drug. All these findings indicate that alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene, derived from the essential oil of C. verbenacea, might represent important tools for the management and/or treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  19. PLASTICIDAD FENOTÍPICA EN Lippia alba Y Lippia origanoides (VERBENACEAE: RESPUESTA A LA DISPONIBILIDAD DE NITRÓGENO

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    RODRÍGUEZ-LÓPEZ NELSON

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo comparó la plasticidad fenotípica (PF a través de la etapa vegetativa de dos especies del genero Lippia (Verbenaceae que presentan amplitud ecológica contrastante con respecto a la disponibilidad de nitrógeno. Lippia alba, especie distribuida en suelos de alta a baja disponibilidad de nitrógeno y Lippia origanoides distribuida en suelos con baja disponibilidad de nitrógeno. Nuestra hipótesis de trabajo planteó que la magnitud de la plasticidad fenotípica en estas especies podría correlacionarse con su amplitud ecológica. Treinta y cinco clones de Lippia alba y Lippia origanoides fueron asignado aleatoriamente en tres tratamientos que variaron en la disponibilidad de nitrógeno en el suelo así: 0,5; 2,5 y 5 mM. A los 25, 35, 50 y 70 días cinco clones de cada especie por tratamiento fueron colectadas. Se evaluó el numero de hojas, área foliar, fracción masa de las hojas, fracción masa de la raíz, razón raíz/parte aérea, volumen de la raíz, longitud de la raíz, masa seca total y tasa de crecimiento relativo. Los resultados indican que ambas plantas presentan una alta PF a la disponibilidad de nitrógeno; sin embargo, las normas de reacción de los caracteres estimados variaron dependiendo de la especie y la edad de la planta. Contrario a nuestra hipótesis no encontramos una correlación entre la PF y la distribución ecológica de estas especies.

  20. Interaction between Uroplata girardi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Ophiomyia camarae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on a shared host Lantana camara (Verbenaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    April, Vuyokazi; Robertson, Mark P; Simelane, David O

    2011-10-01

    Multiple releases of insect agents intended to target a single plant pest species could result in competitive interactions that in turn might affect the community structure of the phytophagous insects. Two leaf-feeding biological control agents, Uroplata girardi Pic (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Ophiomyia camarae Spencer (Dipetera: Agromyzidae), were released against the weed Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) in South Africa in the 1970s and 2001, respectively. Since the population explosion of O. camarae in 2005, a decline of U. girardi populations had been observed in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) humid coast, leading to speculation that negative interaction may be operating between the agents. The study therefore was conducted to determine the competitive effect of O. camarae on U. girardi. The study showed that 76% of O. camarae larval mines were formed on uninfested (clean) compared with only 24% formed on U. girardi-infested leaves, suggesting that the fly chose to lay more eggs on clean leaves. Almost the same number of U. girardi larval mines was formed on both O. camarae-infested and clean leaves, indicating that U. girardi females in this case oviposited indiscriminately on the two types of leaves. The survival of U. girardi was 53.8% when reared on clean leaves compared with only 14.6% survival on O. camarae-infested leaves. At the end of the sampling period, densities of U. girardi was over two times higher in single-species than in combined-species treatment. Releasing both agents together did not significantly affect O. camarae densities during the sampling period. In the field, O. camarae densities increased rapidly from spring to autumn, whereas those of U. girardi remained consistently low during the same period. The bias toward oviposition on clean leaves in O. camarae enables its larvae to avoid unfavorable encounters with U. girardi larvae, thus enhancing its development and survival. The apparent inability of U. girardi to distinguish between suitable

  1. [Microscopic anatomy and volatile secondary metabolites at three stages of development of the inflorescences of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroprese Araque, José Fernando; Parra Garcés, María Isabel; Arrieta Prieto, Dagoberto; Stashenko, Elena

    2011-03-01

    Plants of the Verbenaceae family, like L. camara, have called the attention of researchers, not only because of its high diversity and its distribution around the world, but also for its variable use as popular medicine to treat diseases like tetanus, rheumatism and malaria, and as bactericide and insecticide. To assess this, the morphology and ontogeny of the inflorescences of Lantana camara and the chemical composition of volatile secondary metabolites were analyzed at three different ontogeny stages. Plants were collected from the experimental crop area in CENIVAM, Bucaramanga, Colombia. Fresh inflorescence stages were established and analyzed using a stereoscopic microscope, fixed in FAA and included in parafine. Transversal and longitudinal 10 microm thick sections were prepared using a rotative microtome, safranine-fastgreen stained and were observed and photographed using a light microscope. The chemical composition of volatile secondary metabolites were analyzed for each stage. The analytes, obtained from 0.7 g of plant, were isolated by solid phase micro-extraction in the headspace mode (HS-SPME) and were placed in 20 ml vials. The components were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Stage I was microscopically characterized by an immature development in which the meristematic differentiation begins with a mass of cells. In Stage II, the morphogenetic movement gives way to the formation of the respective floral sexual structures, calyx and corolla. In Stage III, the different organs are conspicuous: four stamens epipetals and didynamous, monocarpelar, biloculate and globose gynoecium, upper ovary and lateral stigma; the flowers are hermaphroditic. The main secondary metabolites detected by GC-MS were bicyclosesquiphellandrene, E-beta-farnesene, E-beta-caryophyllene, gamma-muurolene + gamma-curcumene and alpha-zingiberene. Nevertheless, this study reports for the first time in plant species alpha-gurjunene, gamma

  2. The anti-adherence effect of Lippia sidoides Cham: extract against microorganisms of dental biofilm Efeito anti-aderente de Lippia sidoides: extrato contra microorganismos do biofilme dental

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    A.C.L. Albuquerque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most illnesses affecting the oral cavity are proven to have infectious origin. Several categories of chemical agents have been used in the chemical control of dental biofilm through strategies that aim at reducing bacterial adhesion and inhibiting the growth and the proliferation of microorganisms on the tooth surface. The use of plants in folk medicine and in Dentistry, as well as the spread of successful cases, has led to scientific exploration, resulting in chemical-pharmacological knowledge of thousands of plants. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-adherence activity of Lippia sidoides Cham., comparing the results with those of 0.12% chlorhexidine by means of an in vitro simulation of dental biofilm. The studied bacterial strains were Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus casei, main responsible for the biofilm adherence. The studied extract was effective in inhibiting the adherence of Streptococcus mutans up to a concentration of 1:16, compared to Chlorhexidine. Lippia sidoides Cham extract showed anti-adherence effect on the major microorganisms responsible for dental biofilm consolidation.É fato comprovado que a maior parte das doenças que acometem a cavidade bucal são de origem infecciosa. Várias categorias de agentes químicos têm sido utilizadas no controle químico do biofilme dental através de estratégias que visam a redução da adesão bacteriana, a inibição do crescimento, e a proliferação dos microrganismos na superfície do dente. A utilização das plantas pela medicina popular, seu uso na Odontologia e a divulgação dos êxitos, conduziram a exploração científica resultando no conhecimento químico-farmacológico de milhares de plantas. A presente pesquisa objetivou avaliar a atividade antiaderente da folha da Lippia sidoides Cham. comparando seus resultados com a Clorexidina 0,12%, através de uma simulação, in vitro, do biofilme dental. As linhagens bacterianas utilizadas

  3. Efeito do volume do tubete no crescimento inicial de plântulas de Cordia trichotoma (Vell. Arrab. ex Steud e Jacaranda micranta Cham.

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    Ubirajara Contro Malavasi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio comparou os efeitos de tubetes de quatro volumes no crescimento de mudas de Cordia trichotoma (Vell. Arrab. ex Steud e Jacaranda micranta Cham. até 180 dias após o plantio (DAP. Foram utilizados tubetes plásticos de seção circular e volume de 55, 120, 180 e 300 cm3 preenchidos com substrato comercial. Os resultados indicaram que, durante a fase de viveiro na qual não fora anotada nenhuma mortalidade, os tubetes menores causaram diminuição da massa seca do sistema radicular e do número de radicelas. O crescimento a campo em altura e diâmetro das mudas das duas espécies utilizadas no ensaio resultou em similaridade estatística entre as originadas de tubetes com volumes de 120, 180 e 300 cm3 ao final de 180 dias após plantio.

  4. Insulin resistance and β-cell function in Colombian mestizo and Embera-Chamí populations and their relation with adiposity degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro-Gomez, María Antonieta; Naranjo-González, Andrés; Parra-Marín, María Victoria; Gallego-Lopera, Natalia; Valencia, Diana María; Rúa-Molina, Diana Carolina; Rosique-Gracia, Javier; García-Pineda, Andres Felipe; Gómez-Isaza, Luis Felipe; Pizano-Ramírez, Norman Diego; Arcos, Edgar Gerardo; Villegas-Perrasse, Alberto; Duque-Botero, Julieta; Bedoya-Berrío, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a condition favored by metabolic and endocrine changes experienced by adipose tissue in the context of obesity. The prevalence and the presentation of both IR and obesity vary among the populations, and may be affected by ancestral genetic composition among other factors. The aim of this study was to compare the presence of IR and obesity in Amerindians of the Embera-Chamí ethnicity and Colombian mestizo population. A sample of 630 individuals, 471 mestizos and 159 Amerindians of the Embera-Chamí ethnicity, from the general population of Colombia were studied. For each participant, anthropometric and biochemical measurements, as well as blood pressure and the Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) of IR and β-cell function (%B) were recorded. These values were compared between the two populations. While prevalence of central obesity was similar in both populations (48.7% and 42.6% in the mestizo and Embera groups respectively; p=0.148), body mass index (BMI) values suggested a higher prevalence of overweight in the Embera than in mestizo population (43.4% Embera, 31.8% mestizo; p=0.027). Despite the similarities in the prevalence of HOMA-IR and HOMA-%B status between both populations, the Embera population had a significantly greater pancreatic β-cell function, higher insulin levels, and better glucose control, across BMI and central obesity categories, than the mestizo population. There are differences in aspects related to energy metabolism between the samples of the mestizo and Amerindian populations analyzed. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from verbenaceae species: alternative sources of (E-caryophyllene and germacrene-D

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    Ricardo M Montanari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Volatile oils from the leaves of Verbenaceae species Aloysia virgata, Lantana camara, Lantana trifolia, Lantana montevidensis, Lippia brasiliensis and Lippia sericea were investigated for its chemical composition and antibacterial activity. The volatile oils were characterized by a high content of sesquiterpenes of which (E-caryophyllene (10-35%, germacrene-D (5-46% and bicyclogermacrene (7-17% were the major components for all studied species. For the flowers, a higher concentration of monoterpenes was observed for the species L. camara, L. trifolia and L. brasiliensis. These compounds probably act as attractive to specific pollinators. The volatile oils from A. virgata was the most active, exhibiting moderate antimicrobial activity against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli.

  6. PLASTICIDAD FENOTÍPICA EN Lippia alba Y Lippia origanoides (VERBENACEAE: RESPUESTA A LA DISPONIBILIDAD DE NITRÓGENO Phenotypic Plasticity in Lippia alba and Lippia origanoides (Verbenaceae: Response to Nitrogen Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ANDRÉS ANTOLINEZ-DELGADO

    Full Text Available Este trabajo comparó la plasticidad fenotípica (PF a través de la etapa vegetativa de dos especies del genero Lippia (Verbenaceae que presentan amplitud ecológica contrastante con respecto a la disponibilidad de nitrógeno. Lippia alba, especie distribuida en suelos de alta a baja disponibilidad de nitrógeno y Lippia origanoides distribuida en suelos con baja disponibilidad de nitrógeno. Nuestra hipótesis de trabajo planteó que la magnitud de la plasticidad fenotípica en estas especies podría correlacionarse con su amplitud ecológica. Treinta y cinco clones de Lippia alba y Lippia origanoides fueron asignado aleatoriamente en tres tratamientos que variaron en la disponibilidad de nitrógeno en el suelo así: 0,5; 2,5 y 5 mM. A los 25, 35, 50 y 70 días cinco clones de cada especie por tratamiento fueron colectadas. Se evaluó el numero de hojas, área foliar, fracción masa de las hojas, fracción masa de la raíz, razón raíz/parte aérea, volumen de la raíz, longitud de la raíz, masa seca total y tasa de crecimiento relativo. Los resultados indican que ambas plantas presentan una alta PF a la disponibilidad de nitrógeno; sin embargo, las normas de reacción de los caracteres estimados variaron dependiendo de la especie y la edad de la planta. Contrario a nuestra hipótesis no encontramos una correlación entre la PF y la distribución ecológica de estas especies.Here we present a comparative study of phenotypic plasticity in response to soil nitrogen availability in two perennial Lippia species that show different ecological breadth. Lippia alba occurs in soils whith low to high nitrogen concentrations, while Lippia origanoides is only found in soils whit low nitrogen concentrations. We hypothesized that the magnitude of phenotypic plasticity of these species could be correlated with their ecological breadth. Thirty five clones of L. alba and L. origanoides were putted randomly in three treatments with different nitrogen

  7. Effect of two active compounds obtained from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea on the acute inflammatory responses elicited by LPS in the rat paw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, R; Passos, G F; Vitor, C E; Koepp, J; Mazzuco, T L; Pianowski, L F; Campos, M M; Calixto, J B

    2007-07-01

    alpha-Humulene and trans-caryophyllene are sesquiterpene compounds identified in the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea which display topical and systemic anti-inflammatory effects in different experimental models. However, the molecular mechanisms through which they exert their anti-inflammatory activity still remain unclear. Here, we evaluate the effects of alpha-humulene and trans-caryophyllene on the acute inflammatory responses elicited by LPS. The biological activities of alpha-humulene and trans-caryophyllene were investigated in a model of acute inflammation in rat paw, induced by LPS and characterized by paw oedema, neutrophil recruitment, cytokine production, activation of MAP kinases and NF-kappaB and up-regulated expression of kinin B(1) receptors. Treatment with either alpha-humulene or trans-caryophyllene effectively reduced neutrophil migration and activation of NF-kappaB induced by LPS in the rat paw. However, only alpha-humulene significantly reduced the increase in TNF-alpha and IL-1beta levels, paw oedema and the up-regulation of B(1) receptors following treatment with LPS. Both compounds failed to interfere with the activation of the MAP kinases, ERK, p38 and JNK. Both alpha-humulene and trans-caryophyllene inhibit the LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation and neutrophil migration, although only alpha-humulene had the ability to prevent the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta and the in vivo up-regulation of kinin B(1) receptors. These data provide additional molecular and functional insights into the beneficial effects of the sesquiterpenes alpha-humulene and trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea as agents for the management of inflammatory diseases.

  8. Effect of two active compounds obtained from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea on the acute inflammatory responses elicited by LPS in the rat paw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, R; Passos, G F; Vitor, C E; Koepp, J; Mazzuco, T L; Pianowski, L F; Campos, M M; Calixto, J B

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: α-Humulene and trans-caryophyllene are sesquiterpene compounds identified in the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea which display topical and systemic anti-inflammatory effects in different experimental models. However, the molecular mechanisms through which they exert their anti-inflammatory activity still remain unclear. Here, we evaluate the effects of α-humulene and trans-caryophyllene on the acute inflammatory responses elicited by LPS. Experimental approach: The biological activities of α-humulene and trans-caryophyllene were investigated in a model of acute inflammation in rat paw, induced by LPS and characterized by paw oedema, neutrophil recruitment, cytokine production, activation of MAP kinases and NF-κB and up-regulated expression of kinin B1 receptors. Key results: Treatment with either α-humulene or trans-caryophyllene effectively reduced neutrophil migration and activation of NF-κB induced by LPS in the rat paw. However, only α-humulene significantly reduced the increase in TNF-α and IL-1β levels, paw oedema and the up-regulation of B1 receptors following treatment with LPS. Both compounds failed to interfere with the activation of the MAP kinases, ERK, p38 and JNK. Conclusions and Implications: Both α-humulene and trans-caryophyllene inhibit the LPS-induced NF-κB activation and neutrophil migration, although only α-humulene had the ability to prevent the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β and the in vivo up-regulation of kinin B1 receptors. These data provide additional molecular and functional insights into the beneficial effects of the sesquiterpenes α-humulene and trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea as agents for the management of inflammatory diseases. PMID:17471174

  9. Anatomía microscópica y metabolitos secundarios volátiles en tres estadios del desarrollo de las inflorescencias de Lantana camara (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Caroprese Araque

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas de la familia Verbenaceae, entre ellas la especie Lantana camara L., poseen una alta diversidad botánica además de su variable uso. Se describe el avance morfoanatómico de tres etapas de desarrollo de las inflorescencias de L. camara L. (Verbenaceae, recolectadas en Bucaramanga, Colombia. Para esto se tincionaron las estructuras vegetales mediante la técnica fast-green, previo a los análisis con microscopía óptica convencional. El aislamiento de los analitos de cada estadio se realizó mediante la técnica de microextracción en fase sólida en el modo headspace (HS-SPME y su posterior análisis de componentes, mediante cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. En el Estadio I se apreció un grupo de células en donde se inicia la diferenciación meristemática. En el Estadio II, los movimientos morfogenéticos dan paso a la formación de las respectivas estructuras sexuales florales, el cáliz y la corola. Al llegar al Estadio III, se observaron claramente los diferentes órganos. Los metabolitos detectados en este estudio y que no fueron encontrados en la bibliografía revisada fueron, el α- gurjuneno, el Υ-amorfeno, el α-muuroleno, el sesquitujeno, el α-trans- bergamoteno y el trans-cadina-1,4-dieno. Los principales metabolitos secundarios detectados fueron: biciclosesquifelandreno, E-β-farneseno, E-β-cariofileno, Υ- muuroleno+Υ-curcumeno y α-zingibereno. Una función importante de éstas y otras esencias florales es la defensa y la protección durante el estrés abiótico de la planta.

  10. La concepción de la curación chamánica entre los indígenas Embera de Colombia: un proceso de comunicación socio-cultural y fisiológico

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaraz López, Gloria Margarita; YagaríTascón, Leopoldo

    2003-01-01

    Este trabajo etnográfico centra su atención en un ritual terapéutico. El artículo describe en detalle un acto de curación realizado por un chamán embera, de Colombia, a una mujer indígena que se encontraba hospitalizada en estado grave y no estaba respondiendo al tratamiento médico occidental. Se analizan los pasos del ritual en relación con la cultura embera y se inicia el abordaje de la comprensión terapéutica utilizada por el chamán en la cual se observan claramente los momentos de abreacc...

  11. and Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Pharmacology, Riphah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Riphah International University, Islamabad,. 2Department of Pharmacy, University of Lahore, Islamabad Campus, Lahore, Pakistan, 3Prince Abdullah Ben Khalid Celiac. Disease Research Chair, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, ...

  12. Typifications in Verbena (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly O`Leary

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Un neotipo y catorce lectotipos son designados aquí para quince nombres de Verbena. Se aclara además la tipificación de Verbena nudiflora y se incluyen fotografías de los ejemplares de Sellow designados como lectotipos.

  13. Prolina livre em alecrim-pimenta sob estresse hídrico antes da colheita Free proline in Lippia sidoides Cham. under water stress before harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.C.A. Alvarenga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O estresse hídrico é considerado um dos fatores limitantes para o desenvolvimento das plantas, com isso, os vegetais desenvolvem mecanismos para tolerar a deficiência hídrica do solo. Entre esses mecanismos, está o acúmulo de prolina livre nos tecidos, tendo como função a regulação osmótica dos tecidos. A influência do estresse hídrico em plantas medicinais ainda é pouco estudado, principalmente em plantas nativas, como é o caso do alecrim-pimenta Lippia sidoides Cham. Assim, o trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a prolina livre e o teor de flavonoides totais na referida espécie sob condições de estresse hídrico antes da colheita. O trabalho foi realizado no Instituto de Ciências Agrárias da UFMG, Campus Montes Claros, delineamento em blocos casualizados, com 5 tratamentos e 4 repetições, sendo eles 8, 6, 4, 2 e 0 dias de supressão da irrigação antes da colheita. Os teores encontrados de prolina variaram entre 0,2489 a 3,2421 ìM.g-1 de matéria seca e de flavonoides entre 0,0139 a 0,008 g.g-1. Os resultados observados indicam que a planta diminui seu teor de flavonoides e aumenta o teor de prolina com o aumento do período de estresse.Water stress is considered a limiting factor for plant growth, thus, the plants develop mechanisms to tolerate the soil water deficit. Among these mechanisms is the accumulation of free proline in tissues, with the poke the osmotic regulation of tissues. The influence of water stress in medicinal plants is still poorly studied, mainly on native plants such as rosemary-pepper Lippia sidoides Cham. Thus, the study aimed to evaluate the free proline and total flavonoid content in that species under conditions of water stress before harvest. The study was conducted at the Institute of Agricultural Sciences, UFMG, Campus Montes Claros, randomized block design with 5 treatments and 4 replicates, and they 8, 6, 4, 2 and 0 days of withholding irrigation before harvest. The content of proline

  14. Morfología, anatomía, ontogenia y composición química de metabolitos secundarios en inflorescencias de Lippia alba (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Parra-Garcés

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La especie Lippia alba (Verbenaceae llama la atención de los investigadores por su amplia distribución en todo el mundo y sus diversas propiedades. Se establecieron tres etapas durante el desarrollo de sus inflorescencias, fueron recolectadas en Bucaramanga, Colombia para analizar los cambios morfoanatómicos. Para ello, las muestras se trataron mediante la técnica safraninafastgreen y se observaron utilizando microscopio óptico convencional. Se realizó el aislamiento de los metabolitos secundarios volátiles usando la técnica de microextracción en fase sólida en el modo headspace (HS-SPME y su posterior análisis de componentes, mediante cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. En la Etapa I se observó una masa de células meristemáticas en el ápice vegetativo. En la Etapa II la acción de procesos morfogenéticos dan paso a la formación de los verticilos florales del perianto. En la Etapa III se establecen todos los verticilos florales. Los principales metabolitos secundarios constituyen el 78% de la cantidad relativa total. Ellos son el biciclosesquifelandreno, la carvona, el limoneno y el trans-β-farneseno. Los metabolitos β-copaeno, γ-amorfeno y cis-β-guaieno, no estαn registrados en la bibliografνa revisada. Estos compuestos activos pueden variar de acuerdo con el estado de desarrollo de la planta, la parte empleada para la extracciσn y el mιtodo implementado para ello.Morphology, anatomy, ontogeny and chemical composition of inflorescences volatile secondary metabolites of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae at three stages of development. There is an increased interest to know and scientifically validate traditional knowledge of medicinal plants. Lippia alba belongs to Verbenaceae family and has been of interest, not only because of its worldwide extensive distribution, but also for its variable use as antiviral, bactericide, citostatic, analgesic and sedative. To study this, the morphology and

  15. Immunomodulatory activity of extracts from Cordia superba Cham. and Cordia rufescens A. DC. (Boraginaceae, plant species native from Brazilian Semi-arid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Oliveira Costa

    Full Text Available The family Boraginaceae is widely distributed in Brazil and in the Northeastern region some species are popularly used to treat symptoms of rheumatism, painful menstruation and dyspepsia. In this work we studied Cordia superba Cham. and C. rufescens A. DC., native from Brazilian Semi-arid region, in order to investigate their immunomodulatory activity. Six extracts were prepared from aerial parts of C. superba and C. rufescens. The cytotoxicity was evaluated using splenocytes from BALB/c mice. The immunomodulatory activity was determined by in vitro assays using activated mouse macrophages and lymphocytes. Peritoneal macrophages obtained from BALB/c mice were stimulated with IFN-gamma and LPS in the presence/absence of the samples. The NO production was measured indirectly through Griess method. Three samples inhibited the production of nitric oxide in values near 50% at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. To evaluate the effects of the extracts on lymphocytes, splenocytes from BALB/c mice were incubated with the samples and concanavalin A. Proliferation inhibition was determined by analysis of ³H-thymidine uptake. Samples from the two species had a strong inhibitory activity on lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 production. Two chloroform extracts prepared from aerial parts of C. rufescens had the lowest IC50 values (7.6 and 11.0 µg/mL.

  16. Primeros ensayos para el cultivo y caracterización del aceite esencial de Conobea scoparioides (Cham. & Schltdl. Benth. para el Pacífico colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tulio González Mina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conobea scoparioides (Cham. & Schltdl. Benth. es una planta silvestre de humedales de la que no hay antecedentes de su cultivo o domesticación. El presente trabajo intenta obtener resultados preliminares para su reproducción en condiciones experimentales de siembras simulando su entorno natural contrastada con siembras en materas. Como se ha reportado previamente interés por esta especie como fuente de aceites esenciales ricos en timol, sustancia valiosa de uso industrial y medicinal, se analiza la composición cromatográfica de los volátiles para una población local. Se enuncia un nuevo quimiotipo para el aceite esencial de C. scoparioides procedente de los humedales del Pacífico colombiano. Se presentan los resultados de los ensayos sobre la reproducción vegetativa y por semillas de la especie en cuestión, aunque los resultados reproductivos indican un limitado potencial agrícola para esta especie.

  17. SUBSTRATOS E NÍVEIS DE LUMINOSIDADE NO CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE MUDAS DE Tocoyena formosa(Cham. & Schltdl. K. Schum. (RUBIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaliny Bonamigo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the best substrate type and light conditions for the cultivation of seedlings of Tocoyena formosa (Cham. & Schltdl. K. Schum. Seeds were planted in Styrofoam trays under 70% shading. Three months after emergence, the seedlings were selected and transplanted in 4-L pots, in two types of substrates: 50% dystroferric Red Latosol + 50% sand (TA and 50% dystroferric Red Latosol + 25% sand + 25% semi-decomposed chicken manure (TACF. After transplanting, the seedlings were placed under three conditions of shading (30, 50 and 70% shade and full sun (0% shade. After acclimation, the physiologic quality of the seedlings was determined monthly, by analysis of growth and Dickson quality index, for 270 days. The experiment was carried out using a randomized block design in a 2 x 4 x 4 factorial scheme (substrate x shading x age of seedling, with three repetitions of three seedlings. There was greater growth and quality of the seedlings in the substrate soil + sand + chicken manure and under conditions of 30% shade and full sun. It is concluded that for the production of seedlings of Tocoyena formosa, the best conditions are 30% shade and full sun for light and TACF for substrate.

  18. Primeros ensayos para el cultivo y caracterización del aceite esencial de Conobea scoparioides (Cham. & Schltdl. Benth. para el Pacífico colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tulio González Mina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conobea scoparioides (Cham. & Schltdl. Benth. es una planta silvestre de humedales de la que no hay antecedentes de su cultivo o domesticación. El presente trabajo intenta obtener resultados preliminares para su reproducción en condiciones experimentales de siembras simulando su entorno natural contrastada con siembras en materas. Como se ha reportado previamente interés por esta especie como fuente de aceites esenciales ricos en timol, sustancia valiosa de uso industrial y medicinal, se analiza la composición cromatográfica de los volátiles para una población local. Se enuncia un nuevo quimiotipo para el aceite esencial de C. scoparioides procedente de los humedales del Pacífico colombiano. Se presentan los resultados de los ensayos sobre la reproducción vegetativa y por semillas de la especie en cuestión, aunque los resultados reproductivos indican un limitado potencial agrícola para esta especie.

  19. CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE Prunus brasiliensis (Cham. & Schltdl. D. Dietr. EM SUBSTRATOS À BASE DE LODO DE ESGOTO COMPOSTADO E FERTILIZANTE MINERAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Bergamini Scheer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amount of solid waste generates the need for its use. An opportunity is the use of sewage sludge to attend the demand for alternative inputs in the agricultural and forestry practices. The aim of thisstudy was to evaluate the performance of Prunus brasiliensis (Cham. & Schltdl. D. Dietr. (pessegueiro - bravo grown on substrates prepared from aerobic sewage sludge composted with ground tree pruningand with different levels of a granulated fertilizer, and to compare its performance with those grown on commercial substrate, which is widely used in forest nurseries. The experiment was conducted in a shadehouse (from July/08 to Oct/08 and in an outdoor growing area (from Nov/08 to Feb/09 at Water and Sanitation Company of Paraná, located in Araucária, southern Brazil. Three different substrates were used: commercial substrate, consisting of composted pine bark and vermiculite, and 3:1 (v:v and 2:1 (v:v composted substrate based on crushed tree pruning and sewage sludge. The following variables were measured: seedling height, diameter and dry biomass of leaves and branches. The results showed higher growth rates of seedlings grown on substrates containing sewage sludge than on those grown on commercial substrate. Both composts with sewage sludge, using the two levels of fertilization (2.7 and 4 g dm-3, present similar results for the majority of the variables tested.

  20. Effect of adding flours from marolo fruit (Annona crassiflora Mart and jerivá fruit (Syagrus romanzoffiana Cham Glassm on the physicals and sensory characteristics of food bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Pablo da SILVA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart. and jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana Cham Glassm fruits grow in the Cerrado biome, and have important sensory and nutritional characteristics. These fruits are eaten fresh or processed and embedded in ice cream, candy, juices, and liquors. However, their use is very limited and is localized exclusively to their native region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of these fruits in food consumer products to improve the nutritional patterns of consumers and extend knowledge thereof. To do this, different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of flour derived from the marolo and jerivá fruits were incorporated into food bars, which were then characterized in terms of their physical of the texture (TPA, porosity, color and sensorial properties. The food bars enriched with marolo and jerivá flours had an intense yellow color and increased hardness relative to the control bars; the porosity of the bars progressively decreased as the amount of flour added increased. The sensorial analysis in the snack bars developed added with the fruits flour no was influence by incorporation this component, showed good averages for the scores evaluated.

  1. Anatomía microscópica y metabolitos secundarios volátiles en tres estadios del desarrollo de las inflorescencias de Lantana camara (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Caroprese Araque

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas de la familia Verbenaceae, entre ellas la especie Lantana camara L., poseen una alta diversidad botánica además de su variable uso. Se describe el avance morfoanatómico de tres etapas de desarrollo de las inflorescencias de L. camara L. (Verbenaceae, recolectadas en Bucaramanga, Colombia. Para esto se tincionaron las estructuras vegetales mediante la técnica fast-green, previo a los análisis con microscopía óptica convencional. El aislamiento de los analitos de cada estadio se realizó mediante la técnica de microextracción en fase sólida en el modo headspace (HS-SPME y su posterior análisis de componentes, mediante cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. En el Estadio I se apreció un grupo de células en donde se inicia la diferenciación meristemática. En el Estadio II, los movimientos morfogenéticos dan paso a la formación de las respectivas estructuras sexuales florales, el cáliz y la corola. Al llegar al Estadio III, se observaron claramente los diferentes órganos. Los metabolitos detectados en este estudio y que no fueron encontrados en la bibliografía revisada fueron, el α- gurjuneno, el Υ-amorfeno, el α-muuroleno, el sesquitujeno, el α-trans- bergamoteno y el trans-cadina-1,4-dieno. Los principales metabolitos secundarios detectados fueron: biciclosesquifelandreno, E-β-farneseno, E-β-cariofileno, Υ- muuroleno+Υ-curcumeno y α-zingibereno. Una función importante de éstas y otras esencias florales es la defensa y la protección durante el estrés abiótico de la planta.Microscopic anatomy and volatile secondary metabolites at three stages of development of the inflorescences of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae. Plants of the Verbenaceae family, like L. camara, have called the attention of researchers, not only because of its high diversity and its distribution around the world, but also for its variable use as popular medicine to treat diseases like tetanus, rheumatism and

  2. Papilomavirus Humanos con Hiperplasia Epitelial Focal en la Población escolar indígena Embera-Chamí de Cristianía, municipio de Jardín, Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Inés Sánchez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La Hiperplasia Epitelial Focal (HEF o enfermedad de Heck es una enfermedad de la mucosa oral, con alta prevalencia entre comunidades indígenas. Esta enfermedad ha sido relacionada con
    Papilomavirus humanos (PVH genotipos 13 y 32. Anteriormente se
    encontró una alta prevalencia de esta enfermedad entre la comunidad indígena Embera-Chamí del municipio de Antioquia (1. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer la asociación entre la infección por PVH y el desarrollo de HEF en esta comunidad.

     

     

  3. Ablación Genital Femenina (AGF): el proyecto Emberá Wera y su efecto en la comunidad Emberá Chamí de los municipios de Mistrató y Pueblo Rico en Risaralda (2007-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Palacio, Fallon

    2015-01-01

    El interés de este estudio de caso es analizar los efectos y limitaciones de la implementación del proyecto Emberá Wera, que tenía como objetivo eliminar la Ablación Genital Femenina, dentro de la comunidad Emberá Chamí de Mistrató y Pueblo Rico (Colombia). Para ello, se rastrean los cambios generados respecto a la práctica, y en las creencias sobre la misma, después de finalizado el proyecto. Luego, se hace un acercamiento a la norma internacional: eliminación de la ablación, para dar cuenta...

  4. FERTILIZACIÓN CON NITRÓGENO, FÓSFORO Y POTASIO EN UN LATIZAL DE Pinus patula Schl. et Cham.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha O. Lázaro-Dzul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las masas forestales enfrentan el problema de productividad, la cual demanda que se incremente en cantidad y calidad. El crecimiento forestal depende de varios factores, entre ellos, el edáfico, que actúa sobre el árbol mediante el agua y los elementos minerales. Se incrementa la productividad forestal al mejorar la disponibilidad nutrimental mediante la fertilización. Consecuentemente, la finalidad de este trabajo fue estudiar la fertilización con nitrógeno (0, 138,185, fósforo (0, 15, 21 y potasio (0, 123,164 kg·ha-1 con relación al crecimiento de follaje nuevo, mediante un experimento factorial 33 en una plantación de Pinus patula Schl. et Cham. de 10 años de edad, en Aquixtla, Puebla, durante 2009-2010. La tasa relativa de crecimiento instantáneo (TCRI en volumen de follaje nuevo fue mejor (0.0255 mL·mL-1·día-1 con la dosis 185-0-0 kg·ha-1 de NPK, y la TCRI de peso seco fue mejor (0.0254 y 0.0249 g·g-1·día-1, respectivamente con las dosis 138-0-123 y 138-0-0. Se determinó deficiencia de nitrógeno, que se atribuyó a la acidez edáfica y a la lenta mineralización de la materia orgánica. La dosis recomendada para las condiciones edáficas y climáticas del sitio experimental fue 185-0-0 kg·ha-1 NPK para volumen de follaje nuevo y 138-0-0 kg·ha-1 de NPK para peso seco.

  5. Aqueous stem bark extract of Stereospermum kunthianum (Cham, Sandrine Petit) protects against generalized seizures in pentylenetetrazole and electro-convulsive models in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, F P; Omogbai, E K I; Otokiti, I O

    2009-07-03

    Stereospermum kunthianum, Cham Sandrine Petit (Bignoniaceae) known in English as pink jacaranda is used in traditional medicine to treat an array of ailments including febrile convulsions in infants and young children by the rural dwellers in Nigeria. This study examined the anticonvulsant activity of its aqueous stem bark extract (100 - 400mg/kg) against maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rodents. Phenobarbitone and ethosuximide were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Stereospermum kunthianum extract (200 - 400mg/kg, i.p.) remarkably protected (76.9% and 84.6 % respectively) the rats against electroshock-induced seizures. However, the extract (200- 400mg/kg) when administered orally showed a comparatively less effect (33.3% and 55.6% respectively) to the intraperitoneally administered extract in the maximal electroshock test. The extract (100-400mg/kg, i.p.) significantly delayed (p<0.05) the onset of pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizures but only slightly prolonged the time of death of the mice. Although the findings in the present study do not provide conclusive evidence, it appears that the aqueous stem bark extract of Stereospermum kunthianum produces its antiseizure effect by enhancing GABAergic neurotransmission and/or action in the brain. The results indicate that the aqueous extract possesses anticonvulsant activity in rodents and therefore tend to suggest that the shrub may be used as a natural supplementary remedy in the management, control and/or treatment of childhood convulsions. It can be concluded that the aqueous stem bark extract possesses anticonvulsant activity and therefore lend pharmacological credence to the traditionally claimed use in the treatment of childhood convulsions.

  6. Tibouchina sellowiana (Cham. Cogn.: enraizamento, anatomia e análises bioquímicas nas quatro estações do ano

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    Michele Fernanda Bortolini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work tried to verify the effects of application of different concentration of indolebutyric acid (IBA in talc in solution, in the rooting of cutting of Tibouchina sellowiana (Cham. Cogn. collected in the four seasons, as well as its anatomical and biochemical variation. The semiharwood cuttings were treated with 0, 1500 and 3000 mg L-¹ indolebutyric acid (IBA, in powder and alchoolic solutions. After 65 days in a greenhouse, rooting percentage, length and number of roots, cutting with callus percentage and survival, were evaluated. The use of the IBA was efficient in the induction radicial, being indifferent the form in which it was applied. The most promising stations in the formation of the system radicial were the spring (78,75% with 3000 mg L-¹ or mg kg-¹ IBA and the summer (63,12 % with 1500 mg L-¹ or mg kg-¹ IBA. (82,50% with 3000 mg kg-¹ IBA. Considering the cutting in the base of the stakes, in the moment of the cutting, no possible anatomical barrier or structural difference were detected so that it should promoted variations in the answers of the rooting uring the four seasons. Biochemical analyses done from the cuttings collected in the four seasons revealed that the largest concentrations of total sugars were obtained in the winter (83,21 mg g-¹ and in the autumn (72,79 mg g-¹. The same stations also presented the largest protein concentrations (4,69 and 3,95 mg g-¹ respectively.

  7. Isolation of verbascoside and validation of method to standardize the crude extract of the aerial parts of Buddleja stachyoides Cham. and Schltdl. (Scrophulariaceae); Isolamento do verbacosideo e validacao de metodo analitico para padronizacao do extrato bruto das partes aereas de Buddleja stachyoides Cham. and Schltdl. (Scrophulariaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Daniella M.S. de; Miguel, Marilis D.; Kalegari, Milena; Miguel, Obdulio G.; Moreira, Thais F., E-mail: dani_mso@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia

    2014-04-15

    Phenylpropanoid glycoside verbascoside was isolated and identified from the ethyl acetate fraction of the aerial parts of Buddleja stachyoides Cham. and Schltdl. by {sup 1}H-NMR. A method using high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed and validated for determination of verbascoside in alcoholic crude extract of the aerial parts of B. stachyoides. Analysis was performed on a Phenomenex® Gemini-NX C18 analytical column (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5 μm) using a mobile phase (pump A - aqueous solution containing H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (0.01 M), H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (0.4%), and (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 2}NH (0.4%); pump B - methanol:aqueous (95:5) solution containing H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (0.05 M), H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (2%), and (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 2}NH (0.2%); pump C - acetonitrile:aqueous (90:10) solution containing H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (0.05 M) and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (2%)) and a diode array detector at 325 nm. The method was validated in accordance with ANVISA guidelines and may be applied to quality control of herbal medicine with aerial parts of B. stachyoides. (author)

  8. Caracterização farmacobotânica das espécies de Sambucus (Caprifoliaceae utilizadas como medicinais no Brasil: Parte II. Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl.

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    Eliana Nunes

    Full Text Available Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl. (sabugueiro-do-rio-grande, Caprifoliaceae é uma planta medicinal descrita apenas na primeira edição da Farmacopéia Brasileira. A espécie é nativa no Brasil, e suas flores são utilizadas na medicina popular, na forma de infusão ou decocção, como diuréticas, antipiréticas, antiinflamatórias, laxativo leve e no tratamento de doenças do aparelho respiratório. Visando elaborar uma monografia farmacopéica atualizada e comparativa com a de Sambucus nigra L., de origem européia, foram estabelecidos os caracteres botânicos macro e microscópicos, através da metodologia clássica utilizada em morfoanatomia vegetal. São características macroscópicas: flores morfologicamente monoclinas; corola de sete a dez milímetros de diâmetro; pétalas com cinco, raro quatro nervuras paralelas; estames curtos e longos; gineceu em regra com cinco lóculos. São características microscópicas: cutícula espessa e estriada; ausência de idioblastos de areia cristalina de oxalato de cálcio; estômatos anomocíticos; brácteas anfiestomáticas; sépalas hipoestomáticas; pétalas anfi-hipoestomáticas; células epidérmicas da face abaxial de sépalas e pétalas retilíneas a sinuosas; células epidérmicas do filete alongadas e de paredes retilíneas; tricomas tectores e glandulares de diferentes tipos; brácteas, sépalas e pétalas com mesofilo homogêneo; sistema vascular representado por feixes colaterais ou agrupamentos de elementos xilemáticos; presença de gotas lipídicas em todas as peças.

  9. ESTABLECIMIENTO DE REGENERACIÓN DE Pinus patula Schl. et Cham., EN CORTAS BAJO EL MÉTODO DE ÁRBOLES PADRES

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    M. Castelán-Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el establecimiento de la regeneración de Pinus patula Schl. et Cham., en el Ejido La Mojonera, municipio de Zacualtipán, en el estado de Hidalgo, en áreas de bosque manejadas con el método de árboles padre. El Método de Desarrollo Silvícola (M.D.S., contempla un período de gracia de cinco años después de los aprovechamientos para que la regeneración se considere establecida. Con base en lo anterior, en este estudio se consideraron las seis anualidades siguientes: 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 y 2002. Mediante sitios de muestreo ubicados al azar dentro de las áreas aprovechadas en las anualidades indicadas, se obtuvo información respecto a la densidad, altura total, diámetro de la base y diámetro de copa de la especie de interés a fin de determinar su crecimiento a través de los años. Los resultados indicaron que la regeneración se comporta de manera regular y uniforme en las seis áreas (anualidades evaluadas, considerándose como establecida a los cuatro años después del aprovechamiento, pues en este lapso, se presentó una densidad de 4,200 individuos por hectárea (superando la norma prefijada por el MDS de 2,500 individuos por hectárea, con una altura promedio de 2.7 m; un diámetro en la base promedio de 3.8 cm y un diámetro de copa promedio de 1.34 m. Para el caso de las anualidades 1997 y 1998, se encontró que la cobertura de copas rebasa ampliamente el parámetro establecido por los procedimientos de la evaluación, razón por la cual, en dichas áreas puede realizarse un preaclareo de hasta 40 %, encaminado a obtener una estructura deseada.

  10. Produção de fitomassa e teor de óleo essencial de folhas de alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. em diferentes espaçamentos de plantio Phytomass production and essential oil yield of pepper-rosmarin (Lippia sidoides Cham. leaves in different planting spacings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T.P Melo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O alecrim-pimenta, espécie nativa do nordeste brasileiro, é uma planta medicinal de porte arbustivo, com folhas aromáticas, que possuem óleo essencial rico em timol e carvacrol. Essas substâncias conferem grande importância à planta, uma vez que apresentam atividades farmacológicas comprovadas cientificamente. Desta forma, o estudo das condições de cultivo da espécie é essencial para obtenção de maiores produtividades. O espaçamento entre plantas destaca-se como um dos fatores mais importantes relativos ao cultivo, de forma que a produtividade e o rendimento da cultura são afetados pela densidade de plantas. Dada a necessidade de otimizar técnicas de cultivo do alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham., objetivou-se avaliar a produção de fitomassa e óleo essencial em quatro espaçamentos de plantio. O trabalho foi realizado em campo, no Instituto de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (ICA/UFMG, no município de Montes Claros/MG. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram definidos pelos espaçamentos de plantio: 1,0 x 0,5 m; 1,0 x 1,0 m; 1,5 x 1,0 m; e fileiras duplas (1,0 x 0,8 x 0,5m, sendo 1,0 m entre fileiras duplas, 0,8 m entre fileiras simples e 0,5 m entre plantas na fileira. Após 150 dias do plantio no campo, foram avaliadas as variáveis produção de fitomassa fresca e seca das folhas, a produção e o teor de óleo essencial. Observou-se que o espaçamento de 1,0 x 0,5 m possibilitou uma maior produção de fitomassa e de óleo essencial, sendo, portanto, o mais indicado para o cultivo do alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham..Native to Northeastern Brazil, pepper-rosmarin (Lippia sidoides Cham. is a shrubby medicinal plant with aromatic leaves and essential oil rich in thymol and carvacrol. These components have great importance to the species since they present scientifically proven pharmacological activities. Thus

  11. Masa total y contenido de nutrientes en raíces finas de ecosistemas forestales (pinus patula schltdl y cham cupressus lusitanica mill y quercus humboldtii bonpl.) de piedras blancas, antioquia-colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto Sánchez, Luis Hernán; León Peláez, Juan Diego

    2011-01-01

    En la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia - Colombia, se realizó un muestreo de raíces finas (5 mm) en tres parcelas permanentes establecidas en bosques de pino pátula (Pinus patula Schltdl y Cham), ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica Mill) y roble (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl.) a diferentes profundidades: 0-30, 30-50 y 50-80 cm, con el fin de determinar la masa de raíces, y la concentración y contenido de nutrientes en cada cobertura vegetal. La masa de raíces finas disminuyó rápidamente a medida q...

  12. Evaluation of antimicrobial, antioxidant and phototoxic activities of extracts and isolated compounds from Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae Avalição da atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e fototóxica dos extratos e compostos isolados de Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre André De Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae, plant extract, is a Brazilian medicinal plant externally used in folk medicine for purulent ulcers, skin lesions and internally for inflammations, fever, renal disorders and atherosclerosis. S. cayennesis was studied to identify potential bioactive compounds that may justify their therapeutic use against skin lesions and atherosclerosis. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and phototoxicity capacities of the crude ethanolic extract, fractions and isolated compounds from roots of S. cayennesis were evaluated through in vivo and in vitro tests. Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an eukaryotic cell model, were used to assess both the phototoxicity and the capacity to protect against the lethal oxidative stress caused by menadione and hydrogen peroxide. The extract, fractions and the two major isolated compounds, verbascoside and betulinic acid, of S. cayennensis were able to increase the tolerance and decrease the lipid peroxidation of S. cerevisiae to reactive oxygen species (ROS. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•. Verbascoside exhibited a moderate antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, S.epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. Neither the ethanolic extract nor fractions showed phototoxicity, indicating that the S. cayennensis extract is safe for use in the treatment of skin lesions and as an active cosmetic ingredient.Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae, é uma planta utilizada na medicina popular brasileira contra úlceras e lesões de pele. Internamente é usada contra inflamações, febre, doenças renais e aterosclerose. Essa planta foi estudada com o objetivo de identificar os compostos bioativos majoritários que possam justificar seu uso terapêutico contra lesões de pele e arteriosclerose. A atividade antioxidante do extrato bruto etanólico, partições e os compostos majoritários isolados

  13. MASA TOTAL Y CONTENIDO DE NUTRIENTES EN RAÍCES FINAS DE ECOSISTEMAS FORESTALES (Pinus patula Schltdl y Cham Cupressus lusitanica Mill y Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. DE PIEDRAS BLANCAS, ANTIOQUIA-COLOMBIA TOTAL FINE ROOT MASS AND NUTRIENT CONTENT IN FOREST ECOSYSTEMS (Pinus patula Schltdl and Cham Cupressus lusitanica Mill and Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. FROM PIEDRAS BLANCAS, ANTIOQUIA-COLOMBIA

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    Luis Hernán Barreto Sánchez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia - Colombia, se realizó un muestreo de raíces finas (£ 5 mm en tres parcelas permanentes establecidas en bosques de pino pátula (Pinus patula Schltdl y Cham, ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica Mill y roble (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. a diferentes profundidades: 0-30, 30-50 y 50- 80 cm, con el fin de determinar la masa de raíces, y la concentración y contenido de nutrientes en cada cobertura vegetal. La masa de raíces finas disminuyó rápidamente a medida que aumentaba la profundidad, encontrándose en la parcela de ciprés el 83 % de las raíces en los primeros 30 cm de profundidad, en pino pátula el 75 % y en roble el 68 %. Los elementos con mayor participación en las raíces finas fueron calcio y potasio, siendo el primero de ellos mucho mayor en la cobertura de ciprés con respecto a las parcelas restantes, seguido en abundancia del potasio, a excepción de la parcela de roble en donde la concentración de un oligoelemento como Fe, fue incluso superior a la de calcio. Los elementos Ca, Mg, K, P, Mn, Cu y Zn acumulados en las raíces finas, hasta los 80 cm de profundidad, fueron superiores en la cobertura de ciprés, con la única excepción de Fe, que fue superior en la parcela de roble. En las parcelas de pino pátula y ciprés, el patrón de abundancia siguió la secuencia decreciente Ca > K Mg > Fe > P. En este trabajo se pretendió resaltar la importancia de las raíces finas y la concentración de los elementos, en los ecosistemas forestales naturales y plantados y su relación con el ciclo de nutrientes. Para ello, la aproximación metodológica comprendió la masa total de raíces, esto es raíces vivas y muertas en conjunto.In the Piedras Blancas region, Antioquia-Colombia, a sampling of fine roots (£ 5 mm was conducted in three permanent plots established in forest ecosystems of pine (Pinus patula Schltdl, cypress (Cupressus lusitanica Mill and oak (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl., at

  14. Phytochemical profile and mechanisms involved in the anti-nociception caused by the hydroethanolic extract obtained from Tocoyena formosa (Cham. & Schltdl.) K. Schum (Jenipapo-bravo) leaves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesário, Francisco Rafael Alves Santana; de Albuquerque, Thaís Rodrigues; de Lacerda, Giovana Mendes; de Oliveira, Maria Rayane Correia; Rodrigues, Lindaiane Bezerra; Martins, Anita Oliveira Brito Pereira Bezerra; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Júnior, Lucindo José Quintans; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes; Vale, Mariana Lima; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar

    2018-01-01

    Tocoyena formosa, a small ornamental tree growing in the dry regions of central Brazil, is commonly known as 'genipapo do bravo'. This is a medicinal plant traditionally used as an analgesic for rheumatic pain, lower back pain and myalgia, however its use is carried out without scientific evidence, which thus justifies the development of studies to investigate and prove its therapeutic potential. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical profile of Tocoyena formosa (Cham. & Schlecht.) K. Schum (TFLHE) and the mechanisms involved in its anti-nociceptive effect. The TFLHE revealed the presence of gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, quercetin and luteolin. The TFLHE at doses of 200 and 400mg/kg significantly decreased acetic acid-induced abdominal contortions, the reaction time for the formalin test in both phases and increased the paw withdrawal time in the hot plate thermal stimulus test. The 200mg/kg dose also significantly inhibited the plantar mechanical hyperalgesia intensity induced by formalin within 24h. with the TFLHE did not cause significant changes in motor performance and coordination in the Rota Rod test. The investigation on the possible mechanism of antinociceptive action of TFLHE indicates the involvement of opioid, glutamatergic, nitric oxide/cGMP and vanilloid systems. It is concluded that the TFLHE has an antinociceptive effect promoted by the aforementioned mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Determinação do perfil fitoquímico de extrato com atividade antioxidante da espécie medicinal Cordia verbenacea DC. por HPLC-DAD

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    M.M. Santi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo investigar a atividade antioxidante dos extratos das folhas de Cordia verbenacea obtido por maceração em etanol e partição em solventes orgânicos. O infuso das folhas também foi investigado. O teor de fenóis totais foi avaliado pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteau e o de flavonoides totais pela formação de complexo com cloreto de alumínio. O extrato etanólico, as subfrações e o infuso foram testados em diversas concentrações para determinar a atividade sequestradora de DPPH expressa em termos de sua CE50. A melhor atividade antioxidante encontrada foi para o extrato em acetato de etila, EA, CE50 15,0 ± 0,5 µg.mL-1. Os ensaios espectrofotométricos revelaram altas concentrações de fenóis e de flavonoides no extrato EA. A análise por HPLC-DAD foi realizada para se obter o perfil de UV-Vis dos picos cromatográficos do extrato EA. As características espectrais foram relacionadas a compostos fenólicos e flavonoídicos.

  16. Análise fitoquímica e atividade antifúngica do óleo essencial de folhas de Lippia sidoides Cham. e do Timol contra cepas de Candida spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.I.V. BRITO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A resistência de fungos do gênero Candida aos fármacos químicos tem lançado o desafio de se identificar novas substâncias que possuam atividade antibiótica ou venham a modular o efeito de produtos atualmente usados contra candidíase. O presente estudo avaliou a atividade antifúngica do óleo essencial de Lippia sidoides Cham. e do timol, sobre cepas de Candida. Inicialmente os produtos foram testados frente a 16 cepas fúngicas pela técnica de difusão em meio sólido, o que permitiu selecionar linhagens para continuidade da pesquisa. Com as linhagens de Candida krusei (CK LMBM 01, CK LMBM 02, Candida albicans (CA LM 62 e Candida tropicalis (CT LM 20, procedeu-se, por microdiluição em caldo, a determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM e em meio sólido, a Concentração Fungicida Mínima (CFM dos produtos foi identificada. O microcultivo das leveduras em meio empobrecido foi realizado para verificação de alterações morfológicas e, além disso, uma análise da composição química do óleo foi realizada por Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG-EM. Nesta análise, o constituinte majoritário foi o timol (84,95%, seguido de compostos como p-cimeno e Éter metil carvacrol, entre outros. A CIM do óleo essencial de Lippia sidoides Cham. frente às cepas variou entre 64 e 256 μg/mL, enquanto a CIM do timol foi estabelecida entre 32 e 64 μg/mL. A CFM do óleo essencial foi determinada entre 128 e 512 μg/mL e para o timol foram encontrados valores entre 64 e 128 μg/mL. Em relação à análise micromorfológica, verificada nas concentrações de CIM e CIM x 2, o óleo essencial inibiu o dimorfismo das cepas CK 01 e CT 20 na CIM e quando foi ensaiado o timol, este, na CIM, impediu a transição morfológica das cepas CK 01 e CA 62. Uma redução da morfogênese também foi obsevada na cepa CT 20, porém apenas em CIM x 2 e de forma mais discreta. Os resultados enaltecem o potencial

  17. Influence of soil texture, moisture, and surface cracks on the performance of a root-feeding flea beetle, Longitarsus bethae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent for Lantana camara (Verbenaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simelane, David O

    2007-06-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the influence of soil texture, moisture and surface cracks on adult preference and survival of the root-feeding flea beetle, Longitarsus bethae Savini and Escalona (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a natural enemy of the weed, Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae). Adult feeding, oviposition preference, and survival of the immature stages of L. bethae were examined at four soil textures (clayey, silty loam, sandy loam, and sandy soil), three soil moisture levels (low, moderate, and high), and two soil surface conditions (with or without surface cracks). Both soil texture and moisture had no influence on leaf feeding and colonization by adult L. bethae. Soil texture had a significant influence on oviposition, with adults preferring to lay on clayey and sandy soils to silty or sandy loam soils. However, survival to adulthood was significantly higher in clayey soils than in other soil textures. There was a tendency for females to deposit more eggs at greater depth in both clayey and sandy soils than in other soil textures. Although oviposition preference and depth of oviposition were not influenced by soil moisture, survival in moderately moist soils was significantly higher than in other moisture levels. Development of immature stages in high soil moisture levels was significantly slower than in other soil moisture levels. There were no variations in the body size of beetles that emerged from different soil textures and moisture levels. Females laid almost three times more eggs on cracked than on noncracked soils. It is predicted that clayey and moderately moist soils will favor the survival of L. bethae, and under these conditions, damage to the roots is likely to be high. This information will aid in the selection of suitable release sites where L. bethae would be most likely to become established.

  18. Avaliação in vivo do efeito hipocolesterolêmico e toxicológico preliminar do extrato bruto hidroalcoólico e decocção da Vitex megapotamica (Spreng Moldenke (V. montevidensis Cham.

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    Anna Paula Brandt

    Full Text Available As doenças cardiovasculares (DC estão, de modo geral, associadas a elevados níveis séricos de lipídeos, atingindo homens e mulheres, sem distinção de idade. Entre as propriedades atribuídas pela medicina popular à Vitex megapotamica (Spreng Moldenke (V. montevidensis Cham -Tarumã estão a de reduzir os níveis séricos de colesterol e triglicerídeo. O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o potencial hipocolesterolêmico e hipolipidêmico da V. megapotamica, bem como fazer um estudo toxicológico preliminar. Para tanto, foi realizada indução hiperlipidêmica usando um modelo que preconiza o emprego de propiltiuracil 1,25 mg/300 g de peso e colesterol 200 mg/kg de peso, aplicados via oral em ratos machos pesando 300 ± 10 g. Foi administrado, por via oral, aos animais hiperlipidêmicos previamente induzidos 300 mg/kg de extrato hidroalcoólico das folhas de V. megapotamica ou 300 mL da decocção da casca da planta. Após o final de cada tratamento, o perfil lipídico foi ensaiado, bem como os níveis de glicose, quando relevante. Nossos resultados confirmaram o efeito hipolipidêmico do extrato hidroalcoólico e da decocção pela redução dos níveis séricos de colesterol e triacilglicerol nas concentrações, via e forma utilizadas. Além disso, foi possível verificar que não houve lesão cardíaca, hepática ou renal pelo extrato e decocção utilizados nas avaliações toxicológicas preliminares ensaiadas.

  19. Kemo Cham | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There is also the issue of low literacy levels. This means that we have to go the extra mile to interpret things that hardly mean anything to an ordinary person. And for Sierra Leone, it becomes much more of a problem because of the dominance of political reportage. People tend to think that reports about who wields what ...

  20. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CHAM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  1. SINOPSIS DEL GÉNERO JUNELLIA (VERBENACEAE

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    Nataly O'Leary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una sinopsis del género Junellia, fundamentada en la reciente recircunscripción del género sobre la base de estudios de filogenia molecular y análisis de caracteres morfológicos. Se aporta una clave que incluye las 37 especies de Junellia según la más actual definición del género, se presenta una descripción actualizada del género y se establecen las diferencias con los demás géneros de la tribu Verbeneae. Se describen y/o ilustran nueve especies y una variedad de Junellia no tratadas previamente o cuyas descripciones son aquí enmendadas. Se proponen también dos nuevas combinaciones: Junellia hookeriana var. catamarcensis y Junellia trifida, y ocho nuevos sinónimos.

  2. Palynology of the Genus Stachytarpheta Vahl. (Verbenaceae

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    Olubukola ADEDEJI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The exine morphology of pollen grains of Stachytarpheta indica (Linn. Vahl, Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl and Stachytarpheta angustifolia (Mill. Vahl is reported. This study was carried out with a light microscope. Pollen grains from fresh anthers were collected and aceolysed. Statistical analysis used to analyse the data collected include cluster analysis, correlation analysis, similarity and distance indices. The pollen grains are spheroidal to oblate to sub-oblate in shape. They are aperturate, both colpate and porate. Tricolpate types occur most frequently, acolpate, monocolpate, bicolpate and tetracolpate types less frequently. The multicolpate and multiporate attributes in all the species indicate that the genus is not primitive in evolutionary history and this species probably, evolved around in the same time. According to the size, the pollen grains of the genus falls into groups permagna (pollen diameter 100-200 ?m and giganta (pollen diameter greater than 200 ?m. S. cayennensis and S. anguistifolia belong to group permagna and S. indica only in the group giganta. This separates S. indica from the other two species. The large pollen grain size in the genus clearly supports the fact that the flowers in the genus are more insect-and-bird pollinated than wind pollinated. The similarity and distance indices of the species showed that S. cayennensis and S. angustifolia are the closest. S. indica is closer to S. angustifolia but farther from S. cayennensis.

  3. Efeito alelopático de sabugueiro e capim-limão na germinação de picão-preto e soja = Allelophatic effect of Sambucus australis Cham. and Schltdl. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. in the germination of Bidens pilosa L. and soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Teixeira Fortes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available As plantas invasoras são constantes e diminuem a produtividade das culturas por competirem por espaço, nutrientes e água. Dessa forma, os agricultores adotam, em grande escala, produtos químicos eficientes no controle da lavoura e com alta toxicidade ao meioambiente. Existem, no entanto, formas alternativas para o controle de invasoras, por meio de aleloquímicos presentes em algumas plantas, dentre elas, as medicinais. Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar as propriedades alelopáticas dos extratos das plantas medicinais Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. e Sambucus australis Cham. and Schltdl. em inibir a germinação de Bidens pilosa L., sem interferir na germinação de Glycine max L. Merrill. Os extratos foram obtidos triturandose 200 g de folhas com 1 L de água destilada. As sementes foram mantidas em B.O.D. à temperatura de 25°C, com fotoperíodo de 12h de luz. Nas condições em que foram realizados os experimentos, constatou-se que o extrato de capim-limão inibiu a germinação de picão-preto sem que este inibisse a germinação da soja, enquanto o extrato de sabugueiro inibiu a germinação de picão-preto e a germinação da soja. Assim, indica-se a utilização do capim-limão, como um herbicida natural para o picão-preto.Agriculture has been suffering adaptations throughout time, from hard hand labor to the most advanced sowing and harvesting techniques. Invasive plants are a constant, diminishing productivity by competing for space, nutrients, and water. Therefore, farmers have adopted, on alarge scale, the use of efficient synthetic chemicals, which are highly toxic to the environment, in order to control plant production. However, there are other alternative means to control those competitors: using allelochemicals present in some plants, such as medicinal ones. The objective of this paper is to analyze allelophatic properties of the medicinal plants Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. and Sambucus australis Cham. and Schltdl

  4. Isolamento do verbacosídeo e validação de método analítico para padronização do extrato bruto das partes aéreas de Buddleja stachyoides Cham. & Schltdl. (Scrophulariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella M. S. de Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenylpropanoid glycoside verbascoside was isolated and identified from the ethyl acetate fraction of the aerial parts of Buddleja stachyoides Cham. & Schltdl. by 1H-NMR. A method using high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed and validated for determination of verbascoside in alcoholic crude extract of the aerial parts of B. stachyoides. Analysis was performed on a Phenomenex® Gemini-NX C18 analytical column (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5 µm using a mobile phase (pump A - aqueous solution containing H2SO4 (0.01 M, H3PO4 (0.4%, and (C2H52NH (0.4%; pump B - methanol:aqueous (95:5 solution containing H2SO4 (0.05 M, H3PO4 (2%, and (C2H52NH (0.2%; pump C - acetonitrile:aqueous (90:10 solution containing H2SO4 (0.05 M and H3PO4 (2% and a diode array detector at 325 nm. The method was validated in accordance with ANVISA guidelines and may be applied to quality control of herbal medicine with aerial parts of B. stachyoides.

  5. Produção de mudas de carobinha (Jacaranda decurrens Cham. em sistema de imersão temporária com biorreatores do tipo R.I.T.A. "Carobinha" seedling production in a temporary immersion system with R.I.T.A. bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi averiguar a melhor densidade de explantes e o melhor tipo de sistema de cultivo visando desenvolver um protocolo de micropropagação de baixo custo para a Carobinha. Foram realizados experimentos de multiplicação in vitro com quatro tipos de frascos: R.I.T.A. (50 explantes/frasco, erlenmayer, (50 explantes/frasco, potes tipo maionese (6 explantes/frasco e cubetas (1 explante/frasco. O co-cultivo de explantes, tanto em meio sólido quanto em meio líquido (R.I.T.A., promoveu maiores taxas de explantes com brotação e de sobrevivência. O sistema de imersão temporária proporcionou melhores índices de desenvolvimento, brotação, sobrevivência e altura dos explantes. Concluímos que biorreatores podem ser utilizados eficientemente para a micropropagação de carobinha.The aim of this study was to identify the best explant density and the best cultivation system with the goal of developing a micropropagation protocol of low cost for "carobinha" (Jacaranda decurrens CHAM.. Experiments of in vitro multiplication were carried out using four flask types: R.I.T.A. (50 explants/flask, Erlenmeyer (50 explants/flask, mayonnaise pots (6 explants/flask and cuvettes (1 explant/flask. The co-cultivation of explants, in both solid and liquid medium (R.I.T.A., led explants to show higher sprouting and survival rates. The temporary immersion system provided better rates of development, sprouting, survival and height of explants. We concluded that bioreactors may be efficiently used for the micropropagation of "carobinha".

  6. Asexual propagation of Pinus leiophylla Schiede ex Schltdl. et Cham.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Cuevas-Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El efecto del sustrato, tipo de estaca y concentración de ácido indolbutírico (AIB se evaluó en el enraizado de estacas de Pinus leiophylla con el propósito de multiplicar progenies de familias de medios hermanos con crecimiento sobresaliente. Para ello se utilizaron dos tipos de sustratos (agrolita y una mezcla de turba-agrolita-vermiculita 1:1:1, dos tipos de estacas (apicales y basales y dos concentraciones de AIB (0 y 10,000 ppm. La probabilidad y porcentaje de enraizado, crecimiento de la estaca y características de las raíces formadas de P. leiophylla se evaluaron. Los resultados indican que usando estacas basales es 3.5 veces más probable que el enraizamiento de P. leiophylla sea exitoso que utilizando estacas apicales. El tratamiento formado por la mezcla de turba-agrolita-vermiculita, estaca basal y 10,000 ppm de AIB produjo 45.3 % de enraizamiento (mayor porcentaje, mientras que con el testigo solo se obtuvo 8.6 % de enraizamiento (agrolita, estaca basal y sin AIB. Las interacciones que incluyeron el tipo de sustrato mostraron diferencias significativas (P ≤ 0.05 en el crecimiento de la estaca. El uso de agrolita y la aplicación de AIB favorecieron un mayor número de raíces, particularmente en las estacas tipo basal de P. leiophylla.

  7. Causes of road traffic accidents in Juba | Cham | South Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drivers of private vehicles caused most accidents (37%). Most drivers (46%) were aged 20-30 years. RTAs occurred most often on city roads (89.83%). Conclusion: This leads us to conclude that a comprehensive safety system is needed that are premised on the idea of community-based awareness of traffic rules and safety ...

  8. Causes of road traffic accidents in Juba | Cham | South Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Sudan Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your ...

  9. Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) invasion along streams in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-16

    Jul 16, 2014 ... 1Centre for Ecological Sciences and 2Divecha Centre for Climate Change, Indian Institute of Science,. Bangalore 560 ..... lantana would aid managers to identify high-risk zones that should be monitored intensively and receive targeted management. We conclude that a heterogeneous land- scape offers a ...

  10. Folk Medicinal Uses of Verbenaceae Family Plants in Bangladesh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Folk medicinal practitioners form the first tier of primary health-care providers to most of the rural population of Bangladesh. They are known locally as Kavirajes and rely almost solely on oral or topical administration of whole plants or plant parts for treatment of various ailments. Also about 2% of the total population of ...

  11. Effect of Root Extracts of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) on Larvae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Larvicidal activity of three solvent root (bark and wood) extracts of Lantana camara Linn. was investigated against first and fourth instars of Aedes aegypti larvae after 24 and 48 h post-treatment exposure to serial concentrations (0.1, 0.05, 0.01, 0.005, 0.001 %) of aqueous, ethanolic and acetone crude extracts. All extracts ...

  12. Lantana camara (verbenaceae) : a potential threat to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Invasive plant species are today among the biggest threats to integrity of many ecosystems including that of the protected areas. Climate change may exacerbate the negative effects of invasive plant species. Here, we used the Maximum Entropy model to project habitat suitability for Lantana camara L., an invasive plant ...

  13. Embryo sac development in some South African Lantana species (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Spies

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence that the South African Lantana camara L. complex only produces sexual embryo sacs is provided. It is shown that the archesporium occasionally divides mitotically and that both archesporia form tetrads. The chalazal megaspore of one tetrad and the micropylar megaspore of the second tetrad develop into Polygonum type embryo sacs. L. rugosa Thunb. also forms Polygonum type embryo sacs. The L. rugosa embryo sac has a much more densely packed cytoplasm, smaller vacuole and the position of the polar nuclei differs from that of the L. camara embryo sac. It is possible to distinguish between  L. camara and  L. rugosa on their embryo sac morphology alone.

  14. Foliar anatomy of the species Lantana camara and L. radula (Verbenaceae Anatomia foliar das espécies Lantana camara e L. radula (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Passos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The species Lantana camara, commonly used as ornamental, has spread worldwide becoming one of the world's most important weeds. To develop new methods of control of this plant, it is essential to distinguish it from other species of the same genus, and this is usually accomplished through taxonomic studies of fertile samples. Considering the similarity between L. camara and L. radula, and the consequent difficulty in distinguishing one from the other when only sterile samples are available, this work aimed to investigate the use of the anatomical characteristics of the leaves of both species as tools for supporting correct classification. The leaves of L. camara and L. radula were anatomically examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The major differences were observed in the petiole, which presented secretory idioblasts in L. camara. Secretory idioblasts were observed in the leaf blades of L. camara and Crystalliferou idioblasts were found in L. radula. Glandular and nonglandular trichomes as well as the abaxial surface are different in each species. Such results can support the strategies aiming at the control of L. camara without interfering with L. radula.A espécie L. camara tem sido usada há séculos como ornamental e, consequentemente, espalhou-se pelo mundo, tornando-se uma das mais importantes plantas daninhas. Na busca de novos métodos de controle para essa planta, é essencial distinguir espécies do mesmo gênero, o que usualmente é feito com estudos taxonômicos de amostras férteis. Considerando a similaridade entre L. camara e L. radula, e a consequente dificuldade em distingui-las quando somente amostras estéreis estão disponíveis, entendeu-se como necessário investigar o uso de características anatômicas das folhas como fonte de informação adicional para a distinção dessas duas espécies. As folhas de L. camara e L. radula foram examinadas sob microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A diferença mais marcante observada foi a presença de idioblastos nos pecíolos de L. camara e L. radula. Na lâmina foliar de L. camara foram observados idioblastos secretores e em L. radula foram encontrados idioblastos cristalíferos. Os tricomas glandulares e não glandulares, bem como a superfície abaxial, apresentam diferenças morfológicas evidentes em cada espécie.

  15. In vitro Effects of Four Native Brazilian Medicinal Plants in CYP3A4 mRNA Gene Expression, Glutathione Levels, and P-Glycoprotein Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Milton, Flora; Frangos, Samantha; Carvalho, Ana C. B.; Silveira, Dâmaris; de Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae), Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae), Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) are medicinal plant species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI). In this work, we assess non-toxic concentrations (100 μg/mL) of the plant infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR). Their mechanisms of action were further studied by measuring the activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells and the inhibition of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in HepG2 cells. Our results show that P-gp activity was not affected in any case and that only Solanum paniculatum was able to significantly change CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression (twofold decrease, p < 0.05), this being correlated with an antagonist effect upon hPXR (EC50 = 0.38 mg/mL). Total intracellular glutathione levels were significantly depleted by exposure to Solanum paniculatum (-44%, p < 0.001), Lippia sidoides (-12%, p < 0.05) and Cordia verbenacea (-47%, p < 0.001). The latter plant extract was able to decrease GGT activity (-48%, p < 0.01). In conclusion, this preclinical study shows that the administration of some of these herbal medicines may be able to cause disturbances to metabolic mechanisms in vitro. Although Erythrina mulungu appears safe in our tests, active pharmacovigilance is recommended for the other three species, especially in the case of Solanum paniculatum. PMID:27594838

  16. In vitro effects of four native Brazilian medicinal plants in CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression, glutathione levels and P-glycoprotein activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Luis Dias Araujo Mazzari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae, Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae, Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae are medicinal plants species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI. In this work we assess non-toxic concentrations (100μg/mL of their infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR. Their mechanisms of action were further studied by measuring the activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells and the inhibition of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT in HepG2 cells. Our results show that P-gp activity was not affected in any case and that only Solanum paniculatum was able to significantly change CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression (two-fold decrease, p<0.05, this being correlated with an antagonist effect upon hPXR (EC50 = 0.38mg/mL. Total intracellular glutathione levels were significantly depleted by exposure to Solanum paniculatum (-44%, p<0.001, Lippia sidoides (-12%, p<0.05 and Cordia verbenacea (-47%, p<0.001. The later plant extract was able to decrease GGT activity (-48%, p<0.01. In conclusion, this preclinical study shows that the administration of some of these herbal medicines may be able to cause disturbances to metabolic mechanisms in vitro. Although Erythrina mulungu appears safe in our tests, active pharmacovigilance is recommended for the other three species, especially in the case of Solanum paniculatum.

  17. Evaluation for Moroccan dynamically downscaled precipitation from GCM CHAM5 and its regional hydrologic response

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    Tsou Jaw

    2015-03-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The raw downscaling runs reasonably featured the spatial properties but quantitatively misrepresented the mean and extreme intensities of present-day precipitation. Two proposed bias correction approaches, namely stationary Quantile-Mapping (QM and non-stationary Equidistant CDF Matching model (EDCDFm, successfully reduced the system biases existing in the raw downscaling runs. However, both raw and corrected runs projected great diversity in terms of the quantity of future precipitation. Hydrologic simulations performed by a well-calibrated Variable Infiltration Capacity model successfully reproduced the present-day streamflow. The driven flows were identified highly correlated with the effectiveness of the downscaled precipitation. The future flows were projected to be markedly diverse, mainly due to the varied precipitation projections. Two of the three flow simulation runs projected slight to severe drying scenarios, while another projected an opposite trend for the evaluated future period.

  18. Genetic diversity in natural populations of Jacaranda decurrens Cham. determined using RAPD and AFLP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca W. Bertoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Jacaranda decurrens (Bignoniaceae is an endemic species of the Cerrado with validated antitumoral activity. The genetic diversity of six populations of J. decurrens located in the State of São Paulo was determined in this study by using molecular markers for randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP. Following optimization of the amplification reaction, 10 selected primers generated 78 reproducible RAPD fragments that were mostly (69.2% polymorphic. Two hundred and five reproducible AFLP fragments were generated by using four selected primer combinations; 46.3% of these fragments were polymorphic, indicating a considerable level of genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA using these two groups of markers indicated that variability was strongly structured amongst populations. The unweighted pair group method with arithmatic mean (UPGMA and Pearson's correlation coefficient (RAPD -0.16, p = 0.2082; AFLP 0.37, p = 0.1006 between genetic matrices and geographic distances suggested that the population structure followed an island model in which a single population of infinite size gave rise to the current populations of J. decurrens, independently of their spatial position. The results of this study indicate that RAPD and AFLP markers were similarly efficient in measuring the genetic variability amongst natural populations of J. decurrens. These data may be useful for developing strategies for the preservation of this medicinal species in the Cerrado.

  19. FACTORES DE INFLUENCIA EN EL ENRAIZAMIENTO DE ESTACAS DE Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Daniel Castillo-Flores

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La declinación forestal en el Desierto de los Leones, D. F. afecta a Abies religiosa, una de las especies dominantes en la región con difícil capacidad de enraizamiento que requiere propagación en la zona. En el presente estudio se desarrolló un método de propagación vegetativa con el fin de determinar si el efecto de la procedencia, edad del material, tipo de hormona y la presencia de síntomas de declinación, influyen en la capacidad de enraizamiento de estacas de dicha especie. En este experimento se utilizó un sustrato compuesto por turba y agrolita para probar estacas de dos procedencias, con y sin síntomas de declinación, generadas en dos estaciones de crecimiento, y dos auxinas, manteniendo una humedad de 75-80 %. La combinación de estos factores produjo 16 tratamientos, los cuales se repitieron 50 veces. Los datos fueron procesados mediante un análisis de varianza factorial. Los resultados indican que a principios de diciembre es la mejor época de recolecta de material vegetal para enraizamiento de estacas de A. religiosa, siendo las estacas más jóvenes y las que recibieron indol-3-butírico las que mejor enraizaron. La procedencia y la sintomatología no tuvieron efecto en el enraizamiento.

  20. Superfície da lâmina foliar de Psychotria nuda (Cham. & Schltdl. Wawra, P. leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl., P. stenocalyx Müll. Arg. e P. tenuinervis Müll. Arg. (Rubiaceae Leaf surface of Psychotria nuda (Cham. & Schltdl. Wawra, P. leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl., P. stenocalyx Müll. Arg. e P. tenuinervis Müll. Arg. [Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cardoso Vieira

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados dados relativos à micromorfologia da superfície foliar de quatro espécies de Psychotria. O estudo foi realizado em indivíduos que ocorrem na Floresta Pluvial Tropical (Mata Atlântica. Atenção especial é dada ao tipo de cera epicuticular e da escultura da superfície dos estômatos, papilas e demais células epidérmicas.Micromorphology characteristics of foliar surface of Psychotria specimens are presented. The material studied was collected from specimens which grow in Tropical Rain Forest (Mata Atlântica. Special focusing is concentrated on the epicuticular wax type, as well as on the sculpture of the surface of stomata, papillae and other epidermic cells.

  1. GROWTH OF Jacaranda puberula Cham. SEEDLINGS IN NURSERY UNDER DIFFERENT SHADING LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lausanne Soraya de Almeida

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Jacaranda puberula, known as caroba, is a species that presents potential use for the recovery of degraded areas, since it possesses fast growth and adapts well to sandy and loamy soils. It presents great aggressiveness in secondary forests and it can be used as urban tree because it produces beautiful lilac flowers. With the intention of obtaining information about potential species for use in recovery of riparian forest, were tested in the nursery of the city hall of the municipal district of Colombo, the development of seedlings of Jacaranda puberula submitted at 30, 50 and 70% of shading. There were used 40 seedlings by treatment and there were evaluated the following parameters: height (60, 90 and 120 days and diameter (90 and 120 days of all seedlings, leaf area and root and shoot dry weight of 6 seedlings per treatment. The largest averages of the analyzed variables were obtained for the 30% shading, except for root dry weight.  The seedlings exposed to full sun presented high mortality rate and was not compared to the others. The smallest averages of the analyzed variables, except for height, were observed for the shading of 70%, indicating that this treatment is not advisable for the production of seedlings of this species in nursery. The best condition for planting the seedlings appears to be in open areas with shading of 30 to 50%, since its natural occurrence is not at full exposure.

  2. Anti-inflammatory activity of Russelia equisetiformis Schlecht AND Cham: identification of its active constituent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awe Emmanuel Olorunju

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present research work was carried out to isolate and identify the chemical constituent responsible for the antinflammatory activity of Russelia equisetiformis. Method: Isolation was carried out using column chromatography. The structure of the isolated compound was identified and established using the available spectroscopic techniques including high-resolution electron mass spectrum. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using egg albumin-induced paw edema, formaldehyde and #8211;induced arthritis and cotton pellet granuloma in-vivo tests. Prednisolone was used as a standard drug. Results: Lupeol was isolated as colorless crystals (mp 213-215OC.Lupeol at the doses of 10, 20, 40 mg/kg produced significant (P<0.05 and dose-dependent inhibition of egg albumin-induced edema and edematous response to arthritis. In chronic model of granuloma pouch in rat, lupeol (20 and 40 mg/kg, significantly (P<0.05 and also dose-dependently reduce the granuloma weight. Conclusion: These findings suggest that lupeol isolated from extract of Russelia equisetiformis possesses anti-inflammatory activity in acute and certain aspects of chronic inflammation. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 25-29

  3. QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG ELDERLY PEOPLE IN KAMPONG CHAM PROVINCE, CAMBODIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sereyraksmey Long; Supaporn Sudnongbua

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the level of quality of life and to investigate the predictive factors that affected the quality of life among elderly people in Batheay Commune, Batheay...

  4. Ecos chamánicos en la escultura contemporánea

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Morcillo, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    En este artículo se pretende dar una visión de la influencia y la presencia del tótem en parte de la obra de diferentes escultores contemporáneos, haciendo especial hincapié en Antonio Sosa y Francisco Toledo. La pervivencia de este modelo como recurso artístico también es apreciable en la obra de otros creadores como Carlos Rojas, Jörg Immendorf o Keith Haring. The aim of this article is to give a general view of the influence and presence of totemic representations as a...

  5. FACTORES DE INFLUENCIA EN EL ENRAIZAMIENTO DE ESTACAS DE Abies religiosa (Kunth) Schltdl. et Cham

    OpenAIRE

    J. Daniel Castillo-Flores; Miguel A. López-López; Javier López-Upton; Víctor M. Cetina-Alcalá; Tomás Hernández-Tejeda

    2013-01-01

    La declinación forestal en el Desierto de los Leones, D. F. afecta a Abies religiosa, una de las especies dominantes en la región con difícil capacidad de enraizamiento que requiere propagación en la zona. En el presente estudio se desarrolló un método de propagación vegetativa con el fin de determinar si el efecto de la procedencia, edad del material, tipo de hormona y la presencia de síntomas de declinación, influyen en la capacidad de enraizamiento de estacas de dicha especie. En este expe...

  6. Kemo Cham | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le développement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Comment le journalisme scientifique est-il arrivé dans votre vie? ... profession. Le journalisme scientifique était un choix tout naturel étant donné mes antécédents. ... Les gens ont tendance à penser que les reportages sur qui exerce quelle influence politique sont plus importants qu'un article sur la pénurie de médicaments ...

  7. Evaluation of the Sagittaria montevidensis Cham. & Schltdl. as a bioindicator and phytoextractor of toxic metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edila Maria Kickhöfel Ferrer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the bioindication and phytoremediation capacity of the aquatic macrophyte Sagittaria montevidensis by using it to assess the bioconcentration and translocation of heavy metals. A simple sampling was conducted at four sites in the region of Pelotas, southern Brazil, where plants, water and sediments were collected. The plants were subjected to nitric-perchloric acid digestion and the sediments underwent pseudo-total acid digestion. The determination of the elements Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn in the extracts was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Physicochemical tests were also carried out on water samples, including pH, electrical conductivity, chlorides, alkalinity, hardness and organic matter, and in sediment samples, moisture and organic matter content. The macrophyte study indicated a Bioconcentration Factor (BCF and a Translocation Factor (TF, especially for Ni. The results showed that the aquatic macrophyte species S. montevidensis has a phytoextraction capacity, mainly for Ni, and potentially for bioindication of Cu, Ni and Zn.

  8. DETERMINING THE TRANSITION AGE FROM JUVENILE TO MATURE WOOD IN Pinus patula SCHL. et CHAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Josué Meza Juárez

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare several criteria to estimate the transition age from juvenile to mature wood formation in a 16-year-old Pinus patula plantation, radial trends of latewood proportion, wood density and tracheid length were identified in a sample of 100 trees. A wood sample from each tree was taken with an increment borer at 50 cm stem height. Latewood proportion increased gradually from pith to bark, but after 14 years old showed a higher rate of increase; wood density decreased initially and then increased gradually, slowing down after 12-14 years old. Tracheid length showed a steady radial trend, increasing gradually from the pith and stabilizing after 8-10 years old. A piecewise regression analysis, using mean annual values for tracheid length and wood density showed that age of transition from juvenile to mature wood occurred at age 10 in this plantation. The criterion based on tracheid length was more useful than that based on wood density, since its slope change was more evident. Using this criterion, a broad variation in transition age (from 6 to 16 years was found among trees, which might be related to genetic effects; however, a larger sample size is required to estimate genetic variation in this trait.

  9. Anticonvulsant Effects of Lippia citriodora (Verbenaceae) Leaves Ethanolic Extract in Mice: Role of GABAergic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Amir; Farhang, Forogh; Vahedi, Habib; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Ejtemai Mehr, Shahram; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Lippia citriodora Kunth is one of the Iranian traditional medicines for the treatment of convulsive disorders. The goal of this study is to investigate the anticonvulsant activity of the plant's leave ethanolic extract against electro- and chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in mice. The anticonvulsant activity of the extract (200, 400, 800 mg/kg, per os, p.o.) was investigated in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures in mice. Diazepam (1 mg/kg) and phenytoin (25 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) were used as reference drugs. In addition, for investigating the role of GABAergic system, flumazenil (2 mg/kg, i.p.) was also injected before L. citriodora. The extract had not any toxicity and significantly decreased the duration and increased the latency of the seizures induced by PTZ (90 mg/kg). In the MES test, L. citriodora displayed statistically significant reduction in hind limb tonic extension duration in a nondose-dependent manner. Flumazenil reversed the anticonvulsant activity of the plant's extract in the PTZ model. The results propose that L. citriodora leave ethanolic extract has anticonvulsant activity against convulsive disorders. It seems that this plant's extract generates its antiseizure effect through GABAergic system potentiation. Further studies will be needed in order to investigate the exact mechanisms of it. Moreover, one may conclude that the present results are in accordance with the positive effect of L. citriodora extract to treat convulsion mentioned in old Iranian literature.

  10. Morphoanatomy, histochemistry and phytochemical screening of Priva lappulacea (L.) Pers. (Verbenaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jovita Maria de Farias Braga; Rejane Magalhães de Mendonça Pimentel; Clébio Pereira Ferreira; Karina Perrelli Randau; Haroudo Satiro Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Este estudo descreve a anatomia e analisa a histoquímica dos órgãos vegetativos de Priva lappulacea (L.) Pers. Secções transversais e paradérmicas, à mão livre, de material fresco e fixado foram utilizadas para as análises anatômicas e histoquímicas, usando microscopia óptica. Os caracteres anatômicos são comuns àqueles descritos para a família, podendo ser utilizados como diagnóstico na sua identificação. Destacam-se, nas folhas, os tricomas, glandular e não-glandular, estômatos anomocíticos...

  11. Phytochemistry and in vitro pharmacological activities of South African Vitex (Verbenaceae) species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nyiligira, E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available and quick microplate method to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of plant extracts for bacteria. Planta Medica 64, 711-713. Fabry, W., Okemo, P.O., Ansorg, R., 1998. Antibacterial activity of East African medicinal plants. Journal...-oxidation of soybean oil incyclodextrin emulsion. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 40, 945-948. Page 18 of 21 Accepted Manuscrip t 18 Singh, M., Pal, M., Sharma, R.P., 1999. Biological activity of the labdane diterpenes. Planta Medica 65, 2...

  12. Chemical Characterization and Trypanocidal, Leishmanicidal and Cytotoxicity Potential of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae Essential Oil

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    Luiz Marivando Barros

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance in the treatment of neglected parasitic diseases, such as leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis, has led to the search and development of alternative drugs from plant origins. In this context, the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation from Lantana camara leaves was tested against Leishmania braziliensis and Trypanosoma cruzi. The results demonstrated that L. camara essential oil inhibited T. cruzi and L. braziliensis with IC50 of 201.94 μg/mL and 72.31 μg/mL, respectively. L. camara essential oil was found to be toxic to NCTC929 fibroblasts at 500 μg/mL (IC50 = 301.42 μg/mL. The composition of L. camara essential oil analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS revealed large amounts of (E-caryophyllene (23.75%, biciclogermacrene (15.80%, germacrene D (11.73%, terpinolene (6.1%, and sabinene (5.92%, which might be, at least in part, responsible for its activity. Taken together, our results suggest that L. camara essential oil may be an important source of therapeutic agents for the development of alternative drugs against parasitic diseases.

  13. The composition, geographical variation and antimicrobial activity of Lippia javanica (Verbenaceae) leaf essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, A M; Subramoney, S; van Vuuren, S F; Başer, K H C; Demirci, B

    2005-01-04

    Lippia javanica is widely distributed throughout South Africa where it is used extensively in traditional herbal preparations. An infusion of the leaves is commonly used as a decongestant for colds and coughs. A preliminary study indicated that the essential oil chemistry varies dramatically both within and between natural plant populations. As the antimicrobial activity may be directly related to the specific composition of the oil, the activity may also fluctuate. The aerial parts of Lippia javanica were collected from various localities in southern Africa to study the essential oil composition and the antimicrobial activity thereof. The hydrodistilled essential oils were analysed by GC/MS and a cluster analysis was performed on the essential oil dataset. From 16 samples (representing five natural populations), 5 chemotypes were identified; a myrcenone rich-type (36-62%), a carvone rich-type (61-73%), a piperitenone rich-type (32-48%), an ipsenone rich-type (42-61%) and a linalool rich-type (>65%). The myrcenone and linalool chemotypes have been mentioned in the literature but the carvone, ipsenone and piperitenone chemotypes have not previously been reported for Lippia javanica. Time kill studies were performed on three microbial respiratory isolates to document the scientific rationale of using Lippia to treat respiratory complaints in traditional herbal medicine. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Cryptococcus neoformans and Bacillus cereus showed reduction in microbial populations with the strongest bacteriostatic effect observed for Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  14. In vitro antifungal activities of leaf extracts of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae against clinically important yeast species

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    Graziela Teixeira de Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction There are few studies reporting the antifungal activities of Lippia alba extracts. Methods A broth microdilution assay was used to evaluate the antifungal effects of Lippia alba extracts against seven yeast species of Candida and Cryptococcus. The butanol fraction was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results The butanol fraction showed the highest activity against Candida glabrata. The fraction also acted synergistically with itraconazole and fluconazole against C. glabrata. The dominant compounds in the butanol fraction were 2,2,5-trimethyl-3,4-hexanedione, 3,5-dimethyl-4-octanone and hexadecane. Conclusions The butanol fraction may be a good candidate in the search for new drugs from natural products with antifungal activity.

  15. An efficient system for in vitro propagation of Bouchea fluminensis (Vell. Mold. (Verbenaceae

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    Cristiano Ferrara de Resende

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish and propagate in vitro plants of Bouchea fluminensis, a medicinal species known in Brazil as gervão-falso ("false verbena", evaluating the influences of different growth regulators on in vitro multiplication and rooting stages, as well as examining ex vitro acclimatization of rooted plants. Explants were established on Murashige and Skoog medium at half strength of salts and vitamins without growth regulators. For multiplication, the explants were subjected to combinations of 6-benzyladenine (BA; 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 µM and α-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA; 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 µM. The medium found to induce the greatest number of shoot was that containing 5 µM of BA (NAA-free. For rooting, we evaluated three auxins (NAA, indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid; 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 µM, as well as a control. No differences were observed between the control and the other treatments. The auxin-free medium was deemed the most suitable, because it ensures the lowest cost in the micropropagation procedures. We obtained 100% survival of the acclimatized seedlings, and the plants showed normal vegetative and reproductive development, suggesting that the micropropagation did not alter the biological cycle of this species. The results show the importance and potential of micropropagation for biodiversity conservation of Bouchea fluminensis.

  16. Estudos complementares sobre a toxidez de Lantana camara (Verbenaceae em bovinos

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    Tokarnia Carlos Hubinger

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se, no município de Quatis, RJ, a ocorrência de um surto de intoxicação por Lantana camara var. aculeata em bovinos, caracterizado por acentuada icterícia, lesões de fotossensibilização, constipação e edema subcutâneo dos membros. A reprodução experimental da doença, com êxito letal, através da administração de dose única de 40 g/kg de L. camara var. aculeata, confirmou a planta como causa do surto; doses únicas de 20 g/kg, 10 g/kg e 5 g/kg causaram respectivamente, grave intoxicação, leve intoxicação e ausência de sintomas. Experimentos com doses repetidas permitem concluir que essa planta apresenta efeito acumulativo, quando ingerida em doses diárias de 10 g/kg (1/4 da dose letal; a administração de quatro doses de 5 g/kg (1/8 da dose letal ou de oito doses de 2,5 g/kg (1/16 da dose letal reproduziram o quadro grave de intoxicação. Subdoses menores, de 1,25 g/kg (1/32 da dose letal, administradas durante 34 dias, não produziram quaisquer sinais clínicos. Os exames histológicos dos casos naturais e experimentais revelaram, além de bilestase, alterações regressivas nos hepatócitos e no epitélio dos túbulos renais.

  17. Northwestern Argentina: a center of genetic diversity of lemon verbena (Aloysia citriodora PALÁU, Verbenaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Leo Lira, Paola; van Baren, Catalina M; López, Simon; Molina, Ana; Heit, Cecilia; Viturro, Carmen; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalán, Cesar A; Bandoni, Arnaldo

    2013-02-01

    The aerial parts of lemon verbena (Aloysia citriodora PALÁU) are worldwide used due to their medicinal and aromatic properties. The essential-oil and acteoside contents have been proposed as the main quality markers for their pharmacological and organoleptic features. The northwestern region of Argentina has been repeatedly proposed as the place of origin for this species. For this reason, the essential-oil yields and chemical compositions of leaves of 25 populations of lemon verbena from both wild collections and experimental crops from this region were studied. Plants from six different collections were subsequently grown on the same experimental parcel located at Cerrillos, Salta province, during more than seven years. In addition, the acteoside contents determined in all the samples collected in 2010 showed significant variations (from 0.5 to 4.0%). Large differences were observed in the essential-oil composition and yields, which ranged from 0.4 to 2.1% (v/w). Nevertheless, most of the samples complied with the European Pharmacopoeia specifications. A remarkable chemical diversity with at least four clearly defined chemotypes was detected in this region. Therefore, it would be urgent to encourage actions to protect these genotypes of lemon verbena in the northwestern Argentina. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of the wound healing effect of Vitex doniana sweet (Verbenaceae) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amegbor, K; Metowogo, K; Eklu-Gadegbeku, K; Agbonon, A; Aklikokou, K A; Napo-Koura, G; Gbeassor, M

    2012-01-01

    Vitex doniana is traditionally used in Togo to treat various diseases including wounds. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of Vitex doniana on cutaneous wound healing. Wounds were induced in ICR mice divided into four groups as following: Group I received carbopol 974P NF empty gel, Groups II and III were treated topically with carbopol gel containing 2.5% and 5% of Vitex doniana extract. Group IV received Betadine® 10% as standard drug. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated by planimetry and histological analysis. We secondary used the gel containing Vitex doniana at 2.5% and the pure extract at 10 mg/ml on the model of ear edema induced by xylene. Skin toxicity test was performed with the gel containing Vitex doniana at 5% and the pure extract at 30 mg/ml. Vitex doniana at 5% and 2.5% provided better wound contraction (91.14% and 86.38%) at day 12 post-excision when compared to control (51.15%). The results of histological evaluation supported the outcome of excision wound model. Moreover Vitex doniana inhibited significantly edema induced by xylene when compared to control (ptoxicity test, no abnormal symptoms were developed over 14 day-time period. Vitex doniana inhibits the topical inflammation and accelerate cutaneous wound repair.

  19. Preliminary Evaluation of the Wound Healing Effect of Vitex Doniana Sweet (Verbenaceae) in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    K. Amegbor; Metowogo, K.; Eklu-Gadegbeku, K.; Agbonon, A; Aklikokou, KA; Napo-Koura, G; Gbeassor, M

    2012-01-01

    Vitex doniana is traditionally used in Togo to treat various diseases including wounds. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of Vitex doniana on cutaneous wound healing. Wounds were induced in ICR mice divided into four groups as following: Group I received carbopol 974P NF empty gel, Groups II and III were treated topically with carbopol gel containing 2.5% and 5% of Vitex doniana extract. Group IV received Betadine® 10% as standard drug. The efficacy of treatment was evaluate...

  20. Cytogenetic characterization of Lippia alba and Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Aline Dias; Viccini, Lyderson Facio; Salimena, Fátima Regina Gonçalves; Vanzela, André Luiz Laforga; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the cytogenetic characteristics of Brazilian Lippia alba (Mill) N. E. Brown and Lantana camara Plum. that could be useful for future characterization of these genera. Our analyses revealed that Li. alba has 2n=30 chromosomes consisting of ten metacentric and five submetacentric pairs, while La. camara has 44 metacentric chromosomes. The large blocks of heterochromatin seen in both species suggest an apomorphic condition. Six 45S rDNA sites were detected in both species by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Two and four 5S rDNA sites were observed in Li. alba and La. camara, respectively. Meiotic analysis revealed a normal chromosomal behaviour. The number of chromosomes and the presence of 45S rDNA and 5S rDNA sites do not exclude a possible polyploid origin. The cytogenetic differences between La. camara and Li. alba may be useful markers for differentiating these species.

  1. Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) invasion along streams in a heterogeneous landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Geetha; Sukumar, Raman

    2014-09-01

    Streams are periodically disturbed due to flooding, act as edges between habitats and also facilitate the dispersal of propagules, thus being potentially more vulnerable to invasions than adjoining regions. We used a landscape-wide transect-based sampling strategy and a mixed effects modelling approach to understand the effects of distance from stream, a rainfall gradient, light availability and fire history on the distribution of the invasive shrub Lantana camara L.(lantana) in the tropical dry forests of Mudumalai in southern India. The area occupied by lantana thickets and lantana stem abundance were both found to be highest closest to streams across this landscape with a rainfall gradient. There was no advantage in terms of increased abundance or area occupied by lantana when it grew closer to streams in drier areas as compared to moister areas. On an average, the area covered by lantana increased with increasing annual rainfall. Areas that experienced greater number of fires during 1989-2010 had lower lantana stem abundance irrespective of distance from streams. In this landscape, total light availability did not affect lantana abundance. Understanding the spatially variable environmental factors in a heterogeneous landscape influencing the distribution of lantana would aid in making informed management decisions at this scale.

  2. Chemical Characterization and Trypanocidal, Leishmanicidal and Cytotoxicity Potential of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Luiz Marivando; Duarte, Antonia Eliene; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana Bezerra; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Vega, Celeste; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Kamdem, Jean Paul

    2016-02-10

    Drug resistance in the treatment of neglected parasitic diseases, such as leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis, has led to the search and development of alternative drugs from plant origins. In this context, the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation from Lantana camara leaves was tested against Leishmania braziliensis and Trypanosoma cruzi. The results demonstrated that L. camara essential oil inhibited T. cruzi and L. braziliensis with IC50 of 201.94 μg/mL and 72.31 μg/mL, respectively. L. camara essential oil was found to be toxic to NCTC929 fibroblasts at 500 μg/mL (IC50 = 301.42 μg/mL). The composition of L. camara essential oil analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed large amounts of (E)-caryophyllene (23.75%), biciclogermacrene (15.80%), germacrene D (11.73%), terpinolene (6.1%), and sabinene (5.92%), which might be, at least in part, responsible for its activity. Taken together, our results suggest that L. camara essential oil may be an important source of therapeutic agents for the development of alternative drugs against parasitic diseases.

  3. Vitex altissima L.f of verbenaceae is a large tree of dry deciduous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    evergreen forests with spreading crown and greyish brown scaly bark (tree in the picture is a young specimen). Leaves are compound with three or five leaflets. Flowers are numerous on branched inflorescence, small and white, tinged with blue.

  4. Anticonvulsant effects of Lippia citriodora (Verbenaceae leaves ethanolic extract in mice: Role of gabaergic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Rashidian

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The results propose that L. citriodora leave ethanolic extract has anticonvulsant activity against convulsive disorders. It seems that this plant′s extract generates its antiseizure effect through GABAergic system potentiation. Further studies will be needed in order to investigate the exact mechanisms of it. Moreover, one may conclude that the present results are in accordance with the positive effect of L. citriodora extract to treat convulsion mentioned in old Iranian literature.

  5. Diversity and useful products in some Verbenaceous member of Melghat and Amravati regions, Maharashtra, India

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    SHUBHANGI NAGORAO INGOLE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ingole SN (2011 Diversity and useful products in some Verbenaceous member of Melghat and Amravati regions, Maharashtra, India. Biodiversitas 12: 146-163. Verbenaceae is a large family of very diverse habit. The present study deals with detailed characteristics, distribution and economically important products of some verbenaceous members of Melghat and Amravati regions. During the survey twenty members belonging to fourteen genera of Verbenaceae were collected. Some members occur abundantly either in wild or cultivated state like Lantana camara L. var. aculeata Mold., Lantana flava Medik., L. nivea Vent., Glandularia bipinnatifida (Schauer Nutt., Duranta erecta L., Vitex negundo L., Volkameria inermis L., Clerodendrum phlomidis L. f., Clerodendrum splendens G. Don, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. etc. while Petrea volubilis L., Gmelina arborea Roxb., G. phillippensis Cham., Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L. Vahl., S. mutabilis (Jacq. Vahl., Rotheca serrata (L. Steane & Mabb., Holmskioldia sanguinea Retz. are not much common and occur in limited locations. Phyla nodiflora (L. Greene, a creeping much-branched herb is found typically in wet places. Tectona grandis L. f. occurs very variable in size according to its habitat and is common dominant tree in forest of Melghat and also planted in plains. Clerodendrum infortunatum L., a gregarious tomentose shrub is exclusively found in shades of forest at limited spots in higher elevations of Melghat. The various members are not only beautiful ornamentals but also the source of important medicinal products useful in a broad range of diseases including skin disorders and snake remedies; they contain alkaloids, sterols, saponin, glucosides, dyes etc. and are economically quite important e.g. as high quality timber. On basis of morphological diversity the generic key is provided.

  6. Essential oil from two populations of Echinodorus grandiflorus (Cham. & Schltdl. Micheli (Chapéu de couro

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    Daniel S. Pimenta

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis by Gas Chromatography and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry of the essential oils obtained from leaves of Echinodorus grandiflorus ("Chapéu de couro" from two different populations (Big Leaves and Small Leaves, collected monthly between September 1998 and December 1999 revealed 17 components. Phytol was the major constituent for both populations. The main sesquiterpene representatives are (E-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene and (E-nerolidol.Análise por cromatografia com fase gasosa e cromatografia com fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas de óleos essenciais obtidos de folhas de Echinodorus grandiflorus ("Chapéu-de-couro" em duas diferentes populações (folhas grandes e folhas pequenas, coletadas mensalmente entre setembro de 1998 e dezembro de 1999, revelou 17 componentes. Fitol foi o constituinte majoritário em ambas populações. Os principais representantes sesquiterpênicos foram (E-cariofileno, alfa-humuleno e (E-nerolidol.

  7. Fragmentation effect in the leaf morphometry and environment of Quercus germana Schldl. & Cham. (Fagaceae in Xalapa, Veracruz

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    Anantli Martínez-Munguía

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercus germana es una especie endémica del bosque mesófilo de montaña de México. La presión de selección que la fragmentación y los cambios ambientales ejercen, sugieren diferenciación fenotípica. Por lo anterior, la relación de la diferenciación foliar de Q. germana con la fragmentación y las condiciones ambientales se evaluó en seis sitios del bosque mesófilo de Xalapa, Veracruz. Para ello, se colectaron 10 hojas de las ramas nones de 30 individuos por sitio; se midieron 10 características morfométricas foliares y siete ambientales. Los análisis de varianza se realizaron con el modelo linear generalizado; se utilizó un análisis discriminante, se construyeron árboles de ligamiento UPGMA y se proyectaron las poblaciones tridimensionalmente. Las distancias de Mahalanobis se compararon con una prueba de Mantel para estimar la relación morfométrica y ambiental. Las variables morfológicas que mejor separan los sitios son mucrones, nervaduras y tamaño del peciolo. Ambientalmente, las variables más discriminantes son luz, temperatura y pérdida de humedad. La prueba de Mantel no mostró relación entre las diferencias morfométricas y ambientales (r = 0.090, P = 0.306. Las subpoblaciones de Q. germana son morfológicamente diferentes a pesar de la distancia corta que las separa, lo cual indica que posiblemente son afectadas por la fragmentación aún sin influencia ambiental.

  8. CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE Jacaranda puberula Cham. EM VIVEIRO SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE LUMINOSIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Camargo Angelo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Jacaranda puberula, conhecida como caroba, é uma espécie que apresenta potencial de uso para recomposição de áreas degradadas, por possuir rápido crescimento, agressividade e adaptar-se bem a solos arenosos e argilosos, ocorrendo em capoeiras e capoeirões. Com o intuito de se obter informações sobre espécies potenciais para uso em restauração de ambiente ripário foi estudado, no viveiro da prefeitura do município de Colombo, o desenvolvimento de mudas de Jacaranda puberula submetidas a 0, 30, 50 e 70% de sombreamento. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: altura (60, 90 e 120 dias e diâmetro de coleto (90 e 120 dias de 21 mudas e, área foliar e peso seco da raiz e parte aérea de seis mudas por tratamento, no final do experimento (120 dias após a repicagem. Mudas expostas a pleno sol apresentaram alto índice de mortalidade, portanto esse tratamento não foi discutido e comparado aos demais. O tratamento com 30% de sombreamento mostrou-se superior aos demais em todas as variáveis, sendo recomendado para a produção de mudas de Jacaranda puberula nas condições testadas. Já as menores médias das variáveis analisadas foram obtidas aos 120 dias para o sombreamento de 70%, indicando que esse tratamento não é recomendável para a produção de mudas dessa espécie em viveiro. A melhor condição para a introdução dessa espécie em uma área a ser recuperada é em clareiras (30 a 50% de sombreamento, uma vez que, na naturezas, também pode ser observado que a sua ocorrência em geral não é a pleno sol.

  9. Familial variation in Pinus leiophylla Schiede ex Schltdl. & Cham. seedlings in response to drought: water and osmotic potential

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    Natalia Castelán-Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La variación de plántulas de cuatro familias de Pinus leiophylla de diferentes procedencias se evaluó en respuesta a la sequía, considerando las variables potencial hídrico (Ψa, potencial osmótico (Ψ0, componentes y asignación de biomasa. Las familias de P. leiophylla se localizan en un huerto semillero del Colegio de Postgraduados en el Estado de México. El estudio se hizo con el fin de identificar los genotipos resistentes al estrés hídrico. Después de 26 días sin riego, 50 % de las plántulas presentaron decaimiento permanente del ápice del tallo, con Ψa = -3.35 MPa y Ψ0 = -3.23 MPa, lo que representó disminución de 596 y 112 %, respectivamente, por efecto de la sequía. La acumulación de biomasa también fue afectada significativamente (P = 0.05 en las familias evaluadas, a excepción de la procedente de San Rafael. En promedio, la biomasa de la raíz de las plántulas en sequía fue 38 % menor que las plántulas sin sequía. Las familias de P. leiophylla provenientes de San Juan Tetla y de Santa María Atepetzingo (ambas del estado de Puebla presentaron mejor respuesta al estrés impuesto, mientras que la familia de Tlalmanalco (Estado de México fue la más afectada.

  10. Crescimento de mudas de Jacaranda puberula Cham. Em viveiro submetidas a diferentes níveis de luminosidade

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    Lausanne Soraya De Almeida

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Jacaranda puberula, known as caroba, is a species that presents potential use for the recovery of degraded areas, since it possesses fast growth and adapts well to sandy and loamy soils. It presents great aggressiveness in secondary forests and it can be used as urban tree because it produces beautiful lilac flowers. With the intention of obtaining information about potential species for use in recovery of riparian forest, were tested in the nursery of the city hall of the municipal district of Colombo, the development of seedlings of Jacaranda puberula submitted at 30, 50 and 70% of shading. There were used 40 seedlings by treatment and there were evaluated the following parameters: height (60, 90 and 120 days and diameter (90 and 120 days of all seedlings, leaf area and root and shoot dry weight of 6 seedlings per treatment. The largest averages of the analyzed variables were obtained for the 30% shading, except for root dry weight. The seedlings exposed to full sun presented high mortality rate and was not compared to the others. The smallest averages of the analyzed variables, except for height, were observed for the shading of 70%, indicating that this treatment is not advisable for the production of seedlings of this species in nursery. The best condition for planting the seedlings appears to be in open areas with shading of 30 to 50%, since its natural occurrence is not at full exposure.

  11. Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Sputum using Selective Enrichment Broth and Ashdown's Medium at Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhem, Somary; Letchford, Joanne; Meas, Chea; Thann, Sovanndeth; McLaughlin, James C; Baron, Ellen Jo; West, T Eoin

    2014-01-01

    Melioidosis, infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is increasingly reported in Cambodia. We hypothesized that implementation of an enhanced sputum testing protocol in a provincial hospital diagnostic microbiology laboratory would increase detection of B. pseudomallei. We tested 241 sputum specimens that were deemed acceptable for culture, comparing culture in selective enrichment broth followed by sub-culture on Ashdown's medium to standard culture methods. Two specimens (0.8%) were positive for B. pseudomallei using the enhanced protocol whereas one specimen (0.4%) was positive using standard methods. Given the low numbers of positive specimens, we could not conclusively determine the utility of the enhanced sputum testing protocol. However, the ramifications of identification of  B. pseudomallei are substantial, and the benefit of the enhanced testing protocol may be more apparent in patients selected based on risk factors and clinical presentation. Promoting clinician awareness of the infection and encouraging utilization of diagnostic microbiology services are also likely to be important factors in facilitating identification of melioidosis.

  12. Factores de influencia en el enraizamiento de estacas de Abies religiosa (H.B.K.) Schl. et Cham.

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Flores, Jesús Daniel

    2011-01-01

    La declinación forestal en el Desierto de los Leones, D.F. afecta al Abies religiosa, una de las especies dominantes en la región, requiriendo desarrollar estrategias de conservación. En el presente estudio se desarrolló un método de propagación vegetativa, lográndose determinar si el efecto de la procedencia, edad del material, tipo de hormona usada y la presencia de síntomas de declinación, influyen en la capacidad de enraizamiento de estacas de esta especie. Se realizaron tres experimentos...

  13. Carbon Sequestration in Protected Areas: A Case Study of an Abies religiosa (H.B.K. Schlecht. et Cham Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo I. Fragoso-López

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of global climate change have highlighted forest ecosystems as a key element in reducing the amount of atmospheric carbon through photosynthesis. The objective of this study was to estimate the amount of carbon content and its percentage capture in a protected Abies religiosa forest in which the study area was zoned with satellite image analysis. Dendrometric and epidometric variables were used to determine the volume and increase of aerial biomass, and stored carbon and its capture rate using equations. The results indicate that this forest contains an average of 105.72 MgC ha−1, with an estimated sequestration rate of 1.03 MgC ha−1 yr−1. The results show that carbon capture increasing depends on the increase in volume. Therefore, in order to achieve the maximum yield in a forest, it is necessary to implement sustainable forest management that favors the sustained use of soil productivity.

  14. Volatile and non-volatile compounds and antimicrobial activity of Mansoa difficilis (Cham.) Bureau and K. Schum. (Bignoniaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilhon, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro; Silva, Elisangela Sarmento da; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Quimica; Zoghbi, Maria das Gracas Bichara [Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, PA (Brazil). Coordenacao de Botanica; Araujo, Isabella Santos [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), Feira de Santana, BA (Brazil); Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti, E-mail: giselle@ufpa.br [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Essential oil from the leaves of Mansoa difficilis was analyzed by GC/MS. Oct-1-en-3-ol (49.65%) was the major compound, but diallyl di- and trisulfide were also present (0.85 and 0.37%, respectively), justifying the garlic-like odor of the crushed leaves. The hexane and methanol extracts of the leaves and stems afforded as main constituents a mixture of linear hydrocarbons, spinasterol, stigmasterol, ursolic and oleanolic acids, two apigenin derivatives and verbascoside. The hexane and methanol extracts of leaves were tested for antimicrobial activity against ten microorganisms. The hexane extract was active against both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. (author)

  15. Anatomia, nutrição e fisiologia de Echinodorus grandiflorus (Cham. & Schltdl.) Micheli ssp. grandiflorus submetida ao Chumbo

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Estefânia Santos

    2014-01-01

    Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar os mecanismos anatômicos e fisiológicos relacionados à tolerância de Echinodorus grandiflorus, quando exposta a diferentes concentrações de chumbo (Pb), pois a identificação desses mecanismos podem direcionar estudos para fins fitorremediadores. Foram realizados experimentos com plantas de E. grandiflorus, expondo-as a diferentes concentrações de chumbo [0, 0,75, 1,5, 3,0, e 9,0 μM de Pb(NO3)2], conduzido por um período de 90 dias. Após o período experime...

  16. Isolation and identification of mold and yeast in medombae, a rice wine starter culture from Kompong Cham Province, Cambodia

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    Chay, C.,

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Medombae is a dried starter culture used for traditional rice wine processing in Cambodia. However, studies on the role of mold and yeast present and their efficacy for rice wine fermentation are still limited. Cultural and morphological tests revealed that the isolated representative mold strains were isolated based on the method of identification used as Mucor spp and Rhizopus oryzae. On the other hand, the biochemical properties of the first yeast isolate using the Vitek 2 identification system and YST Card identification suggests its identity as Candida tropicalis. The second yeast strain examined for its morphological and cultural characteristic using agar slide technique, and its protein profile which was compared to the reference and sample protein masses using Biomerieux Vitek MS (MALD-TOF showed the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The biochemical characteristics and cellular characteristics of the third yeast isolate as described by Lodder (1970 and Kreger-Van Rij (1984 confirmed its identity as Saccharomycopsis spp. The DNA test of identification of the isolates should be conducted to further confirm the identity of the isolates.

  17. Estimating the Burden of Leptospirosis among Febrile Subjects Aged below 20 Years in Kampong Cham Communities, Cambodia, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, Sopheak; Ly, Sowath; Votsi, Irene; Vogt, Florian; Asgari, Nima; Buchy, Philippe; Heng, Seiha; Picardeau, Mathieu; Sok, Touch; Ly, Sovann; Huy, Rekol; Guillard, Bertrand; Cauchemez, Simon; Tarantola, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging but neglected public health challenge in the Asia/Pacific Region with an annual incidence estimated at 10-100 per 100,000 population. No accurate data, however, are available for at-risk rural Cambodian communities. We conducted anonymous, unlinked testing for IgM antibodies to Leptospira spp. on paired sera of Cambodian patients Leptospirosis testing was done on paired serological samples negative for Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya viruses after random selection. Convalescent samples found positive while initial samples were negative were considered as proof of acute infection. We then applied a mathematical model to estimate the risk of fever caused by leptospirosis, dengue or other causes in rural Cambodia. A total of 630 samples are coming from a randomly selected subset of 2358 samples. IgM positive were found on the convalescent serum sample, among which 100 (15.8%) samples were IgM negative on an earlier sample. Seventeen of these 100 seroconversions were confirmed using a Microagglutination Test. We estimated the probability of having a fever due to leptospirosis at 1. 03% (95% Credible Interval CI: 0. 95%-1. 22%) per semester. In comparison, this probability was 2. 61% (95% CI: 2. 55%, 2. 83%) for dengue and 17. 65% (95% CI: 17. 49%, 18. 08%) for other causes. Our data from febrile cases aged below 20 years suggest that the burden of leptospirosis is high in rural Cambodian communities. This is especially true during the rainy season, even in the absence of identified epidemics.

  18. Lepidópteros visitantes florais de Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl (Verbenaceae em remanescente de Mata Atlântica, Minas Gerais, Brasil Lepidopterans visiting the flowers of Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl (Verbenaceae in Atlantic Forest remnants, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Nilson G. Fonseca

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas a composição e sazonalidade da comunidade de lepidópteros visitantes florais de S. cayennensis na Estação Ambiental de Peti. Registrou-se a visita de 445 lepidópteros pertencentes a 98 espécies, distribuídos em 6 famílias: Hesperiidae (81,8%, Pieridae (10,8%, Lycaenidae (3,6%, Nymphalidae (2,2%, Papilionidae (1,3% e Sesiidae (0,3%. Os hesperídeos também apresentaram a maior riqueza, com 70 espécies amostradas. Das espécies amostradas, apenas quatro tiveram abundância relativa acima de 5% (Pyrgus orcus (Stoll, 1780, Pompeius pompeius (Latreille, [1824], Urbanus dorantes dorantes (Stoll, 1790 e Corticea corticea (Plötz, 1882. De acordo com a classificação de Palma, duas espécies foram comuns, 12 intermediárias e 84 foram consideradas raras. Os valores de diversidade e uniformidade foram altos (H'= 3,98 e E = 0,87. Existe nítida diferença na composição e abundância das espécies ao longo do ano, onde foi observado que a maior riqueza de espécies e número de indivíduos estiveram concentrados na estação chuvosa. A similaridade entre as duas estações foi relativamente baixa, 25 ocorreram na estação seca, 93 na chuvosa e apenas 18 ocorreram nas duas estações. Os lepidópteros apresentaram maior atividade de forrageamento em temperaturas entre 23 e 32 ºC, sendo a maior abundância registradas por volta das 10:00 horas.The composition and seasonality of the lepidopteran community visiting inflorescences of S. cayennensis at Estação Ambiental de Peti, were analyzed. The visits of 445 lepidopterans belonging to 98 species, distributed in 6 families, were registered. Hesperiidae (81,8%, Pieridae (10,8%, Lycaenidae (3,6%, Nymphalidae (2,2%, Papilionidae (1,3%, and Sesiidae (0,3%. Skippers presented the highest species richness, with 70 species. Only four of these had a relative abundance above 5% (Pyrgus orcus (Stoll, 1780, Pompeius pompeius (Latreille, [1824], Urbanus dorantes dorantes (Stoll, 1790 and Corticea corticea (Plötz, 1882. According to Palma classification, two species were common, 12 intermediary and 84 were considered rare. Diversity and evenness value were high (H'= 3.98 and E = 0.87. There was a sharp difference in the composition and abundance of the species throughout the year, attributed mainly to a higher richness and abundance during the rainy season. Accordingly, the similarity between rainy and dry season was relatively low, with 18 common species, 25 present only in the dry season and 93 during the wet season. The period of highest foraging activity corresponded to temperatures between 23 and 32ºC and the highest abundance were registered about 10:00h.

  19. Lethal and sublethal effects of triterpenes from Junellia aspera (Verbenaceae on the grain storage insect Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae Efectos letales y subletales de triterpenos aislados de Junellia aspera (Verbenaceae sobre el insecto de granos almacenados Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

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    Carlos R. Pungitore

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Duration of the pupal stage, toxic activity and nutritional indices induced by oleanolic acid (I, maslinic acid (II, and daucosterol (III isolated from the native plant Junellia aspera and chemical derivatives, were determinated on larvae, and adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. The current study shows that these triterpenes acts as acute toxic compounds when were applied topically and/or incorporated into the food of the red flour beetle. Nevertheless, no activity related with the nutritional status of this insect was produced.Se determinó la duración del estado pupal, actividad tóxica e índices nutricionales sobre larvas y adultos de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst inducidos por ácido oleanólico (I, ácido maslínico (II y daucosterol (III aislados de Junellia aspera y derivados químicos. Se demostró que los triterpenos evaluados actúan como tóxicos agudos cuando se aplican por topicación y/o son incorporados en el alimento. Los compuestos ensayados no presentaron actividad relacionada con el estado nutricional de los insectos.

  20. PLASTICIDAD FENOTÍPICA EN PLANTAS DE Lippia dulcis (VERBENACEAE) SOMETIDAS A DÉFICIT HÍDRICO Phenotypic Plasticity in Plants of Lippia dulcis (Verbenaceae) Subjected to Water Deficit

    OpenAIRE

    JAVIER MAURICIO VILLAMIZAR CÚJAR; NELSON FACUNDO RODRÍGUEZ LÓPEZ; WILMER TEZARA FERNÁNDEZ

    2012-01-01

    La plasticidad fenotípica (PF) es un mecanismo mediante el cual las plantas pueden responder a la heterogeneidad ambiental con ajustes morfológicos y fisiológicos. En este estudio se cuantificó la PF de plantas de Lippia dulcis en respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica en el suelo (baja, moderada y alta), en caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa, durante la ontogenia vegetativa (días 39, 45, 59 y 66). Nuestra hipótesis planteó que como respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica, deberí...

  1. PLASTICIDAD FENOTÍPICA EN Lippia alba (VERBENACEAE EN RESPUESTA A LA DISPONIBILIDAD HÍDRICA EN DOS AMBIENTES LUMÍNICOS Phenotypic Plasticity in Lippia alba (Verbenaceae in Response to Water Availability in Two Light Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATTIA PALACIO-LÓPEZ

    Full Text Available La plasticidad fenotípica es uno de los medios por los cuales las plantas pueden ajustar su morfología y fisiología, permitiéndoles enfrentar la heterogeneidad ambiental bajo condiciones naturales. El presente estudio evaluó la plasticidad fenotípica (PF en respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica del suelo, bajo dos condiciones de luz, en clones de dos poblaciones de Lippia alba (Verbanaceae contrastantes en la heterogeneidad del régimen de precipitación en su hábitat natural, a través de normas de reacción morfológicas y de asignación de biomasa. El experimento se desarrolló en condiciones semicontroladas en invernadero, siguiendo un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado, bajo un esquema factorial dos * dos (disponibilidad hídrica y poblaciones. La mayoría de los caracteres evaluados mostraron PF. No obstante, algunos caracteres de la población proveniente de condiciones naturales más homogéneas presentaron una reducción de plasticidad marcada. Lo anterior sugiere una posible relación entre el amplio rango de distribución de Lippia alba, PF y eventos de adaptación local.The phenotypic plasticity is one possible way for plants to adjust their morphology and physiology to cope with the environmental heterogeneity of their natural conditions. This study tested the phenotypic plasticity (PF in response to soil water availability, under two light conditions, in clones of two populations of Lippia alba (Verbanaceae, which show differences in the precipitation heterogeneity, using morphological and biomass allocation reaction norms. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse under semi-controlled conditions in a random experimental design, under a factorial design of two * two (water availability and populations. The majority of the traits showed PF. Although, some traits of the populations that come from more homogenous conditions showed a significant reduction in plasticity. This could suggest a relationship between the wide ecological breadth of Lippia alba, PF and local adaptation events.

  2. PLASTICIDAD FENOTÍPICA EN PLANTAS DE Lippia dulcis (VERBENACEAE SOMETIDAS A DÉFICIT HÍDRICO Phenotypic Plasticity in Plants of Lippia dulcis (Verbenaceae Subjected to Water Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER MAURICIO VILLAMIZAR CÚJAR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La plasticidad fenotípica (PF es un mecanismo mediante el cual las plantas pueden responder a la heterogeneidad ambiental con ajustes morfológicos y fisiológicos. En este estudio se cuantificó la PF de plantas de Lippia dulcis en respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica en el suelo (baja, moderada y alta, en caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa, durante la ontogenia vegetativa (días 39, 45, 59 y 66. Nuestra hipótesis planteó que como respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica, debería esperarse una mayor PF en caracteres morfológicos en comparación con caracteres de asignación de biomasa. La fracción de masa foliar, la razón del área foliar, la longitud de ramas, el número de hojas, así como la razón biomasa de la raíz/biomasa foliar, presentaron la mayor capacidad de ajuste plástico en las plantas de L. dulcis al déficit hídrico, mientras que el área foliar especifica representó el carácter con menor PF a lo largo de la ontogenia vegetativa. La magnitud y patrón de la PF variaron dependiendo del carácter, agua disponible y desarrollo ontogénico. Contrario a nuestra hipótesis, el grupo de caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa; exhibieron una PF equivalente. Los modelos de asignación óptima y forrajeo óptimo no son mutuamente excluyentes bajo condiciones de déficit hídrico. L. dulcis alteró su patrón de asignación de biomasa, la morfología foliar y la radicular, y como beneficio adaptativo optimizó el balance entre los órganos encargados de la absorción y el uso de agua. L. dulcis exhibió una notable capacidad para evadir el déficit hídrico.Phenotypic plasticity (FP is one of the mechanisms by which plants can respond to environmental heterogeneity by adjusting their morphology and physiology. This study tested and quantified the FP of Lippia dulcis plants in response to water availability in soil (low, medium and high, on morphologic and biomass allocation traits during the vegetative ontogeny (days 39, 45, 59 and 66. We hypothesized that in response to water availability, a higher FP should be expected in morphological compared to biomass allocation traits. The leaf mass fraction, leaf area ratio, branch length, number of leaves and root mass/leaf mass ratio, showed the largest capacity of plastic adjustment in the L. dulcis plants to water deficit, whereas the specific leaf area represented the trait with the lowest FP along vegetative ontogeny. The magnitude and pattern of FP changed depending on trait, water availability and ontogenic development. Contrary to our hypothesis the morphological traits and biomass allocation traits showed equivalent FP. The models of optimum allocation and optimum foraging are not mutually exclusive under water deficit. L. dulcis changed its pattern of biomass allocation, leaf and root morphology and as an adaptive advantage optimized the balance between organs involved in water acquisition and use. L. dulcis showed a remarkable ability to avoid water deficit.

  3. Vitex agnus-castus L. (Verbenaceae Improves the Liver Lipid Metabolism and Redox State of Ovariectomized Rats

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    Franciele Neves Moreno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitex agnus-castus (VAC is a plant that has recently been used to treat the symptoms of menopause, by its actions on the central nervous system. However, little is known about its actions on disturbances in lipid metabolism and nonalcoholic fat liver disease (NAFLD, frequently associated with menopause. Ovariectomized (OVX rats exhibit increased adiposity and NAFLD 13 weeks after ovary removal and were used as animal models of estrogen deficiency. The rats were treated with crude extract (CE and a butanolic fraction of VAC (ButF and displayed the beneficial effects of a reduction in the adiposity index and a complete reversion of NAFLD. NAFLD reversion was accompanied by a general improvement in the liver redox status. The activities of some antioxidant enzymes were restored and the mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production was significantly reduced in animals treated with CE and the ButF. It can be concluded that the CE and ButF from Vitex agnus-castus were effective in preventing NAFLD and oxidative stress, which are frequent causes of abnormal liver functions in the postmenopausal period.

  4. Una nueva especie, un nuevo status y nuevas combinaciones en Glandularia (Verbenaceae) para el Sur de Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, Paola; Thode, Verônica

    2010-01-01

    Resumen Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de Glandularia, G. guaibensis P. Peralta & Thode, endémica de Guaíba, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, colectada en bañados. Además se realizan las siguientes combinaciones: G. angustilobata (Moldenke) P. Peralta & Thode, G. lobata (Vell.) P. Peralta & Thode, G. lobata var. glabrata (Moldenke) P. Peralta & Thode, G. tessmannii (Moldenke) P. Peralta & Thode y G. rectiloba (Moldenke) P. Peralta & Thode. Abstract We describe and illustrate a new speci...

  5. Lethal and sublethal effects of essential oil of Lippia sidoides (Verbenaceae) and monoterpenes on Chagas’ disease vector Rhodnius prolixus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Marcela B; Gomes, Geovany A; Santangelo, Jayme M; Pontes, Emerson G; Azambuja, Patricia; Garcia, Elói S; de Carvalho, Mário G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the composition of the essential oil from leaves of Lippia sidoides (EOLS), a typical shrub commonly found in the dry northeast of Brazil, popularly known as “alecrim-pimenta”. Additionally, we investigated the nymphicidal, ovicidal, phagoinhibitory and excretion effects of EOLS, its major constituent thymol and its isomer carvacrol, on fourth instar nymphs and eggs of Rhodnius prolixus, the Chagas’ disease vector. The nymphicidal and ovicidal activity of thymol, carvacrol, and EOLS was assessed by tests using impregnated Petri dishes. The lethal concentration values (LC50) for EOLS, carvacrol, and thymol were 54.48, 32.98, and 9.38 mg/cm2, respectively. The ovicidal test showed that both carvacrol and thymol (50 mg/cm2) inhibited hatching (50% and 23.3%, respectively), while treatments with 10 mg/cm2 or 50 mg/cm2 EOLS did not affect the hatching rate at all (80% and 90%, respectively). We observed an anti-feeding effect in insects fed with blood containing natural products at the higher concentrations (100 µg/mL). Finally, excretion rate was affected by EOLS and carvacrol, but not by thymol. These findings offer novel insights into basic physiological processes that make the tested natural compounds interesting candidates for new types of insecticides. PMID:27878214

  6. Evaluación farmacológica y química de Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (Verbenaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Sergia Melita; Castro, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Se analizaron diferentes efectos farmacológicos sobre ratas inyectadas intraperitonealmente con diferentes dosis de extractos acuosos derivados de hojas de Stachytalpheha jamaícensis. Algunos resultados sensibles como: disminución de la actividad motora y respuesta de alarma, ataxia, sedación, pasividad y pérdida del reflejo de enderezamiento, indicaron claramente que estos extractos producen depresión del sistema nervioso central en estos animales. También se observaron efectos relacionados ...

  7. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  8. Variation in the wood anatomical structure of Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae trees at different ecological conditions in Costa Rica

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    Róger Moya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The tree Gmelina arborea has been widely introduced in Costa Rica for commercial purposes. This new conditions for melina cause variations on anatomy in secondary xylem of the trees growing in plantations. The objective of the present research was to determine the variation in the anatomy of xylem caused by the ecological conduction variation. Dimensions of fiber, axial parenchyma percentage of cross sections, parameters of vessels and the ray were measured. The results showed that some anatomical characteristics remained stable despite variations of ecological conditions, especially radial parenchyma and anatomical features which were less affected by the altitude. On the other hand, the vessels, axial parenchyma and fiber were less stable because they were affected significantly by the longitude, latitude, altitude and precipitation. Latitude significantly affected vessel percentage, length and diameter of the fiber and lumen. Longitude affected vessel percentage and fiber diameter. Altitude had a significant correlation with the amount of cells at ray height. Annual average precipitation affected vessel percentage and diameter, not only of the fiber, but also of the lumen. These results suggest that the new growth conditions of G. arborea trees in Costa Rica have produced an anatomic adaptation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 689-704. Epub 2008 June 30.Gmelina arborea ha sido introducida y ampliamente sembrada en Costa Rica en plantaciones de rápido crecimiento. Estas nuevas condiciones ecológicas provocan variación en la anatomía del xilema de estos árboles. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar la variación en la anatomía del xilema debido a la variación de la latitud, longitud, altitud y precipitación. Se evaluaron las dimensiones de las fibras, el porcentaje de área ocupada por el parénquima y los parámetros de los vasos y los radios. Algunas características anatómicas se mantuvieron estables con las variaciones de las condiciones ecológicas evaluadas, especialmente el parénquima radial. La altitud es la condición ecológica con menor afecto en la anatomía de la madera. Los vasos, el parénquima axial y las fibras fueron menos estables debido a que fueron afectados significativamente por la longitud, latitud, altitud y precipitación. La latitud afectó significativamente el porcentaje de vasos, porcentaje de radios, largo y diámetro de la fibra y diámetro del lumen; la longitud afectó el porcentaje de vasos y el diámetro de la fibra; la altitud únicamente mostró relación significativa con la cantidad de células en la altura de los radios. La precipitación media anual mostró efectos sobre el porcentaje de poros y el diámetro de la fibra y el lumen. Dichos resultados sugieren que las condiciones de crecimiento en Costa Rica para G. arborea son indicadores de un posible genotipo del árbol.

  9. Lethal and sublethal effects of triterpenes from Junellia aspera (Verbenaceae on the grain storage insect Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. PUNGITORE

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la duración del estado pupal, actividad tóxica e índices nutricionales sobre larvas y adultos de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst inducidos por ácido oleanólico (I, ácido maslínico (II y daucosterol (III aislados de Junellia aspera y derivados químicos. Se demostró que los triterpenos evaluados actúan como tóxicos agudos cuando se aplican por topicación y/o son incorporados en el alimento. Los compuestos ensayados no presentaron actividad relacionada con el estado nutricional de los insectos.

  10. Chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oils from Vitex agnus-castus L. (Verbenaceae and selected monoterpenes

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    Roberta C.S. Neves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tetranychus urticae is considered one of the main plagues in the world. Its occurrence in Pernambuco was registered for the first time in 1985 and it has caused considerable damage to the farmers, attacking different cultures of agricultural interest. The essential oils from different parts of Vitex agnus-castus harvested in the Atlantic forest in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation and the acaricidal potential was evaluated against Tetranychus urticae using two methods under laboratory conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 47 components accounting for 98.8 ± 0.0%, 93.0 ± 0.1% and 97.4 ± 1.0% of the essential oils from the leaves, fruit and inflorescence, respectively. The compounds 1,8-cineole and β-(E-farnesene were the major components of the oils from the leaves (17.6 ± 0.3% and 13.6 ± 0.2%, respectively and fruit (17.5 ± 0.1% and 15.4 ± 0.0%, respectively. β-(E-farnesene (13.5 ± 0.1% and β-caryophyllene (11.7 ± 0.1% were the major components of the oils from the flowers. Acaricidal action varied depending on the part of the plant and method employed. Through fumigation, the oil from the leaves (CL50= 0.61 μL L-1 of air was approximately six fold more toxic than the oil from the fruit. However, through residual contact, the oil from the fruit (CL50 = 137.11 μLmL-1 was 1.1 fold more toxic than the oil from the leaves. The relationship between the chemical composition of the oils and acaricidal activity is also presented.

  11. Morfoanatomia, histoquímica e perfil fitoquímico de Priva lappulacea (L. Pers. (Verbenaceae

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    Jovita Maria de Farias Braga

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreve a anatomia e analisa a histoquímica dos órgãos vegetativos de Priva lappulacea (L. Pers. Secções transversais e paradérmicas, à mão livre, de material fresco e fixado foram utilizadas para as análises anatômicas e histoquímicas, usando microscopia óptica. Os caracteres anatômicos são comuns àqueles descritos para a família, podendo ser utilizados como diagnóstico na sua identificação. Destacam-se, nas folhas, os tricomas, glandular e não-glandular, estômatos anomocíticos, em ambas as faces da epiderme, e mesofilo dorsiventral. As expansões no pecíolo são acrescentadas à diagnose da espécie. Estudo fitoquímico realizado com as partes aéreas mostrou a presença de triterpeno (ácido ursólico e esteróide (β-sitosterol, iridóides (ipolamida e catalpol, açúcar redutor (glucose, flavonóide (luteolina e fenilpropanóide (verbascosídeo. Nas raízes foi encontrada apenas glucose e dois iridóides estiveram presentes no caule e folhas. Alcalóides, saponinas, cumarinas, derivados cinâmicos, proantocianidinas condensadas e leucoantocianidinas não foram constatados nas partes analisadas. A descrição anatômica e os testes histoquímicos são inéditos para P. lappulacea.

  12. Establishment of propagation methods for growing promising aromatic plant species of the Lippia (Verbenaceae and Tagetes (Asteraceae genera in Colombia

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    Axel Mauricio Herrera-Moreno

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate methods of asexual propagation with stem cuttings in the aromatic plant species Lippia origanoides (accessions CA-90 and CA-93, Lippia alba (accession CA-300 and Tagetes zypaquirensis (accession CA-247 and determine the germination behavior of Tagetes caracasana (accession CA-10, in order to contribute to the establishment of these promising aromatics as potential new crops in Colombia. The factors evaluated were the substrate (fine coconut fiber (FCF; fine coconut fiber: coal slag 1:1 (FCFCS; fine coconut fiber: coal slag: river sand 1:1:1 (FCFCSRS and IBA hormone concentration (0, 2,000 and 4,000 mg L-1. Germination tests of seeds of the accession CA-10 were carried out in Petri dishes with 50 seeds per dish, with three replicates in controlled conditions and constant temperature (25°C, humidity (90% and total darkness. In general, the accessions CA-90, CA-93, CA-300 and CA-247 showed better rooting percentage, root length, number of roots and root dry weight in the fine coconut fiber substrate and a higher number of roots with an exogenous application of 2,000 mg L-1 IBA. L. alba and T. zypaquirensis responded better than L. origanoides to the treatments. The latter species showed a relatively poor performance and may require more complex and improved propagation methods to obtain more satisfactory results. T. caracasana seeds had a relatively short germination time (less than three weeks and relatively high germination under controlled laboratory and greenhouse conditions (70 and 60%, respectively; these percentages are high relative to wild species of the same genus, meaning this method of seed propagation is appropriate for this wild species

  13. Tyrosinase inhibitory activity, molecular docking studies and antioxidant potential of chemotypes of Lippia origanoides (Verbenaceae essential oils.

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    Alessandra P da Silva

    Full Text Available The essential oils (EOs of the aerial parts of Lippia origanoides (LiOr, collected in different localities of the Amazon region, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and CG-MS. Principle component analysis (PCA based on chemical composition grouped the oils in four chemotypes rich in mono- and sesquiterpenoids. Group I was characterized by 1,8-cineole and α-terpineol (LiOr-1 and LiOr-4 and group II by thymol (LiOr-2. The oil LiOr-3 showed β-caryophyllene, α-phellandrene and β-phellandrene as predominant and LiOr-5 was rich in (E-nerolidol and β-caryophyllene. All samples were evaluated for antioxidant activity and inhibition of tyrosinase in vitro and in silico. The highest antioxidant activity by the DPPH free radical method was observed in LiOr-2 and LiOr-5 oils (132.1 and 82.7 mg TE∙mL-1, respectively. The tyrosinase inhibition potential was performed using L-tyrosine and L-DOPA as substrates and all samples were more effective in the first step of oxidation. The inhibition by samples LiOr-2 and LiOr-4 were 84.7% and 62.6%, respectively. The samples LiOr-1, LiOr-4 and LiOr-5 displayed an interaction with copper (II ion with bathochromic shift around 15 nm. In order to elucidate the mechanism of inhibition of the main compounds, a molecular docking study was carried out. All compounds displayed an interaction between an oxygen and Cu or histidine residues with distances less than 4 Å. The best docking energies were observed with thymol and (E-nerolidol (-79.8 kcal.mol-1, which suggested H-bonding interactions with Met281 and His263 (thymol and His259, His263 ((E-nerolidol.

  14. Lethal and sublethal effects of essential oil of Lippia sidoides (Verbenaceae) and monoterpenes on Chagas' disease vector Rhodnius prolixus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Marcela B; Gomes, Geovany A; Santangelo, Jayme M; Pontes, Emerson G; Azambuja, Patricia; Garcia, Elói S; Carvalho, Mário G de

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the composition of the essential oil from leaves of Lippia sidoides (EOLS), a typical shrub commonly found in the dry northeast of Brazil, popularly known as "alecrim-pimenta". Additionally, we investigated the nymphicidal, ovicidal, phagoinhibitory and excretion effects of EOLS, its major constituent thymol and its isomer carvacrol, on fourth instar nymphs and eggs of Rhodnius prolixus, the Chagas' disease vector. The nymphicidal and ovicidal activity of thymol, carvacrol, and EOLS was assessed by tests using impregnated Petri dishes. The lethal concentration values (LC50) for EOLS, carvacrol, and thymol were 54.48, 32.98, and 9.38 mg/cm2, respectively. The ovicidal test showed that both carvacrol and thymol (50 mg/cm2) inhibited hatching (50% and 23.3%, respectively), while treatments with 10 mg/cm2 or 50 mg/cm2 EOLS did not affect the hatching rate at all (80% and 90%, respectively). We observed an anti-feeding effect in insects fed with blood containing natural products at the higher concentrations (100 µg/mL). Finally, excretion rate was affected by EOLS and carvacrol, but not by thymol. These findings offer novel insights into basic physiological processes that make the tested natural compounds interesting candidates for new types of insecticides.

  15. PLASTICIDAD FENOTÍPICA EN PLANTAS DE Lippia dulcis (VERBENACEAE) SOMETIDAS A DÉFICIT HÍDRICO

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Javier Mauricio Villamizar Cújar

    2012-01-01

    ... (baja, moderada y alta). Se evaluó la PF en caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa, durante la ontogenia vegetativa de L. dulcis (días 39, 45, 59 y 66). Nuestra hipótesis planteó...

  16. PLASTICIDAD FENOTÍPICA EN PLANTAS DE LIPPIA DULCIS (VERBENACEAE) SOMETIDAS A DÉFICIT HÍDRICO

    OpenAIRE

    JAVIER MAURICIO VILLAMIZAR CÚJAR; NELSON FACUNDO RODRÍGUEZ LÓPEZ; WILMER TEZARA FERNÁNDEZ

    2012-01-01

    La plasticidad fenotípica (PF) es un mecanismo mediante el cual las plantas pueden responder a la heterogeneidad ambiental con ajustes morfológicos y fisiológicos. En este estudio se cuantificó la PF de plantas de Lippia dulcis en respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica en el suelo (baja, moderada y alta), en caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa, durante la ontogenia vegetativa (días 39, 45, 59 y 66). Nuestra hipótesis planteó que como respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica, deberí...

  17. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Luiz R.S. Tozin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  18. Biological activity of essential oils from Aloysia polystachya and Aloysia citriodora (Verbenaceae) against the soybean pest Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdin González, Jorge O; Gutiérrez, Maria M; Murray, Ana P; Ferrero, Adriana A

    2010-02-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the chemical constituents, ovicidal activity, fumigant, contact toxicity and repellent effects of essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from Aloysia polystachya and A. citriodora against eggs and second instar nymphs of Nezara viridula. The major components were carvone (83.5%) for A. polystachya, and citronellal (51.3%) and sabinene (22.9%) for A. citriodora. The ovicidal activity of both oils was tested by topical application at different concentrations ranging from 1.2 to 12.5 microg/egg; all concentrations had a toxic effect. Data probit analysis showed that the LC50 value for A. polystachya was 2.3 microg/egg and for A. citriodora 1.9 microg/egg. The fumigant activity was evaluated in an enclosed chamber. The toxicity increased with concentration from 11 to 176 microg/mL air, and with exposure times from 1 to 48 h. The LC50 values for A. polystachya and A. citriodora were 29.9 and 13.5 microg/mL air 24 h after treatment, respectively. To evaluate contact activity a glass-vial bioassay was used. The toxicity increased with concentration from 2.8 to 45 microg/cm2 and with exposure time from 1 to 48 h. The LC50 for A. polystachya was 3.4 microg/cm2 and for A. citriodora 8.1 microg/cm2. The repellency bioassay demonstrated that both oils were active at the highest concentration (2.6 and 5.3 microg/mL air) and neutral at 1.3 microg/mL air. These results show that the essential oils from Aloysia polystachya and A. citriodora could be applicable to the management of populations of Nezara viridula.

  19. PLASTICIDAD FENOTÍPICA EN PLANTAS DE Lippia dulcis (VERBENACEAE SOMETIDAS A DÉFICIT HÍDRICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villamizar Cújar Javier Mauricio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available

    La plasticidad fenotípica (PF es un mecanismo mediante el cual las plantas pueden responder a la heterogeneidad ambiental con ajustes morfológicos y fisiológicos. En este estudio se cuantificó la PF de plantas de Lippia dulcis en respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica en el suelo (baja, moderada y alta. Se evaluó la PF en caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa, durante la ontogenia vegetativa de L. dulcis (días 39, 45, 59 y 66. Nuestra hipótesis planteó que como respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica, debería esperarse una mayor PF en caracteres morfológicos en comparación con caracteres de asignación de biomasa. La fracción de masa foliar, razón del área foliar, longitud de las ramas, número de hojas, así como la razón biomasa de la raíz/biomasa foliar,  presentaron la mayor capacidad de ajuste plástico en las plantas de L dulcis al déficit hídrico, mientras que el área foliar especifica representó el carácter con menor PF a lo largo de la ontogenia vegetativa. La magnitud y patrón de la PF variaron dependiendo del carácter, tratamiento y con el desarrollo ontogénico. Contrario a nuestra hipótesis, el grupo de caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa, exhibieron una PF equivalentes. Los modelos de asignación y forrajeo óptimo bajo condiciones de déficit hídrico no son mutuamente excluyentes. L.dulcis alteró sus patrones de asignación de biomasa, la morfología foliar y radicular, y como beneficio adaptativo optimizó la asimilación de agua y la eficiencia en el uso del agua. L. dulcis exhibió una notable tolerancia al déficit hídrico.  

  20. PLASTICIDAD FENOTÍPICA EN PLANTAS DE LIPPIA DULCIS (VERBENACEAE SOMETIDAS A DÉFICIT HÍDRICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER MAURICIO VILLAMIZAR CÚJAR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La plasticidad fenotípica (PF es un mecanismo mediante el cual las plantas pueden responder a la heterogeneidad ambiental con ajustes morfológicos y fisiológicos. En este estudio se cuantificó la PF de plantas de Lippia dulcis en respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica en el suelo (baja, moderada y alta, en caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa, durante la ontogenia vegetativa (días 39, 45, 59 y 66. Nuestra hipótesis planteó que como respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica, debería esperarse una mayor PF en caracteres morfológicos en comparación con caracteres de asignación de bio- masa. La fracción de masa foliar, la razón del área foliar, la longitud de ramas, el núme- ro de hojas, así como la razón biomasa de la raíz/biomasa foliar, presentaron la mayor capacidad de ajuste plástico en las plantas de L. dulcis al déficit hídrico, mientras que el área foliar especifica representó el carácter con menor PF a lo largo de la ontogenia vegetativa. La magnitud y patrón de la PF variaron dependiendo del carácter, agua disponible y desarrollo ontogénico. Contrario a nuestra hipótesis, el grupo de caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa; exhibieron una PF equivalente. Los modelos de asignación óptima y forrajeo óptimo no son mutuamente excluyentes bajo condi- ciones de déficit hídrico. L. dulcis alteró su patrón de asignación de biomasa, la morfo- logía foliar y la radicular, y como beneficio adaptativo optimizó el balance entre los órganos encargados de la absorción y el uso de agua. L. dulcis exhibió una notable capacidad para evadir el déficit hídrico

  1. PLASTICIDAD FENOTÍPICA DE Lippia alba Y Lippia origanoides (VERBENACEAE EN RESPUESTA A LA DISPONIBILIDAD DE LUZ

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    EDWIN PARRA TORRES

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La distribución de la especies es usualmente relacionada con la magnitud de la plas- ticidad fenotípica (PF. Con el fin de examinar la posible relación entre la magnitud de la PF y la amplitud ecológica en respuesta a la disponibilidad de luz, este trabajo evaluó la PF a través de la ontogenia en clones de Lippia alba y Lippia origanoides, espe- cies congenéricas que presentan diferencias en su distribución. Clones de cada especie fueron distribuidos aleatoriamente en tres tratamientos, baja (33%, media (53%, y alta (100% disponibilidad lumínica. Se evaluó la PF de caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa a través de la ontogenia por medio de un análisis de varianza (ANAVA y la comparación interespecífica se realizó a través del índice de plasticidad fenotípica (RDPI. L. alba y L. origanoides presentaron variación de la plasticidad a través de la ontogenia en varios de los caracteres estudiados. La comparación interespecífica a través del RDPI mostró que la mayor PF de L. alba sobre L. origanoides en algún estado de la ontogenia no fue consistente ni uniforme a través de esta. Estos resultados su- gieren una débil asociación entre la magnitud de la PF en respuesta a la disponibilidad lumínica. Además, indican que la mayor distribución de L. alba, se debe a un mayor desempeño en la tasa de crecimiento relativa y consecuentemente a una mayor acu- mulación de biomasa total, que posiblemente, le permiten alcanzar rápidamente su madurez sexual y así la colonización de nuevas áreas.

  2. Genetic structure and essential oil diversity of the aromatic shrub Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae in two populations from northern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Enrique Vega-Vela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the diversity in essential oil composition and genetic structure of two populations of Lippia origanoides from Colombia, one from the department of Magdalena on the Atlantic coast in the north, and the other from the canyon of the Chicamocha river in the northeast, were compared. Individuals were sampled in each of the two populations and ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat molecular markers were applied to document the distribution of the genetic diversity within and among the populations. Essential oils were extracted by steam distillation from individuals collected in the two populations and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results suggest that genetic diversity levels of L. origanoides in Magdalena and Chicamocha are relatively high (Hs ranged from 0.35 to 0.37 and comparable to allogamous plant species and other related species of the same genus. A rather low genetic differentiation (qII varied from 0.07 to 0.17 was found between the two populations, in spite of the relatively large geographical distance between them. The essential oils of L. origanoides can be classified as monoterpenic in type, and according to the relative amount of the major compounds, six chemotypes are proposed. Five of them (B, C, D, F and G are present in the canyon of the Chicamocha river, while two of them (C and E are present in Magdalena. Chemotypes B and C are similar to chemotypes previously reported. In summary, the essential oils from individuals collected in Chicamocha are rich in thymol (chemotypes C and D; carvacrol (chemotype B; Ρcymene, eucalyptol (+ Β-phellandrene trace and thymol methyl ether (chemotype F; and thymol methyl ether, pcymene, thymol and Υ-terpinene (chemotype G; while those from Magdalena are rich in thymol (chemotype C, and eucalyptol and α-phellandrene (chemotype E. These results suggest a significant presence of genetic and essential oil diversity in this species, which should be studied further in order to make more efficient use of this promising plant resource

  3. Evaluation of the anti-diarrheal activity of the aqueous stem extract of Lantana camara Linn (Verbenaceae) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Edlam; Engidawork, Ephrem; Nedi, Teshome; Mengistu, Getnet

    2017-04-04

    Diarrheal disease remains a public health problem in developing countries, including Ethiopia. In order to alleviate this disease, Ethiopian traditional healers use a wide range of medicinal plants from which Lantana camara is one of them. The stem of this plant is traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhoea. In addition, this plant is scientifically evaluated to have an antispasmodic effect on in vitro study. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of the aqueous stem extract of L. camara Linn in mice. The antidiarrheal activity of the extract was investigated using castor oil induced diarrhoea, enteropooling and small intestine transit models. The test groups received various doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) of the extract, whereas positive controls received Loperamide (3 mg/kg) and negative controls received distilled water (10 ml/kg). In castor oil induced diarrhoea model, the extract, at all test doses, significantly (p camara, thus provide the scientific basis for the traditional uses of this plant as a treatment for diarrhoea.

  4. Effect of Collection Time on Essential Oil Composition of Lantana camara Linn (Verbenaceae Growing in Brazil Northeastern

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    Erlânio O. Sousa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To verify the composition variation of its essential oil along 24 hours, leaves of Lantana camara Linn. of medicinal plant collection of the Department of Chemical Biology of URCA-Crato–CE, were collected every three hours during one day (of the 07:00 to 19:00 h in April, 2008. The leaves had its oil extracted by hydro-distillation in Clevenger apparatus during three hours with two repetitions. The chemical composition analysis of the extracted essential oils was carried out in gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The phytochemical profile of the essential oils presented significant difference in function of the harvest. The seven most abundant were: germacrene D (24.50-6.15%, biciclogermacrene (33.32-14.27%, spathulenol (25.04-1.06%, eremophilene (20.64-1.93%, valecene (33.70-0.84%, viridiflorene (19.46% and 1,10-di-epi-cubenol (27.93-21.32. The different result found here indicates the existence of different chemotypes of L. camara

  5. Long-term environmental correlates of invasion by Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) in a seasonally dry tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Geetha; Sukumar, Raman

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species, local plant communities and invaded ecosystems change over space and time. Quantifying this change may lead to a better understanding of the ecology and the effective management of invasive species. We used data on density of the highly invasive shrub Lantana camara (lantana) for the period 1990-2008 from a 50 ha permanent plot in a seasonally dry tropical forest of Mudumalai in southern India. We used a cumulative link mixed-effects regression approach to model the transition of lantana from one qualitative density state to another as a function of biotic factors such as indicators of competition from local species (lantana itself, perennial grasses, invasive Chromolaena odorata, the native shrub Helicteres isora and basal area of native trees) and abiotic factors such as fire frequency, inter-annual variability of rainfall and relative soil moisture. The density of lantana increased substantially during the study period. Lantana density was negatively associated with the density of H. isora, positively associated with basal area of native trees, but not affected by the presence of grasses or other invasive species. In the absence of fire, lantana density increased with increasing rainfall. When fires occurred, transitions to higher densities occurred at low rainfall values. In drier regions, lantana changed from low to high density as rainfall increased while in wetter regions of the plot, lantana persisted in the dense category irrespective of rainfall. Lantana seems to effectively utilize resources distributed in space and time to its advantage, thus outcompeting local species and maintaining a population that is not yet self-limiting. High-risk areas and years could potentially be identified based on inferences from this study for facilitating management of lantana in tropical dry forests.

  6. Long-term environmental correlates of invasion by Lantana camara (Verbenaceae in a seasonally dry tropical forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Ramaswami

    Full Text Available Invasive species, local plant communities and invaded ecosystems change over space and time. Quantifying this change may lead to a better understanding of the ecology and the effective management of invasive species. We used data on density of the highly invasive shrub Lantana camara (lantana for the period 1990-2008 from a 50 ha permanent plot in a seasonally dry tropical forest of Mudumalai in southern India. We used a cumulative link mixed-effects regression approach to model the transition of lantana from one qualitative density state to another as a function of biotic factors such as indicators of competition from local species (lantana itself, perennial grasses, invasive Chromolaena odorata, the native shrub Helicteres isora and basal area of native trees and abiotic factors such as fire frequency, inter-annual variability of rainfall and relative soil moisture. The density of lantana increased substantially during the study period. Lantana density was negatively associated with the density of H. isora, positively associated with basal area of native trees, but not affected by the presence of grasses or other invasive species. In the absence of fire, lantana density increased with increasing rainfall. When fires occurred, transitions to higher densities occurred at low rainfall values. In drier regions, lantana changed from low to high density as rainfall increased while in wetter regions of the plot, lantana persisted in the dense category irrespective of rainfall. Lantana seems to effectively utilize resources distributed in space and time to its advantage, thus outcompeting local species and maintaining a population that is not yet self-limiting. High-risk areas and years could potentially be identified based on inferences from this study for facilitating management of lantana in tropical dry forests.

  7. PLASTICIDAD FENOTÍPICA EN PLANTAS DE Lippia dulcis (VERBENACEAE SOMETIDAS A DÉFICIT HÍDRICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Mauricio Villamizar Cújar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La plasticidad fenotípica (PF es un mecanismo mediante el cual las plantas pueden responder a la heterogeneidad ambiental con ajustes morfológicos y fisiológicos. En este estudio se cuantificó la PF de plantas de Lippia dulcis en respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica en el suelo (baja, moderada y alta. Se evaluó la PF en caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa, durante la ontogenia vegetativa de L. dulcis (días 39, 45, 59 y 66. Nuestra hipótesis planteó que como respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica, debería esperarse una mayor PF en caracteres morfológicos en comparación con caracteres de asignación de biomasa. La fracción de masa foliar, razón del área foliar, longitud de las ramas, número de hojas, así como la razón biomasa de la raíz/biomasa foliar,  presentaron la mayor capacidad de ajuste plástico en las plantas de L dulcis al déficit hídrico, mientras que el área foliar especifica representó el carácter con menor PF a lo largo de la ontogenia vegetativa. La magnitud y patrón de la PF variaron dependiendo del carácter, tratamiento y con el desarrollo ontogénico. Contrario a nuestra hipótesis, el grupo de caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa, exhibieron una PF equivalentes. Los modelos de asignación y forrajeo óptimo bajo condiciones de déficit hídrico no son mutuamente excluyentes. L.dulcis alteró sus patrones de asignación de biomasa, la morfología foliar y radicular, y como beneficio adaptativo optimizó la asimilación de agua y la eficiencia en el uso del agua. L. dulcis exhibió una notable tolerancia al déficit hídrico.

  8. Variation in the wood anatomical structure of Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae) trees at different ecological conditions in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Tomazello Fo, Mario

    2008-06-01

    The tree Gmelina arborea has been widely introduced in Costa Rica for commercial purposes. This new conditions for melina cause variations on anatomy in secondary xylem of the trees growing in plantations. The objective of the present research was to determine the variation in the anatomy of xylem caused by the ecological conduction variation. Dimensions of fiber, axial parenchyma percentage of cross sections, parameters of vessels and the ray were measured. The results showed that some anatomical characteristics remained stable despite variations of ecological conditions, especially radial parenchyma and anatomical features which were less affected by the altitude. On the other hand, the vessels, axial parenchyma and fiber were less stable because they were affected significantly by the longitude, latitude, altitude and precipitation. Latitude significantly affected vessel percentage, length and diameter of the fiber and lumen. Longitude affected vessel percentage and fiber diameter. Altitude had a significant correlation with the amount of cells at ray height. Annual average precipitation affected vessel percentage and diameter, not only of the fiber, but also of the lumen. These results suggest that the new growth conditions of G. arborea trees in Costa Rica have produced an anatomic adaptation.

  9. Antimicrobial effect of Lippia sidoides and thymol on Enterococcus faecalis biofilm of the bacterium isolated from root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, H N H; Rodrigues, F F G; Botelho, M A; Menezes, I R A; Coutinho, H D M; da Costa, J G M

    2014-01-01

    The species Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) is utilized in popular medicine as a local antiseptic on the skin and mucosal tissues. Enterococcus faecalis is the bacterium isolated from root canals of teeth with persistent periapical lesions and has the ability to form biofilm, where it is responsible for the failure of endodontic treatments. Essential oil of L. sidoides (EOLS) and its major component, thymol, were evaluated for reducing the CFU in biofilms of E. faecalis in vitro. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and examined with respect to the chemical composition, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS analysis has led to the identification of thymol (84.9%) and p-cymene (5.33%). EOLS and thymol reduced CFU in biofilms of E. faecalis in vitro (time of maturation, 72 h), with an exposure time of 30 and 60 min at concentrations of 2.5 and 10%. There was no statistical difference in effect between EOLS and thymol, demontrating that this phenolic monoterpene was the possible compound responsible for the antimicrobial activity of EOLS. This study provides a basis for the possible utilization of EOLS as an adjuvant in the treatment of root canals that show colonization by E. faecalis.

  10. Antimicrobial Effect of Lippia sidoides and Thymol on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm of the Bacterium Isolated from Root Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. H. Veras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The species Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae is utilized in popular medicine as a local antiseptic on the skin and mucosal tissues. Enterococcus faecalis is the bacterium isolated from root canals of teeth with persistent periapical lesions and has the ability to form biofilm, where it is responsible for the failure of endodontic treatments. Essential oil of L. sidoides (EOLS and its major component, thymol, were evaluated for reducing the CFU in biofilms of E. faecalis in vitro. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and examined with respect to the chemical composition, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The GC-MS analysis has led to the identification of thymol (84.9% and p-cymene (5.33%. EOLS and thymol reduced CFU in biofilms of E. faecalis in vitro (time of maturation, 72 h, with an exposure time of 30 and 60 min at concentrations of 2.5 and 10%. There was no statistical difference in effect between EOLS and thymol, demonstrating that this phenolic monoterpene was the possible compound responsible for the antimicrobial activity of EOLS. This study provides a basis for the possible utilization of EOLS as an adjuvant in the treatment of root canals that show colonization by E. faecalis.

  11. Antimicrobial Effect of Lippia sidoides and Thymol on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm of the Bacterium Isolated from Root Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, H. N. H.; Rodrigues, F. F. G.; Botelho, M. A.; Menezes, I. R. A.; Coutinho, H. D. M.; da Costa, J. G. M.

    2014-01-01

    The species Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) is utilized in popular medicine as a local antiseptic on the skin and mucosal tissues. Enterococcus faecalis is the bacterium isolated from root canals of teeth with persistent periapical lesions and has the ability to form biofilm, where it is responsible for the failure of endodontic treatments. Essential oil of L. sidoides (EOLS) and its major component, thymol, were evaluated for reducing the CFU in biofilms of E. faecalis in vitro. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and examined with respect to the chemical composition, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS analysis has led to the identification of thymol (84.9%) and p-cymene (5.33%). EOLS and thymol reduced CFU in biofilms of E. faecalis in vitro (time of maturation, 72 h), with an exposure time of 30 and 60 min at concentrations of 2.5 and 10%. There was no statistical difference in effect between EOLS and thymol, demonstrating that this phenolic monoterpene was the possible compound responsible for the antimicrobial activity of EOLS. This study provides a basis for the possible utilization of EOLS as an adjuvant in the treatment of root canals that show colonization by E. faecalis. PMID:24683344

  12. Influência do ácido indolbutírico no enraizamento de alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides em leito com umidade controlada Influence of indolebutyric acid on "alecrim-pimenta" (Lippia sidoides rooting bed under controlled humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Figueiredo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Lippia sidoides (Verbenaceae é conhecida no Brasil como alecrim-pimenta, um arbusto típico da vegetação do nordeste brasileiro. Este trabalho foi realizado no Instituto de Ciências Agrárias da UFMG, em Montes Claros, Brasil, com a finalidade de estudar a propagação vegetativa do alecrim-pimenta em leito de enraizamento com umidade controlada. Estacas da planta foram submetidas às seguintes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (IBA: 0, 250, 500, 750 e 1000 mg L-1 durante 24 horas. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC com cinco repetições, sendo dez estacas por repetição. Após 45 dias de implantação foram avaliados o número de raízes, o número de brotações, o comprimento da maior raiz, o índice de enraizamento e a porcentagem de enraizamento. Observou-se que as variáveis comprimento de raiz, número de raízes e índice de enraizamento apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as diversas concentrações de IBA. No entanto, a porcentagem de enraizamento não foi afetada significativamente, provavelmente pelo controle da umidade relativa e pela manutenção das folhas das estacas.The species Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae is known in Brazil as "alecrim-pimenta", a typical shrub from the Northeastern Brazil vegetation. This work was carried out in the Agronomical Sciences Institute from Minas Gerais State University (UFMG, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in order to study the vegetative propagation of this species in rooting bed under controlled humidity. Herbaceous cuttings were treated with the following concentrations of indolebutyric acid (IBA: 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg L-1 for 24 hours. The experimental design was completely randomized (CRD with five replicates of 10 cuttings each. After 45 days, root and sprout numbers, the highest root length, and rooting index and percentage were evaluated. Root length and number and rooting index had

  13. Fenologia do florescimento e frutificação de espécies nativas dos Campos = Flowering phenology and fruit set of native species of the Campos ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Batista

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a fenologia de 12 espécies ocorrentes no ecossistema de Campos no Estado do Paraná. A pesquisa foi realizada no Campus III, da Universidade Federal do Paraná, na cidade de Curitiba. As espécies selecionadas para a avaliação fenológica foram: Aspilia montevidensis (Sprengel Kuntze, Cacalia cognata (Less. Kuntze, Campovassouria bupleurifolia (DC. R. M. King & H. Rob., Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less. DC., Chromolaena ascendens (Sch. Bip. ex. Baker R. M. King & H. Rob., Lessingianthus glabratus (Less. H. Rob. (Asteraceae, Eryngium sanguisorba Cham. &Schtdl. (Apiaceae, Moritzia dusenii Johnston (Boraginaceae, Petunia linoides Sendtn. (Solanaceae, Senna neglecta (Vogel H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae, Tibouchina gracilis (Bonpl. Cogn. (Melastomataceae e Verbena rigida Spreng (Verbenaceae. A metodologiautilizada foi a avaliação qualitativa dos dados fenológicos (floração e frutificação, observados quinzenalmente, durante o ano de 2004. As variáveis climáticas: temperatura, umidade relativa do ar, precipitação e fotoperíodo foram obtidas diariamente para verificar sua relação com as fenofases. Os resultados indicaram que, das espécies estudadas, seis tiveram fase fenológica reprodutiva entre janeiro e agosto, enquanto as demais tiveram a interrupção do período reprodutivo durante o inverno, com exceção de Aspilia montevidensis que apresentou floração e frutificação durante todo o ano.The aim of this work is to study the phenology of twelve species that occur in “Campos” ecosystem in Paraná state. This research was carried out at the Universidade Federal do Paraná, Campus III, in Curitiba city. The selected species for phenologic evaluation were: Aspilia montevidensis (Sprengel Kuntze, Cacalia cognata (Less. Kuntze, Campovassouria bupleurifolia (DC. R. M. King & H. Rob., Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less. DC., Chromolaena ascendens (Sch. Bip. ex. Baker R. M. King & H. Rob

  14. The Spatial Distribution of Alkaloids in Psychotria prunifolia (Kunth) Steyerm and Palicourea coriacea (Cham.) K. Schum Leaves Analysed by Desorption Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Lucilia; Moraes, Aline Pereira; de Oliveira, Cecília Maria Alves; Vaz, Boniek Gontijo; de Almeida Gonçalves, Letícia; E Silva, Elienai Cândida; Janfelt, Christian

    2017-09-06

    Species of the genera Psychotria and Palicourea are sources of indole alkaloids, however, the distribution of alkaloids within the plants is not known. Analysing the spatial distribution using desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) has become attractive due to its simplicity and high selectivity compared to traditional histochemical techniques. To apply DESI-MSI to visualise the alkaloid distribution on the leaf surface of Psychotria prunifolia and Palicourea coriacea and to compare the distributions with HPLC-MS and histochemical analyses. Based upon previous structure elucidation studies, four alkaloids targeted in this study were identified using high resolution mass spectrometry by direct infusion of plant extracts, and their distributions were imaged by DESI-MSI via tissue imprints on a porous Teflon surface. Relative quantitation of the four alkaloids was obtained by HPLC-MS/MS analysis performed using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Alkaloids showed distinct distributions on the leaf surfaces. Prunifoleine was mainly present in the midrib, while 10-hydroxyisodeppeaninol was concentrated close to the petiole; a uniform distribution of 10-hydroxyantirhine was observed in the whole leaf of Psychotria prunifolia. The imprinted image from the Palicourea coriacea leaf also showed a homogeneous distribution of calycanthine throughout the leaf surface. Different distributions were found for three alkaloids in Psychotria prunifolia, and the distributions found by MSI were in complete accordance with HPLC-MS analysis and histochemical results. The DESI-MSI technique was therefore demonstrated to provide reliable information about the spatial distribution of metabolites in plants. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. CONTROL QUÍMICO DE LA NAVAJUELA (Scleria melaleuca Rchb.f.ex. Schltdl.Cham. EN DIFERENTES ESTADOS DE DESARROLLO

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    Robin G\\u00F3mez-G\\u00F3mez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el control de la navajuela en cuatro diferentes estados de desarrollo: (1 dos a tres hojas, (2 inicio del macollamiento, (3 rebrote en cepas adultas luego de cinco semanas de haber sido cortadas con cortadora de motor y (4 cepa adulta o madura. El quinto ensayo combinó cepas adultas y cepas en rebrote. Durante los años 2002-2005 se realizaron cinco ensayos en Pococí, Limón, dos en invernadero y tres en el campo. Se encontró que la manera más efi caz de eliminar la navajuela sin afectar el pasto fue la aplicación de herbicidas selectivos al pasto, como halosulfuron (75 g/ha, bentazón + MCPA (1.150 g/ha de la mezcla formulada y ethoxysulfuron (75 g/ha, cuando la maleza se encontraba en estado de dos a tres hojas, lo cual se puede lograr cuando se realiza renovación de pasturas. Por otro lado, para controlar la cepa madura de navajuela fue necesario utilizar herbicidas de amplio espectro, como el diurón + paraquat y el glifosato. Con el glifosato se logró un excelente control tanto en aplicaciones por aspersión como de manera untada o por contacto, con la ventaja de que este último método redujo el daño a la pastura.

  16. The effects of land use change on carbon content in the aerial biomass of an Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham. forest in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Pineda Lopez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. Were analyzed patterns and dynamics of forest cover change and land use for the period 1995-2005, and estimated carbon content in biomass in a forest of fir (Abies religiosa.Area of study. Ejido El Conejo in the Cofre de Perote National Park, Veracruz, Mexico.Material and Methods. Spatial data (maps, orthophotographs were used: (UTM; GRS 80 spheroid; zone 14, datum ITRF92; units: metres. Maps for 1995 and 2005 were constructed and compared. Carbon content in the aboveground biomass of fir (Abies religiosa was estimated using an equation specific to species.Main results. After one decade, the forested area had increased slightly (0.25%. The main type of land cover change was from shrubland to forest (probability of change 0.41; the change from forestland to shrubland with trees was 0.05%, and from forest to agriculture was 0.02%. Data from 2008 confirmed that the A. religiosa forest located in the ejido is distributed in largely unconnected fragments, of which some have a high density of young trees. Estimated carbon content in the aboveground biomass (163.51 Mg ha-1 was higher than that estimated for other forests of the same species in Mexico.Research highlights. It is recommended that ecological corridors be established throughout the reforested area, in order to connect these fragments (and increase carbon sequestration and favour faunal and floral conservation. Finally, recognition should be given to the high vulnerability of A. religiosa forests to climate change, given their high degree of fragmentation and critical altitudinal limit.Key words: Aboveground biomass; carbon storage; ecological corridors; fir forest.

  17. The effects of land use change on carbon content in the aerial biomass of an Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham.) forest in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Lopez, M. R.; Sanchez-Velasquez, L. R.; Vazquez-Dominguez, G.; Rojo-Alboreca, A.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study.) Were analyzed patterns and dynamics of forest cover change and land use for the period 1995-2005, and estimated carbon content in biomass in a forest of fir (Abies religiosa). Area of study. Ejido El Conejo in the Cofre de Perote National Park, Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Spatial data (maps, ortho photographs) were used: (UTM); GRS 80 spheroid; zone 14, datum ITRF92; units: metres. Maps for 1995 and 2005 were constructed and compared. Carbon content in the aboveground biomass of fir (Abies religiosa) was estimated using an equation specific to species. Main results. After one decade, the forested area had increased slightly (0.25%). The main type of land cover change was from shrubland to forest (probability of change 0.41); the change from forestland to shrubland with trees was 0.05%, and from forest to agriculture was 0.02%. Data from 2008 confirmed that the A. religiosa forest located in the ejido is distributed in largely unconnected fragments, of which some have a high density of young trees. Estimated carbon content in the aboveground biomass (163.51 Mg ha-1) was higher than that estimated for other forests of the same species in Mexico. Research highlights. It is recommended that ecological corridors be established throughout the reforested area, in order to connect these fragments (and increase carbon sequestration) and favour faunal and floral conservation. Finally, recognition should be given to the high vulnerability of A. religiosa forests to climate change, given their high degree of fragmentation and critical altitudinal limit. (Author) 55 refs.

  18. ESTRUCTURA POBLACIONAL DE Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham., EN EL EJIDO EL CONEJO DEL PARQUE NACIONAL COFRE DE PEROTE, VERACRUZ, MÉXICO

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    María del Rosario Pineda-López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la estructura de los rodales de oyamel (Abies religiosa presentes en el ejido El Conejo, localizado en el Parque Nacional Cofre de Perote, Veracruz. Se evaluó la densidad, diámetro, altura y cobertura del arbolado adulto en 17 parcelas de 625 m2. La regeneración se midió en las 17 parcelas utilizando subcuadrantes de 312.50 m2. El arbolado mostró una estructura de crecimiento de “J” invertida; sin embargo, los individuos se encuentran suprimidos y, aun cuando la regeneración es adecuada, el arbolado requiere de la apertura de claros para su desarrollo. Se encontró una superficie arbolada altamente fragmentada y amenazada de manera permanente por el crecimiento de la frontera agrícola y la extracción de leña para uso doméstico. Los resultados muestran evidencia de que la categoría de parque nacional no contribuye a la conservación del bosque.

  19. Prevalencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular en indígenas embera-chamí de Cristianía (Jardín), Antioquia

    OpenAIRE

    Cataño Bedoya, John Ubéimar; Duque Botero, Julieta; Naranjo González, Carlos Andrés; Rúa Molina, Diana Carolina; Rosique Gracia, Javier; García Pineda, Andrés Felipe; Gómez Isaza, Luis Felipe; Cardona-Arias, Jaibereth Antonio; Caro, María Antonieta; Bedoya Berrío, Gabriel; Pizano Ramírez, Norman Diego

    2015-01-01

    Estudiamos la prevalencia de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en 488 individuos mayores de 14 años, en el resguardo indígena Karmata Rúa de Cristianía. Se encontraron las siguientes frecuencias: hipertensión arterial (HTA) 18,1%; antecedente personal de diabetes mellitus 3,3%; glucemia mayor de 126 mg/dL 0,7%; hábito de fumar 15%; sobrepeso 40,2%; obesidad 8,0%; hipercolesterolemia 21,4%; hipertrigliceridemia 33,3% y dislipidemia 56,2%. El índice de masa corporal y los valores de coleste...

  20. The Spatial Distribution of Alkaloids in Psychotria prunifolia (Kunth) Steyerm and Palicourea coriacea (Cham.) K. Schum Leaves Analysed by Desorption Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Lucilia; Moraes, Aline Pereira; de Oliveira, Cecília Maria Alves

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Species of the genera Psychotria and Palicourea are sources of indole alkaloids, however, the distribution of alkaloids within the plants is not known. Analysing the spatial distribution using desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) has become attract...

  1. Atividade antisséptica do óleo essencial de Lippia origanoides Cham. (Alecrim-pimenta na presença de leite bovino

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    Anna Christina de Almeida

    Full Text Available Resumo: Objetivou-se determinar atividade antisséptica do óleo essencial de Lippia origanoides na presença de leite bovino. A composição química do óleo essencial de alecrim pimenta foi determinada por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG-EM, sendo detectados 53 compostos, dos quais 16 foram identificados (>0,1% área total. O carvacrol (32,7%, p-cimeno (23%, timilmetil éter, cariofileno (7,98% e o γ-terpineno (5,40% foram os componentes mais abundantes. A concentração inibitória mínima para Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 e E. coli ATCC 8739 foi de 60μL/mL, enquanto para Salmonella Choleraesuis ATCC 35640 foi de 90μL/mL. A concentração bactericida mínima foi de 120μL/mL para as três bactérias. Avaliou-se a atividade antisséptica do óleo essencial na concentração de 120μL/mL na presença de leite bovino sobre as mesmas cepas bacterianas. O óleo em estudo apresentou efeito inibitório do crescimento das cepas em diferentes tempos de ação (p<0,05. S. aureus apresentou maiores índices de inibição após 5 min de contato e Escherichia coli e Salmonella Choleraesuis após 15 min. O óleo essencial de alecrim-pimenta revelou ser um potencial antimicrobiano natural, mesmo na presença de matéria orgânica constituída de uma matriz nutricional complexa que é o leite bovino.

  2. Establishing the redox potential of Tibouchina pulchra (Cham.) Cogn., a native tree species from the Atlantic Rain Forest, in the vicinity of an oil refinery in SE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marisia Pannia; Domingos, Marisa

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to establish the seasonal variations in the redox potential ranges of young Tibouchina pulchra plants growing in the Cubatão region (SE Brazil) under varying levels of oxidative stress caused by air pollutants. The plants were exposed to filtered air (FA) and non-filtered air (NFA) in open-top chambers installed next to an oil refinery in Cubatão during six exposure periods of 90 days each, which included the winter and summer seasons. After exposure, several analyses were performed, including the foliar concentrations of ascorbic acid and glutathione in its reduced (AsA and GSH), total (totAA and totG) and oxidized forms (DHA and GSSG); their ratios (AsA/totAA and GSH/totG); the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR); and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). The range of antioxidant responses in T. pulchra plants varied seasonally and was stimulated by high or low air pollutant concentrations and/or air temperatures. Glutathione and APX were primarily responsible for increasing plant tolerance to oxidative stress originating from air pollution in the region. The high or low air temperatures mainly affected enzymatic activity. The content of MDA increased in response to increasing ozone concentration, thus indicating that the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance may not have been reached.

  3. Xilema secundário de Guettarda uruguensis Cham. e Schltdl. E Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi em área contaminada com óleo mineral isolante e biorremediada

    OpenAIRE

    Weiers, Merilluce Samara

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Em 2004 foi identificada uma área, de Floresta Ombrófila Mista, com alta contaminação no solo por óleo mineral isolante (OMI) na Companhia Paranaense de Energia - COPEL (Curitiba, Paraná). Nessa área, a COPEL, desde 1954, realiza o armazenamento e manutenção de equipamentos e o descarte de OMI. A área contaminada foi biorremediada em 2004, reduzindo significativamente o nível de hidrocarbonetos totais de petróleo (HTP) no solo. Com o objetivo de avaliar possíveis alterações na estrutu...

  4. The Ethics of Biomedical Big Data : Brent Daniel Mittelstadt and Luciano Floridi, eds. 2016, Springer International Publishing (Cham, Switzerland, 978-3-319-33523-0, 480 pp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Paul H

    2017-12-01

    The availability of diverse sources of data related to health and illness from various types of modern communication technology presents the possibility of augmenting medical knowledge, clinical care, and the patient experience. New forms of data collection and analysis will undoubtedly transform epidemiology, public health, and clinical practice, but what ethical considerations come in to play? With a view to analysing the ethical and regulatory dimensions of burgeoning forms of biomedical big data, Brent Daniel Mittelstadt and Luciano Floridi have brought together thirty scholars in an edited volume that forms part of Springer's Law, Governance and Technology book series in a collection titled The Ethics of Biomedical Big Data. With eighteen chapters partitioned into six carefully devised sections, this volume engages with core theoretical, ethical, and regulatory challenges posed by biomedical big data.

  5. GERMINACIÓN, INFESTACIÓN Y VIABILIDAD EN BELLOTAS DE Quercus polymorpha (Schltdl. & Cham. TRAS UN AÑO DE ALMACENAMIENTO

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    Claudia González-Salvatierra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los encinos blancos tienen semillas recalcitrantes que se mantienen viables por corto tiempo. Sin embargo, esta información es escasa para encinos mexicanos. Este es el caso de Quercus polymorpha, una especie tolerante a la sequía y ampliamente distribuida en la Sierra Madre Oriental que puede utilizarse en programas de restauración forestal. Las bellotas son colectadas durante la época reproductiva y son almacenadas por varios meses antes de su germinación. Este estudio se enfocó en 1 determinar cuántas semillas se pierden durante el almacenamiento debido a factores fisiológicos relacionados con su viabilidad, 2 cuantificar las semillas que se pierden por otros factores, y 3 evaluar si la estratificación fría puede estimular la germinación de las bellotas. Las bellotas utilizadas fueron almacenadas durante un año. El 70 % de las bellotas estaban parasitadas por insectos antes de su almacenamiento, mientras que el 20 % perdió su viabilidad debido a factores fisiológicos o infestación por hongos. Los ensayos de germinación se llevaron a cabo utilizando sólo bellotas potencialmente viables, las cuales fueron sometidas a tres periodos de estratificación en frío (0, 20 y 50 días. El experimento mostró que las bellotas estratificadas durante 50 días tienen mayores tasas de germinación (64.2 % que las de 20 (44.8 % y 0 días (16. 5 %.

  6. Effects of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf., Lippia sidoides Cham., and Ocimum gratissimum L. on growth and ultrastructure of Leishmania chagasi promastigotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Valéria C S; Moura, Daniela M S; Lopes, José A D; de Andrade, Paulo P; da Silva, Nicácio H; Figueiredo, Regina C B Q

    2009-04-01

    The current therapy for leishmaniasis, which affects annually about 2 million people, is far from satisfactory. All available drugs require parenteral administration and are potentially toxic. Plant essential oils have been traditionally used in folk medicine and appear as valuable alternative source for chemotherapeutic compounds. In this study, we demonstrated the effect of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia sidoides, and Ocimum gratissimum on growth and ultrastructure of Leishmania chagasi promastigote forms. Steam distillation was used to isolate the essential oils, and their constituents were characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. All essential oils showed in vitro inhibitory action on L. chagasi promastigotes growth in a dose-dependent way, with IC(50)/72 h of 45, 89, and 75 microg/mL for C. citratus, L. sidoides, and O. gratissimum, respectively. Drastic morphological alterations were observed in all essential oil-treated parasites, including cell swelling, accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, and increase of acidocalcisome volume. Furthermore, aberrant-shaped cells with multi-septate body were observed by scanning electron microscopy, suggesting an additional effect on cytokinesis. Taken together, our data show that these essential oils affect the parasite viability being the C. citratus essential oil the most effective against L. chagasi.

  7. Spatial Genetic Structure within and among Seed Stands of Pinus engelmannii Carr. and Pinus leiophylla Schiede ex Schltdl. & Cham, in Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Ortiz-Olivas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of spatial genetic structure (SGS are important because they offer detailed insights into historical demographic and evolutionary processes and provide important information regarding species conservation and management. Pinus engelmannii and P. leiophylla var. leiophylla are two important timber tree species in Mexico, covering about 2.5 and 1.9 million hectares, respectively. However, studies in relation to population genetics are unfortunately scant. The aim of this research was to use amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP analysis to identify potential differences in spatial genetic structure within and among seven Pinus engelmannii and nine P. leiophylla var. leiophylla seed stands in Durango, Mexico. Within the 16 seed stands of the two tested pine species, no significant SGS was detected, although SGS was detected among the seed stands. We concluded that the collection of seed in only some seed stands should not significantly alter the degree of genetic differentiation within the (collected seed. Distances between seed orchards and pollen propagators of more than 24 km for P. engelmannii and 7 km for P. leiophylla may be sufficient to limit contamination. Finally, local seeds should be used for (reforestation.

  8. Substâncias antifúngicas constitutivas e induzidas em folhas e suspensões celulares de Rudgea jasminoides (Cham.) Müll. Arg. (Rubiaceae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oliveira, Marisa de Cacia; Simões, Kelly; Braga, Márcia Regina

    2009-01-01

    ... a presença de compostos antifúngicos constitutivos e induzidos produzidos por folhas e suspensões celulares dessa espécie. Oligogalacturonídeos (OGAs), ácido salicílico(AS), óxido nítrico(NO) e fragmentos de β...

  9. The anti-adherence effect of Lippia sidoides Cham: extract against microorganisms of dental biofilm Efeito anti-aderente de Lippia sidoides: extrato contra microorganismos do biofilme dental

    OpenAIRE

    A.C.L. Albuquerque; M.S.V. Pereira; D.F. Silva; L.F. Pereira; Viana,F.A.C.; Higino,J.S.; Barbosa,M.R.V.

    2013-01-01

    Most illnesses affecting the oral cavity are proven to have infectious origin. Several categories of chemical agents have been used in the chemical control of dental biofilm through strategies that aim at reducing bacterial adhesion and inhibiting the growth and the proliferation of microorganisms on the tooth surface. The use of plants in folk medicine and in Dentistry, as well as the spread of successful cases, has led to scientific exploration, resulting in chemical-pharmacological knowled...

  10. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Lippia sidoides, carvacrol and thymol against oral pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Botelho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries and periodontal disease are associated with oral pathogens. Several plant derivatives have been evaluated with respect to their antimicrobial effects against such pathogenic microorganisms. Lippia sidoides Cham (Verbenaceae, popularly known as "Alecrim-pimenta" is a typical shrub commonly found in the Northeast of Brazil. Many plant species belonging to the genus Lippia yield very fragrant essential oils of potential economic value which are used by the industry for the commercial production of perfumes, creams, lotions, and deodorants. Since the leaves of L. sidoides are also extensively used in popular medicine for the treatment of skin wounds and cuts, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the composition and antimicrobial activity of L. sidoides essential oil. The essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Twelve compounds were characterized, having as major constituents thymol (56.7% and carvacrol (16.7%. The antimicrobial activity of the oil and the major components was tested against cariogenic bacterial species of the genus Streptococcus as well as Candida albicans using the broth dilution and disk diffusion assays. The essential oil and its major components thymol and carvacrol exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against the organisms tested with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.625 to 10.0 mg/mL. The most sensitive microorganisms were C. albicans and Streptococcus mutans. The essential oil of L. sidoides and its major components exert promising antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens and suggest its likely usefulness to combat oral microbial growth.

  11. Acaricidal effect of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Lamiales: Verbenaceae), Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and Allium sativum (Liliales: Liliaceae) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Velazquez, M; Rosario-Cruz, R; Castillo-Herrera, G; Flores-Fernandez, J M; Alvarez, A H; Lugo-Cervantes, E

    2011-07-01

    Acaricidal effects of three essential oils extracted from Mexican oregano leaves (Lippia graveolens Kunth), rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) on 10-d-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) tick larvae were evaluated by using the larval packet test bioassay. Serial dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting concentration of 20 to 1.25%. Results showed that both Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils had very similar activity, producing high mortality (90-100%) in all tested concentrations on 10-d-old R. microplus tick larvae. Rosemary essential oil produced >85% larval mortality at the higher concentrations (10 and 20%), but the effect decreased noticeably to 40% at an oil concentration of 5%, and mortality was absent at 2.5 and 1.25% of the essential oil concentration. Chemical composition of the essential oils was elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Mexican oregano essential oil included thymol (24.59%), carvacrol (24.54%), p-cymene (13.6%), and y-terpinene (7.43%) as its main compounds, whereas rosemary essential oil was rich in a-pinene (31.07%), verbenone (15.26%), and 1,8-cineol (14.2%), and garlic essential oil was rich in diallyl trisulfide (33.57%), diallyl disulfide (30.93%), and methyl allyl trisulfide (11.28%). These results suggest that Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils merit further investigation as components of alternative approaches for R. microplus tick control.

  12. Anti-Fungal Activity and Allelopathic Influence of Vitex agnus-castus L. (Verbenaceae Essential Oils on Actinidia deliciosa in vitro Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Levchyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of research of Vitex agnus-castus L. plants from the collection of M. M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden, NAS of Ukraine are given. The species belongs to a group of prospective essential oil plants which are characterized by valuable medicinal, food, aromatic, honey, technical and decorative properties, and can be used in many industries, including pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food. The quantitative content and qualitative composition of the vegetating plant’s essential oil are determined, its antifungal influence on the cultures of Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternatа andFusarium culmorum is assessed. Antifungal properties of V. agnus-castus essential oil were used to sterilize Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev C.F. Liang & A.R. Fergusonexplants introduced in vitro. V. agnus-castusessential oil is shown to have allelopathic effect on A. deliciosa plants. The possibility of using the oil in vitro to cultivate A. deliciosa callus as a source of bioactive substances and to enhance the effectiveness of biotechnological methods of plant propagation is discussed.

  13. PLASTICIDAD FENOTÍPICA EN Lippia alba (VERBENACEAE EN RESPUESTA A LA DISPONIBILIDAD HÍDRICA EN DOS AMBIENTES LUMÍNICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRÍGUEZ-LÓPEZ NELSON

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La plasticidad fenotípica es uno de los medios por los cuales las plantas pueden ajustar su morfología y fisiología, permitiéndoles enfrentar la heterogeneidad ambiental bajo condiciones naturales. El presente estudio evaluó la plasticidad fenotípica (PF en respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica del suelo, bajo dos condiciones de luz, en clones de dos poblaciones de Lippia alba (Verbanaceae contrastantes en la heterogeneidad del régimen de precipitación en su hábitat natural, a través de normas de reacción morfológicas y de asignación de biomasa. El experimento se desarrolló en condiciones semicontroladas en invernadero, siguiendo un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado, bajo un esquema factorial dos * dos (disponibilidad hídrica y poblaciones. La mayoría de los caracteres evaluados mostraron PF. No obstante, algunos caracteres de la población proveniente de condiciones naturales más homogéneas presentaron una reducción de plasticidad marcada. Lo anterior sugiere una posible relación entre el amplio rango de distribución de Lippia alba, PF y eventos de adaptación local.

  14. Polinização de Lantana fucata Lindley (Verbenaceae por Parides ascanius Cramer (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae na Restinga de Grumari, Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Verçoza

    2011-03-01

    Abstract. This study investigated the dynamics of pollination of Lantana fucata Lindley by Parides ascanius Cramer in the restinga place of Environmental Protection Area of Grumari, located in western Rio de Janeiro. The study was conducted from january to december 2009, recording the flowering period, the number of open flowers per day and data on morphology, color and odor of flowers. The occurrence of floral visitors was recorded throughout the day, observing the time of visit and conduct intra-floral played. The flowers of L. fucata are organized into chapters and have diurnal anthesis, starting at 6 am and ending as 5 pm. The flowers are 1.0 cm in length, are colored purple, tubular and exude odor mild and pleasant. The species has a continuous flowering and has floral attributes typical of psicophily (pollination by butterflies. Butterflies observed visiting flowers of L. fucata were Mechanitis polymnia Bates, P. ascanius and Mimoides lysithous harrisianus Swainson. Of these, P. ascanius stood out as effective pollinator because of the attendance of visits to flowers during the whole year. This study highlights the mutualistic relationship between L. fucata and P. ascanius established between the supply of nectar as a food resource to the butterfly, while this is responsible for pollinating the flowers and the formation of fruits and seeds.

  15. Chemical composition and vasorelaxant effect induced by the essential oil of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown. (Verbenaceae) in rat mesenteric artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Luana G; Santos, Kátia C; Cunha, Patrícia S; Barreto, André S; Peixoto, Magna G; Arrigoni-Blank, Fátima; Blank, Arie F; Alves, Péricles B; Bonjardin, Leonardo R; Santos, Márcio R V

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the chemical composition and vasorelaxant effect of the essential oil of Lippia alba (EOLA) in rat mesenteric artery. Chemical composition of EOLA was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Vasorelaxant effect was evaluated in vitro in rat superior mesenteric artery rings. GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of 19 compounds, with geranial (48.58%) and neral (35.42%) being the major constituents. In intact rings precontracted with phenylephrine (Phe: 1 μM), EOLA (100-1000 μg/mL) induced relaxation, where the maximal effect (Emax) was 110.8 ± 10.8%. This effect was not modified after endothelium removal (Emax = 134.8 ± 16.5%), after tetraethylammonium (TEA) (Emax = 117.2 ± 4.96%), or in rings precontracted with KCl (80 mM) (Emax = 112.6 ± 6.70%). In addition, EOLA was able to inhibit the contraction caused by CaCl(2) and produced a small but significant (P<0.05) additional effect (from 70.5 ± 3.4 to 105.3 ± 13.5%, n = 5) on the maximal relaxation of nifedipine (NIF: 10 μM). The results demonstrated that EOLA induces endothelium-independent vasorelaxation, which appears to be caused, at least in part, by blocking Ca(2+) influx through voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels.

  16. Chemical composition and vasorelaxant effect induced by the essential oil of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown. (Verbenaceae) in rat mesenteric artery

    OpenAIRE

    Luana G Maynard; Kátia C Santos; Patrícia S Cunha; André S. Barreto; Magna G Peixoto; Fátima Arrigoni-Blank; Arie F. Blank; Alves,Péricles B.; Bonjardin, Leonardo R.; Márcio R.V. Santos

    2011-01-01

    Objectives : To investigate the chemical composition and vasorelaxant effect of the essential oil of Lippia alba (EOLA) in rat mesenteric artery. Material and Methods : Chemical composition of EOLA was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Vasorelaxant effect was evaluated in vitro in rat superior mesenteric artery rings. Results : GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of 19 compounds, with geranial (48.58%) and neral (35.42%) being the major constituents. In in...

  17. Are there evidences of a complex mimicry system among Asclepias curassavica (Apocynaceae), Epidendrum fulgens (Orchidaceae), and Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) in Southern Brazil?

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhro, Daniela; Araújo, Aldo Mellender de; Irgang, Bruno Edgar

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to test the presence of mimicry in Asclepias curassavica L., Epidendrum fulgens Brong., and Lantana camara L. The study was carried out at the Parque Estadual de Itapeva, RS, southern Brazil, from 2004 to 2006. Flowering period of each of the three species was followed up; focal observations of butterflies visiting flowers, from fixed point and during random walks were carried out. We also estimated the frequency of pollinaria removal in the orchid, as well as its m...

  18. Atividade antagonista do óleo essencial de Lippia alba (Mill. N. E. Brown (Verbenaceae sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White Chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J.T. GONÇALVES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O controle de fitonematóides é uma tarefa difícil. A alta infestação de nematoides no solo obriga os produtores a usarem doses mais elevadas de nematicidas, ou ainda, a aumentarem a freqüência das aplicações, geralmente no solo, ocasionando maior potencial de dano ao homem e ao ambiente. Além disso, nematicidas convencionais vêm sofrendo grandes restrições de uso em muitos países. Desse modo, a busca de novas medidas de controle de fitonematóides é uma prioridade da agricultura sustentável. Desta forma, objetivou-se estudar o efeito de óleos essenciais de Lippia Alba, na mortalidade de juvenis pré-parasitas do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita. O ensaio foi montado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 4 repetições, em esquema fatorial 3×4 (3 quimiotipos x 4 concentrações empregando-se três diferentes quimiotipos de L. Alba (I, II, III nas concentrações de 0, 100, 500 e 1000 ppm, coletados em diferentes horas do dia (7, 9, 13, 16 e 19h. Os dados coletados (% de mortalidade foram submetidos à análise de variância e os valores médios comparados por meio do teste de Tukey. Foi possível concluir que Lippia alba contém, em seu óleo essencial, compostos com efeitos significativos na mortalidade de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de M. incognita. Dessa forma, é importante destacar que o acentuado efeito nematicida do óleo essencial de L. alba sugere a possibilidade de seu uso no controle de M. incognita.

  19. Plasticidad fenotípica en plantas de lippia dulcis (verbenaceae) sometidas a déficit hídrico

    OpenAIRE

    Villamizar Cújar Javier Mauricio

    2012-01-01

  1. PLASTICIDAD FENOTÍPICA EN Lippia alba (VERBENACEAE EN RESPUESTA A LA DISPONIBILIDAD HÍDRICA EN DOS AMBIENTES LUMÍNICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATTIA PALACIO-LÓPEZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La plasticidad fenotípica es uno de los medios por los cuales las plantas pueden ajustar su morfología y fisiología, permitiéndoles enfrentar la heterogeneidad ambiental bajo condiciones naturales. El presente estudio evaluó la plasticidad fenotípica (PF en res- puesta a la disponibilidad hídrica del suelo, bajo dos condiciones de luz, en clones de dos poblaciones de Lippia alba (Verbanaceae contrastantes en la heterogeneidad del régimen de precipitación en su hábitat natural, a través de normas de reacción morfo- lógicas y de asignación de biomasa. El experimento se desarrolló en condiciones semi- controladas en invernadero, siguiendo un diseño experimental completamente alea- torizado, bajo un esquema factorial dos * dos (disponibilidad hídrica y poblaciones. La mayoría de los caracteres evaluados mostraron PF. No obstante, algunos caracteres de la población proveniente de condiciones naturales más homogéneas presentaron una reducción de plasticidad marcada. Lo anterior sugiere una posible relación entre el amplio rango de distribución de Lippia alba , PF y eventos de adaptación local.

  2. Plasticidad fenotípica en lippia alba (verbenaceae) en respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica en dos ambientes lumínicos

    OpenAIRE

    KATTIA PALACIO-LÓPEZ; NELSON RODRÍGUEZ-LÓPEZ

    2008-01-01

    La plasticidad fenotípica es uno de los medios por los cuales las plantas pueden ajustar su morfología y fisiología, permitiéndoles enfrentar la heterogeneidad ambiental bajo condiciones naturales. El presente estudio evaluó la plasticidad fenotípica (PF) en respuesta a la disponibilidad hídrica del suelo, bajo dos condiciones de luz, en clones de dos poblaciones de Lippia alba (Verbanaceae) contrastantes en la heterogeneidad del régimen de precipitación en su há...

  3. Leaves of Lantana camara Linn. (Verbenaceae) as a potential insecticide for the management of three species of stored grain insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekar, Y; Ravindra, K V; Bakthavatsalam, N

    2014-11-01

    Insects cause extensive damage to stored grains and their value added products. Among the stored grain pests Sitophilus oryzae (L.) Callosobruchus chinensis (Fab.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) are considered as destructive pests in India. Plants may provide alternatives to currently used insect control agents as they constitute rich source in bioactive molecules. Lantana camara, an erect shrub, which grows widely in the tropics, exhibits insecticidal activity against several insects. The methanol extract from leaves of L. camara has fumigant and contact toxicity against S. oryzae, C. chinesis and T. castaneum. In fumigant assays, The LC50 for S. oryzae was 128 μl/L(1), C. chinensis 130.3 μl/L(1), and T. castaneum 178.7 μl/L(1). The LD50 values for S. oryzae C. chinensis and T. castaneum in contact toxicity were 0.158, 0.140 and 0.208 mg/cm(2), respectively. For grain treatment, a concentration of 500 mg/L(1) and 7 days exposure were needed to obtain 90 - 100 % population extinction in all three insects. Probit analysis showed that C. chinensis were more susceptible than S. oryzae and T. castaneum. Gaschromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) studies for extracts indicated the presence of potent fumigant molecules in L. camara. The prospect of utilizing L. camara as potent fumigant insecticide is discussed.

  4. Estratégias de utilização de luz e estabilidade do desenvolvimento de plântulas de Cordia superba Cham. (Boraginaceae crescidas em diferentes ambientes luminosos Light utilization strategies and developmental stability of Cordia superba Cham. (Boraginaceae seedlings grown in different light environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Maia Souza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização fotossintética da luz é um componente fundamental para a distribuição das espécies ao longo de um gradiente de regeneração de clareiras. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as estratégias de utilização da luz e como isto poderia afetar a estabilidade do desenvolvimento de plantas da espécie Cordia superba crescidas em dois ambientes com irradiações contrastantes. Para tanto, foi conduzido um experimento com plantas de 12 meses de idade de C. superba, uma espécie pioneira arbórea, crescidas a pleno sol e sombreamento de 85%. Foram avaliados aspectos fisiológicos como crescimento e fluorescência da clorofila, e aspectos da arquitetura das copas como ângulo de folha e índice de área foliar. Também foi realizada uma análise da estabilidade do desenvolvimento por meio da avaliação da simetria foliar. Os resultados mostraram que esta espécie possui a capacidade de desenvolver diferentes fenótipos em resposta a disponibilidades de luz contrastantes, apresentando características de plantas de sol bem como de sombra nos respectivos ambientes de crescimento. Todavia, as plantas crescidas no ambiente ensolarado apresentaram folhas mais simétricas, em relação às plantas de sombra. Isto sugere que, apesar do ambiente de pleno sol possuir uma maior heterogeneidade ambiental do que ambientes sombreados, o status de espécie pioneira de C. superba parece ser uma característica adaptativa suficientemente desenvolvida para permitir a formação de um fenótipo estável em um ambiente variávelPhotosynthetic light utilization plays a major role in species distribution along gap regeneration gradients. The aim of this study was to evaluate strategies of light utilization and the possible influence on developmental stability of seedlings of the woody pioneer species Cordia superba grown under contrasting light environments. To this end, an experiment was carried out with 12-month-old C. superba seedlings grown under full sunlight and under 85% shade. Physiological aspects such as plant growth and chlorophyll fluorescence, and canopy architecture traits such as leaf angle and leaf area index were analyzed. A developmental stability analysis was also performed by leaf symmetry measurements. The results showed that C. superba seedlings have the capacity to develop different phenotypes in response to contrasting light availability, showing sun and shade plant traits according to respective growth environments. However, the plants grown in full sunlight showed more symmetric leaves than leaves developed in shade conditions. This suggests that, despite the greater environmental heterogeneity of full sunlight in relation to a shade environment, the status of pioneer species of C. superba seems to be a well developed adaptive trait allowing plants to develop a stable phenotype in a changing environment

  5. Chemical composition and fumigant effect of essentialoil of Lippia sidoides Cham. and monoterpenes against Tenebrio molitor (L. (coleoptera: tenebrionidae Composição química e efeito fumigante do óleo essencial de Lippia sidoides Cham. e monoterpenos sobre Tenebrio molitor (L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Karin Lima

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of Lippia sidoides essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation was characterized and quantified by GC/MS and their insecticidal activity by fumigation test was assayed against Tenebrio molitor. Moreover, the toxicity of monoterpenes carvacrol, 1,8-cineol and thymol were also evaluated when applied alone or in binary (1:1 or tertiary (1:1:1 mixture. The essential oil of L. sidoides has as major constituents carvacrol (31.68%, ρ-cymene (19.58%, 1,8-cineole (9.26% and ϒ-terpinene (9.21%, from a 21 compounds identified, being 92.53% of total. Both compounds have insecticidal activity against T. molitor, being the degree of toxicity of carvacrol > 1,8-cineole > L. sidoides essential oil > thymol, and its respectively LC50 at 24h were 5.53; 5.71; 8.04 and 14.71 µL/L air. When the different mixture of carvacrol, 1,8-cineole and thymol was assayed against T. molitor, the synergism among them was observed. For the mixture of carvacrol:1,8-cineole LC50 was 5.34 µL/L air; carvacrol:thymol 7.67 µL/L air; 1,8-cineole:thymol 7.51 µL/L air and carvacrol:1,8-cineole:thymol 6.34 µL/L air. Mainly, the monoterpene thymol had a synergic effect, which increased the toxicity of carvacrol and 1,8-cineole, both in binary mixture like carvacrol:thymol and 1,8-cineole:thymol.A composição química do óleo essencial de Lippia sidoides obtido por hidrodestilação foi caracterizada e quantificada por GC/MS, bem como sua atividade inseticida por teste de fumigação foi avaliada sobre Tenebrio molitor. Além disso, a toxicidade dos monoterpenos carvacrol, 1,8-cineol e timol, também foi avaliada quando esses compostos foram aplicados isoladamente, ou em misturas binárias (1:1, ou terciárias (1:1:1. O óleo essencial de L. sidoides tem como principais constituintes o carvacrol (31,68%, ρ-cimeno (19,58%, 1,8-cineol (9,26% e ϒ-terpineno (9,21%, em 21 compostos identificados, sendo 92,53% do total. Ambos os compostos possuem atividade inseticida contra T. molitor, seguindo a ordem de toxicidade: carvacrol > 1,8-cineol > óleo essencial de L. sidoides > timol; sendo suas respectivas CL50 à 24 h de 5,53; 5,71; 8,04 e 14,71 µL/L ar. Quando as diferentes misturas de carvacrol, 1,8-cineol e timol foram avaliadas contra T. molitor, verificou-se o efeito sinérgico. Para a mistura de carvacrol:1,8-cineol a CL50 foi de 5,34 µL/L ar; carvacrol:timol de 7,67 µL/L ar; 1,8-cineol:timol de 7,51 µL/L ar e carvacrol:1,8-cineol:timol de 6,34 µL/L ar. Principalmente o monoterpeno timol teve efeito sinérgico, aumentando a toxicidade de carvacrol e 1,8-cineol quando em misturas binárias, tais como carvacrol:timol e 1,8-cineol:timol.

  6. Biodegradation of Cyclohexylamine by Brevibacterium oxydans IH-35A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Masatake; Tokuyama, Tai; Hasegawa, Yoshie

    1999-01-01

    A bacterial strain capable of growing on cyclohexylamine (CHAM) was isolated by using enrichment and isolation techniques. The strain isolated, strain IH-35A, was classified as a member of the genus Brevibacterium. The results of growth and enzyme studies are consistent with degradation of CHAM via cyclohexanone (CHnone), 6-hexanolactone, 6-hydroxyhexanoate, and adipate. Cell extracts obtained from this strain grown on CHAM contained CHAM oxidase, and the model for CHAM oxidation by this enzyme was similar to the model for deamino oxidation of amine by amine oxidase. PMID:10224025

  7. Variabilidade sazonal e biossíntese de terpenóides presentes no óleo essencial de Lippia alba (Mill. N. E. Brown (Verbenaceae Seasonal variability and terpenoid biosynthesis of the essential oil of Lippia alba (Mill. N. E. Brown (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Maikon Corrêa de Barros

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the leaves of Lippia alba chemotype linalool-1,8-cineol was extracted by hidrodistillation at different seasons and analyzed by GC/MS. Qualitative and quantitative variations in regard to the period of harvesting have been performed and the results were correlated with meteorological data. The essential oil yield varied from 0.33 to 0.67%. The chemical diversity of the constituents increased throughout the year, being 1,8-cineol and linalool the major components. Possible biosynthetic routes of mono and sesquiterpenoids present in the essential oil are discussed.

  8. Lectotypifications of six taxa in the Boraginales (Cordiaceae and Heliotropiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A large number of specimens used as original material for the description of new species were destroyed in the bombing of the Berlin-Dahlem herbarium, B, in 1943. Six lectotypes are designated here for Cordia discolor Cham., Cordia multispicata Cham., Cordia tobagensis Urb. and its variety broadwayi Urb. in the Cordiaceae and for Tournefortia paniculata Cham. and Tournefortia ulei Vaupel in the Heliotropiaceae. PMID:27212885

  9. Asociación del papilomavirus humano 13 con la hiperplasia epitelial focal de la población indígena Embera-Chamí de Jardín, Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanclemente Gloria

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se ha sugerido una etiología viral de la HEF (Hiperplasia epitelial focal, siendo el propósito de este trabajo de casos y controles confirmar la existencia de la asociación mediante la técnica de PCR. Se encontró que ésta existe y que la PCR es una técnica confiable para determinarla. Otras variables de tipo social, de conducta o infecciosas, evaluadas en el estudio, no mostraron
    asociación estadísticamente significativa. En el futuro será  necesaria la evaluación de características genéticas e inmunológicas de los casos y los controles para determinar otros factores de riesgo que interactúan de forma diferente en cada individuo e influyen en el desarrollo o no de la enfermedad.

  10. Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Sputum using Selective Enrichment Broth and Ashdown’s Medium at Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital, Cambodia [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4w7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somary Nhem

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis infection, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is increasingly reported in Cambodia. We hypothesized that implementation of an enhanced sputum testing protocol in a provincial hospital diagnostic microbiology laboratory would increase detection of B. pseudomallei. We tested 241 sputum specimens that were deemed acceptable for culture, comparing culture in selective enrichment broth followed by sub-culture on Ashdown’s medium to standard culture methods. Two specimens (0.8% were positive for B. pseudomallei using the enhanced protocol whereas one specimen (0.4% was positive using standard methods. These findings demonstrate that B. pseudomallei is rarely detected in sputum at this hospital. The low frequency of B. pseudomallei in sputum specimens precludes drawing any conclusions about the relative benefits of an enhanced sputum testing protocol at this site. Promoting clinician awareness of the infection and encouraging utilization of diagnostic microbiology services are likely to be important factors in facilitating identification of melioidosis.

  11. Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Sputum using Selective Enrichment Broth and Ashdown’s Medium at Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital, Cambodia [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5e9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somary Nhem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis, infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is increasingly reported in Cambodia. We hypothesized that implementation of an enhanced sputum testing protocol in a provincial hospital diagnostic microbiology laboratory would increase detection of B. pseudomallei. We tested 241 sputum specimens that were deemed acceptable for culture, comparing culture in selective enrichment broth followed by sub-culture on Ashdown’s medium to standard culture methods. Two specimens (0.8% were positive for B. pseudomallei using the enhanced protocol whereas one specimen (0.4% was positive using standard methods. Given the low numbers of positive specimens, we could not conclusively determine the utility of the enhanced sputum testing protocol. However, the ramifications of identification of B. pseudomallei are substantial, and the benefit of the enhanced testing protocol may be more apparent in patients selected based on risk factors and clinical presentation. Promoting clinician awareness of the infection and encouraging utilization of diagnostic microbiology services are also likely to be important factors in facilitating identification of melioidosis.

  12. Atividade fungitóxica in vitro dos óleos essenciais de Lippia sidoides Cham., Cymbopogon citratus(D.C. Stapf. e de seus constituintes majoritários no controle de Rhizoctonia solani e Sclerotium rolfsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. GONÇALVES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o potencial fungitóxicos dos óleos essenciais de Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia sidoides, e de seus constituintes majoritários, sobre o crescimento micelial dos fitopatógenos Rhizoctonia solani e Sclerotium rolfsii. A caracterização química do óleo de L. sidoides demonstrou a presença do carvacrol (33,27% e o 1,8-cineol (24,41% como seus componentes majoritários. Enquanto que o citral (77,6% foi o constituinte majoritário do óleo essencial de C. citratus. A avaliação do potencial fungitóxico dos óleos essenciais e de seus constituintes majoritários foi realizada por meio de ensaios in vitro, avaliando a inibição do crescimento micelial dos microrganismos. Ambos os óleos essenciais inibiram totalmente o crescimento micelial de R. solani na concentração de 400 µg mL-1. O crescimento micelial de S. rolfsii foi inibido pelo óleo essencial de C. citratus na concentração de 300 µg mL-1 e pelo óleo essencial de L. sidoides na concentração de 400 µg mL-1. Em relação aos constituintes majoritários, o 1,8-cineol não apresentou efeito fungitóxico nas concentrações avaliadas. No entanto, o carvacrol e o citral foram mais efetivos que os óleos essenciais havendo ausência de crescimento micelial de R. solani e de S. rolfsii nas concentrações de 200 µg mL-1 e 225 µg mL-1, respectivamente.

  13. Evaluación económica de cáscara de nuez como sustrato para producción de plántulas de Pinus patula Schl. et Cham. en vivero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Romero-Arenas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la rentabilidad de un vivero forestal para la producción de plántulas de Pinus patula en la sustitución del sustrato turba, por la composta de cáscara de nuez de castilla en una superficie de 1,000 m2, ubicado en Zitlalcuautla Tetela de Ocampo, en el estado de Puebla. Se utilizaron los indicadores de evaluación económica: valor actual neto (van, relación beneficio- costo (B/C, relación beneficio-inversión neta (n/k y tasa interna de retorno (tir para realizar el análisis de rentabilidad. Los resultados obtenidos empleando cáscara de nuez, para un periodo de cinco años, fueron: van = 1,035,383.275, B/C = 1.662, N/K = 4.0 y TIR = 17.60. Con base en estos indicadores, se concluyó que el proyecto resulta viable desde el punto de vista económico y no se ve afectada la calidad de plántulas de Pinus patula. A los siete meses y medio, las plántulas que se desarrollaron en la mezcla testigo (peat moss® 33% + vermiculita 33% + agrolita 33% y el tratamiento 2 (cáscara de nuez 33% + vermiculita 33% + agrolita 33% presentaron valo- res similares en el índice de calidad de Dickson, para el testigo (0,25 g.cm-1, el tratamiento 2 (0,24 g.cm-1, los cuales no presentaron diferencias estadísticas. La rentabilidad del proyecto de inversión es excelente y el aprovechamiento del subproducto de la actividad agrícola del municipio de Tetela de Ocampo, presentan buenas perspectivas de comercialización y reducción de costos de producción en un 12% respecto al peat moss®, contribuyendo al sector productivo forestal de la región.

  14. Evaluación económica de cáscara de nuez como sustrato para producción de plántulas de Pinus patula Schl. et Cham. en vivero

    OpenAIRE

    O. Romero-Arenas; M. A. Damián; Hernández, I.; C. Parraguirre; M. Márquez; Huerta, M.

    2013-01-01

    Se evaluó la rentabilidad de un vivero forestal para la producción de plántulas de Pinus patula en la sustitución del sustrato turba, por la composta de cáscara de nuez de castilla en una superficie de 1,000 m2, ubicado en Zitlalcuautla Tetela de Ocampo, en el estado de Puebla. Se utilizaron los indicadores de evaluación económica: valor actual neto (van), relación beneficio- costo (B/C), relación beneficio-inversión neta (n/k) y tasa interna de retorno (tir) para realizar el análisis de rent...

  15. Prácticas de cultura de paz en una comunidad indígena víctima de desplazamiento forzado en Colombia : el caso de la etnia Embera Chamí - La Cristalina

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas Arismendy, Bibiana Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Por su ubicación geográfica, el municipio de Urrao, siendo el segundo municipio más extenso del departamento de Antioquia y limítrofe con el Departamento del Chocó, históricamente ha sido un corredor de grupos armados que se enfrentan por mantener el control territorial, condiciones que conllevan a constantes infracciones al Derecho Internacional Humanitario y a violaciones a los Derechos Humanos, especialmente en los resguardos indígenas y consejos comunitarios afrodescendientes que se encue...

  16. Análise do óleo essencial de folhas de três quimiotipos de Lippia alba (Mill. N. E. Br. (Verbenaceae cultivados em condições semelhantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Tavares

    Full Text Available A composição do óleo essencial de Lippia alba apresenta variação quantitativa e qualitativa, levando à separação em quimiotipos. O trabalho tem como objetivo analisar o óleo essencial de folhas de três quimiotipos de Lippia alba, provenientes de diferentes regiões do Brasil, cultivados em condições semelhantes, a fim de verificar se as diferenças na composição do óleo devem-se a fatores ambientais ou a variação genética infraespecífica e se a floração influencia o rendimento e a composição do óleo. Os quimiotipos produtores de citral, carvona e linalol, foram denominados Lippia alba 1, 2 e 3, respectivamente. Os óleos essenciais foram extraídos por hidrodestilação de folhas e analisados por cromatografia com fase gasosa e cromatografia com fase gasosa acoplada ao espectrômetro de massas. O melhor rendimento foi obtido das plantas no estágio vegetativo. A composição do óleo essencial manteve-se inalterada para os três quimiotipos após cultivo em condições semelhantes e também não variou qualitativamente durante o crescimento vegetativo e floração. Os dados obtidos reforçam a idéia que as diferenças na composição do óleo essencial dos quimiotipos refletem variações genotípicas entre as plantas e que a extração de óleo essencial de L. alba deve ser efetuada na fase de crescimento vegetativo, quando é maior o rendimento do óleo e a porcentagem dos componentes majoritários.

  17. Domestication de Vitex doniana Sweet. (Verbenaceae: influence du type de substrat, de la stimulation hormonale, de la surface foliaire et de la position du nœud sur l’enracinement des boutures uninodales.

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    Mapongmetsem Pierre Marie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  Résumé: La zone des hautes savanes guinéennes du Cameroun regorge de nombreux produits forestiers non ligneux de haute valeur ajoutée au rang desquels Vitex doniana Sweet. est une essence fruitière très valorisés par les populations locales. Malgré son importance dans le milieu paysan, elle vit encore à l’état sauvage et rares sont les travaux scientifiques qui se sont intéressés à sa domestication et sa culture. Afin de contribuer à sa domestication, une série de trois essais en pépinière ont été conduits pour évaluer l’effet du substrat (mélange terre noire/Sciure, terre noire/sable et sable sciure, de l’auxine (Contrôles, les boutures traitées à l’AIB, de la surface foliaire(0, 183, 214, 234 et 642 cm2 et de la position du nœud (N1,N2, N3, N4 et N5 sur l’enracinement des boutures juvéniles de V. doniana. Les résultats montrent que les substrats terre noire/sable et terre noire/sciure sont les plus performants pour l’enracinement à la sixième (0,0204<0,05, septième (0,0066<0,01 et huitième semaines (0,0248<0,05. La surface foliaire ainsi que la position du nœud influencent significativement (0,000 < 0,001 l’aptitude d’enracinement des boutures. L’enracinement le plus élevé (65,57% est enregistré chez les boutures ayant une surface foliaire égale à 234 cm2. S’agissant des boutures prélevées aux positions 2 et 3, le taux d’enracinement est de 68,31 % et 61,32% respectivement. Le plus important nombre de racines (5 par bouture est obtenu avec la même surface foliaire et du nœud de la position 2 (7 racines tandis que la plus longue racine est enregistrée chez les boutures ayant 182 cm2 (5,7cm et à la position 2 (4,58 cm. Ces résultats suggèrent qu’il est possible de développer les clones génétiquement supérieurs de Vitex doniana pour une utilisation en agroforesterie comme source potentiel de produits forestiers non ligneux. Mots clés: Domestication, Fruitier local, Multiplication végétative, Aptitude d’enracinement, Facteurs d’enracinement, Boutures de tige. Abstract: The High Guinean Savannahs zone is diversified in species producing non wood forest products among which Vitex doniana Sweet. is an indigenous fruit tree valued by the local population. However despite its importance in farmer backyard, it is still in the wild and there has been little effort to domesticate or cultivate it. In view to introduce it in the farmer existing production system, a series of nursery experiments were undertaken to access the effects of rooting medium (Soil/sawdust, Soil/Sand, Sawdust/Sand, auxin (treated with AIB and untreated, leaf area (0, 183, 214, 234 et 642 cm2 and node position (N1, N2, N3, N4 and N5 on rooting success of juvenile stem cuttings of V. doniana. The results showed that dark soil/sawdust and dark soil/sand were the most performing substrates from the sixth (0.0204<0.05, seventh (0.0066<0.01 to eighth (0.0248<0.05 weeks. Leaf area unlike node position affect significantly (0.000 < 0.001 the rooting ability. The highest rooting percentage (65.57% is obtained with the leaf area of 234 cm2. For the node position, the position 2 and 3 yielded maximum rooting (68.31 % and 61.32% respectively. The highest number of roots/cutting was obtained with 234 cm2 (5 and node 2 (7 whereas the longest root was obtained in 182 cm2 (5,7cm and node 2 (4,58cm. The results suggest that it is possible to develop clones of genetically superior trees of V. doniana for use in agroforestry as potential sources of non timber forest products.   Key words: Domestication, Local fruit tree, Vegetative propagation, Rooting ability, Rooting factors, Stem cutting.

  18. Efeitos da intensidade luminosa sobre a morfo-anatomia foliar de Bouchea fluminensis (Vell.) Mold. (Verbenaceae) e sua importância no controle de qualidade da droga vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    Milaneze-Gutierre,M.A.; Mello,J. C. P.; Delaporte,R. H.

    2003-01-01

    Para a implantação de rigorosos padrões de controle de qualidade das drogas vegetais, além da detecção dos princípios ativos e das metodologias clássicas de microscopia, deve-se também considerar as alterações morfo-anatômicas ocasionadas pelo ambiente, especialmente quando a droga constitui-se de folhas. Neste estudo, foram analisadas as folhas de Bouchea fluminensis cultivadas em pleno sol ou na sombra. As folhas "de sol" são menores do que as "de sombra", com limbo mais ondulado e mais cor...

  19. Efeitos da intensidade luminosa sobre a morfo-anatomia foliar de Bouchea fluminensis (Vell. Mold. (Verbenaceae e sua importância no controle de qualidade da droga vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Milaneze-Gutierre

    Full Text Available Para a implantação de rigorosos padrões de controle de qualidade das drogas vegetais, além da detecção dos princípios ativos e das metodologias clássicas de microscopia, deve-se também considerar as alterações morfo-anatômicas ocasionadas pelo ambiente, especialmente quando a droga constitui-se de folhas. Neste estudo, foram analisadas as folhas de Bouchea fluminensis cultivadas em pleno sol ou na sombra. As folhas "de sol" são menores do que as "de sombra", com limbo mais ondulado e mais coriáceas ao tato. A análise anatômica revelou espessa cutícula estriada, estômatos anomocíticos em ambas faces, embora raros na face adaxial das folhas de "sombra". Dois tipos de tricomas foram observados, sendo um tector simples com paredes ornamentadas e outro glandular, assim como feixes vasculares colaterais sem tecidos esclerificados, estando os menores envoltos por bainha de células não esclerificadas. A espessura média do mesofilo das folhas "de sol", bem como a altura das células do parênquima paliçádico são significativamente maiores do que nas folhas "de sombra" o que permite diferenciá-las facilmente. A não observância de alterações fotomorfogênicas, nas diversas espécies vegetais utilizadas na forma de droga, pode ocasionar falhas ou dúvidas na identificação das mesmas.

  20. PLASTICIDAD FENOTÍPICA DE Lippia alba Y Lippia origanoides (VERBENACEAE EN RESPUESTA A LA DISPONIBILIDAD DE LUZ Phenotypic Plasticity of Lippia alba and Lippia origanoides (Vervenaceae in Response to Availability of Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDWIN PARRA TORRES

    Full Text Available La distribución de la especies es usualmente relacionada con la magnitud de la plasticidad fenotípica (PF. Con el fin de examinar la posible relación entre la magnitud de la PF y la amplitud ecológica en respuesta a la disponibilidad de luz, este trabajo evaluó la PF a través de la ontogenia en clones de Lippia alba y Lippia origanoides, especies congenéricas que presentan diferencias en su distribución. Clones de cada especie fueron distribuidos aleatoriamente en tres tratamientos, baja (33%, media (53%, y alta (100% disponibilidad lumínica. Se evaluó la PF de caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa a través de la ontogenia por medio de un análisis de varianza (ANAVA y la comparación interespecífica se realizó a través del índice de plasticidad fenotípica (RDPI. L. alba y L. origanoides presentaron variación de la plasticidad a través de la ontogenia en varios de los caracteres estudiados. La comparación interespecífica a través del RDPI mostró que la mayor PF de L. alba sobre L. origanoides en algún estado de la ontogenia no fue consistente ni uniforme a través de esta. Estos resultados sugieren una débil asociación entre la magnitud de la PF en respuesta a la disponibilidad lumínica. Además, indican que la mayor distribución de L. alba, se debe a un mayor desempeño en la tasa de crecimiento relativa y consecuentemente a una mayor acumulación de biomasa total, que posiblemente, le permiten alcanzar rápidamente su madurez sexual y así la colonización de nuevas áreas.The distribution of the plant species is usually related to the magnitude of the phenotypic plasticity (PF. With the purpose of to stablish the possible relationship between the magnitude of the PF and the ecological breadth in response to light availability, the PF during the ontogeny in clones of Lippia alba and Lippia origanoides was evaluated. Both species are congeneris and show differences in their distribution. Three random treatments of light availability were set up, low (33%, medium (53%, and high (100%. The PF of morphologic and biomass allocation traits was evaluated during the ontogeny in clones of L. alba and L. origanoides through the ANOVA and the interspecific comparison were carried out through relative distance plasticity index (RDPI. L. alba and L. origanoides displayed variation of the plasticity through the ontogeny in several of the studied traits. The interspecific comparison through RDPI showed that the PF greather of L. alba in comparison to L. origanoides in some state of the ontogeny was not consistent nor uniform. These results suggest a lack association between the magnitudes of the PF in response to the availability of light. Additionally this indicate that the greater distribution of L. alba could be cause by a greater performance in the relative rate of growth and the greater accumulation of total biomass, therefore, it would likely contribute L. alba to reach its sexual maturity faster and the colonization of new areas.

  1. Plasticidad fenotípica de Lippia alba y Lippia origanoides (Verbenaceae en respuesta a la disponibilidad de luz Phenotypic Plasticity of Lippia alba and Lippia origanoides (Vervenaceae in Response to Availability of Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez López Nelson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La distribución de la especies es usualmente relacionada con la magnitud de la plasticidad fenotípica (PF. Con el fin de examinar la posible relación entre la magnitud de la PF y la amplitud ecológica en respuesta a la disponibilidad de luz, este trabajo evaluó la PF a través de la ontogenia en clones de Lippia alba y Lippia origanoides, especies congenéricas que presentan diferencias en su distribución. Clones de cada especie fueron distribuidos aleatoriamente en tres tratamientos, baja (33%, media (53%, y alta (100% disponibilidad lumínica. Se evaluó la PF de caracteres morfológicos y de asignación de biomasa a través de la ontogenia por medio de un análisis de varianza (ANAVA y la comparación interespecífica se realizó a través del índice de plasticidad fenotípica (RDPI. L. alba y L. origanoides presentaron variación de la plasticidad a través de la ontogenia en varios de los caracteres estudiados. La comparación interespecífica a través del RDPI mostró que la mayor PF de L. alba sobre L. origanoides en algún estado de la ontogenia no fue consistente ni uniforme a través de esta. Estos resultados sugieren una débil asociación entre la magnitud de la PF en respuesta a la disponibilidad lumínica. Además, indican que la mayor distribución de L. alba, se debe a un mayor desempeño en la tasa de crecimiento relativa y consecuentemente a una mayor acumulación de biomasa total, que posiblemente, le permiten alcanzar rápidamente su madurez sexual y así la colonización de nuevas áreas.The distribution of the plant species is usually related to the magnitude of the phenotypic plasticity (PF. With the purpose of to stablish the possible relationship between the magnitude of the PF and the ecological breadth in response to light availability, the PF during the ontogeny in clones of Lippia alba and Lippia origanoides was evaluated. Both species are congeneris and show differences in their distribution. Three random treatments of light availability were set up, low (33%, medium (53%, and high (100%. The PF of morphologic and biomass allocation traits was evaluated during the ontogeny in clones of L. alba and L. origanoides through the ANOVA and the interspecific comparison were carried out through relative distance plasticity index (RDPI. L. alba and L. origanoides displayed variation of the plasticity through the ontogeny in several of the studied traits. The interspecific comparison through RDPI showed that the PF greather of L. alba in comparison to L. origanoides in some state of the ontogeny was not consistent nor uniform. These results suggest a lack association between the magnitudes of the PF in response to the availability of light. Additionally this indicate that the greater distribution of L. alba could be cause by a greater performance in the relative rate of growth and the greater accumulation of total biomass, therefore, it would likely contribute L. alba to reach its sexual maturity faster and the colonization of new areas.

  2. Influence of temperature, photoperiod and humidity on oviposition and egg hatch of the root-feeding flea beetle Longitarsus bethae (Chrysomelidae: Alticinae), a natural enemy of the weed Lantana camara (Verbenaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simelane, D O

    2007-04-01

    The root-feeding flea beetle Longitarsus bethae Savini & Escalona, was introduced into South Africa as a candidate biological control agent for the noxious and invasive weed, Lantana camara L. As part of the study to predict the beetles' survival in its new range, the influence of climatic conditions on its egg development and reproductive performance were investigated in the laboratory. The threshold temperature (T degrees) and degree-days (DD) required for egg hatch were determined after exposing the eggs to various constant temperatures (12, 17, 22, 27 and 32 degrees C) in separate growth chambers. The DD required for egg hatch was 178.6, and the temperature threshold required for egg hatch was 11.3 degrees C. Survival of eggs varied from 27 to 56% at 32 and 17 degrees C, respectively, and was optimum between 17 and 25 degrees C. Oviposition was examined under high and low relative humidity (RH) regimes while egg hatch was determined at six RH levels, each maintained in a separate controlled growth chamber set at a constant temperature (25 degrees C). Whilst RH had no influence on oviposition, eggs were highly susceptible to aridity, and continuous exposure to relative humidity below 63% for more than three days was wholly lethal at 25 degrees C. Optimum egg hatch occurred at RH between 85 and 95% for up to 12 days. The effect of day length on oviposition and subsequent egg hatch was investigated under two photoperiod regimes. Neither oviposition nor subsequent egg hatch was influenced by photoperiod. The knowledge obtained will be useful for mass rearing as well as field release programmes for L. bethae.

  3. Environ: E00811 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00811 Lemon verbena Medicinal herb cis-Citral [CPD:C09847], Limonene [CPD:C06078],...ysia triphylla [TAX:542672] Verbenaceae Lemon verbena leaves Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: asterids Verbenaceae (verbena family) E00811 Lemon verbena ...

  4. Environ: E00465 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00465 Verbena officinalis herb Verbenae herba Crude drug Hastatoside, Verbenalin [CPD:C09802] Verbena off...icinalis [TAX:79772] Verbenaceae (verbena family) Verbena officinalis herb (dried) Cr...ude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Verbenaceae (verbena family) E00465 Verbena officinalis herb ...

  5. Levantamento de Leandra Raddi no Núcleo Curucutu, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, São Paulo. Survey of Leandra Raddi in Núcleo Curucutu, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, São Paulo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenilsa Aparecida RODRIGUES LIMA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no levantamento de Leandra Raddi (Melastomataceae no Núcleo Curucutu, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, São Paulo. Foram registradas quatorze espécies de :Leandra L. acutiflora (Naudin Cogn., L.aurea (Cham. Cogn.,L.australis(Cham. Cogn., L. cardiophylla Cogn., L. collina Wurdack, L. cordigera (Triana Cogn., L. fallax (Cham. Cogn., L. hirtella Cogn., L. humilis (Cogn. Wurdack, L. laxa Cogn, L. melastomoides Raddi, L. miangaeformis Cogn., L. quinquedentata (DC. Cogn., L. ribesiaeflora (Cham. Cogn. Para o reconhecimento das espécies, são apresentadas chave analítica, descrições, ilustrações, fenologia e distribuição geográfica.This paper consist in a survey of the Leandra Raddi (Melastomataceae at Núcleo Curucutu, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, São Paulo. Fourteen species were recorded for :Leandra L. acutiflora (Naudin Cogn., L.aurea (Cham. Cogn.,L.australis (Cham. Cogn., L. cardiophylla Cogn., L. collina Wurdack, L. cordigera(Triana Cogn., L. fallax (Cham. Cogn., L. hirtella Cogn., L. humilis(Cogn. Wurdack, L. laxa Cogn, L. melastomoides Raddi, miangaeformis Cogn., L. quinquedentata (DC. Cogn., L. ribesiaeflora (Cham. Cogn. Analytical key, descriptions, illustrations, phenology and geographic distribution on the species are presented.

  6. Patrilineal perspective on the Austronesian diffusion in Mainland Southeast Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Dong He

    Full Text Available The Cham people are the major Austronesian speakers of Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA and the reconstruction of the Cham population history can provide insights into their diffusion. In this study, we analyzed non-recombining region of the Y chromosome markers of 177 unrelated males from four populations in MSEA, including 59 Cham, 76 Kinh, 25 Lao, and 17 Thai individuals. Incorporating published data from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, our results indicated that, in general, the Chams are an indigenous Southeast Asian population. The origin of the Cham people involves the genetic admixture of the Austronesian immigrants from Island Southeast Asia (ISEA with the local populations in MSEA. Discordance between the overall patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA in the Chams is evidenced by the presence of some Y chromosome lineages that prevail in South Asians. Our results suggest that male-mediated dispersals via the spread of religions and business trade might play an important role in shaping the patrilineal gene pool of the Cham people.

  7. Patrilineal Perspective on the Austronesian Diffusion in Mainland Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Huy Ho; Dang, Khoa Pham; Trieu, An Vu; Wu, Shi-Fang; Jin, Jie-Qiong; Murphy, Robert W.; Yao, Yong-Gang; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The Cham people are the major Austronesian speakers of Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) and the reconstruction of the Cham population history can provide insights into their diffusion. In this study, we analyzed non-recombining region of the Y chromosome markers of 177 unrelated males from four populations in MSEA, including 59 Cham, 76 Kinh, 25 Lao, and 17 Thai individuals. Incorporating published data from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), our results indicated that, in general, the Chams are an indigenous Southeast Asian population. The origin of the Cham people involves the genetic admixture of the Austronesian immigrants from Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) with the local populations in MSEA. Discordance between the overall patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA in the Chams is evidenced by the presence of some Y chromosome lineages that prevail in South Asians. Our results suggest that male-mediated dispersals via the spread of religions and business trade might play an important role in shaping the patrilineal gene pool of the Cham people. PMID:22586471

  8. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Verbenaceae) in rodents. MA Akanmu ... Short Communication: The antiulcer effects of the methanol extract of the leaves of Aspilia africana (Asteraceae) in rats ... Effects of the hexane extract of Mondia whitei on the reproductive organs of male rat.

  9. Neuroprotective Potential of Lantana Trifolium Ethanolic Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elna

    2017-11-12

    Garg et al., ... lose vision completely each year due to the use of EMB (Bourne et al., 2013) [8]. This number ..... Pollinator Specificity in Lantana camara and L. trifolia (Verbenaceae). Biotropica, 8(4), 260–264. 16. Ocheng, F.

  10. Environ: E00789 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00789 Chaste berry Chaste tree fruit Medicinal herb Aucubin [CPD:C09771], Agnuside...benaceae Chaste berry fruit Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: asterids Verbenaceae (verbena family) E00789 Chaste berry ...

  11. An inventory of indigenous plants used as anthelmintics in Amathole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Medicinal plants mostly used for traditional management of intestinal worms were selected from 13 plant families: Alliaceae, Anacardiaceae, Asphodelaceae, Asteraceae, Crassulaceae, Dracaenaceae, Fabaceae, Hypoxidaceae, Lamiaceae, Longaniaceae, Punicaceae, Polygonaceae, and Verbenaceae. Out of ...

  12. Floristic Composition of Traditional Sacred Landscapes in Bedelle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-21

    Dec 21, 2009 ... and 5 species respectively, Celastraceae,. Combretaceae,. Urticaceae and. Amaranthaceae are composed of 4 species each; and Rutaceae, Moracceae,. Myrsinaceae, Poaceae, Polygonaceae and. Rhamnaceae contain 3 species each. Verbenaceae, Rosaceae, Ranunculaceae,. Protiaceae, Myrtaceae ...

  13. A new Ectaga Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Oecophoridae from southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor O. Becker

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectaga garcia, sp.n., related to E. promeces Walsingham, 1912 is described. Larvae were reared on Lantana camara, L. griesebachiana and L. montevidensis (Verbenaceae in Argentina and Brazil.

  14. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WAKAWA LUCKY

    frequency of 11 and 52.38% respectively while Anonaceae, Apocynaceae, Arecoideae,. Balanitaceae, Bignoiaceae, Ebenaceae, Lamiaceae, Rhamnaceae, Sapotaceae, Ulmaceae and. Verbenaceae recorded the lowest number of representation of 1 and 4.76% frequency and percentage frequency respectively.

  15. At the boundary of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Aatish

    2017-09-01

    We Have No Idea by Jorge Cham – the artist behind the popular PHD Comics – and particle physicist Daniel Whiteson bills itself as "a guide to the unknown universe". It's a kind of encyclopedia of ignorance.

  16. An Inventory of the Vascular Flora of Fort Greely, Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium capitatum (L.) Aschers. Chrysosplenium tetrandrum (Lund) Th. Fries *Chrysosplenium wrightii Franch. & Savigny ... Savigny Parnassia kotzebuei Cham. ex Spreng. Parnassia palustris L. ssp. neogaea (Fern.) Hulten Saxifraga cf. adscendens L. ssp. oregonensis (Raf

  17. Flute handle for controlled suction in double cannula aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ittyerah T

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, economical autoclavable hollow cylindrical stainless steel handle with openings at both ends and on one side is manufactured and used for many applications in closed cham-ber ocular surgeries especially extracapsular cataract surgery.

  18. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana do extrato etanólico bruto e frações orgânicas obtidas a partir da casca do caule da espécie Guettarda uruguensis Cham, & Scthdl, (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Schvabe Duarte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antioxidante e antimicrobiano do extrato bruto e frações obtidas das cascas do caule da espécie Guettarda uruguensis, Os ensaios antioxidantes indicaram alto potencial antioxidante, No ensaio de redução de fosfomolibdênio, a fração acetato de etila apresentou atividade antioxidante de 41,67% em relação ao padrão de ácido ascórbico e superou em 35,21% a atividade do padrão rutina, No ensaio de redução do DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, a fração acetato de etila apresentou um IC50 de 10,91 µg mL-1, valor próximo ao do ácido ascórbico (IC50 = 4,78 µg mL-1 e da rutina (IC50 = 6,62 µg mL-1, Pelo ensaio de TBA (acido tiobabitúrico o extrato bruto (IA = 71,48% e a fração hexano (IA = 47,85% apresentaram índices superiores ao controle de BHT (butil hidroxi tolueno (IA = 42,66, Através do ensaio de microdiluição em placas, foi observado que o extrato bruto e frações apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana, O estudo fitoquímico qualitativo revelou a presença de alcaloides, cumarinas, esteroides e/ou triterpenos, heterosídeos saponínicos, taninos e aminogrupos.

  19. Triagem fitoquímica e avaliação das atividades trombolítica e citotóxica de Cecropia hololeuca Miq. (Urticaceae, Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Br. ex P. Wilson (Verbenaceae e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Dutra GOMES1 ; Rafael Destefani FAITANIN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cecropia hololeuca, Lippia alba, e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium são espécies vegetais de ocorrência natural no Brasil, características de regiões de Mata Atlântica e, dentro de suas finalidades medicinais, estão incluídas ação anti-hipertensiva, digestiva e no tratamento de malária. Neste estudo, foram avaliados o perfil fitoquímico e as atividades citotóxica e trombolítica do extrato etanólico das folhas destas espécies vegetais. O perfil químico dos extratos foi obtido por meio de ensaios fitoquímicos clássicos, a fim de identificar as classes químicas presentes. A toxicidade preliminar foi avaliada frente Artemia salina e a atividade trombolítica foi determinada in vitro a partir da lise de coágulo de sangue humano. Os testes fitoquímicos indicaram a presença de alcaloides e flavonoides nos três extratos investigados. Saponinas, triterpenos e naftoquinonas foram detectados apenas em C. hololeuca. Essa não demonstrou toxicidade frente Artemia salina (DL50 >1000 ppm, enquanto Z. rhoifolium apresentou DL50 igual a 719,44 ppm e L. alba <250 ppm, o que indica atenção quanto à segurança no uso desta planta medicinal. A atividade trombolítica de L. alba e C. hololeuca foi de 6,43 ±2,08 e 9,64 ±1,83 %, respectivamente, mostrando baixa atividade. Por sua vez, Z. rhoifolium alcançou lise de 24,71 ±10,52 %, indicando promissora atividade (p <0,001. A atividade trombolítica de Z. rhoifolium justifica novos estudos, a fim de investigar os componentes responsáveis pela atividade. Perante a literatura, este é o primeiro relato da avaliação da atividade trombolítica destas espécies vegetais. Os resultados encontrados neste trabalho contribuem para o conhecimento químico-biológico das respectivas espécies.

  20. Caracterização química, atividade citotóxica e genotóxica do óleo essencial de espécies de Aloysia Paláu (Verbenaceae) do Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Eluíza

    2015-01-01

    O Brasil é um dos países com maior biodiversidade mundial, porém, poucas espécies vegetais tiveram suas propriedades avaliadas. Os óleos essenciais são compostos voláteis produzidos pelas plantas que contribuem para a sua adaptação ao meio ambiente. Estudos que ampliem o conhecimento sobre o potencial tóxico de plantas medicinais são extremamente relevantes, permitindo que se avalie a segurança do seu uso. Os óleos essenciais da parte aérea de cinco espécies de Aloysia nativas no Rio Grande d...

  1. Estrategias bioclimáticas de la arquitectura tradicional étnica vietnamita

    OpenAIRE

    Acha Román, Consuelo; Lauret Aguirregabiria, Benito; Palomar Aguilar, David

    2014-01-01

    La arquitectura tradicional es un referente útil en el planteamiento de estrategias pasivas de acondicionamiento higrotérmico y el empleo de los materiales. El presente artículo describe el funcionamiento bioclimático de cuatro tipologías de la arquitectura tradicional vietnamita de las etnias: É-De, Bahnar, Tay y Cham. La doble cubierta del Than Lâm Cham es uno de los casos más singulares de aislamiento frente a la radiación infrarroja. A pesar de sus diferencias formales, los ejemplos anali...

  2. Taxonomy and genetic structure of Meru oak populations, Vitex keniensis Turrill and Vitex fischeri Gürke, in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahenda, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    Vitex keniensis Turrill (Verbenaceae), the Meru oak, is a popular but threatened indigenous forest tree species in East Africa valued for high quality timber, fast growth, edible fruits, medicine, bee forage (honey). The tree has a high agroforestry potential. However,

  3. Stem biomass and volume models of selected tropical tree species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Bombacaceae), Dialium guineense Willd. (Caesalpiniaceae), Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A.DC. (Ebenaceae) in natural protected tropical forests and, in addition, Tectona grandis L.f. (Verbenaceae) in plantations. In addition to the tree species specific equations, basic wood density, as well as carbon, nitrogen, ...

  4. Ex Situ Conservation Method for Clerodendrum inerme : A medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clerodendrum inerme L. (Verbenaceae), commonly known as vanajai or garden quinine is a perennial shrub. Leaves and roots of the plant are used in rheumatism and skin diseases. In Indian classical literature the plant is also reported as a substitute of quinine. Since root of the plant is used as drug, whole plant has to be ...

  5. Miscellaneous botanical Notes X

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1960-01-01

    Through the kind assistance of Prof. Dr D. K. Zerov large photographs were obtained of type specimens of two dozen Verbenaceae which have been described by Turczaninow and are preserved in his Herbarium of the Botanical Institute of the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian S.S.R. at Kiew. These have

  6. Protective effect of the leaves of Vitex negundo against ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... investigated the effect of the various fractions of hydromethanolic extract of the leaves of Vitex negundo (Verbenaceae) against ethanol-induced cerebral oxidative stress in rats. Cerebral oxidative stress was induced by the administration of 20% ethanol (5 ml/100g bw) for a period of 28 days. The petroleum ether (PEF), ...

  7. Contribution a l'etude des effets pharmacologiques in vivo de lippia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lippia multiflora Mold (Verbenaceae) currently known as "Thé de Gambie" is one of popular medicinal plant used as tea in Togo to treat insomnia and jaundice. The aim of this study is to investigate the sedative, analgesic and muscular relaxation properties of aqueous extract of L. multiflora administered at 250, 500 and ...

  8. New floristic records in the Balkans: 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    ), Scrophulariaceae (42, 43, 49, 50, 104, 132, 133), Solanaceae (19, 20, 70), Typhaceae (138), Valerianaceae (60), Verbenaceae (134, 135), Violaceae (71), Vitaceae (129) and Zygophyllaceae (44). First reports for countries are: Montenegro - Salvia aethiopis (81); Serbia - Onobrychis caput-galli (139); Turkey...

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 1932 ... Issue, Title. Vol 16, No 10 (2017), Anti-hyperlipidemic effects of Caralluma edulis (Asclepiadaceae) and Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae) whole plants against high-fat diet-induced .... Vol 8, No 4 (2009), Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaves of Endemic Stachys pseudopinardii in Turkey, Abstract PDF.

  10. Anatomical and palynological characteristics of Salvia willeana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... In the anatomical characteristics of stem structures, it was found that the chlorenchyma composed of 6 or 7 rows of cells which was .... consisting of lots of chloroplasts. In the areas located between the corners, there ..... Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy IV. Labiatae, Verbenaceae and Avicenniaceae.

  11. Sungkai (Peronema canescens) a promising pioneer tree : an experimental provenance study in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatta, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Sungkai ( Peronema canescens Jack.), Verbenaceae, is one among the fancy woods of Indonesia. Sungkai belongs to a small number of species recommended by The Ministry of Forestry for use in the development of industrial forest plantations (IFP). The IFPs are carried out

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of the Wound Healing Effect of Vitex Doniana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Verbenaceae) in Mice. ... The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of Vitex doniana on cutaneous wound healing. Wounds ... Skin toxicity test was performed with the gel containing Vitex doniana at 5% and the pure extract at 30 mg/ml.

  13. Analysis of essential oils by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masada, Y.

    1976-01-01

    The book is in two parts: first part Essential Oil includes compositae; labiatae; verbenaceae; oleaceae; umbelliferae; myrtaceae; euphorbiaceae; rutaceae; geraniaceae; rosaceae; lauraceae; myristicaceae; anonaceae; santalaceae; moraceae; piperaceae; zingiberaceae; araceae; gramineae; and cupressaceae written in English and Japanese. Part two includes essential oil; gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry written in Japanese. (DP)

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Popo-ola, FS. Vol 11, No 1 (2013) - Articles Parsimonious Crown Diameter Prediction Models for Tectona Grandis (Linn f Verbenaceae). Abstract. ISSN: 1597-0906. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  15. Parsimonious Crown Diameter Prediction Models for Tectona Grandis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parsimonious Crown Diameter Prediction Models for Tectona Grandis (Linn f Verbenaceae). FS Popo-ola, BA Oyebade,. Abstract. Tree crown is one complement of net primary production and its dimensions reflect general tree health. Crown diameter is often used as an important predictor variable for tree growth equation.

  16. Drug: D09191 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 215] Same as: E00213 Verbenaceae (verbena family) Vitex fruit; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drug...s Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs... pungent in flavor and cool in property D09191 Vitex fruit Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot p

  17. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences - Vol 9 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Verbenacea) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Etude Ethnobotanique des plantes médicinales utilisées dans le traitement traditionnel des hépatites virales B et C dans quelques départements du Bénin · EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  18. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Raman Sukumar. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 39 Issue 4 September 2014 pp 717-726 Articles. Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) invasion along streams in a heterogeneous landscape · Geetha Ramaswami Raman Sukumar · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  19. Use and valuation of native and introduced medicinal plant species in Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, Boyacá, Colombia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cadena-Gonzalez, Ana Lucia; Sørensen, Marten; Theilade, Ida

    2013-01-01

    41 families and 74 genera, which included 35 native species and 43 introduced. The highest valued families were: Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae. The species ranked highest according to their Use Values, in both municipalities, were Mentha suaveolens Ehrh., Ambrosia...

  20. Page 1 foURNAL OF THE CAMEROON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    apparait queles Olacaceae pesent plus queles Verbenaceae. Cette supériorité est maintenue aussibien pour le grand axe que pour le petit (Tableau 2). Sagissant de la. Couleur, les fruits des quatre especes sont vertes a l'état mature. A maturité, les I-erbenaceae sont de couleur noire tandis que les Olacaceae sont jaunes.

  1. Potential use of essential oils from local Cameroonian plants for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondly, the contact and inhalation test by three essential oils of the aromatic plants Annona senegalensis L. (Annonaceae), Lippia rugosa L. (Lamiaceae) and Hyptis spicigera Lam. (Verbenaceae) were done for the control larvae, young and aged adults of the red flour weevil Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera ...

  2. Insecticidal effect of kaolin powder flavoured with essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insecticidal effect of kaolin powder flavoured with essential oils of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) and Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae) on ... Purified and pulverized kaolin was flavoured with essential oils of A. Senegalensis Pers. and L. camara (Lam) obtained through vapour distillation. Adults C. serratus ...

  3. Protective effect of the leaves of Vitex negundo against ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: The present study investigated the effect of the various fractions of hydromethanolic extract of the leaves of Vitex negundo (Verbenaceae) against ethanol-induced cerebral oxidative stress in rats. Cerebral oxidative stress was induced by the administration of 20% ethanol (5 ml/100gbw) for a period of 28 days.

  4. New floristic records in the Balkans: 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    ), Rhamnaceae (9), (79, 95), (93), (14, 23, 24, 35), (64), Rosaceae (65), Rubiaceae (66), Scrophulariaceae (25, 26, 36, 73, 77, 81), Solanaceae (10, 11, 74), Thymelaeaceae (30, 67, 82), Valerianaceae (37), Verbenaceae (12), Violaceae (27) and Vitaceae (75). (30, 67, 82), (37), (12), (27) and (75).First reports...

  5. Department of Defense In-House RDT&E Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-30

    THEIR EFFECTS ON CRENMEMBERS HEALTH, SAFTY & Pi, aORMANCE. PROVIDES TO DESIGNERS, DEVELOPERS & USERS OF ARMY SYSPOATA SA’ 3 REQD THRU FIELD & LAB...BALANCE/VIVARIUM/ANIMAL SURGERY ROOM/XRAY EQUIPMENT/RPM INSTRUMENTS/SOUND METERS/ANAEROBIC CHAM BER/SHAKEPS/XNCUBATERS/CENTRIFUGES/BIOLOGICAL SAFTY

  6. Acerca de una etnia y su territorio, desde un documento básico de la antropología colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Montenegro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Criaturas de Caragabí: indios chocoes, emberaes, catíos, chamíes y noanamaes. Roberto Pineda Giraldo y Virginia Gutiérrez de Pineda. Editorial Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, 1999, 397 págs., il.

  7. Bayesian inference of the flow resistivity of a sound absorber and the room's influence on the Sabine absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Choi, Sang-Hyeon; Lee, Ikjin

    2017-01-01

    A Bayesian analysis is applied to determine the flow resistivity of a porous sample and the influence of the test chamber based on measured Sabine absorption coefficient data. The Sabine absorption coefficient measured in a reverberation chamber according to ISO 354 is influenced by the test cham...

  8. Isolation and characterization of cellulose hydrolysing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... 2000). Ruminants have a fore-stomach with four cham- bers. These are the rumen, reticulum, ... the volatile fatty acids made in the rumen (Hays, 2004). The bacteria Fibrobacter succinogenes, ... were incubated at 37oC for 24 h while the. SDA plates were incubated at room temperature (28 ± 2oC) for 72 h ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Desalegn, Getachew. Vol 10, No 2 (2011) - Articles Timber seasoning and density characterstics of Cordia alliodora Cham. (Boraginaceae) grown in Ethiopia and its potential uses. Abstract. ISSN: 1819-8678. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  10. What's New in Computers? -R-ES-O-N-A-N--CE--I-s-e-Pt-e-m-b-er-1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There has recently been significant interest in the area of computer chess. In February this year, Garry Kasparov, the world chess champion played a six match chess tourna- ment with Deep Blue, the current computer chess cham- pion. Garry Kasparov won the tournament, but lost one of the matches. This article describes ...

  11. Climate Change, Glacier Response, and Vegetation Dynamics in the Himalaya: Contributions Toward Future Earth Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Shea

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Climate Change, Glacier Response, and Vegetation Dynamics in the Himalaya: Contributions Toward Future Earth Initiatives. Edited by R. B. Singh, Udo Schickhoff, and Suraj Mal. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2016. xvi + 399 pp. Hardcover: US$ 179.00, ISBN 978-3-319-28975-5. E-book: US$ 139.00, ISBN 978-3-319-28977-9.

  12. Abies religiosa habitat prediction in climatic change scenarios and implications for monarch butterfly conservation in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Pierre Duval; Roberto A. Lindig-Cisneros

    2012-01-01

    Abies religiosa (HBK) Schl. & Cham. (oyamel fir) is distributed in conifer-dominated mountain forests at high altitudes along the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This fir is the preferred host for overwintering monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) migratory populations which habitually congregate within a few stands now located inside a Monarch Butterfly Biosphere...

  13. Lyon C, LCDR, MC, USN, US Naval Hospital Sigonella, Sigonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quires admission to the hospital and ... L condition; altered pain perception from chronic pain medications; coexistent disease; four times higher likelihood of hy- ..... lodged thrombus (i.e., left atrium, left ventricle, or valvular lesion). Risk factors include atrial fibrillation, cardiac cham- ber dilation, acute myocardial infarction, ...

  14. MORPHOGENESIS OF DOUGLAS-FIR BUDS IN ALTERED AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE BUT NOT AT ELEVATED CO21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global climatic change as expressed by increased CO2 and temperature has the potential for dramatic effects on trees. To determine what its effects may be on Pacific Northwest forests, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings were grown in sun-lit controlled environment cham...

  15. Modulation of CYPs, P-gp, and PXR by Eschscholzia californica (California poppy) and its alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschscholzia californica Cham., a native US plant, is traditionally used as a sedative, analgesic and anxiolytic herb. With the rapid rise in the use of herbal supplements together with over the counter (OTC) and prescription drugs, the risk for potential herb-drug interactions is also increasing. M...

  16. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approaches. The authors herein evaluate their experience with this technique at the hospital of Cham- bery, France. Patients and Methods: The files of all patients subjected to laparoscopic adrenalec- tomy at the department of General and Thoracic Surgery between 1996 and 2000 were reviewed. A partial lateral decubitus ...

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2 mars 2015 ... 9. Redfern MS, Cham R, Gielo-Perczak K, et al. Biomechanics of slips. Ergonomics. 2001; 44(13): 1138-66. PubMed | Google. Scholar. 10. Ebbeling CJ, Hamill J, Crussemeyer JA. Lower extremity mechanics and energy cost of walking in high-heeled shoes. J. Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1994; 19(4): 190-6.

  18. Climate Change Impacts on High-Altitude Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Pauli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Climate Change Impacts on High-Altitude Ecosystems By Münir Öztürk, Khalid Rehman Hakeem, I. Faridah-Hanum and Efe. Recep, Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2015. xvii + 696 pp. US$ 239.00. ISBN 978-3-319-12858-0.

  19. The Andes: A Geographical Portrait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bebbington

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: The Andes: A Geographical Portrait. By Axel Borsdorf and Christoph Stadel. Translated by Brigitte Scott and Christoph Stadel. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2015. xiv + 368 pp. US$ 139.00. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-3-319-03529-1.

  20. Book Review: Impact of Biological Invasions on Ecosystem Services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by Montserrat Vilà and Philip E Hulme 2017, Springer International Publishing, Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland 354 pages, hardcover and eBook. ISBN 978-3-319-45119-0 (hardcover), 978-3-319-45121-3 (eBook). Price €134.99 (hardcover), €107.09 (eBook) ...

  1. Book Reviews | Slingsby | African Journal of Range and Forage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The GEO Handbook on Biodiversity Observation Networks Edited by Michele Walters and Robert J Scholes 2017, Springer Open, Springer International Publishing AG, Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland 330 pages, hardcover and ebook ISBN 978-3-319-27286-3 (hardcover), 978-3-319-27288-7 (eBook).

  2. Chemical composition of medicinal plants used as auxiliary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to find substances of pharmacological interest in a variety of medicinal plants, such as Aloe vera (L.) Burm. (aloe), Simaba ferruginea St. Hil. (calunga), Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC (carqueja), Garcinia cambogia Desr. and Tournefortia paniculata Cham. (Marmelinho), to aid in the treatment of ...

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cham, B. Vol 14, No 3 (2014) - Articles Undergraduate module on nutrition education and communication for Africa: Profiles of potential students. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1684-5374. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  4. Globalization and Marginalization in Mountain Regions: Assets and Challenges in Mountain Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zac Robinson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Globalization and Marginalization in Mountain Regions: Assets and Challenges in Mountain Regions Edited by Raghubir Chand and Walter Leimgruber. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2016. xvi + 240 pp. € 74.96. ISBN 978-3-319-32648-1.

  5. Achieving Consistent Multiple Daily Low-Dose Bacillus anthracis Spore Inhalation Exposures in the Rabbit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    humidity (Tempera- ture Stick, Testo, Sparta , NJ, USA) and one 1/4 inch diameter port to measure the differential pressure within the exposure cham...a human anthrax vaccine in guinea pigs, rab- bits, and rhesus macaques against challenge by Bacillus anthracis iso- lates of diverse geographical

  6. Au-delà des ethnonymes. À propos de quelques exonymes et endonymes chez les musulmans du Cambodge Beyond Ethnonyms. Notes on some Exonyms and Endonyms Used among Muslims in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiko Stock

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available La recherche sur les musulmans de la Péninsule indochinoise de la période coloniale à nos jours s’est souvent confondue avec celle des Chams. Perçue comme unité réduite et unifiée, la petite communauté musulmane cambodgienne est aujourd’hui plus que jamais considérée comme une. Or les recherches menées sur les Chams et/ou sur les musulmans du Cambodge témoignent d’une grande confusion de termes, conduisant à un amalgame allant totalement à l’encontre de la réalité sociale chame ou musulmane cambodgienne, aussi dynamique qu’insaisissable. à travers l’étude d’une sélection d’exonymes et d’endonymes replacés dans leurs contextes, l’article introduit cette complexité et cette diversité sociales en termes de procédés d’énonciations. En se posant en alternative aux référents classiquement attribués d’ethnie, de religion et de nation, ces pages s’interrogent sur la validité des catégories mêmes que l’ethnologie emploie pour dénommer ses « objets ».Scholarship on Muslims of Indochinese Peninsula—from the colonial period to nowadays—has often gone hand in glove with Cham research. Perceived as a unified and reduced unit, the small community of Cambodian Muslims is today more than ever described as one. Yet, research conducted on Chams and/or Muslims in Cambodia attests of a broad confusion of terms. The result comes at odds with the social reality of Chams or Cambodian Muslims, in fact as dynamic as it is unseizable. Through a study of some exonyms and endonyms replaced in their original contexts, the article introduces Cham social complexity and diversity in terms of discursive processes. An alternative to references generally designated as “ethnie”, religion, and nation, those pages question the validity of those categories central to the anthropology “objects” definition.

  7. Anti-flatulent Studies of Traditional Medicinal Plant Vitex negundo Linn. In Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhbir Lal Khokra; Pawan Kaushik; Dhiender Kaushik; Sandeep Jain

    2014-01-01

    Vitex negundo is a shrub from Verbenaceae family and is traditionally used in treatment of various disease and disorders. Oil prepared with the juice of leaves of Vitex-negundo is reported to have very useful medicinal properties like wonderful cures of sloughing wounds and ulcers. In Ayurveda; roots of Vitex negundo is reported to have anti-flatulent properties. Philippines peoples used to make tea from fruits of this plant, which was considered very useful in relieving stomach gas which, we...

  8. Evaluation of chemical composition, antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of Aloysia citrodora extract on colon cancer cell line using Real Time PCR and Flow-cytometry methods

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Mirzaie; Seyed Ataollah Sadat Shandiz; Hassan Noorbazargan; Elahe Ali Asgary

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Aloysia citrodora belongs to the Verbenaceae family of plants, a well-known herbal medicine in Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition, antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of A. citrodora extract against human colon cancer using real time PCR and flow cytometry methods. Materials and Methods: this experimental study was carried out in Islamic Azad University, East Tehran Branch, from March to September of 2...

  9. Evaluation of chemical composition, antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of Aloysia citrodora extract on colon cancer cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Mirzaie; Seyed Ataollah Sadat Shandiz; Hassan Noorbazargan; Elahe Ali Asgary

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aloysia citrodora belongs to the Verbenaceae family of plants, a well-known herbal medicine in Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition, antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of A. citrodora extract against human colon cancer (HT29) cells by using real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow-cytometry methods. Methods: This experimental study was carried out in Islamic Azad University, East Tehran Branch, from March to...

  10. In vitro effect of plant compounds on the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz: isolated from passion fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, André Costa da; Sales, Nilza de Lima Pereira; Araújo, Alisson Vinícius de; Caldeira Júnior, Cecílio Frois

    2009-01-01

    Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de extratos e óleos essenciais de quatorze plantas medicinais e ou nativas, conhecidas popularmente no Norte de Minas Gerais, sobre a germinação de esporos e crescimento micelial do fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Foram utilizados no teste de inibição do crescimento micelial, os extratos aquosos de alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis), erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea), joá (Solanum sisymbriifolium), quebra-pedra (Phyllanthus corcovadensis), erv...

  11. Efeito in vitro de compostos de plantas sobre o fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz: isolado do maracujazeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,André Costa da; Sales,Nilza de Lima Pereira; Araújo,Alisson Vinícius de; Caldeira Júnior,Cecílio Frois

    2009-01-01

    Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de extratos e óleos essenciais de quatorze plantas medicinais e ou nativas, conhecidas popularmente no Norte de Minas Gerais, sobre a germinação de esporos e crescimento micelial do fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Foram utilizados no teste de inibição do crescimento micelial, os extratos aquosos de alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis), erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea), joá (Solanum sisymbriifolium), quebra-pedra (Phyllanthus corcovadensis), erv...

  12. Antioxidant and pharmaceutical potential of Clerodendrum L.: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Pallab Kar; Arvind Kumar Goyal; Abhaya Prasad Das; Arnab Sen

    2014-01-01

    Clerodendrum , with about 580 species, belongs to the family Verbenaceae and is widely distributed in the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. The leaves of some species of Clerodendrum form an important source of diet in North eastern part of India. Various plant parts such as leaf and root extracts of C. indicum, C. phlomidis, C. serratum, C. trichotomum, C. chinense and C. petasites have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, asthma, inflammatory diseases, coughs, skin dis...

  13. Antifungal Activity of Clerodendrum inerme (L). and Clerodendrum phlomidis (L).

    OpenAIRE

    ANITHA, Rajasekaran; KANNAN, Ponnusamy

    2014-01-01

    The ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of leaves and stems of Clerodendrum inerme and Clerodendrum phlomidis (Verbenaceae) were screened for antifungal activity. Both ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of C. phlomidis stem and leaf exhibited appreciable inhibition on all the studied plant and human pathogenic fungi. However, leaf hexane extract (1 mg/ml) of C. inerme inhibited the plant pathogenic fungi better than the human dermatophytes.

  14. Sungkai (Peronema canescens) a promising pioneer tree : an experimental provenance study in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hatta, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Sungkai ( Peronema canescens Jack.), Verbenaceae, is one among the fancy woods of Indonesia. Sungkai belongs to a small number of species recommended by The Ministry of Forestry for use in the development of industrial forest plantations (IFP). The IFPs are carried out in response to an increasing wood demand and aim at reducing pressure on the natural forests, thereby contributing to national land conservation objectives, as well as to the supply of industrial r...

  15. Total phenols and flavonoids and antioxidant activity of Lampaya medicinalis F. Phil. leaf extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Gabino Garrido; Macarena Ortiz; Patricia Pozo

    2013-01-01

    Context: Lampaya medicinalis F. Phil. (Verbenaceae) is a plant that grows in northern of Chile and it is used in ethnomedicine to treat bone pain, as an analgesic, in kidney ailments, disorders of the prostate, liver disease and dyspepsia, although there are few scientific studies about it. Aims: To determine the antioxidant activity of different extracts from leaves of L. medicinalis. Methods: Extractive methods were performed in water and methanol maceration, decoction and infusion fr...

  16. The interference of methods in the collection of teredinids (Mollusca, Bivalvia) in mangrove habitats Interferência de métodos na coleta de teredinídios (Mollusca, Bivalvia) em habitats de manguezais

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa M. V. Leonel; Lopes,Sônia G. B. C.; Moraes,Daniela T. de; Marcos Aversari

    2006-01-01

    In the estuary of the Mamanguape River (Paraíba, Brazil), a new collection technique was developed and applied with virgin poles of mangrove trees Avicennia schaueriana (Verbenaceae), Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae), and Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae), taking into account wood preference, water salinity and depth influence during teredinid larval settlement. Sets of poles were vertically fixed in the riverbed at three sites along a decreasing salinity gradient, where they stayed for ...

  17. Antispasmodic effects of Aloysia polystachya and A. gratissima tinctures and extracts are due to non-competitive inhibition of intestinal contractility induced by acethylcholine and calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Consolini, Alicia E.; Andrea Berardi; Rosella,María A.; María Volonté

    2011-01-01

    The antispasmodic effects of acqueous extracts (AE) and tinctures (T) of Aloysia polystachya (Griseb.) Moldenke and Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc., Verbenaceae, were studied on rat isolated ileum and duodenum. These plants are used for gastrointestinal disorders and as eupeptic in South America. Both AE non-competitively inhibited the dose-response curves (DRC) of ACh and the DRC of Ca2+ in high-[K+]o, as well as the T. The T of A. polystachya and A. gratissima respectively inhib...

  18. Evaluation of the antibacterial effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Aloysia Citriodora (Lemon verbena) on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiee, Faranak; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Shahandeh, Zahra; Sadighian, Farhnaz; Khodadadi, Effat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Aloysia citriodora plant from the family of Verbenaceae has many uses in traditional medicine. The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. citriodora on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, which cause tooth decay. Methods This 2016 study was performed on standardized strains of S. mutans PTCC1683 and S. sobrinus PTCC1601 and clinical isolates. Twenty clinical samples were obtained from the dental caries of...

  19. [Plant extracts with cytostatic properties growing in Cuba. II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Abraham, A M; Rojas Hernandez, N M; Jimenez Misas, C A

    1979-01-01

    The study of the cytostatic activity of aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts from 18 parts of 9 species of superior plants of the families Araceae, Borraginacease, Burseraceae, Cesalpinaceae, Meliaceae, Compositae, Rebiaceae, Cruciferaceae and Verbenaceae using the microbiologic method of described by Kubas in 1972 is pursued. The best results were obtained from Hamelia patens. Lippia alba, Lepidium virginicum, Cassia ligustrina, Bursera simaruba and Heliotropium campechianum extracts.

  20. Comparative morphological and anatomical characteristics of the species known as lemongrass (limonotu): Melissa officinalis L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. and Aloysia citriodora Palau.

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Akalın, Yeter Yeşil,

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Aloysia citriodora (Verbenaceae), Melissa officinalis (Lamiaceae) and Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae) leaves have a gentle lemon-scented essential oil, contains citral or citronellal and are called the Lemongrass in Turkey. This similarity causes the use of plants for the same purposes despite the presence of different families and different morphological and anatomical structure. Instead of Melissa officinalis, which grows naturally in our country, Aloysia citriodora samples are sold...

  1. A STUDY ON CYTOTOXIC AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF LEAVES OF CLERODENDRUM VISCOSUM

    OpenAIRE

    Islam Md. Shamsul; Moghal Md. Mizanur Rahman; Ahamed Sayed Koushik; Ahmed Jamiuddin; Islam Md. Ariful

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the biological investigations of Clerodendrum viscosum – a plant belonging to the family Verbenaceae. The leaf of Clerodendrum viscosum was extracted with methanol and water. The crude extract of methanol of Clerodendrum viscosum was screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. A reputed cytotoxic agent vincristine sulphate was used as a positive control. From the result of the brine shrimp lethality bioassay it can be well predicted that methano...

  2. FLORA ARGENTINA: NOVEDADES EN PRIMULACEAE Argentinian flora: novelties in Primulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara G. Tressens

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Anagallis filiformis Cham. & Schltdl., especie no mencionada previamente para la Argentina,
    es citada, descripta e ilustrada. Se señala por primera vez A. arvensis L., ampliamente
    extendida en la Argentina, para las provincias de Corrientes y Misiones. Se incluye una clave
    para la identificación de las cuatro especies de Anagallis presentes en el país
    Anagallis filiformis Cham. & Schltdl., species not previously mentioned for Argentina is
    recorded, described and illustrated. A. arvensis L., largely widespread in Argentina, is reported
    for the first time from Corrientes and Misiones provinces. A key for the identification of the four
    species of Anagallis present in the country is also included

  3. Objetos rituales e identidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrat Ventura i Oller

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available El chamanismo especialmente en las sociedades indígenas de América del Sur, se ha caracterizado por un complejo sistema de intercambio interétnico material y simbólico. Como parte de este sistema, los objetos utilizados en los rituales chamánicos no pueden ser interpretados a partir del significado que les otorga cada cultura particular de la que son originarios. Sino que deben ser analizados a partir del significado que cada cultura receptora da a su mundo sobrenatural, que es usualmente representado por formas materiales variables y diversas. Este tema será ilustrado con la etnografía del grupo indígena Tsachila del Ecuador, que despliega una extensa y compleja red de intercambios chamánicos.

  4. High phosphorus supply reduced zinc concentration of wheat in native soil but not in autoclaved soil or nutrient solution

    OpenAIRE

    Ova, Emir Ali; Kutman, Ümit Barış; Kutman, Umit Baris; Öztürk, Levent; Ozturk, Levent; Çakmak, İsmail; Cakmak, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P)-induced zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the most commonly studied antagonistic interactions in plant nutrition. However, there are many controversial reports about P-Zn interaction, possibly related to growth conditions. In this study, the effects of P supply on the root uptake and tissue concentrations of Zn as well as the development of Zn deficiency were investigated in wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in different media. Plants were grown under greenhouse and growth cham...

  5. Cambodia: Analysis of U.S. Military Assistance to Cambodia, 1970-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-03

    embryo force which began to confront the established order. The zones of action of these elements were found in the provinces of Battambang, Kampot ...6th Inf. Brigade: also composed basically of Muslim Khmers. Its units operated in the Kampot area (MR-2) and in Kompong Cham (MR-i). 8th Inf. Brigade...and United States aerial resupply of ammnunition. On 16 April the sea resort of Kep fell, located in southern Kampot Province. 130 At the beginning

  6. Defense AT and L. Volume 38, Number 1, January-February 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    providing logistic support. Why has the num- 7 Defense AT&L: January-February 2009 Misunderstood S u p e r h e r o e s Batman and Performance-Based...success, this new cham- pion’s techniques, methods, and even motives are continu- ally questioned. Sound familiar? Are we talking about Batman or PBL...perfor- mance-based logistics, or alternatively, performance-based life cycle product support)? Batman captures our imagination because he is an uncom

  7. Pollen morphology of Rubiaceae Juss. species occurring in an area of caatinga (dryland) vegetation in Bahia State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira Júnior,Cristiano Eduardo Amaral; Saba,Marileide Dias; Jardim, Jomar Gomes

    2012-01-01

    The palynology of the following 16 species of Rubiaceae, from Brejinho das Amestistas, was investigated: Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC., Cordiera rigida Kuntze, Coutarea hexandra K.Schum., Declieuxia fruticosa Kuntze, Diodella apiculata (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Delprete, D. radula (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Delprete, D. teres Small., Emmeorhiza umbellata K.Schum., Leptoscela ruellioides Hook. f., Mitracarpus baturitensis Sucre., Mitracarpus villosus Cham. & Schltdl., Pal...

  8. Pollen morphology of Rubiaceae Juss. species occurring in an area of caatinga (dryland) vegetation in Bahia State, Brazil Morfologia polínica de espécies de Rubiaceae ocorrentes em uma área de caatinga no estado da Bahia, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Eduardo Amaral Silveira Júnior; Marileide Dias Saba; Jomar Gomes Jardim

    2012-01-01

    The palynology of the following 16 species of Rubiaceae, from Brejinho das Amestistas, was investigated: Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC., Cordiera rigida Kuntze, Coutarea hexandra K.Schum., Declieuxia fruticosa Kuntze, Diodella apiculata (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Delprete, D. radula (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Delprete, D. teres Small., Emmeorhiza umbellata K.Schum., Leptoscela ruellioides Hook. f., Mitracarpus baturitensis Sucre., Mitracarpus villosus Cham. & Schltdl., Palicourea rigi...

  9. Anatomía foliar y caulinar en especies de Stemodia (Scrophulariaceae Foliar and caulinar anatomy in species of Stemodia (Scrophulariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria De Las Mercedes Sosa

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la estructura anatómica foliar y caulinar en el género Stemodia. Son consideradas siete especies: S. ericifolia (Kuntze K. Schum., S. hyptoides Cham. & Schltdl., S. lanceolata Benth., S. lobelioides Lehm., S. palustris A. St.-Hil., S. stricta Cham. & Schltdl. y S. verticillata (Mill. Hassl. Se hallaron diferencias en la epidermis foliar, donde hay variación en el tipo de estomas y de tricomas, y en la forma de las papilas epidérmicas; también en la estructura del mesofilo. Se describen e ilustran cuatro tipos de tricomas considerando si son o no glandulares y el número de células que lo conforman. El estudio de la anatomía caulinar mostró diferencias en cuanto a la presencia de aerénquima cortical y de laguna medular, y el porcentaje de espacios en el aerénquima cortical.Comparative anatomical studies of the leaves and stems on the genus Stemodia are presented. Seven species are considered: S. ericifolia (Kuntze K. Schum., S. hyptoides Cham. & Schltdl., S. lanceolata Benth., S. lobelioides Lehm., S. palustris A. St.-Hil., S. stricta Cham. & Schltdl. and S. verticillata (Mill. Hassl. There are variation in the stomatal and trichome types, form of the papillae and mesophyll structure. Four trichome types are described and illustrated considering if they are glandular or non-glandular and the number of cells. The stems present a quite homogeneous anatomical structure. Some differences in the amount and distribution of the aerenchyma and the size of the intercellular spaces are observed.

  10. U.S. Department of Agriculture/Corps of Engineers Cooperative Aquatic Plant Control Research. Annual Report for FY 1981. Biological and Chemical Control Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    more to a loss of the plants than to the direct lethal effects of the low temperatures on the insects. By March, populations were again dispersing...34 ot I albigutfis population intensities as influenced by latitude and pattu in both north and south Florida, but alack of seasonality in the central...philozeroide. (Mart.) Griseb. Cabomba Cabomba carolinian. Gray Cham Chara spp. Dckweed Lemna spp. Hydrifla Hydrill aer t Royle I iypphila Hygrophila

  11. Cryopreserved human amniotic membrane injection for plantar fasciitis: a randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanselman, Andrew E; Tidwell, John E; Santrock, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    Treatment options for plantar fasciitis have resulted in varied patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare a novel treatment, cryopreserved human amniotic membrane (c-hAM), to a traditional treatment, corticosteroid. Our hypothesis was that c-hAM would be safe and comparable to corticosteroids for plantar fasciitis in regard to patient outcomes. A randomized, controlled, double-blind, single-center pilot study was completed. Patients were randomized into one of 2 treatment groups: c-hAM or corticosteroid. Patients received an injection at their initial baseline visit with an option for a second injection at their first 6-week follow-up. Total follow-up was obtained for 12 weeks after the most recent injection. The primary outcome measurement was the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ). The secondary outcome measurements were the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and verbally reported percentage improvement. Data were analyzed between groups for the 2 different cohorts (1 injection versus 2 injections). Twenty-three patients had complete follow-up. Fourteen were randomized to receive corticosteroid and 9 were randomized to receive c-hAM. Three patients in each group received second injections. With the numbers available, the majority of outcome measurements showed no statistical difference between groups. The corticosteroid did, however, have greater FHSQ shoe fit improvement (P = .0244) at 6 weeks, FHSQ general health improvement (P = .0132) at 6 weeks, and verbally reported improvement (P = .041) at 12 weeks in the one-injection cohort. Cryopreserved hAM had greater FHSQ foot pain improvement (P = .0113) at 18 weeks in the 2-injection cohort. Cryopreserved hAM injection may be safe and comparable to corticosteroid injection for treatment of plantar fasciitis. This is a pilot study and requires further investigation. Level I, prospective randomized trial. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Effect of Scarification, Self-Inhibition, and Sowing Depth on Seed Germination of Lupinus campestris Efecto de la Escarificación, Autoinhibición y Profundidad de Siembra sobre la Germinación de Semillas de Lupinus campestris

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Gutiérrez Nava; Fernando De León González; Jorge Etchevers Barra; Alejandro Casas Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Lupinus campestris Schltdl. & Cham. grows in shallow fields and disturbed areas of Central Mexico. It has potential to improve soil fertility and as fodder. Seeds of L. campestris show dormancy, and the technology needed to increase its potential use requires information about conditions favouring seed germination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seed germination responseof L. campestris under controlled (laboratory) and natural field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, 2 yr ol...

  13. Cine club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cine club

    2016-01-01

    Wednesday 13 July 2016 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber The PHD Movie (Piled Higher and Deeper) Directed by Vahe Gabuchian; Writer : Jorge Cham USA, 2011, 67 minutes 'Piled Higher and Deeper (PHD)' is a live-action adaptation of the popular web comic strip by Jorge Cham. With humor and heart, the film follows the personal journeys of two graduate students as they struggle to find their place in the confusing (and often hilarious) world of high-stakes Academic research. Original version English The PHD Movie 2 (Piled Higher and Deeper: Still in Grad School) Directed by Iram Parveen Bilal; Writer : Jorge Cham USA, 2015, 80 minutes A comedy about life (or the lack thereof) in Academia. Two young scientists (a Quantum Physicist and a Molecular Biologist) search for significance in the high stakes world of Academic research. Original version English Wednesday 20 July 2016 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber Particle Fever   Directed by Mark Levinson USA, 2013, 99 minutes Follow six scientists...

  14. Arsenic contamination in the food chain and its risk assessment of populations residing in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Heng, Savoeun; Phan, Samrach; Huoy, Laingshun; Wong, Ming Hung; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2013-11-15

    In the present study, we investigated the potential arsenic exposure of Cambodian residents from their daily food consumption. Environmental and ecological samples such as paddy soils, paddy rice (unhusked), staple rice (uncooked and cooked), fish and vegetables were collected from Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. After acid-digestion, digestates were chemically analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results revealed that the means of total arsenic concentration ([As]tot) in paddy soils and paddy rice from Kandal were significantly higher than those from Kampong Cham province (t-test, pfood consumption indicated that the upper end of the range of the daily dose of inorganic arsenic for Kandal residents (0.089-8.386 μg d(-1) kg(-1) body wt.) was greater than the lower limits on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer (BMDL0.5 is equal to 3.0 μg d(-1) kg(-1) body wt.). The present study suggests that the residents in Kandal are at risk of arsenic intake from their daily food consumption. However, the residents in Kratie and Kampong Cham provinces are less likely to be exposed to arsenic through their daily dietary intake. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report estimating the daily intake and daily dose of inorganic arsenic from food consumption in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fishers and Territorial Anxieties in China and Vietnam: Narratives of the South China Sea Beyond the Frame of the Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Roszko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the geopolitical conflict over the South China Sea (SCS, fishers are at the center of Chinese and Vietnamese cartographic imaginations that define the sea as either “Chinese” or “Vietnamese” and hence tied to the disputed territories of the Paracel and Spratly Islands. While their historical presence and customary fishing rights in the SCS have been much publicized in the context of this territorial dispute, the long-standing Cham seafaring trade networks and legacy are ignored by both countries. The ethnic and national categories of Cham, Việt, and Han intersect with occupational categories such as those of fisher, trader, shipbuilder, sailor, and pirate, which in the past represented shifting, relational, and situational activities by the same people. The contemporary use of such professional and national labels produces particular political effects by projecting recent closures and enclosures onto the past, in spite of the common historical, cultural, and ethnic flows that always existed in the SCS. Rather than aiming to legitimize or delegitimize Vietnam’s or China’s territorial claims to the SCS, this article argues that seafaring narratives should be liberated from abstract, anachronistic discourses of sovereignty, territoriality, and territorial anxieties that separate the interconnected histories of the Cham, Vietnamese, and Chinese.

  16. Revisión de la producción, composición fitoquímica y propiedades nutracéuticas del orégano mexicano Revision of the production, phytochemical composition, and nutraceutical properties of Mexican oregano

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique García-Pérez; Castro-Álvarez Fernando Francisco; Janet Alejandra Gutiérrez-Uribe; Silverio García-Lara

    2012-01-01

    El orégano es una planta de distribución mundial, el cual está representado principalmente por dos especies: Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceace) nativo de Europa, y Lippia graveolens (Verbenaceae), originaria de América. México ocupa el segundo lugar como productor mundial de orégano con la especie L. graveolens H. B. K. Sin embargo, la mayoría de las especies explotadas son silvestres y su cultivo es aún tradicional y limitado. En este trabajo se presenta un análisis de las estrategias de propagac...

  17. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Ethanolic Extracts of Leaves of Premna esculenta Roxb. against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Damage in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmud, ZA; Bachar, SC; Qais, N

    2012-01-01

    Premna esculenta Roxb. (family Verbenaceae) is a shrub used by the ethnic people of Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh for the treatment of hepatocellular jaundice. The present study was done to evaluate the hepatoprotective and the in vivo antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of the plant in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced in rats by i.p. injection of CCl4 diluted with olive oil (1:1 v/v; 1 mL/kg body weight) on alternate days f...

  18. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  19. Exploiting anti-obesity mechanism of Clerodendrum phlomidis against two different models of rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Chidrawar, Vijay R.; Krishnakant N Patel; Shiromwar, Shruti S.; Kshirsagar, Ajay D.

    2011-01-01

    Roots of Clerodendrum phlomidis are used by the local people of Dibrugarh district of Assam state India as a dietary supplement for treating weight issues and are also mentioned in the traditional system of Indian medicine as a remedy for obesity. We examined the anti-obesity effect of Clerodendrum phlomidis (family Verbenaceae) L. roots against cafeteria diet (CD) and progesterone-induced obesity. In CD-induced model obesity was induced by feeding CD for 48-days and increase in body weight a...

  20. Anti-diarrhoeal evaluation of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. leaf extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, S; Ahamed, N; Rajaram, S; Saluja, R; Thenmozhi, S; Murugesan, T

    1999-12-15

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of leaves of Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. (MECP) (Family: Verbenaceae) for its anti-diarrhoeal potential against several experimental models of diarrhoea in Wistar albino rats. MECP showed significant inhibitory activity against castor oil induced diarrhoea and PGE2 induced enteropooling in rats. The extract also showed a significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in charcoal meal test in rats. The results obtained establish the efficacy and substantiated the folklore claim as an anti-diarrhoeal agent.

  1. Estudios anatómicos de algunos tomillos usados en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Bonzani, Norma; Ariza Espinar, Luis

    1992-01-01

    Se estudia la anatomía foliar de tres especies (además el tallo en una de ellas), que bajo el nombre vulgar de "tomillo" o "tomillo serrano" son utilizadas en medicina popular o como condimentos: dos pertenecen a la familia Lamiaceae: Hedeoma multiflorum Benth y Thymus vulgaris L. y la tercera a las Verbenaceae: Acantholippia seriphioides (Gray) Mold. Los elementos histológicos son descriptos e ilustrados y en un cuadro comparativo se dan las diferencias para su correcta identificación

  2. New labdane-type diterpenoids from Leonotis leonurus support circumscription of Lamiaceae s.l.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available and compounds in their in vitro M. tuberculosis assays. The staff of the Mary Gunn Library (SANBI) are thanked for facilitating access to literature. References Atkins, S., 2004. Verbenaceae. In: Kadereit, J.W. (Ed.). The families and genera of vascular..., R., Krestovskaja, T., Morales, R., Paton, A.J., Ryding, O., Upson, T., 2004. Labiatae. In: Kadereit, J.W. (Ed.). The families and genera of vascular plants. Vol. VII. Lamiales. Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 167?275. Hulme, M.M., 1954. Wild flowers...

  3. Structural Elucidation of a New Sesquiterpene Alcohol by Comparative NMR Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo de Lima Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal constituent of the essential oil from the leaves of the Cordia verbenacea plants collected in Minas Gerais, Brazil had a GC retention time similar to that of α-bisabolol, a sesquiterpene alcohol with important biological properties. NMR analyses ( 1H, 13C, DEPT-135, COSY, HMQC and HMBC comparing the purified compound with α-bisabolol compound revealed that the new alcohol is an isomer structural of α-bisabolol, due to change in relation to the position of the double bond and the methyl group present in the cyclic chain of these compounds.

  4. Sedative and cardiovascular effects of Aloysia citriodora Palau, on mice and rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ragone, María Inés; Sella, Mariana; Pastore, Agustín; Consolini, Alicia E.

    2010-01-01

    Aloysia citriodora Palau, Verbenaceae ("cedrón") is widely used as infusion or decoction in South America to treat indigestion, tachycardia and anxiety. We previously demonstrated its antispasmodic effect on rat duodenum. Now, its aqueous extract (AEC) from 1 to 10 mg/kg was sedative in mice on the open-field, effect which was potentiated by diazepam and sensitive to flumazenil. In normotensive rats, 1 to 30 mg AEC/kg induced a transitory hypotension, insensitive to atropine and L-NAME. Regar...

  5. Phytotoxic Activities of Mediterranean Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Rolim de Almeida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae, Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae, Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae. The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.

  6. Experiencia de interacción en trabajo de campo en una zona rural colombiana Experiência de interação em trabalho de campo numa zona rural colombiana Interaction experience in field work in a Colombian rural zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Arias Valencia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la experiencia de trabajo de campo de la investigadora con indígenas Embera Chamí en el municipio de Jardín Antioquia, Colombia, las implicaciones de las relaciones de campo, el acercamiento a los participantes, ya sean individuos, grupos o comunidades y sociedades; y, narra, específicamente, la introducción y orientación en el campo, la interacción con las personas, la observación de normas, la organización de la vida diaria, semanal y mensual, así como los roles y las relaciones de reciprocidad en el campo.É descrita a experiência de trabalho de campo como pesquisadora com indígenas Embera Chamí no município de Jardim Antioquia, Colômbia, os envolvimentos das relações do campo, a aproximação aos participantes, já sejam indivíduos, grupos ou comunidades e sociedades; e, narra, especificamente, a introdução e orientação no campo, a interação com as pessoas, a observação de normas, a organização da vida diária, semanal e mensal, bem como os papéis e as relações de reciprocidade no campo.The field work experience as a researcher with Ember Chamí Indians in the city of Jardín Antioquia, Colombia is shared. Work field implications, participants’ approach as individuals, groups or communities and societies. It tells specifically the introduction, field orientation, interaction with people, rule observation, daily, weekly and monthly life organization, as well as the roles and reciprocity relationships in the field.

  7. Evaluation, partial characterization and purification of acetylcholine esterase enzyme and antiangiogenic activity from marine sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maushmi Shailesh Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test three marine sponges Halichondria glabrata Keller, 1891; Spirastrella pachyspira (S. pachyspira Levi, 1958 and Cliona lobata Hancock, 1849 for the presence of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE in both young and developed samples from western coastal area of India. S. pachyspira methanolic extract was selected for anti/pro angiogenic activity. Methods: They were evaluated for AChE activity using Ellman’s assay based on production of yellow colored 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoate. Purification of the enzyme was planned using ammonium sulphate precipitation and characterization by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Chorioallantoic membrane (ChAM assay model was used for angiogenic/ antiangiogenic testing. Results: All the three sponges showed good specific enzyme activity and S. pachyspira contained maximum specific enzyme activity. Sixty percent of ammonium sulphate precipitation of crude protein sample gave single band at 66 kDa corresponding to the true AChE. ChAM assay was performed at 62.5, 125.0 and 250.0 µg/mL. Dosage beyond 250 µg/mL extract showed toxic response with anti angiogenic activity at all the concentrations. Conclusions: AChE activity was detected in all samples. Extract showed good anti-angiogenic response at 62.5 µg/mL. Extract was highly toxic affecting microvasculature of ChAM as well as normal growth and development of the embryo at 500 µg/mL. With further characterization of bioactive compounds from the extract of S. pachyspira, the compounds can be developed for anti tumor activity.

  8. ESCORRENTÍA SUPERFICIAL EN BOSQUES MONTANOS NATURALES Y PLANTADOS DE PIEDRAS BLANCAS, ANTIOQUIA (COLOMBIA) SURFACE RUNOFF IN NATURAL MONTANE FORESTS AND FOREST PLANTATIONS IN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Andrés Ruiz Suescún; Juan José Acosta Jaramillo; Juan Diego León Peláez

    2005-01-01

    En bosques montanos naturales de roble (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl.) y plantados de pino pátula (Pinus patula Schltdl. & Cham.) y ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica Mill.) de la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia), fueron medidos los flujos de escorrentía superficial (ES) por un periodo de tiempo de 16 meses. Se implementaron parcelas cerradas de escorrentía superficial de 10 m de largo x 2 m de ancho, tanques colectores y sistemas de registro volumétrico. Los flujos fueron de 23,19 mm añ...

  9. Avaliação da fitotoxidez de Tecoma stans (L.) Kunth

    OpenAIRE

    Cipriani, Franciane Auxiliadora; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora Coelho; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos; Soares, Geraldo Luiz Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Tecoma stans foi introduzida no Brasil para fins ornamentais e ocorre tanto cultivada quanto subespontânea. Objetivando avaliar seu potencial alelopático, foi testado o efeito do extrato aquoso de suas folhas sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento radicial de Lactuca sativa L. (alface), Handroanthus ochraceus (Cham.) Mattos (ipê) e Medicago sativa L. (alfafa). O extrato causou uma forte inibição na germinação das sementes de alface. O desenvolvimento radicial de alface e alfafa foi reduzido e...

  10. Modelling initial mortality of Abies religiosa in a crown fire in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Temiño Villota, Salomé; Rodríguez Trejo, Dante A.; Molina Terrén, Domingo; Ryan, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of study: The objectives of this work were to determine which morphological and fire severity variables may help explain the mortality of adult Abies religiosa (Kunth) Schltdl. & Cham., to model the probability of this species after being affected by crown fire, and to obtain more elements to classify the sacred fir in terms of fire resistance. This type of studies are relevant to estimate the impact of crown fires on the climax forests that forms this species.Area of study: The burne...

  11. SDS-PAGE For Glutenins Protein of Some Durum Wheat Cultivars coming from Different Agro-Ecological Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Salih Khalaf

    Full Text Available Ten durum wheat cultivars of different agro-ecological resources were involved, and subjected to electrophoresis for their glutenin subunits. Glutenin subunits resolution and coding based on relative mobility. Cultivars shown differences in migration patterns and categorized into different groups in accordance to possessing a particular subunits. Caronia and Haurani were similar as they possess subunits 6 + 15, while ACSAD 65, Simeto, and Waha possess subunits 7 + 8; but Korifla and Gidara 2 and Creso possess subunits 6 + 8 with an additional subunit 20 for the Creso. Lastly, Cham 5 and Om rabi 5 possess subunits 20.

  12. Modos de conocimiento: la lección de Castaneda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Ramo y Affonso

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo, hacemos una reflexión sobre la práctica antropológica y el impacto de la obra de Carlos Castaneda en la relación entre la ciencia y la magia, que entre otras situaciones, la antropología representa. Castaneda conoce la imposibilidad de explicar el conocimiento de Don Juan, el chamán que es su informante y su maestro, fuera de sus propios términos y es por eso que la antropología de Carlos Castaneda cuestiona las explicaciones científicas de la magia.

  13. Parámetros genéticos e interacción genotipo x ambiente en el crecimiento de progenies reintroducidas y nativas de Pinus patula.

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Martínez, Procoro

    2013-01-01

    Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. et. Cham., es una especie nativa de México ampliamente utilizada en plantaciones comerciales en diferentes regiones del mundo; la especie ha sido mejorada en el extranjero, y es necesario evaluar el material al ser reintroducido a su país de origen. Se comparó el crecimiento de 36 familias de medios hermanos seleccionadas en Colombia y Sudáfrica, reintroducidas en México (grupo R) y 36 familias de medios hermanos escogidas fenotípicamente en rodales naturales ...

  14. Weed exterminator and method of exterminating weed

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Tempel, J.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of exterminating weed, which method comprises the steps of: providing an extermination chamber (14, 14a, 14b, 14c) having at least one open side (14d), placing the open side (14d) over weed to be exterminated; substantially closing off the edge of the open side of the extermination chamber (14, 14a, 14b) and the ground or soil in which the weed is present; providing a refrigerant in the extermination chamber (14, 14a, 14b, 14c); keeping the extermination cham...

  15. DATURA STRAMONIUM: Toxicología de una droga emergente

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Carracedo, Alfredo; Rubio Armendáriz, Carmen; Hardisson de La Torre, Arturo; Gutiérrez Fernández, Ángel José

    2013-01-01

    El estramonio (Datura stramonium L), al igual que la gran mayoría de las drogas alucinógenas vegetales, ha sido usado a lo largo de los siglos en un contexto místico-religioso chamánico. Sin embargo, fue en el verano de 2011 cuando se detecta su uso como droga de abuso en España tras el fallecimiento de dos jóvenes en una fiesta “rave” en Getafe (Madrid) y una intoxicación aguda de un joven en Badajoz, hechos que generaron una gran alarma social. Todo ello pone de manifiesto la constante vari...

  16. Morfogénesis in vitro de cactáceas.

    OpenAIRE

    Téllez Román, Janeth

    2012-01-01

    En esta investigación se estudiaron las condiciones de cultivo in vitro y las respuestas morfogénicas de tres especies de cactáceas: Echinopsis chamaecereus Friedrich & Glaetzle “aurea”, Gymnocalicium mihanovichii cv. Hibotan y Mammillaria plumosa Weber ornamentales de importancia económica y la última en peligro de extinción. Con la regeneración de brotes, se establecieron protocolos eficientes para la propagación masiva in vitro a partir de la vía organogénica directa e indirecta de E. cham...

  17. We have no idea a guide to the unknown universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cham, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Everything we still don’t know about our strange, mostly mysterious universe. Jorge Cham is the creator of the popular online comic Piled Higher and Deeper, popularly known as PHD Comics. He earned his PhD in robotics at Stanford. Daniel Whiteson is an associate professor of experimental particle physics at the University of California, Irvine, and conducts research using the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Their PHD TV videos have been viewed millions of times on YouTube and aired on PBS.

  18. 100 años de magia: antes, en y después de lévi-strauss… in memoriam (1908-2009).

    OpenAIRE

    Paláu Castaño, Luis Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    En los primeros cincuenta años se abandonan las caracterizaciones del siglo XIX, para refinar el conocimiento de sus dos más importantes mecanismos de funcionamiento: la metáfora y la metonimia como polos configuradores de todo lenguaje. Además de comparar los procesos de abreacción del psicoanálisis con la cura chamánica, Lévi-Strauss le quitó al pensamiento de los mal llamados primitivos todo relente peyorativo. Para él la naturaleza se deja atacar en dos registros, uno intelectivo (ciencia...

  19. Plan de ordenamiento ambiental de la cuenca del río Jequetepeque para la protección del reservorio Gallito Ciego y del valle agrícola

    OpenAIRE

    Oficina Nacional de Evaluación de Recursos Naturales

    1988-01-01

    Ofrece un análisis multidisciplinario de la problemática del ecosistema de las cuencas Chamán-Jequetepegue-Cupisnique, considerando a este, como una "Unidad de Manejo Ambiental" dentro de la cual se integra el Proyecto Especial Jequetepeque-Zaña, en su primera etapa, que comprende la construcción del reservorio Gallito Ciego en el río Jeguetepegue y las obras de regulación de riego y drenaje en el valle agrícola. En este sentido el estudio busca determinar e investigar los impactos perjudi...

  20. Proceeding of the 1999 Particle Accelerator Conference. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-02

    and be used as a checklist to ensure all ofpoutqaiyThcalegisetngllm brsf necesaryproess reasarecoveed.a software development group to adopt the same...zero for the 1 finite conductivity as well. Z"(w,r, ri) = -I- dsE !(rt, s, rg)e :w’s/c, (2) Consider now the surface integrals over the surfaces...9) gives 2.1 References - dsE + (rt, s, ri)e-i,,s/c dsEJ- s /C 3 REFERENCES J1 d , t[1] A. Piwinsky, "Impedances in lossy elliptical vacuum cham

  1. Escorrentía superficial en bosques montanos naturales y plantados de piedras blancas, antioquia (colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Suescún, Oscar Andrés

    2011-01-01

    En bosques montanos naturales de roble (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl.) y plantados de pino pátula (Pinus patula Schltdl. & Cham.) y ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica Mill.) de la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia), fueron medidos los flujos de escorrentía superficial (ES) por un periodo de tiempo de 16 meses. Se implementaron parcelas cerradas de escorrentía superficial de 10 m de largo x 2 m de ancho, tanques colectores y sistemas de registro volumétrico. Los flujos fueron de 23,19 m...

  2. Adventures in thesisland

    CERN Document Server

    Cham, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Life in Academia never seemed livelier than in this humorous take on grant writing, academic dress codes and the many uses for lab coats. Follow the phenomenon known as PHD Comics in this fifth book collection of the popular online comic strip. What would happen if Newton tweeted? If TV 'Science' shows were more like real science? If research papers had a comment section? Also included are excerpts from the script of the recently released 'The PHD Movie' and author Jorge Cham's comics journal of his travels and his detention by the U.K. border police.

  3. Geochemical Processes Data Package for the Vadose Zone in the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Zachara, John M.; Dresel, P. Evan; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2007-09-28

    This data package discusses the geochemistry of vadose zone sediments beneath the single-shell tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide a review of the most recent and relevant geochemical process information available for the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tank farms and the Integrated Disposal Facility. Two companion reports to this one were recently published which discuss the geology of the farms (Reidel and Chamness 2007) and groundwater flow and contamination beneath the farms (Horton 2007).

  4. Objetos rituales e identidad

    OpenAIRE

    Monserrat Ventura i Oller

    2000-01-01

    El chamanismo especialmente en las sociedades indígenas de América del Sur, se ha caracterizado por un complejo sistema de intercambio interétnico material y simbólico. Como parte de este sistema, los objetos utilizados en los rituales chamánicos no pueden ser interpretados a partir del significado que les otorga cada cultura particular de la que son originarios. Sino que deben ser analizados a partir del significado que cada cultura receptora da a su mundo sobrenatural, que es usualmente rep...

  5. A flórula invasora da cultura do café (Coffea arabica L. no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil Weeds in coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Losada Gavilanes

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Nas áreas de cultura de café (Coffea arábica L., no Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletadas e identificadas 388 espécies de plantas invasoras (= plantas daninhas, pertencentes a 51 famílias botânicas, representando 182 gêneros, sendo que as famílias Compositae, Gramineae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Convolvulaceae e Verbenaceae, são as mais importantes em relação à cultura. As plantas coletadas, devidamente etiquetadas e identificadas, foram anexadas, parte delas no PAMG (Herbário da EPAMIG, Belo Horizonte, MG e, a outra parte, no Herbarium ESAL (Herbário do Departamento de Biologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura de Lavras - ESAL, Lavras - MG.A survey in the cultivation area of coffee in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, has resulted in the determination of 388 weed species, of 182 genera belonging to 51 families; the families presenting a greater number of espécies are: Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae and Verbenaceae with 65, 48, 42, 30, 19, 17, 16, 14, 12, 10 species, respectively.

  6. Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea visiting flowers in the Botanical Garden of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Barros de Morais

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban environments, such as parks and gardens, may offer many alimentary resources, besides shelter and favorable conditions, for butterfly survival. This study aimed to make an inventory of butterflies visiting flowers in the Botanical Garden of the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM. From March 2006 to March 2007, the floral visitors were observed weekly for 2h. After 108 hours’ observations, 1114 visits by 39 butterfly species, associated with 43 plant species (21 families, were confirmed. Among the butterflies, Nymphalidae had the highest richness of species (S= 18, followed by Hesperiidae (S= 8, Pieridae (S= 7, Papilionidae (S= 4 and Lycaenidae (S= 2. The pierid Phoebis philea philea was the most frequent species (188 visits, followed by hesperiids Urbanus proteus proteus (100, U. teleus (73 and the nymphalid Heliconius erato phyllis (71. Lantana camara (Verbenaceae, Eupatorium laevigatum (Asteraceae, Russelia equisetiformis (Scrophulariaceae and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Verbenaceae were the most visited plants. The Botanical Garden of UFSM is an example of an urban park that seems to provide floral resources for the feeding of many butterfly species, being also a potential refuge for species from forest areas nearby.

  7. DECOCTOS ISOLADOS E EM MISTURA COM FUNGICIDA NO CONTROLE DO OÍDIO EM MINICEPAS DE EUCALIPTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉ COSTA DA SILVA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to evaluate the decoctions of Hyptis marrubioides, Aloysia gratissima and Cordia verbenacea and the mixture of those decoctions with the commercial fungicide pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole on the control of powdery mildew in eucalyptus. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using ministumps of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. camaldulensis (“urocam” VM1 hybrid, considered highly susceptible to powdery mildew. The treatments consisted of three decoctions at 50%, of the fungicide at 0,75 mL L-1 and the mixture of the decoction with the fungicide at the proportions of 50:50, 25:75 and 75:25, respectively. The treatments were sprayed every 14 days and the disease severity evaluations were carried out every 7 days. The direct fungitoxic effect of the treatments on the powdery mildew of the eucalyptus was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was verified that the fungicide and decoctions of H. marrubioides, A. gratissima and C. verbenacea and all the mixtures of those decoctions with the fungicide were efficient in reducing the severity of powdery mildew in eucalyptus ministumps. The mixture of decoctions with the fungicide pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole allowed us to reduce fungicide dose by 75% and increase the efficiency of control. Through the images obtained by SEM verified the fungitoxic action of the decoctions, the fungicide and combinations of these products on the powdery mildew of the eucalyptus, such as hyphal wall and conidiophore lysis and wilting of the fungal conidia.

  8. Polen de las Mieles de la Patagonia Andina (Chubut-Argentina Pollen of honeys from the Andean Patagonia (Chubut-Argentina

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    Alicia Forcone

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran mediante fotomicrografías tomadas con MO y MEB, 30 tipos polínicos, determinados en las mieles producidas en la región andina de Chubut (Patagonia Argentina. Los tipos morfológicos descriptos pertenecen a las siguientes familias: Alstroemeriaceae, Apiaceae, Buddlejaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Celastraceae, Clusiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ericaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Lamiaceae, Papaveraceae, Polemoniaceae, Polygalaceae, Proteaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Saxifragaceae, Solanaceae, Thymelaceae y Verbenaceae. La mayoría de los tipos polínicos descriptos fueron hallados en las mieles como polen de menor importancia o traza con excepción de Aristotelia chilensis y Escallonia sp., que alcanzaron la categoría de polen dominante, y de Lomatia hirsuta, hallada como polen secundario.Thirty pollen types identified in the honeys from the Andean region of Chubut are described and illustrated by means of LM and SEM photomicrographs. Pollen types belong to the following families: Alstroemeriaceae, Apiaceae, Buddlejaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Celastraceae, Clusiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ericaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Lamiaceae, Papaveraceae, Polemoniaceae, Polygalaceae, Proteaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Saxifragaceae, Solanaceae, Thymelaceae, and Verbenaceae. Most pollen types described were found in the honeys as minor important pollen or traces, except Aristotelia chilensis, Escallonia sp., which reached the category of dominant pollen, and Lomatia hirsuta, which was found as secondary pollen.

  9. La Selva Viajera: Rutas del chamanismo ayahuasquero entre Europa y América

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    Anne-Marie Losonczy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto explora una dimensión particular des las prácticas religiosas en migración. El fenómeno chamánico constituye actualmente un paisaje multipolar, atravesado por desplazamientos regulares de expertos en rituales y de practicantes, a la vez que por la mobilidad y la constante reconfiguración de las prácticas rituales. Estas itinerancias y estancias transcontinentales marcan a las comunidades locales, llevándolas hacia una reformulación de sus propios rituales de uso interno o regional. El chamanismo en su versión transcontinental se estructura según un continuum organizacional en diversas escalas que abre, enmarca, y reproduce los itinerarios que relacionan a los territorios del chamanismo habitualmente llamado "étnico" con las recomposiciones urbanas tanto a nivel nacional como internacional. Este continuum se sitúa efectivamente en el cruce de los "chamanismos urbanos" nacionales e internacionales que se construyen alrededor de la doble figura del "indígena" y de la "selva", en cuanto recursos simbólicos revalorizados. Por ende, este texto se propone analizar el papel central de la capacidad chamánica, reclasificada como "saber", para la reformulación el replanteamiento de las jerarquías simbólicas de validez nacional e internacional, instituidas durante la colonización.

  10. Taxonomia do gênero Heliotropium L. (Heliotropiaceae no Brasil Taxonomy of the genus Heliotropium L. (Heliotropiaceae in Brazil

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    José Iranildo Miranda de Melo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata do estudo taxonômico do gênero Heliotropium L. no Brasil. Foram encontradas nove espécies e duas variedades: H. amplexicaule Vahl, H. angiospermum Murray, H. curassavicum L., H. curassavicum var. argentinum I.M. Johnst., H. elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst., H. elongatum var. burchellii I.M. Johnst., H. indicum L., H. leiocarpum Morong, H. nicotianaefolium Poir.,H. phylicoides Cham. e H. transalpinum Vell. São apresentadas descrições, ilustrações, comentários sobre afinidades baseados na morfologia e dados de distribuição para as espécies.The taxonomy of the genus Heliotropium L. in Brazil was studied, revealing nine species and two varieties: H. amplexicaule Vahl, H. angiospermum Murray, H. curassavicum L., H. curassavicum var. argentinum I.M. Johnst., H. elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst., H. elongatum var. burchellii I.M. Johnst., H. indicum L., H. leiocarpum Morong, H. nicotianaefolium Poir., H. phylicoides Cham. and H. transalpinum Vell. Descriptions, illustrations, comments on relationships based on morphology and data on species distribution are presented.

  11. Ritual works and practices: a case study from a Muslim community in Cambodia

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    Ing-Britt Trankell

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of the ritual is to assert a transcendental power over everyday experience and rituals therefore tend to be formalized, repetitive and conservative events. The purpose of this paper is to show the importance for ritual studies of ritualised strategies for the negotiation of power and influence. Here, research on a spirit possession cult among the Muslim Cham in Cambodia will serve as an empirical basis for a discussion of the open-ended and unbounded features of ritual in contemporary society, since the performances of this cult may be seen both as a kind of "state ritual" and as exorcism. Through the cult, the Cham tend to take refuge in their memories of the distant past rather than in their more immediate memories of terror and political violence, during the civil war and the Khmer Rouge regime. Rephrased as songs of the spirits, the present and the past intermingle in narrating the difficulties, the conflicts and the struggle in the world of the spirits who live next to, and mingle in, the world of ordinary human beings.

  12. El kusiyai: chamanismo entre las poblaciones yumanas del norte de Baja California

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    Michael Winkelman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Las prácticas curativas de los grupos yumanoparlantes del norte de Baja California estuvieron bajo el liderazgo del kusiyai, una figura desvanecida en los modernos estudios etnográficos, pero cuyas actividades pueden ser reconstruidas a partir de los reportes de etnógrafos, geógrafos y exploradores de principios del siglo veinte. Es posible observar en esas actividades ciertos patrones similares a los que siguen las prácticas curativas del chamanismo. Más aún, esas actividades pueden ser reconstruidas en más detalle si utilizamos el paradigma chamánico para organizar los diversos tipos de material relacionado. Cabe señalar, por otra parte, que esta perspectiva ofrece en lo particular la expectativa de un posible resurgimiento futuro de esta tradición cultural. La perspectiva moderna sobre los universales del chamanismo y sobre los aspectos innatos de las actividades chamánicas es congruente con las creencias tradicionales de que los chamanes eran autodidactas en el desarrollo de sus relaciones con los poderes y lugares espirituales.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of a Lys49-phospholipase A2 homologue from Bothrops pirajai venom complexed with rosmarinic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Juliana I.; Santos-Filho, Norival A.; Soares, Andreimar M.; Fontes, Marcos R. M.

    2010-01-01

    PrTX-I, a noncatalytic and myotoxic Lys49-phospholipase A2 from Bothrops pirajai venom, was crystallized in the presence of the inhibitor rosmarinic acid (RA). This is the active compound in the methanolic extract of Cordia verbenacea, a plant that is largely used in Brazilian folk medicine. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 1.8 Å resolution and the structure was solved by molecular-replacement techniques, showing electron density that corresponds to RA molecules at the entrance to the hydrophobic channel. The crystals belong to space group P212121, indicating conformational changes in the structure after ligand binding: the crystals of all apo Lys49-phospholipase A2 structures belong to space group P3121, while the crystals of complexed structures belong to space groups P21 or P212121. PMID:20516603

  14. Cardiac stimulant activity of bark and wood of Premna serratifolia

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    Saleem Basha N

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Premna serratifolia Lin., (Verbenaceae contains alkaloids and iridoid glycoside and is believed to prevent cardiovascular disease. The stem-bark and stem-wood were extracted with 95% ethanol and distilled water. These extracts were screened for their effects by Isolated Frog Heart Perfusion Technique and biochemical parameters in heart tissue and serum of albino rats after administering the extracts for 7 days. The ethanol extract produced significant positive ionotropic and negative chronotropic actions similar to that of digoxin on frog heart and its effect was inhibited by nifedipine and not by propranolol. A significant decrease in membrane Na+K+ATPase and Mg2+ATPase and an increase in Ca2+ATPase further confirmed its cardiotonic activity. Aqueous extract produced positive ionotropic and chronotropic effects similar to that of Adrenaline and its effect was antagonized by propranolol and nifedipine. The results suggest that the ethanol extract produced cardiotonic effect and the aqueous extract produced β-adrenergic effect.

  15. Determination of inorganic components in Brazilian medicinal plants by neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, M; Vasconcellos, M B; Sertié, J A

    1990-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determinations of medicinal extracts obtained from the plants. Cordia Verbenacea DC, Folidago Microglossa DC, and Petiveria Alliacea. Concentrations of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, and Zn have been determined in dried extracts of these herbs by short and long irradiations under a thermal neutron flux of 10(11)-10(13) n/cm2s in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. The NBS Tea Leaves (1572) and NIES Pepperbush (1) reference materials were analyzed simultaneously with the plant extracts. The results obtained in these analyses have shown a good accuracy and reproducibility of the method. The relative errors and the relative standard deviations were less than 10% for most of the elements analyzed.

  16. An Updated Review on Phytochemical Properties of "Golden Dewdrop" Duranta erecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subsongsang, Rattawat; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2016-01-01

    Duranta erecta (family: Verbenaceae) commonly referred to golden dewdrop, pigeon berry, angel whisper, or skyflower is one of the traditional medicinal plants. It has been shown to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, and insecticide properties. Its phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolics, saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids are reported as the basis of its efficacious therapeutic properties. The other important constituents which contribute to the remedial properties are durantol, pectolinaringenin, repennoside, repenins, and scutellarein. Published information on the phytochemical property of D. erecta was gathered by the use of different database platforms, including Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, PubMed, SciFinder, and Scopus, that provided an up-to-date review on its importance.

  17. Morphophysiological aspects and essential oil content in Brazilian-lavender as affected by shadowing

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, José Eduardo BP; Cardoso, Júlio César W; Castro, Evaristo M de; Bertolucci, Suzan Kelly V; Melo, Lucas A de; Dousseau, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Mudanças nas características anatômicas e fisiológicas e na produção de óleo essencial de plantas medicinais sob influência de diferentes condições de radiação têm sido evidenciadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar essas variações em plantas de alfazema-do-Brasil (Aloysia gratissima [Gilles & Hook.] Tronc.) Verbenaceae, crescidas a pleno sol e com 40 e 80% de redução da radiação solar incidente. Para a análise de crescimento, utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC),...

  18. Application of radioligand receptor binding assays in the search for CNS active principles from Chinese medicinal plants.

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    Zhu, M; Bowery, N G; Greengrass, P M; Phillipson, J D

    1996-11-01

    Extracts of Schefflera bodinieri and S. delavayi (Araliaceae), Celastrus angulatus and C. orbiculatus (Celastraceae), Clerodendrum mandarinorum and C. bungei (Verbenaceae), Periploca callophylla and P. forrestii (Asclepiadaceae), Alangium platanifolium (Alangiaceae) and Uncaria rhynchophylla (Rubiaceae) were assessed for CNS activity against 18 radioligand receptor binding assays. The receptors used were alpha 1-, alpha 2- and beta-adrenoceptors, 5HT-1, 5HT-1A, 5HT-2, opiate, adenosine-1, benzodiazepine, Ca+2 channel, sulphonylureas, dopamine-1, dopamine-2, muscarinic, histamine-1, Na+/K+ ATPase, GABAA and GABAB. The results indicate that these ligand-receptor binding assays are useful for understanding the mode of action of herbal medicines and for bioassay guided fractionation of plant active ingredients.

  19. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of thymol: A brief review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Anna; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Daglia, Maria; Barbieri, Ramona; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Gortzi, Olga; Izadi, Morteza; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol) is the main monoterpene phenol occurring in essential oils isolated from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family (Thymus, Ocimum, Origanum, and Monarda genera), and other plants such as those belonging to the Verbenaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Ranunculaceae, and Apiaceae families. These essential oils are used in the food industry for their flavouring and preservative properties, in commercial mosquito repellent formulations for their natural repellent effect, in aromatherapy, and in traditional medicine for the treatment of headaches, coughs, and diarrhea. Many different activities of thymol such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, local anaesthetic, antinociceptive, cicatrizing, antiseptic, and especially antibacterial and antifungal properties have been shown. This review aims to critically evaluate the available literature regarding the antibacterial and antifungal effects of thymol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Conversion of natural aldehydes from Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, and Lippia multiflora into oximes: GC-MS and FT-IR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Igor W; Boulvin, Michael; Flammang, Robert; Gerbaux, Pascal; Bonzi-Coulibaly, Yvonne L

    2009-08-31

    Three carbonyl-containing extracts of essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora (Myrtaceae), Cymbopogon citratus (Gramineae) and Lippia multiflora (Verbenaceae) were used for the preparation of oximes. The reaction mixtures were analyzed by GC-MS and different compounds were identified on the basis of their retention times and mass spectra. We observed quantitative conversion of aldehydes to their corresponding oximes with a purity of 95 to 99%. E and Z stereoisomers of the oximes were obtained and separated by GC-MS. During GC analysis, the high temperature in the injector was shown to cause partial dehydratation of oximes and the resulting nitriles were readily identified. Based on FT-IR spectroscopy, that revealed the high stability and low volatility of these compounds, the so-obtained oximes could be useful for future biological studies.

  1. Conversion of Natural Aldehydes from Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, and Lippia multiflora into Oximes: GC-MS and FT-IR Analysis †

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    Igor W. Ouédraogo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Three carbonyl-containing extracts of essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora (Myrtaceae, Cymbopogon citratus (Gramineae and Lippia multiflora (Verbenaceae were used for the preparation of oximes. The reaction mixtures were analyzed by GC-MS and different compounds were identified on the basis of their retention times and mass spectra. We observed quantitative conversion of aldehydes to their corresponding oximes with a purity of 95 to 99%. E and Z stereoisomers of the oximes were obtained and separated by GC-MS. During GC analysis, the high temperature in the injector was shown to cause partial dehydratation of oximes and the resulting nitriles were readily identified. Based on FT-IR spectroscopy, that revealed the high stability and low volatility of these compounds, the so-obtained oximes could be useful for future biological studies.

  2. Antiulcerogenic activity of Lantana camara leaves on gastric and duodenal ulcers in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish, R; Vyawahare, Bhushan; Natarajan, K

    2011-03-08

    Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae), a widely growing shrub has been used in the traditional medicine for treating many ailments. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of methanolic extract of Lantana camara leaves on gastric and duodenal ulcers. The antiulcerogenic effect of methanolic extract of Lantana camara was evaluated in aspirin induced gastric ulcerogenesis in pyloric ligated rats, ethanol induced gastric ulcer, and cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer models. The extract was administered orally at two different doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. The lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione levels of ethanol induced gastric ulcer model and inhibition zone in diameter against Helicobacter pylori also determined. The L. camara extract significantly (Pcamara showed significant (PLantana camara leaves shown healing of gastric ulcers and also prevents development of duodenal ulcers in rats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lantana camara Linn leaf extract mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Shib Shankar; Bag, Braja Gopal; Hota, Poulami

    2015-03-01

    A facile one-step green synthesis of stable gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described using chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) and the leaf extract of Lantana camara Linn (Verbenaceae family) at room temperature. The leaf extract enriched in various types of plant secondary metabolites is highly efficient for the reduction of chloroaurate ions into metallic gold and stabilizes the synthesized AuNPs without any additional stabilizing or capping agents. Detailed characterizations of the synthesized gold nanoparticles were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Zeta potential, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy studies. The synthesized AuNPs have been utilized as a catalyst for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in water at room temperature under mild reaction condition. The kinetics of the reduction reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically.

  4. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in Brazil

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    A. L. Marsaro Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae, Morus nigra L. (Moraceae, Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae, Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae, Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae, Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae, in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  5. Field diet of the grasshopper Abracris dilecta Walker (Orthoptera, Acrididae

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    Carlos Frankl Sperber

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Abracris dilecta Walker, 1870 (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Ommatolampinae ate leafs of at least 14 plant species, in the families Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Malvales (Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae or Malvaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Verbenaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Rubiaceae and Melastomataccae. Elephantopus mollis H.B.K. (Asteraceae and Hyptis suaveolens Poit. (Lamiaceae comprised 50% of the diet. The diet breadth of A. dilecta was compared to that of other 11 grasshopper species of the same sub-family, with rarefaction curves. The number of plant species eaten by A. dilecta was greater than that of nine other grasshopper species of the same sub-family (Rhachicreagra spp. but was lower then two others (Microptylopteryx hebardi Rehn, 1905 and Rhachicreagra astytophallus Jago & Rowell, 1981. This results are discussed in view of the broad geographical range and possession of developed wings by A. dilecta, which contrasts with most Ommatolampinae grasshoppers.

  6. Effects of essential oils on Aedes aegypti larvae: alternatives to environmentally safe insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, W J; Dória, G A A; Maia, R T; Nunes, R S; Carvalho, G A; Blank, A F; Alves, P B; Marçal, R M; Cavalcanti, S C H

    2008-05-01

    The essential oils from leaves of Hyptis fruticosa (Lamiaceae) Salzm., H. pectinata (Lamiaceae) Poit., and Lippia gracilis (Verbenaceae) HBK were investigated for their larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti and analyzed by GC/MS. Fifty-nine compounds, representing 91.28-98.39% of the essential oils, have been identified. A standard solution was used to make 20 mL solutions ranging from 30 to 2000 ppm. Twenty larvae between third and fourth stages were added to the essential oil solution. A mortality count was conducted 24 h after treatment. Essential oils LC50 and their confidence limits at 95% probability were calculated by the methods of Reed-Muench and Pizzi, respectively. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis showed potent insecticidal effect against Aedes aegypti larvae, the vector of dengue fever. Carvacrol and caryophyllene oxide were the main responsible for the activity of L. gracilis and H. pectinata. Minor compounds are probably acting synergistically to achieve H. fruticosa activity.

  7. Antifungal activity and ultrastructural alterations in Pseudocercospora griseola treated with essential oils Atividade antifúngica e alterações ultraestruturais em Pseudocercospora griseola tratado com óleos essenciais

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    Julián Mauricio Ágredo Hoyos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudocercospora griseola, the etiologic agent of angular leaf spot of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, is an important disease in all bean-producing regions worldwide and may cause extremely high yield losses. The control of this disease is made more difficult by the pathogen's genetic variability and the inefficiency of fungicides. In this study, of 26 essential oils tested at different concentrations, 25 demonstrated efficiency in affecting the germination of strains 63-31 and 63-63 of the pathogen, reaching inhibition levels of between 80% and 100%. Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon martinii inhibited conidia germination at all concentrations; Eugenia caryophyllata, Cinnamomum sp., Thymus vulgaris, Matricaria recutita, Cordia verbenacea, Origanum vulgare, Cymbopogon nardus, at 0.1 and 0.5%; and Zingiber officinale, Mentha arvensis, Chamaecyparis pisifera, Lavandula officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Pimpinella anisum, Ocimum selloi, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Laurus nobilis, Citrus sinensis, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus, at 0.5%. The main constituents identified were cinnamaldehyde in Cinnamomum sp.; eugenol in E. caryophyllata; trans-β-farnesene in M. recutita; pulegone in C. verbenacea; thymol in T. vulgaris; geranial and neral in C. citratus, and geraniol in C. martini. Through transmission electron microscopy (TEM, it was verified that C. citratus, C. martini and E. caryophyllata presented direct fungitoxic action on P. griseola, causing severe damage to the cellular ultrastructure of the conidia, invalidating germination. These results indicated that essential oils are a promising alternative strategy for the control of angular leaf spot in bean, representing less risk to human health and the environment.Pseudocercospora griseola, agente etiológico da mancha angular do feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris, é uma doença importante nas regiões produtoras de feijão em todo o mundo e pode causar perdas de produtividade

  8. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma

    2015-11-16

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae).

  9. Systematic analysis of in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity in extracts from terrestrial plants in Peninsula Malaysia for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Cheng Yi; Ling, Sui Kiong; Ali, Rasadah Mat; Chee, Chin Fei; Samah, Zainon Abu; Ho, Anthony Siong Hock; Teo, Soo Hwang; Lee, Hong Boon

    2009-09-04

    One hundred and fifty-five extracts from 93 terrestrial species of plants in Peninsula Malaysia were screened for in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity by means of a cell viability test using a human leukaemia cell-line HL60. These plants which can be classified into 43 plant families are diverse in their type of vegetation and their natural habitat in the wild, and may therefore harbour equally diverse metabolites with potential pharmaceutical properties. Of these, 29 plants, namely three from each of the Clusiaceae, Leguminosae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae families, two from the Piperaceae family and the remaining 15 are from Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae, Celastraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Irvingiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myristicaceae, Myrsinaceae, Olacaceae and Sapindaceae. Hibiscus cannabinus (Malvaceae), Ficus deltoidea (Moraceae), Maranthes corymbosa (Chrysobalanaceae), Micromelum sp., Micromelum minutum and Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae), Cryptocarya griffithiana (Lauraceae), Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae), Scorodocarpus bornensis (Olacaceae), Kokoona reflexa (Celastraceae), Irvingia malayana (Irvingiaceae), Knema curtisii (Myristicaceae), Dysoxylum sericeum (Meliaceae), Garcinia atroviridis, Garcinia mangostana and Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae), Ervatamia hirta (Apocynaceae), Cassia alata, Entada phaseoloides and Leucaena leucocephala (Leguminosae), Oroxylum indicum (Bignoniaceae), Peronema canescens,Vitex pubescens and Premna odorata (Verbenaceae), Piper mucronatum and Piper sp. (Piperaceae), Ardisia crenata (Myrsinaceae), Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae), Strobilanthes sp. (Acanthaceae) were able to reduce the in vitro cell viability by more than 50% when exposed to 9.6J/cm(2) of a broad spectrum light when tested at a concentration of 20 microg/mL. Six of these active extracts were further fractionated and bio-assayed to yield four photosensitisers, all of which are based on the pheophorbide-a and -b core structures

  10. Borboletas (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea e Papilionoidea visitantes florais no Jardim Botânico da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Lemes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n4p91 Ambientes urbanos como parques e jardins podem oferecer muitos recursos alimentares, além de abrigo e condições favoráveis para a sobrevivência de borboletas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo fazer um inventário das borboletas visitantes florais e das plantas visitadas por esses insetos no Jardim Botânico da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM. No período de março de 2006 a março de 2007, foram feitas 2h de observações semanais das borboletas visitantes fl orais. Em 108h de observação, foram registradas 1114 visitas de 39 espécies de borboletas, associadas a 43 espécies de plantas (21 famílias. Nymphalidae teve a maior riqueza de espécies (S= 18, seguida de Hesperiidae (S= 8, Pieridae (S= 7, Papilionidae (S= 4 e Lycaenidae (S= 2. O pierídeo Phoebis philea philea foi a espécie mais freqüente (187 visitas, seguida dos hesperídeos Urbanus proteus proteus (100, U. teleus (73 e do ninfalídeo Heliconius erato phyllis (71. Lantana camara (Verbenaceae, Eupatorium laevigatum (Asteraceae, Russelia equisetiformis (Scrophulariaceae e Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Verbenaceae foram as plantas mais visitadas. O Jardim Botânico da UFSM é um exemplo de parque urbano que parece possuir recursos florais para alimentação de várias espécies de borboletas, sendo também potencial refúgio para espécies de áreas florestais do entorno.

  11. Morfologia polínica de espécies de várzea e de igapó da Amazônia Central Pollen morphology of Central Amazonia floodplain and flooded forest species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleonice de Oliveira Moura

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a morfologia dos grãos de pólen de dez espécies de plantas de várzea e igapó provenientesda Ilha da Marchantaria e Tarumã-Mirim, localizadas a 20 Km da cidade de Manaus (AM, coletadas nos períodos de abril a agosto de 2000 e agosto de 2001. As espécies descritas foram Cassia leiandra Benth. (Caesalpiniaceae, Campsiandra comosa var. laurifolia (Benth. Cowan (Caesalpiniaceae, Hevea spruceana (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae, Piranhea trifoliata Baill. (Euphorbiaceae, Laetia corymbulosa Spruce ex Benth. (Flacourtiaceae, Eschweilera tenuifolia (O. Berg Miers (Lecythidaceae, Acacia polyphylla DC. (Mimosaceae, Inga micradenia Spruce ex Benth. (Mimosaceae, Simaba orinocensis Kunth (Simarubaceae, Vitex cymosa Bert. ex Spreng. (Verbenaceae. A análise polínica constatou que estas espécies possuem grãos de pólen com características morfológicas bastante variadas.The present study investigated the pollen grain morphology of ten floodplain plant species from Ilha da Marchantaria and Tarumã-Mirim located 20 Km from Manaus (AM. The species were collected from April to August 2000 and August 2001. The following species were described: Cassia leiandra Benth. (Caesalpiniaceae, Campsiandra comosa var. laurifolia (Benth. Cowan (Caesalpiniaceae, Hevea spruceana (Benth Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae, Piranhea trifoliata Baill. (Euphorbiaceae, Laetia corymbulosa Spruce ex Benth. (Flacourtiaceae, Eschweilera tenuifolia (O. Berg Miers (Lecythidaceae, Acacia polyphylla DC. (Mimosaceae, Inga micradenia Spruce ex Benth. (Mimosaceae, Simaba orinocensis Kunth (Simarubaceae, Vitex cymosa Bert. ex Spreng. (Verbenaceae. The pollen analysis established that these species presented pollen grains of a great variability of morphological characteristics.

  12. Le Permo-Trias de la région de l'Ourika (Haut-Atlas de Marrakech, Maroc) : lithostratigraphie, sédimentologie, tectonique et minéralisations.

    OpenAIRE

    Biron, Pierre-Eymard

    1982-01-01

    Le Permo-Trias de la région de l'Oued-Ourika peut être subdivisé en trois groupes et 6 formations, de haut en bas; * Groupe de Rojdama. Formation 6 : Siltite de Tafilalt * Groupe du Timenkar. Formation 5 : Grès de ['Oukaïmeden Formation 4 : Siltite d'Anouffig F ormatian 3 : Çonglomérat de Timalizène * Groupe de Tanoumri. Formation 2 : Siltite de Cham-el-Houa Formation 1 : Conglomérat d'Anrar Chacun de ces groupes est discordant par rapport aux autres. Deux faciès ont été reconnus .l'un au Nor...

  13. Las transiciones escolares: una oportunidad de desarrollo integral para niños y niñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Victoria Alvarado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presentamos los resultados de una investigación sobre las transiciones educativas del hogar al centro de cuidado y de éste al preescolar y la primaria en niños y niñas indígenas de la comunidad Embera Chamí en Riosucio, Caldas, Colombia. Conceptualizamos las transiciones como momentos críticos de cambio que viven los niños y las niñas al pasar de un ambiente a otro, abriendo oportunidades para su desarrollo humano y su aprendizaje para la vida y la escuela, en un estudio de caso cualitativo con enfoque histórico hermenéutico. Los resultados aportan elementos importantes para comprender diversas visiones sobre las transiciones, evidenciando distanciamientos y tensiones entre actores, escenarios y prácticas. Concluimos que las articulaciones son un elemento clave en este proceso.

  14. General Characteristics, Phytochemistry and Pharmacognosy of Lippia sidoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de L Guimarães, Luiz Gustavo; da Silva, Maria Laura M; Reis, Paula Campos J; Costa, Maria Tereza R; Alves, Livia L

    2015-11-01

    Lippia sidoides Cham. is a plant that belongs to the family Verbenaceac and is commonly known as "alecrim-pimenta". It was first found in northeastern Brazil, where it is extensively used in traditional medicine. Many studies have been made with the essential oil of L. sidoides, which has a high content of the isomeric compounds thymol and carvacrol. L. sidoides extracts, and particularly the essential oil extracted from its aerial parts, have shown many biological activities such as antifungal, antibacterial, and insecticidal. Given the great biological potentialities of L. sidoides and the amount of recent studies about this plant, the present study aimed to make a survey of its general attributes, cultivation methods, chemical characterization of its extracts and essential oil, as well as its different biological activities.

  15. Familia y conflicto armado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rocío Cifuentes Patiño

    2010-03-01

    examina los efectos de este sobre la familia, tomando como referencia, no solo los impactos sobre ella en cuanto grupo social, sino también los efectos diferenciales del conflicto sobre sus miembros según el género, la generación y la etnia (embera chamí. A modo de conclusión, se hace una reflexión general sobre la forma como, además de los efectos derivados del conflicto armado sobre las familias, estas deben soportar en los territorios de conflicto impactos relacionados con situaciones sociales, económicas y políticas, que empeoran su situación

  16. Avaliação da fitotoxidez de Tecoma stans (L. Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Auxiliadora Cipriani

    Full Text Available Tecoma stans foi introduzida no Brasil para fins ornamentais e ocorre tanto cultivada quanto subespontânea. Objetivando avaliar seu potencial alelopático, foi testado o efeito do extrato aquoso de suas folhas sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento radicial de Lactuca sativa L. (alface, Handroanthus ochraceus (Cham. Mattos (ipê e Medicago sativa L. (alfafa. O extrato causou uma forte inibição na germinação das sementes de alface. O desenvolvimento radicial de alface e alfafa foi reduzido em 75 e 30%, respectivamente. Não foi observado efeito do extrato sobre a germinação ou o desenvolvimento radicial do ipê. Todas as espécies tiveram a velocidade de germinação reduzida. Observaram-se alterações micromorfológicas no ápice radicial das plântulas de alface.

  17. Behavior and foraging technique of the Ingram's squirrel Guerlinguetus ingrami (Sciuridae: Rodentia in an Araucaria moist forest fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calebe Pereira Mendes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the foraging techniques, body positions and behavior of free-ranging Ingram's squirrel Guerlinguetus ingrami Thomas, 1901 in a region of the Araucaria moist forest, in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. The animals were observed using the "all occurrence sampling" method with the aid of binoculars and a digital camcorder. All behaviors were described in diagrams and an ethogram. We recorded five basic body positions, 24 behaviors, two food choices, and three feeding strategies utilized to open fruits of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham., the main food source of Ingram's squirrels. We also observed a variance in the animals' stance, which is possibly influenced by predation risk, and discuss the causes of some behaviors.

  18. A reassessment of Anthurium species with palmately divided leaves, and a reinterpretation of Anthurium section Dactylophyllium (Araceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Croat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A reappraisal is made of the Anthurium Schott species with palmately divided leaves with 3 or more segments free to the base (i.e. palmatisect leaves, previously recognized as section Dactylophyllium Schott (Engler, as well as those species with 5 or more segments united at the base (i.e. palmatifid leaves, formerly placed in section Schizoplacium Schott (Engler. New molecular data indicates that several species (A. pedatum (Kunth Schott, A. pedatoradiatum Schott, and possibly, A. podophyllum (Schltdl. & Cham. Kunth should be excluded from section Schizoplacium, and other species previously placed in that section cannot be separated from section Dactylophyllium. Thus, Anthurium section Schizoplacium is here synonymized within section Dactylophyllium and type species are designated for both groups. This paper also provides an updated description of section Dactylophyllium as here emended, listing the 24 accepted taxa now included (20 species and 4 varieties or subspecies, along with their geographic distributions.

  19. A reassessment of Anthurium species with palmately divided leaves, and a reinterpretation of Anthurium section Dactylophyllium (Araceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croat, Thomas B; Carlsen, Mónica M

    2013-01-01

    A reappraisal is made of the Anthurium Schott species with palmately divided leaves with 3 or more segments free to the base (i.e. palmatisect leaves), previously recognized as section Dactylophyllium Schott (Engler), as well as those species with 5 or more segments united at the base (i.e. palmatifid leaves), formerly placed in section Schizoplacium Schott (Engler). New molecular data indicates that several species (Anthurium pedatum (Kunth) Schott, Anthurium pedatoradiatum Schott, and possibly, Anthurium podophyllum (Schltdl. & Cham.) Kunth) should be excluded from section Schizoplacium, and other species previously placed in that section cannot be separated from section Dactylophyllium. Thus, Anthurium section Schizoplacium is here synonymized within section Dactylophyllium and type species are designated for both groups. This paper also provides an updated description of section Dactylophyllium as here emended, listing the 24 accepted taxa now included (20 species and 4 varieties or subspecies), along with their geographic distributions.

  20. Krypton calibration of time projection chambers of the NA61/SHINE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Naskret, Michal

    The NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN is searching for the critical point in phase transition between quark-gluon plasma and hadronic matter. To do so we use the most precise apparatus - Time Projection Chamber. Its main task is to find trajectories of particles created in a relativistic collision. In order to improve efficiency of TPCs, we introduce calibration using radioactive krypton gas. Simulation of events in a TPC cham- ber through a decay of excited krypton atoms gives us a spectrum, which is later fitted to the model spectrum of krypton from a Monte-Carlo simulation. The data obtained in such a way serves us to determine malfunctioning electronics in TPCs. Thanks to the krypton calibration we can create a map of pad by pad gains. In this thesis I will de- scribe in detail the NA61 experimental setup, krypton calibration procedure, calibration algorithm and results for recent calibration runs

  1. New occurrence and distribution of Nitella hyalina (DC. Agardh (Characeae and the first report on Nitelletum hyalinae Corillion 1957, in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csiky J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a new population of the stonewort Nitella hyalina was found on the island of Pag, in a pond between Novalja and Lun, near the cove of Dubac. At the littoral, unshielded zone of this unnamed, small shallow lake Nitella hyalina forms large monodominant patches or grows together with Potamogeton trichoides Cham. et Schl. and P. nodosus Poir. We identified these stands as the species’ poor association of Nitelletum hyalinae Corillion 1957, a new vegetation type of Croatia. Nitella hyalina is sparse in Europe and rather rare on the Balkan Peninsula. It was previously detected only in two places in Croatia. Considering its severely fragmented distribution and the fact that at present it is known to exist at only three locations, Nitella hyalina should be treated as an endangered (EN taxon among the Charophytes of Croatia.

  2. A DISCUSSION ON UTILIZATION OF HEAT PIPE AND VAPOUR CHAMBER TECHNOLOGY AS A PRIMARY DEVICE FOR HEAT EXTRACTION FROM PHOTON ABSORBER SURFACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suthar, K. J.; Lurie, Alexander M.; Den Hartog, P.

    2016-01-01

    Heat pipes and vapour chambers work on heat exchange phenomena of two-phase flow and are widely used for in-dustrial and commercial applications. These devices offer very high effective thermal conductivities (5,000-200,000 W/m/K) and are adaptable to various sizes, shapes, and ori-entations. Although they have been found to be an excel-lent thermal management solution for laptops, satellites, and many things in-between, heat pipes and vapour cham-bers have yet to be adopted for use at particle accelerator facilities where they offer the possibility of more compact and more efficient means to remove heat from unwanted synchrotron radiation. As with all technologies, there are inherent limitations. Foremost, they are limited by practi-cality to serve as local heat transfer devices; heat transfer over long distances is likely best provided by other means. Heat pipes also introduce unique failure modes which must be considered.

  3. BORAGINACEAE A. JUSS. SENSU LATO EM UMA FLORESTA ESTACIONAL DE TERRAS BAIXAS EM PERNAMBUCO, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ IRANILDO MIRANDA DE MELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the survey of the family Boraginaceae in a lowland seasonal dry forest in the municipality of Aliança, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. Seven species and three genera were recorded: Cordia L., with three species (C. sellowiana Cham., C. taguahyensis Vell. and C. trichotoma (Vell. Arráb. ex Steud.; Heliotropium L., with only one species, H. elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst. and Tournefortia L., represented by three species (T. bicolor Sw., T. gardneri A.DC. and T. rubicunda Salzm. ex A.DC.. A key to the recognition of the species, as well as descriptions and illustrations were given. Data about distribution, flowering and or fruiting of the species also are provided.

  4. Researchers' Night: science at the shops

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2015-01-01

    On 25 September, as part of European Researchers’ Night, CERN and POPScience joined forces to welcome the public at the Balexert shopping centre in Geneva. The Bulletin presents its gallery of photographs from the exciting and educational event.   Science through comic strips, games, cinema and television: POPScience approaches scientific questions through popular culture, with great success! Around 500 children attended the sessions for schools at Balexert's multiplex cinema, and 600 spectators flocked to the public screenings.  Using the big screen, scientists, directors and authors were on hand to disentangle truth from untruths and science from science fiction. The guests, some of whom appeared in person and others via video link, included Jorge Cham, author of PhD Comics and the spin-off film; David Saltzberg, physicist at CMS and scientific consultant for the television series The Big Bang Theory; Kip Thorne, scientific consultant for the film Interstellar; Lawrence ...

  5. Perceived barriers to utilization of maternal health services in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Sadatoshi; Aiga, Hirotsugu; Rasmey, Lon Chan; Rathavy, Tung; Okitsu, Akiko

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the underlying causes of Cambodian women's non-use of maternal health services provided by skilled birth attendants. A qualitative study of 66 reproductive-age women was conducted in Kampong Cham Province, Cambodia. Data were collected through 30 semi-structured interviews and 6 focus groups. We identified 5 barriers to the utilization of maternal health services: (i) financial barriers; (ii) physical barriers; (iii) cognitive barriers; (iv) organizational barriers; and (v) psychological and socio-cultural barriers. The Cambodian Ministry of Health and its development partners should take these barriers into account when promoting the use of maternal health services. These barriers should be addressed proactively. A successful approach to increasing use of maternal health services should involve changes to both service programs and public education. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intercultural paradigms of educational self-management action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lucia Izquierdo Barrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to tell the experience of the BA in ethno education and community development of the Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Colombia, with indigenous communities “Embera Chamí” in the departments of Caldas and Risaralda, here in Colombia. We begin with a sociohistorical and conceptual tour with the indigenous education emergence in order to contextualize to the readers which scope we are going to work in. the second part is a tour of the institutional context _sciences for the education faculty at Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira and the creation of the BA in ethno education and community development.For finishing telling the intercultural education process from the community education.

  7. Embellecer lo que el más allá hace presente: Pintura, pinta o visión y el Valle de Sibundoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Avellaneda Escudero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La experiencia con plantas sagradas de conexión es, en cierto modo, una experiencia artística,un esfuerzo espiritual que influye en el comportamiento, que inspira y estimula la creatividad,pues crea otras formas de percibir, pensar e interpretar el mundo, y permite comprender losfenómenos internos de cada ser-ahí. El uso y conocimiento mismos de este tipo plantas seremonta a un pasado remoto. El presente texto acerca su mirada al suroccidente de Colombiapara describir las pinturas visionarias-chamánicas de dos indígenas del Valle de Sibundoy. Susformas y colores, que son fruto de la revelación y los conocimientos de lo invisible o lo sagradodados por el brebaje-maestro, el yagé, son clave para entender que en su contexto cultural estas(representaciones son un medio que embellece (agradece y presenta la vida y el pensamiento.

  8. Dorures des céramiques et tesselles anciennes : technologies et accrochage

    OpenAIRE

    Colomban, Philippe; Calligaro, Thomas; Vibert-Guigue, Claude; Nguyen, Quang Liem; Edwards, Howell G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Les technologies de dorures des céramiques et verres et leurs évolutions historiques sont très mal documentées. Des échantillons d'époques et de technologies différentes (tesselles d'époque omeyyade, début VIIIe s., Qusayr 'Amra, Jordanie ; porcelaine de type « Kinran-de », épave de Cu Lao Cham, XVe s. Vietnam ; porcelaine phosphatique de Rockingham, début XIXe s., Angleterre) ont été analysés par PIXE et RBS sur l'accélérateur AGLAE et par micro-spectrométrie Raman. Dans tous ces cas, l'or e...

  9. He pintado cuadros sobre cómo pueden transformarse los seres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Casanto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Las pinturas de Enrique Casanto, ashaninka del clan de la Orquidea, hacen ver en doble porque muestran que todo lo que existe tiene su duplo. Todo ser es a la vez humano y no-humano, inclusive él mismo y todos los de su clan Casanto, descendientes del gran guerrero Orquídea del pasado que usaba las estrategias de una flor inmóvil en el tronco para vencer a sus enemigos y, de tanto asemejarse a una orquídea, terminó convirtiéndose en dicha flor. Su arte muestra el pasaje de una forma corporal a la otra que acontece en la cosmología y las prácticas curativas chamánicas.

  10. Expressões da Antiguidade na Arte e Literatura Modernas e Contemporâneas. Livro de resumos

    OpenAIRE

    Caramelo, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Livro de resumos do colóquio internacional «Expressões da Antiguidade na Arte e Literatura Modernas e Contemporâneas», organizado pelo grupo de investigação «A Antiguidade e a sua Recepção», do CHAM. Este encontro pretende impulsionar o debate científico no âmbito dos estudos da recepção da Antiguidade, no que respeita às épocas moderna e contemporânea do mundo ocidental, já que estas foram marcadas por um renovado interesse pelo mundo antigo. Da recuperação dos cânones clássicos, no século X...

  11. Field survey focused on Opisthorchis viverrini infection in five provinces of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kazuko; Kirinoki, Masashi; Matsuda, Hajime; Hayashi, Naoko; Chigusa, Yuichi; Sinuon, Muth; Chuor, Char Meng; Kitikoon, Viroj

    2014-04-01

    Opisthorchiasis is endemic in Thailand and Lao People's Democratic Republic and constitutes a major public health problem throughout the Mekong Basin. Although Cambodia is located in the Mekong Basin, the status of O. viverrini infection in that country was not previously clarified. This research was conducted to document the extent and distribution of O. viverrini infection in Cambodia. Surveillance was conducted in 55 villages in five Cambodian provinces. Research tools included stool examination using the Kato-Katz thick-smear technique, identification of intermediate hosts, and interviews covering factors related to O. viverrini infection. Some larvae and egg-positive stool samples were examined using PCR to detect O. viverrini DNA. A total of 16,082 stool samples from the 55 villages were examined, of which 1232 were egg positive. In 15 villages with egg-positive rates of greater than 10%, eggs were found in 998 of 3585 stool samples, for an egg-positive rate of 27.8%. PCR analysis showed that 30 of 33 samples were positive for O. viverrini DNA from five villages in Kampong Cham and Kampong Thom provinces. The first intermediate host Bithynia siamensis siamensis was identified in the target areas of Takaev, Kandal, and Kampong Cham provinces. Cercariae were identified morphologically as O. viverrini and some were confirmed using PCR. Metacercariae of O. viverrini were identified by morphologic observations, animal experiments, or PCR in six species of fish in the target areas. Four Cambodian provinces were identified as endemic areas of O. viverrini infection. Careful planning is necessary for effective field surveys, because complex environmental factors might be involved in the distribution of O. viverrini infection-endemic areas in Cambodia. Many problems remain to be resolved regarding the status of O. viverrini infection in Cambodia, and a nationwide baseline survey is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. La movilización de objetos culturales desde las memorias de la práctica de la construcción del purradé: Elementos para otra discusión en educación (matemática indígena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Higuita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es resultado de una inves tigación intitulada “La movilización de objetos culturales desde las memorias de la práctica de construcción de la vivienda tradicional Embera Chamí: posibilidades para pensar el (porvenir de la educación (matemática indígena”. Son dos los propósitos de este artículo: en primer lugar, presentar nuestras comprensiones sobre la noción de objetos culturales , n oción que posibilita miradas otras sobre la Etnomatemática y la Educación Matemática; y, en segundo lugar, mostrar la movilización del objeto cultural medida y sus posibilidades para pensar el (porvenir de la educación (matemática indígena. Esta m ovilización fue originada desde las memorias de la práctica de construcción del purradé en la comunidad Embera Chamí. El horizonte teórico de este estudio est uvo bajo una perspectiva histórico - cultural de la educación matemática y de manera especial en la Etnomatemática. El camino metodológico abordado en esta investigación fue la historia oral. Desde este horizonte teórico y desde el camino seguido, podemos af irmar que los objetos culturales se convierten en una noción que nos posibilita transgredir paradigmas hegemónicos establecidos en el campo de la Educación Matemática. Una posibilidad esperanzadora para pensar la educación indígena.

  13. The paleoenvironment of the "Sierra de la Primavera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, R.; Peña, L.; Rosas, J.

    2009-04-01

    The paleoenvironment of the "Sierra de la Primavera" (SP) Jalisco Mexico, was studied with paleontology, tephrachronology, strato-tectonic, geochronology and climatology techniques. It was created between 126,000 and 27,000 years ago (late Pleistocene) by more than 22 domes and a caldera (110 +- 15 thousand years). There are fault and fractures with a NNE and NNW trends, with up of four reactivation periods. Historically, seismic events have been registered around the caldera. Volcanic and tectonic activities have contributed to the modification of the morphology. The evidence of an intermittent paleolake formed into the caldera, are 24 strata are built on tephras, fluvial and vulcano-lacustres deposits, (> 51 m thick), present 2o to 35o leanings. The central part of the paleolake has raised more than 149 m which was caused by the reappearance of the magmatic chamber, it and the climatic changes disappeared the paleolake. There are layers of gigantic pomez and strata with carbon whith remaining from pines (ones, aciculas and branches). The method of 14C used in fossils report an age of 38,170 to 39,000 years BP. They are classified as remainings of Pinus durangensis Martínez, Pinus leiophylla Schiede ex Schltdl. & Cham., Pinus montezumae Lamb., Pinus luzmariae Pérez de la Rosa, Pinus teocote Schltdl. & Cham.y Pinus douglasiana Martínez. This community of pines was moved of SP to the Sierra de Bolaños (SB), 177 km northeast and 850 m higher (25000 masl), it is climatologically more humid and colder than the SP. This implies a movement in the border of the vegetation, associated to global climatic changes. Using the community of pines like bioindicator, it is inferred that the temperature in the SP has increased from 2 to 3 C and the precipitation has decreased between 100 and 200 mm from the late Pleistocene on. The predominant pine wood of its early years is now pine - Encino.

  14. Monoterpene and isoprene emissions from typical tree species in forests around Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Taylor, P.; Ruiz-Suarez, L. G.; Rosas-Perez, I.; Hernández-Solis, J. M.; Steinbrecher, R.

    The isoprenoid emission of sacred fir ( Abies religiosa (Kunth) Schltdl. & Cham.), patula pine ( Pinus patula Schiede, Schltdl. & Cham.) and net-leaf oak ( Quercus rugosa Née) was investigated in Mexico City during the years 2002 and 2003. Chemical compound specific emission factors were obtained for different months of the year. Net-leaf oak is an isoprene emitter whereas the other tree species emit monoterpenes. α-Pinene and linalool are the main compounds emitted from sacred fir and patula pine, respectively. In general, the emission of monoterpenes is temperature dependent, whereas α-pinene emission of sacred fir is controlled by light and temperature like the isoprene emission of net-leaf oak. All isoprenoids show a strong seasonality which is plant species specific. Emission factors for the conifers were high in October and low in April (sacred fir: 6.07μgCg-1dwh-1 in October and 0.02μgCg-1dwh-1 in April; patula pine: 4.22μgCg-1dwh-1 in October and 1.13μgCg-1dwh-1 in June). Isoprene emission potential of net-leaf oak was very variable in the different seasons with low source strengths in July (rainy season: 1.19μgCg-1dwh-1) and November (cold/dry season: 18.50μgCg-1dwh-1) but high in May (warm/dry season: 66.27μgCg-1dwh-1). The results indicate that present biogenic emission inventories of the Mexico City area have to be revised by using the new emission factors of native tree species including the seasonal impact.

  15. Ensaios preliminares em laboratório para verificar a ação moluscicida de algumas espécies da flora brasileira Preliminary laboratory tests of the molluscicide activity of some species of Brazilian flora

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    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em laboratório a atividade moluscicida de 68 extratos de 23 plantas brasileiras. As soluções em água desclorada dos extratos hexânicos e etanólico, nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 100 ppm, foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório. As plantas que demonstraram ação moluscicida na concentração de 100 ppm foram: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G.Don., Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L.,Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell,Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham, e Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L., e Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.The molluscicide activity of sixty-eight extracts from twenty-three Brazilian plants was studied in the laboratory. The solutions, in dechlorinated water, of hexanic and ethylic extracts at 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations, were tested on adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, reared in the laboratory. The plants with molluscicide activity on adult snails and/or egg masses at 100 ppm concentration were: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G. Don, Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L., Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell, Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham. and Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L. and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.

  16. Ação de fitorreguladores no crescimento da erva-cidreira-brasileira Action of plant growth regulators over the development of Lippia alba

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    Mirian Baptista Stefanini

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Lippia alba, espécie brasileira da família Verbenaceae, é plantada e usada em todo o Brasil por suas atividades farmacológicas como analgésica, antiespasmódica, calmante, sedativa e citostática. Popularmente a Lippia é denominada de alecrim, cidreira falsa ou falsa melissa. O trabalho visou testar o efeito das aplicações de GA3, ethephon e CCC sobre o crescimento de Lippia alba (Mill. N.E.Br. - Verbenaceae, em diferentes épocas do ano. O experimento foi instalado na Fazenda São Manuel, pertencente à UNESP em Botucatu, de dezembro/95 a dezembro/96. O mesmo consistiu de sete tratamentos e três repetições em blocos inteiramente casualizados, com os tratamentos aplicados nas parcelas e as colheitas nas subparcelas. Os tratamentos incluíram o controle, ácido giberélico (GA3 50 e 100 mg.L-1, ácido 2-cloroetil-fosfônico (ethephon- 100 e 200 mg.L-1 e cloreto de 2-cloroetil-trimetil amônio (CCC 1000 e 2000 mg.L-1. Os reguladores vegetais foram aplicados em duas épocas, aos quarenta e cem dias da implantação do experimento no campo e o crescimento das plantas foi avaliado em seis épocas. Após a primeira aplicação as plantas foram coletadas em intervalos de 14 dias. Os fitorreguladores GA3, e CCC tenderam a elevar os resultados das características, matéria seca de caule, folhas, flores e total, porém sempre permaneceram menores ou iguais ao controle.Lippia alba, a Brazilian species, from the Verbenaceae family, is planted and used throughout Brazil in traditional medicine such as analgesic, calminative and sedative, using aqueous extract of leaves. This study investigated the effect of GA3, ethephon and CCC spray solutions on the growth of L. alba at different times of the year. The experiment was carried out at São Manuel Experimental Station from the Universidade Estadual Paulista in Botucatu, Brazil, from December 1995 to December 1996. The experiment consisted of 7 treatments with three replications in complete

  17. Urban vegetation change after a hundred years in a tropical city (San José de Costa Rica

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    Julián Monge-Nájera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban vegetation is of key importance because a large proportion of the human population lives in cities. Nevertheless, urban vegetation is understudied outside central Europe and particularly, little is known about the flora of tropical Asian, African and Latin American cities. We present an estimate of how the vegetation has changed in the city of San José, Costa Rica, after about one century, with the repeat photography technique (based on a collection of 19th and early 20th century photographs by José Fidel Tristán and others and with data from the Costa Rican National Herbarium. We found little vegetation change in the landscape of San José during the 20th century, where a total of 95 families and 458 species were collected in the late 19th and early 20th century. The families with most species were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Lamiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Solanaceae, Cyperaceae, Acanthaceae, Malvaceae, Piperaceae and Verbenaceae. Similar results have been found in Europe, where the number of plant species often is stable for long periods even when the individual species vary. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1367-1386. Epub 2010 December 01.La vegetación urbana es de vital importancia ya que una proporción importante de la población humana vive en ciudades. Sin embargo, esta vegetación es poco estudiada fuera del centro de Europa y se sabe particularmente poco sobre la flora urbana de las ciudades tropicales de Asia, África y América Latina. Aquí presentamos una estimación de cómo ha cambiado la vegetación en la ciudad de San José, Costa Rica, durante un siglo, con la técnica de la fotografía repetida (sobre la base de una colección de fotografías del siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX hechas por José Fidel Tristán y otros y con los datos del Herbario Nacional de Costa Rica. Encontramos pocos cambios en el paisaje de San José durante el siglo XX. En la ciudad se recolectaron 95 familias y 458 especies entre finales del siglo

  18. Plantas visitadas por abelhas africanizadas em duas localidades do estado de São Paulo Plants visited by africanized honey bees in two localites of the state of São Paulo

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    Luís Carlos Marchini

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das plantas de uma região, sua época de florescimento e as características do pólen, auxiliam na determinação das espécies vegetais que contribuem para a composição do mel. Durante o período de 1994 a 1997 foram inventariadas, semanalmente, em diferentes horários e num raio de aproximadamente 300m dos apiários da USP/ESALQ, em Piracicaba,SP (22°43'S, 47°27'W e 580 m e do Instituto de Zootecnia, em Pindamonhangaba, SP (22°57'S, 45°27'W e 560 m, as plantas que estavam sendo visitadas por abelhas. Foram anotados o mês e o período de florescimento das plantas inventariadas. Em Piracicaba foram identificadas 94 espécies de plantas pertencentes a 41 famílias (maior número de espécies nas famílias Asteraceae e Myrtaceae e em Pindamonhangaba, 76 espécies, pertencentes a 26 famílias (maior número de espécies nas famílias Asteraceae e Verbenaceae. Os resultados indicam que 21 famílias, 22 gêneros e 15 espécies de plantas visitadas pelas abelhas africanizadas foram comuns em ambas as localidades.The knowledge of plants from a given region, as well as the blooming period and the pollen characteristics, help for the determination of the plant species which contribute for the honey composition. Plants visited by honey bees were listed during the period 1994 to 1997. The survey was carried out weekly, at different times and within a 300 m radius at two sites: the apiaries of USP/ESALQ in Piracicaba, SP (22°43'S, 47°27'W e 580 m and of the 'Instituto de Zootecnia', in Pindamonhangaba, SP (22°57'S, 45°27'W e 560 m, both in Brazil. The month and the blooming period were recorded. A total of 94 plants species, from 41 families was identified in Piracicaba (the largest number of species in Asteraceae and Myrtaceae and 76 plant species of 26 families, in Pindamonhangaba (the largest number of Asteraceae and Verbenaceae. The results indicated that 21 families, 22 genera and 15 species were common for both localities.

  19. Chemical composition of the essential oil and hexanic fraction of Lippia and Lantana species Composição química do óleo essencial e fração hexânica de espécies de Lippia e Lantana

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    Pâmela S. Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparison between two extraction approaches of volatiles compounds from six species of Verbenaceae collected at Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais, Brazil was done. The essential oil and hexanic fraction of leaves from two Lantana and four Lippia species collected in two different seasons were analyzed by GC/MS. Among various identified compounds from both extraction methods the majority of species showed major amounts of β-caryophyllene followed by germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene and α-pinene. Few differences were observed between the composition of essential oil and the hexanic fraction regarding the two studied genera. These results suggest that the analysis of hexanic fraction can be used, as an alternative way, to analyze the volatile compounds of the essential oil.Foi realizada a comparação entre dois métodos de extração dos compostos voláteis obtidos de seis espécies de Verbenaceae, coletadas na Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os óleos essenciais e as frações hexanica obtidos das folhas de duas espécies de Lantana e quatro espécies de Lippia, coletadas em duas diferentes estações do ano, foram analisados por CG/EM. Grande número de constituintes foi identificado nas amostras oriundas dos dois métodos de extração e o componente majoritário para a maior parte das espécies foi o β-cariofileno, seguido pelo germacreno D, biciclogermacreno e α-pineno. Para os dois gêneros estudados, foram observadas pequenas diferenças na composição do óleo essencial e fração hexânica. Esses resultados sugerem que a análise da fração hexânica pode ser usada para identificar os componentes voláteis majoritários dessas espécies, além de ser uma técnica alternativa para a análise dos compostos voláteis presentes no óleo essencial, uma vez que ambos mostraram composição similar.

  20. Flora y vegetación del valle superior del Rió Atuel (Mendoza-Argentina Flora and vegetation of the Upper Valley of the Atuel River (Mendoza-Argentina

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    Ernesto A Morici

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El valle superior del Río Atuel presenta variaciones altitudinales y topográficas, siendo un territorio de confluencia de elementos propios de las provincias fitogeográficas Andina, del Monte, de la estepa Patagónica y de la Payunia. En este trabajo se estudia su flora y vegetación, a través de censos florísticos siguiendo la metodología de Braun-Blanquet (1979. A partir de la matriz de especies por censos se determinó el espectro biológico ponderado y la diversidad florística. Además, se estimó la cobertura basal registrándose los porcentajes de vegetación, broza, suelo desnudo, roca y fragmentos de roca. El estudio se desarrolló en un área restringida a la vertiente norte del Río Atuel entre su intersección con la Ruta Nacional 40 y las inmediaciones de la Planta de Azufre. En los censos se registraron un total de 89 especies pertenecientes a 36 familias, siendo las más numerosas Asteraceae, Poaceae, Verbenaceae, Fabaceae y Solanaceae. El 96% de las especies son nativas y sólo el 4% exóticas. Se diferenciaron 15 comunidades: 12 matorrales, 1 pastizal, 1 herbazal y 1 estepa de cojines.In this study we present a description of the flora and vegetation of the upper valley of Rio Atuel, Mendoza Province. In this area, characteristic taxa fron the Andina, Monte, Payunia and Patagonia Phytogeographical Provinces overlap their ranges. Considering that Atuel river high valley shows relevant altitudinal and topographical variations and a confluence of typical components from Andina, Monte, Patagonia and Payunia phytogeographic provinces, we plained to study, flora and vegetation. Floristic censuses were performed according to Braun-Blanquet (1979 and the matrix at coverage species was used to obtain cover data, weighted biological spectrum and floristic diversity. Furthermore, basal cover was estimated and vegetation, litter, bare soil, stones and stone pieces were recorded. This research was developed in an area restricted to the

  1. Composição florística de plantas daninhas em agrossistemas de cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum e pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Floristic composition of weeds in agrosystems of cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum and peach palm (Bactris gasipaes

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    L.S.A. Souza

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A interferência das plantas daninhas nos sistemas agroflorestais varia com a espécie e a densidade de infestação da planta daninha. Este trabalho foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental da Universidade Federal do Amazonas, em monocultivo de cupuaçuzeiro e pupunheira e em sistema agroflorestal (SAF com estas duas espécies. Havia seis espécies de monocotiledôneas e 15 de dicotiledôneas, e as cinco famílias com maior n��mero de espécies, em ordem decrescente, foram Poaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Cyperaceae e Verbenaceae. As espécies Desmodium incanun, Cyperus rotundus, Clidemia sp. e Spermacoce verticillata ocorreram nos três cultivos. O maior coeficiente de similaridade de plantas daninhas ocorreu entre os cultivos de cupuaçuzeiro e pupunheira (54,5% e o menor entre o sistema agroflorestal e a pupunha (32,0%. Quanto à freqüência, Stachytarpheta cayennensis apresentou 33% de freqüência na área de SAF; Eclipta alba, 44% de freqüência na área de cultivo de cupuaçuzeiro e na área de cultivo de pupunheira; e D. incanun, C. rotundus e Clidemia sp. apresentaram 44% de freqüência.The interference of weeds in agro-forestry systems production factors varies according to species and infestation density. This assay was conducted at the Federal University of Amazonas Experimental Farm, using separate cupuaçu and peach palm plantations and an agro-forestry system (AFS of both species. Six monocotyledonous and fifteen dicotyledonous species were identified. The major five families with the most number of species were Poaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Cyperaceae and Verbenaceae, in decreasing order. Desmodium incanun, Cyperus rotundus, Clidemia sp. and Spermacoce verticillata were found in the tree cropping systems. The highest weed similarity coefficient was found between the cupuaçu and peach palm plantations (54.50% and the lowest between the AFS and peach palm plantation (32.00%. Starchytapheta cayennensis frequency was 33

  2. Flora apícola primaveral en la región del Monte de la Provincia de La Pampa (Argentina Springtime beekeeping flora in the Monte region of La Pampa province (Argentine

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    Ofelia Naab

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar la flora utilizada por Apis mellifera L. fueron analizadas muestras de miel inmadura y cargas corbiculares de dos apiarios demostradores ubicados en la Provincia Fitogeográfica del Monte, Provincia de La Pampa. Las muestras se extrajeron periódicamente durante la primavera y fueron analizadas aplicando las técnicas melisopalinológicas convencionales. La vegetación arbustiva nativa presentó la mayor abundancia y el mayor número de especies en óptima floración en noviembre. Las familias más representadas en los espectros polínicos de mieles inmaduras y de cargas corbiculares fueron: Zygophyllaceae ( Larrea divaricata Cav., Rhamnaceae ( Condalia microphylla Cav., Solanaceae ( Lycium sp., Asteraceae ( Senecio subulatus Don ex Hook. & Arn. y Verbenaceae ( Glandularia sp. - Junellia sp. - Verbena sp.. Los análisis polínicos evidenciaron que las especies nativas ofrecieron al mismo tiempo recursos nectaríferos y poliníferos sin embargo se observó una alta selección de pocos recursos florales. La oferta floral produjo mieles monoflorales de L. divaricata , C. microphylla y Lycium sp. Ambos apiarios pudieron diferenciarse teniendo en cuenta la diversidad de tipos polínicos y la presencia de ciertos taxones en las categorías de polen dominante y secundario.In order to evaluate the utilized flora by Apis mellifera L. we analized inmmature honey samples and corbicular pollen loads from two demonstrative apiaries located in the Monte Phytogeographical Province of La Pampa. The samples were periodically collected during springtime and were analyzed using the conventional melissopalynological techniques. The native flora presented the major abundance and the highest number of species at an optimum flowering level in november. The most represented families in the pollen spectrum of immature honeys and corbicular loads were: Zygophyllaceae ( Larrea divaricata Cav., Rhamnaceae ( Condalia microphylla Cav., Solanaceae

  3. Concentrações de BAP sobre a proliferação in vitro de brotos de Lippia alba [(Mill.N.E.Brown] BAP concentrations on in vitro proliferation of Lippia alba [(Mill. N.E.Brown] shoots

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    S.A. Asmar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lippia alba é uma planta de origem brasileira, pertencente à família Verbenaceae. É conhecida por combater a insônia e a asma, além de possuir ação anticonvulsivante e antifúngica. A micropropagação tem sido utilizada para multiplicação de várias espécies com propriedades medicinais, e o BAP é a citocinina sintética mais utilizada para a multiplicação in vitro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer a concentração adequada de BAP na multiplicação in vitro de L. alba. Explantes constituídos de segmentos nodais provenientes de plântulas já estabelecidas in vitro com aproximadamente 0,5 cm foram inoculados em meio MS, suplementado com 0,0; 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 mg L-1 de BAP em adição de 30 g L-1 de sacarose. A utilização de 1,5 mg L-1 de BAP promove a multiplicação in vitro de L. alba. A ausência deste regulador propicia maior número de folhas e o uso na concentração de 0,5 mg L-1 aumentou as massas fresca e seca de parte aérea nesta espécie.Lippia alba is a Brazilian plant, belonging to the Verbenaceae family. It is known to combat insomnia and asthma, also has antifungal and anticonvulsant actions. Micropropagation has been used for propagation of various species with medicinal properties, and BAP is the most widely used synthetic cytokinin for in vitro multiplication. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate concentration of BAP on in vitro multiplication of L. alba. Explants consisting of nodal segments from seedlings already established in vitro with approximately 0.5 cm were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 0; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 mg L-1 of BAP and 30 g L-1 of sucrose. The use of 1.5 mg L-1 of BAP promotes the in vitro multiplication of L. alba. The absence of this regulator provides a greater number of leaves and its use at the concentration of 0.5 mg L-1 increased shoots' fresh and dry weights in this specie.

  4. Perturbation of PALB2 function by the T413S mutation found in small cell lung cancer [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Jean-Yves Bleuyard

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Germline mutations in the PALB2 gene are associated with the genetic disorder Fanconi anaemia and increased predisposition to cancer. Disease-associated variants are mainly protein-truncating mutations, whereas a few missense substitutions are reported to perturb its interaction with breast cancer susceptibility proteins BRCA1 and BRCA2, which play essential roles in homology-directed repair (HDR. More recently, PALB2 was shown to associate with active genes independently of BRCA1, and through this mechanism, safeguards these regions from DNA replicative stresses. However, it is unknown whether PALB2 tumour suppressor function requires its chromatin association. Methods: Mining the public database of cancer mutations, we identified four potentially deleterious cancer-associated missense mutations within the PALB2 chromatin association motif (ChAM. To assess the impact of these mutations on PALB2 function, we generated cell lines expressing PALB2 variants harbouring corresponding ChAM mutations, and evaluated PALB2 chromatin association properties and the cellular resistance to camptothecin (CPT. Additionally, we examined the accumulation of γH2A.X and the RAD51 recombinase as readouts of DNA damage signalling and HDR, respectively. Results: We demonstrate that a small-cell lung cancer (SCLC-associated T413S mutation in PALB2 impairs its chromatin association and confers reduced resistance to CPT, the only FDA-approved drug for relapsed SCLC. Unexpectedly, we found a less efficient γH2A.X nuclear foci formation in PALB2 T413S expressing cells, whereas a near-normal level of RAD51 nuclear foci was visible. Conclusions: These findings support the importance of PALB2 chromatin association in the suppression of tumours, including SCLC, an unusually aggressive type of cancer with poor prognosis. PALB2 T413S has little impact on RAD51 recruitment, likely due to its intact interaction with BRCA1 and BRCA2. However, this mutant shows

  5. Ocorrência de plantas aquáticas nos reservatórios da Light-RJ Ocurrence of aquatic plants in the Light-RJ reservoirs

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    D. Martins

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar as comunidades infestantes de plantas aquáticas presentes nos reservatórios da Light-Sistema de Eletricidade S.A., localizada no município de Piraí-RJ. Os levantamentos foram realizados no período de julho a setembro de 1998. Os reservatórios analisados foram: Vigário, Pereira Passos e Lajes, sendo as quantidades de pontos amostrados de 19, 9 e 15, respectivamente. Em cada ponto amostrado fez-se a marcação das coordenadas geográficas e avaliou-se a porcentagem de ocupação do corpo d'água pelas espécies de plantas aquáticas presentes. Depois da identificação das plantas, pôde-se verificar quais eram as espécies mais freqüentes e a sua distribuição dentro do sistema de geração de energia. As espécies encontradas nos reservatórios foram: Brachiaria arrecta (Hack. Stent.; Egeria densa Planch.; Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth.; Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms.; Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge Nees.; Panicum rivulare Trin.; Pistia stratiotis L.; Polygonum spp.; Sagitaria montevidensis Cham. & Schlecht; Salvinia auriculata (Micheli Adans; e Thypha dominguensis L.This study aimed to describe the aquatic weeds infesting the Light-Electric System S.A. reservoirs, located in Pirai-RJ, Brazil. The survey was carried out from July to September 1998. The reservoirs analyzed were: Vigario, Pereira Passos and Lajes, with 19, 9 and 15 points being sampled, respectively. Sampled geographic coordinates were marked in each point and a visual estimate was made of the percentage of river water occupied by the aquatic plants. After plant identification, the most frequent species and their distribution were determined as follows: Brachiaria arrecta (Hack. Stent.; Egeria densa Planch.; Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth.; Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms.; Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge Nees.; Panicum rivulare Trin.; Pistia stratiotis L.; Polygonum spp.; Sagitaria montevidensis Cham.& Schlecht

  6. Phenology of native species with landscaping potential / Fenologia de espécies nativas com potencial paisagístico

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    Camila Maria Natal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the phenology of ten species that occur in the “Campos” ecosystem in Paraná state. They are: Borreria suaveolens G. Mey. ; Hilariana Crotalaria Benth. ; Cuphea calophylla Cham. & Schltdl.; Desmodium adscendens (Sw DC.; Desmodium incanum DC.; Hypericum connatum Lam. ; Peltodon rugosus Tolmachev; Salvia lachnostachys Benth. ; Been macrodon DC.; Tibouchina gracilis (Bonpl. Cogn. The monitoring, by qualitative character, realized each fifteen days, had beginning in the month of January of 2007. It had been evaluated reproductive and vegetative characteristics. The meteorological variables that had been related with the phenology were: air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and photoperiod. The results show that 80% of the species present ending of the period of budding between April and May. Cuphea calophylla was the only species that presented budding during all the observed time. The bighest dispersal of seeds occurred in May and June. Temperature, photoperiod and precipitation had been the variables that had shown better relationship with phenophases of the plants, especially the temperature. O presente estudo visou determinar a fenologia de 10 espécies oriundas do ecossistema de Campos no estado do Paraná. São elas: Borreria suaveolens G. Mey.; Crotalaria hilariana Benth.; Cuphea calophylla Cham. & Schltdl.; Desmodium adscendens (Sw DC.; Desmodium incanum DC.; Hypericum connatum Lam.; Peltodon rugosus Tolmachev; Salvia lachnostachys Benth.; Sida macrodon DC.; Tibouchina gracilis (Bonpl. Cogn.. O monitoramento de caráter qualitativo, realizado quinzenalmente, teve início no mês de janeiro de 2007. Foram avaliadas características reprodutivas e vegetativas. As variáveis meteorológicas relacionadas com a fenologia foram: temperatura do ar, umidade relativa, precipitação e fotoperíodo. Os resultados mostram que 80% das espécies apresentam término do período de floração entre os meses

  7. El yoco del cielo es cultivado: perspectivas sobre Paullinia yoco en el chamanismo airo-pai (secoya-tucano occidental

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    Luisa Elvira Belaunde

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo asocia la cosmovisón chamánica y onírica de los airo-pai (secoya con su manejo silvicultural del yoco (Paullinia yoco, una liana silvestre rica en cafeína, endémica del refugio del pleistocénico del Napo. Según las nociones etnobotánicas airo-pai,el yoco tiene la propiedad de «dar consejo» a quienes lo consumen. A partir del análisis de un canto chamánico de yajé (Banisteriopsis caapi, mitos e interpretación de sueños, mostramos cómo el manejo de esta especiees concebido según perspectivas contrastantes: para los espíritus celestiales el yoco es una planta cultivada, que crece en las chagras del cielo; para cuacuiyó («el dueño» del yoco, ave dispersora de su semilla, el yoco es su propio cultivo; y para los seres humanos terrestres, la recolección de yoco silvestre es parecida a la cacería (asociada oníricamente con el paujil (Nothocrax urumutum. De esta manera, este estudio ilustra la relevancia de un abordaje perspectivistapara comprender los conocimientos etnobotánicos subyacentesal manejo y extracción de especies silvestres de importancia ritual y práctica. -- This article associates Airo-pai shamanistic vision and interpretation of dreams with their silvicultural management of yoco (Paullinia yoco, a wild vine rich in caffeine, endemic to the pleistocene refuge of Napo. According to Airo-pai ethnobotanic notions, yoco is a plantthat «gives advice» to those who intake it. From the analysis of a shamanic chant of yajé (Banisteriopsis caapi, myths and interpretation of dreams, we show how the management of this species is conceived from contrasting perspectives: for celestial beings, yoco is a domesticated plant that grows in the celestial gardens; for cuacuiyó (yoco’s «Master», a seed-dispersing bird, yoco is its own plantation; and for terrestrial human beings, the collection of wild yoco is like hunting, associated in dreams with the nocturnal curassow (Nothocrax urumutum. This study thus

  8. Potencial alelopático de espécies nativas na germinação e crescimento inicial de Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae Allelopathic potential of native species in Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae germination and initial growth

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    Fabiana Maraschin-Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A alelopatia caracteriza-se pelos efeitos danosos ou benéficos sobre o desenvolvimento da vegetação, causados por substâncias químicas produzidas e liberadas para o ambiente por uma planta. Com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial alelopático de espécies brasileiras, foram testados extratos foliares de Cecropia pachystachya Trec. (Urticaceae, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. (Fabaceae, Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae, Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax (Euphorbiaceae e Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Burg., Lanj. & Boer (Moraceae, utilizando-se bioensaios de germinação e crescimento e alface (Lactuca sativa L. como planta alvo. Nesses bioensaios, foram usados extratos foliares aquosos nas concentrações de 2 e 4%, preparados por maceração estática com água fria e quente. Os extratos das cinco espécies causaram atraso na germinação dos aquênios da alface, bem como efeitos tóxicos no crescimento das plântulas, com redução e enfraquecimento das raízes. Os resultados obtidos mostraram a presença de substâncias químicas inibidoras nos extratos, revelando potencial alelopático para as cinco espécies avaliadas.Allelopathy is characterized by harmful or beneficial effects on vegetation development, caused by chemical substances produced and released into the environment by the plant. Aiming to assess the allelopathic potential of Brazilian species, aqueous leaf extracts of Cecropia pachystachya Trec. (Urticaceae, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. (Fabaceae, Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae, Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax (Euphorbiaceae, and Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Burger, Lanj. & Boer (Moraceae were tested on lettuce using germination and growth bioassays. In these bioassays, aqueous leaf extracts were used at concentrations of 2 and 4%, prepared by static maceration with cold and hot water. The five species extracts delayed lettuce germination and produced toxic effects on seedling growth, with root

  9. Efeitos de extratos de plantas na biologia de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae mantida em dieta artificial Effects of plant extracts on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae maintained under artificial diet

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    Gilberto Pedreira Santiago

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos extratos aquosos a 10% de folhas e ramos de arruda (Ruta graveolens L., folhas e ramos de melão-de-são-caetano (Momordica charantia L., folhas do alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. e fruto verde de mamona (Ricinus communis L., sobre a biologia da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda, mantida em dieta artificial. Os parâmetros avaliados foram duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, peso de pupa, fecundidade, fertilidade e longevidade de adultos. Larvas de S. frugiperda recém-eclodidas foram colocadas em tubos de ensaio com dieta artificial, contendo os extratos de cada material testado. O extrato aquoso do fruto verde de R. communis apresentou bioatividade, nos parâmetros duração larval e pupal e peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de R. graveolens reduziu o peso de pupa. A dieta contendo extrato de folhas e ramos de M. charantia reduziu a viabilidade larval e o peso de pupa. O extrato aquoso de folhas de L. sidoides não afetou as fases larval e pupal, reduziu a postura e a viabilidade de ovos e aumentou a longevidade de adultos de S. frugiperda. A viabilidade de pupa não foi afetada pelos extratos testados.The effects of aqueous extracts, at 10% concentration of leaves and branches of Ruta graveolens L., leaves and branches of Momordica charantia L., leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. and green fruits of Ricinus communis L. were evaluated on the biology of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda maintained under artificial diet. The evaluated parameters were: duration and viability of the larval and pupal phases, pupa weight, fecundity, fertility and longevity of adults. Just-hatched larvae of S. frugiperda was placed in test tube with artificial diet containing extracts of each tested material. The aqueous extract of the green fruits of R. communis presented bioactivity upon duration and weight of larval and pupal phases. The aqueous extract of R. graveolens reduced weight of pupa. The diet

  10. ESCORRENTÍA SUPERFICIAL EN BOSQUES MONTANOS NATURALES Y PLANTADOS DE PIEDRAS BLANCAS, ANTIOQUIA (COLOMBIA SURFACE RUNOFF IN NATURAL MONTANE FORESTS AND FOREST PLANTATIONS IN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

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    Oscar Andrés Ruiz Suescún

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available En bosques montanos naturales de roble (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. y plantados de pino pátula (Pinus patula Schltdl. & Cham. y ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica Mill. de la región de Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, fueron medidos los flujos de escorrentía superficial (ES por un periodo de tiempo de 16 meses. Se implementaron parcelas cerradas de escorrentía superficial de 10 m de largo x 2 m de ancho, tanques colectores y sistemas de registro volumétrico. Los flujos fueron de 23,19 mm año-1 (1,07 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de roble; 35,13 mm año-1 (1,61 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de pino pátula y 230,64 mm año-1 (11,05 % de la precipitación para la cobertura de ciprés. Mediante análisis de componentes principales (ACP se identificaron las relaciones existentes entre las variables hidrológicas y los flujos de ES, y por medio de análisis de regresión lineal múltiple se ajustaron modelos para los flujos de ES por cobertura en función de la precipitación, la precipitación en el bosque y la intensidad de lluvia promedio, variables que mostraron alta relación con la ES según el ACP.In natural montane oak forests (Quercus humboldtii Bonpl., in pine (Pinus patula Schltdl. & Cham. and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica Mill. plantations in Piedras Blancas, Antioquia (Colombia, surface runoff flows (SRF were measured over 16 months. Runoff was measured using 10 m long x 2 m wide runoff bounded plots, collector tanks and a volumetric counter system. SRF were 23,19 mm year -1 (1,07 % of rainfall for oak forest; 35,13 mm year -1 (1,61 % of rainfall for pine and 230,64 mm year-1 (11,05 % of rainfall for cypress plantations. Relationships between hydrological variables and SRF were identified by a principal components analysis (PCA. For each one of the stands, multiple regression analysis was used to fit models of SRF on rainfall, throughfall and mean intensity of rainfall, variables that, according to the PCA

  11. Pollen morphology of Rubiaceae Juss. species occurring in an area of caatinga (dryland vegetation in Bahia State, Brazil Morfologia polínica de espécies de Rubiaceae ocorrentes em uma área de caatinga no estado da Bahia, Brasil

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    Cristiano Eduardo Amaral Silveira Júnior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The palynology of the following 16 species of Rubiaceae, from Brejinho das Amestistas, was investigated: Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC., Cordiera rigida Kuntze, Coutarea hexandra K.Schum., Declieuxia fruticosa Kuntze, Diodella apiculata (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. radula (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. teres Small., Emmeorhiza umbellata K.Schum., Leptoscela ruellioides Hook. f., Mitracarpus baturitensis Sucre., Mitracarpus villosus Cham. & Schltdl., Palicourea rigida Kunth, Psyllocarpus asparagoides Mart., Richardia grandiflora Steud., Staelia aurea K. Schum., and Staelia galioides DC. The pollen grains were acetolysed to and their morphological characters were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy. They varied in size from small to large; were suboblate to subprolate; inaperturate (P. rigida, colpate and colporate in the remaining species, with an aperture number that varied from three to several. The exines were microreticulate in most species, reticulate (C. hirsutum, C. rigida and P. rigida, bireticulate (D. fruticosa, microechinate-perforated (C. hexandra, echinate-granulate (R. grandiflora, echinate-granulate-perforate (D. apiculata and D. teres, and psilate (P. asparagoides. Based on the results, palynological data can be used to distinguish these species.Rubiaceae foi representada na flora de Brejinho das Ametistas por dezesseis espécies, as quais foram tratadas palinologicamente no presente estudo: Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC., Cordiera rigida Kuntze, Coutarea hexandra K.Schum., Declieuxia fruticosa Kuntze, Diodella apiculata (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. radula (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. teres Small., Emmeorhiza umbellata K.Schum., Leptoscela ruellioides Hook. f., Mitracarpus baturitensis Sucre., Mitracarpus villosus Cham. & Schltdl., Palicourea rigida Kunth, Psyllocarpus asparagoides Mart., Richardia grandiflora Steud., Staelia aurea K. Schum., Staelia galioides

  12. Test Measurements of a 20 ms-1 Carbon Wire Beam Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    De Freitas, J; Emery, J; Herranz Alvarez, J F; Koujili, M; Ramos, D; Sapinski, M; Ait-Amira, Y; Djerdir, A

    2011-01-01

    This paper pre­sents the de­sign of the ac­tu­a­tor for the fast and high ac­cu­ra­cy Wire Scan­ner sys­tem. The ac­tu­a­tor con­sists of a ro­tary brushless syn­chronous motor with the per­ma­nent mag­net rotor in­stalled in­side the vac­u­um cham­ber and the sta­tor in­stalled out­side. The fork, per­ma­nent mag­net rotor and two an­gu­lar po­si­tion sen­sors are mount­ed on the same axis and lo­cat­ed in­side the beam vac­u­um cham­ber. The system has to re­sist a bake-out tem­per­a­ture of 200 C and ion­iz­ing radi­a­tion up to tenths of kGy/year. Max­i­mum wire trav­el­ling speed of 20 m/s and a po­si­tion mea­sure­ment ac­cu­ra­cy of 4 um is re­quired. Therefore, the sys­tem must avoid gen­er­at­ing vi­bra­tion and electromagnet­ic in­ter­fer­ence. A dig­i­tal feed­back con­troller will allow max­i­mum flex­i­bil­i­ty for the loop pa­ram­e­ters and feeds the 3-phase lin­ear power driv­er. The per­for­mance of the pr...

  13. In vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum paniculatum root

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    Pravaree Phuneerub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clerodendrum paniculatum L. (Family Verbenaceae has been used as an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drug in traditional Thai medicine. This present study investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of the ethanolic extract of C. paniculatum (CPE dried root collected from Sa Kaeo Province of Thailand. Murine macrophage J774A.1 cells were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS to evaluate nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 production in the anti-inflammatory test while the mutagenic and antimutagenic potential was performed by the Ames test. The outcome of this study displayed that the CPE root significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO, TNF-α, and PGE 2 production in macrophage cell line. In addition, the CPE root was not mutagenic toward Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and TA100 with and without nitrite treatment. Moreover, it inhibited the mutagenicity of nitrite treated 1-aminopyrene on both strains. The findings suggested the anti-inflammatory and antimutagenic potentials of CPE root.

  14. Pastoralism versus Agriculturalism-How Do Altered Land-Use Forms Affect the Spread of Invasive Plants in the Degraded Mutara Rangelands of North-Eastern Rwanda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronski, Torsten; Bariyanga, Jean Damascene; Sun, Ping; Plath, Martin; Apio, Ann

    2017-05-12

    Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) originates from tropical Central and South America and has become invasive in about 50 countries. It causes problems when invading rangelands due to its toxicity to livestock and its tendency to form dense, monotonous thickets. Its invasiveness can partly be explained by the high tannin content largely protecting the species from being browsed, its tolerance to a wide range of environmental conditions, as well as its general preference for anthropogenically disturbed habitats. The dispersal of L. camara is facilitated by birds and other animals consuming its drupes (endozoochory), and so both wild and domestic ungulates could contribute to its spread. In our study, we investigated the distribution of L. camara in the Mutara rangelands of north-eastern Rwanda, an area that faced dramatic landscape changes in recent decades. We assessed 23 ecological factors and factors related to land-use and conservation-political history. Major effects on the local abundance of L. camara were found in that the relative canopy cover of L. camara was negatively correlated with the occurrence of other shrubs (suggesting competition for space and nutrients), while encounter rates of houses, 'living fences' (Euphorbia tirucalli L.) and cattle tracks were positively correlated with L. camara cover. Hence, the spread of non-native L. camara in the Mutara rangelands appears to be linked to landscape alterations arising from the transformation of rangelands supporting traditional pastoralist communities to other agricultural land-use forms.

  15. Pastoralism versus Agriculturalism—How Do Altered Land-Use Forms Affect the Spread of Invasive Plants in the Degraded Mutara Rangelands of North-Eastern Rwanda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronski, Torsten; Bariyanga, Jean Damascene; Sun, Ping; Plath, Martin; Apio, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) originates from tropical Central and South America and has become invasive in about 50 countries. It causes problems when invading rangelands due to its toxicity to livestock and its tendency to form dense, monotonous thickets. Its invasiveness can partly be explained by the high tannin content largely protecting the species from being browsed, its tolerance to a wide range of environmental conditions, as well as its general preference for anthropogenically disturbed habitats. The dispersal of L. camara is facilitated by birds and other animals consuming its drupes (endozoochory), and so both wild and domestic ungulates could contribute to its spread. In our study, we investigated the distribution of L. camara in the Mutara rangelands of north-eastern Rwanda, an area that faced dramatic landscape changes in recent decades. We assessed 23 ecological factors and factors related to land-use and conservation-political history. Major effects on the local abundance of L. camara were found in that the relative canopy cover of L. camara was negatively correlated with the occurrence of other shrubs (suggesting competition for space and nutrients), while encounter rates of houses, ‘living fences’ (Euphorbia tirucalli L.) and cattle tracks were positively correlated with L. camara cover. Hence, the spread of non-native L. camara in the Mutara rangelands appears to be linked to landscape alterations arising from the transformation of rangelands supporting traditional pastoralist communities to other agricultural land-use forms. PMID:28498334

  16. Anti-Helicobactor pylori activity of some Jordanian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alkofahi, Ahmad S; Alzoubi, Karem H; Tumah, Haitham N; Bani-Hani, Kamal

    2014-05-01

    Natural flora are considered a major source of new agents for the treatment of Helicobactor pylori. The plants used in this study were selected based on previous traditional use. In this study, we evaluated the effect of extracts of 16 medicinal plants grown in Jordan against clinical isolates of H. pylori. Tested plant extracts included Aloysia triphylla (L'Her.) Britton (Verbenaceae), Anethum graveolens L. (Apiaceae), Artemisia inculata Delile (Asteraceae), Capparis spinosa L. (Capparaceae), Crataegus aronia (L.) Bosc ex. DC. (Rosaceae), Inula viscose (L.) Ait (Asteraceae), Lavandula officinalis Chaix. (Lamiaceae), Lepidium sativum L. (Cruciferae), Origanum syriaca L. (Lamiaceae), Paronychia argentea Lam. (Caryophyllaceae), Passiflora incarnate L. (Passifloraceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Spach (Rosaceae), Sesamum indicum L. (Pedaliaceae), Urtica urens L. (Urticaceae) and Varthemia iphionoids Boiss (Asteraceae). Clinical isolates of H. pylori were tested in vitro for susceptibility to each of the above plant crude extracts using disk diffusion method, and the MIC value was determined for each plant extract using the serial dilution method. Results showed that ethanol extracts of most medicinal plants exerted cytotoxiciy against H. pylori isolates. Among the tested plant extracts, A. triphylla (MIC: 90 µg/mL, MBC: 125 µg/mL) and I. viscosa (MIC: 83 µg/mL, MBC: 104 µg/mL) showed the strongest activity against both isolates of H. pylori. Jordanian medicinal plants might be valuable sources of starting materials for the synthesis of new antibacterial agents against H. pylori.

  17. Diversidad florística y conservación del Santuario Regional de Piura Manglares San Pedro de Vice-Sechura

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    Manuel Charcape-Ravelo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se llevó a cabo con la finalidad de conocer la composición de las fanerógamas del Santuario Regional de Piura Manglares San Pedro de Vice-Sechura. Su importancia radica en que es el manglar más austral del Pacífico de Sudamérica. Dicho trabajo fue realizado desde abril del 2000 hasta febrero del 2004. Para la realización del presente estudio se realizaron visitas periódicas cada dos meses al lugar, se colectaron las plantas bajo procedimientos estándar. Las muestras se determinaron en el lugar y algunas fueron llevadas al laboratorio de Botánica de la Universidad Nacional de Piura y al laboratorio de Botánica Fanerogámica de la Universidad Nacional de Trujillo para su determinación definitiva; luego, las muestras se depositaron en el herbario en formación de la Universidad Nacional de Piura. El manglar consiste en primer lugar de árboles y arbustos de Avicennia germinans (L. L. (Verbenaceae «mangle prieto». En el presente inventario se documentan un total de 44 especies de fanerógamas correspondiendo a 36 géneros en 21 familias para el manglar.

  18. Medicinal plants from the Yanesha (Peru): evaluation of the leishmanicidal and antimalarial activity of selected extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadeau, Céline; Pabon, Adriana; Deharo, Eric; Albán-Castillo, Joaquina; Estevez, Yannick; Lores, Fransis Augusto; Rojas, Rosario; Gamboa, Dionicia; Sauvain, Michel; Castillo, Denis; Bourdy, Geneviève

    2009-06-25

    Ninety-four ethanolic extracts of plants used medicinally by the Yanesha, an Amazonian Peruvian ethnic group, for affections related to leishmaniasis and malaria were screened in vitro against Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes and against a Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant strain. The viability of Leishmania amazonensis amastigote stages was assessed by the reduction of tetrazolium salt (MTT) while the impact on Plasmodium falciparum was determined by measuring the incorporation of radio-labelled hypoxanthine. Six plant species displayed good activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant strain (IC(50) Siparuna aspera (Ruiz & Pavon), A. DC., two Zingiberaceae, Renealmia thyrsoidea (Ruiz & Pavon) Poepp. & Endl. and Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.), two Piperaceae (Piper aduncum L. and Piper sp.) and the leaves of Jacaranda copaia (Aubl.) D. Don (Bignoniaceae). Eight species displayed interesting leishmanicidal activities (IC50 < 10 microg/ml): Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae), Piper dennisii Trel (Piperaceae), Hedychium coronarium J. König (Zingiberaceae), Cestrum racemosum Ruiz & Pav. (Solanaceae), Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.) Zingiberaceae, Lantana sp. (Verbenaceae), Hyptis lacustris A. St.-Hil. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae) and Calea montana Klat. (Asteraceae). Most of them are used against skin affections by Yanesha people. Results are discussed herein, according to the traditional use of the plants and compared with data obtained from the literature.

  19. Active caspase-3 detection to evaluate apoptosis induced by Verbena officinalis essential oil and citral in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells

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    Laura De Martino

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Verbena officinalis L., Verbenaceae, commonly known as vervain, is a plant widely used in medicine. Despite of its widespread use in different traditional practices, the mechanisms of pharmacological actions of the plant and its volatile oil are still unclear. We evaluated the pro-apoptotic activity of V. officinalis essential oil and of its main component, citral, on lymphocytes collected from ten patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL, a disease in which a faulty apoptotic mechanism is still retained one of the primary pathogenic events, by adding to treated mononuclear cells, annexin-V, propidium iodide, and CD19. Apoptosis was also evaluated using anti-active-caspase-3 monoclonal antibody after permeabilization of the cells. Both V. officinalis essential oil and citral were found able to induce apoptosis in CLL cells and to activate caspase-3, which is considered the way by means they active apoptosis in B neoplastic cells. This data further support evidences that indicate natural compounds as possible lead structure to develop new therapeutic agents for CLL.

  20. Effect of Gmelina arborea Roxb in experimentally induced inflammation and nociception

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    Yogesh A Kulkarni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gmelina arborea Roxb (Verbenaceae, also known as "Gambhari", is an important medicinal plant in the Ayurveda. There are no meticulous scientific reports on effect of the plant on inflammation and pain. Objective: To study the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of aqueous extracts (AE and methanol extracts (ME of G. arborea. Materials and Methods: The AE and ME of stembark of G. arborea was prepared by cold maceration and Soxhlet extraction technique respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined in Wistar albino rats in a model of acute plantar inflammation induced by carrageenan. The anti-nociceptive activity was evaluated by using hot plate test and writhing test in Swiss albino mice. Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: AE and ME at dose of 500 mg/kg showed maximum inhibition in carrageenan induced inflammation up to 30.15 and 31.21% respectively. In hot plate test, the AE and ME showed the maximum response of 8.8 ± 0.97 (P < 0.01 and 8.2 ± 1.24 (P < 0.01 respectively at dose of 500 mg/kg when compared with control. AE showed maximum inhibition of writhing response (84.3% as compared to ME (77.9% in writhing test at a dose of 500 mg/kg. Conclusion: The findings suggested that G. arborea possess significant anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities.

  1. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts.

  2. High-pressure phase equilibrium data for systems with carbon dioxide, {alpha}-humulene and trans-caryophyllene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michielin, Eliane M.Z.; Rosso, Sibele R. [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Franceschi, Elton; Borges, Gustavo R.; Corazza, Marcos L.; Oliveira, J. Vladimir [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, Erechim, RS, 99700-000 (Brazil); Ferreira, Sandra R.S. [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: sandra@enq.ufsc.br

    2009-01-15

    The aim of this work is to report phase equilibrium data for the binary systems (CO{sub 2} + {alpha}-humulene) and (CO{sub 2} + trans-caryophyllene), and for the ternary system (CO{sub 2} + {alpha}-humulene + trans-caryophyllene). Results from literature show that {alpha}-humulene and trans-caryophyllene are the main compounds responsible for the anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic characteristics attributed to the medicinal plant Cordia verbenacea D.C., hence giving importance to the phase behaviour investigation performed in this work. Phase equilibrium experiments were performed in a high-pressure, variable-volume view cell over the temperature range of T = (303 to 343) K and pressures up to 20 MPa. (Liquid + liquid) and (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibrium were observed at T = 303 K, while (vapour + liquid) phase transitions were verified to occur from T = (313 to 343) K, for all systems studied. Thermodynamic modelling was performed using the Peng-Robinson equation of state and the classical quadratic mixing rules, with a satisfactory agreement between experimental and calculated values.

  3. Evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil of Lippia gracilis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, S S; Bomfim, R R; Jesus, H C R; Alves, P B; Blank, A F; Estevam, C S; Antoniolli, A R; Thomazzi, S M

    2010-06-16

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities of essential oil (EO) of Lippia gracilis Schauer (Verbenaceae) leaves to support the medicinal uses claimed by folklore practitioners in the caatinga region (semi-arid) of Northeastern Brazil. The chemical composition and antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the EO of Lippia gracilis leaves (50-200 mg/kg) were investigated. Antinociceptive activity of the EO was evaluated by writhing test. Anti-inflammatory activity of the EO was evaluated using paw oedema and peritonitis methods. Oral treatment with the EO of Lippia gracilis leaves elicited inhibitory activity on acetic acid effect at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg (30.33+/-2.36, 25.20+/-1.48, and 21.00+/-1.54 abdominal writhes, respectively, Pleaves at 200 mg/kg (0.72+/-0.06 mL h, Pleaves at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg (13.81+/-0.61, 11.77+/-0.91, and 10.30+/-0.60 leukocytes x 10(6)/mL, respectively, Pessential oil allowed the identification of Lippia gracilis as a thymol-p-cymene chemotype (32.68% and 17.82%, respectively). The EO of Lippia gracilis leaves shows antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of antimicrobial study in in vitro application of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn.

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    Talukdar Muhammad Waliullah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial potency of ethanol and chloroform extracts of root, leaf and stem of Clerodendrum infortunatum (Verbenaceae and to explore a scientific data as this plant was randomly use in traditional medicine to cure common ailments such as intestinal disorder, diarrhea, tuberculosis and respiratory problems, etc. Methods: The in vitro application was carried out by using disc diffusion, micro broth dilution and serial dilution techniques against clinically important life threatening organisms. Results: All the extracts showed significant inhibitory activity over the bacteria and fungus comparable to the standard drug tetracycline and fluconazole. The maximum average diameter zone of inhibition was recorded to bacterial strains against Bacillus megaterium, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae and to fungi against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of ethanol leaf extract were determined 64 µg/mL to Bacillus megaterium, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae; 128 µg/mL to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus-β–haemolyticus and Escherichia coli. Conclusions: The findings evidently appear promising antibacterial and antifungal properties of Clerodendrum infortunatum against antagonistic pathogens. Leaf possesses quite potent activity than root and stem specially leaf extract>root extract>stem extract. This study serves as basis for further research to lead compounds to be isolated so that it may be as a template for the implications of these results for bioactivity and drug discovery potential of herbal products.

  5. Estimation of cytotoxic potency by brine shrimp lethality bioassay application of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn.

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    Talukdar Muhammad Waliullah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To learn a scientific and systematic knowledge of anticancer, antimicrobial and pharmacological activities of natural products and estimate cytotoxic potency by using ethanol and chloroform extracts of root, leaf and stem of Clerodendrum infortunatum (Verbenaceae due to its random use in customary and traditional medicine to cure common ailments such as intestinal disorder, diarrhea, tuberculosis and respiratory problems etc. Methods: The in vitro application was carried out with the bench-top bioassay method by using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results: All of the crude extracts were found to be lethal and effective. The LC50 value of ethyl alcohol fraction of root was 20.845 mg/L compared to the standard drug tetracycline of 14.675 mg/L to brine shrimp nauplii, indicating that the extracts were biologically active. Conclusions: The cytotoxic study of LC50 value showed that a good correlation with the antibiotic tetracycline. From the comparative correlation error bars and percentage, we understood that ethyl alcohol fraction of root extract was very effective. This study serves as a basis for further research to lead compounds to be isolated so that it may be as a template for the implications of these results for bioactivity and drug discovery potential of herbal products.

  6. Chemical constituents and biological investigations of the aerial parts of Egyptian Clerodendrum inerme

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    Sabrin R.M. Ibrahim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available B-friedoolean-5-ene-3-β-ol (1, β-sitosterol (2, stigmasta-5,22,25-trien-3-β-ol (3, betulinic acid (4, and 5-hydroxy-6,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone (5 were isolated from the aerial parts of Clerodendrum inerme L. (Verbenaceae. Their structures were established based on analyses of physical and spectroscopic data. Compounds 1, 4, and 5 were isolated for the first time from the plant. C. inerme L. was known as a rich source of terpenes, sterols, and phenolic compounds, so the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated. The total methanolic extract (TME and compound 5 showed scavenging activity with maximum inhibition of 61.84% for TME (100 μg/mL and 37.19% for 5 (20 μM, respectively, using DPPH assay. In addition, the TME exhibited anti-inflammatory activity more than indomethacin at dose 200 mg/kg using the formalin induced hind paw edema method.

  7. Plant products and secondary metabolites with acaricide activity against ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Arjona-Cambranes, K; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Bolio-González, M E; Ortega-Pacheco, A; Alzina-López, A; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, E J; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Aguilar-Caballero, A J

    2017-04-30

    The present review documents the results of studies evaluating the acaricidal activity of different plant products and secondary metabolites against ticks that are resistant and susceptible to conventional acaricides. Studies published from 1998 to 2016 were included. The acaricidal activity of plant extracts, essential oils and secondary compounds from plants have been evaluated using bioassays with ticks in the larval and adult stages. There is variable effectiveness according to the species of plant and the concentrations used, with observed mortalities ranging from 5 to 100% against the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus), Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, and Argas genera. A number of plants have been reported to cause high mortalities and/or affect the reproductive capacity of ticks in the adult phase. In the majority of these trials, the main species of plants evaluated correspond to the families Lamiaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Piperaceae, Verbenaceae, and Poaceae. Different secondary metabolites such as thymol, carvacrol, 1,8-cineol and n-hexanal, have been found to be primarily responsible for the acaricidal activity of different essential oils against different species of ticks, while nicotine, dibenzyldisulfide and dibenzyltrisulfide have been evaluated for plant extracts. Only thymol, carvacrol and 1,8-cineol have been evaluated for acaricidal activity under in vivo conditions. The information in the present review allows the conclusion that the secondary metabolites contained in plant products could be used as an alternative for the control of ticks that are susceptible or resistant to commercial acaricides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Identifikasi dan Karakterisasi Senyawa Bioaktif Antikanker dari Ekstrak Etanol Kulit Batang Kayu Bitti (Vitex cofassus

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    Nuraini Nuraini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bitti wood (Vitex cofassus is one of the plants in Verbenaceae family and known by the people of South Sulawesi as the building material. The aims of this research  is to identify and characterize  the anticancer bioactive compound in ethanol extract of vortex Bitti wood (Vitex cofassus and to determine the bioactivity value. This research uses extraction and fraction method, identification uses thin layer chromatography (TLC and phytochemical test to know metabolism secunder and characterization with FTIR. The result from isolation shows that the amorf shape with 18 mg has white and yellow colour. The purification is conduted by using spectroscopy test FTIR. The result shows that the crystal has flavonoids compound which is solid with phytochemical test like positive product by using FeCl3 5%, NaOH 10% and H2SO4 P. Thick extract, fraction combination and amorf continued with toxicity test with the animal test Artemia salina Leach it uses Brine Shrimp Lethality test (BST method. LC50 value which is gotten the three samples is thick extract 29,51 ppm, combination fraction 169,82 ppm and amorf 562,34 ppm.

  9. Nootropic potential of Alternanthera sessilis and Clerodendrum infortunatum leaves on mice

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    Rajiv Gupta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain the nootropic potential (memory enhancing effects of the leaves of Alternanthera sessilis (Amaranthaceae and Clerodendrum infortunatum (Verbenaceae using rectangular maze and Y maze (interoceptive behavioral models Methods: Methanolic extracts of leaves Alternanthera sessilis and Clerodendrum infortunatum dosed at 100 and 200 mg/kg each were administered to adult Swiss albino Wistar mice and the effect on acquisition, retention and retrieval of spatial recognition memory was determined. Bacopa monniera extract was used as the standard drug while Scopolamine hydrobromide served as the amnestic agent. Results: The higher doses of both the extracts exhibited a more promising nootropic potential. Maximal response was observed in the 200 mg/kg dose of Clerodendrum infortunatum methanolic extract, which closely approximated the results for the standard drug Brahmi. Both the higher doses elicited greater responses in both the models studied and were comparable to that achieved with the standard drug. Conclusions: The methanolic extracts of Clerodendrum infortunatum afforded greater memory enhancing effects in comparison to Alternanthera sessilis extract, the higher dose evoking pronounced alteration behavior and better learning assessments.

  10. Total phenols and flavonoids and antioxidant activity of Lampaya medicinalis F. Phil. leaf extracts

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    Gabino Garrido

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lampaya medicinalis F. Phil. (Verbenaceae is a plant that grows in northern of Chile and it is used in ethnomedicine to treat bone pain, as an analgesic, in kidney ailments, disorders of the prostate, liver disease and dyspepsia, although there are few scientific studies about it. Aims: To determine the antioxidant activity of different extracts from leaves of L. medicinalis. Methods: Extractive methods were performed in water and methanol maceration, decoction and infusion from leaves of L. medicinalis. Phenols and flavonoids were measured and evaluated the total antioxidant capacity in vitro by discoloration radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and inhibition of the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO. Results: The L. medicinalis extract, obtained by maceration in methanol (LM-M, showed higher concentrations of phenols (5807.9 ± 340.0 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g dry sample, while the decoction (LM-Dx showed higher concentration flavonoids (136.0 ± 5.5 mg of quercetin equivalents/100 g dry sample with statistically significant differences (p 0,05. However, extracts had no activity on XO. Conclusions: Polar extracts from leaves of L. medicinalis show antioxidant activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenols that could justify the ethnomedical use of the plant in pathologies transiting by a component of oxidative stress.

  11. Composição química e avaliação das atividades antibacteriana e de toxicidade dos óleos essenciais de Lantana camara L. e Lantana sp.

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    José G. M. da Costa

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais de Lantana camara L. e Lantana sp., Verbenaceae, foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e seus componentes analisados por CG/EM. Tal procedimento analítico revelou a predominância dos sesquiterpenos, biciclogermacreno (19,42%, isocariofileno (16,70%, valenceno (12,94% e germacreno D (12,34% no óleo de L. camara, enquanto o biciclogermacreno (13,93%, germancreno D (27,54 e β-cariofileno (31,50%, % destacaram-se como majoritários no óleo de Lantana sp. Os dois óleos foram submetidos a avaliação de atividades antibacteriana e de toxicidade usando as larvas de Artemia salina. Os resultados mostraram considerável atividade antibacteriana do óleo de L. camara, principalmente para Proteus vulgaris (ATCC 13315 e Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922. O óleo de Lantana sp. mostrou-se mais significativo contra Sthaphylococcus aureus (ATCC 10390. As atividades de toxicidade CL50 revelaram resultados inferiores ao limite padrão de 1000 μg/mL.

  12. Cardiac stimulant activity of bark and wood of Premna serratifolia

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    Rekha Rajendran

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Premna serratifolia Lin., (Verbenaceae contains alkaloids and iridoid glycoside and is believed to prevent cardiovascular disease. The stem-bark and stem-wood were extracted with 95% ethanol and distilled water. These extracts were screened for their effects by Isolated Frog Heart Perfusion Technique and biochemical parameters in heart tissue and serum of albino rats after administering the extracts for 7 days. The ethanol extract produced significant positive ionotropic and negative chronotropic actions similar to that of digoxin on frog heart and its effect was inhibited by nifedipine but not by propranolol. A significant decrease in membrane Na+K+ATPase and Mg2+ATPase and an increase in Ca2+ATPase further confirmed its cardiotonic activity. Aqueous extract produced positive ionotropic and chronotropic effects similar to that of adrenaline and its effect was antagonized by propranolol and nifedipine. The results suggest that the ethanol extract produced cardiotonic effect and the aqueous extract produced β-adrenergic effect.

  13. Antifungal activity using medicinal plant extracts against pathogens of coffee tree

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    J.L. Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the medicinal plants have antifungal substances that can be used for the plant protection against phytopathogens. The objective of this study was to know the efficiency of aqueous extracts from medicinal plants against the major etiological agents of coffee tree. The aqueous extracts used were extracted from bulbs of Allium sativum, leaves of Vernonia polysphaera, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Cordia verbenacea, Eucalyptus citriodora, Ricinus communis, Azadirachta indica, Piper hispidinervum and flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum. The etiological agents considered for this study were Cercospora coffeicola, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Phoma tarda, Rhizoctonia solani and Hemileia vastatrix. The screening for harmful extracts was done based on mycelial growth and conidial germination inhibition. All experiments performed were in vitro conditions. The inhibition of mycelial growth was performed mixing the extracts with the PDA. This mixture was poured in Petri dishes. On the center of the dishes was added one PDA disc with mycelium. It was incubated in a chamber set to 25ºC. The evaluation was done daily by measuring the mycelial growth. The germination assessment was also performed with Petri dishes containing agar-water medium at 2%. These were incubated at 25ºC for 24 hours. After this period the interruption of germination was performed using lactoglycerol. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design. The most effective plant extracts against the micelial growth and conidial germination were V. polysphaera, S. aromaticum and A. sativum.

  14. Ethnopharmacological studies of Lippia origanoides

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    Danilo R. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Lippia origanoides Kunth. Verbenaceae, is of great importance in the Brazilian traditional medicine. Because of it, this work had the purpose to contribute to the ethnopharmacological knowledge of L. origanoides through an ethnobotanical survey conducted within quilombola(maroon communities of Oriximiná, Pará, Brazil. Among 254 plants cited in the survey, L. origanoides stood out among the ten most versatile species. The agreed main uses were to treat menstrual cramps, stomachache, and baby and postpartum colic. This could indicate a consensus of the informants to possible antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of L. origanoides.Therefore, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of L. origanoides extract (aerial parts were assessed through thermal (hot plate and chemical (formalin and acetic acid models of nociception. A dose-dependent reduction in acetic acid-induced writhing was observed after treating mice with L. origanoidesextract. The same extract also inhibited significantly formalin-induced licking response and proved to have a central antinociceptive effect, in the hot plate test. This work demonstrates that L. origanoides is used specially by quilombola women from Oriximiná for disorders of the genitourinary system and that biological activities of this species could contribute to these uses. Furthermore, it was also observed antispasmodic, analgesic and antimicrobial uses of other species of the genus Lippia (Goniostachyum section, rich in thymol and carvacrol.

  15. Essential oil from leaves of Lantana camara: a potential source of medicine against leishmaniasis

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    Rachel R. P. Machado

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an infection of viscera or tegument caused by protozoa Leishmania sp. The extensive period required for the treatment, which involves the use of toxic medicines, leads patients to drop treatment increasing the development of resistant forms of Leishmania sp. Lantana camara L., Verbenaceae, is a tropical plant native from America. Folk uses have been described for treatment of tumors, tetanus, rheumatism and malaria. This study evaluates the leishmanicidal activity of the essential oil of leaves from L. camara on promastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi and L. amazonensis and its toxic effects on Artemia salina (brine shrimp test, macrophage cultures and BALB/c mice. The chemical composition was evaluated using the gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (GC-MS. Thirty substances, mostly mono and sesquiterpenes were identified. The most representative constituents were: germacrene D (24.90%, farnesene derivatives (22% and (E-cariophylene (14.31%. Bioassays revealed a significant leishmanicidal activity of essential oil against L. amazonensis (IC50 0.25 µg/ mL and a potential toxic effect on Brine shrimp (LC50 10 µg/mL and macrophage assays (CC50 4 µg/mL, while there was no toxic manifestation on mice. The data show the relevant potential of L. camara as a source of medicine for leishmaniasis treatment.

  16. Resistance of Particleboards Made from Fast-Growing Wood Species to Subterranean Termite Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawan, Dede; Hadi, Yusuf S; Fajriani, Esi; Massijaya, Muhamad Y; Hadjib, Nurwati

    2012-05-29

    Laboratory-made particleboards were tested for their resistance to subterranean termite, Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren (Order Isoptera, Family Termitidae) by Indonesian standard SNI 01.7207-2006, during four weeks and at the end of the test their mass loss percentage and feeding rate were determined. Particleboards consisted of: jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba, Family Rubiacea) with a density of 0.41 g/cm³; sungkai (Peronema canescens, Family Verbenaceae) with a density of 0.46 g/cm³; mangium (Acacia mangium, Family Rhamnaceae) with a density of 0.60 g/cm³ separately and the three species mixture at a rate of 1:1:1. Densities of the boards were targetted at 0.60 g/cm³ and 0.80 g/cm³ by using 12% urea formaldehyde as binder with 2% paraffin as additive based on oven dry wood particle weight. The hand-formed mats and hot-pressing at 130 °C and 2.45 MPa for 10 min were applied. The results showed that particleboards density did not affect mass loss and feeding rate, but the particleboards made from higher density wood resulted in higher resistance to subterranean termite attack. The most resistant particleboards were made of magium, followed by sungkai, mixed species, and jabon.

  17. Resistance of Particleboards Made from Fast-Growing Wood Species to Subterranean Termite Attack

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    Nurwati Hadjib

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-made particleboards were tested for their resistance to subterranean termite, Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren (Order Isoptera, Family Termitidae by Indonesian standard SNI 01.7207–2006, during four weeks and at the end of the test their mass loss percentage and feeding rate were determined. Particleboards consisted of: jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba, Family Rubiacea with a density of 0.41 g/cm3; sungkai (Peronema canescens, Family Verbenaceae with a density of 0.46 g/cm3; mangium (Acacia mangium, Family Rhamnaceae with a density of 0.60 g/cm3 separately and the three species mixture at a rate of 1:1:1. Densities of the boards were targetted at 0.60 g/cm3 and 0.80 g/cm3 by using 12% urea formaldehyde as binder with 2% paraffin as additive based on oven dry wood particle weight. The hand-formed mats and hot-pressing at 130 °C and 2.45 MPa for 10 min were applied. The results showed that particleboards density did not affect mass loss and feeding rate, but the particleboards made from higher density wood resulted in higher resistance to subterranean termite attack. The most resistant particleboards were made of magium, followed by sungkai, mixed species, and jabon.

  18. Inhibition of gastric acid secretion by the aqueous extract and purified extracts of Stachytarpheta cayennensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, S M; Souccar, C; Lima-Landman, M T; Lapa, A J

    1997-02-01

    Stachytarpheta cayennensis Schauer (Verbenaceae) is used in folk medicine to treat gastric and intestinal disturbances. The freeze-dried aqueous extract of the whole plant tested to rodents up to the dose of 2 g kg-1, p.o., did not produce signs of toxicity. The extract (0.5-2 g kg-1, p.o.) increased the intestinal motility and protected mice against ulcers induced by restraintin-cold, ethanol or indomethacin. Injected into the duodenal lumen the extract inhibited the basal acid secretion as well as that induced by histamine and bethanecol in pylorus-ligated mice. Partition of the aqueous extract in organic solvents yielded semipurified fractions whose antiacid activity guided further chemical purification. All the fractions were chromatographically characterized, the main substances in the active extract being flavonoids and amines; some substances were revealed only under UV light. The most purified active fraction obtained presented a specific activity 5-10 times higher than that detected in the original extract. Data from pharmacological studies indicate that the antiulcer activity of S. cayennensis is related to a specific inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Cholinergic and histaminergic stimulation of acid secretion were similarly reduced by the extracts suggesting inhibition of common steps in both pathways, possibly at the level of histamine release/H2 receptor interaction, or at the proton pump. Whatever the mechanisms involved, the present data confirm the plant effectiveness as antiacid/antiulcer and laxative.

  19. Anti-complement activity of isolated compounds from the roots of Clerodendrum bungei Steud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Ki; Cho, Sang-Buem; Moon, Hyung-In

    2010-11-01

    To determine the anti-complement activity of natural diterpenes, chromatographic separation of the acetone-soluble fraction from the roots of Clerodendrum bungei (Verbenaceae) led to the isolation of five diterpenoids. An acetone-soluble extract of the roots of C. bungei exhibited significant anti-complement activity on the classical pathway complement system, which was expressed as total hemolytic activity. Five compounds isolated from the roots of C. bungei, namely 12-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3,11,16-trihydroxyabieta-8,11,13-triene (1), 3,12-O-β-d-diglucopyranosyl-11,16-dihydroxyabieta-8,11,13-triene (2), ajugaside A (3), uncinatone (4) and 19-hydroxyteuvincenone F (5). Compounds 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) values of 24 µm, 138 µm, 116 µm, 87 µm and 232 µm. Among the compounds tested, 1 showed the most potent anti-complement activity (IC(50), 24 µm). Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Natural colourant plant and the use of traditionally by tribe of Marori Men-Gey in Wasur National Park, Merauke Regency

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    ANTONIUS ETUS HARBELUBUN

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to know the plant species which used as a natural colorant and its exploiting traditionally by Tribe of Marori Men-Gey. This Research was executed at area of Wasur National Park in Merauke regency. Method used was descriptive method with the direct observation technique in field. Result of research indicate that the natural colorant plant exploited by tribe of Marori Men-Gey as much 7 species included in 6 family that was Vaccinium sp. (Cacinaceae, Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae, Curcuma domestica Val. (Zingiberaceae, Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae, Ziziplus sp. (Myrtaceae, Gmelina sp. (Verbenaceae and Zyzygium sp (Myrtaceae. Part of plant exploited cover the root, rhizome, bark, rubber, leaf and fruit. From 7 the colorant plant species, 4 species yielding color yellow that was Vaccinium sp., C. domestica, M. citrifolia and M. indica, 2 species yield the riddling that was Ziziplus sp. and Gmelina sp. and also 1 species yielding black color that was Zyzygium sp. Colorant plant exploited by tribe of Marori Men-Gey as traditional equipments colorant, food colorant and body colorant.