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Sample records for salvia divinorum leaves

  1. Determination of salvinorins and divinatorins in Salvia divinorum leaves by liquid chromatography/multistage mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medana, Claudio; Massolino, Cristina; Pazzi, Marco; Baiocchi, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    Salvinorin A is the most potent naturally occurring hallucinogen known and rivals synthetic LSD in potency. Structurally it belongs to the neoclerodane diterpenoids, and it is the only known non-nitrogenous kappa-opioid-selective agonist. Salvia divinorum (Diviner's sage) is a member of the mint family that was used in ancient Mexican traditional practices. Today it is widely cultivated in Europe as a recreational marijuana substitute; it is illegal to buy, sell or possess the plant or the active principle in some countries. Six different salvinorins and three divinatorins have been isolated from Salvia divinorum leaves. The ion fragmentation, separation and quantitation of these diterpenes by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS(n)) are described. The importance of LC in herbal extract determination and the chemical diagnostic power of MS(n) in the analysis of classes of natural organic products are discussed.

  2. Subjective effects of Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgarno, Phil

    2007-06-01

    Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogenic plant native to Mexico, where the Mazatec Indians use it in divinatory rituals as a facilitator for contacting the spirits of the dead. A number of traditions surrounding the ritualistic use of Salvia are still observed. Generally the leaves are chewed for the visionary effects. Salvia has recently been embraced by Western drug cultures, where the traditional methods of ingestion are generally eschewed for the more immediately effective technique of smoking the dried leaves. This article discusses the history and indigenous cultural uses of Salvia before outlining its rediscovery in the 1960s and its subsequent introduction to the Western drug scenes (particularly Britain) since the mid 1990s. Qualitative data from 10 Salvia users were collected by means of email interviews. The participants were asked to provide as in-depth responses as possible. No time or space limit on answers was imposed. Their responses to each question are presented verbatim. The effects of Salvia appear to vary between users and seem sensitive to situational factors. Users who understand something of the ritualistic setting for traditional use would appear to have a fuller experience than those who do not.

  3. New neoclerodane diterpenoids isolated from the leaves of Salvia divinorum and their binding affinities for human kappa opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David Y W; Ma, Zhongze; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan; Wang, Yulin; Chen, Yong; Carlezon, William A; Cohen, Bruce

    2005-10-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the leaves of Salvia divinorum has resulted in the isolation of three new neoclerodane diterpenoids: divinatorin D (1), divinatorin E (2), and salvinorin G (3), together with 10 known terpenoids, divinatorin C (4), hardwickiic acid (5), salvinorin-A (6), -B (7), -C (8), -D (9), -E (10), and -F (11), presqualene alcohol (12), and (E)-phytol (13). The structures of these three new compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods. All these compounds were evaluated for their binding affinities to the human kappa opioid receptors. In comparison with divinatorin D (1), divinatorin E (2), and salvinorin G (3), salvinorin A (6) is still the most potent kappa agonist.

  4. Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part I: discrimination from related Salvia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell

    2012-01-01

    Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogenic herb that is internationally regulated. In this study, salvinorin A, the active compound in S. divinorum, was extracted from S. divinorum plant leaves using a 5-min extraction with dichloromethane. Four additional Salvia species (Salvia officinalis, Salvia guaranitica, Salvia splendens, and Salvia nemorosa) were extracted using this procedure, and all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Differentiation of S. divinorum from other Salvia species was successful based on visual assessment of the resulting chromatograms. To provide a more objective comparison, the total ion chromatograms (TICs) were subjected to principal components analysis (PCA). Prior to PCA, the TICs were subjected to a series of data pretreatment procedures to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. Successful discrimination of S. divinorum from the other four Salvia species was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot. To provide a numerical assessment of the discrimination, a series of statistical procedures such as Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores. The statistical procedures were then compared to determine the advantages and disadvantages for forensic applications.

  5. Psychopharmacology of the hallucinogenic sage Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2005-12-22

    At present, the Mexican mint Salvia divinorum is an unregulated hallucinogen. This has resulted in various on-line botanical companies advertising and selling S. divinorum as a legal alternative to other regulated plant hallucinogens. It is predictable that its misuse will increase rapidly. The active ingredient in S. divinorum is the neoclerodane diterpene, salvinorin A (1a), which has been shown to be a kappa agonist both in vitro and in vivo. This review will cover the current state of research into the psychopharmacology of S. divinorum.

  6. DNA identification of Salvia divinorum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Terence M; Bola, Gurpreet

    2013-01-01

    Salvia divinorum (diviner's sage) is a plant in the mint family that produces an hallucinogenic compound, salvinorin A. The plant is used, often by chewing or smoking, as a "recreational" drug source and is regulated or banned in several states and countries. We describe a simple DNA technique, polymerase chain reaction of the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit (rbcL) gene, that can distinguish S. divinorum leaf pieces from pieces of tobacco or cannabis. We have also found DNA sequences adjacent to the chloroplast leucine transfer RNA (trnL) gene that are specific to S. divinorum and distinguish it from other horticulturally popular Salvia species. We report some significant differences between the S. divinorum trnL sequences we determined and those now published in GenBank. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Salvinicins A and B, new neoclerodane diterpenes from Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Wayne W; Tidgewell, Kevin; Schmidt, Matthew; Shah, Kushal; Dersch, Christina M; Snyder, John; Parrish, Damon; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Rothman, Richard B; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2005-07-07

    [reaction: see text] Two new neoclerodane diterpenes, salvinicins A (4) and B (5), were isolated from the dried leaves of Salvia divinorum. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques, including (1)H and (13)C NMR, NOESY, HMQC, and HMBC. The absolute stereochemistry of these compounds was assigned on the basis of single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis of salvinicin A (4) and a 3,4-dichlorobenzoate derivative of salvinorin B.

  8. Quantitative determination of salvinorin A, a natural hallucinogen with abuse liability, in Internet-available Salvia divinorum and endemic species of Salvia in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Po-Xiang; Li, Jih-Heng; Chen, Su-Hwei; Chang, Hsien-Chang; McKetin, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, recreational use of Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae), a herbal drug that contains a hallucinogenic ingredient, salvinorin A, has become a new phenomenon among young drug users. In Taiwan, as in many other countries, dry leaves of S. divinorum and its related concentrated extract products are available via the Internet. Besides S. divinorum, there are many endemic Salvia species whose salvinorin A content is yet unknown. To understand the abuse liability of these products, the aim...

  9. Direct analysis of Salvia divinorum leaves for salvinorin A by thin layer chromatography and desorption electrospray ionization multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Joseph H; Wiseman, Justin M

    2010-05-15

    Salvia divinorum is widely cultivated in the US, Mexico, Central and South America and Europe and is consumed for its ability to produce hallucinogenic effects similar to those of other scheduled hallucinogenic drugs, such as LSD. Salvinorin A (SA), a kappa opiod receptor agonist and psychoactive constituent, is found primarily in the leaves and to a lesser extent in the stems of the plant. Herein, the analysis of intact S. divinorum leaves for SA and of acetone extracts separated using thin layer chromatography (TLC) is demonstrated using desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry. The detection of SA using DESI in the positive ion mode is characterized by several ions associated with the compound - [M+H](+), [M+NH(4)](+), [M+Na](+), [2M+NH(4)](+), and [2M+Na](+). Confirmation of the identity of these ions is provided through exact mass measurements using a time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometer. The presence of SA in the leaves was confirmed by multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) of the [M+H](+) ion using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Direct analysis of the leaves revealed several species of salvinorin in addition to SA as confirmed by MS(n), including salvinorin B, C, D/E, and divinatorin B. Further, the results from DESI imaging of a TLC separation of a commercial leaf extract and an acetone extract of S. divinorum leaves were in concordance with the TLC/DESI-MS results of an authentic salvinorin A standard. The present study provides an example of both the direct analysis of intact plant materials for screening illicit substances and the coupling of TLC and DESI-MS as a simple method for the examination of natural products. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. [Authentication and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/MS analysis of magic mint, Salvia divinorum and its related plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Takuro; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2008-01-01

    Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/mass spectrometry (MS) analysis was performed to investigate whether commercial Salvia cultivars available in the Japanese market contain salvinorin A (1), which is an hallucinogen present in magic mint (Salvia divinorum) prior to the regulation of S. divinorum by the Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Law. In addition, a previously reported method to authenticate S. divinorum, utilizing an amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) was applied to the same samples to estimate the method's accuracy. As a result of the UPLC/MS analysis, it was clear that none of the tested cultivars possessed 1 while S. divinorum leaves and its processed products "concentrated salvia" contained 1 in the range from 0.19% to 0.58%. Furthermore, the ARMS method could clearly distinguish S. divinorum from the tested cultivars. In conclusion, the authentication method is considered to be useful for the practical regulation of S. divinorum due to its simplicity and accuracy.

  11. College student use of Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, James E; Reed, Mark B; Croff, Julie M Ketchie; Clapp, John D

    2008-04-01

    Salvia divinorum (salvia) is a plant that appears to be enjoying increased popularity as a legal hallucinogen in many U.S. jurisdictions. While the popular press has claimed that its use has become widespread, there have been no epidemiological studies published documenting this within the U.S. A sample of college students was randomly drawn from a large public university in the southwestern U.S. and invited to participate in an online survey that included salvia use among a set of other drug use items. From the sample of 1516 college student respondents, a pattern of use emerged that indicates that salvia is indeed becoming a significant member of the list of drugs used, with 4.4% of students reporting using salvia at least once within the past 12 months. Subpopulations that are typically most at risk for drug use within college students (Whites, males, fraternity members, heavy episodic drinkers) also were most likely to use salvia. The results indicate that more research is needed to determine the generalizability of these findings, and identify whether there are any negative consequences experienced either by the user or the community associated with this drug.

  12. College Student use of Salvia Divinorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, James E.; Reed, Mark B.; Ketchie Croff, Julie M.; Clapp, John D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Salvia divinorum (salvia) is a plant that appears to be enjoying increased popularity as a legal hallucinogen in many U.S. jurisdictions. While the popular press has claimed that its use has become widespread, there have been no epidemiological studies published documenting this within the U.S. Method A sample of college students was randomly drawn from a large public university in the southwestern U.S. and invited to participate in an online survey that included salvia use among a set of other drug use items. Results From the sample of 1,571 college student respondents, a pattern of use emerged that indicates that salvia is indeed becoming a significant member of the list of drugs used, with 4.4% of students reporting using salvia at least once within the past 12 months. Subpopulations that are typically most at risk for drug use within college students (Whites, males, fraternity members, heavy episodic drinkers) also were most likely to use salvia. Conclusions The results indicate that more research is needed to determine the generalizability of these findings, and identify whether there are any negative consequences experienced either by the user or the community associated with this drug. PMID:18093751

  13. Legally high? Legal considerations of Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, O Hayden; Miller, Bryan Lee; Khey, David N

    2008-06-01

    The legal status of the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum has been rapidly changing. Legal prohibitions on this plant native to Oaxaca, Mexico have emerged at the state level, a phenomenon that has not occurred since the passage of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Included will be a brief description of the plant that has only recently crept into the popular American consciousness, and a review of the different legal mechanisms through which states have controlled the plant and the pending legislation proposing controls. Lastly, the implications of various state laws are discussed.

  14. Salvia divinorum use among a college student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khey, David N; Miller, Bryan Lee; Griffin, O Hayden

    2008-01-01

    The recreational use of Salvia divinorum has received increased attention by media outlets and policy-makers in recent years. The vast absence of research to guide the dissemination of information has prompted this research note describing the use of this substance in a large public institution of higher education. The prevalence of Salvia divinorum is described in this context and a description of patterns of use, methods of acquisition, and a subjective estimation of continuance are proffered.

  15. Divinatorins A-C, new neoclerodane diterpenoids from the controlled sage Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Andrea K; Munro, Thomas A; Rizzacasa, Mark A; Robins-Browne, Roy M

    2003-09-01

    Three new neoclerodane diterpenoids, divinatorins A-C (7-9), have been isolated from the leaves of Salvia divinorum. The compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods as derivatives of the antibiotic (-)-hardwickiic acid (10), which was also isolated, along with four other known terpenoids. Neither the crude extract nor 7-9 displayed antimicrobial activity.

  16. Salvia divinorum: an hallucinogenic mint which might become a new recreational drug in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, C; Felber, F; Augsburger, M; Horisberger, B; Rivier, L; Mangin, P

    2000-08-14

    Salvia divinorum Epling & Jativa is an hallucinogenic mint traditionally used for curing and divination by the Mazatec Indians of Oaxaca, Mexico. Young people from Mexican cities were reported to smoke dried leaves of S. divinorum as a marijuana substitute. Recently, two S. divinorum specimens were seized in a large-scale illicit in-door and out-door hemp plantation. Salvinorin A also called divinorin A, a trans-neoclerodane diterpene, was identified in several organic solvent extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The botanical identity of the plant was confirmed by comparing it to an authentic herbarium specimen. More plants were then discovered in Swiss horticulturists greenhouses. All these data taken together suggest that many attempts exist in Switzerland to use S. divinorum as a recreational drug. This phenomenon may be enhanced because neither the magic mint, nor its active compound are banned substances listed in the Swiss narcotic law.

  17. Opioid receptors and legal highs: Salvia divinorum and Kratom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Kavita M; McCurdy, Christopher R; Boyer, Edward W

    2008-02-01

    Salvia divinorum and Mitragyna speciosa ("Kratom"), two unscheduled dietary supplements whose active agents are opioid receptor agonists, have discrete psychoactive effects that have contributed to their increasing popularity. Salvia divinorum contains the highly selective kappa- opioid receptor agonist salvinorin A; this compound produces visual hallucinations and synesthesia. Mitragynine, the major alkaloid identified from Kratom, has been reported as a partial opioid agonist producing similar effects to morphine. An interesting minor alkaloid of Kratom, 7-hydroxymitragynine, has been reported to be more potent than morphine. Both Kratom alkaloids are reported to activate supraspinal mu- and delta- opioid receptors, explaining their use by chronic narcotics users to ameliorate opioid withdrawal symptoms. Despite their widespread Internet availability, use of Salvia divinorum and Kratom represents an emerging trend that escapes traditional methods of toxicologic monitoring. The purpose of this article is to familiarize toxicologists and poison control specialists with these emerging psychoactive dietary supplements.

  18. Subjective effects of Salvia divinorum: LSD- or marijuana-like?

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    Albertson, Dawn N; Grubbs, Laura E

    2009-09-01

    Salvia divinorum is a naturally occurring psychedelic considered to be one of the most potent hallucinogens found to date. The few behavioral studies conducted conclude that Salvia's effects may be similar to traditional psychedelics, which is noteworthy because Salvia acts via a unique molecular mechanism as a kappa opioid receptor agonist. One hundred and ninety-three participants, including 34 Salvia users, were asked to fill out a series of questionnaires related to general drug use, personality characteristics, demographics and their experiences with Salvia. Salvia users were found to differ from nonusers on personality characteristics and reported consuming significantly more alcohol than nonusers. In addition, although Salvia users rated their hallucinogenic experiences as similar to those seen in previously published reports, the majority likened their experiences as most similar to marijuana instead of more traditional psychedelics. Low scores on the ARCI LSD subscale confirmed this finding and call into question the reigning theory of LSD-like subjective effects elicited by Salvia.

  19. Quantitative determination of salvinorin A, a natural hallucinogen with abuse liability, in Internet-available Salvia divinorum and endemic species of Salvia in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Xiang Lin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, recreational use of Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae, a herbal drug that contains a hallucinogenic ingredient, salvinorin A, has become a new phenomenon among young drug users. In Taiwan, as in many other countries, dry leaves of S. divinorum and its related concentrated extract products are available via the Internet. Besides S. divinorum, there are many endemic Salvia species whose salvinorin A content is yet unknown. To understand the abuse liability of these products, the aim of this study was to assess the concentration of salvinorin A in endemic Salvia species and Internet-available salvinorin A-related products. Samples of S. divinorum were purchased via the Internet and samples of eight endemic species of Salvia were collected in Taiwan, including S. arisanensis Hayata, S. coccinea Juss. ex Murr, S. hayatana Makino ex Hayata, S. japonica Thumb. ex Murr, S. nipponica Miq. Var. formosana (Hayata Kudo, S. scapiformis Hance, S. tashiroi Hayata. Icon. PI. Formosan, and S. keitaoensis Hayata. The content of salvinorin A was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Salvinorin A was extracted from the dry leaves of S. divinorum and endemic species of Salvia with methanol and analyzed on a C-18 column by isocratic elution with a mobile phase of acetonitrile–water. Salvinorin A was detected in S. divinorum, but not in the endemic Salvia species of Taiwan. Therefore, endemic species of Salvia in Taiwan may not possess hallucinogenic potential. However, the potential harm from S. divinorum available via the Internet should be thoroughly assessed in Taiwan, and control measures similar to those implemented in many other countries should be considered.

  20. Quantitative determination of salvinorin A, a natural hallucinogen with abuse liability, in Internet-available Salvia divinorum and endemic species of Salvia in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Xiang; Li, Jih-Heng; Chen, Su-Hwei; Chang, Hsien-Chang; McKetin, Rebecca

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, recreational use of Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae), a herbal drug that contains a hallucinogenic ingredient, salvinorin A, has become a new phenomenon among young drug users. In Taiwan, as in many other countries, dry leaves of S. divinorum and its related concentrated extract products are available via the Internet. Besides S. divinorum, there are many endemic Salvia species whose salvinorin A content is yet unknown. To understand the abuse liability of these products, the aim of this study was to assess the concentration of salvinorin A in endemic Salvia species and Internet-available salvinorin A-related products. Samples of S. divinorum were purchased via the Internet and samples of eight endemic species of Salvia were collected in Taiwan, including S. arisanensis Hayata, S. coccinea Juss. ex Murr, S. hayatana Makino ex Hayata, S. japonica Thumb. ex Murr, S. nipponica Miq. Var. formosana (Hayata) Kudo, S. scapiformis Hance, S. tashiroi Hayata. Icon. PI. Formosan, and S. keitaoensis Hayata. The content of salvinorin A was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Salvinorin A was extracted from the dry leaves of S. divinorum and endemic species of Salvia with methanol and analyzed on a C-18 column by isocratic elution with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water. Salvinorin A was detected in S. divinorum, but not in the endemic Salvia species of Taiwan. Therefore, endemic species of Salvia in Taiwan may not possess hallucinogenic potential. However, the potential harm from S. divinorum available via the Internet should be thoroughly assessed in Taiwan, and control measures similar to those implemented in many other countries should be considered. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Salvia divinorum use and phenomenology: results from an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumnall, H R; Measham, F; Brandt, S D; Cole, J C

    2011-11-01

    Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogenic plant with ethnopharmacological and recreational uses. It differs from classic serotonergic hallucinogens such as LSD and psilocin in both phenomenology and potent agonist activity of the active component salvinorin A at κ-opioid receptors. Awareness of S. divinorum has grown recently, with both an increase in its public representation and concern over its potential harmful effects. This discussion is particularly relevant as S. divinorum is legal to use in many countries and regions and easily available through online retailers. Drawing upon previous investigations of S. divinorum and other hallucinogens, this study surveyed 154 recent users and questioned them on their use behaviours, consequences of use and other attitudinal measures. Although reporting an extensive substance use history, and considering the limitations of online surveys, there was little evidence of dysfunctional S. divinorum use, and few reports of troubling adverse consequences of use. Furthermore, there was no evidence that users exhibited increased schizotypy. Respondents reported that S. divinorum produced mixed hallucinogenic and dissociative effects, which lends support to assertions that it phenomenologically differs from other hallucinogens with primary serotonergic activity. The functions of use changed with greater experiences with the drug, and although many respondents reported use of S. divinorum as an alternative to illegal drugs it, was apparent that legal proscription would be unlikely to dissuade them from use. These results are discussed with reference to psychopharmacologically informed public health responses to substance use.

  2. "Salvia Divinorum" Use among a College Student Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khey, David N.; Miller, Bryan Lee; Griffin, O. Hayden

    2009-01-01

    The recreational use of "Salvia divinorum" has received increased attention by media outlets and policy-makers in recent years. The vast absence of research to guide the dissemination of information has prompted this research note describing the use of this substance in a large public institution of higher education. The prevalence of…

  3. Epidemiology of adolescent Salvia divinorum use in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L

    2013-02-01

    Salvia divinorum is a potent, naturally occurring hallucinogen gaining popularity as a recreational drug in North America. To date, detailed epidemiologic information about the use of this substance among adolescents living outside the United States has been limited. This study provides information on the prevalence and correlates of Salvia divinorum use among adolesecents in Canada using a nationally representative sample. Data were obtained from a representative sample of 42,179 Canadian adolescents aged 12-17 years living across all 10 provinces who completed the Youth Smoking Survey in 2008-09. Overall, 3.8% of adolescents reported using Salvia in the past year and 6.2% had used the substance in their lifetime. A conservative estimate suggests 23.2% of youth were repeat users. Salvia use was highest among youth in British Columbia and Quebec. Comparatively, the prevalence of 12-month Salvia use was higher than 12-month cocaine and amphetamine use but lower than 12-month ecstasy, cannabis, and other hallucinogen use. Correlates of Salvia use included older age, male gender, high available spending money, binge drinking, illicit drug use and smoking in fully adjusted models. Findings suggest low self-esteem may be an important correlate specific to the use of this substance among youth. Salvia divinorum use is prevalent among Canadian adolescents. Salvia may be a significant public health issue in Canada given it is readily available, under limited regulation, and little is known about the abuse liability of the substance, interactions with other substances, and potential complications from use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Salvinorins J from Salvia divinorum: mutarotation in the neoclerodane system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutrzeba, Lukasz M; Ferreira, Daneel; Zjawiony, Jordan K

    2009-07-01

    A search for biosynthetic precursors of salvinorin A (1) led to the isolation of a new neoclerodane diterpenoid hemiacetal mixture, salvinorins J (2), from the chloroform extract of Salvia divinorum. A leaf surface extraction method was used on S. divinorum, affording a chlorophyll-free extract containing predominantly neoclerodane diterpenoids, including the new salvinorins J (2) and 14 known analogues. Salvinorins J (2) represent an example of a neoclerodane hemiacetal (lactol) susceptible to mutarotation with the formation of an equilibrium mixture of C-17 epimers.

  5. Salvia divinorum: effects and use among YouTube users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, James E; Daniel, Jason; Homer, Kestrel; Reed, Mark B; Clapp, John D

    2010-04-01

    Salvia divinorum (salvia) is an intense, short-acting hallucinogenic plant gaining popularity among adolescents in the United States. There has been little scientific documentation of salvia's effects. The popular video-sharing website YouTube has received literally thousands of video-posts of people using salvia. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of salvia use through systematic observations of YouTube videos. A sample of salvia videos was obtained using the search term "salvia." The videos were further screened and only videos that captured the entire drug "trip" without video edits were included in the analyses described here (n=34). Three trained research assistants independently watched the videos and rated their observations on 42 effects in 30-s intervals. Onset of symptoms was quick (often less than 30s) and tended to dissipate within 8min. Further, there was a relationship between salvia dose and effect duration. Since salvia's effects on humans are largely undocumented, this study provides the look at users in a non-laboratory environment (e.g. self-taped videos) exhibiting impairments and behaviors consistent with this powerful hallucinogen. Also, this study demonstrates the feasibility and shortcomings of using YouTube videos to assess emerging drugs and drug effects. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Salvia divinorum: toxicological aspects and analysis in human biological specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalho, Cláudia; Corte-Real, Francisco; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Gallardo, Eugenia

    2016-07-01

    The identification and quantitation of the main psychoactive component of Salvia divinorum (salvinorin A) in biological specimens are crucial in forensic and clinical toxicology. Despite all the efforts made, its uncontrolled abuse has increased quickly, exposing its users' health to serious risks both in the short and long term. The use of alternative biological matrices in toxicological analyzes can be advantageous as complementary postmortem samples, or in situations when neither blood nor urine can be collected; they may be useful tools in those determinations, providing important information about prior exposure. The aim of this article is to present a brief summary of legal aspects of Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A, including the methods used for the determination of the latter in biological matrices.

  7. Salvinorins D-F, new neoclerodane diterpenoids from Salvia divinorum, and an improved method for the isolation of salvinorin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Thomas A; Rizzacasa, Mark A

    2003-05-01

    Three new neoclerodane diterpenoids, salvinorins D-F (4-6), have been isolated from the leaves of Salvia divinorum. The structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods, particularly 1D and 2D NMR. A simplified isolation method using chromatography on activated carbon also gave improved yields of the controlled substance salvinorin A (1) and of salvinorin C (3).

  8. Neo-clerodane diterpenes from the hallucinogenic sage Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirota, Osamu; Nagamatsu, Kumi; Sekita, Setsuko

    2006-12-01

    Seven new neo-clerodane diterpenes, salvidivins A (2), B, (3), C (4), and D (5), salvinorins H (6) and I (7), and divinatorin [corrected] F (8), along with eight known neo-clerodane diterpenes, salvinorins A (1)-F, divinatorins A and B, and seven other constituents, were isolated from the hallucinogenic sage Salvia divinorum. The structures of 1-7 were elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR spectroscopic studies.

  9. Analysis of the smoke of cigarettes containing Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstenansky, John L; Muzzio, Miguel

    2014-09-01

    Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogen sold over the internet in several forms. Perhaps the most common method of use is smoking the dried leaf material. The sole presumed active constituent, salvinorin A, is a selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist. Upon smoking of the dried leaf material, some of the salvinorin A is destroyed or converted to other materials, leaving in question the actual amount of salvinorin A delivered that leads to the psychotomimetic effect. On average, 133 μg of salvinorin A was delivered in the smoke from an 830 mg per cigarette, which contained ∼2.7 mg of salvinorin A. Hence, only ∼5% of the salvinorin A available in the dried plant material was delivered in the smoke. Upon smoking, hydrolysis of salvinorin A to salvinorin B, an inactive and minor component of the leaf material, also occurs as evidenced by a higher delivered amount of salvinorin B vs salvinorin A (217 vs 133 μg per cigarette). Since smoking is an effective means of achieving the hallucinogenic effect and salvinorin A is the presumed sole active ingredient in the plant, the estimated effective dose of salvinorin A by inhalation is <133 μg per person. Considering the reported rapid metabolism of salvinorin A in vivo, the dose reaching the brain would be substantially less. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Psychoactive herb use and youth: a closer look at salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Nancy R; Greenberg, Cindy S

    2011-08-01

    Salvia divinorum is a psychoactive herb and an increasingly popular recreational drug used by young people in our country and abroad. Much of its increased popularity stems from its easy accessibility and affordability; its effects produce an intense and potent "high" and concomitant disorientation and hallucinations. The risks associated with Salvia are poorly defined due to a lack of scientific evidence, leaving Salvia users with false assurances about its safety. Although its safety profile is ill defined, its intense effects are well known and can put young people at risk for injuries and serious errors in judgment. Psychiatric nurses and health care practitioners are in key positions to influence practice, education, and policy regarding the use and abuse of this drug by youth. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Salvia divinorum: An overview of the usage, misuse, and addiction processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Rathi; Lim, Haikel A; Tan, Joyce Y S; Chua, Shi Min; Winslow, Munidasa

    2016-03-01

    Salvia divinorum, a sage plant with leaves that can produce a psychoactive high, has been used for hundreds of years for its psycho-mimetic effects in religious rituals in South America. Salvia has now become popular mainly with adolescents and young adults for the short-lived relatively pleasant experiences many consider a "legal high" and its ready availability through Internet purchases. The main (psycho)active compound in salvia is Salvinorin A, a potent κ-opioid agonist and although the short and long-term effects have not been examined in sufficient detail, it is widely believed to have low addictive potential and low toxicity. Recent findings, however, seem to suggest that Salvinorin A can precipitate psychiatric symptoms and negatively affect cognition. Its ready availability and increasingly widespread use requires clinicians to have knowledge and awareness of its effects. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Use of Salvia divinorum in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Brian E; Ahmedani, Brian K; Vaughn, Michael G; Glass, Joseph E; Abdon, Arnelyn; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2012-01-01

    Salvia divinorum has known hallucinogenic effects and is legal in most parts of the United States. Given that this psychoactive substance has a potential of misuse and abuse, further data regarding the clinical and psychosocial factors associated with use are needed. To examine the clinical and psychosocial characteristics associated with use of salvia. The study uses data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008 (N = 55,623). The results of this study suggest that salvia use is most common among young adults aged 18-25 years as well as individuals who had engaged in risk-taking behaviors (selling illicit drugs, stealing) or illicit drug use (especially other hallucinogens/ecstasy). Self-reported depression and anxiety were also associated with salvia use. CONCLUSIONS/SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: The results provide evidence that salvia use is part of a broader constellation of psychosocial and behavioral problems among youth and young adults. The accessibility, legal status, and psychoactive effects of salvia can be a potentially complicating health risk to young people, especially among those with existing substance use problems.

  13. Depressant Effects of Salvia divinorum Involve Disruption of Physiological Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Trujano, María Eva; Brindis, Fernando; López-Ruiz, Edith; Ramírez-Salado, Ignacio; Martínez, Adrián; Pellicer, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Although Salvia divinorum is traditionally known as a 'mind-altering' or psychoactive herb used, among others things, as a tranquilizer, this property has not been validated with regard to its efficacy and safety. The objective of this study is to provide evidence for the sedative effects of S. divinorum and discriminate the nature of the responsible constituents by examining different experimental models. A battery of tests, including the open-field, hole-board, exploration cylinder, plus-maze and sodium pentobarbital-induced hypnosis potentiation, were used in mice after administration of non-polar, medium polar and/or polar extracts of the plant (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg). Polysomnographic analysis in rats receiving an active medium polar extract (10 and 100 mg/kg) containing salvinorins was also assessed to study the effects of this plant on sleep architecture. All tested extracts produced significant sedative-like responses, although those of the medium polar extract were more pronounced in mice. The sedative effect of this latter extract, which contains a mixture of salvinorins, caused fragmented sleep architecture in rats by diminishing rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and increased the quiet awake stage at 10 and 100 mg/kg. Our results provide evidence that S. divinorum exhibits sedative-like depressant properties that alter physiological sleep architecture. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Salvia divinorum: exposures reported to a statewide poison control system over 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Rais; Seefeld, Andrew; Cantrell, F Lee; Clark, Richard F

    2011-06-01

    Salvia divinorum, a hallucinogenic herb, has in recent years become popular among teenagers and young adults. Salvia is presently marketed as a "legal" alternative to other drugs of abuse, but little is known about the clinical toxicity of this substance. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical and demographic features of this emerging substance of recreational abuse using data obtained from the records of a poison control center. We performed retrospective review of exposures to the herbal hallucinogen Salvia divinorum as reported to the California Poison Control System (CPCS) over the last 10 years. Demographic and clinical data were collected and compiled from the computerized records of the CPCS for the search terms "salvia" and "sage." There were 37 exposures to S. divinorum and 96 exposures to non-hallucinogenic Salvia species. Eighteen (49%) of the exposures were to S. divinorum alone. Intentional Salvia exposures resulted in a variety of neurologic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal effects. Notably, the use of concomitant substances of abuse was associated with a high rate of complications and psychomotor disturbances. Intentional use of S. divinorum, whether alone or in combination with alcoholic beverages and other drugs, causes neurologic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal effects. This poison-center-based review helps to characterize the clinical toxicity of S. divinorum, but more clinical and pharmacologic research is warranted for this rapidly emerging substance of abuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Salvinorin C, a new neoclerodane diterpene from a bioactive fraction of the hallucinogenic Mexican mint Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, L J; Chang, H M; Visger, D C; Koreeda, M

    2001-11-29

    Salvinorin C (1), a minor component from a biologically active TLC fraction, was isolated from the leaves of the Mexican mint Salvia divinorum. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive proton and C-13 NMR experiments, as well as by comparison of the NMR data with those of the mono- and diacetate derivatives 5-7 of the major NaBH(4)-reduction product of salvinorin A (2). [structure: see text

  16. Vegetative anatomy and micromorphology of Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae) from Mexico, combined with chromatographic analysis of salvinorin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Anna P; Raman, Vijayasankar; Galal, Ahmed M; Khan, Ikhlas A; Siebert, Daniel J; Zjawiony, Jordan K

    2014-01-01

    Salvia divinorum--a species traditionally cultivated in Oaxaca, Mexico--possesses hallucinogenic properties. It is legally recognized as a controlled substance and prohibited in many countries. The proper identification of the plant, both in fresh and dried forms, is an important issue in crime-prevention campaigns. This paper provides a thorough anatomical description of leaves, petioles, and stems of S. divinorum. Detailed investigation of foliar trichomes was performed and illustrated. In addition, chromatographic analyses, including TLC and HPLC, were applied to fresh and dried plant material, together with the standard reference salvinorin A. A comprehensive identification method for S. divinorum based on a thorough anatomical examination is proposed, combined with chemical analysis for proper plant recognition.

  17. Recent national trends in Salvia divinorum use and substance-use disorders among recent and former Salvia divinorum users compared with nonusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Woody, George E; Yang, Chongming; Li, Jih-Heng; Blazer, Dan G

    2011-04-01

    CONTEXT: Media and scientific reports have indicated an increase in recreational use of Salvia divinorum. Epidemiological data are lacking on the trends, prevalence, and correlates of S. divinorum use in large representative samples, as well as the extent of substance use and mental health problems among S. divinorum users. OBJECTIVE: To examine the national trend in prevalence of S. divinorum use and to identify sociodemographic, behavioral, mental health, and substance-use profiles of recent (past-year) and former users of S. divinorum. DESIGN: Analyses of public-use data files from the 2006-2008 United States National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N = 166,453). SETTING: Noninstitutionalized individuals aged 12 years or older were interviewed in their places of residence. MAIN MEASURES: Substance use, S. divinorum, self-reported substance use disorders, criminality, depression, and mental health treatment were assessed by standardized survey questions administered by the audio computer-assisted self-interviewing method. RESULTS: Among survey respondents, lifetime prevalence of S. divinorum use had increased from 0.7% in 2006 to 1.3% in 2008 (an 83% increase). S. divinorum use was associated with ages 18-25 years, male gender, white or multiple race, residence of large metropolitan areas, arrests for criminal activities, and depression. S. divinorum use was particularly common among recent drug users, including users of lysergic acid diethylamide (53.7%), ecstasy (30.1%), heroin (24.2%), phencyclidine (22.4%), and cocaine (17.5%). Adjusted multinomial logistic analyses indicated polydrug use as the strongest determinant for recent and former S. divinorum use. An estimated 43.0% of past-year S. divinorum users and 28.9% of former S. divinorum users had an illicit or nonmedical drug-use disorder compared with 2.5% of nonusers. Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed that recent and former S. divinorum users had greater odds of having past-year depression and

  18. From local to global-fifty years of research on Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casselman, Ivan; Nock, Catherine J; Wohlmuth, Hans; Weatherby, Robert P; Heinrich, Michael

    2014-02-03

    In 1962 ethnopharmacologists, Hofmann and Wasson, undertook an expedition to Oaxaca, Mexico. These two researchers were the first scientists to collect a flowering specimen of Salvia divinorum allowing the identification of this species. While the species' traditional use is confined to a very small region of Mexico, since Hofmann and Wasson's expedition 50 years ago, Salvia divinorum has become globally recognized for its main active constituent, the diterpene salvinorin A, which has a unique effect on human physiology. Salvinorin A is a kappa-opioid agonist and the first reported psychoactive diterpene. This review concentrates on the investigation of Salvia divinorum over the last 50 years including ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology, taxonomy, systematics, genetics, chemistry and pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic research. For the purpose of this review, online search engines were used to find relevant research. Searches were conducted between October 2011 and September 2013 using the search term "Salvia divinorum". Papers were excluded if they described synthetic chemical synthesis of salvinorin A or analogues. Ethnobotanically there is a comprehensive body of research describing the traditional Mazatec use of the plant, however, the modern ethnobotanical use of this plant is not well documented. There are a limited number of botanical investigations into this plant and there are still several aspects of the botany of Salvia divinorum which need further investigation. One study has investigated the phylogenetic relationship of Salvia divinorum to other species in the genus. To date the main focus of chemistry research on Salvia divinorum has been salvinorin A, the main active compound in Salvia divinorum, and other related diterpenoids. Finally, the effects of salvinorin A, a KOR agonist, have primarily been investigated using animal models. As Salvia divinorum use increases worldwide, the emerging cultural use patterns will warrant more research. More botanical

  19. Localization of Salvinorin A and Related Compounds in Glandular Trichomes of the Psychoactive Sage, Salvia divinorum

    OpenAIRE

    SIEBERT, DANIEL J.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Salvia divinorum produces several closely related neoclerodane diterpenes. The most abundant of these, salvinorin A, is responsible for the psychoactive properties of the plant. To determine where these compounds occur in the plant, various organs, tissues and glandular secretions were chemically analysed. A microscopic survey of the S. divinorum plant was performed to examine the various types of trichomes present and to determine their distribution.

  20. Pharmacological activity of salvinorin A, the major component of Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listos, Joanna; Merska, Alicja; Fidecka, Sylwia

    2011-01-01

    The hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum (i.e., "magic mint") is a member of the Sage family that has been historically used for divination and shamanism by the Mazatecs. Today, S. divinorum has become increasingly popular as a recreational drug for its hallucinogenic effects. The non-nitrogenous diterpene, salvinorin A, the major active component of S. divinorum, is responsible for the hallucinogenic effect of this plant. Here, we described the behavioral effects of salvinorin A in animals including the addictive, antinociception and antidepressant properties of the drug. The present paper also demonstrates the not well recognized (or unclear) mechanisms of action of salvinorin A. The last part of the paper presents information about the legal status of S. divinorum and its derivatives. Taking into account the increasing popularity and consumption of salvinorin A and S. divinorum today, it is important to collect all data on the pharmacological profile of this plant and its products.

  1. Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part II: association of adulterated samples to S. divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell

    2012-01-01

    Salvia divinorum is a plant material that is of forensic interest due to the hallucinogenic nature of the active ingredient, salvinorin A. In this study, S. divinorum was extracted and spiked onto four different plant materials (S. divinorum, Salvia officinalis, Cannabis sativa, and Nicotiana tabacum) to simulate an adulterated sample that might be encountered in a forensic laboratory. The adulterated samples were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the resulting total ion chromatograms were subjected to a series of pretreatment procedures that were used to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. The data were then analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) to investigate association of the adulterated extracts to unadulterated S. divinorum. While association was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot, additional procedures including Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores to provide a statistical evaluation of the association observed. The advantages and limitations of each statistical procedure in a forensic context were compared and are presented herein.

  2. "Quite a Profoundly Strange Experience": An Analysis of the Experiences of Salvia divinorum Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Fiona; Kivell, Bronwyn; Boyle, Otis

    2016-01-01

    Salvia divnorum (an intense hallucinogen) is currently illegal in New Zealand under the 2014 Psychoactive Substances Amendment Act. Despite this, there is a scarcity of research surrounding Salvia divinorum and its effects in a New Zealand context. To explore the experiences of Salvia divinorum users, an anonymous questionnaire was advertised through flyers placed in locations where young adults congregate. A total of 393 people took part in the online questionnaire in 2010-2011, while salvia was legally available in New Zealand; 167 respondents had used salvia. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the resulting open-ended questionnaire data and three key themes were identified: the effects of salvia; the importance of set and setting; salvia use and pleasure/not-pleasure. Recreational use of salvia was situated within a broader drug landscape, with participants being drug experienced and "drug wise" (Measham, Aldridge, and Parker 2001). Use of salvia also appeared to be intermittent, with its use referred to as a novel experience. Thus, the recent criminalization of salvia under the 2014 Act may see a significant decline in use as experienced drug users look elsewhere for novel drug experiences.

  3. Localization of salvinorin A and related compounds in glandular trichomes of the psychoactive sage, Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Daniel J

    2004-06-01

    Salvia divinorum produces several closely related neoclerodane diterpenes. The most abundant of these, salvinorin A, is responsible for the psychoactive properties of the plant. To determine where these compounds occur in the plant, various organs, tissues and glandular secretions were chemically analysed. A microscopic survey of the S. divinorum plant was performed to examine the various types of trichomes present and to determine their distribution. Chemical analyses were performed using thin layer chromatographic and histochemical techniques. Trichomes were examined using conventional light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that neoclerodane diterpenes are secreted as components of a resin that accumulates in peltate glandular trichomes, specifically in the subcuticular space that exists between the trichome head cells and the cuticle that encloses them. Four main types of trichomes were observed: peltate glandular trichomes, short-stalked capitate glandular trichomes, long-stalked capitate glandular trichomes and non-glandular trichomes. Their morphology and distribution is described. Peltate glandular trichomes were only found on the abaxial surfaces of the leaves, stems, rachises, bracts, pedicles and calyces. This was consistent with chemical analyses, which showed the presence of neoclerodane diterpenes in these organs, but not in parts of the plant where peltate glandular trichomes are absent. Salvinorin A and related compounds are secreted as components of a complex resin that accumulates in the subcuticular space of peltate glandular trichomes.

  4. PCR and PCR-RFLP of the 5S-rRNA-NTS region and salvinorin A analyses for the rapid and unequivocal determination of Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertea, Cinzia M; Luciano, Pino; Bossi, Simone; Leoni, Francesca; Baiocchi, Claudio; Medana, Claudio; Azzolin, Chiara M M; Temporale, Giovanni; Lombardozzi, Maria Antonietta; Maffei, Massimo E

    2006-02-01

    Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva-M. is a perennial herb belonging to the Lamiaceae family; its active ingredient, the neoclerodane diterpene salvinorin A, is a psychotropic molecule that produces hallucinations. A comparative evaluation of S. divinorum fresh and dried leaves, S. officinalis fresh leaves, and dried powdered leaves claimed to be S. divinorum was done. HPLC-MS data confirmed the presence of salvinorin A in both S. divinorun leaf extracts and the powdered leaves, whereas no salvinorin A was found in S. officinalis. The non-transcribed spacer (NTS) in the 5S-rRNA gene of all leaf samples and the dried powdered leaves was amplified by PCR using a pair of primers located at the 3' and 5' ends of the coding sequence of 5S-rRNA gene. The resulting PCR products (about 500bp for S. divinorum and 300bp for S. officinalis) were gel purified, subcloned into pGEM-T Easy vector and sequenced. By aligning the isolated nucleotide sequences, great diversities were found in the spacer region of the two species. Specific S. divinorum primers were designed on the sequence of the 5S-rRNA gene spacer region. In addition, a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was applied using NdeI and TaqI restriction enzymes. An NdeI site, absent in S. officinalis, was found in S. divinorum NTS region at 428-433bp. For TaqI, multiple sites (161-164, 170-173, and 217-220bp) were found in S. officinalis, whereas a unique site was found in S. divinorum (235-238bp). The results of this work show that the combined use of analytical chemical (HPLC-MS) and molecular (DNA fingerprinting) methods lead to the precise and unequivocal identification of S. divinorum.

  5. Recent national trends in Salvia divinorum use and substance-use disorders among recent and former Salvia divinorum users compared with nonusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazer DG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Li-Tzy Wu1, George E Woody2, Chongming Yang3, Jih-Heng Li4, Dan G Blazer11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania and Treatment Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Social Science Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 4College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, TaiwanContext: Media and scientific reports have indicated an increase in recreational use of Salvia divinorum. Epidemiological data are lacking on the trends, prevalence, and correlates of S. divinorum use in large representative samples, as well as the extent of substance use and mental health problems among S. divinorum users.Objective: To examine the national trend in prevalence of S. divinorum use and to identify sociodemographic, behavioral, mental health, and substance-use profiles of recent (past-year and former users of S. divinorum.Design: Analyses of public-use data files from the 2006–2008 United States National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N = 166,453.Setting: Noninstitutionalized individuals aged 12 years or older were interviewed in their places of residence.Main measures: Substance use, S. divinorum, self-reported substance use disorders, criminality, depression, and mental health treatment were assessed by standardized survey questions administered by the audio computer-assisted self-interviewing method.Results: Among survey respondents, lifetime prevalence of S. divinorum use had increased from 0.7% in 2006 to 1.3% in 2008 (an 83% increase. S. divinorum use was associated with ages 18–25 years, male gender, white or multiple race, residence of large metropolitan areas, arrests for criminal activities, and depression. S. divinorum use was particularly common among recent drug users, including users of lysergic acid diethylamide (53.7%, ecstasy (30.1%, heroin (24.2%, phencyclidine (22.4%, and cocaine (17

  6. Evolution and origins of the Mazatec hallucinogenic sage, Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae): a molecular phylogenetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Aaron A; Walker, Jay B; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2011-09-01

    Salvia divinorum Epl. & Játiva-M. (Lamiaceae) is a potent hallucinogenic plant that is classified within Salvia subgenus Calosphace, section Dusenostachys, and hypothesized to be an interspecific hybrid. It is of ethnobotanical significance due to its employment in traditional healing ceremonies by the Mazatecs of Oaxaca, Mexico, and due to its unique pharmacology-a highly selective, non-nitrogenous, κ-opioid receptor agonist. In order to test its phylogenetic position and putative hybridity, we sequenced multiple DNA regions (ITS, trnL-trnF, and psbA-trnH) of 52 species-representing the major lineages of subgenus Calosphace-and six accessions of S. divinorum. Our molecular phylogenetic results suggest that S. divinorum should not be classified within Dusenostachys and that it is not a hybrid. Additionally, we determine that the closest known relative of this psychoactive Mexican sage is S. venulosa, a rare endemic of Colombia.

  7. The subjective experience of acute, experimentally-induced Salvia divinorum inebriation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Peter H; Garcia-Romeu, Albert; Metzger, Matthew; Wade, Jenny

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the overall psychological effects of inebriation facilitated by the naturally-occurring plant hallucinogen Salvia divinorum using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Thirty healthy individuals self-administered Salvia divinorum via combustion and inhalation in a quiet, comfortable research setting. Experimental sessions, post-session interviews, and 8-week follow-up meetings were audio recorded and transcribed to provide the primary qualitative material analyzed here. Additionally, post-session responses to the Hallucinogen Rating Scale provided a quantitative groundwork for mixed-methods discussion. Qualitative data underwent thematic content analysis, being coded independently by three researchers before being collaboratively integrated to provide the final results. Three main themes and 10 subthemes of acute intoxication emerged, encompassing the qualities of the experience, perceptual alterations, and cognitive-affective shifts. The experience was described as having rapid onset and being intense and unique. Participants reported marked changes in auditory, visual, and interoceptive sensory input; losing normal awareness of themselves and their surroundings; and an assortment of delusional phenomena. Additionally, the abuse potential of Salvia divinorum was examined post hoc. These findings are discussed in light of previous research, and provide an initial framework for greater understanding of the subjective effects of Salvia divinorum, an emerging drug of abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. [Salvia divinorum--representation of a new drug in the Internet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemann, H; Specka, M; Schifano, F; Deluca, P; Scherbaum, N

    2006-05-01

    The German pages of the Internet were searched for the presence of the hallucinogenic herbal drug Salvia divinorum, which is not dealt with in current addiction medicine or psychiatric text books. The investigation is part of the EU sponsored project "Psychonaut" as preparatory work for the development of an Internet-based early warning system. The first 100 websites of the search using "Salvia divinorum" were compared with the search results for "cannabis" and "LSD". The following aspects of the sites were especially analyzed: the originator, marketing of drugs, and the attitude towards drug use. Salvia was offered for sale on approximately a third of the sites (29%); cannabis and LSD were not marketed on any sites. Official websites such as those from governmental organizations or universities were seldom found when searching for "Salvia divinorum", and then only under the last hits. The percentage of institutional sites (e. g. public organizations) were 12% with Salvia, 21% with cannabis, and 38% with LSD. A drug-friendly attitude was found at 64 % of the sites with regard to Salvia, 58% for cannabis, and 24% for LSD. The drug help system must be aware of that the Internet is a source of drug-related information, and of drug trade. As this investigation shows, sites often have a drug-friendly attitude. The low availability of official information on Salvia divinorum (also outside the Internet) relative to the presence of drug-friendly or drug trading sites is an indication that new trends of drug consumption can be tracked in the Internet before they will be found in official literature.

  9. Analysis of the psychoactive terpenoid salvinorin A content in five Salvia divinorum herbal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowich, William R; Perkins, Alisha M; Cienki, John J

    2006-09-01

    To determine the content of the hallucinogen salvinorin A in a variety of Salvia divinorum herbal products and to compare the content with the label claims of potency and purity. Laboratory analysis. University-affiliated laboratory. Five herbal products containing Salvia divinorum. The samples were purchased from the Internet and local drug paraphernalia shops ("head shops"). Highperformance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy were used for the analysis. All five samples contained salvinorin A, a psychoactive compound found in Salvia divinorum; however, the salvinorin A concentrations we measured were much lower than those claimed on the product label. Vitamin E was also found in two samples and caffeine in one sample. The five salvinorin A herbal products were found to be subpotent, and three products contained adulterants. Any discrepancy between the advertised salvinorin A concentration and their actual concentration may pose a potential risk of both misuse and overdose. These concerns, and the recently reported teenage suicide that could have been related to salvia consumption, underscore the need for practitioners to become familiar with the signs and symptoms of salvia use.

  10. Influence of age on Salvia divinorum use: results of an Internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyi, Pearl P; Lai, Emily P; Lee, Diana Y; Biglete, Shannon A; Torrecer, Gilsky I; Anderson, Ilene B

    2010-09-01

    An Internet-based survey of Salvia divinorum ("salvia") users was conducted to identify correlates surrounding its use. Salvia-knowledgeable persons were recruited via "social networking Internet websites" (n = 23) where notices were posted on recreational salvia group message boards (n = 69). Data collection included demographics, use circumstances, experiences, and age (current and at first salvia use). A total of 219 surveys were analyzed. Salvia users who were young adults (salvia for fun (OR = 1.94, CI = 1.08-3.49, p = 0.03) or to relieve boredom (OR = 2.06 CI = 1.09-3.91, p = 0.02), while salvia users who were adults (> or = 22 yrs) at first use favored salvia for spiritual effects (OR = 2.63, CI = 1.02-6.75, p = 0.04). Being an adult at first use was associated with higher odds of concurrent marijuana (OR = 2.68, CI = 1.50-4.78, p = 0.0007) or tobacco use (OR = 1.94, CI = 1.05-3.60, p = 0.03). Over half of all respondents reported use reduction or cessation in the past 12 months (114 of 219, 52%), citing dislike of the high (33.3%) or loss of interest in salvia (28.9%). Reports of cessation suggest salvia use may be more attributed to curiosity than continual abuse.

  11. The Association of Salvia divinorum and Psychotic Disorders: A Review of the Literature and Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Joseph; Sahakian, Nayiri

    2015-01-01

    The association of substance abuse and psychotic disorders is of interest to clinicians, academics, and lawmakers. Commonly abused substances, such as cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, and alcohol, have all been associated with substance-induced psychosis. Hallucinogens can induce desired psychedelic effects and undesirable psychomimetic reactions. These are usually transient and resolve once the duration of action is over. Sometimes, these effects persist, causing distress and requiring intervention. This article focuses on the hallucinogenic substance Salvia divinorum, the use of which has been observed, particularly among youth worldwide. We present background information based on a review of the literature and on our own clinical encounters, as highlighted by two original case reports. We hypothesize that consumption of Salvia divinorum could be associated with the development of psychotic disorders. We propose that clinicians routinely inquire about the use of Salvia in patients with substance use disorders or psychotic illnesses. More research is required to assess any relationship between Salvia divinorum and psychosis. Additionally, we advocate increased public and medical awareness of this substance and other emerging drugs of abuse.

  12. Legally tripping: a qualitative profile of Salvia divinorum use among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian C

    2011-01-01

    During recent years, there has been increasing interest in "legal highs" among youth and young adults. Salvia divinorum is a legally available hallucinogenic plant, primarily utilized in smokable form, that produces a brief but intense hallucinogenic experience for the user. Data are presented from an ethnographic project to provide a qualitative profile of salvia use among young adults. Most users report primarily using in home settings such as apartments and houses, although a significant minority report use in environments such as parks, bars, and parties. The intense nature of the substance creates a differential subjective experience. Some describe the intensity of the hallucinogenic experience in positive ways. Others find the experience so intense that they would not continue to use the substance. With regard to the health effects of salvia, most young adults report no significant negative health effects from salvia use, although some report a mental cloudiness. Beyond their own experiences, users did not report any negative health events among peers. The lack of reports of negative effects may reinforce social norms favorable towards salvia use. Overall, young adults report a relatively low risk profile for salvia divinorum, which may be influenced, in part, by its legal status.

  13. The hallucinogenic herb Salvia divinorum and its active ingredient salvinorin A reduce inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, R; Borrelli, F; Zjawiony, J; Kutrzeba, L; Aviello, G; Sarnelli, G; Capasso, F; Izzo, A A

    2008-02-01

    The hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum has been used for medical treatments of gastrointestinal disorders. Here, we evaluated the effect of a standardized extract from the leaves of Salvia divinorum (SDE) and of its active ingredient salvinorin A on motility in vivo, both in physiological states and during croton oil-induced intestinal inflammation. SDE (1-100 mg kg(-1)) significantly inhibited motility only in inflamed, but not in control, mice. In control mice, salvinorin A (0.01-10 mg kg(-1)) significantly inhibited motility only at the highest doses tested (3 and 10 mg kg(-1)) and this effect was not counteracted by naloxone or by the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist nor-binaltorphimine. Inflammation significantly increased the potency of salvinorin A (but not of the KOR agonist U-50488) in reducing motility. The inhibitory effects of both salvinorin A and U-50488 in inflamed mice were counteracted by naloxone or by nor-binaltorphimine. We conclude that salvinorin A may reduce motility through activation of different targets. In physiological states, salvinorin A, at high doses, inhibited motility through a non-KOR mediated mechanism. Gut inflammation increased the potency of salvinorin A; this effect was mediated by KOR, but it was not shared by U-50488, thus suggesting that salvinorin A may have target(s) other than KOR in the inflamed gut.

  14. Salvia divinorum: from Mazatec medicinal and hallucinogenic plant to emerging recreational drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawilska, Jolanta B; Wojcieszak, Jakub

    2013-09-01

    Salvia divinorum is a sage endemic to a small region of Mexico and has been traditionally used by the Mazatec Indians for divination and spiritual healing. Recently, it has gained increased popularity as a recreational drug, used by adolescents and young adults as an alternative to marijuana and LSD. Salvinorin A, the major active ingredient of the plant, is considered to be the most potent known hallucinogen of natural origin. This review surveys the current state of knowledge on the neurochemical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacological properties of salvinorin A, the trends and motivation behind S. divinorum use, and the health problems among users of the plant's products. S. divinorum induces intense, but short-lived, psychedelic-like changes in mood and perception, with concomitant hallucinations and disorientation. Many websites have misinterpreted the limited existing research-based information on the side effects of salvia as evidence for its safety. However, data accumulated over the last few years indicate that potential health risks are associated with the use of S. divinorum, especially by teenagers, users of other substances of abuse, and individuals with underlying psychotic disturbances. Taken together, the data presented in this review point to the need for further basic and clinical studies to create a basis for the development of well-addressed prevention and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Synthetic studies of neoclerodane diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: preparation and opioid receptor activity of salvinicin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Denise S; Katavic, Peter L; Lozama, Anthony; Harding, Wayne W; Parrish, Damon; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Dersch, Christina M; Partilla, John S; Rothman, Richard B; Navarro, Hernan; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2007-07-26

    Further modification of salvinorin A (1a), the major active component of Salvia divinorum, has resulted in the synthesis of novel neoclerodane diterpenes with opioid receptor affinity and activity. We report in this study that oxadiazole 11a and salvidivin A (12a), a photooxygenation product of 1a, have been identified as the first neoclerodane diterpenes with kappa antagonist activity. This indicates that additional structural modifications of 1a may lead to analogues with higher potency and utility as drug abuse medications.

  16. Palladium-catalyzed transformations of salvinorin A, a neoclerodane diterpene from Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Andrew P; Day, Victor W; Navarro, Hernán A; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2013-12-06

    Transformations that selectively modify the furan ring present in a variety of naturals products would be useful in the synthesis of biological probes but remain largely underexplored. The neoclerodane diterpene salvinorin A, isolated from Salvia divinorum, is an example of a furan-containing natural product. Following selective bromination of salvinorin A, Suzuki-Miyaura and Sonogashira couplings were accomplished in moderate to good yields without hydrolyzing the labile C-2 acetate or altering the stereochemistry of the epimerizable centers.

  17. Novel use patterns of Salvia divinorum: unobtrusive observation using YouTube™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casselman, Ivan; Heinrich, Michael

    2011-12-08

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE AND AIMS: The traditional use of the Hallucinogenic sage, Salvia divinorum has been of ethnopharmalogical interest for some time. This plant, endemic to Oaxaca Mexico and traditionally used by the Mazatec, is now utilized worldwide for its psychoactive effects. This use demonstrates a novel use pattern which is distinctly different from Mazatec use. This study offers a new methodology to study emerging global plant use and assesses the users' experience with it. The aim of this research was to develop a new methodology to collect and analyze archived data on the World Wide Web, specifically videos which depict Salvia divinorum use. The basis of the methodology for this project was unobtrusive observation which allows the researcher to observe without influencing the event which is being observed. Qualitative, ethnographic data was used in conjunction with quantitative meta data collected by a customized web crawler programed to archive YouTube™ data. Using this methodology enabled us to understand reported uses and the users' experiences as expressed on the World Wide Web. The main result of this research was the documentation of a distinct, novel use pattern of Salvia divinorum which has developed outside of Oaxaca; a use pattern which differs in a number of ways from traditional, Mazatec use. The majority of the YouTube™ videos analyzed were found to present indications of a positive Salvia divinorum experience. This result highlighted the contradiction between ethnographic data and what is reported by the media. Finally the representation of Salvia divinorum on YouTube™ (and by inference the WWW as a whole) is a growing phenomena. While anthropological and more specifically medico-anthropological research has, for many years, embraced the dynamics of cultures, until recently, ethnopharmalogical research has generally focused on 'traditional' plant use, failing to capture the dynamic elements of plant/human interaction and

  18. Salvinorin A content in legal high products of Salvia divinorum sold in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bello, Rafael; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; García-Sosa, Karlina; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel; Vázquez-Hernández, Maribel; Ramos-Morales, Fernando Rafael; Corcoran, Olivia; Sánchez-Medina, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae) is a herb native to Mexico where it is used by Mazatec shamans for spiritual and divination purposes. S. divinorum products are easily available to consumers and are used worldwide as legal highs because of the hallucinogenic effects caused mainly by salvinorin A. Highly popular videos and websites on the internet depicting the use of S. divinorum products have contributed to an increase in their consumption. Recent reports have highlighted the potential of these products to induce psychosis in consumers. In Mexico, dried leaf extracts of S. divinorum are sold in different strengths, claiming to correlate with increasing amounts of salvinorin A. In order to determine the variability of salvinorin A content between brands and to investigate possible correlation between brand strengths, this study sought to quantify salvinorin A in commercial products available in Mexico using an HPLC method. The HPLC analytical method showed a correlation coefficient R(2)>0.99, with LOD of 0.44 μg/mL and LOQ of 1.34 μg/mL. The retention time for salvinorin A was 23.09±0.95 min and the measured concentrations ranged between 8.32±0.65 and 56.52±3.77 mg/g dried leaf. The results for brand c did not show an agreement between the declared and the calculated amount of salvinorin A. Additionally, the emergence in Mexico of high strength salvia products (100×), the lack of regulation and the observed variability of salvinorin A content between brands of commercial legal highs products of S. divinorum could result in a health problem for consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Internet access to Salvia divinorum: implications for policy, prevention, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Valerie; Marlowe, Douglas B; Patapis, Nicholas S; Festinger, David S; Forman, Robert F

    2008-07-01

    This study determined the degree to which Salvia divinorum, a potent hallucinogenic drug that is legal in most U.S. jurisdictions, is being proffered for sale over the Internet and how it is being characterized on popular Web sites. Search results revealed that between one half and two thirds (58%) of the Web sites either offered to sell S. divinorum or linked to other Web sites offering to sell the drug and that more than three quarters (78%) of the Web sites advocated for its use. Many of the statements issued on the Web sites were erroneous or falsely interpreted the absence of scientific data on the possible side effects of S. divinorum as evidence that no side effect exists. The portrayal and availability of S. divinorum on the Internet are similar to those of other illicit and prescription drugs of abuse. However, much less is known about the short- and long-term effects of this novel drug. Consequently, there is little basis to contradict the many Web sites that encourage its use. Implications for drug policy, prevention, and treatment are discussed.

  20. Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A: an update on pharmacology and analytical methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Oliver; Phipps, Stephen M; Zadezensky, Immo; Butterweck, Veronika

    2007-08-01

    Salvia divinorum L. (Lamiaceae) has been used for centuries by the Mazatecan culture and has gained popularity as a recreational drug in recent years. Its potent hallucinogenic effects seen in case reports has triggered research and led to the discovery of the first highly selective non-nitrogenous kappa opioid receptor agonist salvinorin A. This review critically evaluates the reported pharmacological and toxicological properties of S. divinorum and one of its major compounds salvinorin A, its pharmacokinetic profile, and the analytical methods developed so far for its detection and quantification. Recent research puts a strong emphasis on salvinorin A , which has been shown to be a selective opioid antagonist and is believed to have further beneficial properties , rather than the leaf extract of S. divinorum. Currently animal studies show a rapid onset of action and short distribution and elimination half-lives as well as a lack of evidence of short- or long-term toxicity. Salvinorin A seems to be the most promising approach to new treatment options for a variety of CNS illnesses. However, many further investigations are necessary to fully understand and elucidate the various medicinal properties of the plant itself and to provide the legislative authorities with enough information to cast judgement on S. divinorum.

  1. Determination of salvinorin A and salvinorin B in Salvia divinorum-related products circulated in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Yoshida, Takemi; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2008-09-18

    Two major salvinorins, salvinorin A (SalA) and salvinorin B (SalB), in three Salvia divinorum dried leaf products and nine of its "concentrated extract" products circulated in Japan were determined. These ingredients were extracted twice with acetonitrile and decolored with graphite carbon powder. SalA and SalB were confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in product ion scan mode, and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (for SalA) and by mass spectrometry in single ion monitoring mode (for SalB). The SalA/SalB contents (mug/mg) were in the range of 3.2-5.0/0.10-0.17 in the dried leaf products and 4.1-38.9/0.26-2.42 in the "concentrated extract" products. These findings would be useful for analysis of S. divinorum-related products circulated in the drug market.

  2. Examining the measurement of novel drug perceptions: Salvia divinorum, gender, and peer substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bryan Lee; Boman, John H; Stogner, John

    2013-01-01

    Researchers commonly use a person's perception of the drug use of friends to determine the impact that peers exert on one's own behavior. Recently, there has been concern over this measure's validity. Novel drugs, which are either newly discovered drugs or existing substances only recently used for recreational purposes, may be used so infrequently that people have too few observable opportunities to accurately develop perceptions of their peer's use. Employing survey data collected in 2009 from 2,154 individuals within friendship pairs in the Southeast United States, we explore how gender affects perceptions of the infrequently used, novel drug Salvia divinorum. The study's limitations are noted.

  3. Salvia divinorum: a psychopharmacological riddle and a mind-body prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jose-Luis

    2013-03-01

    The multidisciplinary research on Salvia divinorum and its chemical principles is analyzed concerning whether the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, mental effects, and neuropharmacology of this sacred psychoactive plant and main principle clarify its experienced effects and divinatory uses. The scientific pursuit spans from the traditional practices, continues with the botanical identification, isolation of active molecules, characterization of mental and neural effects, possible therapeutic applications, and impinges upon the mind-body problem. The departure point is ethnopharmacology and therefore the traditional beliefs, ritual uses, and mental effects of this Mazatec sacred mint recorded during a 1973- 1983 field research project are described. A water potion of crushed leaves produced short-lasting light-headedness, dysphoria, tactile and proprioceptive sensations, a sense of depersonalization, amplified sound perception, and an increase visual and auditory imagery, but not actual hallucinations. Similar effects were described using questionnaires and are attributable to salvinorin A, but cannot be explained solely by its specific and potent brain kappa-opioid receptor agonist activity. Some requirements for a feasible classification and mechanism of action of consciousness-altering products are proposed and include the activation of neural networks comprising several neurochemical systems. Top-down analyses should be undertaken in order to characterize such neural networks and eventually allowing to explore the differential ethnic effects. As is the case for other consciousness-altering preparations, a careful and encompassing research on this plant and principle can be consequential to endeavors ranging from the mind-body problem, a better understanding of shamanic ecstasy, to the potential generation of analgesic, antidepressant, and drug-abuse attenuating products.

  4. Pattern of use and subjective effects of Salvia divinorum among recreational users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Débora; Riba, Jordi; Bouso, José Carlos; Gómez-Jarabo, Gregorio; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2006-11-08

    Salvia divinorum is a member of the Lamiaceae family and contains the psychotropic diterpene and kappa-opioid receptor agonist salvinorin-A. Originally a shamanic inebriant used by the Mexican Mazatec Indians, the plant and its preparations are becoming increasingly popular among non-traditional users. Demographic data and information on pattern of use and subjective effects were obtained by means of self-report questionnaires from a sample of 32 recreational users of salvia and other psychedelics. Involvement with salvia appeared to be a recent phenomenon. Smoking the extract was the preferred form of administration. Subjective effects were described as intense but short-lived, appearing in less than 1 min and lasting 15 min or less. They included psychedelic-like changes in visual perception, mood and somatic sensations, and importantly, a highly modified perception of external reality and the self, leading to a decreased ability to interact with oneself or with one's surroundings. Although some aspects of the subjective effects reported were similar to high doses of classical psychedelics with serotonin-2A receptor agonist activity, the intense derealization and impairment reported appear to be a characteristic of salvia. The observed simultaneous high scores on the LSD and PCAG subscales of the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) have been previously reported for other kappa-opioid agonists, and support kappa receptor activation as the probable pharmacologic mechanism underlying the modified state of awareness induced by salvia.

  5. Analytical investigation of legal high products containing Salvia divinorum traded in smartshops and internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier Moreira, Fernando; Carvalho, Félix; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2014-09-01

    Lately, the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum has been considered a popular recreational product among adolescents, being legally sold in several countries in "smartshops" and in internet websites. Sellers frequently omit the safety information about the plant, encouraging its use for recreational purposes, without providing adequate qualitative and quantitative details. The principal hallucinogenic compound of the plant, salvinorin A, alongside with three other isomeric compounds, salvinorin B, C and D were evaluated in 10 products containing S. divinorum. These products were obtained in smartshops and from internet websites, and contained concentrated extracts of salvinorin A, with potencies labeled between "5x" and "60x". For that purpose a simple and rapid extraction protocol and a GC-MS methodology were developed and applied to the purchased samples. The analysis of S. divinorum samples allowed the identification of four salvinorins, salvinorin A being the most prevalent hallucinogen. In the tested samples, there were several unreliable data provided to consumers. Frequently, there was no information on salvinorin A concentration, but when it existed, it generally did not correspond to the true amount present in products. On the other hand, the concentration of salvinorin A in each product far exceeded the amount needed to produce hallucinogenic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Report of Nausea and Vomiting with Discontinuation of Chronic Use of Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, C R; Ray, G A; Marlowe, K F

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. This is the first reported case of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with withdrawal after chronic use of this substance. Case Presentation. A 51-year-old Caucasian woman was referred to a hospital with a 3-day history of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort. She reported no sick family members or contact with anyone who was ill. She did report smoking 3-5 cigarettes of the herb "Salvia" consistently for 3-4 months and quit approximately 48 hours before symptoms appeared. Her use of the herb had been consistent; she smoked several cigarettes each day. Laboratory results were essentially normal including the white blood cell count. She received symptomatic treatment and was released after one day. Discussion. Salvinorin A, a kappa-opioid receptor agonist, is the major active ingredient of S. divinorum. The unique opioid properties of this herb may explain its ability to cause changes in intestinal transit time. Conclusion. A 51-year-old woman possibly developed gastrointestinal manifestations suggestive of withdrawal from Salvia divinorum after smoking the substance consistently for 3 to 4 months. The widespread use of this herb will make the potential for withdrawal syndromes more commonplace.

  7. Analyzing salvia divinorum and its active ingredient salvinorin a utilizing thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermain, John D; Evans, Hiram K

    2009-05-01

    In recent years, Salvia divinorum has become a major focus by state legislatures throughout the United States looking to prohibit the sale of the psychoactive plant. After researching testing procedures presented in the literature and those employed by crime laboratories throughout the country, it was decided that thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were the methods to use to analyze plant material for salvinorin A. With TLC, salvinorin A was detected from extracted plant material and was easily distinguishable from 13 other Salvia species as well as Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana). When using GC/MS, salvinorin A was best extracted from plant material with chloroform at ambient temperature when using a nonpolar solvent and acetone at ambient temperature when using a polar solvent. By utilizing these techniques, criminalists are now able to confirm the presence of salvinorin A in a submitted plant material suspected to be Salvia divinorum.

  8. Regulating a novel drug: an evaluation of changes in use of Salvia divinorum in the first year of Florida's ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogner, John; Khey, David N; Griffin, O Hayden; Miller, Bryan Lee; Boman, John H

    2012-11-01

    A plant with dissociative and psychoactive properties began to attract the attention of the media and United States policymakers following a well-publicized suicide in 2006 and reports that the plant served as a 'legal high' and substitute for cannabis. As a result, Salvia divinorum and its active ingredient, salvinorin A, were classified as Schedule I substances by the Florida Legislature on July 1, 2008. As of yet, no research has explored the efficacy of this policy or similar policies in other jurisdictions. Three self-report studies collected from young adults both prior to and following the policy's implementation are employed to investigate the potential relationship between the policy and usage rates. In addition, law enforcement personnel from the state's most populated areas were interviewed to determine the extent to which they were encountering salvia in their work. It was indicated that less than two-thirds of those surveyed were aware of the drug's legal status. Lifetime prevalence of salvia use was largely unchanged. However, the rates of self-reported past year and past month use in Florida were significantly lower following the scheduling. Though use of Salvia divinorum appears to have decreased, perceptions of peer use increased markedly. Law enforcement officers and laboratories reported rarely, if ever, dealing with cases of salvia possession. Data suggests the classification of Salvia divinorum as a Schedule I drug was followed by a substantial reduction in recreational use. We caution that other factors may have influenced use, that the efficacy of scheduling novel substances is likely to vary by drug type, that such a reduction in reported use may only exist transiently until a sophisticated illicit market develops to replace the legitimate one, and that a state's success in regulating salvia may be related to their regulation of and enforcement of other drug prohibitions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The hallucinogenic herb Salvia divinorum and its active ingredient salvinorin A inhibit enteric cholinergic transmission in the guinea-pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, R; Borrelli, F; Capasso, F; Siebert, D J; Stewart, D J; Zjawiony, J K; Izzo, A A

    2006-01-01

    Salvia divinorum is a widespread hallucinogenic herb traditionally employed for divination, as well as a medicament for several disorders including disturbances of gastrointestinal motility. In the present study we evaluated the effect of a standardized extract from the leaves of S. divinorum (SDE) on enteric cholinergic transmission in the guinea-pig ileum. SDE reduced electrically evoked contractions without modifying the contractions elicited by exogenous acetylcholine, thus suggesting a prejunctional site of action. The inhibitory effect of SDE on twitch response was abolished by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and by the kappa-opioid antagonist nor-binaltorphimine, but not by naltrindole (a delta-opioid receptor antagonist), CTOP (a mu-opioid receptor antagonist), thioperamide (a H(3) receptor antagonist), yohimbine (an alpha(2)-receptor antagonist), methysergide (a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (an inhibitor of NO synthase) or apamin (a blocker of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels). Salvinorin A, the main active ingredient of S. divinorum, inhibited in a nor-binaltorphimine- and naloxone-sensitive manner electrically induced contractions. It is concluded that SDE depressed enteric cholinergic transmission likely through activation of kappa-opioid receptors and this may provide the pharmacological basis underlying its traditional antidiarrhoeal use. Salvinorin A might be the chemical ingredient responsible for this activity.

  10. A Report of Nausea and Vomiting with Discontinuation of Chronic Use of Salvia divinorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Travis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This is the first reported case of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with withdrawal after chronic use of this substance. Case Presentation. A 51-year-old Caucasian woman was referred to a hospital with a 3-day history of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort. She reported no sick family members or contact with anyone who was ill. She did report smoking 3–5 cigarettes of the herb “Salvia” consistently for 3-4 months and quit approximately 48 hours before symptoms appeared. Her use of the herb had been consistent; she smoked several cigarettes each day. Laboratory results were essentially normal including the white blood cell count. She received symptomatic treatment and was released after one day. Discussion. Salvinorin A, a kappa-opioid receptor agonist, is the major active ingredient of S. divinorum. The unique opioid properties of this herb may explain its ability to cause changes in intestinal transit time. Conclusion. A 51-year-old woman possibly developed gastrointestinal manifestations suggestive of withdrawal from Salvia divinorum after smoking the substance consistently for 3 to 4 months. The widespread use of this herb will make the potential for withdrawal syndromes more commonplace.

  11. A (-)-kolavenyl diphosphate synthase catalyzes the first step of salvinorin A biosynthesis in Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyue; Berim, Anna; Dayan, Franck E; Gang, David R

    2017-02-01

    Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae) is an annual herb used by indigenous cultures of Mexico for medicinal and ritual purposes. The biosynthesis of salvinorin A, its major bioactive neo-clerodane diterpenoid, remains virtually unknown. This investigation aimed to identify the enzyme that catalyzes the first reaction of salvinorin A biosynthesis, the formation of (-)-kolavenyl diphosphate [(-)-KPP], which is subsequently dephosphorylated to afford (-)-kolavenol. Peltate glandular trichomes were identified as the major and perhaps exclusive site of salvinorin accumulation in S. divinorum. The trichome-specific transcriptome was used to identify candidate diterpene synthases (diTPSs). In vitro and in planta characterization of a class II diTPS designated as SdKPS confirmed its activity as (-)-KPP synthase and its involvement in salvinorin A biosynthesis. Mutation of a phenylalanine into histidine in the active site of SdKPS completely converts the product from (-)-KPP into ent-copalyl diphosphate. Structural elements were identified that mediate the natural formation of the neo-clerodane backbone by this enzyme and suggest how SdKPS and other diTPSs may have evolved from ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. The claustrum’s proposed role in consciousness is supported by the effect and target localization of Salvia divinorum

    OpenAIRE

    Stiefel, Klaus M.; Alistair eMerrifield; Holcombe, Alex O.

    2014-01-01

    This article brings together three findings and ideas relevant for the understanding of human consciousness: (I) Crick’s and Koch’s theory that the claustrum is a “conductor of consciousness” crucial for subjective conscious experience. (II) Subjective reports of the consciousness-altering effects the plant Salvia divinorum, whose primary active ingredient is salvinorin A, a κ-opioid receptor agonist. (III) The high density of κ-opioid receptors in the claustrum. Fact III suggests that the co...

  13. The claustrum’s proposed role in consciousness is supported by the effect and target localization of Salvia divinorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefel, Klaus M.; Merrifield, Alistair; Holcombe, Alex O.

    2014-01-01

    This article brings together three findings and ideas relevant for the understanding of human consciousness: (I) Crick’s and Koch’s theory that the claustrum is a “conductor of consciousness” crucial for subjective conscious experience. (II) Subjective reports of the consciousness-altering effects the plant Salvia divinorum, whose primary active ingredient is salvinorin A, a κ-opioid receptor agonist. (III) The high density of κ-opioid receptors in the claustrum. Fact III suggests that the consciousness-altering effects of S. divinorum/salvinorin A (II) are due to a κ-opioid receptor mediated inhibition of primarily the claustrum and, additionally, the deep layers of the cortex, mainly in prefrontal areas. Consistent with Crick and Koch’s theory that the claustrum plays a key role in consciousness (I), the subjective effects of S. divinorum indicate that salvia disrupts certain facets of consciousness much more than the largely serotonergic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Based on this data and on the relevant literature, we suggest that the claustrum does indeed serve as a conductor for certain aspects of higher-order integration of brain activity, while integration of auditory and visual signals relies more on coordination by other areas including parietal cortex and the pulvinar. PMID:24624064

  14. The claustrum's proposed role in consciousness is supported by the effect and target localization of Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefel, Klaus M; Merrifield, Alistair; Holcombe, Alex O

    2014-01-01

    THIS ARTICLE BRINGS TOGETHER THREE FINDINGS AND IDEAS RELEVANT FOR THE UNDERSTANDING OF HUMAN CONSCIOUSNESS: (I) Crick's and Koch's theory that the claustrum is a "conductor of consciousness" crucial for subjective conscious experience. (II) Subjective reports of the consciousness-altering effects the plant Salvia divinorum, whose primary active ingredient is salvinorin A, a κ-opioid receptor agonist. (III) The high density of κ-opioid receptors in the claustrum. Fact III suggests that the consciousness-altering effects of S. divinorum/salvinorin A (II) are due to a κ-opioid receptor mediated inhibition of primarily the claustrum and, additionally, the deep layers of the cortex, mainly in prefrontal areas. Consistent with Crick and Koch's theory that the claustrum plays a key role in consciousness (I), the subjective effects of S. divinorum indicate that salvia disrupts certain facets of consciousness much more than the largely serotonergic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Based on this data and on the relevant literature, we suggest that the claustrum does indeed serve as a conductor for certain aspects of higher-order integration of brain activity, while integration of auditory and visual signals relies more on coordination by other areas including parietal cortex and the pulvinar.

  15. Use of nonprohibited hallucinogenic plants: increasing relevance for public health? A case report and literature review on the consumption of Salvia divinorum (Diviner's Sage).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücheler, R; Gleiter, C H; Schwoerer, P; Gaertner, I

    2005-01-01

    : We want to call attention to a mint plant, called diviner's sage ( Salvia divinorum), originally used in shamanic ceremonies of the Mazatec Indians of Mexico. On numerous websites of the internet, this ancient herbal drug and its extracts are offered as a legal means of widening individual awareness. Regarding its dose-response relationship, the active ingredient, salvinorin A, is one of the most potent naturally occurring hallucinogens. Laws on controlled substances, except for Finland, Denmark and Australia, do not prohibit cultivating, consuming or dealing with Salvia divinorum. Ingestion by smoking, vaporising or chewing, induces a short-lived inebriant state with intense, bizarre feelings of depersonalization. This article wants to be a signal for physicians or psychotherapists to take Salvia into consideration, when exploring young people for drug use. We report the individual perceptions of a young man consuming Salvia divinorum. We review the scarce scientific literature and consider relevant internet websites. We define open issues for further investigations and try to discuss why Salvia divinorum may be of interest for teenagers and young adults in Europe.

  16. The claustrum’s proposed role in consciousness is supported by the effect and target localization of Salvia Divinorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus M Stiefel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article brings together three findings and ideas relevant for the understanding of human consciousness: (I Crick's and Koch's theory that the claustrum is a conductor of consciousness center crucial for subjective conscious experience. (II Subjective reports of the consciousness-altering effects the plant Salvia divinorum, whose primary active ingredient is salvinorin A, a -opioid receptor agonist. (III The high density of -opioid receptors in the claustrum. Fact III suggests that the consciousness-altering effects of salvinorin A are due to a κ-opioid receptor mediated inhibition of primarily the claustrum and, additionally, the deep layers of the cortex, mainly in prefrontal areas. Consistent with Crick & Koch’s theory that the claustrum plays a key role in consciousness, our analysis of the subjective effects of Salvia divinorum finds that salvia disrupts certain facets of consciousness much more than the largely-serotonergic hallucinogen LSD. Based on this data and on the relevant literature, we suggest that the claustrum does indeed serve as a conductor for certain aspects of higher-order integration of brain activity, while integration of auditory and visual signals mostly relies on coordination by other areas including parietal cortex and the pulvinar.

  17. Quantification of the plant-derived hallucinogen Salvinorin A in conventional and non-conventional biological fluids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after Salvia divinorum smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichini, Simona; Abanades, Sergio; Farré, Magí; Pellegrini, Manuela; Marchei, Emilia; Pacifici, Roberta; Torre, Rafael de la; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio

    2005-01-01

    A gas chromatography method with mass spectrometric detection is described for the determination of Salvinorin A, the main active ingredient of the hallucinogenic mint Salvia divinorum. The method was validated in plasma, urine, saliva and sweat using 17-alpha-methyltestosterone as internal standard. The analytes were extracted from biological matrices with chloroform/isopropanol (9:1, v/v). Chromatography was performed on a 5% phenyl methyl silicone capillary column and analytes were determined in the selected ion monitoring mode. The method was validated over the concentration range 0.015-5 microg/mL plasma, urine and saliva and 0.01-5 microg/patch in the case of sweat. Mean recoveries ranged between 77.1 and 92.7% for Salvinorin A in different biological matrices, with precision and accuracy always better than 15%. The method was applied to the analysis of urine, saliva and sweat from two consumers after smoking 75 mg plant leaves to verify the presence of the active ingredient of S. divinorum in human biological fluids as a biomarker of plant consumption. Salvinorin A was detected in urine (2.4 and 10.9 ng/mL) and saliva (11.1 and 25.0 ng/mL), but not in sweat patches from consumers. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Synthetic studies of neoclerodane diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: role of the furan in affinity for opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Denise S; Lovell, Kimberly M; Lozama, Anthony; Han, Nina; Day, Victor W; Dersch, Christina M; Rothman, Richard B; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2009-09-21

    Further synthetic modification of the furan ring of salvinorin A (1), the major active component of Salvia divinorum, has resulted in novel neoclerodane diterpenes with opioid receptor affinity and activity. A computational study has predicted 1 to be a reproductive toxicant in mammals and is suggestive that use of 1 may be associated with adverse effects. We report in this study that piperidine 21 and thiomorpholine 23 have been identified as selective partial agonists at kappa opioid receptors. This indicates that additional structural modifications of 1 may provide ligands with good selectivity for opioid receptors but with reduced potential for toxicity.

  19. Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (Maria Pastora e Salvinorina A: crescente uso recreacional e potencial de abuso Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva ("ska María Pastora" and Salvinorin A: increasing recreational use and abuse potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Schneider

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A planta Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI, da família Lamiaceae, tem sido usada por séculos pela cultura mazateca e vem ganhando popularidade como droga recreacional nos últimos anos. Seu princípio ativo - Salvinorina A (SA - é agonista dos receptores opióides kappa, com potencial psicotrópico. A utilização da planta vem crescendo na Europa e na América do Norte, apesar de ainda não existirem provas concretas sobre abuso. A presente revisão da literatura contemporânea aborda as evidências sobre o potencial de abuso de SDI, bem como o crescente uso recreacional, ainda que seja alucinógeno permitido legalmente e de fácil compra em muitos países.The plant Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva (SDI, of the Lamiaceae family, has been used for centuries by the Mazateca culture and has gained popularity as a recreational drug in the last years. Its active principle, Salvinorin A (SA, is a potentially psychotropic agonist of the kappa opioid receptors. The use of SDI has increased in Europe and North America, although there are no concrete proofs about abuse. The present review discusses current evidence on potential SDI abuse, as well as its increasing recreational use, although it is considered a legalized hallucinogen easily acquired in many countries.

  20. Neuropathic and inflammatory antinociceptive effects and electrocortical changes produced by Salvia divinorum in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón-Arceo, Karina; González-Trujano, Ma Eva; Coffeen, Ulises; Fernández-Mas, Rodrigo; Mercado, Francisco; Almanza, Angélica; Contreras, Bernardo; Jaimes, Orlando; Pellicer, Francisco

    2017-07-12

    Salvia divinorum is a medicinal plant traditionally used in hallucinogenic ethnopharmacological practices and for its analgesic and antinflammatory properties. Its active compounds include diterpenes known as salvinorins which act as potent κ opioid receptor agonists. Given its effects in acute animal models of pain, as well as its antinflammatory attributes, we decided to investigate the analgesic effects of an SD extract in neuropathic (sciatic loose nerve ligature) and inflammatory (intra plantar carrageenan) pain models in rats. We also determined in this study the electrocorticographic changes to correlate similar hallucinogenic state and behavior as those produced in humans. Mechanical and thermonociceptive responses, plantar test and von Frey assay, respectively, were measured in adult Wistar rats 30min, 3h and 24h after the intraperitoneal administration of saline or an hydroponic SD extract. We also evaluated carbamazepine and celecoxib, as gold reference drugs, to compare its antinociceptive effects. Our results showed that administration of SD extract induced antialgesic effects in both neuropathic and inflammatory pain models. All those effects were blocked by nor-binaltorphimine (a Kappa opioid receptor antagonist). Moreover, it was observed an increase of the anterior power spectral density and a decrease in the posterior region as electrocorticographic changes. The present investigation give evidence that SD is capable to reduce algesic response associated to neuropathic and inflammatory nociception. This study support therapeutic alternatives for a disabling health problem due to the long term pain with high impact on population and personal and social implications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Use patterns and self-reported effects of Salvia divinorum: an internet-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggott, Matthew J; Erowid, Earth; Erowid, Fire; Galloway, Gantt P; Mendelson, John

    2010-10-01

    There is growing use of Salvia divinorum (SD), a psychoactive plant that produces hallucinogen-like effects through a kappa opioid receptor (KOR) mechanism. Little is known about KOR agonist effects in humans and about users of SD. To characterize the reasons, methods, and reported consequences of SD use. Individuals reading SD-related pages of a drug-information website were invited to anonymously complete an online questionnaire if they had used SD. Participants (N=500) were 92.6% male and 23.4 ± 8.7 (mean ± s.d.) years old. They had used a median of six times (range 1-250). 80.6% probably or definitely would use SD again. Most participants (92.6%) typically smoked or vaporized SD product. When smoked, the drug's main effects were estimated to last 14.1 ± 12.8 (range 0.5-120) minutes. When asked to compare SD effects to other methods of altering consciousness, the most common answer was that SD was unique (38.4%). 25.8% reported persisting (≥ 24 h) positive effects (often described as increased sense of well-being) on at least one occasion. 4.4% reported persisting negative effects (most often anxiety). SD is typically smoked, acute effects are brief, and persistent adverse effects are uncommon. In addition to acute hallucinogenic effects, SD may produce subacute increases in subjective well-being. Such a subacute effect would be unusual for a drug that is used non-medically, as withdrawal from other drugs typically either does not affect mood or causes dysphoria. Findings from this convenience sample should be confirmed and extended using surveys of random samples and controlled clinical studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cytotoxic Effects of Salvinorin A, A Major Constituent of Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Ana; Silva, Sara M; Gallardo, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    S. divinorum is a psychoactive plant that has been consumed as a recreational drug of abuse in the last years. Salvinorin A is its main constituent, and is responsible for the observed psychoactive effects. Both S. divinorum and salvinorin A have become controlled drugs in several countries, but they are not listed in the Schedules of the United Nations Drug Conventions. Regarding the effects of S. divinorum consumption, almost all studies are based on in vivo or on surveys, and there are no studies in vitro on its toxicity. Furthermore, all studies are focused on the acute toxicological effects of the plant. So, it is of utmost importance to further investigate the effects of S. divinorum and salvinorin A, particularly using in vitro models, after prolonged exposures. In this context, the present work evaluated the in vitro toxicity induced by S. divinorum or salvinorin A in six cell lines, through MTT assays and LC50 determination. Overall, results showed that both S. divinorum and salvinorin A are cytotoxic, dose- and time-dependent. Also, Hep G2 and Caco 2 (to a lesser extent) cells showed lower sensitivity to S. divinorum and salvinorin A when compared to the other studied cell lines. To our knowledge, this is the first work focused on the in vitro toxicity of S. divinorum and salvinorin A using a variety of cell lines, which are extensively described in literature and have been widely used in several in vitro studies.

  3. Biosynthesis of the psychotropic plant diterpene salvinorin A: Discovery and characterization of the Salvia divinorum clerodienyl diphosphate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelot, Kyle A; Mitchell, Rod; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Hagelthorn, David M; Wardman, Jacob F; Chiang, Angela; Bohlmann, Jörg; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Zerbe, Philipp

    2017-03-01

    Salvia divinorum commonly known as diviner's sage, is an ethnomedicinal plant of the mint family (Lamiaceae). Salvia divinorum is rich in clerodane-type diterpenoids, which accumulate predominantly in leaf glandular trichomes. The main bioactive metabolite, salvinorin A, is the first non-nitrogenous natural compound known to function as an opioid-receptor agonist, and is undergoing clinical trials for potential use in treating neuropsychiatric diseases and drug addictions. We report here the discovery and functional characterization of two S. divinorum diterpene synthases (diTPSs), the ent-copalyl diphosphate (ent-CPP) synthase SdCPS1, and the clerodienyl diphosphate (CLPP) synthase SdCPS2. Mining of leaf- and trichome-specific transcriptomes revealed five diTPSs, two of which are class II diTPSs (SdCPS1-2) and three are class I enzymes (SdKSL1-3). Of the class II diTPSs, transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana identified SdCPS1 as an ent-CPP synthase, which is prevalent in roots and, together with SdKSL1, exhibits a possible dual role in general and specialized metabolism. In vivo co-expression and in vitro assays combined with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis identified SdCPS2 as a CLPP synthase. A role of SdCPS2 in catalyzing the committed step in salvinorin A biosynthesis is supported by its biochemical function, trichome-specific expression and absence of additional class II diTPSs in S. divinorum. Structure-guided mutagenesis revealed four catalytic residues that enabled the re-programming of SdCPS2 activity to afford four distinct products, thus advancing our understanding of how neo-functionalization events have shaped the array of different class II diTPS functions in plants, and may promote synthetic biology platforms for a broader spectrum of diterpenoid bioproducts. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A (–)-kolavenyl diphosphate synthase catalyzes the first step of salvinorin A biosynthesis in Salvia divinorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyue; Berim, Anna; Dayan, Franck E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae) is an annual herb used by indigenous cultures of Mexico for medicinal and ritual purposes. The biosynthesis of salvinorin A, its major bioactive neo-clerodane diterpenoid, remains virtually unknown. This investigation aimed to identify the enzyme that catalyzes the first reaction of salvinorin A biosynthesis, the formation of (–)-kolavenyl diphosphate [(–)-KPP], which is subsequently dephosphorylated to afford (–)-kolavenol. Peltate glandular trichomes were identified as the major and perhaps exclusive site of salvinorin accumulation in S. divinorum. The trichome-specific transcriptome was used to identify candidate diterpene synthases (diTPSs). In vitro and in planta characterization of a class II diTPS designated as SdKPS confirmed its activity as (–)-KPP synthase and its involvement in salvinorin A biosynthesis. Mutation of a phenylalanine into histidine in the active site of SdKPS completely converts the product from (–)-KPP into ent-copalyl diphosphate. Structural elements were identified that mediate the natural formation of the neo-clerodane backbone by this enzyme and suggest how SdKPS and other diTPSs may have evolved from ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase. PMID:28204567

  5. Human psychopharmacology and dose-effects of salvinorin A, a kappa opioid agonist hallucinogen present in the plant Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W; MacLean, Katherine A; Reissig, Chad J; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Griffiths, Roland R

    2011-05-01

    Salvinorin A is a potent, selective nonnitrogenous kappa opioid agonist and the known psychoactive constituent of Salvia divinorum, a member of the mint family that has been used for centuries by Mazatec shamans of Mexico for divination and spiritual healing. S. divinorum has over the last several years gained increased popularity as a recreational drug. This is a double-blind, placebo controlled study of salvinorin A in 4 psychologically and physically healthy hallucinogen-using adults. Across sessions, participants inhaled 16 ascending doses of salvinorin A and 4 intermixed placebo doses under comfortable and supportive conditions. Doses ranged from 0.375 μg/kg to 21 μg/kg. Subject-rated drug strength was assessed every 2 min for 60 min after inhalation. Orderly time- and dose-related effects were observed. Drug strength ratings peaked at 2 min (first time point) and definite subjective effects were no longer present at approximately 20 min after inhalation. Dose-related increases were observed on questionnaire measures of mystical-type experience (Mysticism Scale) and subjective effects associated with classic serotonergic (5-HT2(A)) hallucinogens (Hallucinogen Rating Scale). Salvinorin A did not significantly increase heart rate or blood pressure. Participant narratives indicated intense experiences characterized by disruptions in vestibular and interoceptive signals (e.g., change in spatial orientation, pressure on the body) and unusual and sometimes recurring themes across sessions such as revisiting childhood memories, cartoon-like imagery, and contact with entities. Under these prepared and supportive conditions, salvinorin A occasioned a unique profile of subjective effects having similarities to classic hallucinogens, including mystical-type effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of salvinorin A, the main active ingredient of Salvia divinorum, in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braida, Daniela; Capurro, Valeria; Zani, Alessia; Rubino, Tiziana; Viganò, Daniela; Parolaro, Daniela; Sala, Mariaelvina

    2009-07-01

    Drugs targeting brain kappa-opioid receptors produce profound alterations in mood. In the present study we investigated the possible anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist salvinorin A, the main active ingredient of Salvia divinorum, in rats and mice. Experiments were performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats or male Albino Swiss mice. The anxiolytic-like effects were tested by using the elevated plus maze, in rats. The antidepressant-like effect was estimated through the forced swim (rats) and the tail suspension (mice) test. kappa-Opioid receptor involvement was investigated pretreating animals with the kappa-opioid receptor antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (1 or 10 mgxkg(-1)), while direct or indirect activity at CB(1) cannabinoid receptors was evaluated with the CB(1) cannabinoid receptor antagonist, N-(piperidin-1-yl) -5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251, 0.5 or 3 mgxkg(-1)), binding to striatal membranes of naïve rats and assay of fatty acid amide hydrolase in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. Salvinorin A, given s.c. (0.001-1000 microgxkg(-1)), exhibited both anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects that were prevented by nor-binaltorphimine or AM251 (0.5 or 3 mgxkg(-1)). Salvinorin A reduced fatty acid amide hydrolase activity in amygdala but had very weak affinity for cannabinoid CB(1) receptors. The anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of Salvinorin A are mediated by both kappa-opioid and endocannabinoid systems and may partly explain the subjective symptoms reported by recreational users of S. divinorum.

  7. Synthetic Studies of Neoclerodane Diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: Semisynthesis of Salvinicins A and B and Other Chemical Transformations of Salvinorin A†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Wayne W.; Schmidt, Matthew; Tidgewell, Kevin; Kannan, Pavitra; Holden, Kenneth G.; Gilmour, Brian; Navarro, Hernan; Rothman, Richard B.; Prisinzano, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Salvinorin A (1) is a hallucinogenic neoclerodane diterpene isolated from the widely available psychoactive plant Salvia divinorum and is the first example of a non-nitrogenous opioid receptor ligand. At present, there is little information available as to why this compound is selective for κ opioid receptors. One approach to better understanding the mode of binding of 1 at κ receptors is to systematically alter the structure of 1 and examine the effects on opioid receptor affinity and activity. Currently, there is a paucity of methods described for the preparation of analogues derived from 1. Here, we report the investigation of several chemical transformations of 1 isolated from S. divinorum. In particular, this work provides a semisynthesis of salvinicins A (2) and B (3) and has identified 10a as the first neoclerodane diterpene with δ opioid antagonist activity. PMID:16441078

  8. Synthetic studies of neoclerodane diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: semisynthesis of salvinicins A and B and other chemical transformations of salvinorin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Wayne W; Schmidt, Matthew; Tidgewell, Kevin; Kannan, Pavitra; Holden, Kenneth G; Gilmour, Brian; Navarro, Hernan; Rothman, Richard B; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2006-01-01

    Salvinorin A (1) is a hallucinogenic neoclerodane diterpene isolated from the widely available psychoactive plant Salvia divinorum and is the first example of a non-nitrogenous opioid receptor ligand. At present, there is little information available as to why this compound is selective for kappa opioid receptors. One approach to better understanding the mode of binding of 1 at kappa receptors is to systematically alter the structure of 1 and examine the effects on opioid receptor affinity and activity. Currently, there is a paucity of methods described for the preparation of analogues derived from 1. Here, we report the investigation of several chemical transformations of 1 isolated from S. divinorum. In particular, this work provides a semisynthesis of salvinicins A (2) and B (3) and has identified 10a as the first neoclerodane diterpene with delta opioid antagonist activity.

  9. Learning and memory impairment induced by salvinorin A, the principal ingredient of Salvia divinorum, in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braida, Daniela; Donzelli, Andrea; Martucci, Roberta; Capurro, Valeria; Sala, Mariaelvina

    2011-12-01

    The effects of salvinorin A (Salvia divinorum principal ingredient), a potent κ-opioid natural hallucinogen, on learning and memory were investigated. Wistar rats were tested in the 8-arm radial maze, for object recognition and passive avoidance tasks for spatial, episodic, and aversive memory. Attention was assessed using a latent inhibition task. Salvinorin A (80-640 μg/kg subcutaneous [sc]) did not affect short-term memory, but it impaired spatial long-term memory. Episodic and aversive memories were impaired by salvinorin A (160-640 μg/kg). Memory impairment was blocked by the selective κ-opioid receptor antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine ([nor-B]; 0.5-1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [ip]). Salvinorin A (160 μg/kg) disrupted latent inhibition, after LiCl treatment, such as reduced sucrose intake, suggesting an attention would result in an impairment of cognitive behavior. These findings demonstrate for the first time that salvinorin A has deleterious effects on learning and memory, through a κ-opioid receptor mechanism.

  10. Towards evidence-based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. BET 3: what are the clinical features of Salvia divinorum toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueweke, Justin R

    2013-04-01

    A short-cut review was carried out to determine the clinical features associated with acute intoxication with Salvia divinorum. Sixty-six papers were found using the reported searches, of which three presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these best papers are tabulated. It is concluded that the most common features of intoxication are tachycardia, hallucinations and acute alteration in mental status.

  11. The effect of Salvia divinorum and Mitragyna speciosa extracts, fraction and major constituents on place aversion and place preference in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufka, Kenneth J; Loria, Melissa J; Lewellyn, Kevin; Zjawiony, Jordan K; Ali, Zulfiqar; Abe, Naohito; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-01-01

    Consumer use of botanicals has increased despite, in many instances, the paucity of research demonstrating efficacy or identifying liabilities. This research employed the place preference/aversion paradigm to characterize the psychoactive properties of Salvia divinorum extract (10, 30, 100mg/kg), salvinorin A (0.1, 0.3, 1.0mg/kg), Mitragyna speciosa MeOH extract (50, 100, 300 mg/kg), Mitragyna speciosa alkaloid-enriched fraction (12.5, 25, 75 mg/kg) and mitragynine (5, 10, 30 mg/kg) in rats. Following apparatus habituation and baseline preference scores, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given eight counter-balanced drug versus vehicle conditioning trials followed by a preference test conducted under drug-free states. S(+)-amphetamine (1mg/kg) served as the positive control (in Exp. 2) and haloperidol (0.8, 1.0mg/kg) served as the negative control in both studies. Rats displayed place aversion to both Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A that exceeded that of haloperidol. Rats showed place preference to mitragynine that was similar to that of S(+)-amphetamine. This CPP effect was much less pronounced with the Mitragyna speciosa extract and its fraction. These findings suggest that both botanicals possess liabilities, albeit somewhat different, that warrant caution in their use. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Human psychopharmacology and dose-effects of salvinorin A, a kappa-opioid agonist hallucinogen present in the plant Salvia divinorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W.; MacLean, Katherine A.; Reissig, Chad J.; Prisinzano, Thomas E.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2010-01-01

    Salvinorin A is a potent, selective nonnitrogenous kappa opioid agonist and the known psychoactive constituent of Salvia divinorum, a member of the mint family that has been used for centuries by Mazatec shamans of Mexico for divination and spiritual healing. Salvia divinorum has over the last several years gained increased popularity as a recreational drug. This is a double-blind, placebo controlled study of salvinorin A in 4 psychologically and physically healthy hallucinogen-using adults. Across sessions, participants inhaled 16 ascending doses of salvinorin A and 4 intermixed placebo doses under comfortable and supportive conditions. Doses ranged from 0.375 μg/kg to 21 μg/kg. Subject-rated drug strength was assessed every 2 minutes for 60 minutes after inhalation. Orderly time- and dose-related effects were observed. Drug strength ratings peaked at 2 minutes (first time point) and definite subjective effects were no longer present at approximately 20 minutes after inhalation. Dose-related increases were observed on questionnaire measures of mystical-type experience (Mysticism Scale) and subjective effects associated with classic serotonergic (5-HT2A) hallucinogens (Hallucinogen Rating Scale). Salvinorin A did not significantly increase heart rate or blood pressure. Participant narratives indicated intense experiences characterized by disruptions in vestibular and interoceptive signals (e.g., change in spatial orientation, pressure on the body) and unusual and sometimes recurring themes across sessions such as revisiting childhood memories, cartoon-like imagery, and contact with entities. Under these prepared and supportive conditions, salvinorin A occasioned a unique profile of subjective effects having similarities to classic hallucinogens, including mystical-type effects. PMID:21131142

  13. Methyl carnosate, an antibacterial diterpene isolated from Salvia officinalis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climati, Elisa; Mastrogiovanni, Fabio; Valeri, Maria; Salvini, Laura; Bonechi, Claudia; Mamadalieva, Nilufar Zokirzhonovna; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tiezzi, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis leaves demonstrated antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Fractionation of the extracts led to the isolation of the most active antibacterial compound, which, from spectroscopic and LC-MS evidence, was proved to be the diterpene, methyl carnosate.

  14. Here today, gone tomorrow…and back again? A review of herbal marijuana alternatives (K2, Spice), synthetic cathinones (bath salts), kratom, Salvia divinorum, methoxetamine, and piperazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Christopher D; Carreiro, Stephanie P; Babu, Kavita M

    2012-03-01

    Despite their widespread Internet availability and use, many of the new drugs of abuse remain unfamiliar to health care providers. The herbal marijuana alternatives, like K2 or Spice, are a group of herbal blends that contain a mixture of plant matter in addition to chemical grade synthetic cannabinoids. The synthetic cathinones, commonly called "bath salts," have resulted in nationwide emergency department visits for severe agitation, sympathomimetic toxicity, and death. Kratom, a plant product derived from Mitragyna speciosa Korth, has opioid-like effects, and has been used for the treatment of chronic pain and amelioration of opioid-withdrawal symptoms. Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogen with unique pharmacology that has therapeutic potential but has been banned in many states due to concerns regarding its psychiatric effects. Methoxetamine has recently become available via the Internet and is marked as "legal ketamine." Moreover, the piperazine derivatives, a class of amphetamine-like compounds that includes BZP and TMFPP, are making a resurgence as "legal Ecstasy." These psychoactives are available via the Internet, frequently legal, and often perceived as safe by the public. Unfortunately, these drugs often have adverse effects, which range from minimal to life-threatening. Health care providers must be familiar with these important new classes of drugs. This paper discusses the background, pharmacology, clinical effects, detection, and management of synthetic cannabinoid, synthetic cathinone, methoxetamine, and piperazine exposures.

  15. Inhibitory effect of salvinorin A, from Salvia divinorum, on ileitis-induced hypermotility: cross-talk between kappa-opioid and cannabinoid CB(1) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, R; Borrelli, F; Cascio, M G; Aviello, G; Huben, K; Zjawiony, J K; Marini, P; Romano, B; Di Marzo, V; Capasso, F; Izzo, A A

    2008-11-01

    Salvinorin A, the active component of the hallucinogenic herb Salvia divinorum, inhibits intestinal motility through activation of kappa-opioid receptors (KORs). However, this compound may have target(s) other than the KORs in the inflamed gut. Because intestinal inflammation upregulates cannabinoid receptors and endogenous cannabinoids, in the present study we investigated the possible involvement of the endogenous cannabinoid system in salvinorin A-induced delay in motility in the inflamed gut. Motility in vivo was measured by evaluating the distribution of a fluorescent marker along the small intestine; intestinal inflammation was induced by the irritant croton oil; direct or indirect activity at cannabinoid receptors was evaluated by means of binding, enzymic and cellular uptake assays. Salvinorin A as well as the KOR agonist U-50488 reduced motility in croton oil treated mice. The inhibitory effect of both salvinorin A and U-50488 was counteracted by the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine and by the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist rimonabant. Rimonabant, however, did not counteract the inhibitory effect of salvinorin A on motility in control mice. Binding experiments showed very weak affinity of salvinorin A for cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) and no inhibitory effect on 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide hydrolysis and cellular uptake. The inhibitory effect of salvinorin A on motility reveals a functional interaction between cannabinoid CB(1) receptors and KORs in the inflamed--but not in the normal--gut in vivo.

  16. Inhibitory effect of salvinorin A, from Salvia divinorum, on ileitis-induced hypermotility: cross-talk between κ-opioid and cannabinoid CB1 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, R; Borrelli, F; Cascio, M G; Aviello, G; Huben, K; Zjawiony, J K; Marini, P; Romano, B; Di Marzo, V; Capasso, F; Izzo, A A

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Salvinorin A, the active component of the hallucinogenic herb Salvia divinorum, inhibits intestinal motility through activation of κ-opioid receptors (KORs). However, this compound may have target(s) other than the KORs in the inflamed gut. Because intestinal inflammation upregulates cannabinoid receptors and endogenous cannabinoids, in the present study we investigated the possible involvement of the endogenous cannabinoid system in salvinorin A-induced delay in motility in the inflamed gut. Experimental approach: Motility in vivo was measured by evaluating the distribution of a fluorescent marker along the small intestine; intestinal inflammation was induced by the irritant croton oil; direct or indirect activity at cannabinoid receptors was evaluated by means of binding, enzymic and cellular uptake assays. Key results: Salvinorin A as well as the KOR agonist U-50488 reduced motility in croton oil treated mice. The inhibitory effect of both salvinorin A and U-50488 was counteracted by the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine and by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant. Rimonabant, however, did not counteract the inhibitory effect of salvinorin A on motility in control mice. Binding experiments showed very weak affinity of salvinorin A for cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 and no inhibitory effect on 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide hydrolysis and cellular uptake. Conclusions and implications: The inhibitory effect of salvinorin A on motility reveals a functional interaction between cannabinoid CB1 receptors and KORs in the inflamed—but not in the normal—gut in vivo. PMID:18622408

  17. The detection and quantitative analysis of the psychoactive component of Salvia divinorum, salvinorin A, in human biological fluids using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Pamela C; Holler, Justin M; Vorce, Shawn P; Bosy, Thomas Z; Magluilo, Joseph; Past, Marilyn R

    2008-01-01

    Salvia divinorum, a member of the mint plant family, has hallucinogenic properties that have become increasingly sought after by recreational drug users. The main psychoactive component, salvinorin A, has potency comparable to lysergic acid diethylamide. Though still legal to possess in most of the United States and much of Europe, little is known regarding the compound's long-term health effects, addiction liability, and pharmacokinetics. Limited data are available in the scientific literature, and few analytical methods are published for the detection in human biological fluids. These factors contribute to the unfamiliarity of the compound and complicate the method development process necessary to accommodate special requested testing for salvinorin A. A sensitive analytical method for the detection and quantitation of salvinorin A in human biological fluids was developed and validated to resolve analytical shortcomings. The method utilizes a solid-phase extraction technique coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry operated in selected ion monitoring mode. The assay has a linear range of 5.0-100 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.997. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were experimentally determined as 2.5 and 5.0 ng/mL, respectively. The method has been applied to blood and urine samples successfully and can be used to detect the presence of salvinorin A in forensic testing.

  18. Correlates of Salvia divinorum use in a national sample: findings from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jason A; Watkins, William C; Blumenstein, Lindsey

    2011-11-01

    Salvia, a hallucinogenic plant legally available in most of the United States, has become a widely discussed drug in the media. The extant research on Salvia use relies on non-probability samples and studies of college students. There is a clear need for research that identifies the correlates of Salvia use using data from a large sample that is nationally representative. The current study fills this important gap in the literature by using data from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. This survey includes data from nearly 70,000 respondents ages 12 and older living in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. Due to survey design, separate analyses are conducted among adolescents and adults. Findings indicate that 1.66% of adolescents (respondents ages 12 to 17) and 5.08% of adults (respondents ages 18-34) report the use of Salvia at some point in their lifetime. Correlates of use among adolescents include age, gender, income, peer and parent attitudes toward substance use, and other forms of drug use. Correlates of use among adults include age, gender, race, religiosity, marital status, criminal involvement, and other forms of substance use. Implications of the findings and limitations of the current study are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Salvinorin A, an active component of the hallucinogenic sage salvia divinorum is a highly efficacious kappa-opioid receptor agonist: structural and functional considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavkin, Charles; Sud, Sumit; Jin, Wenzhen; Stewart, Jeremy; Zjawiony, Jordan K; Siebert, Daniel J; Toth, Beth Ann; Hufeisen, Sandra J; Roth, Bryan L

    2004-03-01

    The diterpene salvinorin A from Salvia divinorum has recently been reported to be a high-affinity and selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist (Roth et al., 2002). Salvinorin A and selected derivatives were found to be potent and efficacious agonists in several measures of agonist activity using cloned human kappa-opioid receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Thus, salvinorin A, salvinorinyl-2-propionate, and salvinorinyl-2-heptanoate were found to be either full (salvinorin A) or partial (2-propionate, 2-heptanoate) agonists for inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production. Additional studies of agonist potency and efficacy of salvinorin A, performed by cotransfecting either the chimeric G proteins Gaq-i5 or the universal G protein Ga16 and quantification of agonist-evoked intracellular calcium mobilization, affirmed that salvinorin A was a potent and effective kappa-opioid agonist. Results from structure-function studies suggested that the nature of the substituent at the 2-position of salvinorin A was critical for kappa-opioid receptor binding and activation. Because issues of receptor reserve complicate estimates of agonist efficacy and potency, we also examined the agonist actions of salvinorin A by measuring potassium conductance through G protein-gated K(+) channels coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes, a system in which receptor reserve is minimal. Salvinorin A was found to be a full agonist, being significantly more efficacious than (trans)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl] benzeneacetamide methane-sulfonate hydrate (U50488) or (trans)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl] benzeneacetamide methane-sulfonate hydrate (U69593) (two standard kappa-opioid agonists) and similar in efficacy to dynorphin A (the naturally occurring peptide ligand for kappa-opioid receptors). Salvinorin A thus represents the first known naturally occurring non-nitrogenous full agonist at kappa-opioid receptors.

  20. A nor-diterpene from Salvia sahendica leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofidi Tabatabaei, Sahar; Salehi, Peyman; Moridi Farimani, Mahdi; Neuburger, Markus; De Mieri, Maria; Hamburger, Matthias; Nejad-Ebrahimi, Samad

    2017-08-01

    Phytochemical investigation of n-hexane extract of Salvia sahendica by normal phase column chromatography resulted in the isolation of six compounds. Structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and HRMS, as a new norditerpene 1, and known terpenoids, sclareol (2), oleanolic acid (3), β-sitosterol (4), salvigenin (5) and 3α-hydroxy-11α,12α-epoxyoleanan-28,13β-olide (6). The absolute configuration of 1 was confirmed by a combination of X-ray single crystal analysis and electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy. In vitro cytotoxic activity on breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) and also the antimicrobial activity of the pure compounds were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacilus cereus and Escherichia coli.

  1. Adolescent salvia substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sundeep

    2007-05-01

    Salvia divinorum is a non-water-soluble hallucinogen that is becoming increasingly popular among adolescents. Salvia is a highly selective full agonist of primate and cloned human cerebral kappa-opioid receptors, although its psychotomimetic effects are similar to serotonergic agonists and NMDA glutamate antagonists. Salvia has been associated with depersonalization, laughter, feelings of levitation and self-consciousness. These effects resolve within 30 minutes following use. Salvia has been banned in many countries, although it remains legal and easily assessable over the internet in the United States. A 15-year-old man with a history of salvia and marijuana use presented to psychiatric emergency services with acute onset of mental status changes characterized by paranoia, déjà vu, blunted affect, thought blocking and slow speech of 3 days' duration. There is limited literature discussing the clinical effects of salvia use. Based on this case presentation, salvia use may be associated with many undocumented long-term effects such as déjà vu. The ease of use and increasing popularity of salvia requires further investigation into the clinical effects of salvia use.

  2. Determination of volatile organic compounds in the dried leaves of Salvia species by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Rosaria; Ramezani, Sadrollah; Martignetti, Antonella; Mari, Angela; Piacente, Sonia; De Giulio, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Salvia spp. are used throughout the world both for food and pharmaceutical purposes. In this study, a method involving headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed, to establish the volatiles profile of dried leaves of four Iranian Salvia spp.: Salvia officinalis L., Salvia leriifolia Benth, Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. and two ecotypes of Salvia reuterana Boiss. A total of 95 volatiles were identified from the dried leaves of the five selected samples. Specifically, α-thujone was the main component of S. officinalis L. and S. macrosiphon Boiss. (34.40 and 17.84%, respectively) dried leaves, S. leriifolia Benth was dominated by β-pinene (27.03%), whereas α-terpinene was the major constituent of the two ecotypes of S. reuterana Boiss. (21.67 and 13.84%, respectively). These results suggested that the proposed method can be considered as a reliable technique for isolating volatiles from aromatic plants, and for plant differentiation based on the volatile metabolomic profile.

  3. The Classification of the Salvia L. (Labiatae) Species Distributed in West Anatolia According to Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    NAKİBOĞLU, Mahmure

    2014-01-01

    The seven species of Salvia L. growing naturally in West Anatolia (Salvia tomentosa Mill., Salvia fruticosa Mill., Salvia smyrnaea Boiss., Salvia argentea L., Salvia horminum L., Salvia verbenaca L., and Salvia virgata Jacq.) and a cultivated form (Salvia officinalis L.) were selected as the study materials. The phenolic compounds extracted from the leaves of the species were separated by two- dimensional thin-layer chromatography. On the basis of the distribution of phenolic spots in the spe...

  4. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy on intact dried leaves of sage (Salvia officinalis L. – chemotaxonomic discrimination and essential oil composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudi, Gennadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sage (Salvia officinalis L. is cultivated worldwide for its aromatic leaves which are used as herbal spice and for phytopharmaceutical applications. Fast analytical strategies for essential oil analysis, performed directly on plant material would reduce the delay between sampling and analytical results. This would enhance product quality by improving technical control of cultivation. The attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy method described here provides a reliable calibration model for quantification of essential oil components (EOC and its main constituents (e.g. -thujone and -thujone directly on dried, intact leaves of sage. Except for drying no further sample preparation is required for ATR-FTIR and the measurement time of less than 5 min per sample contrasts with the most common alternative of hydro-distillation followed by GC analysis which can take several hours per sample.

  5. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of extract and isolated compounds from the leaves of Salvia officinalis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Melissa Raboni Alves; Kanazawa, Luiz Kae Sales; das Neves, Thiago Louback Machado; da Silva, Carla Francielle; Horst, Heros; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula

    2012-01-31

    Salvia officinalis L. has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for gastric disturbances and inflammatory processes. This study investigated the toxicological, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the hydroalcoholic extract (HE) from leaves of Salvia officinalis and its isolated compounds in mice. Mice were treated with HE before the induction of nociceptive response by chemical agents (acetic-acid, formalin, glutamate, capsaicin and cinnamaldehyde). Total leukocytes and plasma extravasation induced by acetic acid and paw oedema induced by glutamate, capsaicin and cinnamaldehyde were also measured. The antinociceptive effect of carnosol and ursolic acid/oleanolic acid were evaluated on formalin and cinnamaldehyde models. In the acute toxicity test the value of estimated LD50 for HE was 44.7579 g/kg. Oral administration of HE (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) inhibited the number of writhings, total leukocytes and plasma extravasation induced by acetic acid. In the formalin test, HE reduced both neurogenic and inflammatory phases, effect that was affected by naloxone. The glutamate-, capsaicin- and cinnamaldehyde-induced nociception and paw oedema were reduced by HE at doses that did not affect the locomotor activity of mice in the open field test. Carnosol (10mg/kg) and ursolic acid/oleanolic acid (30 mg/kg) inhibited the inflammatory phase of formalin and the nociception and mechanical allodynia induced by cinnamaldehyde. These results demonstrate that HE presents significant anti-inflammatory and also antinociceptive effects on chemical behavioral models of nociception that involves an opioid mechanism. In addition, carnosol and ursolic acid/oleanolic acid contained in this plant appears to contribute for the antinociceptive property of the extract, possibly through a modulatory influence on TRPA1-receptors. However, further studies regarding the precise site and the mechanism of action of HE and carnosol and ursolic acid/oleanolic acid merited exploring

  6. In vitro anti-leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts of Calendula officinalis flowers, Datura stramonium seeds, and Salvia officinalis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikmehr, Banafsheh; Ghaznavi, Habib; Rahbar, Amir; Sadr, Samira; Mehrzadi, Saeed

    2014-06-01

    The anti-leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts of Calendula officinalis flowers, Datura stramonium seeds, and Salvia officinalis leaves against extracellular (promastigote) and intracellular (amastigote) forms of Leishmania major were evaluated in this study. In the first stage, promastigote forms of L. major, were treated with different doses of the plant extracts in a 96-well tissue-culture microplate and IC50 values for each extract were measured with colorimetric MTT assay. In the second stage, macrophage cells were infected with L. major promastigotes. Infected macrophages were treated with plant extracts. Then the macrophages were stained with Gimsa and the number of infected macrophages and amastigotes were counted with a light microscope. The results indicated that the plant extracts inhibited the growth of promastigotes and amastigotes of L. major. Inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for promastigote assay were 108.19, 155.15, and 184.32 μgmL(-1) for C. officinalis flowers, D. stramonium seeds and S. officinalis, respectively. The extracts also reduced the number of amastigotes in macrophage cells from 264 for control group to 88, 97, and 102 for test groups. Although the anti-leishmanial activity of the extracts were not comparable with the standard drug, miltefosine; but they showed significant efficiency in reducing the number of amastigotes in macrophages, in comparison with the control group (P stramonium seeds, and S. officinalis leaves to control of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of ionising radiation on polyphenolic content and antioxidant potential of parathion-treated sage (Salvia officinalis) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Issam; Fekih, Sana; Sghaier, Haitham; Bousselmi, Mehrez; Saidi, Mouldi; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Fattouch, Sami

    2013-11-15

    The γ-irradiation effects on polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of parathion-pretreated leaves of Salvia officinalis plant were investigated. The analysis of phenolic extracts of sage without parathion showed that irradiation decreased polyphenolic content significantly (p<0.05) by 30% and 45% at 2 and 4kGy, respectively, compared to non-irradiated samples. The same trend was observed for the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), as assessed by the anionic DPPH and cationic ABTS radical-scavenging assays. The antioxidant potential decreased significantly (p<0.01) at 2 and 4kGy, by 11-20% and 40-44%, respectively. The results obtained with a pure chlorogenic acid solution confirmed the degradation of phenols; however, its TEAC was significantly (p<0.01) increased following irradiation. Degradation products of parathion formed by irradiation seem to protect against a decline of antioxidant capacity and reduce polyphenolic loss. Ionising radiation was found to be useful in breaking down pesticide residues without inducing significant losses in polyphenols. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anatomical and palynological characteristics of Salvia willeana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, anatomical and palynological features of the roots, stems, petiole and leaves of Salvia willeana (Holmboe) Hedge and Salvia veneris Hedge, Salvia species endemic to Cyprus, were investigated. In the anatomical characteristics of stem structures, it was found that the chlorenchyma composed of 6 or 7 rows of ...

  9. Leaf Essential oils of Salvia nilotica and Salvia schimperi : Their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The compositions of the essential oils of the leaves of Salvia nilotica and Salvia schimperi were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of the analyses indicated that the components of the two oils are qualitatively similar with significant quantitative differences. Twenty-seven compounds ...

  10. From divination to madness: features of acute intoxication with Salvia use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Munidasa; Mahendran, Rathi

    2014-04-01

    Salvia divinorum is a psychoactive botanical plant that is increasingly used for the 'legal' highs that it can produce. It is readily available for purchase on the Internet, and most abusers are unaware of the toxicity and abuse potential associated with its use. As the use of novel compounds among abusers is not uncommon, physicians need to increase their awareness and recognition of these new substances. Herein, we report a case of an acute presentation of Salvia intoxication.

  11. From divination to madness: features of acute intoxication with Salvia use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Munidasa; Mahendran, Rathi

    2014-01-01

    Salvia divinorum is a psychoactive botanical plant that is increasingly used for the ‘legal’ highs that it can produce. It is readily available for purchase on the Internet, and most abusers are unaware of the toxicity and abuse potential associated with its use. As the use of novel compounds among abusers is not uncommon, physicians need to increase their awareness and recognition of these new substances. Herein, we report a case of an acute presentation of Salvia intoxication. PMID:24763842

  12. Antidepressive and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract and fruticuline A from Salvia lachnostachys Benth leaves on rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Alencar Santos

    Full Text Available This study investigated the antidepressant and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract (SLEE and pure fruticuline A obtained from Salvia lachnostachys leaves on rats and mice.In this study, SLEE (100 mg/kg, p.o. route was evaluated for its effects on spared nerve injury (SNI in rats. The animals were submitted to mechanical sensitivity, forced swim (FST and cold sensitivity tests 10 and 15 days after surgery. SLEE (100 mg/kg, p.o. and fruticuline A (3 mg/kg, p.o. were also evaluated with respect to nociceptive behavior induced by formalin. In addition, clonidine-induced depressive-like behavior was also analyzed.The oral administration of SLEE for up to 15 days and the subcutaneous injection of 10 mg/kg of ketamine (positive control significantly inhibited SNI-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and decreased immobility in the FST. On the 15th day of oral treatment, SLEE prevented the SNI-induced increase in cold sensitivity. In the formalin test, SLEE and fruticuline A significantly reduced the frequency of paw licking during the first and second phases and decreased the formation of edema. In locomotor analysis (open field test without clonidine treatment, SLEE and fruticuline A did not alter the response. SLEE and fruticuline A significantly attenuated clonidine-induced suppression of spontaneous locomotor activity (squares invaded and licking and emotionality (grooming and freezing compared with controls, similar to the naive group.SLEE exhibits antihyperalgesic, antidepressant, and antinociceptive effects, and fruticuline A appears to be at least partly responsible for the effects of SLEE. Together, these results demonstrate the antidepressive effects of SLEE and fruticuline A and indicate that both derivatives obtained from S. lachnostachys act against spontaneous neuropathic pain.

  13. Screening of Hallucinogenic Compounds and Genomic Characterisation of 40 Anatolian Salvia Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Seda Damla; Yalcinkaya, Burhanettin; Akgoz, Muslum; Ozturk, Turan; Goren, Ahmet C; Topcu, Gulacti

    2017-11-01

    Salvia, an important and widely available member of Lamiaceae family. Although comparative analysis on secondary metabolites in several Salvia species from Turkey has been reported, their hallucinogenic chemicals have not been screened thoroughly. This study provides LC-MS/MS analysis of 40 Salvia species for screening their psychoactive constituents of salvinorin A and salvinorin B. 5S-rRNA gene non-coding region of Salvia plants was sequenced, aligned and compared with that sequence of Salvia divinorum plant. Targeted molecules of salvinorin A and salvinorin B were quantified, using LC-MS/MS, from all aerial parts of 40 Salvia species, collected from different parts of Turkey. Regions of 5S-rRNA gene from different species were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequences were aligned with Salvia divinorum DNA sequences. Very few of the Salvia species (S. recognita, S. cryptantha and S. glutinosa) contained relatively high levels of salvinorin A (212.86 ± 20.46 μg/g, 51.50 ± 4.95 μg/g and 38.92 ± 3.74 μg/g, respectively). Salvinorin B was also found in Salvia species of S. potentillifolia, S. adenocaulon and S. cryptantha as 2351.99 ± 232.22 μg/g, 768.78 ± 75.90 μg/g and 402.24 ± 39.71 μg/g, respectively. The sequences of 5S-rRNA gene of 40 different Salvia species were presented and it was found that none of the Salvia species in Turkey had similar DNA sequence to Salvia divinorum plant. This is the first report of screening 40 Salvia species in Turkey according to their psychoactive constituents, salvinorin A and salvinorin B and their genomic structures. It is possible that some of these Salvia species may exhibit some psycho activity. Thus, they need to be screened further. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Synthetic Studies of Neoclerodane Diterpenes from Salvia divinorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kenneth G.; Tidgewell, Kevin; Marquam, Alfred; Rothman, Richard B.; Navarro, Hernan; Prisinzano, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    Modification of the C-1 ketone of salvinorin A (2a) produces analogues with opioid antagonist properties. Of particular significance is the finding that 1-deoxo-1,10-dehydrosalvinorin A (11a) is a moderately potent antagonist at all three opioid receptor subtypes, and that herkinorin (2b), a μ agonist, is converted to a weak antagonist by removal of the C-1 ketone (3b and 11b). These observations suggest that the ketone of 2b is a key structural feature responsible for μ agonist activity. PMID:17904842

  15. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy on Intact Dried Leaves of Sage (Salvia officinalis L.): Accelerated Chemotaxonomic Discrimination and Analysis of Essential Oil Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudi, Gennadi; Krähmer, Andrea; Krüger, Hans; Schulz, Hartwig

    2015-10-07

    Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is cultivated worldwide for its aromatic leaves, which are used as herbal spice, and for phytopharmaceutical applications. Fast analytical strategies for essential oil analysis, performed directly on plant material, would reduce the delay between sampling and analytical results. This would enhance product quality by improving technical control of cultivation. The attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) method described here provides a reliable calibration model for quantification of essential oil components [EOCs; R(2) = 0.96; root-mean-square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) = 0.249 mL 100 g(-1) of dry matter (DM); and range = 1.115-5.280 mL 100 g(-1) of DM] and main constituents [e.g., α-thujone/β-thujone; R(2) = 0.97/0.86; RMSECV = 0.0581/0.0856 mL 100 g(-1) of DM; and range = 0.010-1.252/0.005-0.893 mL 100 g(-1) of DM] directly on dried intact leaves of sage. Except for drying, no further sample preparation is required for ATR-FTIR, and the measurement time of less than 5 min per sample contrasts with the most common alternative of hydrodistillation followed by gas chromatography analysis, which can take several hours per sample.

  16. Salvia officinalis L. coverage on plants development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CRUZ-SILVA, C.T.A; NÓBREGA, L.H.P; DELLAGOSTIN, S.M; SILVA, C.F.G

    2016-01-01

    ... (Salvia officinalis L.) is cited for its allelopathic effects. This study evaluated the allelopathic potential of dried sage leaves in vegetation, soil and the development of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato...

  17. The pharmacological effects of Salvia species on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanshahidi, Mohsen; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2006-06-01

    Salvia is an important genus consisting of about 900 species in the family Lamiaceae. Some species of Salvia have been cultivated world wide for use in folk medicine and for culinary purposes. The dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, for example, has been used extensively for the treatment of coronary and cerebrovascular disease, sleep disorders, hepatitis, hepatocirrhosis, chronic renal failure, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, carbuncles and ulcers. S. officinalis, S. leriifolia, S. haematodes, S. triloba and S. divinorum are other species with important pharmacological effects. In this review, the pharmacological effects of Salvia species on the central nervous system will be reviewed. These include sedative and hypnotic, hallucinogenic, skeletal muscle relaxant, analgesic, memory enhancing, anticonvulsant, neuroprotective and antiparkinsonian activity, as well as the inhibition of ethanol and morphine withdrawal syndrome.

  18. Monoterpenes of Salvia leucophylla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    The “ Salvia phenomenon” is one of the most famous examples of allelopathic interaction between higher plants. The Salvia thickets are surrounded by zones of bare soil (“bare zone”, 1-3 m in width), which merge into areas of inhibited grassland (“zone of inhibition”) and finally undisturbed grassland at a distance of 3-9 m. This characteristic vegetation pattern was attributed to monoterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole and camphor, which volatilized from S. leucophylla leaves, got adsorbed in the soil around the Salvia thickets, and inhibited germination and seedling growth of annual herbs. Initially, continuity of hydrophobic environment (clay soil particles – cuticular waxes on the seed/seedling surfaces – plasmodesmata - plasma membrane) was regarded to be important for the lipophilic compounds to enter the target cells. However, monoterpenes can reach the target cells via aqueous route as well. Because monoterpenes produced by S. leucophylla all induce similar symptoms in the seedlings of target plants, their mode of action appears to be essentially common. They exert various deteriorating effects on the cells of target plants, which might be totally explained if the primary point of action resides in mitochondrial function (respiratory ATP synthesis) and/or generation of reactive oxygen species. In contrast to the previous belief that cuticular waxes act as the pathway of lipophilic monoterpene to enter the site of action or reservoir of the inhibitors, they may act as “adsorptive barrier” to prevent the entering of monoterpenes inside the cell wall. PMID:22754426

  19. Phenolic composition of four sage species: salvia farinacea, salvia mexico, salvia greggii and salvia officinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Olívia R.; Afonso, Andrea F.; Susana M. Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Salvia species are used worldwide for medicine purposes. In general, these medicinal plants have high amounts of flavonoids and phenolic acids, that are thought to be closely related to their health properties [1,2]. In this work, the aerial parts of Salvia farinacea, Salvia mexico, Salvia greggii and Salvia officinalis were extracted with hot water [3]. Extracts were evaluated for their total phenolic content by an adaptation of the Folin-Ciocalteu method and further analysed by high perf...

  20. Effect of nitrogen concentration of the nutrient solution on the volatile constituents of leaves of Salvia fruticosa Mill. in solution culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioti, A; Skaltsa, H; Demetzos, C; Perdetzoglou, D; Economakis, C D; Salem, A B

    2003-10-22

    Essential oils from hydroponically cultivated Salvia fruticosa were analyzed by GC-MS techniques. Three different levels of nitrogen (100, 150, and 200 mg/L) were used in the nutrient solution for the cultivation, using the nutrient film technique. A total of 79 compounds were identified, and qualitative and quantitative differences have been observed between the samples collected at full bloom (flowering stage) and at the end of the seed formation stage. 1,8-Cineole, beta-caryophyllene, and viridiflorol were the predominant constituents in most cases. 13-epi-Manool was identified by using GC parameters and mass spectrum fragmentation pattern, whereas labd-7,13-dien-15-ol, a labdane type diterpene, was identified for the first time in the genus Salvia, using GC parameters and an authentic sample. The results obtained from GC-MS analyses were submitted to chemometric analysis.

  1. Salvia carreyesii, Salvia ibugana and Salvia ramirezii (Lamiaceae, three new species from Jalisco, Mexico Salvia carreyesii, Salvia ibugana y Salvia ramirezii (Lamiaceae, tres nuevas especies de Jalisco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Guadalupe González-Gallegos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Three new species from Jalisco, Mexico, are described and illustrated. These species grow in tropical or in tropical and temperate transitional forests. The 3 species belong to Salvia L. subgenus Calosphace (Benth. Benth. Salvia carreyesii J. G. González is morphologically similar with section Briquetia Epling. It is characterized by the contrasting vegetative morphology between mature and immature individuals, its relatively large and sessile or sub-sessile leaves (the uppermost amplexicaul, glandular-capitate hairs on the floral axis and calyx, and dark violet corollas. The characters of Salvia ibugana J. G. González correspond to those of the species of section Angulatae (Epling Epling, within which S. ibugana is distinguished by the digitiform papillae disperse on its stems, petioles and floral axis. Salvia ramirezii J. G. González fits well within section Sigmoideae Epling by means of the sigmoid shape of the lower branch of its style. It is morphologically similar to Salvia crucis and S. quercetorum, from which it can be distinguished by the triangular, slightly succulent, shorter, glabrous, lustrous leaves.Se describen e ilustran 3 especies nuevas de Jalisco, México. Estas especies crecen en bosques tropicales o en bosques transicionales entre tropicales y templados. Las 3 especies pertenecen a Salvia L. subgénero Calosphace (Benth. Benth. Salvia carreyesii J. G. González es morfológicamente similar a la sección Briquetia Epling. Se caracteriza por la morfología vegetativa contrastante entre individuos maduros e inmaduros, sus hojas relativamente grandes, sésiles o subsésiles (las superiores amplexicaules, tricomas capitado-glandulares sobre el eje floral y el cáliz, y corolas violeta oscuro. Las características de Salvia ibugana J. G. González corresponden a aquellas de las especies de la sección Angulatae (Epling Epling, dentro de la que S. ibugana se distingue por las papilas digitiformes que presenta en el tallo

  2. Salvia officinalis in dentistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nikhita Narayanan; Lakshmi Thangavelu

    2015-01-01

      Salvia officinalis is a medicinal herb used as an cosmetic, flavoring agent, It has antibacterial, antifungal, anticaries, antiplaque, antiviral, astringent, and other useful properties, it is also...

  3. What Is Salvia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your brain when you use salvia? Researchers are studying salvia to learn exactly how it acts in the brain to produce its effects. ... for your use and may be reproduced in its entirety without permission from ... language: Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse; National Institutes ...

  4. In vitro antiproliferative effect of six Salvia species on human tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Giovina; Nencini, Cristina; Cavallo, Federica; Capasso, Anna; Bader, Ammar; Giorgi, Giorgio; Micheli, Lucia

    2006-08-01

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antiproliferative activity of the methanol crude extracts of six Salvia species: Salvia dominica L. leaves, Salvia lanigera Desf. aerial parts, Salvia menthaefolia Ten. roots, Salvia palaestina Benth. aerial parts, Salvia sclarea L. roots and Salvia spinosa L. aerial parts. Extracts were screened for their possible antitumoral activity by MTT test on nine human cancer cell lines: glioblastoma (DBTRG-05MG, T98G, U-87MG), colorectal adenocarcinoma (WiDr and HT-29), prostate adenocarcinoma (MDA Pca2b), choriocarcinoma (JEG-3), endometrium adenocarcinoma (HEC-1A) and B lymphoblast (CIR). IC(50) values were determined for only five extracts and ranged from 90 to 400 microg/mL approximately. Salvia menthaefolia extract exhibited marked antiproliferative activity against all tumor cell lines showing lower IC(50) values, while S. spinosa, S. sclarea and S. dominica extracts showed a degree cytotoxic activity dependent on the cell line type. Finally S. palaestina extract revealed a moderate antiproliferative effect only against three cell lines. Salvia lanigera extract displayed toxic activity at all concentrations tested. The results strengthen the evidence that the genus Salvia could be considered a natural resource of potential antitumor agents.

  5. The volatile constituents of Salvia leucantha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Luis B; Visbal, Tomas; Morillo, Marielba; de Rojas, Yndra Cordero; Arzola, Juan Carmona; Usubillaga, Alfredo

    2010-06-01

    Salvia leucantha Cav. (Lamiaceae), native to Mexico, is found in Venezuela in parks and gardens. Hydrodistillation of the fresh leaves of this plant yielded 0.05% of essential oil. GC and GC/MS analyses permitted the identification of 30 compounds, which made up 95.9% of the oil. The most abundant constituents were bornyl acetate (24.1%), beta-gurjunene (14.8%), beta-caryophyllene (14.1%), dillapiol (11.0%) and bicyclogermacrene (8.9%).

  6. Synthetic studies of neoclerodane diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: selective modification of the furan ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Wayne W; Schmidt, Matthew; Tidgewell, Kevin; Kannan, Pavitra; Holden, Kenneth G; Dersch, Christina M; Rothman, Richard B; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2006-06-15

    A synthetic sequence has been developed to selectively functionalize the furan ring of the natural product salvinorin A (2a). The synthetic routes described convert the furan ring in 2a into an N-sulfonylpyrrole, oxazole or an oxadiazole. In addition, a procedure has been found to remove the furan skeleton completely. Biological results indicate that replacement of the furan ring with an N-sulfonylpyrrole leads to reduced affinity and efficacy at kappa opioid receptors.

  7. Synthetic studies of neoclerodane diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: exploration of the 1-position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kenneth G; Tidgewell, Kevin; Marquam, Alfred; Rothman, Richard B; Navarro, Hernán; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2007-11-15

    Modification of the C-1 ketone of salvinorin A (2a) produces analogues with opioid antagonist properties. Of particular significance is the finding that 1-deoxo-1,10-dehydrosalvinorin A (11a) is a moderately potent antagonist at all three opioid receptor subtypes, and that herkinorin (2b), a mu agonist, is converted to a weak antagonist by removal of the C-1 ketone (3b and 11b). These observations suggest that the ketone of 2b is a key structural feature responsible for mu agonist activity.

  8. Antifungal Activity of Endemic Salvia tigrina in Turkey | Dulger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The ethanol extracts obtained from the leaves, rootstock and the combined formulation of endemic Salvia tigrina Hedge & Hub.-Mor. (Labiatea) have been investigated for their antifungal activities. Method: The antifungal activity of the extract was tested against Candida species (C. albicans ATCC 10231, ...

  9. Essential Oil Composition and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Salvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Salvia officinalis samples were collected from northern and southern Albania, respectively. The crushed leaves were subjected to hydro-distillation, and the essential oils analyzed by gas chromatography GC/FID (for quantification of volatiles) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) for identification.

  10. Salvia L.: sage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer

    2008-01-01

    The sage genus - Salvia contains about 700 species of annual and perennial herbs and shrubs and is worldwide in distribution. There are perhaps 20 woody species in the United States, principally in the Southwest and California (table 1) (Correll and Johnson 1970; Munz and Keck 1959). They are intricately branched, rounded or sprawling shrubs or subshrubs with often...

  11. Investigating correlates of synthetic marijuana and Salvia use in light and intermittent smokers and college students in a predominantly Hispanic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Kevin M; Cooper, Theodore V

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have examined correlates related to the use of synthetic cannabinoids (e.g., Spice, K2) and Salvia divinorum. Two studies were conducted to investigate whether demographic, smoking-related, and substance-related variables were associated with the use of synthetic cannabinoids and Salvia. In Study 1, 185 participants (50% female; 83% Hispanic; Mage = 32 years; SD = 13.68) were recruited from a local health clinic and a university on the U.S./Mexico border for a smoking-cessation study targeting light and intermittent smokers. In Study 2, 675 participants (62.4% female; 89.1% Hispanic; Mage = 21.0, SD = 8.56) were recruited from a university on the U.S./Mexico border for an online study. In Study 1, 10% of the sample indicated they had ever used either synthetic cannabinoids or Salvia in their lifetime. Being male and dual/multiple use of tobacco products were significantly associated with having ever used synthetic cannabinoids or Salvia. In Study 2, 9%, 5%, and 3% of the sample indicated lifetime, past-year, and past 30-day use of synthetic cannabinoids, respectively. Five percent, 2%, and 1% of the sample indicated lifetime, past-year, and past 30-day use of Salvia, respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that past 30-day marijuana use and past 30-day ecstasy use were significantly associated with use of synthetic cannabinoids and Salvia in one's lifetime. These findings suggest that the assessment of synthetic marijuana and Salvia use is warranted in studies of other addictive behaviors, particularly among current marijuana and ecstasy users. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Salvia officinalis in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhita Narayanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvia officinalis is a medicinal herb used as an cosmetic, flavoring agent, It has antibacterial, antifungal, anticaries, antiplaque, antiviral, astringent, and other useful properties, it is also used in dental practice for the management of periodontal disease and to prevent halitosis. The objective of this article is to highlight various uses of S. officinalis in the dental field along with its use in medical problems.

  13. Salvia officinalis used in pharmaceutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemle, K. L.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents some pharmaceutical properties of Salvia officinalis, a plant belonging the Lamiaceae family, one of the oldest medicinal plants, which play an important role in improving the state of health.

  14. INHIBITORY EFFECT OF SALVIA SCLAREA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rakoe

    2011-11-02

    HSV) activity of lavender, sage and chamomile ..... Samojlik I, Jovin E (2007). Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of rosemary and sage (Rosmarinus officinalis. L. and Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) Essential Oils. J. Agric.

  15. Salvia officinalis L. coverage on plants development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.T.A. CRUZ-SILVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Medicinal plants with essential oils in their composition havetypicallybeen shown to be promising in plant control. Sage (Salvia officinalis L. is cited for its allelopathic effects. This study evaluated the allelopathic potential of dried sage leaves in vegetation, soil and the development of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato, Panicum maximum Jacq. (guinea grass and Salvia hispanica L. (chia plants. Three seedlings were transplanted seven days after germination in 1 kg plastic containers with soil, in a greenhouse. The grinded dry mass of sage was placed at rates of 3.75; 7.5 15 t ha-1, and a control (no mass. After 30 days, the chlorophyll index of tomato and guinea grass plants were inhibited with 7.5 and 15 t ha-1 sage cover crops. Tomato shoot length was inhibited in all tested rates, and guinea grass plants showed some reduction in growth when using the highest rate of sage mass (15 t ha-1. The dry mass of tomato and guinea grass plants was reduced when using the15 t ha-1, and 7.5 and 15 t ha-1 of sage cover crops, respectively. It can be concluded that there was some effect of sage coverage on the soil in tomato and guinea grass, but no effect was observed on chia plants.

  16. Phytochemical and biological evaluation of Salvia apiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivedavyasasri, Radhakrishnan; Hayes, Taylor; Ross, Samir A

    2017-09-01

    Salvia apiana (white sage, Lamiaceae family) plant is native to southern California and parts of Mexico. Some Native American tribes local to this region consider S. apiana to be sacred and burn the leaves as incense for purification ceremonies. The plant has been used to treat sore throats, coughs, chest colds, upper respiratory infections and poison oak rashes. The aqueous ethanolic extract of S. apiana showed moderate CB1 activity (58.3% displacement). Chromatographic purification of the ethanolic extract on silica gel column led to isolation of nine compounds: rosmadial (I), carnosol (II), 16-hydroxycarnosol (III), sageone (IV), cirsimaritin (V), salvigenin (VI), oleanolic acid (VII), 3β,28-dihydroxy-urs-12-ene (VIII), and ursolic acid (IX). The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by their 1D, 2D NMR and MS spectral data. All the fractions and isolated compounds were tested for cannabinoid and opioid receptor binding.

  17. Metabolic profiles of three related Salvia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfeng; Yang, Shushen; Zhang, Yuejin; Liu, Yonghong; Meng, Xianhai; Liang, Zongsuo

    2009-07-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is one of the most important and popular plant of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), but Salvia castanea Diels f. tomentosa Stib and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge f. alb have also been reported to have the same therapeutic effects as S. miltiorrhiza. To better distinguish between these species, the phytochemical profiles of three Salvia species were investigated by liquid chromatography. All the Salvia species were good sources of tanshinones, with the contents of phenolics being high in S. miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f. alb, but not in S. castanea Diels f. tomentosa Stib. These results pave the way for a better phytotherapy exploitation of these plants.

  18. Characterization of Essential Oils of Some Salvia Species and Their Antimycobacterial Activities

    OpenAIRE

    activities, Characterization of essential oils of so

    2014-01-01

    The compositions of the essential oils of 5 Turkish Salvia species, namely Salvia aucheri Bentham var. aucheri (endemic for Turkey), Salvia aramiensis Rech. fil., Salvia fruticosa Mill., Salvia tomentosa Mill., and Salvia verticillata L. subsp. amasiaca (Freyn & Bornm.) Bornm., were studied. Water distilled essential oils from the aerial parts of Salvia species from Turkey were analysed by GC and GC/MS. Salvia aucheri var. aucheri, Salvia aramiensis, and Salvia fruticosa oils have t...

  19. Isolation and chemical modification of clerodane diterpenoids from Salvia species as potential agonists at the kappa-opioid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiqiang; Husbands, Stephen M; Mahon, Mary F; Traynor, John R; Rowan, Michael G

    2007-07-01

    The clerodane diterpenoid salvinorin A (1), the main active component of the psychotropic herb Salvia divinorum, has been reported to be a potent agonist at the kappa-opioid receptor. Computer modeling suggested that splendidin (2) from S. splendens, as well as related compounds, might possess similar activities. In the present study, this hypothesis was tested by determination of the binding properties of a series of structural congeners, compounds 2-8, at the mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid receptors. However, none of these compounds showed significant binding to any of the opioid-receptor subtypes, thus disproving the above hypothesis. The novel compounds 7 and 8 were obtained semi-synthetically by selective modification of salvifarin (5), isolated from Salvia farinacea, upon epoxide-ring opening with AcOH in the presence of indium(III) triflate. Also, the X-ray crystal structure of salvifaricin (6; Fig.), obtained from S. farinacea, was determined for the first time and used, in combination with in-depth NMR experiments, to elucidate the absolute configurations of the new products. Our experiments demonstrate that the relatively well-accessible diterpenoid 6 could be used as starting material for future studies into the structure-activity relationship at the kappa-opioid receptor.

  20. The hallucinogen derived from Salvia divinorum, salvinorin A, has kappa-opioid agonist discriminative stimulus effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmore-Fordham, Catherine B; Krall, Daniel M; McCurdy, Christopher R; Kinder, David H

    2007-09-01

    Data from clinical and preclinical studies converge implicating the plant-derived hallucinogen salvinorin A as an important pharmacologic tool; this psychoactive compound may expand scientific understandings on mammalian kappa-opioid receptor systems. Human salvinorin A effects, consistent with kappa-opioid receptor agonism, include antinociception, sedation, dysphoria and distorted perceptions. The experiments reported here measured salvinorin A (1-3mg/kg, i.p.) discriminative stimulus properties in male Sprague-Dawley rats conditioned to recognize the discriminative stimulus cue generated by the well characterized kappa-opioid agonist U-69593 (0.56 mg/kg, i.p.). At three distinct active doses, salvinorin A fully substituted for U-69593 without altering response rates. The lever choice pattern in U-69593 trained animals reverted to vehicle lever responding when a kappa selective antagonist compound, nor-BNI (4.5 nM, i.c.v.) was administered 1h prior to salvinorin A, yet nor-BNI alone failed to impact the rate or pattern of subject responses. These findings confirm and extend results published after similar drug discrimination tests were performed in rhesus monkeys. The discussion section of this article highlights public concern over salvinorin A misuse and emphasizes several potential pharmacotherapeutic applications for salvinorin A or analogue compounds.

  1. Drogas legales emergentes: marihuana sintética, kratom, salvia divinorum, metoxetamina y los derivados de la piperazina

    OpenAIRE

    Espert Tortajada, Raúl; Pérez San Miguel, Joana; Gadea Domenech, Marien; Oltra Cucarella, J.; Aliño, Marta

    2015-01-01

    A pesar de su amplia oferta y disponibilidad a través de internet, muchas de las drogas de abuso emergentes siguen siendo desconocidas para un gran número de médicos y profesionales sanitarios. Las alternativas herbales a la marihuana (también conocidas como marihuana sintética), tales como el K2 o el spice, son un grupo de hierbas que contienen una mezcla de materia vegetal además de cannabinoides de origen sintético. El Kratom, es un producto vegetal derivado de Mitragyna spe...

  2. Composition of the essential oil of two Salvia taxa (Salvia sclarea and Salvia verticillata subsp. verticillata) from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Hayta, Sukru; Dogan, Gulden; Yuce, Ebru; Bagci, Eyup

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The essential oil composition of two Salvia taxa (Salvia sclarea and Salvia verticillata subsp. verticillata) analysed and yield of compositions were analysedMaterial and Methods: The essential oil was extracted by hydro distillation using a modified Clevenger apparatus coupled to a 2 L round-bottom flask. A total of 100 g of fresh plant material (aerial parts) and 1 L of water were used for the extraction. Gas chromatography / Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis were applied to ext...

  3. Influence of light intensity on growth and physiological characteristics of common sage (Salvia officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Zervoudakis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of four different light intensities on the growth characteristics, physiological parameters and leaf photosynthetic pigments of Salvia officinalis L. The plant's dry mass, number of the leaves and physiological parameters indicated a strong positive correlation with the light intensity. On the other hand, the plant's height and leaf photosynthetic pigments were increased at low light treated plants. These results suggest that the aromatic herb Salvia officinalis L. is adaptable to different light environments.

  4. Salvia officinalis L.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Методом газожидкостной хроматографии изучен компонентный состав эфирного масла Salvia officinalis L. из растительного сырья Республики Беларусь. В образцах эфирного масла из соцветий и листьев Salviaofficinalis L. идентифицировано более 30 компонентов, главными из которых являются αи β-туйоны, 1,8-цинеол, линалоол+линалилацетат, камфора, лимонен, α-пинен, камфен, борнилацетат, α-гумулен. Установлены существенные изменения качественного и количественного состава эфирного масла от фазы онтогене...

  5. Biochemical and Antimicrobial Activities of Salvia Officinalis L. and Mentha Piperita L. Essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Izadi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Although antibiotics are used in conventional treatment of infectious diseases, a lot of unexpected side effects along with resistance to antibiotics appear. Salvia officinalis and Mentha piperita are plants found abundantly in most parts of Iran. In the present study, we extracted and identified the chemical compounds of the essential oils of Salvia officinalis and Mentha piperita. Moreover, the anti-oxidative property, free radical scavenging capacity, and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of these plants were studied. Materials & Methods: This study was conducted in the Biotechnology Department laboratories, Agricultural Faculty of Avicina University, Hamadan, Iran, in 2009. The aerial parts of Salvia officinalis and Mentha piperita were harvested in summer, when the plants were in their full blooming stage and dried in the shade. The essential oil of the aerial parts was extracted by hydro-distillation and was analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS method. The micro-organisms employed in this study were: E. coli, S. aureus, S. enteritidis, L. monocytogenes. By employing disc diffusion and tube dilution methods, antimicrobial effects of the oils were studied. Antioxidative property, free radical scavenging capacity, and antimicrobial activities of the oils were also studied. Results: Chemical analysis of the extracts resulted in the identification of 28 and 37 compounds in the essential oils of Salvia officinalis and Mentha piperita respectively. The sensitivity of the bacteria to the oils in order of decreasing the sensitivity was L. monocytogenes, E. coli, S. aureus, and S. enteritidis. The antibacterial properties of the essential oil from Mentha piperita leaves were higher than the oil of Salvia officinalis leaves. Also inhibitions zones of microbial growth were not correlated with the microbicidal kinetics of the oils. Conclusion: This study showed that the herbal essences of Salvia officinalis and

  6. [Preparation and characterization of Radix Salvia reference material for heavy metals under GAP control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-yong; Zhuang, Zhi-xia; Wang, Xiao-ru; Lee, Frank S

    2003-09-01

    To prepare and characterize the heavy metal reference material of radix salvia planted in Zhongjiang, Sichuan province under the good agricultural procedure (GAP). After being prepared, the reference material was digested with 65% HNO3 and H2O2 by microwave-assisted oven systems, and the heavy metals in Radix salvia reference material were accurately determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The measuring method was validated by running certificated reference materials, including bush twigs and leaves (GBW07602) and tea twigs and leaves (GBW07605) under the same conditions. The recoveries of the elements mostly ranged from 90% to 110%, and the RSD was within 5%. The measurement of radix salvia reference material was carried out by different laboratories with ICP-MS and by several time intervals in one year for the stability. The results showed that the concentration of the heavy metals provided were accurate and the reference material was stable. The reference material is suitable to be the criterions of heavy metals for radix salvia in the qualities controlling, and is also suitable to be the criterion of poisonous heavy metals of other herbs in the administration of GAP.

  7. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Salvia officinalis, S. fruticosa, Melissa officinalis, and their infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couladis Maria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried leaves of commercially available Salvia officinalis, Salvia fruticosa, and Melissa officinalis were divided into two parts; the first part was subjected to hydrodistillation and the second part was used for the preparation of the infusions. The essential oil and the infusion of each sample were subjected to analysis by means of GC-FID and GC-MS. The oxygenated monoterpenes 1,8-cineole (27.5% and camphor (11.5% appeared as the most important metabolites in Salvia officinalis, α- and β-thujone (16.5%, 16.4%, followed by 1,8-cineole (8.8% were characterizing the essential oil of Salvia fruticosa, whereas in the oil of Melissa officinalis the sesquiterpene caryophyllene oxide (14.9% was the most abundant constituent, followed by geranial (12.2%, neral (11.2% and citronellal (6.7%. The infusions were characterized by the higher levels of the most important compounds found in the essential oil of the respective sample, as in the case of S. officinalis (1,8-cineol 53.6%, camphor 25.8% and S. fruticosa (α- thujone 61.2%, β-thujone 24.3%, 1,8-cineole 14.5%, while the infusion of M. officinalis was dominated by palmitic and stearic acid (25.5%, 19.5%.

  8. Rapid Species-level Identification of Salvias by Chemometric Processing of Ambient Ionisation Mass Spectrometry-derived Chemical Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffen, Justine E; Lesiak, Ashton D; Dane, A John; Cody, Robert B; Musah, Rabi A

    2017-01-01

    The Salvia genus contains numerous economically important plants that have horticultural, culinary and nutraceutical uses. They are often similar in appearance, making species determination difficult. Species identification of dried Salvia products is also challenging since distinguishing plant morphological features are no longer present. The development of a simple high-throughput method of analysis of fresh and dried Salvia leaves that would permit rapid species-level identification and detection of diagnostic biomarkers. Plant leaves were analysed in their native form by DART-MS without the need for any sample preparation steps. This furnished chemical fingerprints characteristic of each species. In the same experiment, in-source collision-induced dissociation was used to identify biomarkers. Biomarker presence was also independently confirmed by GC-MS. Chemometric processing of DART-MS profiles was performed by kernel discriminant analysis (KDA) and soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) to classify the fingerprints according to species. The approach was successful despite the occurrence of diurnal cycle and plant-age related chemical profile variations within species. In a single rapid experiment, the presence of essential oil biomarkers such as 3-carene, α-pinene, β-pinene, β-thujone, β-caryophyllene, camphor and borneol could be confirmed. The method was applied to rapid identification and differentiation of Salvia apiana, S. dominica, S. elegans, S. officinalis, S. farinacea and S. patens. Species-level identification of Salvia plant material could be accomplished by chemometric processing of DART-HRMS-derived chemical profiles of both fresh and dried Salvia material. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of nine Salvia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Abouali, Morteza; Salehi, Peyman; Sonboli, Ali; Kanani, Mohammad; Menichini, Francesco; Tundis, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Supported by a growing increase of scientific research attesting the health properties of salvia species, we have decided to investigate nine Salvia namely Salvia sclarea, Salvia atropatana, Salvia sahendica, Salvia hydrangea, Salvia xanthocheila, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia chloroleuca and Salvia ceratophylla species for their antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. In order to correlate the bioactivity with their phytochemical content, the total phenol and total flavonoid contents were also determined. S. ceratophylla exhibited the strongest activity against C32 cells with an IC50 value of 20.8 μg mL(- 1), while S. glutinosa exhibited an IC50 value of 29.5 μg mL(- 1) against ACHN cell line. Interestingly, S. glutinosa displayed also the highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity with an IC50 of 3.2 μg mL(- 1). These species are characterised by the highest total phenol and flavonoid contents. The obtained results suggest that Salvia species are healthy plant foods.

  10. Biochemical properties of some Salvia L. species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Melek; Tugay, Osman; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Ulukuş, Deniz; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad

    2013-06-01

    Antioxidant capacity, total phenol and mineral contents of aerial parts of sage belonging to some Salvia species were established. The lowest and highest antioxidant values of Salvia dichroantha Stapf and Salvia heldreichiana Boiss. ex Benth. extracts were found as 73.855 and 80.207 mg GAE/g, respectively. While the highest total phenol was established in Salvia tomentosa Mil. (13.316 mg GAE/100 ml), the lowest level was found in Salvia halophila Hedge (6.168 mg GAE/100 ml). While K contents of plants changed between 14,518 and 24,171 mg/kg, Ca contents ranged between 12,402 and 18,553 mg/kg. P and Mg contents were found low compared with K and P values of plants. Mg content was changed between 2,118 and 2,914 mg/kg; the mean was calculated as 2,496 mg/kg. P contents of plants were determined between 1,385 to 1,910 mg/kg. As a microelement, Fe was found at the highest level. Fe contents of plants were found between 179 and 782 mg/kg.

  11. Ethnobotanical Survey, Preliminary Physico-Chemical and Phytochemical Screening of Salvia argentea (L.) Used by Herbalists of the Saïda Province in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabdesslem, Yasmina; Hachem, Kadda; Kahloula, Khaled; Slimani, Miloud

    2017-12-05

    An ethnobotanical study was carried out in the Saïda region among herbalists to evaluate the use of Salvia argentea (L.), a plant species native from North Africa belonging to the Lamiaceae family. Forty-two herbalists were interviewed individually, aged between 30 and 70 years, all males, 52.38% of them having received a secondary education level and having performing their duties for more than a decade. This study showed that Salvia argentea is used specifically in the treatment of diseases of the respiratory system. The leaves are the most commonly used part, usually in the form of powder and exclusively administered orally. The preliminary results of the physicochemical characterization and the phytochemical screening of the powdered leaves of Salvia argentea attest to their safety and confer them a guarantee of phytotherapeutic quality.

  12. Ethnobotanical Survey, Preliminary Physico-Chemical and Phytochemical Screening of Salvia argentea (L. Used by Herbalists of the Saïda Province in Algeria

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    Yasmina Benabdesslem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An ethnobotanical study was carried out in the Saïda region among herbalists to evaluate the use of Salvia argentea (L., a plant species native from North Africa belonging to the Lamiaceae family. Forty-two herbalists were interviewed individually, aged between 30 and 70 years, all males, 52.38% of them having received a secondary education level and having performing their duties for more than a decade. This study showed that Salvia argentea is used specifically in the treatment of diseases of the respiratory system. The leaves are the most commonly used part, usually in the form of powder and exclusively administered orally. The preliminary results of the physicochemical characterization and the phytochemical screening of the powdered leaves of Salvia argentea attest to their safety and confer them a guarantee of phytotherapeutic quality.

  13. [Chemical constituents from Salvia przewalskii Maxim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Xin; Li, Xing-Cui; Liu, Chao; Xiao, Lei; Qin, De-Hua; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2011-07-01

    The investigation on Salvia przewalskii Maxim was carried out to find the relationship of the constituents and their pharmacological activities. The isolation and purification were performed by various chromatographies such as silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, RP-C18 column chromatography, etc. Further investigation on the fraction of the 95% ethanol extract of Salvia przewalskii Maxim yielded przewalskin Y-1 (1), anhydride of tanshinone-II A (2), sugiol (3), epicryptoacetalide (4), cryptoacetalide (5), arucadiol (6), 1-dehydromiltirone (7), miltirone (8), cryptotanshinone (9), tanshinone II A (10) and isotanshinone-I (11). Their structures were elucidated by the spectral analysis such as NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and MS (Mass Spectrometry). Compound 1 is a new compound. Compounds 4 and 5 are mirror isomers (1 : 3). Compounds 4, 5, 6, 8, 11 were isolated from Salvia przewalskii Maxim for the first time.

  14. Lectotypification of Salvia elegans (Lamiaceae Lectotipificación de Salvia elegans (Lamiaceae

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    Sabina I. Lara-Cabrera

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Salvia incarnata Cavanilles (1800 is an illegitimate name, for an earlier homonym by Etlinger (1777 already exists; it has therefore been substituted by Salvia elegans Vahl (1804. Both homotypic synonyms are herein lectotypified based on original material at MA collected by L. Née, and studied and annotated by A. J. CavanillesSalvia incarnata Cavanilles (1800 es un nombre ilegítimo, al preexistir un homónimo de Etlinger (1777; por ello, ha sido substituido por Salvia elegans Vahl (1804. Se lectotipifican ambos sinónimos homotípicos con material original de L. Née, empleado por A. J. Cavanilles y que se conserva en MA.

  15. Effect of Salvia officinalis on diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behradmanesh, Saeed; Derees, Fatemeh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Herbs are rich sources of natural antioxidants, and are used in traditional medicine for the control and treatment of many diseases. The reducing effect of a large number of these plants on blood glucose has been approved in animal models and clinical studies. This study was therefore, performed to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of Salvia officinalis on blood glucose, Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests. A double-blind clinical trial was carried out on 80 type II diabetic patients who had not reached the ideal control of the disease. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups of case and control. The case group received Salvia officinalis and the control group received placebo tablets three times a day for three months. The fasting blood sugar (FBS) and 2 hours postprandial (2hpp) glucose were checked at the beginning and every 2 weeks, for three months Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests were also measured at the beginning and at the end of trial and compared in two mentioned groups. The 2hpp blood sugar and cholesterol levels were significantly decreased in Salvia officinalis treated patients compared to control group (pSalvia officinalis might be beneficial in diabetic patients to reduce 2hpp and cholesterol. However higher doses might be needed to decrease fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin.

  16. The physiological and biochemical responses of a medicinal plant (Salvia miltiorrhiza L. to stress caused by various concentrations of NaCl.

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    Zhao Gengmao

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza, which is commonly known as Danshen, is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. To illustrate its physiological and biochemical responses to salt stress and to evaluate the feasibility of cultivating this plant in saline coastal soils, a factorial experiment under hydroponic conditions was arranged on the basis of a completely randomised design with three replications. Five salinity treatments (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM NaCl were employed in this experiment. The results showed that salinity treatments of <100 mM NaCl did not affect the growth of Salvia miltiorrhiza in a morphological sense, but significantly inhibit the accumulation of dry matter. Salinity treatments significantly decreased the Chl-b content but caused a negligible change in the Chl-a content, leading to a conspicuous overall decrease in the T-Chl content. The Na(+ content significantly increased with increasing hydroponic salinity but the K(+ and Ca(2+ contents were reversed, indicating that a high level of external Na(+ resulted in a decrease in both K(+ and Ca(2+ concentrations in the organs of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Salt stress significantly decreased the superoxide dismutase (SOD activity of Salvia miltiorrhiza leaves in comparison with that of the control. On the contrary, the catalase (CAT activity in the leaves markedly increased with the increasing salinity of the hydroponic solution. Moreover, the soluble sugar and protein contents in Salvia miltiorrhiza leaves dramatically increased with the increasing salinity of the hydroponic solution. These results suggested that antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes are partially involved in the adaptive response to salt stress in Salvia miltiorrhiza, thereby maintaining better plant growth under saline conditions.

  17. The Physiological and Biochemical Responses of a Medicinal Plant (Salvia miltiorrhiza L.) to Stress Caused by Various Concentrations of NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengmao, Zhao; Quanmei, Shi; Yu, Han; Shihui, Li; Changhai, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza, which is commonly known as Danshen, is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. To illustrate its physiological and biochemical responses to salt stress and to evaluate the feasibility of cultivating this plant in saline coastal soils, a factorial experiment under hydroponic conditions was arranged on the basis of a completely randomised design with three replications. Five salinity treatments (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM NaCl) were employed in this experiment. The results showed that salinity treatments of Salvia miltiorrhiza in a morphological sense, but significantly inhibit the accumulation of dry matter. Salinity treatments significantly decreased the Chl-b content but caused a negligible change in the Chl-a content, leading to a conspicuous overall decrease in the T-Chl content. The Na+ content significantly increased with increasing hydroponic salinity but the K+ and Ca2+ contents were reversed, indicating that a high level of external Na+ resulted in a decrease in both K+ and Ca2+ concentrations in the organs of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Salt stress significantly decreased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of Salvia miltiorrhiza leaves in comparison with that of the control. On the contrary, the catalase (CAT) activity in the leaves markedly increased with the increasing salinity of the hydroponic solution. Moreover, the soluble sugar and protein contents in Salvia miltiorrhiza leaves dramatically increased with the increasing salinity of the hydroponic solution. These results suggested that antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes are partially involved in the adaptive response to salt stress in Salvia miltiorrhiza, thereby maintaining better plant growth under saline conditions. PMID:24586918

  18. Time to split Salvia s.l. (Lamiaceae) - New insights from Old World Salvia phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Maria; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2017-04-01

    Salvia L. is widely known as the largest genus in the mint family. A morphological modification of the androecium (lever-like stamens) was used to support this genus. However, molecular data revealed that Salvia is polyphyletic. Since phylogenetic studies largely underrepresented Old World Salvia species, we filled this gap and combined new data with existing sequences. The aim of our study was the identification of well-supported clades that provide the basis for evolutionary and taxonomic conclusions. We included ITS data (internal transcribed spacer) from 220 Salvia species, 86 of which were sequenced for the first time. Additionally, the highly variable plastid marker rpl32-trnL was sequenced, providing new data for 100 Salvia species. These sequences were combined with the accessions available from GenBank. Old World Salvia is represented herein with 57% of its species. The two datasets were analyzed separately using BI and ML approaches. Our data confirm that Salvia is polyphyletic with four distinct evolutionary lineages (Clade I-IV), including five additional genera. The clades strongly reflect the geographical distribution, i.e., Clade IV (East Asia), Clade III (Southwest Asia to Northern Africa), and Clade II (America). The origin of Salvia s.s. (Clade I) is most likely Southwest Asia. A high degree of parallel character evolution was identified in most of the Old World sections. Based on our results, we reconstructed the evolution and biogeography of Salvia s.l. and propose to split this large group into six genera, each supported by geographical distribution, morphology, and karyology. Salvia s.l. is a polyphyletic group that was originally regarded as a genus because its species share a derived stamen structure. However, phylogenetic data clearly indicate that this floral trait and other morphological characters evolved in parallel. Our study illustrates that the combination of different data sets allows a comprehensive reconstruction of taxa and

  19. Escritura e imagen visionaria en el liber divinorum operum de Hildegard de Bingen

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    María Eugenia Góngora D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio es una revisión de los principales problemas que plantea la lectura de un libro de visiones como el Liber divinorum operum de Hildegard de Bingen (1098-1179. Autoría, recepción y tradición profética, por una parte, y las relaciones entre 'imagen visionaria' y texto, 'revelación' y conocimiento, son algunos de los asuntos problemáticos que surgen de inmediato en la consideración de obras como el Liber divinorum operum, la obra cosmológica y profética más madura de esta autora. Además de proponer posibles caminos de lectura e interpretación de esta obra, es imprescindible situar la obra de Hildegard en el contexto intelectual, político y eclesiástico en el cual ella influyó a través de sus cartas, su obra científica y, por cierto, su escritura explícitamente visionaria y profética. En este sentido hay que observar que, si bien su influencia fue, en definitiva, más restringida que la del abad Joaquín de Fiore y su pensamiento sobre las Tres Edades de la Historia de la Salvación, se puede considerar que la figura de Hildegard fue una de las más importantes y reconocidas en el ámbito del pensamiento profético y apocalíptico de la Edad MediaThis study is a revision of the principal problems that the reading of a book of visions, like Liber divinorum operum of Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179, raises. Authorship, reception and prophetic tradition, on the one hand, and the relationship among "visionary image" and text, "revelation" and knowledge, on the other, are some of the problematic matters that immediately arise from the consideration of works like Liber divinorum operum, the most mature cosmological and prophetic work of this author. Besides proposing possible avenues of reading and interpretation of this work, it is essential to situate Hildegard's work in the intellectual, political and ecclesiastical context over which she had influence through her letters, her scientific work and, certainly, her

  20. Physiological changes, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Salvia officinalis L. grown under saline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taârit, Mouna Ben; Msaada, Kamel; Hosni, Karim; Marzouk, Brahim

    2012-06-01

    Hydroponic culture was used to investigate the effect of NaCl concentrations on the growth, nutrient uptake, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Salvia officinalis L. leaves. The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract of S. officinalis was evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching assay. Physiological and biochemical parameters of S. officinalis were assessed after 4 weeks of salt treatment with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mmol L(-1) NaCl. Plant growth exhibited a reduction of 61% at 100 mmol L(-1) NaCl. Assessment of Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) and water contents of shoots and roots showed that S. officinalis is able to regulate Na(+) concentration by active compartmentation in vacuoles. Salvia officinalis phenolics were increased in response to salinity at the threshold of 75 mmol L(-1) NaCl. This herb was also found to be able to achieve important DPPH(•) quenching activity and to inhibit the β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching notably enhanced by salt treatment. It is interesting to highlight the correlation between the phenolic and antioxidant activity, suggesting the involvement of these compounds in this activity. Salvia officinalis treated with 75 mmol L(-1) NaCl constitutes a potential source for production of secondary metabolites useful in several applications. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Isosakuranetin-5-O-rutinoside: A New Flavanone with Antidepressant Activity Isolated from Salvia elegans Vahl.

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    Manáses González-Cortazar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid (1 and a new flavanone, 5-O-(6-rhamnosylglucoside-7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone (2, were isolated from the leaves of Salvia elegans Vahl. These natural products displayed antidepressant activity in mice as determined by means of a forced swimming test (FST evaluation. Structural elucidation was carried out by chemical derivatization (acetylation and spectroscopic analyses, such as 1H- and 13C-NMR and two-dimensional (2-D COSY, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC, and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC spectroscopy experiments.

  2. Volatilisation of terpenes from Salvia mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, B. J.; Dement, W. A.; Mooney, H. A.

    1974-01-01

    The study demonstrates significant terpene volatilisation from Salvia mellifera. Net photosynthesis and dark respiration were measured in an intact branch of a potted plant using a gas analysis system. Photosynthesis and respiration rates were determined for various temperatures. The rates were directly proportional to leaf temperature and were the same in both light and dark reactions. Using the temperature curve for the steady-state rate of terpene volatilisation and the gas exchange characteristics, the daily carbon gain and terpene loss were calculated.

  3. Synthetic Studies of Neoclerodane Diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: Identification of a Potent and Centrally Acting μ Opioid Analgesic with Reduced Abuse Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Rachel Saylor; Riley, Andrew P; Sherwood, Alexander M; Groer, Chad E; Shivaperumal, Nirajmohan; Biscaia, Miguel; Paton, Kelly; Schneider, Sebastian; Provasi, Davide; Kivell, Bronwyn M; Filizola, Marta; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2016-12-22

    Opioids are widely used to treat millions suffering from pain, but their analgesic utility is limited due to associated side effects. Herein we report the development and evaluation of a chemical probe exhibiting analgesia and reduced opioid-induced side effects. This compound, kurkinorin (5), is a potent and selective μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist (EC50 = 1.2 nM, >8000 μ/κ selectivity). 5 is a biased activator of MOR-induced G-protein signaling over β-arrestin-2 recruitment. Metadynamics simulations of 5's binding to a MOR crystal structure suggest energetically preferred binding modes that differ from crystallographic ligands. In vivo studies with 5 demonstrate centrally mediated antinociception, significantly reduced rewarding effects, tolerance, and sedation. We propose that this novel MOR agonist may represent a valuable tool in distinguishing the pathways involved in MOR-induced analgesia from its side effects.

  4. Ultrapotent effects of salvinorin A, a hallucinogenic compound from Salvia divinorum, on LPS-stimulated murine macrophages and its anti-inflammatory action in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviello, Gabriella; Borrelli, Francesca; Guida, Francesca; Romano, Barbara; Lewellyn, Kevin; De Chiaro, Maria; Luongo, Livio; Zjawiony, Jordan K; Maione, Sabatino; Izzo, Angelo A; Capasso, Raffaele

    2011-09-01

    The hallucinogenic compound, salvinorin A, is a potent κ-opioid receptor (KOR) agonist. However, other target(s) than the KOR, such as the cannabinoid CB1 receptor, have been proposed to explain its multiple pharmacological actions. Here, we have evaluated the effect of salvinorin A in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages as well as in models of inflammation in vivo. Salvinorin A (0.1-10 pM) reduced LPS-stimulated nitrite, TNF-α and IL-10 (but not IL-1β) levels as well as iNOS (but not COX-2) LPS-induced hyperexpression. The effect of salvinorin A on nitrite levels was reverted by the opioid antagonist naloxone, the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine and by the CB1 antagonist rimonabant Salvinorin A also prevented KOR and CB1 hyperexpression induced by LPS. In vivo, salvinorin A reduced the LPS- and the carrageenan-induced paw oedema and formalin-induced inflammatory pain, in a nor-binaltorphimine and rimonabant-sensitive manner. It is concluded that salvinorin A-via KORs and CB1 receptors-exerts ultrapotent actions on macrophages and also shows moderate antinflammatory effects in vivo.

  5. Antiproliferative effects of extracts from Salvia officinalis L. and Saliva miltiorrhiza Bunge on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Li; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2017-01-01

    Salvia species have been used as valuable medicinal and herbal plant in many countries. Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge are widely used in traditional medicine for a long time. In the present study, cytotoxicity of ethanol and acetone extracts prepared from leaves and roots of two Salvia species was investigated using hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) and normal human liver cells (WRL-68). The cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative abilities of the extracts were evaluated by measuring cell viability (MTS assay), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, the cellular ATP level, morphological changes using an inverted microscope, and apoptosis using flow cytometry. The results indicated that ethanol and acetone extracts of leaves and roots of S. officinalis (SO-L-E, SO-L-A, SO-R-E and SO-R-A, respectively) and ethanol and acetone extracts of roots of S. miltiorrhiza (SM-R-E and SM-R-A, respectively) significantly inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner when the concentration was less than 150μg/mL. The cytotoxity of SO-L-E, SO-R-E and SO-R-A were significantly less in WRL-68 when compared to HepG2 cells in vitro. The increase of LDH leakage, decrease of ATP and the changes in morphology of HepG2 cells further confirmed the cytotoxic effect of these extracts to HepG2 cells. Furthermore, SO-L-E, SO-L-A, SO-R-E ethanol extract of leaves of S. miltiorrhiza (SM-L-E) and SM-R-E were able to induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells. This study shows the potential of the extracts to be used in the prevention and/or treatment of liver cancer or as ingredients in functional foods and provides scientific support for development and utilization of S. officinalis and S. miltiorrhiza, especially the roots of S. officinalis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. [Chemical diversity of the biological active ingredients of salvia officinalis and some closely related species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máthé, Imre; Hohmann, Judit; Janicsák, Gábor; Nagy, Gábor; Dora, Rédei

    2007-01-01

    Comparative studies on the volatile and non-volatile fractions of 6 species. i.e. Salvia officinalis, S. tomentosa, S. fruticosa, S. candelabrum, S. ringens, S. lavandulifolia of the Section Salvia (Lamiaceae) have been carried out. Both fractions provide the chemical pattern matches to the chemotaxonomic character of Subfamily Nepetoideae in Erdtmanr two subfamiliar system. S. lavandulifolia had the highest essential oil content, followed by S. fruticosa, S. tomentosa, S. officinalis and S. candelabrum. S. ringens contains volatile oil only in traces. The neurotoxin thujone content was the highest in the S. officinalis oils and in that of S. fruticosa. No thujone was detected in S. lavandulifolia. The other species, e.g.: S. tomentosa contain this compound only in moderate concentrations (less than 10%). Among the non-volatile fractions of the plant ingredients the triterpene ursolic and oleanolic acids had the highest concentration in the leaves. Despite some rare cases, ursolic acid dominates the tritepene fraction. Rosmarinic and caffeic acids were measured in similar concentrations, in all species. As the case of S. officinalis shows, these compounds vary significantly in all organs during the vegetation period. Caffeic acid is also ubiquitous in the genus Salvia but as our data suggest it occurs in an order of magnitude lower concentration than rosmarinic acid. The isolation of phenylethanolid martynoside, though obtained in a rather small concentration, is of great chemotaxonomic significance, as this is the first phenylethanolid type glycoside isolated not only from the Salvia genus but also from the entire Subfamily Nepetoideae. As pheylethanolids are rather common and accumulate in significant concentrations in plants of the Subfamily Lamioideae, our opinion that the chemical differences between the two subfamilies are less qualititative than quantitative, is confirmed. This holds true of other chemical markers like monoterpenes, ursolic and oleanolic

  7. Salvia broussonetii Benth.: aroma profile and micromorphological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, Basma; Pistelli, Luisa; Cervelli, Claudio; Fico, Gelsomina; Giuliani, Claudia

    2017-10-26

    The volatile profiles (VOC) and the essential oil (EO) composition from the aerial parts of Salvia broussonetii were analysed. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons dominate the VOCs from leaves (95.7%) and flowers (67.6%), followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (2.6 and 29.7%, respectively). The main common compounds are germacrene D, β-bourbonene, α-pinene, α-copaene and α-gurjunene, even if with divergent relative abundances. In the leaf EOs the sesquiterpenes prevail, even if not overwhelmingly (about 50.0%), followed by monoterpenes (23.0-35.0%) and by minor fractions of diterpene hydrocarbons and non-terpene derivates. The most abundant common compounds across the two sampling periods are α-pinene, β-pinene, isobornyl acetate, α-gurjenene, germacrene D and bifloratriene. A morphological characterisation of the trichomes responsible for the productivity in terpenes was also performed. Four different morphotypes were observed on the above ground organs of S. brussonetii: peltates and capitates of type II and III resulted the only producers of volatile substances.

  8. Allelopathic effects of Clinopodium menthifolium and Salvia sclarea aqueous extracts

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    Šućur Jovana T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary plant biomolecules are the main agents in biochemical inter­actions between plants and the environment. It is possible to distinguish the role of secondary biomolecules in allelopathic (plant-plant activity, plant-insect, plant-microbe, plant-herbivore and others. These interactions can significantly affect the productivity of agricultural crops. Application of allelochemicals into agricultural practice may reduce the use of herbicides. Effect of Salvia sclarea L. and Clinopodium menthifolium (Host aqueous extracts on lipid peroxidation process, as well as the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves and roots of Jimson weed (Datura stramonium L. and soybean (Glycine max L. seedlings were examined 24 h, 72 h and 120 h after the treatment. The third aim was to evaluate effectiveness of aqueous extract as contact toxicant against Rhyzopertha dominica. Our results showed that S. sclarea aqueous extract induced lipid peroxidation in roots of Jimson weed seedlings 24 h after the treatment. Furthermore, both tested concentrations of C. menthifolium aqueous extract induced lipid peroxidation in Jimson weed roots 72 h and 120 h after the treatment. It was observed that S. sclarea aqueous extract showed toxic effect against R. dominica, with high mortality rate (above 95%.

  9. Ecophysiological and antioxidant traits of Salvia officinalis under ozone stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Elisa; Francini, Alessandra; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Nali, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Ecophysiological and antioxidant traits were evaluated in sage (Salvia officinalis) plants exposed to 120 ppb of ozone for 90 consecutive days (5 h day(-1)). At the end of fumigation, plants showed slight leaf yellowing that could be considered the first visual symptom of leaf senescence. Ozone-stressed leaves showed (1) reduced photosynthetic activity (-70 % at the end of exposure), (2) chlorophyll loss (-59 and -56 % of chlorophyll a and b concentrations, starting from 30 days from the beginning of exposure), and (3) cellular water deficit (-12 % of the relative water content at the end of the fumigation). These phenomena are indicative of oxidative stress in the chloroplasts (as confirmed by the strong degradation of β-carotene) despite the photoprotection conferred by xanthophyll cycle [as demonstrated by the significant rise of de-epoxidation index, reaching the maximum value at the end of the treatment (+69 %)], antioxidant compounds [as confirmed by the increase of phenols (in particular caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid)], and water-soluble carbohydrates (especially monosaccharides). By means of combined ecophysiological and biochemical approaches, this study demonstrates that S. officinalis is able to activate an adaptive survival mechanism allowing the plant to complete its life cycle even under oxidative stressful conditions.

  10. A gDNA microarray for genotyping salvia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarte, Alexandra; Mantri, Nitin; Nugent, Gregory; Wohlmuth, Hans; Li, Chun Guang; Xue, Charlie; Pang, Edwin

    2013-07-01

    Salvia is an important genus from the Lamiaceae with approximately 1,000 species. This genus is distributed globally and cultivated for ornamental, culinary, and medicinal uses. We report the construction of the first fingerprinting array for Salvia species enriched with polymorphic and divergent DNA sequences and demonstrate the potential of this array for fingerprinting several economically important members of this genus. In order to generate the Salvia subtracted diversity array (SDA) a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed between a pool of Salvia species and a pool of angiosperms and non-angiosperms to selectively isolate Salvia-specific sequences. A total of 285-subtracted genomic DNA (gDNA) fragments were amplified and arrayed. DNA fingerprints were obtained for fifteen Salvia genotypes including three that were not part of the original subtraction pool. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that the Salvia-specific SDA was capable of differentiating S. officinalis and S. miltiorrhiza from their closely related species and was also able to reveal genetic relationships consistent with geographical origins. In addition, this approach was capable of isolating highly polymorphic sequences from chloroplast and nuclear DNA without preliminary sequence information. Therefore, SDA is a powerful technique for fingerprinting non-model plants and for identifying new polymorphic loci that may be developed as potential molecular markers.

  11. Synergistic effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oils and antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

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    Milenković Marina T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA due to the acquisition of resistance to current antimicrobials pose a serious challenge for therapy, and new measures to treat and prevent this infectious pathogen are of crucial importance. Plant essential oils (EOs and their constituents are promising agents with antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antistaphylococcal effect of essential oils from Salvia officinalis using the broth-microdilution method. Essential oils of S. officinalis were isolated from the same individual, but at different life stages - young and old leaves. The effects of combinations of sub-inhibitory concentrations of oil and different antibiotics were evaluated by the checkerboard method. The results, expressed as the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC and index (FICI, indicate that the essential oil isolated from young leaves potentiated the inhibitory effect of antibiotics against tested MRSA strains. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173021

  12. Antimycobacterial and Antifungal Activities of Selected Four Salvia Species

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Tan; Dilek Satana; Burcu Sen; Emir Tan; Hilal Bardakcı Altan; Betül Demirci; Meltem Uzun

    2016-01-01

    The content of essential oils of endemic Salvia cilicica was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. Spathulenol (23.8 %), caryophyllene oxide (14.9 %) and hexadecanoic acid (10.3 %) were identified as the major components in the oil of Salvia cilicica. Additionally, in this study ethanol extracts of the aerial parts and essential oils of four Salvia species ( S. cilicica, S. officinalis, S. fruticosa, S. tomentosa ) , as well as the roots of S. cilicica were investigated their antimycobacte...

  13. Scallopleaf sage (salvia vaseyi: Lamiaceae) discovered in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, J.W.; Felger, R.S.; Jansen, B.D.; Krausman, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    During the course of field work in Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, southwestern Arizona, in 2003, James Cain and Brian Jansen collected Salvia vaseyi, previously known only from the western edge of the Sonoran Desert in California and Baja California. Our findings indicate this shrub might be more widespread in southwestern Arizona mountains. Salvia vaseyi in Arizona seems to represent a relict population. There are other shrubby Salvia in Arizona, but S. vaseyi is the most xeric-mhabiting species and has the narrowest ecological and geographical range.

  14. Neuroprotective, antimicrobial, antioxidant, chemotherapeutic, and antidiabetic properties of Salvia Reuterana: A mini review

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    Elham Jafari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Herbal medicine is known as a valid alternative treatment. Salvia Reuterana, which has been used in the Iranian traditional medicine, is mostly distributed in the central highlands of Iran. Salvia Reuterana is a medicinal herb with various therapeutic usages. The aim of the present review is to take account of pharmacological properties of Salvia Reuterana. Materials and Methods: The present review summarizes the literature with respect to various pharmacological properties of Salvia Reuterana. Results: Salvia Reuterana possesses neurological, antimicrobial, antioxidant, chemotherapeutic, and antidiabetic properties. Conclusions: Salvia Reuterana can be used as an alternative for treatment of several disorders.

  15. Activity of Salvia dolomitica and Salvia somalensis Essential Oils against Bacteria, Molds and Yeasts

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    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs from Salvia dolomitica and Salvia somalensis, widely employed in the cosmetic and perfume industry, were analyzed for composition and tested against bacterial and fungal pathogens isolated from clinical and environmental specimens. The analyses were carried out against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus pseudointermedius, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus canis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Mucor sp. and Trichothecium roseum. Both EOs showed similar percentages of total monoterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The main constituents were 1,8-cineole and β-caryophyllene in S. dolomitica and bornyl acetate and camphor in S. somalensis. The selected EOs have no relevant antifungal or antibacterial activities if compared to conventional drugs.

  16. Chemical and genetic relationships among sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) cultivars and Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böszörményi, Andrea; Héthelyi, Eva; Farkas, Agnes; Horváth, Györgyi; Papp, Nóra; Lemberkovics, Eva; Szoke, Eva

    2009-06-10

    The essential oil composition and genetic variability of common sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) and its three ornamental cultivars ('Purpurascens', 'Tricolor', and 'Kew Gold') as well as Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.) were analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Common sage and its cultivars contained the same volatile compounds; only the ratio of compounds differed. The main compounds were the sesquiterpene alpha-humulene and the monoterpenes beta-pinene, eucalyptol, and camphor. Judean sage contained mainly the sesquiterpenes beta-cubebene and ledol. All of the samples exhibited characteristic RAPD patterns that allowed their identification. Cluster analyses based on oil composition and RAPD markers corresponded very well to each other, suggesting that there is a strong relationship between the chemical profile and the genetic variability.

  17. [Advances in chemical constituents and bioactivity of Salvia genus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qing; Liu, Jian-xun

    2015-06-01

    The genus Salvia in the family Lamiaceae with nearly 1 000 species, is widespread in temperate and tropical regions around the world. Many species of genus Salvia are important medicinal plants with a long history of which Danshen (the dried roots and rhizomes of S. miltiorrhiza) is one of the most popular herbal traditional medicines in Asian countries. The chemical constituents from Salvia plants mainly contain sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids and polyphenols etc, which exhibit antibacterial, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, antiplatelet aggregation activities and so on. In this article, the development of new constituents and their biological activities of Salvia genus in the past five years were reviewed and summarized for its further development and utilization.

  18. Effects of CaCl2 solutions to alleviate drought stress effects in potted ornamentals Salvia splendens and Ageratum houstonianum

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    Agata Jędrzejuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bedding plants are often subjected to soil water deficit – either after planting and/or during the market chain. Methods to alleviate the negative water stress effects are sought for to preserve ornamental values of plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of two bedding plants, Ageratum houstonianum Mill. and Salvia splendens Sellow ex Scult., to water stress and treatments with calcium chloride aimed to alleviate drought effects. Plants were subjected either to 45 days of periodical stress (five cycles when watering was off for 5 consecutive days, followed by four cycles on for 5 consecutive days or 10 days of radical drought (complete water withdrawal. On the first day, before the onset of drought, plants were watered with 0.5% Ca or 1% Ca w/v as a solution of calcium chloride (5 g or 10 g Ca per 1 dm3 of the growing substrate. The similarly Ca-treated but routinely watered plants provided controls to evaluate the water shortage effects. Plant height, inflorescence length/number, leaf number, leaf area (in Salvia splendens only, aboveground plant part weight, and root weight (in Salvia splendens only as well as leaf relative water content (RWC were measured at the beginning and at the end of the experiments. Water withdrawal during 10 days of growth (radical drought reduced by half RWC in leaves of withering Salvia splendens and Ageratum houstonianum plants. Its effects on the growth parameters were less pronounced and mitigated by Ca applications. Also in the periodically stressed plants of both species, RWC and most growth parameters were reduced by water shortage but Ca applications alleviated the negative stress effects.

  19. Antioxidant compounds in Salvia officinalis L. shoot and hairy root cultures in the nutrient sprinkle bioreactor

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    Izabela Grzegorczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the production of compounds with antioxidant activity in hairy root and shoot cultures of Salvia officinalis grown in laboratory-scale sprinkle nutrient bioreactors. HPLC analysis showed that production of rosmarinic acid in transformed roots (34.65 ±1.07 mg l-1 was higher that in shoot culture (26.24 ±0.48 mg l-1. In the latter diterpenoids: carnosic acid (1.74 ±0.02 mg l-1 and carnosol (1.34 ±0.01 mg l-1 were also found. Biomass accumulation after a growth period in the bioreactor was also studied. An 18-fold increase in hairy root biomass was recorded after 40 days of culture. In sage shoot culture, biomass increased 43 times after 21 days of bioreactor run. The current operating conditions of the bioreactor were not suitable for the propagation of Salvia officinalis mainly due to the hyperhydricity problem of leaves and stems.

  20. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wise, Mitchell Lynn; Katahira, Eva Joy; Savage, Thomas Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  1. Chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal activities of Salvia essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Jija; Thoppil, John E

    2011-05-01

    Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. In this context, essential oils have received much attention as potentially useful bioactive compounds against insects. Therefore, our present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of essential oils from the aerial parts of Salvia elegans Vahl, Salvia dorisiana Standl., Salvia splendens Sello ex J.A. Schult Blue Ribbon, and S. splendens Sello ex J.A. Schult Scarlet Sage Red (Lamiaceae) against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). The mosquito larvicidal activities of the essential oils and chemical composition of four taxa of Salvia are investigated in this article for the first time. Chemical compositions of essential oils obtained from four taxa of Salvia were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC-FID, and the effects of essential oils on fourth instar larvae of A. albopictus were investigated. The main components identified from each Salvia essential oils were as follows: spathulenol (38.73%) and caryophyllene (10.32%) from S. elegans; ledol (45.8%) and 4,4'-[(p-phenylene)diisopropylidene]diphenol (17.38%) from S. dorisiana; β-cubebene (22.9%), and caryophyllene (12.99%) from S. splendens Blue Ribbon; phytol (41.46%) and cyclooctasulfur (24.88%) from S. splendens Scarlet Sage Red. The essential oils of S. elegans and S. splendens Blue Ribbon had excellent inhibitory larvicidal effect against A. albopictus larvae, and their LC(50) values in 24 h were 46.4 ppm (LC(90) = 121.8 ppm) and 59.2 ppm (LC(90) = 133.0 ppm), respectively. These findings demonstrate that the essential oils of these Salvia species could be considered as the powerful candidates to bring about useful botanicals so as to prevent the resurgence of mosquito vectors.

  2. Composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. from various European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Arak, Elmar

    2007-05-01

    Variations in the essential oil composition of Salvia officinalis L. growing in Estonia and in other European countries were determined. The oils were obtained in yields of 2.2-24.8 mL kg(-1). In three samples, the content of essential oil did not conform to the EP standard (10 mL kg(-1)). Variations in the essential oil composition of sage were studied using capillary gas chromatographic methods. A total of 40 components were identified. The principal components in the sage oils were 1,8-cineole, camphor, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone, borneol, and viridiflorol. The chemotypes of sage were not determined in investigated samples. The concentration of the main compounds in the drugs cultivated in Estonia varied in about the same range as the concentrations of these compounds in the oils of drugs obtained from other countries. The comparatively high concentration of toxic thujones seem to be characteristic to sage leaves cultivated in Estonia.

  3. Chemical composition of sage (Salvia officinalis L. essential oil from the Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil

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    A. Porte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil from fresh leaves of sage (Salvia officinalis L. from Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, for international trade. The oil was isolated by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed through a combination of GC-FID and GC-MS. The yield was 2.3 % on dry basis. Forty-seven constituents were identified according to their chromatographic retention indices and mass spectra, corresponding to 94.90 % of the compounds present. The major constituents of the oil were α-thujone (40.90 %, camphor (26.12 %, α-pinene (5.85 % and β-thujone (5.62 %. The essential oil studied was similar to those found in several European countries and can be a valuable product for the small farmers from the Petrópolis region in Rio de Janeiro State.

  4. [Effects of EDTA on lead accumulation in Tagetes patula and Salvia spendens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Shuang; Sun, Li-Na; Sun, Tie-Heng

    2007-09-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of EDTA on the Pb availability in rhizospheric soil and the Pb accumulation in Tagetes patula and Salvia spendens. The results showed that 7 days after applying EDTA (3.0 mmol x kg(-1)) into soil, the concentration of ammonium acetate (1 mol x L(-1)) -extracted Pb in rhizospheric soil increased significantly (P < 0.01), and the Pb content in T. patula and S. spendens leaves reached to 2415.88 and 1083.68 mg x kg(-1), being 61.36 and 5.37 times of the control, respectively. The Pb content also had a marked increase in T. patula and S. spendens stems, but had a slight decrease in their roots.

  5. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakota, Erica L; Winkler-Moser, Jill K; Berhow, Mark A; Eller, Fred J; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-04-01

    An extract of Salvia officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a concentration of 28.4 mg/g, representing a significant enrichment from the RA content in sage leaves. This extract was incorporated into oil-in-water emulsions as a source of lipid antioxidants and compared to emulsions containing pure rosmarinic acid. Both treatments were effective in suppressing lipid oxidation. The extract was evaluated by a trained sensory panel in a tea formulation. While the panel could discriminate among extract-treated and control samples, panelists demonstrated high acceptability of the sage extract in a tea. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. [Influence of plant growth regulater on yield and quality of Salvia miltiorrhiza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-En; Zhang, Xiao-Yang

    2014-06-01

    The study is aimed to investigate the effect of plant growth regulators on yield and quality of the Salvia miltiorrhiza. The plant growth regulators was spraying on Salvia plants in July or August in field experiment, then the yield, ingredient content and the antioxidant activity were determined. The results showed that plant growth regulator 'Zhuanggenling' could increase the yield of Salvia with root-planting by 38.45%. Plant growth regulator 'Duoxiaozuo' could increase the yield of Salvia with seedling planting by 14.19%. Both plant growth regulator significantly reduced the antioxidant activity of Salvia in vitro, but they had no significant effect on active ingredient contents.

  7. Terpenes From the Root of Salvia hypoleuca Benth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Salvia, with nearly 900 species, is one of the largest members of Lamiaceae family. In the Flora of Iran, the genus Salvia is represented by 58 species of which 17 species are endemic. Salvia hypoleuca Benth., is one of these species growing wildly in northern and central parts of Iran. Salvia species are well known in folk medicine and widely used for therapeutic purposes. Literature review shows that there is no report on phytochemical investigation of the roots of S. hypoleuca. Results The separation and purification process were carried out using various chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis of NMR and MS data, in comparison with those reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were identified as sitosteryl oleate (1), β-sitosterol (2), stigmasterol (3), manool (4), 7α-acetoxy royleanone (5), ursolic acid (6), oleanolic acid (7), 3-epicorosolic acid (8), 3-epimaslinic acid (9) and coleonolic acid (10). Conclusions In the present study, three sterols, two diterpenes and five triterpenes were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the roots of S. hypoleuca. As the chemotaxonomic significance, some of the isolated compounds (1–7, 9) have not been previously reported from the species S. hypoleuca, while the triterpenes 8 and 10 are now documented from Salvia genus for the first time. PMID:23351362

  8. Antimycobacterial and Antifungal Activities of Selected Four Salvia Species

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    Nur Tan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The content of essential oils of endemic Salvia cilicica was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. Spathulenol (23.8 %, caryophyllene oxide (14.9 % and hexadecanoic acid (10.3 % were identified as the major components in the oil of Salvia cilicica. Additionally, in this study ethanol extracts of the aerial parts and essential oils of four Salvia species ( S. cilicica, S. officinalis, S. fruticosa, S. tomentosa , as well as the roots of S. cilicica were investigated their antimycobacterial and antifungal activities including infectious diseases. The antimycobacterial activity was analyzed against three Mycobacterium tuberculosis (sensitive-, resistant-standard strains and multidrug resistance clinical isolate strains and the antifungal activity was compared with two dermotophytes (Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei and three Candida species by the broth microdilution method. The essentials oils of the four tested Salvia species showed high antimycobacterial and antifungal activity (MIC between 0.2-12.5 mcg/mL in comparison to the aerial parts and root extracts . The antifungal and antimycobacterial potential of the ethanol extracts and essential oils were introduced to determine whether, Salvia species can be used in phytotherapy against the yeasts, dermatophytes and M. tuberculosis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of S. cilicica about their antimycobacterial and antifungal activities and chemical composition of its essential oils.

  9. Flies as pollinators of melittophilous Salvia species (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celep, Ferhat; Atalay, Zeynep; Dikmen, Fatih; Doğan, Musa; Classen-Bockhoff, Regıne

    2014-12-01

    • Floral adaptation to a functional pollinator group does not necessarily mean close specialization to a few pollinator species. For the more than 950 species of Salvia, only bee and bird pollinations are known. Restriction to these pollinators is mainly due to the specific flower construction (lever mechanism). Nevertheless, it has been repeatedly suggested that Salvia flowers might also be pollinated by flies. Are flies able to handle the lever mechanism? Are they functionally equivalent pollinators? In this study, we compared and quantified pollen transfer by bees and flies to test whether flies are true pollinators in Salvia.• We identified pollinators using field observations and photos. Video documentation of the visitation rate and the site of pollen placement on the pollinator body, morphometric measurements, quantification of pollen placement, pollen load, handling time, and stigma contact ratio were analyzed.• Field investigations revealed that 19 insect species pollinated S. virgata and four pollinated S. verticillata, including 16 bee species from seven genera of the Apidae and three fly species from three genera of the Nemestrinidae and Tabanidae.• Flies have been found to be pollinators in primarily bee-pollinated Salvia species. This result demonstrates the potential of a given "melittoid" flower construction to broaden the range of pollinators to guarantee successful pollination and seed production. Though bees, particularly Bombus terrestris, were more efficient than flies, the study shows that flies significantly contribute to pollen transfer in Salvia. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  10. Evaluation of the diuretic activity of the aqueous and 80% methanol extracts of the root of Euclea divinorum Hiern (Ebenaceae) in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldemedhin, Beharu; Nedi, Teshome; Shibeshi, Workineh; Sisay, Mekonnen

    2017-04-18

    Diuretics are drugs that increase the formation of urine and are important for the treatment of various diseases including hypertension and edema. The root decoction of Euclea divinorum has been used as a diuretic agent in the traditional medicine. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the diuretic activity of the crude extracts of the roots of Euclea divinorum in Sprague Dawley rats. The aqueous extract (AE) and 80% methanol extract (80ME) of the plant were prepared using decoction and maceration, respectively. Vehicle (distilled water, 10ml/kg), standard drug (hydrochlorothiazide, 10mg/kg) and three doses (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg) of the AE and 80ME were given to male rats by oral gavage. Parameters like urine volume (for 5h), electrolyte concentration and pH were measured (at 5th h) and analyzed. Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey post hoc test. Linear regression was also applied to show the dose dependency nature of the diuretic effect. The result indicated that the 80ME of the plant significantly (p400mg/kg. Furthermore, the AE produced significant diuresis (p400mg/kg (p<0.001). Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of secondary metabolites, including saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids, tannins and terpinoids in both extracts. These constituents might be responsible for the diuretic activity of Euclea divinorum. Both extracts were also found to be safe at 2000mg/kg on the acute toxicity study. This finding provides a scientific support for the acclaimed traditional use of the roots of Euclea divinorum as a diuretic agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Taking Leave?

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Planning a holiday? Then if you're a member of the personnel, you'll need to use the Laboratory's new leave system that will be put in place on 1 October. Leave allocations don't change - you are entitled to just as much holiday as before - but instead of being credited annually, your leave will be credited on a monthly basis, and this information will be communicated on your salary slip. The reason for the change is that with the various new leave schemes such as Recruitment by Saved Leave (RSL) and the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), a streamlined procedure was required for dealing with all kinds of leave. In the new system, each member of the personnel will have leave accounts to which leave will be credited monthly from the payroll and debited each time an absence is registered in the CERN Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). Leave balances will appear on monthly pay slips, and full details of leave transactions and balances will be available through EDH at all times. As the leave will be c...

  12. A New Languidulane Diterpenoid from Salvia mexicana var. mexicana

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    Jorge Cárdenas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Salvia mexicana var. mexicana, two C-10 epimers (α and β of salvimexicanolide were isolated. Our interpretation of the data, especially the 13C NMR, led us to conclude that the previously described 13C-NMR spectrum of the α-epimer was not accurately assigned and it actually corresponds to the β-epimer. The structures proposed for the salvimexicanolides were verified by means of NOESY experiments. Dugesin B, arbutin, naringenin and the mixture of oleanolic and ursolic acids were also isolated from this Salvia spp.

  13. A theoretical biogenesis overview of diterpenes isolated from Salvia microphylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Salgado, J Alejandro; Bautista, Elihú; Cuevas, Gabriel; Martinez-Mayorga, Karina

    2015-11-01

    Establishing the reaction mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of natural products plays an important role in phytochemistry and pharmacology. Mechanistic studies of the biogenesis of natural products have been mainly explored by means of theoretical calculations, and taking into account experimental structures of reagents and products. Using a hybrid meta density functional theory method (mPW1B95), we studied the mechanisms associated with the biogenesis of five neo-clerodanes isolated from Salvia mycrophylla. The reaction mechanisms presented here explain the formation of the five neo-clerodanes and coincides with the formulated biogenetic hypothesis. Graphical Abstract Proposed biogenesis of diterpenes isolated from Salvia microphylla.

  14. α-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Salvia circinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Bocanegra, Laura; González-Andrade, Martin; Bye, Robert; Linares, Edelmira; Mata, Rachel

    2017-05-26

    A dried infusion prepared from the aerial parts of Salvia circinata did not provoke acute toxicity in mice (LD50 > 5 g/kg). This infusion showed poor hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects (100-570 mg/kg) when tested in normal and hyperglycemic mice using acute and oral glucose tolerance tests, respectively. However, this infusion possessed antihyperglycemic action in vivo during an oral sucrose tolerance test (31.6-316 mg/kg), suggesting the presence of α-glucosidase inhibitors in S. circinata. Fractionation of a nonpolar extract of the aerial parts of the plant yielded a new biflavone (1) and four new neoclerodane diterpenoid glucosides (2-5) along with the known compounds amarisolide (6), pedalitin (7), apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucoside (8), and the flavone 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5,6-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-4H-chromen-4-one (9). Compounds 1 and 6-9 were active against mammalian α-glucosidases; 6 and 7 were also active against a recombinant α-glucosidase from Ruminococcus obeum and reduced significantly the postprandial peak during an oral sucrose tolerance test in healthy mice, consistent with their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Molecular docking and dynamic studies revealed that compounds 6 and 7 might bind to α-glucosidases at the catalytic center of the enzyme.

  15. GEOMETRIC, VOLUMETRIC, COLOUR AND FRICTIONAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED SALVIA SPECIES OF TURKEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Mustafa; Altuntas, Ebubekir; Yilar, Melih

    2017-01-01

    Salvia seeds are promite to dietary and healthy oils because they contain essential fatty acids. Salvia seeds frequently produce mucilage on soaking, and this mucilage is used for the treatment of eye diseases in eastern countries. Salvia species studied for medicine, food and cosmetics, have the potential to be used in the various fields. In the present study, selected engineering (geometrical, volumetrical, colour and frictional) properties of 6 Salvia species seeds were determined and compared. This study was performed on selected engineering properties of seeds of 6 Salvia species (Salvia viridis L., Salvia aethiopis L., Salvia cryptantha Montbert & Aucher ex Benthan., Salvia tomentosa Mill., Salvia sclarea L., Salvia virgata Jacq.,) cultivated in Turkey. Plants were collected during the vegetation in 2012-2013 (May-Agust). The seeds were cleaned from foreign matter, dirt and broken seeds manually. The average length, width and thickness were found in the range of 2.61 to 3.53 mm, 1.59 to 2.92 mm and 1.14 to 2.52 mm, respectively. Salvia viridis L. specie had the lowest geometric mean diameter and surface area, whereas Salvia cryptantha L. had the least values among these 6 Salvia species for these properties. The bulk density, true density and the porosity were between 296.83 and 702.80 kg m-3, 285.69 and 718.08 kg m-3, 10.27 and 44.05%, respectively. The volume of unit seed and sphericity ranged between 2.56 and 13.64 mm3, 62.90 and 90.40%, respectively. The coefficient of friction of salvia species were largely influenced by the friction surfaces studied, and highest values were found for polywood in the Salvia crytantha L.. In the study, the static friction coefficient and the angle of repose of salvia species changed from 0.477 to 0.955, and from 14.09 to 23.57°, respectively. Determination of geometric, volumetric, colour and frictional properties of Salvia spp. seeds may increase their economic value.

  16. Temporal transcriptome changes induced by methyl jasmonate in Salvia sclarea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da Cheng; Chen, Shi Lin; Osbourn, Anne; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Liu, Li Wei; Jordán, Maria J

    2015-03-01

    Salvia sclarea is a traditional medicinal and aromatic plant that grows in Europe and produces various economically important compounds, including phenylpropanoid derivatives and terpenoids. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is commonly used to elicit plant stress responses. However, how MeJA enhances production of secondary metabolites in S. sclarea is not well understood. We performed a genome-wide analysis of temporal gene expression in S. sclarea leaves and roots. The transcriptome profiles 0, 10 and 26 h after MeJA treatment were analyzed by Illumina RNA-Seq. A total of 16,142 isogenes (average length 866bp; N50 1035bp) were obtained by de novo assembly of 35,757,567 raw sequencing reads. When these sequencing reads were mapped onto the assembled Unigenes, 3236, 2792 and 798 Unigenes were found to be expressed differentially between 0 and 10h, 0 and 26 h, and 10 and 26h, respectively. These included many secondary metabolite biosynthesis, stress and defense-related genes. A qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the expression profiles of selected differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed by RNA-Seq data, and also extended our analysis of differential gene expression to 73 h. Our investigations revealed temporal differences in the responses of S. sclarea to MeJA treatment. MeJA treatment induced the expression of a large number of genes involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, especially between 0 and 10h, and 0 and 26 h. Additionally, many genes encoding transcription factors, cytochrome P450s, glycosyltransferases, methyltransferases and transporters were shown to respond to MeJA elicitation. DEGs related to structural molecule activity and cell death showed a significant temporal variation. A chromatographic analysis of metabolites at 26h, 73h and six days after MeJA treatment indicated that these transcriptomic changes precede MeJA-induced changes in secondary metabolite content. This study sheds light on the molecular mechanisms of MeJA elicitation and is helpful in

  17. COMPOSITION OF STEMBARK ESSENTIAL OIL FROM SALVIA MACROSIPHON BOISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIROUZ MATLOUBI-MOGHADDAM

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Salvia macrosiphon boiss (Labiatae was prepared by steam distillation and analyzed by GC and coupled GC/MS. Twenty substances out of about thirty-three detected components were identified. The major constituents were sesquiterpenes (69.5%, a-Gurjunene (11%, P-Cubebene (10.6%, Germacrene-B (7%.

  18. Anti-mutagenic activity of Salvia merjamie extract against gemcitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Khalid Mashay

    2015-01-01

    Gemcitabine is an anti-cancer drug with clinically uses in the treatment of various neoplasms, including breast, ovarian, non-small cell lung, pancreaticand cervical cancers, T-cell malignancies, germ cell tumours, and hepatocellular carcinomas. However, it has also been reported to have many adverse effects. Naturally occurring anti-mutagenic effects, especially those of plant origin, have recently become a subject of intensive research. The present study was therefore designed to investigate the anti-mutagenic effects of Salvia merjamie (Family: Lamiaceae) plant extracts against the mutagenic effects of gemcitabine. The anti-mutagenic properties of Salvia merjamie were tested in Inbred SWR/J male and female mice bone marrow cells. The mice were treated in four groups; a control group treated with 30 mg/kg body weight gemcitabine and three treatment groups, each with 30 mg/kg body weight gemcitabine together with, respectively, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight Salvia merjamie extract. Chromosomal aberration and mitotic index assays were performed with the results demonstrating that Salvia merjamie extract protects bone marrow cells in mice against gemcitabine induced mutagenicity. This information can be used for the development of a potential therapeutic anti-mutagenic agents.

  19. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity of Salvia verticcilata and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The amount of total phenolics was found to be 347.5 mg GA/g extract. The IC50 value and FRAP assay are 0.61, and 0.944 respectively, Free radical scavenging effect and FRAP values are less than synthetic antioxidant compounds (BHA and BHT). Eight phenolic compounds were found in Salvia verticcilata L.

  20. Antagonistic bioactivity of endophytic strains isolated from Salvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibiotic-producing potential of endophytic populations from medical plant of Salvia miltiorrhiza was examined. A total of 63 isolates was screened against five fungal and three bacterial species for the production of antimicrobial compounds. It showed that more isolates was antagonistic to fungi than to bacteria.

  1. Effects of aqueous methanolic extract of Salvia limbata on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After four consecutive days of morphine injection, withdrawal syndrome was assessed by placing each mouse in a 30 cm high glass box and recording the incidence of escape jumps for 60 min. Animal receiving acute treatment with morphine displayed dependence. The animals treated with different Salvia limbata aerial ...

  2. Extracts of Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge on the cytokines of rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endometriosis is a common mysterious and fascinating gynaecological condition with diverse clinical manifestations, highly variable and unpredictable clinical course with decreased quality of life. Clinically, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SMB, Chinese Danshen) has been applied to treat endometriosis and get satisfactory ...

  3. Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of Salvia officinalis L. flowers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study a comparison of the Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial action of the aqueous and 70% methanol extracts from the flower of the herbal species Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), originating from Sudan was carried out. Material and Methods: Aqueous, and aquatic methanolic extracts of S. officinalis was investigated for ...

  4. Kleinbloemige salie (Salvia verbenaca L.) terug in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, de Awie J.; Weeda, Eddy J.

    2001-01-01

    In the past Salvia verbenaca occurred as a native, albeit very rare plant in two parts of the Netherlands, viz. the southwestern province of Zeeland and the riverine area in the eastern province of Gelderland. Because it was not recorded anymore after 1948, it was considered extinct. Excluding the

  5. Microdistillation and analysis of volatiles from eight ornamental salvia taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile compounds from seven Salvia species and one interspecific hybrid growing at the Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden, Texas, US, S. coccinea, S. farinacea, S. greggii, S. leucantha, S. longispicata × farinacea, S. madrensis, S. roemeriana and S. splendens were investigated for their chemic...

  6. Seed ecology of a rare sage, Salvia dorrii ssp. mearnsii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin D. Huisinga

    2001-01-01

    Although related taxa occur throughout the western United States, Salvia dorrii ssp. mearnsii is endemic to central Arizona. In part, its narrow distribution may be attributed to its limited fruit production, low seedling establishment, and germination requirements. Heavy herbivory pressures decreased the numbers of mature fruits in populations in two different...

  7. Een „oude” voor Nederland nieuwe Salvia-bastaard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, F.

    1968-01-01

    Among the Dutch material of Salvia nemorosa L. in the collections of the Rijksherbarium, Leiden, the author found several specimens of the hybrid S. X sylvestris L. (S. nemorosa L. X S. pratensis L.). L.). A short description of this hybrid and the differences between the parent species are given.

  8. Relationship Between Soil and Essential Oil Profiles in Salvia desoleana Populations: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapposelli, Emma; Melito, Sara; Barmina, Giovanni Gabriele; Foddai, Marzia; Azara, Emanuela; Scarpa, Grazia Maria

    2015-09-01

    Salvia desoleana is a herbaceous perennial shrub endemic of Sardinia (Italy). The leaves are a source of essential oil, used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The therapeutic function of this species has been associated to the presence of essential oils rich in α/β-pinene, p-cimene, linalool, linalyl acetate and 1,8-cineole. Today.the industrial request of Salvia essential oils is increasing and most of the biomass is exploited from the natural populations which are under severe risk of genetic erosion. In order to improve the essential oil production, the study of the environmental parameters that influence composition, quality and quantity of the essential oils, turns out to be necessary. Soil physical and chemical structure represents one of the determinant factors in secondary metabolites production, and could also be involved in volatiles fraction composition in the same species. The main aim of this research was to explore the relationship between essential oil profiles and soil characteristics in S. desoleana populations. GC/MS analysis performed on the essential oil extracts identified 22 principal compounds, which were extremely variable among the five S. desoleana populations studied. The analysis of the essential oils revealed different compositions in the terpenes fractions: 68.2% of monoterpenes, 27.3% of sesquiterpenes and 4.5% of diterpenes. Analysis of chemical and physical soil parameters at the collection sites revealed that silt and sand contents were correlated with α-pinene and sclareol fractions and the total K20 was significantly correlated to several compounds belonging to the three terpene fractions identified. These results will provide guidelines for the in site conservation and for the improvement of the commercial value of the species.

  9. Comparison of Chemical Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Seeds and Oils from Salvia sclarea and Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Jelena; Ristić, Mihailo; Kschonsek, Josephine; Westphal, Anna; Mihailović, Milica; Filipović, Vladimir; Böhm, Volker

    2017-12-01

    Composition of tocopherols, tocotrienols, carotenoids, fatty acids, as well as hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities, were determined in seeds of two Salvia species and oils obtained from them. Both seeds contained a large amount of oil (around 20%) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. While Salvia officinalis seed oil can be classified as oleic-linoleic oil, the predominant fatty acid in Salvia sclarea was α-linolenic acid (around 54%). Among tocols, the main isomers in both seeds and oils were γ-tocopherol, followed by α-tocopherol. Concerning carotenoids, their concentration was around 0.75 mg/100 g of seeds and 0.16 mg/100 g of oils, with a predominance of lutein. Oil and seeds of S. officinalis exhibited higher antioxidant potential compared to S. sclarea investigated samples which could be attributed to higher content of total vitamin E and carotenoids. This study provides results that enables use of two Salvia species as new alternative sources of vegetable oils. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  10. Revisión taxonómica de Salvia sect. Siphonantha (Labiatae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Alonso, José Luis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic review was made of Salvia sect. Siphonantha, whose distribution is restricted to northern South America from Colombia to Peru. A new species of Ecuador, Salvia sigchosica, is described and the original descriptions of another four species of the section are reproduced.Se presenta una revisión de las especies de Salvia sect. Siphonantha, cuya distribución se restringe al norte de Sudamérica, desde Colombia hasta el Perú. Se describe una nueva especie de Ecuador, Salvia sigchosica, y se incluye información descriptiva original sobre las otras cuatro especies de la sección.

  11. The growth and flowering of Salvia splendens Sellow ex Roem. et Schult. under flowerbed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażewicz-Woźniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the influence of accompanying plants as well as bark mulching, common for green areas, on the growth, flowering and decorative values of scarlet sage Salvia splendens Sellow ex Roem. et Schult. The field experiment included two cultivars of sage: ‘Red Torreador’ and ‘Luna’; two species of accompanying plants: French marigold – Tagetes patula nana L. ‘Petit Gold’ and flossflower – Ageratum houstonianum Mill.; as well as pine bark mulching. The control group was a monoculture of scarlet sage, without mulching. Pine bark mulching had a beneficial influence on almost all growth and flowering characteristics of scarlet sage. The plants growing on mulched soil were higher, had more leaves and branches as well as their inflorescences were longer and had more whorls than the plants growing without mulching. S. splendens growing with other species had fewer leaves and fewer branches. Its side stems and lateral inflorescences were shorter. The accompanying species also limited the mass of scarlet sage. The vicinity of marigold and flossflower had no influence on the height of S. splendens plants, the number of whorls and flowers within inflorescences. The growth of scarlet sage was largely modified by weather conditions; the plants grew best between June 20th and July 18th, with the best decorative effect achieved in July. The drought caused the flowers to dry out during the second half of the summer each year, limiting the decorative values of sage.

  12. Oxidative stress in bromus seedlings treated with Salvia sclarea L. aqueous extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šućur, J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of synthetic pesticides has negative effects on the environment and on human and animal health. Knowledge on allelopathic interactions could provide effective tools for a better exploitation of natural resources in the management of weeds without using herbicides. One of highly resistant weed species is bromus. The effects of two concentrations (0.1% and 0.2% of Salvia sclarea L. aqueous extract on the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT in leaves and roots of bromus (Bromus mollis L. seedlings, were examined. Our results showed that both concentrations of the extract used (0.1% and 0.2% stimulated the significant increase of the superoxide dismutase activity in leaves and roots of bromus 72 hours and 120 hours after the treatment. The significant increase of the catalase activity was recorded in roots of bromus 72 h after the treatment. Two tested extract concentrations affected activity of the antioxidant enzymes in the same way, but the higher activity was observed in the roots treated with higher concentration (0.2%. The increase of the activities of antioxidant enzymes, in response to stress induced by S. sclarea aqueous extract, indicate that the plant extract possesses allelopathic activity on treated plant.

  13. Seasonal variations of phenolic compounds and biological properties in sage (Salvia officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generalić, Ivana; Skroza, Danijela; Surjak, Jana; Možina, Sonja Smole; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Katalinić, Ana; Simat, Vida; Katalinić, Višnja

    2012-02-01

    The aim was to investigate the phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and antibacterial activity of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves collected during different vegetation periods. Separation and quantification of the individual phenols were performed by reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC coupled with a PDA (photodiode array) detector and using an internal standard, while the contents of total phenols, flavonoids, flavones, and flavonols were determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant properties of the sage leaf extracts were evaluated using five different antioxidant assays (FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, Briggs-Rauscher reaction, and β-carotene bleaching). The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested against two Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative (Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli) bacterial reference strains. All extracts were extremely rich in phenolic compounds, and provided good antioxidant and antibacterial properties, but the phenophase in which the leaves were collected affected the phenolic composition of the sage extracts and consequently their biological activity. The May Extract, the richest in total flavonoids, showed the best antioxidant properties and the highest antimicrobial activity. Thus, collection of the plants during May seems the best choice for further use of them in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  14. Impact of motor transport emissions on carbohydrate metabolism in leaves of ornamental flower plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Bessonova

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of carbohydrate exchange in leaves of Salvia sрlendens and Tagetes patula under conditions of environmental pollution by gaseous emission and lead is described in the article. Species differences of glucose quantity under the influence of ingredients of vehicle emissions are presented. Changes in maintenance of non-structural forms of carbohydrates took place as a result of dependences of enzymes activity from pollutants.

  15. Salvia elegans: uma fonte natural de compostos antioxidantes

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Olívia R.; Afonso, Andrea F.; Silva, Joana A.; Batista, Ana Rita; Sobral, Abílio J. F. N.; Susana M. Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    A espécie Salvia elegans é um arbusto que pertence ao género Salvia, família das Lamiaceae. Várias espécies do mesmo género têm vindo a ser cultivadas para uso na culinária e em medicina tradicional [1]. Devido ao seu cheiro característico, a S. elegans é vulgarmente conhecida por salva ananás e utilizada como condimento ou aromatizante em alimentos. No México esta espécie é popularmente conhecida como “mirto” e tem sido usada na medicina tradicional para tratar afeções do sistema nervoso cen...

  16. The Promising Future of Chia, Salvia hispanica L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Tan, Sheau Wei; Tan, Soon Guan

    2012-01-01

    With increasing public health awareness worldwide, demand for functional food with multiple health benefits has also increased. The use of medicinal food from folk medicine to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular problems is now gaining momentum among the public. Seed from Salvia hispanica L. or more commonly known as chia is a traditional food in central and southern America. Currently, it is widely consumed for various health benefits especially in maintaining heal...

  17. GC Analyses of Salvia Seeds as Valuable Essential Oil Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Ben Taârit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of seeds of Salvia verbenaca, Salvia officinalis, and Salvia sclarea were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and GC-mass spectrometry. The oil yields (w/w were 0.050, 0.047, and 0.045% in S. verbenaca, S. sclarea, and S. officinalis, respectively. Seventy-five compounds were identified. The essential oil composition of S. verbenaca seeds showed that over 57% of the detected compounds were oxygenated monoterpenes followed by sesquiterpenes (24.04% and labdane type diterpenes (5.61%. The main essential oil constituents were camphor (38.94%, caryophyllene oxide (7.28%, and 13-epi-manool (5.61%, while those of essential oil of S. officinalis were α-thujone (14.77%, camphor (13.08%, and 1,8-cineole (6.66%. In samples of S. sclarea, essential oil consists mainly of linalool (24.25%, α-thujene (7.48%, linalyl acetate (6.90%, germacrene-D (5.88%, bicyclogermacrene (4.29%, and α-copaene (4.08%. This variability leads to a large range of naturally occurring volatile compounds with valuable industrial and pharmaceutical outlets.

  18. Optimal treatment increased the seed germination of Salvia verticillata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALALEH KHAKPOOR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most seeds of the medicinal species are variable regarding their ecological compatibility with environmental conditions. Therefore, identifying the ecophysiological factors that affect dormancy and create optimal conditions for seed germination of medicinal plants is necessary for their culture and production. To evaluate the effect of different treatments on seed germination of medicinal species of Salvia verticillata, collected in the summer of 2010 in Eastern Azarbaijan, we have performed completely randomized experimental tests with 4 replications. The experimental design of treatment prior to growth included: scrape the skin with sandpaper, treatment with 500 ppm gibberellic acid for 24 and 48 h, treatment with citric acid for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, chilling for 2 and 4 weeks, treatment with warm water at 70°C and control treatment. Results showed that the effect of different treatments was significant on seed germination percent of the medicinal plant Salvia verticillata. Scrape the skin with sandpaper, citric acid treatment for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, and gibberellic acid treatment for 24 hours, increased the germination percentage compared to the control treatment. The most positive impact was observed on the dormancy breaking and germination of medicinal species Salvia verticillata.

  19. Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge extract on liver cirrhosis in rats | Li ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.extract(SMBE) on diethylnitrosamine(DEN)- induced liver cirrhosis in rats. Methods: SMBE was obtained by extracting dried Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. in water. Liver cirrhosis was induced in Wistar rats by injecting diethylnitrosamine in abdominal cavity once a week for ...

  20. [Anatomical characteristics of laminae and petioles of 11 species of Salvia and their taxonomic significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Shi-Yong; Wang, Long; Wang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Li

    2014-07-01

    Anatomical features of the lamina and petiole of 11 species of Salvia had been compared. The microstructures of 11 species of Salvia were observed by paraffin method, and indexes such as the epidermis, xylems and phloems were measured. The data set was analyzed by principal components analysis method and cluster analysis method. The results indicated that the laminae of 11 species of Salvia were bifacial leaf, and the surface of laminae and petioles were covered with villous. The upper epidermis and lower epidermis of the laminae of 11 species of Salvia were constituted by a dense cuticular layer without stratum corneum. Differences existed in the structure of cross sectio mn of laminae and petioles of 11 species of Salvia. Among them, upper epidermal thickness of nine different micromorphological characters could serve as one of the criteria to identify species of taxonomic Salvia. The identification of genetic relationship of these characters in Salvia were discussed in the paper to provide an evidence of anatomy in Salvia.

  1. Morphological characterisation and agronomical parameters of different species of Salvia sp. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ Mossi

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the morphological characteristics and parameters of biomass production, such as fresh and dry matter weight (FMW and DMW, g/plant, yield of dry matter (YDM in terms of ton/ha, essential oil content (EOC, mL/100 g and yield of essential oils (YEO expressed as L/ha of the following plants Salvia verbenaca, Salvia argentea, Salvia lavandulifolia, Salvia pratensis, Salvia sclarea, Salvia triloba and Salvia officinalis. Except for Salvia argentea (S2 all other species have adapted to the south Brazilian climate conditions, with morphological differences among the species evaluated. In terms of DMW and YDM, S. officinalis was found to be the most productive species with 445.83 g/plant and 11.14 ton/ha. The higher essential oil content and yield was observed for S. officinalis, affording 1.99 mL/100 g and 221.74 L/ha, respectively. Chemical characterisation of the essential oils obtained from hydrodistillation was performed through GC and GC/MSD analyses, which revealed for most of the species studied, α e β-thujone, camphor and 1,8-cineole as major compounds, apart from S. sclarea, for which linalool, linalyl acetate and α-terpineol were the major components.

  2. Comparison of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts obtained from Salvia glutinosa L. and Salvia officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Dragan T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as well as total phenols and flavonoids contents of Salvia glutinosa L. (glutinous sage and Salvia officinalis L. (sage extracts were studied. Methanol and aqueous ethanol (70% v/v were used for extraction of bioactive compounds, both in the presence and the absence of ultrasound, from herb and the spent plant material remaining after the essential oil hydrodistillation. The ratio of plant material to extracting solvent was 1:10 g/ml. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts were found to depend on the type of plant material and the extraction conditions. The plant materials from which essential oil had been recovered were proven to be valuable raw materials for making various herbal preparations.

  3. INFLUENCE OF ROOTING POWDER ON PROPAGATION OF SAGE (SALVIA OFFICINALIS L. AND ROSEMARY (ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS L. WITH GREEN CUTTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Parađiković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative propagation of medicinal and aromatic herbs with green cuttings is mainly used because of seed low germination percentage and duration of such reproduction. The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of commercial rooting powder Rhizopon I on the sage rooting (Salvia officinalis L. and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. green cutting. The investigation was conducted in the greenhouse of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Banja Luka during April till July of 2012. The experiment consisted of two variants. Cuttings of sage and rosemary were treated with rooting powder or planted directly into the substrate without being previously treated. Morphological properties such as plant height, number of leaves, root length, fresh weight and dry weight of plants were recorded. The treatment with rooting powder resulted in significantly higher values of all morphological parameters tested. Therefore, it is highly recommendable to use it in transplants production thus ensuring the proper rooting of cuttings for earlier transplanting.

  4. Structural elucidation and evaluation of multidrug-resistance modulatory capability of amarissinins A-C, diterpenes derived from Salvia amarissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Elihú; Fragoso-Serrano, Mabel; Ortiz-Pastrana, Naytzé; Toscano, Rubén A; Ortega, Alfredo

    2016-10-01

    Three new diterpenes (amarissinins A-C, 1-3) containing several oxygenated functionalities were isolated from the leaves and flowers of Salvia amarissima. The structures of these compounds were established through the analysis of their NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry data. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 2 was identified as a C-10 epimer of dugesin F (5). The cytotoxic activity of these compounds against five human cancer cell lines was determined. Additionally, the capability to modulate the multidrug resistance (MDR) in the MCF-7 cancer cell line resistant to vinblastine was tested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Kinetin applications alleviate salt stress and improve the antioxidant composition of leaf extracts in Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounekti, Taïeb; Hernández, Iker; Müller, Maren; Khemira, Habib; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2011-10-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under glasshouse conditions with common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) to investigate the interactive effects of salt stress and kinetin on growth attributes and the abundance of pigments, ions, phenolic diterpenes and α-tocopherol in leaf extracts of this species. The plants were subjected to the following four treatments: (i) control (nutrient solution), (ii) control + 10 μM kinetin, (iii) salt stress (nutrient solution + 100 mM NaCl), and (iv) salt stress + 10 μM kinetin. Kinetin was applied as a foliar fertilizer. Salt stress reduced water contents, photosynthetic activity and pigment contents of sage leaves. In addition, it increased Na(+) contents, and reduced those of Ca(2+) and K(+) in leaves. Salt stress reduced carnosic acid and 12-O-methyl carnosic acid contents in leaves, while it did not affect carnosol and α-tocopherol contents. Foliar applications of kinetin seemed to counterbalance or alleviate the stress symptoms induced by salinity, improving ion and pigment contents, while leaf phenolic diterpene (mainly carnosol) and α-tocopherol contents also increased in both control and NaCl-treated plants; still this effect was much more obvious in salt-treated plants. A similar effect was also obtained when plants were sprayed with KNO(3) or Ca(NO(3))(2), thus suggesting that kinetin effects were at least partly due to an improvement of ion homeostasis. Kinetin applications resulted in increased transcript levels of the isoprenoid and tocopherol biosynthetic genes, DXPRI and VTE2 and VTE4 in control plants, but not in NaCl-treated plants. We conclude that kinetin can alleviate the negative impact of salt on sage plants cultivated under arid environments with salinity problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Leaves, stem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... leaves pale yellowish green in colour with greenish cream scented flower and yellow fruits oval in shape ... When an herbal product is ingested the body interacts with it in an attempt to get rid of any harmful toxins, especially if the body cannot convert the foreign subs- tances into cellular components. In this ...

  7. Multiple pro-apoptotic targets of abietane diterpenoids from Salvia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaberi, M; Mehri, S; Iranshahi, M

    2015-01-01

    The genus Salvia contains a large number of biologically active diterpenoids with various skeletons including abietanes, labdanes, clerodanes, pimaranes and icetexanes. Diterpenes of Salvia species showed various biological activities, particularly cytotoxic and anti-proliferative properties. In recent years many studies have been focused on the molecular mechanisms of these diterpenes in cancer cells. It should be noted, however, that anticancer studies on diterpenoids from Salvia species were dominated by tanshinones (a class of abietanes) over the past decades. A large number of targets of diterpenes have been identified in cancer cells including NF-κB, STAT3, Bcl-xL, β-catenin, cytochrome C and caspases. These studies give us deeper insights into the mechanisms of actions and cell signaling pathways of anticancer diterpenoids from Salvia species. This paper reviews protein targets of diterpenoids from Salvia species and highlights the gaps in our knowledge deserving future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The possibilities of the application of some species of sage (Salvia L. as auxiliaries in the treatment of some diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATASA D. MITIC

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of four essential oils of four species of sage (Salvia officinalis L., Salvia pratensis L., Salvia glutinosa L. and Salvia aethiopis L. are examined by GC-FID and GC-MS analysis. The presence of some components in the essential oil (mono- and sesquiterpene determines the pharmacological effects and therapeutical application of a plant species. Salvia officinalis L. gives the highest yield of oil (1.1 %, while the lowest is in Salvia pratensis L. (0.1 %. The investigations included the determination of the antimicrobic activities of the essential oils by the diffusion method and the oil of Salvia pratensis L. proved to have the highest activity.

  9. [Identification of Salvia shandongensis new species based on sequences of the plastid psbA-trnH intergenic region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Juan; Han, Jian-Ping; Li, Jian-Xiu; Chen, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Long-Fei; Li, Jia; Gu, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Yong-Qing

    2013-08-01

    To identify Salvia shandongensis and its relatives at molecular level, the psbA-trnH intergenic region of three species including Salvia shandongensis, Salvia miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f. alba were amplified and sequenced. Sequences were assembled with CodonCode Aligner. The K2P genetic distances between Salvia shandongensis and its relatives were calculated and UPGMA tree was performed by MEGA5.0. The results indicated that the lengths of psbA-trnH regions of Salvia shandongensis were about 391 bp, while the lengths of psbA-trnH regions of Salvia miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f. alba were about 386 bp. The psbA-trnH sequences showed considerable variations between species and thus were revealed as a promising candidate for barcoding of Salvia shandongensis and its relatives. The intra-specific genetic distances of Salvia shandongensis were 0, while the intra-specific genetic distances of Salvia miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f. alba were 0.002 and 0.001 respectively. Additionally, the genetic distance of Salvia shandongensis and Salvia miltiorrhiza ranged from 0.034 to 0.04, and the genetic distance of Salvia shandongensis and S. miltiorrhiza f. alba ranged from 0.005 to 0.008, the intra-specific genetic distances of Salvia shandongensis were much smaller than that of Salvia miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f. alba; clustering results showed that there were obvious differences between Salvia shandongensis, Salvia miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f. alba, which was consistent with morphological characteristics. This study not only firstly provides the scientific basis for establishing the taxonomy position in molecular level and revealing their genetic relationships of S. shandongensis, S. miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f. alba; but also provides DNA molecular identification scientific basis for the development of new medicinal plant resources of Salvia shandongensis. Our results suggest that the psbA-trnH intergenic spacer region can be used as a

  10. Diversity of essential oil glands of clary sage (Salvia sclarea L., Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiderer, C; Grassi, P; Novak, J; Weber, M; Franz, C

    2008-07-01

    The Lamiaceae is rich in aromatic plant species. Most of these species produce and store essential oils in specialised epidermal oil glands, which are responsible for their specific flavour. Two types of glands producing essential oil and possessing different morphological structure can be found in Salvia sclarea: peltate and capitate glands. The content of single oil glands from different positions on the plant (corolla, calyx and leaf) were sampled using an SPME fibre and analysed by gas chromatography in order to study variability of the essential oil composition. It was found that the composition of terpenoids is quite variable within an individual plant. Capitate oil glands mainly produce three essential oil compounds: the monoterpenes linalool and linalyl acetate, and the diterpene sclareol. Peltate oil glands, however, accumulate noticeable concentrations of sesquiterpenes and an unknown compound (m/z = 354). Furthermore, the oil composition varies within each gland type according to the plant organ. Linalool and linalyl acetate are characteristic substances of flowers, whereas the sesquiterpenes occur in higher proportions in leaves. Even within one gland type on a single leaf, the chemical variability is exceedingly high.

  11. Rapid UHPLC determination of polyphenols in aqueous infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Benno F; Walch, Stephan G; Tinzoh, Laura Ngaba; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-08-15

    Sage tea, the aqueous infusion of dried sage leaves (Salvia officinalis L.), is used as a form of food as well as a form of traditional herbal medicine. Several in vivo and in vitro studies point to sage polyphenols as active principles that may inhibit lipid peroxidation and improve antioxidant defences. This study describes an UHPLC methodology with MS/MS and UV detection, which allows the separation, identification and quantification of the major phenolic constituents in sage tea within 34 min, and was used to characterize 16 commercial brands of sage tea.The quantitatively dominating compounds were either rosmarinic acid (12.2–296 mg/l) or luteolin-7-o-glucuronide (37.9–166 mg/l) [corrected].In general, considerable differences in polyphenolic composition between the brands were detected, leading to the demand for quality standardization and control, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Light Spectral Quality on Essential Oil Components in Ocimum Basilicum and Salvia Officinalis Plants

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    A. S. IVANITSKIKH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In plants grown with artificial lighting, variations in light spectral composition can be used for the directed biosynthesis of the target substances including essential oils, e.g. in plant factories. We studied the effect of light spectral quality on the essential oil composition in Ocimum basilicum and Salvia officinalis plants grown in controlled environment. The variable-spectrum light modules were designed using three types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs with emission peaked in red, blue and red light, white LEDs, and high-pressure sodium lamps as reference. Qualitative and quantitative essential oil determinations were conducted using gas chromatography with mass selective detection and internal standard method.Sweet basil plant leaves contain essential oils (са. 1 % including linalool, pinene, eugenol, camphor, cineole, and other components. And within the genetic diversity of the species, several cultivar groups can be identified according to the flavor (aroma perceived by humans: eugenol, clove, camphor, vanilla basil. Essential oil components produce particular flavor of the basil leaves. In our studies, we are using two sweet basil varieties differing in the essential oil qualitative composition – “Johnsons Dwarf” (camphor as a major component of essential oils and “Johnsons Lemon Flavor” (contains large amount of citral defining its lemon flavor.In sage, essential oil composition is also very variable. As for the plant responses to the light environment, the highest amount of the essential oils was observed at the regimes with white and red + blue LED light. And it was three times less with red light LEDs alone. In the first two environments, thujone accumulation was higher in comparison with camphor, while red LED light and sodium lamp light favored camphor biosynthesis (three times more than thujone. The highest amount of eucalyptol was determined in plants grown with red LEDs.

  13. Seasonal influence on gene expression of monoterpene synthases in Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Schmiderer, Corinna; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes

    2012-03-01

    Garden sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants and possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, formed mainly in very young leaves, is in part responsible for these activities. It is mainly composed of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, α- and β-thujone and camphor synthesized by the 1,8-cineole synthase, the (+)-sabinene synthase and the (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, respectively, and is produced and stored in epidermal glands. In this study, the seasonal influence on the formation of the main monoterpenes in young, still expanding leaves of field-grown sage plants was studied in two cultivars at the level of mRNA expression, analyzed by qRT-PCR, and at the level of end-products, analyzed by gas chromatography. All monoterpene synthases and monoterpenes were significantly influenced by cultivar and season. 1,8-Cineole synthase and its end product 1,8-cineole remained constant until August and then decreased slightly. The thujones increased steadily during the vegetative period. The transcript level of their corresponding terpene synthase, however, showed its maximum in the middle of the vegetative period and declined afterwards. Camphor remained constant until August and then declined, exactly correlated with the mRNA level of the corresponding terpene synthase. In summary, terpene synthase mRNA expression and respective end product levels were concordant in the case of 1,8-cineole (r=0.51 and 0.67 for the two cultivars, respectively; p<0.05) and camphor (r=0.75 and 0.82; p<0.05) indicating basically transcriptional control, but discordant for α-/β-thujone (r=-0.05 and 0.42; p=0.87 and 0.13, respectively). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Terpenes of Salvia species leaf oils: chemosystematic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Coassini Lokar, Laura; Moneghini, Mariarosa

    2017-01-01

    Wild specimens of Salvia L. were collected in three different moments of anthesis and their volatile leaf oils were analyzed by GC/GCMS. The quantitative terpene composition is very variable with the anthesis. S. bertolonii is the richest species in a-thujone. S. officinalis is characterized by high percentages of 1,8 cineole, 4-terpineol, isorboneol and a -bisabolol. In S. verticillata high percentages of borneol and {3-cariophyllene are present. In the three species a-thujone was always mor...

  15. In vitro mass propagation of Salvia canariensis by axillary shoots

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    Sebastiana Mederos Molina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the establishment of shoots of Salvia canariensis L., five environmental factor treatments were applied. For each axillary node two shoots grew well when explants were incubated at continued ligth for 15 days followed by 16 hrs photoperiod by 30 days. Shoots multiplication was improved on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS (1962 medium - MS + 825 mg/l NH4NO3 - supplemented with 10-7 M BA and 10-7 M NAA. The shoots produced well developed root systems within three weeks after transfer to the same culture medium supplemented with 5x 10-7 M NAA.

  16. New phenolic acids from Salvia yunnanensis C.H.Wright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yun; Wang, Yin-Ru; Dong, Zhen-Huan; Li, Wei; Li, Shu-Ming; Huang, Xue-Feng

    2017-11-01

    Two new phenolic acids, ethyl pro-lithospermate (1), n-butyl pro-lithospermate (2) were isolated from Salvia yunnanensis C.H.Wright, along with nineteen known compounds (3-21). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectrometry and by comparing their physical and spectroscopic data to the literature. Among them, compounds 11, 12 and 14-16 were firstly isolated from S. yunnanensis C.H.Wright. Some of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their neuroprotection. Compounds 10-12 showed significant neuroprotective effects in PC12 cells and compounds 1, 4-7 displayed moderate neuroprotective effects.

  17. Hepatoprotective diterpenoids from the roots of Salvia grandifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jie; Zhang, Ting; Li, Li; Sun, Hua; Wang, Ding-Ding; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2016-05-01

    One new diterpenoid, grandifolia G (1), together with a known diterpenoid (6,7,8,8a-tetrahydro-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxonaphtho[1,8-bc]furan-3-yl)-4-methylfuran-3-carboxylic acid (2), was isolated from 70% EtOH extract of root of Salvia grandifolia. Their structures were determined by UV, IR, HRESIMS, NMR spectra. Compounds 1 and 2 (10 μM) exhibited hepatoprotective activities (61 and 55%) against DL-galactosamine-induced cell damage in HL-7702 cells.

  18. New Eudesmane Sesquiterpenoids from Salvia plebeia R. Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lie-Feng; Wang, Peng-Fei; Wang, Ji-Dong; Tong, Xiang-Min; Shan, Wei-Guang; Zhang, Hui; Zhan, Zha-Jun

    2017-08-01

    Three new sesquiterpenoids, salplebeones A - C (1 - 3), were isolated from the ethanol-soluble extract of the aerial part of Salvia plebeia R. Br. Their structures were established by detailed analysis of NMR and MS spectra. Salplebeone A was an eudesmane lactone, while salplebeones B and C were rare eudesmane sesquiterpenoids, containing 12,8-lactam groups. Antiproliferative activities of salplebeones A - C to myeloid leukemia cell lines were evaluated. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  19. Metabolic profiles and cDNA-AFLP analysis of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvia castanea Diel f. tomentosa Stib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfeng; Ma, Pengda; Liang, Xiao; Liang, Zongsuo; Zhang, Meixiang; Shen, Shuang; Liu, Hongyun; Liu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Plants of the genus Salvia produce various types of phenolic compounds and tanshinones which are effective for treatment of coronary heart disease. Salvia miltiorrhiza and S. castanea Diels f. tomentosa Stib are two important members of the genus. In this study, metabolic profiles and cDNA-AFLP analysis of four samples were employed to identify novel genes potentially involved in phenolic compounds and tanshinones biosynthesis, including the red roots from the two species and two tanshinone-free roots from S. miltiorrhiza. The results showed that the red roots of S. castanea Diels f. tomentosa Stib produced high contents of rosmarinic acid (21.77 mg/g) and tanshinone IIA (12.60 mg/g), but low content of salvianolic acid B (1.45 mg/g). The red roots of S. miltiorrhiza produced high content of salvianolic acid B (18.69 mg/g), while tanshinones accumulation in this sample was much less than that in S. castanea Diels f. tomentosa Stib. Tanshinones were not detected in the two tanshinone-free samples, which produced high contents of phenolic compounds. A cDNA-AFLP analysis with 128 primer pairs revealed that 2300 transcript derived fragments (TDFs) were differentially expressed among the four samples. About 323 TDFs were sequenced, of which 78 TDFs were annotated with known functions through BLASTX searching the Genbank database and 14 annotated TDFs were assigned into secondary metabolic pathways through searching the KEGGPATHWAY database. The quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that the expression of 9 TDFs was positively correlated with accumulation of phenolic compounds and tanshinones. These TDFs additionally showed coordinated transcriptional response with 6 previously-identified genes involved in biosynthesis of tanshinones and phenolic compounds in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots treated with yeast extract. The sequence data in the present work not only provided us candidate genes involved in phenolic compounds and tanshinones biosynthesis but also gave us

  20. Immunoinhibitory effect of teuclatriol a guaiane sesquiterpene from Salvia mirzayanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Akram; Amirghofran, Zahra; Zapp, Josef; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    Salvia mirzayanii, a native plant to Iran, is shown to have immunomodulatory effects on lymphocyte proliferation. To identify the bioactive immunomodulatory compound(s) present in S. mirzayanii. The crude extract was fractionated to five fractions in two steps using different solvents. The fractions were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation. All the fractions were tested for bioactivity on human activated-peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) using cell proliferation assay. The methanol fraction (Fr. M) showed the highest inhibitory effect on PBLs compared to other fractions. Fr. M was applied on a gravity column chromatography for further fractionation. Resultant fractions, demonstrated inhibitory effects at higher concentrations. Fr. 4 with an 18.9 ± 0.2% inhibitory activity at 200 µg/ml and with the highest quantity was applied on preparative TLC plates for further purification. The final purified compound was identified as teuclatriol, a guaiane sesquiterpene, by NMR analysis. This compound showed a significant anti-proliferative effect on human activated-peripheral blood lymphocytes (IC50, 72.8 ± 5.4 µg/ml). Teuclatriol was found to be one of the compounds responsible for the immunoinhibitory effect of Salvia mirzayanii. We suggest further studies on teuclatriol, exploring its mechanism of action as an immunomodulatory compound.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of six constituents of essential oil from Salvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonboli, Ali; Babakhani, Babak; Mehrabian, Ahmad Reza

    2006-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of three Salvia species, i.e. S. santolinifolia, S. hydrangea and S. mirzayanii, essential oils were investigated. The essential oils were obtained from the aerial parts of plants and analyzed by GC-MS. The main constituents of aforementioned species were alpha-pinene (72.4%), beta-pinene (6.6%) and limonene (5.3%); beta-caryophyllene (25.1%), 1,8-cineol (15.2%) and caryophyllene oxide (11.5%); alpha-terpinenyl acetate (22.6%), 1,8-cineol (21.2%) and linalool (8.9%), respectively. Bioassays exhibited that the property of the oil of S. myrzayanii was superior to others. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Salvia species may well be due to the presence of synergy between six tested compounds (linalool, 1,8-cineol, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, beta-caryophyllene and limonene) and other constituents of the oils with various degrees of antimicrobial activity. Among these, linalool and 1,8-cineol had the highest antimicrobial activity.

  2. Phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Salvia mirzayanii Rech. f. & Esfand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Krenn, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    Salvia mirzayanii Rech. f. & Esfand is an endemic herbaceous plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family. The plant grows in the center and south of Iran and is broadly used in folk medicine. This review focuses on phytochemical and pharmacological data of S mirzayanii. Databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Scientific Information Database (Iranian database involving English and Persian articles), and Google Scholar were searched for terms "Salvia mirzayanii," "Iranian sage," "Marv-e-Talkh," and "Moor-e-Talkh" in both Persian and English up to December 10, 2013. In line with the ethnopharmacological uses, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and insecticidal activities of different preparations of S mirzayanii have been shown in recent studies. The antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic strains has mainly been attributed to the essential oil of S mirzayanii, which in numerous analyses has been investigated either in plants of different origin or prepared by differing extraction methods. Despite the studies on antioxidant or antimicrobial activities, profound research on the toxicity or clinical properties of the herb is missing. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF THE AMOUNT OF FLAVONOIDS IN THE HERB OF SALVIA FARINACEA BENTH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Popova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic researches conducted have allowed determination of the flavonoids presence in raw materials of Salvia farinacea Benth. They were rutin, quercetin, hyperoside, and 5 phenol carbonic acids: caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, gallic, and cinnamic acids. The quantitative content of the sum of flavonoids in Salvia farinacea Benth. was conducted by the method of differential spectrophotometry, and it amounted to 0.55-0.60% in terms of rutin. The research conducted made it possible to expand the scientific data of phenolic compounds of Salvia farinacea Benth. and to offer the possibility of recycling, monitoring procurement and targeted use of Salvia farinacea Benth. herb in pharmacy and medicine.

  4. Antileishmanial activity of 12-methoxycarnosic acid from Salvia repens Burch. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokoka, TA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, Salvia repens is used traditionally to treat sores, stomach ache and diarrhoea. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based activity profiling of S. repens whole plant extract showed an active abietane diterpene...

  5. Optimization of Extraction Process for Polysaccharide in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanhua, Wang; Fuhua, Wu; Zhaohan, Guo; Mingxing, Peng; Yanan, Zhang; Ling, Pang Zhen; Minhua, Du; Caiying, Zhang; Zian, Liang

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to optimize the extraction process for Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide using response surface methodology The results showed that four operating parameters including microwave power, microwave time and the particle size had notable effects on the polysaccharide extraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The effects could be ranked in decreasing order of importance as follows:. Microwave power > microwave time > the comminution degree. The optimal extraction parameters were determined as 573.83W of Microwave power and 8.4min of microwave time and 67.51mesh of the comminution degree, resulting in the yield of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide of 101.161mg / g. The established regression model describing polysaccharide extraction from as a function of the three extraction parameters was highly significant (R 2 = 0.9953). The predicted and experimental results were found to be in good agreement. Thus, the model can be applicable for the prediction of polysaccharide extraction from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

  6. Synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanović, Olgica D; Stanojević, Dragana D; Comić, Ljiljana R

    2012-01-01

    Synergistic activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and commonly used antibiotics, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol, were evaluated. Interactions between plant extracts and antibiotics were tested by checkerboard method and interpreted as FIC index. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis were used. Salvia officinalis showed better synergistic capacity than Cichorium intybus. Synergistic interactions were observed between amoxicillin and acetone or ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis and between chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentration (1/4 MIC to 1/32 MIC) of sage extracts, the MIC values of antibiotics were decreased by 2- to 10-fold. Synergism was observed against all test bacteria, except Escherichia coli. The combinations of acetone and ethyl acetate extract from Cichorium intybus and antibiotics resulted in additive and indifferent effects against tested bacteria.

  7. Manool, a Salvia officinalis diterpene, induces selective cytotoxicity in cancer cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Munari, Carla Carolina; Nicolella, Heloiza Diniz; Veneziani, Rodrigo Cassio Sola; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2016-01-01

    Manool, a diterpene isolated from Salvia officinalis, was evaluated by the XTT colorimetric assay for cytotoxicity and selectivity against different cancer cell lines: B16F10 (murine melanoma), MCF-7...

  8. Salvia cacomensis (Lamiaceae, a new species from Jalisco, Mexico Salvia cacomensis (Lamiaceae, una nueva especie de Jalisco, México

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    Jesús Guadalupe González-Gallegos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species from a botanically little known region of Jalisco, Mexico, is described and illustrated. The morphology of Salvia cacomensis J. G. González, J. Morales et J. Rodríguez is related to that of the species of sections Briquetia Epling and Tubiflorae (Epling Epling of subgenus Calosphace (Benth. Benth. The new taxon is distinguished by the combination of its essentially glabrous surface, the 2-flowered verticillasters, the pink to magenta corollas, and the particular dimensions of the floral bract, the calyx and the corolla.Se describe e ilustra una especie nueva procedente de una región botánicamente poco conocida de Jalisco, México. La morfología de Salvia cacomensis J. G. González, J. Morales et J. Rodríguez está relacionada con aquella de las especies de las secciones Briquetia Epling y Tubiflorae (Epling Epling del subgénero Calosphace (Benth. Benth. El nuevo taxón se distingue por la combinación de su superficie esencialmente glabra, sus verticilastros bifloros, el color rosa o magenta de sus corolas y las dimensiones particulares de la bráctea floral, el cáliz y la corola.

  9. Investigation of in vitro Opioid Receptor Binding Activities of Some Turkish Salvia species

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    Özge Gündüz Çınar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Kappa Opioid Peptide Receptor (KOPr activation produces analgesic, psychotomimetic, diuretic and antipruritic effects. KOPr ligands are investigated for their potential roles in the treatment of addiction, depression, feeding behavior, psychosis and schizophrenia. In this study the methanolic extracts of a number of Salvia species which are native to Turkey (S. tomentosa, S. tchihatcheffii , S. rosifolia, S. dichroantha and S. sclarea were tested for their potential binding to opioid receptors in rat brain membranes and Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells expressing human KOPr (CHO-KOPh. [ 3H]Diprenorphine, an unselective opioid antagonist, was utilized in the radioligand receptor binding assays. All extracts (0.11 mg/ml inhibited the [ 3H]Diprenorphine binding with ranging KOPr binding affinities. More than 50% inhibition of diprenorphine binding was shown only with Salvia dichroantha and Salvia sclarea both in rat brain membranes and CHO-KOPh membranes.Among them Salvia sclarea deserves further investigation for its active component(s and its pharmacological characterization. This study clearly demonstrates the potential opioid receptor binding activities of several Turkish Salvia species. This work constitutes the first study on in vitro opioid receptor binding activities of Salvia species from the Turkish flora.

  10. A Case Report of Poisoning Caused by Incorrect Use of Salvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianyi; Chen, Danyang; Chai, Lin; Duan, Hui; Guo, Hui; Li, Shuang; Xiao, Min; Chen, Hongxia

    2016-08-15

    BACKGROUND Previous reports suggest that homoplantaginin, one of the compounds isolated from Salvia plebeia, has a protective and therapeutic effect on hepatocyte injury. We present a case of serious liver and kidney damage due to incorrect use of Salvia plebeia in a patient with a history of thyroid tumorectomy, who was successfully treated for poisoning with blood purification and systemic, comprehensive critical care. CASE REPORT A 54-year-old female patient with salvia intoxication combined with multiple organ dysfunction was transported to our emergency center by ambulance after presenting with nausea, vomiting, and skin yellowing. On arrival, she exhibited fatigue, dizziness, lightheadedness, yellowish discoloration of her skin, breathing difficulties, and low back pain, all of which was suggestive of salvia intoxication combined with multiple organ dysfunction. The treatment strategy was to immediately speed up the excretion of toxins and administered blood purification therapy. She also displayed disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), which was successfully treated with plasma infusion of blood coagulation factor combined with LMWH acupuncture therapy. CONCLUSIONS Salvia plebeia should only be considered for use in patients who have infectious disease or oxidative stress related disease and only at an appropriate dose. In addition, for patients with salvia poisoning, prompt administration of blood purification therapy and systemic comprehensive measures involving multiple supportive therapies can save such patients.

  11. Molecular Signaling Pathways Behind the Biological Effects of Salvia Species Diterpenes in Neuropharmacology and Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaberi, M; Iranshahi, M; Mehri, S

    2016-06-01

    The genus Salvia, from the Lamiaceae family, has diverse biological properties that are primarily attributable to their diterpene contents. There is no comprehensive review on the molecular signaling pathways of these active components. In this review, we investigated the molecular targets of bioactive Salvia diterpenes responsible for the treatment of nervous and cardiovascular diseases. The effects on different pathways, including apoptosis signaling, oxidative stress phenomena, the accumulation of amyloid beta plaques, and tau phosphorylation, have all been considered to be mechanisms of the anti-Alzheimer properties of Salvia diterpenes. Additionally, effects on the benzodiazepine and kappa opioid receptors and neuroprotective effects are noted as neuropharmacological properties of Salvia diterpenes, including tanshinone IIA, salvinorin A, cryptotanshinone, and miltirone. Tanshinone IIA, as the primary diterpene of Salvia miltiorrhiza, has beneficial activities in heart diseases because of its ability to scavenge free radicals and its effects on transcription factors, such as nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Additionally, tanshinone IIA has also been proposed to have cardioprotective properties including antiarrhythmic activities and effects on myocardial infarction. With respect to the potential therapeutic effects of Salvia diterpenes, comprehensive clinical trials are warranted to evaluate these valuable molecules as lead compounds. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Activation of the nuclear receptor PPARγ by metabolites isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, K B; Jørgensen, M; Kotowska, D; Petersen, R K; Kristiansen, K; Christensen, L P

    2010-10-28

    Salvia officinalis has been used as a traditional remedy against diabetes in many countries and its glucose-lowering effects have been demonstrated in animal studies. The active compounds and their possible mode of action are still unknown although it has been suggested that diterpenes may be responsible for the anti-diabetic effect of Salvia officinalis. To investigate whether the reported anti-diabetic effects of Salvia officinalis are related to activation of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ and to identify the bioactive constituents. From a dichloromethane extract of Salvia officinalis able to activate PPARγ several major metabolites were isolated by chromatographic techniques. To assess bioactivity of the isolated metabolites a PPARγ transactivation assay was used. Eight diterpenes were isolated and identified including a new abietane diterpene being the epirosmanol ester of 12-O-methyl carnosic acid and 20-hydroxyferruginol, which was isolated from Salvia officinalis for the first time, as well as viridiflorol, oleanolic acid, and α-linolenic acid. 12-O-methyl carnosic acid and α-linolenic acid were able to significantly activate PPARγ whereas the remaining metabolites were either unable to activate PPARγ or yielded insignificant activation. Selected metabolites from Salvia officinalis were able to activate PPARγ and hence, the anti-diabetic activity of this plant could in part be mediated through this nuclear receptor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Compatibility of Astragalus and Salvia extract inhibits myocardial fibrosis and ventricular remodeling by regulation of protein kinase D1 protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Bingyu; Nuan, Liu; Yang, Lei; Zeng, Xiaotao

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This study is to determine the effect of astragalus and salvia extract on the alteration of myocardium in a rat model of myocardial infarction. Methods: A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the sham-operated group, the control group, the Astragalus group, the Salvia group, and the compatibility of Astragalus and Salvia and group. The cardiac functions were determined at 8 weeks after treatment. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to observe the morphology and arrangement of cardiomyocytes. Masson’s trichrome staining was performed to investigate the distribution of myocardial interstitial collagen. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to determine the expression ofprotein kinase D1 in myocardial tissues. Results: In the sham-operated group, the Astragalus group, the Salvia group, and the compatibility of Astragalus and Salvia group, the left ventricular systolic pressure and the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure were significantly increased while the left ventricular end diastolic pressure were significantly decreased when compared with those in the control group (P Salvia group. Contents of collagen fibers in myocardial tissues were decreased in the compatibility of Astragalus and Salvia group (P Salvia group. Conclusions: Compatibility of Astragalus and Salvia extract may inhibit myocardial fibrosis and ventricular remodeling by regulation of protein kinase D1 protein in a rat model of myocardial infarction. PMID:26064267

  14. Leaving liza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futcher, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This is Chapter Thirteen of Leaving Liza, a novel about life, death, love, friendship, jealousy and lesbian ex-lovers. In the novel, six women are spending the weekend at a beach house in Long Island's Hamptons, where they have gathered to be with their friend Liza, who is battling terminal ovarian cancer. Liza's lover, Jill, has agreed to the house party and helped plan the guest list. But, as she smolders with resentment at the attention Liza is getting and the depth of the women's friendships, she begins to come unraveled. After a severe asthma attack that requires an emergency room visit the day before, Jill conducts a seance, purporting to have contacted another of Liza's ex-lovers, who died a few months earlier. Now, on this last night of the house party, she lets Liza and her friends know what she's really feeling. The editors have asked me to add some "commentary" on the questions this story raises about the roles of ex-lovers. I would hope the scene reflects some of the tensions that can occur when ex-lovers choose to remain friends, particularly when those bonds provoke profound jealousy in both current and ex-lovers. For many of us, the job of assuaging and reassuring the current lover while maintaining intimate friendships with an ex-lover is simply too exhausting and prickly to endure. For others, it is worth the struggle. Liza and her friends clearly think it is. But at what point, they all wonder at this house party, does their hunger for honesty and their anger at being insulted and manipulated become more important than keeping the peace, and possibly their friendship with Liza? Perhaps only Liza's death will free them from this compromising coexistence.

  15. Contents of Aerial Parts of Salvia leriifolia Benth

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    Zahra Hosseinpoor Mohsen Abadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have reported the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of Salvia leriifolia extracts and fractions. Methanolic, n-hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts were screened to analysis their antioxidant activities by four complementary test systems, namely DPPH free radical scavenging activity (RSA, total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and ferrous ion cheating (FIC. In most cases the leaf extracts and ethyl acetate fraction had more activity. The methanolic extracts of leaf and flower showed considerable antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion method against Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumonia, Acinetobacter, Serratia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The extracts showed the highest activity against P. aeruginosa and K. pneumonia.

  16. Substolides A-G, germacrane sesquiterpenoids from Salvia substolonifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lianglian; Lin, Weiwei; Qiu, Guanguan; Cai, Yuan; Yan, Pengcheng; Cai, Xiaoqing; Li, Wencan; Tu, Hongfeng; Dong, Jianyong

    2015-12-01

    Chemical investigation of the whole plants of Salvia substolonifera E.Peter yielded seven germacrane sesquiterpenoids, substolides A-G (1-7), an ethoxylated artifact (8), and two known analogues, 6β-tigloyloxyglechomafuran (9) and castanin F (10). Four germacrane 8-acetylation derivatives (1a-4a) were obtained by chemical transformation. Their structures and relative or absolute configurations were elucidated by intensive spectroscopic methods, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1a-4a, and 5-10 were evaluated for their in vitro anti-angiogenic effects. Compounds 7 and 9 significantly inhibited VEGF-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation in vitro, with IC50 values of 16.15 ± 0.19, and 4.03 ± 0.26 μM, respectively. The structure activity relationship of these compounds is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pharmacological properties of Salvia officinalis and its components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Ahmad; Esmaeilizadeh, Mahdi

    2017-10-01

    Salvia officinalis (Sage) is a plant in the family of Labiatae/Lamiaceae. It is native to Middle East and Mediterranean areas, but today has been naturalized throughout the world. In folk medicine, S. officinalis has been used for the treatment of different kinds of disorders including seizure, ulcers, gout, rheumatism, inflammation, dizziness, tremor, paralysis, diarrhea, and hyperglycemia. In recent years, this plant has been a subject of intensive studies to document its traditional use and to find new biological effects. These studies have revealed a wide range of pharmacological activities for S. officinalis. Present review highlights the up-to-date information on the pharmacological findings that have been frequently reported for S. officinalis. These findings include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, antidementia, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic effects. Also, chemical constituents responsible for pharmacological effects of S. officinalis and the clinical studies on this plant are presented and discussed.

  18. Pharmacological properties of Salvia officinalis and its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Salvia officinalis (Sage is a plant in the family of Labiatae/Lamiaceae. It is native to Middle East and Mediterranean areas, but today has been naturalized throughout the world. In folk medicine, S. officinalis has been used for the treatment of different kinds of disorders including seizure, ulcers, gout, rheumatism, inflammation, dizziness, tremor, paralysis, diarrhea, and hyperglycemia. In recent years, this plant has been a subject of intensive studies to document its traditional use and to find new biological effects. These studies have revealed a wide range of pharmacological activities for S. officinalis. Present review highlights the up-to-date information on the pharmacological findings that have been frequently reported for S. officinalis. These findings include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, antidementia, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic effects. Also, chemical constituents responsible for pharmacological effects of S. officinalis and the clinical studies on this plant are presented and discussed.

  19. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of Squalene Synthase 2(SQS2) in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Qixian; Jiang, Dan; Chen, Yijun; Shen, Ye; Yuan, Qingjun; Lin, Huixin; Zha, Liangping; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which is also known as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, is widely studied for its ability to accumulate the diterpene quinone Tanshinones. In addition to producing a variety of diterpene quinone, S. miltiorrhiza Bunge also accumulates sterol, brassinosteroid and triterpenoids. During their biosynthesis, squalene synthase (SQS, EC 2.5.1.21) converts two molecules of the hydrophilic substrate farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) into a hydrophobic product, squalene. In the present study, cloning and characterization of S. miltiorrhiza Bunge squalene synthase 2 (SmSQS2, Genbank Accession Number: KM408605) cDNA was investigated subsequently followed by its recombinant expression and preliminary enzyme activity. The full-length cDNA of SmSQS2 was 1 597 bp in length, with an open reading frame of 1 245 bp encoding 414 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of SmSQS2 shared high similarity with those of SQSs from other plants. To obtain soluble recombinant enzymes, the truncated SmSQS2 in which 28 amino acids were deleted from the carboxy terminus was expressed as GST-Tag fusion protein in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western Blot analysis, and the resultant bacterial crude extract was incubated with FPP and NADPH. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analysis showed that squalene was detected in the in vitro reaction mixture. The gene expression level was analyzed through Quantitative real-time PCR, and was found to be higher in roots as compared to the leaves, and was up-regulated upon YE+ Ag(+) treatment. These results could serve as an important to understand the function of the SQS family. In addition, the identification of SmSQS2 is important for further studies of terpenoid and sterol biosynthesis in S. miltiorrhiza Bunge.

  20. Functional Analysis of the Isopentenyl Diphosphate Isomerase of Salvia miltiorrhiza via Color Complementation and RNA Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianan; Guan, Hongyu; Dai, Zhubo; Guo, Juan; Shen, Ye; Cui, Guanghong; Gao, Wei; Huang, Luqi

    2015-11-10

    Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IPI) catalyzes the isomerization between the common terpene precursor substances isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) during the terpenoid biosynthesis process. In this study, tissue expression analysis revealed that the expression level of the Salvia miltiorrhiza IPI1 gene (SmIPI1) was higher in the leaves than in the roots and stems. Furthermore, color complementation and RNA interference methods were used to verify the function of the SmIPI1 gene from two aspects. A recombinant SmIPI1 plasmid was successfully constructed and transferred into engineered E. coli for validating the function of SmIPI1 through the color difference in comparison to the control group; the observed color difference indicated that SmIPI1 served in promoting the accumulation of lycopene. Transformant hairy root lines with RNA interference of SmIPI1 were successfully constructed mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes ACCC 10060. RNA interference hairy roots had a severe phenotype characterized by withering, deformity or even death. The mRNA expression level of SmIPI1 in the RSi3 root line was only 8.4% of that of the wild type. Furthermore the tanshinone content was too low to be detected in the RNA interference lines. These results suggest that SmIPI1 plays a critical role in terpenoid metabolic pathways. Addition of an exogenous SmIPI1 gene promoted metabolic flow toward the biosynthesis of carotenoids in E. coli, and SmIPI1 interference in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots may cause interruption of the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate metabolic pathway.

  1. Genetic Variability and Population Structure of Salvia lachnostachys: Implications for Breeding and Conservation Programs

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    Marianna Erbano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity and population structure of Salvia lachnostachys Benth were assessed. Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR molecular markers were used to investigate the restricted distribution of S. lachnostachys in Parana State, Brazil. Leaves of 73 individuals representing three populations were collected. DNA was extracted and submitted to PCR-ISSR amplification with nine tested primers. Genetic diversity parameters were evaluated. Our analysis indicated 95.6% polymorphic loci (stress value 0.02 with a 0.79 average Simpson’s index. The Nei-Li distance dendrogram and principal component analysis largely recovered the geographical origin of each sample. Four major clusters were recognized representing each collected population. Nei’s gene diversity and Shannon’s information index were 0.25 and 0.40 respectively. As is typical for outcrossing herbs, the majority of genetic variation occurred at the population level (81.76%. A high gene flow (Nm = 2.48 was observed with a correspondingly low fixation index. These values were generally similar to previous studies on congeneric species. The results of principal coordinate analysis (PCA and of arithmetic average (UPGMA were consistent and all three populations appear distinct as in STRUCTURE analysis. In addition, this analysis indicated a majority intrapopulation genetic variation. Despite the human pressure on natural populations our study found high levels of genetic diversity for S. lachnostachys. This was the first molecular assessment for this endemic species with medicinal proprieties and the results can guide for subsequent bioprospection, breeding programs or conservation actions.

  2. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of Squalene Synthase 2(SQS2 in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge

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    Qixian Rong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge,which is also known as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine,is widely studied for its ability to accumulate the diterpene quinone Tanshinones. In addition to producing a variety of diterpene quinone, S. miltiorrhiza Bunge also accumulates sterol, brassinosteroid and triterpenoids. During their biosynthesis, squalene synthase (SQS, EC 2.5.1.21 converts two molecules of the hydrophilic substrate farnesyl diphosphate into a hydrophobic product, squalene. In the present study, cloning and characterization of S. miltiorrhiza Bunge squalene synthase 2 (SmSQS2, Genbank Accession Number: KM408605 cDNA was investigated subsequently followed by its recombinant expression and preliminary enzyme activity. The full-length cDNA of SmSQS2 was 1 597 bp in length, with an open reading frame (ORF of 1 245 bp encoding 414 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of SmSQS2 shared high similarity with those of SQSs from other plants. To obtain soluble recombinant enzymes, the truncated SmSQS2 in which 28 amino acids were deleted from the carboxy terminus was expressed as GST-Tag fusion protein in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western Blot analysis, and the resultant bacterial crude extract was incubated with farnesyl diphosphate and NADPH. GC-MS analysis showed that squalene was detected in the in vitro reaction mixture. The gene expression level was analyzed through Quantitative real-time PCR, and was found to be higher in roots as compared to the leaves, and was up-regulated upon YE+ Ag+ treatment. These results could serve as an important to understand the function of the SQS family. In addition, the identification of SmSQS2 is important for further studies of terpenoid and sterol biosynthesis in S. miltiorrhiza Bunge.

  3. Genetic Variability and Population Structure of Salvia lachnostachys: Implications for Breeding and Conservation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbano, Marianna; Schühli, Guilherme Schnell e; dos Santos, Élide Pereira

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity and population structure of Salvia lachnostachys Benth were assessed. Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) molecular markers were used to investigate the restricted distribution of S. lachnostachys in Parana State, Brazil. Leaves of 73 individuals representing three populations were collected. DNA was extracted and submitted to PCR-ISSR amplification with nine tested primers. Genetic diversity parameters were evaluated. Our analysis indicated 95.6% polymorphic loci (stress value 0.02) with a 0.79 average Simpson’s index. The Nei-Li distance dendrogram and principal component analysis largely recovered the geographical origin of each sample. Four major clusters were recognized representing each collected population. Nei’s gene diversity and Shannon’s information index were 0.25 and 0.40 respectively. As is typical for outcrossing herbs, the majority of genetic variation occurred at the population level (81.76%). A high gene flow (Nm = 2.48) was observed with a correspondingly low fixation index. These values were generally similar to previous studies on congeneric species. The results of principal coordinate analysis (PCA) and of arithmetic average (UPGMA) were consistent and all three populations appear distinct as in STRUCTURE analysis. In addition, this analysis indicated a majority intrapopulation genetic variation. Despite the human pressure on natural populations our study found high levels of genetic diversity for S. lachnostachys. This was the first molecular assessment for this endemic species with medicinal proprieties and the results can guide for subsequent bioprospection, breeding programs or conservation actions. PMID:25856679

  4. Carnosol and carnosic acids from Salvia officinalis inhibit microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Julia; Kuehnl, Susanne; Rollinger, Judith M; Scherer, Olga; Northoff, Hinnak; Stuppner, Hermann; Werz, Oliver; Koeberle, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), the most relevant eicosanoid promoting inflammation and tumorigenesis, is formed by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and PGE(2) synthases from free arachidonic acid. Preparations of the leaves of Salvia officinalis are commonly used in folk medicine as an effective antiseptic and anti-inflammatory remedy and possess anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate that a standard ethyl acetate extract of S. officinalis efficiently suppresses the formation of PGE(2) in a cell-free assay by direct interference with microsomal PGE(2) synthase (mPGES)-1. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract yielded closely related fractions that potently suppressed mPGES-1 with IC(50) values between 1.9 and 3.5 μg/ml. Component analysis of these fractions revealed the diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid as potential bioactive principles inhibiting mPGES-1 activity with IC(50) values of 5.0 μM. Using a human whole-blood assay as a robust cell-based model, carnosic acid, but not carnosol, blocked PGE(2) generation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (IC(50) = 9.3 μM). Carnosic acid neither inhibited the concomitant biosynthesis of other prostanoids [6-keto PGF(1α), 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid, and thromboxane B(2)] in human whole blood nor affected the activities of COX-1/2 in a cell-free assay. Together, S. officinalis extracts and its ingredients carnosol and carnosic acid inhibit PGE(2) formation by selectively targeting mPGES-1. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of carnosic acid on PGE(2) formation, observed in the physiologically relevant whole-blood model, may critically contribute to the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of S. officinalis.

  5. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of WRKY transcription factor genes in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caili; Li, Dongqiao; Shao, Fenjuan; Lu, Shanfa

    2015-03-17

    WRKY proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors and play important regulatory roles in plant development and defense response. The WRKY gene family in Salvia miltiorrhiza has not been characterized. A total of 61 SmWRKYs were cloned from S. miltiorrhiza. Multiple sequence alignment showed that SmWRKYs could be classified into 3 groups and 8 subgroups. Sequence features, the WRKY domain and other motifs of SmWRKYs are largely conserved with Arabidopsis AtWRKYs. Each group of WRKY domains contains characteristic conserved sequences, and group-specific motifs might attribute to functional divergence of WRKYs. A total of 17 pairs of orthologous SmWRKY and AtWRKY genes and 21 pairs of paralogous SmWRKY genes were identified. Maximum likelihood analysis showed that SmWRKYs had undergone strong selective pressure for adaptive evolution. Functional divergence analysis suggested that the SmWRKY subgroup genes and many paralogous SmWRKY gene pairs were divergent in functions. Various critical amino acids contributed to functional divergence among subgroups were detected. Of the 61 SmWRKYs, 22, 13, 4 and 1 were predominantly expressed in roots, stems, leaves, and flowers, respectively. The other 21 were mainly expressed in at least two tissues analyzed. In S. miltiorrhiza roots treated with MeJA, significant changes of gene expression were observed for 49 SmWRKYs, of which 26 were up-regulated, 18 were down-regulated, while the other 5 were either up-regulated or down-regulated at different time-points of treatment. Analysis of published RNA-seq data showed that 42 of the 61 identified SmWRKYs were yeast extract and Ag(+)-responsive. Through a systematic analysis, SmWRKYs potentially involved in tanshinone biosynthesis were predicted. These results provide insights into functional conservation and diversification of SmWRKYs and are useful information for further elucidating SmWRKY functions.

  6. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002876.htm Rhubarb leaves poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rhubarb leaves poisoning occurs when someone eats pieces of leaves ...

  7. Influence of ionic interactions on essential oil and phenolic diterpene composition of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounekti, Taieb; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Vadel, A M; Chtara, Chaker; Khemira, Habib

    2010-01-01

    The potential of four essential cations (K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Fe(2+)) to alleviate salt toxicity was studied in sage (Salvia officinalis L.) plants grown in pots. Two concentrations of the following chloride salts: KCl, CaCl₂, MgCl₂ and FeCl₃, were used together with 100mM NaCl to study the effects of these nutrients on plant growth, leaf essential oils (EOs) and phenolic diterpenes composition. The sage plants accumulated Na(+) in their leaves (includers); this has affected secondary metabolites' biosynthesis. Treatment with 100mM NaCl slightly decreased borneol and viridiflorol, while increased manool concentrations. Addition of KCl, CaCl₂ and MgCl₂ increased considerably in a dose-dependent manner the oxygen-containing monoterpenes (1.8-cineole, camphor, β-thujone and borneol) in 100mM NaCl-treated sage. Whereas, the contents of viridiflorol decreased further with the addition of KCl in 100mM NaCl-treated sage. Our results suggest that the changes in EOs composition were more related to K(+) and Ca(2+) availability than to Na(+) toxicity. Furthermore, treatment with NaCl decreased by 50% carnosic acid (CA), a potent antioxidant, content in the leaves. K(+) and Ca(2+) promoted the accumulation of CA and its methoxylated form (MCA) in the leaves. The concentration of CA was positively correlated with leaf K(+) (r=0.56, P=0.01) and Ca(2+) (r=0.44, P=0.05) contents. It appears that different salt applications in combination with NaCl treatments had a profound effect on EOs and phenolic diterpene composition in sage. Therefore, ionic interactions may be carefully considered in the cultivation of this species to get the desired concentrations of these secondary metabolites in leaf extracts. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Study on the valorization of Salvia officinalis volatile oil in dermato-cosmetology

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    Elena Dumitrache1,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND Recent studies have revealed other properties of Salvia Officinalis, such as its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential. It is also implicated in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases and has several other beneficial effects (1. Salvia Officinalis contains estrogenic substances, sitosterol, vitamins B1 and C, organic acids etc., which have a theoretically positive effect in the antiaging process. Additionally, our premise was that the anti-aging effects have a solid specific support: the antiglycation effect of Salvia Officinalis (2. MATERIALS AND METHODS Salvia Officinalis volatile oil has been incorporated into an ointment base in order to obtain a cosmetic cream W/O type. A number of three creams were prepared using three different concentrations of Salvia Officinalis volatile oil (0,5 and 1,5 respectively. RESULTS In order to characterize the obtained creams, corneometry was used to measure the skin hydration degree. A number of 15 volunteers, aged between 20 and 50 years underwent customer testing. This test has provided information on the left gloss, smoothness, residue, side effects and penetration ability of the three creams, with different concentration of Salvia Officinalis volatile oil. We observed a significant increase (twice the initial value in the degree of skin hydration in all subjects who used the cream and especially in those who applied the cream containing 1,5 concentration of Salvia Officinalis volatile oil. CONCLUSIONS The three creams with different concentrations of Salvia Officinalis volatile oil were well tolerated by patients and showed beneficial effects in preventing dehydration and restoration of skin elasticity. Table 1. Subjects who applied the cream containing a 1,5 concentration REFERENCES 1. Garcia CSC, Menti C, Lambert APF et al. Pharmacological perspectives from Brazilian Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae: antioxidant, and antitumor in

  9. Genetic Differentiations among the Populations of Salvia japonica (Lamiaceae and Its Related Species

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    SUDARMONO

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and genetic variations within Salvia japonica (Lamiaceae and its related species in Japan were analyzed for clarifying their taxonomic significance. The genetic variations were explored through chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences and allozyme polymorphisms. Since chromosome numbers characterized the genus of Salvia, we also examined whether the karyotypes were different. We examined 58 populations of S. japonica and 14 populations of others species of Salvia. Among the populations of S. japonica represented four forms (f. japonica, f. longipes, f. lanuginosa and f. albiflora. The size of chromosomes were various among Salvia spp. Based on the allozyme as well as the DNA sequence, the populations of S. japonica separated from the others Salvia species. The populations of S. japonica exhibited four combinations of the morphological characters. However, these combinations did not correlate to the four forms of S. japonica. In addition, the morphological variations did not correlate to the allozyme and DNA sequences. It is suggested that the four morphological variations as well as the four form of S. japonica should not considered to be a taxonomic unit; accordingly, S. japonica were considered to be still at the early stage of speciation process.

  10. Effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and herbal medicines (Salvia, Chamomile, Calendula) on human fibroblast in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, Paulina; Szkaradkiewicz, Anna; Jankun, Jerzy; Kotwicka, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Antiseptic rinses have been successfully used in inflammatory states of the gums and oral cavity mucosa. Antibacterial effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and some herbs are well documented. Reaction of host tissue to these substances has much poorer documentation. The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of chlorhexidine (CHX), essential oil (EO: thymol, 0.064%; eucalyptol, 0.092%; methyl salicylate, 0.060%; menthol, 0.042%) mouth rinses and salvia, chamomile and calendula brews on fibroblast biology in vitro. The human fibroblast CCD16 line cells were cultured in incubation media which contained the examined substances. After 24 and 48 hours, the cell morphology, relative growth and apoptosis were evaluated. Exposure of fibroblasts to CHX, EO or salvia caused various changes in cell morphology. Cells cultured for 48 hours with CHX revealed a noticeably elongated shape of while cells cultured in high EO concentration or with salvia were considerably smaller and contracted with fewer projections. Chlorhexidine, EO and salvia reduced the fibroblast proliferation rate and stimulated cell death. Both reactions to EO were dose dependent. Cells exposure to chamomile or calendula brews did not change morphology or proliferation of fibroblasts. The results of this in vitro study showed that in contrast to chamomile and calendula, the brews of EO, CHX or salvia had a negative influence on fibroblast biology. PMID:27536196

  11. [Effect of Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge on expression of osteoprotegerin in cultured human periodontal ligament fibroblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hong-jiang; Chen, Xue-peng; Yan, Hong-hai

    2010-10-01

    To study the effect of Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge on the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) in cultured human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Primary culture of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts was established and the fifth passage cells were used in this study. Concentration-dependent effect of Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge on OPG mRNA and OPG protein secretion were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), respectively. The data were analyzed with SPSS15.0 software package. OPG mRNA expression was increased after 1 h exposure to various concentrations of Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge compared with the control group (PBunge compared with the control group (PBunge can up-regulate the expression of OPG in cultured human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

  12. [Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Salvia apiana against clinically important microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Guerrero, Iván; Aragon-Martinez, Othoniel H; Díaz-Rubio, Laura; Franco-Cabrera, Santiago; Serafín-Higuera, Nicolas A; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury; Soto-Castro, Tely A; Martinez-Morales, Flavio; Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario

    Due to the great global concern regarding bacterial resistance to antibiotics, an ongoing search for new molecules having antibacterial activity is necessary. This study evaluated the antibacterial and anticandidal effects of a hexane extract from the root of Salvia apiana. Salvia extracts at concentrations of 27, 13.5, 6.8 and 3.4mg/ml caused growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. However, no significant effect was observed on Escherichia coli and Candida tropicalis in comparison to vehicle. It was here demonstrated for the first time that Salvia apiana has an important antimicrobial effect on human pathogens of great clinical value, thus opening the field to continue the evaluation of this lamiaceous plant for its future use as a therapeutic agent. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemotaxonomic Evaluation of Species of Turkish Salvia: Fatty Acid Composition of Seed Oils. II

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    Turgut Kılıç

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of seed oil of Salvia viridis, S. hydrangea, S. blepharochleana, S. chianantha, S. staminea, S. hypergeia,, S. cilicica, S. caespitosa, S. sclarea, S. cadmica, S. microstegia, S. pachystachys and S. verticillata were analyzed by GC/MS. The main compound were found to be as linoleic acid (18:2; 12.8 % to 52.2 %, linolenic acid (18:3; 3.2 % to 47.7 %, oleic acid (18:1; 11.3 % to 25.6 %, palmitic acid (16:0; 0.7 % to 16.8 % and stearic acid (18:0; 1.8 % to 4.8 %. A phylogenetic tree of species of Salvia were reported and compared to 18:3/18:2 ratio of the seed oils. Fatty acid composition of Salvia seed oils could be used as a chemotaxonomical marker.

  14. Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Christoffersen, Mogens; Weise, Hanne

    This artcle considders the political aims for different leave schemes and reviews studies af these schemes. The use of parental leave is sensitive to the financial loss involved in taking leave: a decrease in the benefit payments has had a significant influence on take-up, while, in general......, families'' loss of income is less if leave is taken up by the mothers. Only few fathers participate in parental leave....

  15. Why Africa matters: evolution of Old World Salvia (Lamiaceae) in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Maria; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2014-07-01

    Salvia is the largest genus in Lamiaceae and it has recently been found to be non-monophyletic. Molecular data on Old World Salvia are largely lacking. In this study, we present data concerning Salvia in Africa. The focus is on the colonization of the continent, character evolution and the switch of pollination systems in the genus. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference were used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Analyses were based on two nuclear markers [internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS)] and one plastid marker (rpl32-trnL). Sequence data were generated for 41 of the 62 African taxa (66 %). Mesquite was used to reconstruct ancestral character states for distribution, life form, calyx shape, stamen type and pollination syndrome. Salvia in Africa is non-monophyletic. Each of the five major regions in Africa, except Madagascar, was colonized at least twice, and floristic links between North African, south-west Asian and European species are strongly supported. The large radiation in Sub-Saharan Africa (23 species) can be traced back to dispersal from North Africa via East Africa to the Cape Region. Adaptation to bird pollination in southern Africa and Madagascar reflects parallel evolution. The phenotypic diversity in African Salvia is associated with repeated introductions to the continent. Many important evolutionary processes, such as colonization, adaptation, parallelism and character transformation, are reflected in this comparatively small group. The data presented in this study can help to understand the evolution of Salvia sensu lato and other large genera. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Polyphenolic characterization and chromatographic methods for fast assessment of culinary Salvia species from South East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovikj, I; Stefkov, G; Acevska, J; Stanoeva, J Petreska; Karapandzova, M; Stefova, M; Dimitrovska, A; Kulevanova, S

    2013-03-22

    Although the knowledge and use of several Salvia species (Salvia officinalis, Salvia fruticosa, and Salvia pomifera) can be dated back to Greek Era and have a long history of culinary and effective medicinal use, still there is a remarkable interest concerning their chemistry and especially the polyphenolic composition. Despite the demand in the food and pharmaceutical industry for methods for fast quality assessment of the herbs and spices, even now there are no official requirements for the minimum content of polyphenols in sage covered by current regulations neither the European Pharmacopoeia monographs nor the ISO 11165 standard. In this work a rapid analytical method for extraction, characterization and quantification of the major polyphenolic constituents in Sage was developed. Various extractions (infusion - IE; ultrasound-assisted extraction - USE and microwave-assisted extraction - MWE) were performed and evaluated for their effectiveness. Along with the optimization of the mass-detector and chromatographic parameters, the applicability of three different reverse C18 stationary phases (extra-density bonded, core-shell technology and monolith column) for polyphenolics characterization was evaluated. A comprehensive overview of the very variable polyphenolic composition of 118 different plant samples of 68 populations of wild growing culinary Salvia species (S. officinalis: 101; S. fruticosa: 15; S. pomifera: 2) collected from South East Europe (SEE) was performed using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) and more than 50 different compounds were identified and quantified. With this work the knowledge about polyphenols of culinary Sage was expanded thus the possibility for gaining an insight into the chemodiversity of culinary Salvia species in South East Europe was unlocked. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Why Africa matters: evolution of Old World Salvia (Lamiaceae) in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Maria; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Salvia is the largest genus in Lamiaceae and it has recently been found to be non-monophyletic. Molecular data on Old World Salvia are largely lacking. In this study, we present data concerning Salvia in Africa. The focus is on the colonization of the continent, character evolution and the switch of pollination systems in the genus. Methods Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference were used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Analyses were based on two nuclear markers [internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS)] and one plastid marker (rpl32-trnL). Sequence data were generated for 41 of the 62 African taxa (66 %). Mesquite was used to reconstruct ancestral character states for distribution, life form, calyx shape, stamen type and pollination syndrome. Key Results Salvia in Africa is non-monophyletic. Each of the five major regions in Africa, except Madagascar, was colonized at least twice, and floristic links between North African, south-west Asian and European species are strongly supported. The large radiation in Sub-Saharan Africa (23 species) can be traced back to dispersal from North Africa via East Africa to the Cape Region. Adaptation to bird pollination in southern Africa and Madagascar reflects parallel evolution. Conclusions The phenotypic diversity in African Salvia is associated with repeated introductions to the continent. Many important evolutionary processes, such as colonization, adaptation, parallelism and character transformation, are reflected in this comparatively small group. The data presented in this study can help to understand the evolution of Salvia sensu lato and other large genera. PMID:24966353

  18. The Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of the Medicinal Plant Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jun; Song, Jingyuan; Gao, Huanhuan; Zhu, Yingjie; Xu, Jiang; Pang, Xiaohui; Yao, Hui; Sun, Chao; Li, Xian’en; Li, Chuyuan; Liu, Juyan; Xu, Haibin; Chen, Shilin

    2013-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is an important medicinal plant with great economic and medicinal value. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of Salvia miltiorrhiza, the first sequenced member of the Lamiaceae family, is reported here. The genome is 151,328 bp in length and exhibits a typical quadripartite structure of the large (LSC, 82,695 bp) and small (SSC, 17,555 bp) single-copy regions, separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 25,539 bp). It contains 114 unique genes, including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNAs and four rRNAs. The genome structure, gene order, GC content and codon usage are similar to the typical angiosperm cp genomes. Four forward, three inverted and seven tandem repeats were detected in the Salvia miltiorrhiza cp genome. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis among the 30 asterid cp genomes revealed that most SSRs are AT-rich, which contribute to the overall AT richness of these cp genomes. Additionally, fewer SSRs are distributed in the protein-coding sequences compared to the non-coding regions, indicating an uneven distribution of SSRs within the cp genomes. Entire cp genome comparison of Salvia miltiorrhiza and three other Lamiales cp genomes showed a high degree of sequence similarity and a relatively high divergence of intergenic spacers. Sequence divergence analysis discovered the ten most divergent and ten most conserved genes as well as their length variation, which will be helpful for phylogenetic studies in asterids. Our analysis also supports that both regional and functional constraints affect gene sequence evolution. Further, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a sister relationship between Salvia miltiorrhiza and Sesamum indicum. The complete cp genome sequence of Salvia miltiorrhiza reported in this paper will facilitate population, phylogenetic and cp genetic engineering studies of this medicinal plant. PMID:23460883

  19. De novo assembly and annotation of Salvia splendens transcriptome using the Illumina platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiuxiu; Chen, Hongwei; Wang, Hongli; Shi, Aiping; Liu, Kefeng

    2014-01-01

    As an important perennial herbaceous flower, Salvia splendens possesses high ornamental value. Understanding its branching processes may help scientists select the best plant type. Although Salvia splendens is a frequently-used horticultural flower, only limited transcriptomic or genomic research is available in public databases. In the present study, we, for the first time, constructed a comprehensive dataset for Salvia splendens through de novo high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing on two different branching type plants (Strain 35 and Cailinghong) using the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. For Strain 35, a total of 16,488,829 reads were generated and assembled into 38,498 unigenes, with a mean length of approximately 779 bp. For Cailinghong, 16,464,713 reads were generated and assembled into 34,302 unigenes, with a mean length of approximately 812 bp. Moreover, a total of 49,310 unigenes for Salvia splendens were identified, among them 33,925 (68.80%) were annotated in the non-redundant NCBI database, 25,371 (51.45%) were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database, while 24,888 (50.47%) and 9,896 (20.07%) unigenes were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. Using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database, we identified 134 differently expressed unigenes between Strain 35 and Cailinghong, and then these unigenes were mapped to 79 pathways. In addition, we detected 2,453 simple sequence repeats (SSRs). We obtained a comprehensive transcriptomic information from this work and provided a valuable resource of transcript sequences of Salvia splendens in public databases. Moreover, some candidate genes potentially involved in branching were identified. Furthermore, numerous obtained SSRs might contribute to marker-assisted selection. These data could be further utilized in functional genomics studies on Salvia splendens.

  20. Chemical composition and anticancer activity of essential oils of Mediterranean sage (Salvia officinalis L.) grown in different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Alessandra; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Delfine, Sebastiano; Cardile, Venera; Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio

    2013-05-01

    Salvia officinalis L. can be found worldwide and its leaves are commonly used as ingredient in food industry. Sage essential oil is applied in the treatment of a range of diseases and has been shown to possess different biological activities. The objectives of our research were to study the effects of environment on crop, chemical composition and anticancer activity on S. officinalis essential oil. Sage was cultivated at eighteen experimental sites in south-central Italy (Molise) in different growing environments. The essential oils (S1-S18), extracted by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC and CG/MS. Results show that the main components were α-thujone, camphor, borneol, γ-muurolene and sclareol for all the samples, but the percentages of these compounds varied depending on environmental factors such as altitude, water availability and pedo-climatic conditions. The growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of the eighteen sage essential oils were evaluated in three human melanoma cell lines, A375, M14, and A2058. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical composition of volatile and fixed oils from of Salvia argentea L. (Lamiaceae) growing wild in Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccobono, Luana; Maggio, Antonella; Rosselli, Sergio; Ilardi, Vincenzo; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oil and of the non-polar extracts (petroleum ether, dichloromethane) of the aerial parts (flowers, leaves and stems) of Salvia argentea L. were determined by GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. 14-Hydroxy-α-humulene (40.1%) was recognised as the main constituents of the essential oil of S. argentea, together with 1,3,8-p-menthatriene (12.1%), globulol (7.4%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (5.8%). Tritriacontane (9.9% and 14.1%), heptacosane (8.4% and 10.5%), hentriacontane (8.3% and 10.9%), tetradecanal (8.4% and 10.2%) and methyldotriacontane (7.9% and 7.6%) were recognised as the main constituents of the extracts in petroleum ether and dichloromethane, respectively, whereas methyl linolenate (36.6% and 13.5%) and methyl myristoleate (10.5% and 18.5%) were recognised as the main constituents of the methylated extracts.

  2. Dos nuevos híbridos naturales en Salvia (Labiatae) con potencial ornamental

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Alonso, José Luis

    1991-01-01

    Se describen 2 nuevos híbridos naturales en el género Salvia (lubiofac), resultantes del cruzamiento eveniual de la especie ornamental naturalizada Salvia splendens Sellow ex Roem. & Schult. (Sect. Secundae Epl.) con dos subespecies de S. pauciserrata Benth. (Sed. Flexuosae Epl.) endémicas de Colombia. Se documentan descriptivamente y se discute su ecología y polinización. Se nombra finalmente la nueva sección híbrida (Flexucundae Fernández Alonso), en la que se ubican los nuevos taxa....

  3. Essential Oil Composition of Salvia tebesana Bunge (Lamiaceae from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Goldansaz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Salvia tebesana Bunge (Lamiaceae is an endemic medicinal species which grows wild in center of Iran. In the present study, chemical composition of the essential oil of the plant at two developmental stages (vegetative and full flowering was reported for the first time. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from air-dried samples and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The yield of oil (w/w % in different stages was in the order: full flowering (0.32 % > vegetative (0.14 %. In total 44 and 61 constituents were identified and quantified in the studied samples representing 99.6 and 99.2 % of the total oil, respectively. The main constituents were 7-epi-α-eudesmol, (E-nerolidol, (E-caryophyllene, α-pinene, caryophyllene oxide, and δ-cadinen. Oxygenated sesquiterpens (43.7% and 48.2% followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (30.3% and 32.7% were the main group of compound in the oil of the plant at vegetative and full flowering stages, respectively.

  4. Essential-oil diversity of Salvia tomentosa Mill. in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlidou, Effie; Karousou, Regina; Lazari, Diamanto

    2014-08-01

    Salvia tomentosa essential oils from Greece were studied for the first time here. The oils from five populations growing in Mediterranean pine forests on the island of Thassos (northern Aegean Sea) and from 14 populations situated in deciduous forests in Thrace (northeastern Greek mainland) were investigated. Their essential-oil contents ranged from 1.1 to 3.3% (v/w, based on the dry weight of the plant material). The populations from Thassos had high contents of α-pinene (18.0 ± 2.9%), 1,8-cineole (14.7 ± 3.0%), cis-thujone (14.0 ± 6.9%), and borneol (12.8 ± 2.2%) and smaller amounts of camphene, camphor, and β-pinene, whereas the populations from Thrace showed high α-pinene (16.7 ± 4.0%), β-pinene (22.8 ± 4.5%), camphor (18.3 ± 4.3%), and camphene (10.3 ± 2.4%) contents, much lower 1,8-cineole and borneol amounts, while cis-thujone was completely lacking. The comparison of the present results with published data showed that oils having cis-thujone as one of the main compounds were reported for the first time here. Multivariate statistical analyses indicate that the observed essential-oil variation was related to geographical and environmental factors. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  5. The promising future of chia, Salvia hispanica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Tan, Sheau Wei; Tan, Soon Guan

    2012-01-01

    With increasing public health awareness worldwide, demand for functional food with multiple health benefits has also increased. The use of medicinal food from folk medicine to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular problems is now gaining momentum among the public. Seed from Salvia hispanica L. or more commonly known as chia is a traditional food in central and southern America. Currently, it is widely consumed for various health benefits especially in maintaining healthy serum lipid level. This effect is contributed by the presence of phenolic acid and omega 3/6 oil in the chia seed. Although the presence of active ingredients in chia seed warrants its health benefits, however, the safety and efficacy of this medicinal food or natural product need to be validated by scientific research. In vivo and clinical studies on the safety and efficacy of chia seed are still limited. This paper covers the up-to-date research on the identified active ingredients, methods for oil extraction, and in vivo and human trials on the health benefit of chia seed, and its current market potential.

  6. The Promising Future of Chia, Salvia hispanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlaily Mohd Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing public health awareness worldwide, demand for functional food with multiple health benefits has also increased. The use of medicinal food from folk medicine to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular problems is now gaining momentum among the public. Seed from Salvia hispanica L. or more commonly known as chia is a traditional food in central and southern America. Currently, it is widely consumed for various health benefits especially in maintaining healthy serum lipid level. This effect is contributed by the presence of phenolic acid and omega 3/6 oil in the chia seed. Although the presence of active ingredients in chia seed warrants its health benefits, however, the safety and efficacy of this medicinal food or natural product need to be validated by scientific research. In vivo and clinical studies on the safety and efficacy of chia seed are still limited. This paper covers the up-to-date research on the identified active ingredients, methods for oil extraction, and in vivo and human trials on the health benefit of chia seed, and its current market potential.

  7. Salvia plebeia suppresses atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Shin, Tae-Yong; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Salvia plebeia R. Br. (Lamiaceae) has been used for folk medicines in Asian countries, including Korea and China, to treat skin inflammatory diseases and asthma. In this study, we investigated the effects of S. plebeia extract (SPE) on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions and defined underlying mechanisms of action. We established an AD model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD-like skin lesions. The oral administration of SPE decreased AD symptoms based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, in addition to serum IgE and IgG2a levels. SPE suppressed mast cell infiltration into the ear and serum histamine level. SPE inhibited Th1/Th2/Th17 phenotype CD4(+) T lymphocytes expansion in the lymph node and the expression of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in the ear tissue. To define the underlying mechanisms of action, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ activated human keratinocytes (HaCaT) model was used. SPE significantly suppressed the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the down-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-κB, and STAT1 in HaCaT cells. Taken together, our results suggest that SPE might be a candidate for the treatment of AD.

  8. Genetics of qualitative traits in domesticated chia (Salvia hispanica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, J P; Provance, M C

    2002-01-01

    In Salvia hispanica L., several changes in qualitative characters, including seed coat color, stem pigmentation, and shattering, have evolved with cultivation and domestication. Three F(2) segregating generations from crosses between wild and domesticated parents were scored for three qualitative traits. A single recessive gene, designated scc, was found to govern the white seed characteristic. A single dominant gene, designated SSP, was found to control striated stem pigmentation. A complete dominance of open calyx over closed calyx was observed in F(1) generations and small numbers of plants with closed calyxes were observed in F(2) generations, not conforming to Mendelian ratios. For this non-shattering trait, a complementation test was conducted between two lines representative of geographically and morphologically divergent domesticated varieties. Complementary gene action was not observed in any F(1) plants, and all F(2) plants were homogeneous with respect to the trait, suggesting the same genetic control for non-shattering among domesticated varieties. An analysis of limited data for linkage of SSP and scc indicated that the two loci segregate independently.

  9. In vitro establishment of Salvia hispanica L. plants and callus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Marconi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We have optimized the culture conditions for the initiation and maintenance of Salvia hispanica L. (Chia plant and callus cultures. Stems section were the best explant source for starting in vitro cultures. Both IAA and NAA, at all the concentration tested with or without the addition of citokinines, have induced the development of adventitious roots both in darkness as in light. In darkness, 2,4-D (2.25 mM has induced the development of S. hispanica embryogenic tissues and in light promoted the initiation and establishment of green, and fast-growing calli that lost their friability with time. When subcultured to MS culture media with NAA:kin (0.54 mM:0.46 mM or Picloram (1.72 mM, 3.43 mM as plant growth regulators, calli maintained friability for two years in culture. It was possible to detect fatty acid content in the calli obtained but the values remained significant lower than those of seeds. Key words: callus induction, chia, micropropagation, plant growth regulators

  10. Cytotoxic diterpenoids from the roots of Salvia lachnocalyx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hadavand Mirzaei

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Salvia lachnocalyx Hedge, Lamiaceae, is an endemic sage which grows naturally in the Fars Province of Iran. The phytochemical analyses of the roots of S. lachnocalyx led to the isolation of five known diterpenoids: ferruginol (1, taxodione (2, sahandinone (3, 4-dehydrosalvilimbinol (4 and labda-7,14-dien-13-ol (5. Their chemical structures were elucidated using one (1H and 13C and two dimensional (COSY, HSQC and HMBC NMR spectroscopic data as well as electron impact mass spectra. The cytotoxicity of the purified compounds was evaluated against three human cancer cell lines; MOLT-4 (acute lymphoblastic leukemia, HT-29 (colorectal adenocarcinoma and MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma and all of the isolated compounds showed considerable cytotoxic activity against these cell lines. Compounds 2 and 3 (IC50 range: 0.41–3.87 µg/ml with endocyclic α,β-unsaturated carbonyl functional group, exhibited the highest cytotoxic activities compared to the other compounds (IC50 range: 6.85–17.23 µg/ml. In conclusion, compounds 2 and 3 are presented as compounds that deserve further investigation of their biological activities.

  11. The Promising Future of Chia, Salvia hispanica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Tan, Sheau Wei; Tan, Soon Guan

    2012-01-01

    With increasing public health awareness worldwide, demand for functional food with multiple health benefits has also increased. The use of medicinal food from folk medicine to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular problems is now gaining momentum among the public. Seed from Salvia hispanica L. or more commonly known as chia is a traditional food in central and southern America. Currently, it is widely consumed for various health benefits especially in maintaining healthy serum lipid level. This effect is contributed by the presence of phenolic acid and omega 3/6 oil in the chia seed. Although the presence of active ingredients in chia seed warrants its health benefits, however, the safety and efficacy of this medicinal food or natural product need to be validated by scientific research. In vivo and clinical studies on the safety and efficacy of chia seed are still limited. This paper covers the up-to-date research on the identified active ingredients, methods for oil extraction, and in vivo and human trials on the health benefit of chia seed, and its current market potential. PMID:23251075

  12. Salvia Officinalis and Cisplatin Effects on Pentylenetetrazole Induced Seizure Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Hadi Khayate-Nouri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that cisplatin have neuropathic effects and Salvia officinalis (SO could have therapeutic effects on nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SO hydroalcoholic extract and cisplatin on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced seizure in mice. Materials and methods: This is an experimental interventional study. For this purpose first group received normal saline, second group received SO extract, third group received cisplatin, in the fourth group received SO extract plus cisplatin and the subsequent seizure threshold was determined for each group. Results: The results showed that SO extract significantly (p<0.05 increased and in cisplatin group significantly (p<0.05 decreased seizure threshold. Simultaneous uses of cisplatin and SO extract caused to significantly increased seizure threshold (p<0.05 compared with cisplatin group. Conclusion: Considering different types of ingredients in SO extract which have beneficial effects on nervous system, it might be used to reduce cisplatin induced neuropathic effects. It seems that SO extract could be useful in cisplatin-induced seizure but further investigations are needed.

  13. A simple and efficient DNA isolation method for Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, Jelena M; Stojanović, Danilo; Banović, Bojana; Jančić, Radiša

    2012-12-01

    We report an efficient, simple, and cost-effective protocol for the isolation of genomic DNA from an aromatic medicinal plant, common sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Our modification of the standard CTAB protocol includes two polyphenol adsorbents (PVP 10 and activated charcoal), high NaCl concentrations (4 M) for removing polysaccharides, and repeated Sevag treatment to remove proteins and other carbohydrate contaminants. The mean DNA yield obtained with our Protocol 2 was 330.6 μg DNA g(-1) of dry leaf tissue, and the absorbance ratios 260/280 and 260/230 nm averaged 1.909 and 1.894, respectively, revealing lack of contamination. PCR amplifications of one nuclear (26S rDNA) and one chloroplast (rps16-trnK) locus indicated that our DNA isolation protocol may be used in common sage and other aromatic and medicinal plants containing essential oil for molecular biologic and biotechnological studies and for population genetics, phylogeographic, and conservation surveys in which nuclear or chloroplast genomes would be studied in large numbers of individuals.

  14. In vitro and ex vivo antiangiogenic activity of Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Maryam; Mostafaie, Ali; Mansouri, Kamran; Bidmeshkipour, Ali; Motlagh, Hamid Reza Mohammadi; Parvaneh, Shahram

    2010-10-01

    Angiogenesis is a key process in the promotion of cancer and its metastasis. Herein, the antiangiogenic activity of Salvia officinalis extract and its fractions was investigated. S. officinalis aerial parts were extracted with ethanol and its successive hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions were evaluated for their antiangiogenic activities using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) capillary tube formation and rat aorta models in a three-dimensional collagen matrix. Furthermore, antimigrative effects of the fractions were assessed using a wound healing model. The ethanol extract of S. officinalis (ESO) potently inhibited capillary tube formation in HUVEC and rat aorta models of angiogenesis, and its hexane fraction (HSO) exerted the highest inhibitory effect. In addition, the ethanol extract of S. officinalis and its hexane fraction showed a dose-dependent inhibitory activity on the migration of the endothelial cells in the wound healing model. Furthermore, ESO inhibited endothelial cell proliferation at 50-200 μg/mL in a dose-dependent manner. These findings indicated some new pharmacological activities of S. officinalis such as antiangiogenic in vitro and ex vivo, and antimigrative activity in vitro. Therefore, S. officinalis could be a candidate as a useful herb with therapeutic or preventive activity against angiogenesis related disorders. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Acetylcholine esterase inhibitors and melanin synthesis inhibitors from Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Amal; Mira, Amira; Ashour, Ahmed; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-09-15

    Salvia officinalis is a traditionally used herb with a wide range of medicinal applications. Many phytoconstituents have been isolated from S. officinalis, mainly phenolic diterpenes, which possess many biological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the phenolic diterpenes of S. officinalis to inhibit acetylcholine esterase (AChE) as well as their ability to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cells. The phenolic diterpenes isolated from the aerial parts of S. officinalis were tested for their effect on melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cell lines. They were also tested for their ability to inhibit AChE using Ellman's method. Moreover, a molecular docking experiment was used to investigate the binding affinity of the isolated phenolic diterpenes to the amino acid residues at the active sites of AChE. Seven phenolic diterpenes-sageone, 12-methylcarnosol, carnosol, 7b-methoxyrosmanol, 7a-methoxyrosmanol, isorosmanol and epirosmanol-were isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of S. officinalis. Isorosmanol showed a melanin-inhibiting activity as potent as that of arbutin. Compounds 7a-methoxyrosmanol and isorosmanol inhibited AChE activity by 50% and 65%, respectively, at a concentration of 500 µM. The results suggest that isorosmanol is a promising natural compound for further studies on development of new medications which might be useful in ageing disorders such as the declining of cognitive functions and hyperpigmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Study on the small intestine absorptive kinetics characters of tanshinol and protocatechualdehyde of Salvia miltiorrhiza extracts in rats in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kai; Zhai, Shuiting; Zhang, Zhidong; Wang, Guoquan; Fu, Xiaoyang; Li, Tianxiao

    2016-07-01

    In order to provide scientific basis for clinical selection of drugs, to compare and analyze the effective constitutes and the intestinal absorption in vivo in rats of the compound salvia tablets and compound salvia dropping pills (taken as the representatives). Determine the contents of tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid B and tanshinone II A, cryptotanshinone, ginseng saponin Rg1 and Rb1 in the compound salvia tablets and compound salvia dropping pills by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The intestinal absorption condition of the tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid B of the compound salvia tablets and compound salvia dropping pills in rats were detected by intestinal perfusion experiment. Only the intake of protocatechuic aldehyde in the compound salvia tablets was higher than in the compound dropping pills, the intake of the other 6 effective constitutes were all lower than in the compound dropping pills. The intestinal absorption of protocatechuic aldehyde was rather complete, while the intestinal absorption of tanshinol and salvianolic acid B were not significant. The duodenum was the main absorption region of these three components. The absorption of protocatechuic aldehyde was different in different regions of the intestines. Each intake of the effective constitutes in the tablets and dropping pills were significantly different, and the rat intestinal absorption of part of the components were different.

  17. Staminal Evolution in the Genus Salvia (Lamiaceae): Molecular Phylogenetic Evidence for Multiple Origins of the Staminal Lever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jay B.; Sytsma, Kenneth J.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The genus Salvia has traditionally included any member of the tribe Mentheae (Lamiaceae) with only two stamens and with each stamen expressing an elongate connective. The recent demonstration of the non-monophyly of the genus presents interesting implications for staminal evolution in the tribe Mentheae. In the context of a molecular phylogeny, the staminal morphology of the various lineages of Salvia and related genera is characterized and an evolutionary interpretation of staminal variation within the tribe Mentheae is presented. Methods Two molecular analyses are presented in order to investigate phylogenetic relationships in the tribe Mentheae and the genus Salvia. The first presents a tribal survey of the Mentheae and the second concentrates on Salvia and related genera. Schematic sketches are presented for the staminal morphology of each major lineage of Salvia and related genera. Key Results These analyses suggest an independent origin of the staminal elongate connective on at least three different occasions within the tribe Mentheae, each time with a distinct morphology. Each independent origin of the lever mechanism shows a similar progression of staminal change from slight elongation of the connective tissue separating two fertile thecae to abortion of the posterior thecae and fusion of adjacent posterior thecae. A monophyletic lineage within the Mentheae is characterized consisting of the genera Lepechinia, Melissa, Salvia, Dorystaechas, Meriandra, Zhumeria, Perovskia and Rosmarinus. Conclusions Based on these results the following are characterized: (1) the independent origin of the staminal lever mechanism on at least three different occasions in Salvia, (2) that Salvia is clearly polyphyletic, with five other genera intercalated within it, and (3) staminal evolution has proceeded in different ways in each of the three lineages of Salvia but has resulted in remarkably similar staminal morphologies. PMID:16926227

  18. Effect of the Ethanolic Extract of Salvia officinalis on Ovarian Angiogenesis in Mice at Preimplantation: A Morphological and Molecular Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Beigi Boroujeni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Salvia officinalis is a phytoestrogen, which is used to reduce clinical signs of pregnancy and improve the female infertility in herbal medicine treatment. The effect of S. officinalis on ovarian angiogenesis at the preimplantation time is unknown. Objectives This research was a histomorphometric and quantitative real-time study on angiogenic activity in the ovarian tissue in mice after exposure to S. officinalis at preimplantaion. Methods The extract of S. officinalis leaves, which was analyzed by phytochemical methods, administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg daily for 14 days to female mice. Then, pseudopregnancy was induced and ovarian tissue samples were removed for histological and molecular assessment. Results Data analysis on the space-solid phase micro extraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrated α-thujone (33.90%, camphor (19.34%, cineole (11.01% and ß-thujone (9.48% were the dominating compounds in the leaves of S. officinalis. Data analysis on histomorphometric parameters showed a significant difference in the vascular parameters between the test and control groups. Furthermore, gene expression analysis implied an increased level of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF (3.175 and was also associated with an increase in the level of Kinase insert domain protein receptor (KDR/Flk gene expression (3.556 and FMS-like tyrosine kinase (Flt gene expression (3.437 in the test group compared to the control group. Conclusions Increased ovarian angiogenesis after exposure to S. officinalis may induce vascular permeability and finally contribute to a variety of disorders including clinical signs similar to the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

  19. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...... of leaving home. Results showed that while some differences disappeared when controlling for covariates, others persisted, thus indicating ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns. A strong link between leaving home and marriage was substantiated for Turks, but not for Somalis. The home-leaving patterns...... of Somalis were much more similar to those of Danes. Overall, Turkish descendants were similar to Turkish immigrants but with some differentiation. The analyses identified the existence of ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns but also found evidence of a shift towards less traditional patterns, i...

  20. Leaving an Abusive Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... restraining order Leaving an abusive relationship Effects of domestic violence on children Sexual assault and rape Sexual assault Rape Sexual ... restraining order Leaving an abusive relationship Effects of domestic violence on children Sexual assault and rape Other types of violence ...

  1. SAVED LEAVE BONUS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    Staff members participating in the RSL programme are entitled to one additional day of saved leave for each full period of 20 days remaining in their saved leave account on 31 December 1999.Allowing some time for all concerned to make sure that their periods of leave taken in 1999 are properly registered, HR division will proceed with the crediting of the appropriate number of days in the saved leave accounts from 25 January 2000.Human Resources DivisionTel.73359

  2. Salvia fruticosa, Salvia officinalis, and rosmarinic acid induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation of human colorectal cell lines: the role in MAPK/ERK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Cristina P R; Lima, Cristovao F; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that nutrition is a key factor in modulating sporadic colorectal carcinoma (CRC) risk. Aromatic plants of the genus Salvia (sage) have been attributed many medicinal properties, which include anticancer activity. In the present study, the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of water extracts of Salvia fruticosa (SF) and Salvia officinalis (SO) and of their main phenolic compound rosmarinic acid (RA) were evaluated in two human colon carcinoma-derived cell lines, HCT15 and CO115, which have different mutations in the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signalling pathways. These pathways are commonly altered in CRC, leading to increased proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis. Our results show that SF, SO, and RA induce apoptosis in both cell lines, whereas cell proliferation was inhibited by the two sage extracts only in HCT15. SO, SF, and RA inhibited ERK phosphorylation in HCT15 and had no effects on Akt phosphorylation in CO115 cells. The activity of sage extracts seems to be due, at least in part, to the inhibition of MAPK/ERK pathway.

  3. [Influence of different original processing methods on quality of Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma from Shandong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Gang; Gao, Shu-Rui; Hou, Jun-Ling; Wang, Wen-Quan; Xu, Zhen-Guang; Song, Yan; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Li, Jun

    2014-04-01

    In this paper the contents of rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, crytotanshinone, tanshinone II(A) in samples of different original processed Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were determined by HPLC. Different processing methods have varied influences on four active ingredients in Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. Sun-drying reduced the content of crytotanshinone, tanshi-none II(A) and rosmarinic acid, integralsamples were better than those cut into segments. Oven dry method had great influence on water--soluble ingredients, high temperature (80-100 degrees C) could easily cause big loss of rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B. The role of traditional processing method "fahan: was complicated, the content of rosmarinic acid decreased, crytotanshinone and tanshinone II(A) increased, and salvianolic acid B showed no difference after "fahan". Drying in the shade and oven dry under low temperatrure (40-60 degrees C) were all effective to keep active ingredients of Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and, there was no difference between integral samples and samples cut into segments. Therefore, considering comprehensively the content of active ingredients in Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and processing costing etc., shade-drying or oven dry underlow temperature (40-60 degrees C) should be the most suitable original processing method.

  4. Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge extract on liver cirrhosis in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.extract(SMBE) on diethylnitrosamine(DEN)- induced liver cirrhosis in rats. Methods: SMBE ... Liver cirrhosis is a common pathological consequence of chronic liver disease, ... antioxidation, anti-aging, antihypoxic, antifatigue, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatic fibrosis, ...

  5. VARIATION IN FITNESS-RELATED CHARACTERS AMONG SMALL AND LARGE POPULATIONS OF SALVIA-PRATENSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OUBORG, NJ; VANTREUREN, R

    1 The threatened perennial Salvia pratensis is restricted to a few isolated populations in the Netherlands, which vary in size from 10 to 1500 flowering individuals. Small populations are known to have significantly lower allozyme diversity than the large populations, probably as a consequence of

  6. Variation in Fitness-Related Characters among Small and Large Populations of Salvia-Pratensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouborg, N.J.; Van Treuren, R.

    1995-01-01

    1 The threatened perennial Salvia pratensis is restricted to a few isolated populations in the Netherlands, which vary in size from 10 to 1500 flowering individuals. Small populations are known to have significantly lower allozyme diversity than the large populations, probably as a consequence of

  7. Effects of salvia miltiorrhizae on the kidney of rats with severe acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of salvia miltiorrhizae on the kidney of rats with severe acute pancreatitis and obstrutive jaundice. ... in treated group was significantly lower than that in model control group; on 14 days after operation, the apoptosis index in the kidney of OJ rats in treated group was significantly lower than that in model control group.

  8. Anti-thrombolytic effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge extract in rats | Tian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. extract (SMBE) on thrombosis in rats. Methods: SMBE was obtained in water at 60 oC in an oven and then freeze-drying. Rats were divided into 6 groups of ten rats each: normal group, control group, reference group (aspirin 5 mg/kg) as well as three groups of SMBE ...

  9. Salvia hunzikeri (Lamiaceae, una nueva especie de los Andes del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Granda Paucar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Salvia hunzikeri (Lamiaceae, una nueva especie restringida al valle del río Mantaro en el Perú, es descrita, ilustrada y sus rasgos más notables contrastados con los de otras especies de la sección Flocculosae.

  10. Estudios en Labiatae de Colombia II. Novedades en Salvia sect. Longipes Epl.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Alonso, José Luis

    1995-01-01

    Se describen e ilustran dos nuevos táxones de Salvia (sect. Longipes): S. codazziana Fernández Alonso y S. erytkrostoma Epl. subsp. isabelina Fernández Alonso. Asimismo, se presenta una nueva localidad de S. erytkrostoma Epl. subsp. erythrostoma, conocida previamente solo por el material tipo.

  11. Construction of full-length cDNA library of white flower Salvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to screen and isolate secondary metabolite biosynthesis related gene, we construct a cDNA library of white flower Salvia miltiorrhiza bge. f.alba. High quality of total RNA was successfully isolated from roots of white flower S. miltiorrhiza using modified CTAB method. Double strand cDNA was cloned into pDNR-LIB ...

  12. Activation of the nuclear receptor PPARγ by metabolites isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kathrine Bisgaard; Jørgensen, Monica; Kotowska, Dorota Ewa

    2010-01-01

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Salvia officinalis has been used as a traditional remedy against diabetes in many countries and its glucose-lowering effects have been demonstrated in animal studies. The active compounds and their possible mode of action are still unknown although it has been sugg...

  13. Salvia miltiorrhiza inhibits the expressions of transcription factor T-bet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SM powder for injection repressed the expressions of T-bet and TNFα in the experimental colitis in mice, which could relieve the inflamed colonic lesions and elevate the survival of mice. Keywords: Salvia miltiorrhiza, T-bet, tumor necrosis factor α, colitis, mice, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis ...

  14. Chemical Composition of Salvia plebeian R.Br. Essential Oil and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Salvia plebeian R.Br. (Labiatae) aerial parts against the larvae of Aedes aegypti L. Methods: The essential oil of S. plebeian aerial parts was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ...

  15. Antimicrobial and antileishmanial activities of diterpenoids isolated from the roots of Salvia deserta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four diterpenes with biological activity were isolated from Salvia deserta roots. Taxodione was considered leishmanicidal, with IC50 value of 0.46 µg/mL against Leishimania donovani and also exhibited antifungal and antimicrobial activities. Ferruginol displayed the greatest activity (24-h IC50 1.29...

  16. New adduct of abietane-type diterpene from Salvia leriifolia Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Amjad; Adhikari, Achyut; Iqbal Choudhary, M; Ayatollahi, Syed Abdulmajid; Atta-Ur-Rahman

    2016-07-01

    A new adduct of abietane-type diterpene, salvialeriicone (1), was isolated from Salvia leriifolia Benth., along with a new chemical entity nor-abietane diterpene, 2-isopropyl-8,8-dimethyl-7,8-dihydrophenanthrene-1,4,5(6H)-trione (2). Their structures were determined using mass spectrometry, and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy.

  17. Optimization of Extraction Process for Polysaccharide in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge Using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanhua, Wang; Fuhua, Wu; Zhaohan, Guo; Mingxing, Peng; Yanan, Zhang; Ling, Pang Zhen; Minhua, Du; Caiying, Zhang; Zian, Liang

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to optimize the extraction process for Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide using response surface methodology The results showed that four operating parameters including microwave power, microwave time and the particle size had notable effects on the polysaccharide extraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The effects could be ranked in decreasing order of importance as follows:. Microwave power > microwave time > the comminution degree. The optimal extraction parameters were determined as 573.83W of Microwave power and 8.4min of microwave time and 67.51mesh of the comminution degree, resulting in the yield of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide of 101.161mg / g. The established regression model describing polysaccharide extraction from as a function of the three extraction parameters was highly significant (R 2 = 0.9953). The predicted and experimental results were found to be in good agreement. Thus, the model can be applicable for the prediction of polysaccharide extraction from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. PMID:26312073

  18. VER, CONOCER, IMAGINAR: LA VISIÓN DE LA FUENTE Y LAS TRES DONCELLAS EN EL LIBER DIVINORUM OPERUM DE HILDEGARD DE BINGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Góngora

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se desarrollan algunos de los temas relacionados con la visión y los sentidos tomando como ejemplo unos de los textos visionarios de la tercera parte del Liber divinorum operum (LDO, III, 3 de Hildegard de Bingen, la religiosa alemana que vivió entre 1098 y 1179. Los 'sentidos' se entienden aquí, en primer lugar, como la visión ('exterior' e 'interior', de acuerdo con la tradición agustiniana y la audición; en segundo lugar, como la búsqueda de un 'sentido', como una actividad orientada hacia el conocimiento; así por ejemplo, la actividad hermenéutica implicada en la lectura y en la interpretación de un texto o de una imagen. En este contexto, proponemos en este trabajo que la escritura y la ilustración iconográfica de sus obras fue comprendida por Hildegard y por sus contemporáneos como un proceso de búsqueda de sentido a través de la visión: ver, conocer (escribir e imaginar. Este proceso permite el descubrimiento de un 'sentido' del mundo visible y, en último término, puede conducir a la contemplación de las realidades sobrenaturales mediante la ejercitación de los sentidos 'corporales' y 'espirituales'. La imagen visionaria se convertirá así en el punto de encuentro entre dos mundos: el visible y el invisibleThis article develops some of the themes related to the Vision and the senses using as example the visionary texts of the third part of the "Liber divinorum operum" (LDO, III,3 of Hildegard von Bingen, the German nun who lived between 1093 ane 1179: The "senses" must be understood here, in the first place, as the vision (external and internal in accordance with the augustinian tradition and the audition; in the second place, as the search for a "sense" as an activity oriented towards knowledge, as for example the hermeneutic activity implicit in the reading and in the interpretation of a given texts or of an image. In this context, we propose that the writing and the iconographic illustration of her

  19. THE EFFECTS OF POPULATION-SIZE AND PLANT-DENSITY ON OUTCROSSING RATES IN LOCALLY ENDANGERED SALVIA-PRATENSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANTREUREN, R; BIJLSMA, R; OUBORG, NJ; VANDELDEN, W

    Multilocus outcrossing rates were estimated in natural and experimental populations of Salvia pratensis, an entomophilous, gynodioecious, protandrous perennial. Male steriles were used to check the estimation procedure of outcrossing rates in hermaphrodites. Estimates of outcrossing rates in

  20. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  1. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  2. Salvia officinalis L. extract and its new food antioxidant formulations induce apoptosis through mitochondrial/ caspase pathway in leukemia L1210 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantová Soňa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salvia officinalis, L. (Lamiaceae is one of the most widespread herbal species used in the area of human health and in the foodprocessing industry. Salvia and its extracts are known to be a rich source of antioxidants. As shown previously, the crude ethanolic extract of salvia (SE exerts lower anti-oxidative properties in lard compared to the new salvia food formulations No. 1 (SF1; 32% of SE + 68% of the emulsifier Dimodan S-T and No. 2 (SF2; 32% of SE + 68% of the emulsifier Topcithin 50.

  3. Production of rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B from callus culture of Salvia miltiorrhiza with cytotoxicity towards acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Fen; Karioti, Anastasia; Rohr, Doris; Bilia, Anna Rita; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-06-15

    Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) Bunge is one of the widely-used Chinese medicinal herbs. In this study, the chemical constituents and anticancer potential of SM stems and leaves were examined with those of respective callus cultures. The callus culture for stem and leaf explants was initiated in modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Active constituents of respective extracts were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with DAD and MS (HPLC-DAD-MS). Rosmarinic acid (RA) and salvianolic acid B (Sal B) were determined to be the main phenolic compounds. Quantitative analyses revealed that callus stem extracts produced higher amount of RA and Sal B (stem RA: 1.27±0.38%; stem Sal B: 0.87±0.20%) than callus leaf did (leaf RA: 0.28±0.02%; leaf Sal B: 0.07±0.03%). Stem and leaf callus extracts exerted cytotoxic effects towards CCRF-CEM cells (stem: 13.1±0.90 μg/ml; leaf: 18.1±0.33 μg/ml). As expected, stem extract with higher amount of RA and Sal B showed lower IC50 value than leaf extract. These findings suggest the possibility to isolate bioactive constituents with anticancer properties from in vitro callus cultures of stems and leaves of SM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers...... and whether parental leave is associated with a signaling cost. The results from this study of Swedish mothers show that lone mothers use more temporary parental leave than partnered mothers. Further, within the group of lone mothers, those with higher socioeconomic status take less temporary parental leave...... than those with lower socioeconomic status, whereas no such differences are found within the group of partnered mothers. One possible interpretation is that signaling costs negatively influence the utilization of temporary parental leave for lone mothers....

  5. Complex interplay among DNA modification, noncoding RNA expression and protein-coding RNA expression in Salvia miltiorrhiza chloroplast genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimei Chen

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza is one of the most widely used medicinal plants. As a first step to develop a chloroplast-based genetic engineering method for the over-production of active components from S. miltiorrhiza, we have analyzed the genome, transcriptome, and base modifications of the S. miltiorrhiza chloroplast. Total genomic DNA and RNA were extracted from fresh leaves and then subjected to strand-specific RNA-Seq and Single-Molecule Real-Time (SMRT sequencing analyses. Mapping the RNA-Seq reads to the genome assembly allowed us to determine the relative expression levels of 80 protein-coding genes. In addition, we identified 19 polycistronic transcription units and 136 putative antisense and intergenic noncoding RNA (ncRNA genes. Comparison of the abundance of protein-coding transcripts (cRNA with and without overlapping antisense ncRNAs (asRNA suggest that the presence of asRNA is associated with increased cRNA abundance (p<0.05. Using the SMRT Portal software (v1.3.2, 2687 potential DNA modification sites and two potential DNA modification motifs were predicted. The two motifs include a TATA box-like motif (CPGDMM1, "TATANNNATNA", and an unknown motif (CPGDMM2 "WNYANTGAW". Specifically, 35 of the 97 CPGDMM1 motifs (36.1% and 91 of the 369 CPGDMM2 motifs (24.7% were found to be significantly modified (p<0.01. Analysis of genes downstream of the CPGDMM1 motif revealed the significantly increased abundance of ncRNA genes that are less than 400 bp away from the significantly modified CPGDMM1motif (p<0.01. Taking together, the present study revealed a complex interplay among DNA modifications, ncRNA and cRNA expression in chloroplast genome.

  6. Identification, molecular cloning and expression analysis of five RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenjuan Shao

    Full Text Available RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs act as key components of the small RNA biogenesis pathways and play significant roles in post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS and antiviral defense. However, there is no information about the RDR gene family in Salvia miltiorrhiza, an emerging model medicinal plant with great economic value. Through genome-wide predication and subsequent molecular cloning, five full-length S. miltiorrhiza RDR genes, termed SmRDR1-SmRDR5, were identified. The length of SmRDR cDNAs varies between 3,262 (SmRDR5 and 4,130 bp (SmRDR3. The intron number of SmRDR genes varies from 3 (SmRDR1, SmRDR3 and SmRDR4 to 17 (SmRDR5. All of the deduced SmRDR protein sequences contain the conserved RdRp domain. Moreover, SmRDR2 and SmRDR4 have an additional RRM domain. Based on the phylogenetic tree constructed with sixteen RDRs from Arabidopsis, rice and S. miltiorrhiza, plant RDRs may be divided into four groups (RDR1-RDR4. The RDR1 group contains an AtRDR and an OsRDR, while includes two SmRDRs. On the contrary, the RDR3 group contains three AtRDRs and two OsRDRs, but has only one SmRDR. SmRDRs were differentially expressed in flowers, leaves, stems and roots of S. miltiorrhiza and responsive to methyl jasmonate treatment and cucumber mosaic virus infection. The results suggest the involvement of RDRs in S. miltiorrhiza development and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. It provides a foundation for further studying the regulation and biological functions of SmRDRs and the biogenesis pathways of small RNAs in S. miltiorrhiza.

  7. Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge): A Prospective Healing Sage for Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Chen, Guoxun

    2017-08-21

    Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge) is a valued herbal plant in the Traditional Chinese Medicine. The dried root of this plant (Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza), either alone or in combination with other herbal ingredients, has been used for hundreds of years to treat numerous ailments, especially cardiovascular diseases. For the past several decades, many studies have tried to delineate the putative cardioprotective effects of this folk medicine through the lens of modern scientific research. In this review, we have summarized the current knowledge about the pharmacological potentials of danshen. The main focus is laid on the predominant bioactive compounds in danshen, which include phenolic acids and tanshinones. We discussed the absorption and metabolism of these compounds, and examine in detail the cardioprotective mechanisms during atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and myocardial infarction reperfusion. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Una nueva especie de Salvia (Lamiaceae del Norte de Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abundio Sagástegui Alva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de Salvia L. (Lamiaceae, denominada Salvia vargas-llosae Sagást. & E. Rodr. sp. nov. perteneciente a la sección Cylindriflorae (Epling Epling, procedente de los andes del Norte del Perú (provincia Celendín, departamento Cajamarca, típica de la jalca Sendamal-Kumulca-Challuayaco sobre los 3000 m de altitud y aparentemente endémica a esta parte del país. Se discute con sus relacionadas y adicionalmente se presentan datos sobre su distribución geográfica, ecológica y estado de conservación.

  9. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L.) Gum

    OpenAIRE

    Maira Rubi Segura-Campos; Norma Ciau-Solís; Gabriel Rosado-Rubio; Luis Chel-Guerrero; David Betancur-Ancona

    2014-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submit...

  10. Characterization of protein fractions and antioxidant activity of Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kvetoslava Kačmárová; Blažena Lavová; Peter Socha; Dana Urminská

    2016-01-01

    Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) is an annual herbaceous plant categorized under Lamiaceae family. Chia seeds were investigated as a source of proteins and natural antioxidants. It is a potential alternative source of high quality protein, fats, carbohydrates, high dietary fibre, vitamins and mineral elements. The objective of this study was to evaluate chia seed from protein content and antioxidant acivity and highlight the quality of this pseudocereal. A crude protein, moisture...

  11. Modulating AtDREB1C Expression Improves Drought Tolerance in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Tao; Deng, Kejun; Zhang, Qingxia; Gao, Yonghong; Liu, Yu; Yang, Meiling; Zhang, Lipeng; Zheng, Xuelian; Wang, Chunguo; Liu, Zhiwei; Chen, Chengbin; Zhang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Dehydration responsive element binding proteins are transcription factors of the plant-specific AP2 family, many of which contribute to abiotic stress responses in several plant species. We investigated the possibility of increasing drought tolerance in the traditional Chinese medicinal herb, Salvia miltiorrhiza, through modulating the transcriptional regulation of AtDREB1C in transgenic plants under the control of a constitutive (35S) or drought-inducible (RD29A) promoter. AtDREB1C transgeni...

  12. Fatty Acid Patterns of Seeds of Some Salvia Species from Iran--A Chemotaxonomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzami Farida, Seyed Hamed; Radjabian, Tayebeh; Ranjbar, Massoud; Salami, Seyed Alireza; Rahmani, Nosrat; Ghorbani, Abdolbaset

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the seed oil content and fatty acid (FA) profile of 21 populations from 16 wild Salvia species of Iran were analyzed by GC. Patterns of chemical variations of the oils among species were identified via numerical analyses and also the taxonomic status of the infrageneric grouping was outlined in the genus. Salvia species were scored based on the contents of main FAs using principal coordinate analysis (PCO). The results showed that the total oil content in the seeds varied significantly, and ranged from 6.68 to 38.53% dry weight. α-Linolenic (18:3ω3, 1.69 - 53.56%), linoleic (18:2ω6, 13.04 - 60.64%), oleic (18:1ω9, 6.15 - 27.06%), palmitic (16:0, 3.77 - 9.27%), and stearic (18:0, 1.78 - 3.05%) acid were identified as five major FAs in the oils. The amount of ω-3 and ω-6 FAs ranged between 1.90 - 53.80% and 13.46 - 60.83% of total FAs in the seed oils, respectively. The results confirmed that FA profiles were distinctive among the species and that they can be used as chemotaxonomic markers. The discrimination of Salvia species according to their botanical classification at intersectional level was supported. In general, seed oils of Salvia species were rich sources of polyunsaturated FAs, except in linoleic and α-linolenic acid, and may be valuable for food and pharmaceutical industries. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  13. [Anticancer activity of Salvia officinalis essential oil against HNSCC cell line (UMSCC1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertel, S; Eichhorn, T; Plinkert, P K; Efferth, T

    2011-12-01

    Every year there are several hundred thousand new cases of oral cancer worldwide. Clinical oncology is still challenged by toxicity and side effects of multimodal therapy strategies in which is associated with poor prognosis for patients. There is an urgent necessity to develop novel therapy strategies. As the majority of anticancer drugs are of natural origin, natural products represent a valuable source for the identification and development of novel treatment options for cancer. The aim of this investigation was to study the cytotoxicity of Salvia officinalis L. (sage) essential oil. Salvia officinalis essential oil was gained by aqueous extraction from plant material and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography. The cytotoxicity of the essential oil on the squamous human cell carcinoma cell line of the oral cavity (UMSCC1) was assessed with the XTT assay. These experiments revealed the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of the essential oil. It was used in the microarray-based analysis of gene expression of UMSSC1 cells. The results were submitted to a signaling pathway analysis. The main constituents of Salvia officinalis essential oil include the monoterpenes thujone, β-pinene, and 1,8-cineol. Low concentrations of the essential oil increased vitality of the UMSCC1 cells. Beyond the concentration of the IC(50) of 135 µg/ml, sage essential oil reduced UMSSC1 cells viability to a minimum. In the microarray gene expression analysis, genes involved in cancer, cellular growth and proliferation, cell death, cell morphology, cell cycle, gene expression, and DNA repair were the most prominent. The three most significantly regulated pathways by sage were aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling, cell cycle (G1/S checkpoint) regulation, and p53 signaling. To the best of our knowledge, this study suggests for the first time the ability of Salvia officinalis essential oil to inhibit human HNSCC cell growth. The therapeutic potential of sage essential oil

  14. Protective Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Extract Against Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effect of pre-treatment with Salvia miltiorrhiza ethanol extracts (SMEE on renal function markers, immunity and antioxidant activities in renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR rats. Wistar rat kidneys were subjected to 60 min of global ischemia at 37 °C followed by 30 min of reperfusion, and were randomly assigned into the sham, IR model and three SMEE-treated groups (n = 8 per group. Results showed that high serum creatinin (Scr, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and malondialhehyde (MDA levels, and low antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in IR rats compared to the sham rats. Pre-treatment of Salvia miltiorrhiza ethanol extracts for 20 days prior to IR operation improved renal function, reduced IR induced renal inflammatory and oxidative injury. It is concluded that Salvia miltiorrhiza ethanol extracts could be beneficial in the treatment of renal ischemic injury.

  15. Pharmacological perspectives from Brazilian Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae): antioxidant, and antitumor in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Charlene S C; Menti, Caroline; Lambert, Ana Paula F; Barcellos, Thiago; Moura, Sidnei; Calloni, Caroline; Branco, Cátia S; Salvador, Mirian; Roesch-Ely, Mariana; Henriques, João A P

    2016-03-01

    Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) has been used in south of Brazil as a diary homemade, in food condiment and tea-beverage used for the treatment of several disorders. The objective of this study was to characterize chemical compounds in the hydroalcoholic (ExtHS) and aqueous (ExtAS) extract from Salvia officinalis (L.) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF MS/MS), evaluate in vitro ability to scavenge the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+), catalase (CAT-like) and superoxide dismutase (SOD-like) activity, moreover cytotoxic by MTT assay, alterations on cell morphology by giemsa and apoptotic-induced mechanism for annexin V/propidium iodide. Chemical identification sage extracts revealed the presence of acids and phenolic compounds. In vitro antioxidant analysis for both extracts indicated promising activities. The cytotoxic assays using tumor (Hep-2, HeLa, A-549, HT-29 and A-375) and in non-tumor (HEK-293 and MRC-5), showed selectivity for tumor cell lines. Immunocytochemistry presenting a majority of tumor cells at late stages of the apoptotic process and necrosis. Given the results presented here, Brazilian Salvia officinalis (L.) used as condiment and tea, may protect the body against some disease, in particularly those where oxidative stress is involved, like neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation and cancer.

  16. Diverse responses of tanshinone biosynthesis to biotic and abiotic elicitors in hairy root cultures of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvia castanea Diels f. tomentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfeng; Fang, Yumin; Xia, Pengguo; Zhang, Xiaodan; Liang, Zongsuo

    2017-11-28

    Salvia miltiorrhiza (S. miltiorrhiza) and Salvia castanea Diels f. tomentosa (S. castanea) are both used for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. They have the same bioactive compound tanshinones, but whose contents are hugely different. This study illustrated diverse responses of tanshinone biosynthesis to yeast extract (YE) and Ag+ in hairy roots of the two species. YE enhanced both the growth and tanshinone biosynthesis of two hairy roots, and contributed more to tanshinone accumulation in S. castanea than that in S. miltiorrhiza. Genes encoding 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS2), geranylgeranyl diphosphatesynthase (GGPPS1), copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS1), and two cytochromes P450 (CYP76AH1 and CYP76AH3) were also more responsive to YE in S. castanea than those in S. miltiorrhiza. Accumulations of dihydrotanshinone I and tanshinone I, and most biosynthetic genes in S. miltiorrhiza were more responsive to Ag+ than those in S. castanea. Accumulations of dihydrotanshinone I and cryptotanshinone were more responsive to YE, while tanshinone IIA accumulation was more responsive to Ag+ in S. miltiorrhiza. However, accumulations of other four tanshinones and related genes in S. castanea were more responsive to YE than Ag+. This study provides foundations for studying diverse specialized metabolism between the related species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Development of new microsatellite markers for Salvia officinalis L. and its potential use in conservation-genetic studies of narrow endemic Salvia brachyodon Vandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosavljević, Ivan; Satovic, Zlatko; Jakse, Jernej; Javornik, Branka; Greguraš, Danijela; Jug-Dujaković, Marija; Liber, Zlatko

    2012-01-01

    Nine new microsatellite markers (SSR) were isolated from Salvia officinalis L. A total of 125 alleles, with 8 to 21 alleles per locus, were detected in a natural population from the east Adriatic coast. The observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content ranged from 0.46 to 0.83, 0.73 to 0.93 and 0.70 to 0.92, respectively. New microsatellite markers, as well as previously published markers, were tested for cross-amplification in Salvia brachyodon Vandas, a narrow endemic species known to be present in only two localities on the Balkan Peninsula. Out of 30 microsatellite markers tested on the natural S. brachyodon population, 15 were successfully amplified. To obtain evidence of recent bottleneck events in the populations of both species, observed genetic diversity (H(E)) was compared to the expected genetic diversity at mutation-drift equilibrium (H(EQ)) and calculated from the observed number of alleles using a two-phased mutation model (TPM). Recent bottleneck events were detected only in the S. brachyodon population. This result suggests the need to reconsider the current threat category of this endemic species.

  18. Expression Analysis of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Gene and Rosmarinic Acid Production in Salvia officinalis and Salvia virgata Shoots Under Salicylic Acid Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejtahed, Roghayeh Sadat; Radjabian, Tayebeh; Hoseini Tafreshi, Sayed Ali

    2015-08-01

    Partial fragments of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) genes were cloned and characterized from Salvia officinalis (SoPAL) and Salvia virgata (SvPAL). Different concentrations (250 and 500 μM) of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) were used when correlation between PAL expression and rosmarinic acid (RA) accumulation was compared. The results showed that the deduced cDNA sequences of the partial genes had high similarities with those of known PAL gene from other plant species. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that exogenous application of SA led to up-regulating of the PAL expression. Further analysis showed that in S. virgata, at higher concentration of SA, higher accumulation of RA was achieved, while in S. officinalis, the higher RA accumulation was observed at lower concentration of SA. It was concluded that there was no positive correlation between the intensity of PAL transcription and the RA accumulation in the studied species. Therefore, despite of the increase in transcription rate of the PAL at the higher concentration of SA, the lower amounts of RA were accumulated in the case of S. officinalis. Consequently, the hypothesis that PAL is the rate-determining step in RA biosynthesis is not always valid and probably some other unknown factors participate in the synthesis of phenolics.

  19. Molecular docking and ex vivo and in vitro anticholinesterase activity studies of Salvia sp. and highlighted rosmarinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirezer, Lütfiye Ömür; Gürbüz, Perihan; Kelicen Uğur, Emine Pelin; Bodur, Mine; Özenver, Nadire; Uz, Ayse; Güvenalp, Zühal

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity and antioxidant capacity of the major molecule from Salvia sp., rosmarinic acid, as a drug candidate molecule for treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD). The AChE inhibitory activity of different extracts from Salvia trichoclada, Salvia verticillata, and Salvia fruticosa was determined by the Ellman and isolated guinea pig ileum methods, and the antioxidant capacity was determined with DPPH. The AChE inhibitory activity of the major molecule rosmarinic acid was determined by in silico docking and isolated guinea pig ileum methods. The methanol extract of Salvia trichoclada showed the highest inhibition on AChE. The same extract and rosmarinic acid showed significant contraction responses on isolated guinea pig ileum. All the extracts and rosmarinic acid showed high radical scavenging capacities. Docking results of rosmarinic acid showed high affinity to the selected target, AChE. In this study in vitro and ex vivo studies and in silico docking research of rosmarinic acid were used simultaneously for the first time. Rosmarinic acid showed promising results in all the methods tested.

  20. Assessment of Salvia officinalis (L. hydroalcoholic extract for possible use in cosmetic formulation as inhibitor of pathogens in the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Silvestin Celi Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Salvia officinalis (L., or common sage, is an aromatic herb that has been used in medicine and cooking since ancient times and has been investigated for the treatment of various diseases, especially infections and skin inflammation. We conducted phytochemical prospecting and quality control with hydroalcoholic extracts of dried sage, to identify active compounds in the plant. The aim was to assess antibacterial and antifungal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. Antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated in vitro by agar-overlay and well-diffusion techniques, in which disc and well were used. Salvia officinalis (L. was not effective against Streptococcus agalactiae, Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis, but best results were observed for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Considering the results of the inhibition tests presented here, we suggest that cosmetic formulations containing Salvia officinalis (L. could contribute to inhibitor of pathogens in the skin microbiota.

  1. A unique natural selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist, salvinorin A, and its roles in human therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, André; Domingos, Sara; Gallardo, Eugenia; Martinho, Ana

    2017-05-01

    Until the mid-60s, only the Mazatecs, an indigenous group from Oaxaca, Mexico, used Salvia Divinorum (S. divinorum) due to its hallucinogen properties. Later it was found that the hallucinogen effects of this plant were caused by the presence of a neoclerodane diterpene Salvinorin A (salvinorin A), which is a highly selective agonist of kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) that cause more intense hallucinations than the common hallucinogens as lysergic acid, mushrooms, ecstasy and others. In fact, smoking of only 200-500 μg of S. divinorum leaves is enough to produce these effects thus making it the most potent natural occurring hallucinogen known. Due to its legal status in various countries, this compound has gained a worldwide popularity as a drug of abuse with an easy access through smartshops and internet. Furthermore, salvinorin A gathered an increased interest in the scientific community thanks to its unique structure and properties, and various studies demonstrated that salvinorin A has antinociceptive, antidepressant, in some circumstances pro-depressant and anti-addictive effects that have yielded potential new avenues for research underlying salvinorin A and its semi-synthetic analogs as therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Boswellia serrata and Salvia miltiorrhiza extracts reduce DMN-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice by TGF-beta1 downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sferra, R; Vetuschi, A; Catitti, V; Ammanniti, S; Pompili, S; Melideo, D; Frieri, G; Gaudio, E; Latella, G

    2012-10-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is characterised by a progressive accumulation of fibrillar extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, including collagen that occurs in chronic liver diseases. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta)/Smad3 signalling plays a major role in tissue fibrogenesis acting as a potent stimulus of ECM accumulation. To evaluate the effects of a combined therapy with anti-inflammatory Boswellia and anti-fibrotic Salvia extracts on the course of chronic hepatitis-associated fibrosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in mice, as well as on the hepatic expression of TGF-beta1 and Smad proteins. Chronic hepatitis-associated fibrosis was induced in mice by intraperitoneal DMN administration. Mice were assigned to 5 groups: controls; DMN without any treatment; DMN treated orally with Boswellia extracts (50 mg/kg/day); DMN treated orally with Salvia extracts (150 mg/ kg/day); DMN treated orally with both Boswellia (50 mg/kg/day) and Salvia extracts (150 mg/kg/ day). The liver was excised for macroscopic examination and histological, morphometric and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses. For IHC, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), collagen types I-III, TGF-beta1, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), Smad3, Smad7, CD3, PCNA and TUNEL antibodies were used. The combined oral administration of Boswellia and Salvia extracts improved the course and macroscopic findings of DMN-induced chronic hepatitis-associated fibrosis. The histological severity of the hepatic fibrosis showed a marked improvement following treatment and was associated with a reduction in the hepatic expression of alpha-SMA, collagen I-III, CTGF, TGF-beta1, Smad3, and Smad7. These data demonstrate that co-treatment of Boswellia plus Salvia extracts is effective in preventing hepatic fibrosis in DMN-induced chronic hepatitis. The anti-fibrotic properties are mainly related to Salvia extracts and appear to be mediated by the inhibition of the TGF-beta1/Smad3 pathway.

  3. [Differences in shapes and properties and microscopic frameworks of wild and cultivated Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae from different regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guifang; Feng, Xuefeng; Ge, Xiaoguang; He, Xirong; Wu, Zhigang; Yang, Jingyu; Wang, Jin'e; Li, Xiaoming; Yuan, Yuan

    2010-05-01

    To compare the differences in shapes and properties and the microscopic frameworks of the wild and cultivated Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae from different regions. The differences in the shapes and properties, the characters of transverse sections, the powder and disintegrated tissue of roots were compared using microscopic measurement and statistics analysis. The wild Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae had several long cylinder roots with rough flaky squama skin and brown red or wine culour, the cultivated had root of many branch with cling skin and brick-red or chestnut culour. The difference of microscopic histological structure was that the xylem vessel of wild Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae had bunched vessel with the rank form of big diameter alternating with small diameter, and had stone cell on samples from some producing region, the xylem vessel of the cultivated had no bunched vessel and no stone cell with the rank form of tangential radial. Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae cultivated in Sichuan Province is called original-region medicinal materials and named Chuandanshen. Chuandanshen had the differences with the Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix cultivated in other region. The root of Chuandanshen had 1.2 cm diameter, and was bulky and fat with solid fabric and the fracture with brownish yellow color and cutin-alikeness, its xylem vessel of transverse section of root was thin with the rank form of tangential radial, and 19-24 vascular bundle and a few wood fiber. Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix of the wild and the cultivated, of the original-region (Chuandanshen) and the other-region, have the differences in the shapes and properties, and the microscopic frameworks. The character can be identified by the differences in the shapes of medicinal materials, and the rank form of vascular bundle of transverse section of root.

  4. Chemical composition and biological activity of four salvia essential oils and individual compounds against two species of mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Blythe, Eugene K; Ali, Zulfiqar; Baser, K Husnu Can; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-21

    The chemical compositions of essential oils obtained from four species of genus Salvia were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main compounds identified from Salvia species essential oils were as follows: 1,8-cineole (71.7%), α-pinene (5.1%), camphor (4.4%), and β-pinene (3.8%) in Salvia apiana; borneol (17.4%), β-eudesmol (10.4%), bornyl acetate (5%), and guaiol (4.8%) in Salvia elegans; bornyl acetate (11.4%), β-caryophyllene (6.5%), caryophyllene oxide (13.5%), and spathulenol (7.0%) in Salvia leucantha; α-thujene (25.8%), viridiflorol (20.4%), β-thujene (5.7%), and camphor (6.4%) in Salvia officinalis. In biting-deterrent bioassays, essential oils of S. leucantha and S. elegans at 10 μg/cm(2) showed activity similar to that of DEET (97%, N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide) in two species of mosquitoes, whereas the activities of S. officinalis and S. apiana essential oils were lower than those of the other oils or DEET. Pure compounds β-eudesmol and guaiol showed biting-deterrent activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2), whereas the activity of 13-epi-manool, caryophyllene oxide, borneol, bornyl acetate, and β-caryophyllene was significantly lower than that of β-eudesmol, guaiol, or DEET. All essential oils showed larvicidal activity except that of S. apiana, which was inactive at the highest dose of 125 ppm against both mosquito species. On the basis of 95% CIs, all of the essential oils showed higher toxicity in Anopheles quadrimaculatus than in Aedes aegypti. The essential oil of S. leucantha with an LC50 value of 6.2 ppm showed highest toxicity in An. quadrimaculatus.

  5. Profiling of Compositions of Essential Oils and Volatiles of Salvia limbata Using Traditional and Advanced Techniques and Evaluation for Biological Activities of Their Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadhosseini, Majid; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Flamini, Guido

    2017-05-01

    In the present work, the essential oils and volatiles from flowers, leaves, and stems of Salvia limbata obtained using microwave-assisted hydrodistillation, solvent-free microwave extraction, headspace-assisted analysis, and headspace-solid phase microextraction have been characterized for the first time. The results have been also compared with those from traditional separation techniques involving hydrodistillation and steam distillation. Regardless of some common compounds in all of the profiles, some dissimilarities were noted due to the use of different extracting approaches. Taking into account the chemical categories, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were found as the most represented group of natural compounds contributing to the chemical profiles. It was also noted that the methanol extracts obtained from the flowers of Sal. limbata showed a desirable antioxidant activity, comparable to the standard antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Furthermore, using the disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods, all the tested bacteria demonstrated weak to moderate and moderate to strong sensibilities to the MeOH extracts obtained from different plant parts of Sal. limbata. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  6. Effect of sowing density and nitrogen top-dress fertilisation on growth and yield of chia (Salvia hispanica L. in a Mediterranean environment: first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Bochicchio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for sources of nutraceuticals has led to the rediscovery and diffusion of traditional crops such as chia (Salvia hispanica L., whose leaves and fruits are rich in W3 fatty acids and anti-oxidants. Chia originates in Central America but it is rapidly expanding to new areas. A field experiment conducted at Atella in Basilicata (Southern Italy was set up to test the response of chia to N top-dress fertilisation (0 and 20 kg ha–1 and to sowing density (D1=125, D2=25, D3=8 and D4=4 plants m–2 in a split-plot design with three replications. First results show maximum leaf area index values up to 7.1 and fresh vegetative biomass production at early flowering ranging between 50.87 (D4 and 59.71 (D1 t ha–1. Yield increased with plant density: a significantly (P<0.01 higher production (398 kg ha–1 was reached in D1. N top-dressing had a detrimental effect on yield and corresponded to higher lodging and lower maturation percentage of seeds, though non-significant. Based on our first results it seems worthwhile to continue agronomical trials for chia in herbaceous systems of southern Italy for leaf production based on traditional genotypes, while fruit production might be pursued by adopting high sowing density and the search for longer-day genotypes.

  7. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Salvia officinalis L. leaf extract in patients with hyperlipidemia: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianbakht, S; Abasi, B; Perham, M; Hashem Dabaghian, F

    2011-12-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a common metabolic disorder contributing to morbidities and mortalities due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Conventional antihyperlipidemic drugs have limited efficacies and important side effects, so that alternative lipid lowering agents are needed. Salvia officinalis L. (sage) leaves have PPAR γ agonistic, pancreatic lipase and lipid absorption inhibitory, antioxidant, lipid peroxidation inhibitory and antiinflammatory effects. Thus, in this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial with 67 hyperlipidemic (hypercholesterolemic and/or hypertriglyceridemic) patients aged 56.4 ± 30.3 years (mean ± SD), the effects of taking sage leaf extract (one 500 mg capsule every 8 h for 2 months) on fasting blood levels of lipids, creatinine and liver enzymes including SGOT and SGPT were evaluated in 34 patients and compared with the placebo group (n = 33). The extract lowered the blood levels of total cholesterol (p  0.05) compared with the placebo group at the endpoint. No adverse effects were reported. The results suggest that sage may be effective and safe in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  9. Aerosol deposition on plant leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Wedding; Roger W. Carlson; James J. Stukel; Fakhri A. Bazzaz

    1976-01-01

    An aerosol generator and wind tunnel system designed for use in aerosol deposition is described. Gross deposition on rough pubescent leaves was nearly 7 times greater than on smooth, waxy leaves. Results suggest that aerosol deposition, on a per unit area basis, for single horizontal streamlining leaves is similar to that for arrays of leaves under similar flow...

  10. Environmental gradients shape the genetic structure of two medicinal Salvia species in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gharaibeh, M M; Hamasha, H R; Rosche, C; Lachmuth, S; Wesche, K; Hensen, I

    2017-03-01

    Environmental gradients, and particularly climatic variables, exert a strong influence on plant distribution and, potentially, population genetic diversity and differentiation. Differences in water availability can cause among-population variation in ecological processes and can thus interrupt populations' connectivity and isolate them environmentally. The present study examines the effect of environmental heterogeneity on plant populations due to environmental isolation unrelated to geographic distance. Using AFLP markers, we analyzed genetic diversity and differentiation among 12 Salvia spinosa populations and 13 Salvia syriaca populations from three phytogeographical regions (Mediterranean, Irano-Turanian and Saharo-Arabian) representing the extent of the species' geographic range in Jordan. Differences in geographic location and climate were considered in the analyses. For both species, flowering phenology varied among populations and regions. Irano-Turanian and Saharo-Arabian populations had higher genetic diversity than Mediterranean populations, and genetic diversity increased significantly with increasing temperature. Genetic diversity in Salvia syriaca was affected by population size, while genetic diversity responded to drought in S. spinosa. For both species, high levels of genetic differentiation were found as well as two well-supported phytogeographical groups of populations, with Mediterranean populations clustering in one group and the Irano-Turanian and Saharo-Arabian populations in another. Genetic distance was significantly correlated to environmental distance, but not to geographic distance. Our data indicate that populations from moist vs. arid environments are environmentally isolated, where environmental gradients affect their flowering phenology, limit gene flow and shape their genetic structure. We conclude that environmental heterogeneity may act as driver for the observed variation in genetic diversity. © 2016 German Botanical Society and

  11. Ethnopharmacological and Chemical Characterization of Salvia Species Used in Valencian Traditional Herbal Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Martínez-Francés

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In Valencia Region (Spain, some wild and cultivated sages are used for medicinal purposes. Among them, Salvia officinalis subsp. lavandulifolia (SL is widely employed and known for production of Spanish sage oil and herbal products. Nevertheless, it shares the market with S. blancoana subsp. mariolensis (SB and, to a lesser extent, with their hybrid S. x hegelmaieri (SH. The knowledge on these two species is far low and confusion between them is possible. The aim of the present paper is to improve the ethnopharmacological, morphological and chemical knowledge of these sages, and to contribute to setting up quality specifications for improving identification and distinction from other Salvia species, such as, S. officinalis subsp. officinalis, S. x auriculata and S. microphylla var. microphylla. Samples were collected in Valencia Region and surrounding mountain areas during the ethnopharmacological field work. Twenty-nine medicinal uses were reported for SL, 13 of them being also recorded for SB. Of particular interest is a homemade liquor, used as digestive and known as “salvieta,” which is mainly prepared with SB. The macro- and microscopic characters are insufficient for identification of cut, crushed or powdered material. The study of the essential oil and a HPTLC (High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography fingerprint of their extracts could help to distinguish SB from the other sages. The essential oil from dried aerial parts of SB (content: 1.8–4.5% was characterized by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry showing a composition close to that currently accepted for Spanish sage essential oil in the European Pharmacopoeia, ISO (International Standard Organization and UNE (Una Norma Española standards, with 1,8-cineole (13.7–45.7% and camphor (12.1–28.6% as major constituents. HPTLC methods, based on the analysis of hydroalcoholic and dichloromethane

  12. Antibacterial activities of cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone I from a medicinal herb, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D S; Lee, S H; Noh, J G; Hong, S D

    1999-12-01

    Cryptotanshinone and dihydrotanshinone I, constituents of a medicinal plant, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, had antibacterial activity against a broad range of Gram positive bacteria. These compounds generated superoxide radicals in Bacillus subtilis lysates. A recombination-deficient mutant strain of B. subtilis was 2- to 8-fold more sensitive than a wild strain, and this hypersensitivity was reduced in the presence of dithiothreitol as an antioxidant. DNA, RNA, and protein syntheses in B. subtilis were non-selectively inhibited by these compounds. These results suggest that superoxide radicals are important in the antibacterial actions of the agents.

  13. In vitro synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis L. and some preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of the species Salvia officinalis L. and its synergistic action with the preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in vitro against selected food spoiling bacteria. Synergism was assessed by the checkerboard assay method and quantitatively represented by the FIC index. Synergistic action was established for aqueous extract/sodium benzoate, aqueous extract/potassium sorbate, aqueous extract/sodium nitrite combinations. Synergism was detected in relation to: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus subtilis and Proteus sp. Synergism was established at plant extract and preservative concentrations corresponding up to 1/8 MIC values.

  14. [Screening of antifungi endophytic actinomyces strains from salvia przewalskii in Tibean Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Song-Qing; Jiang, Hua-Ming; Guan, Tong-Wei; Qi, Shan-Shan; Gu, Yun-Fu; Zhao, Ke; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Xiao-Ping

    2013-10-01

    Twenty-four endophytic actinomycetes strains were isolated from the Salvia przewalskii in Tibetan Plateau of China by tablet coating method. Fusarium moniliforme, Helminthosporium turcicum and Bipolaris maydis were selected as indicator fungi to test the antimicrobial activities of these endophytic actinomycetes by tablet confrontation method. The results showed that 21 strains can produce antimicrobial substances which accounts for 85.7% of the total separates number. Four strains of endogenous actinomyces have more obvious antifungi activity. According to results of morphology and culture properties and 16S rDNA sequences of endophytic actinomyces, it is concluded that all of the isolates were streptomycetes trains.

  15. Evaluation of performance of dough and bread incorporating chia (Salvia hispanica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Puig, Esther; Haros, Monika

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the opinion given by the European Food Safety Authority about the safety of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L) and whole ground chia seed as food ingredients, they may be placed on the market in the European Community as novel food ingredients to be used in bread products. The objective of the present investigation was to develop new cereal-based products with increased nutritional quality by using chia and ground chia seeds (whole chia flour, semi-defatted chia flour and low-fat c...

  16. Ethnopharmacological and Chemical Characterization of Salvia Species Used in Valencian Traditional Herbal Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Francés, Vanessa; Hahn, Emeline; Ríos, Segundo; Rivera, Diego; Reich, Eike; Vila, Roser; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    In Valencia Region (Spain), some wild and cultivated sages are used for medicinal purposes. Among them, Salvia officinalis subsp. lavandulifolia (SL) is widely employed and known for production of Spanish sage oil and herbal products. Nevertheless, it shares the market with S. blancoana subsp. mariolensis (SB) and, to a lesser extent, with their hybrid S. x hegelmaieri (SH). The knowledge on these two species is far low and confusion between them is possible. The aim of the present paper is to improve the ethnopharmacological, morphological and chemical knowledge of these sages, and to contribute to setting up quality specifications for improving identification and distinction from other Salvia species, such as, S. officinalis subsp. officinalis, S. x auriculata and S. microphylla var. microphylla. Samples were collected in Valencia Region and surrounding mountain areas during the ethnopharmacological field work. Twenty-nine medicinal uses were reported for SL, 13 of them being also recorded for SB. Of particular interest is a homemade liquor, used as digestive and known as “salvieta,” which is mainly prepared with SB. The macro- and microscopic characters are insufficient for identification of cut, crushed or powdered material. The study of the essential oil and a HPTLC (High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography) fingerprint of their extracts could help to distinguish SB from the other sages. The essential oil from dried aerial parts of SB (content: 1.8–4.5%) was characterized by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry) showing a composition close to that currently accepted for Spanish sage essential oil in the European Pharmacopoeia, ISO (International Standard Organization) and UNE (Una Norma Española) standards, with 1,8-cineole (13.7–45.7%) and camphor (12.1–28.6%) as major constituents. HPTLC methods, based on the analysis of hydroalcoholic and dichloromethane extracts

  17. Eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids from Salvia plebeia inhibit IL-6-induced STAT3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Jae; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Hwang, Joo Tae; Kim, Mi-Hwa; Lee, Soyoung; Jung, Kyungsook; Kim, Young-Ho; Lee, Seung Woong; Rho, Mun-Chual

    2016-10-01

    Seven eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoid lactones and the known plebeiolide C were isolated from an ethanol-soluble extract of the aerial parts of Salvia plebeia R. Br. Their structures were determined via NMR and MS, and their absolute configurations were elucidated using ECD, and X-ray crystallographic analysis, as well as the modified Mosher ester method. All isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on IL6-induced STAT3 promoter activation in stably transfected Hep3B cells. Of these isolates, eudebeiolide D exhibited an inhibitory effect with the IC50 value of 1.1 μM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A new rearranged tricyclic abietane diterpenoid from Salvia chloroleuca Rech. f. & Allen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimikia, Iraj; Moridi Farimani, Mahdi; Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid Reza; Gohari, Ahmad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Salvia chloroleuca led to the isolation and identification of a new rearranged abietane diterpenoid (1). Its structure was elucidated by interpretation of the 1D and 2D NMR spectra and completed by the analysis of the HR-ESI-MS data. Compound 1 is the secondly reported compound on a rearranged tricyclic abietane (4,5-seco-5,10-friedo-abietane) diterpenoid with a ketal functionality between C-2 and C-11. A plausible biosynthetic pathway of 1 was also proposed.

  19. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  20. Does Leave Work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heleen van Luijn; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2004-01-01

    More and more people have to combine work and care responsibilities, and work part-time or use daycare and after-school care facilities to help them do so. The Work and Care Act, which came into force on 1 December 2001, combined all the existing schemes - such as parental and maternity leave -

  1. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  2. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the prevalence of sick leave and self-reported reasons given for sick leave during pregnancy. Furthermore, we aimed to estimate the frequency of long-term sick leave during pregnancy in relation to pre-baseline maternal characteristics and to identify predictors...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  3. Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid derivative found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be of benefit t...

  4. Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Fourty Five Salvia Species by Thermal Desorption-GC-MS Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Damla Hatipoglu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOC from dried aerial parts (flowers, leafs, leafy branches and stems of fourty five Salvia species, harvested from different regions of Turkey, were determined using thermal desorption technique coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TD-GC-MS. Total percentages of the detected volatile organic compounds of the Salvia species ranged from 70.30 to 99.65% . Total yield of VOC was found to be highly variable among Salvia species, and the percentage of each component also exhibited high variation. While sesquiterpene hydrocarbons represented 0.90-45.02% of the volatile organic compounds, the others were found to be monoterpene hydrocarbons 0.00-32.25%, monoterpenoids 0.94- 53.60%, sesquiterpenoids 0.00- 31.45% and hydrocarbons and derivatives 2.99-46.87%. The rest of the composition consisted of diterpene alcohols, fatty acids, phenolics and triterpenes. In total, 108 volatile compounds were identified from studied 45 Anatolian Salvia species.

  5. Cultural influence as a factor in determining the distribution of a rare sage, Salvia dorrii subspecies mearnsii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin D. Huisinga

    2001-01-01

    Although related taxa occur throughout the western United States, Salvia dorrii ssp. mearnsii is endemic to central Arizona. In part, its narrow distribution may be attributed to prehistoric human influences. A spatial analysis was used to determine the relationship of archaeological sites and populations of S. dorrii ssp. mearnsii. In the lower Verde Valley,...

  6. Trifurcula (Glaucolepis) lituanica sp. nov., an unexpected new stem-miner on Salvia pratensis occurring in eastern Europe (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivinskis, P.; Nieukerken, van E.J.; Rimsaite, J.

    2012-01-01

    Trifurcula (Glaucolepis) lituanica Ivinskis & van Nieukerken, sp. nov., is described from adults reared from stemmining larvae on Salvia pratensis (Lamiaceae) from Lithuania and some specimens taken as adults in Austria, Slovenia and Greece. In addition the new species is recorded from Bulgaria, the

  7. [Changes of miRNA after oral submucous fibrosis co-cultured with Salvia and low-dose prednisolone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Binjie; Chen, Jun; Jian, Xinchun

    2014-05-01

    To explore and analyze the the expression change of miRNA associated with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) treated by the Salvia combined with law-dose prednisolone. Ten pairs of tissues from patients with typical early or advanced stage clinical pathological features of OSF and their paired normal tissues (internal control), were selected respectively. The miRNA expression profiles between the OSF and its paired controls were compared by the Affymetrix analysis. The primary normal oral mucous cells were cultured in arecoline (50 μg/mL) for 3, 6, 12 d (0 d ser ved as cont rol), and the primary OSF-fibroblast cells were cultured with Salvia (90 mg/mL) combined with low-dose prednisolone for 12, 24, 36 h (0 h served as control). The differential expression of miRNA was detected. Arecoline induced the expression changes of miRNAs in normal mucosal cells. Salvia combined with low doses of prednisolone reversed the related miRNA expression. MiRNAs play an essential role in the occurrence and development of OSF. Salvia combined with low-dose prednisolone can reverse the expression of related miRNAs in OSF cells.

  8. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity of Salvia verticcilata and effect on multidrug resistant bacteria by flow-cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekeli, Yener; Karpuz, Esra; Danahaliloglu, Hatice; Bucak, Serbay; Guzel, Yelda; Erdmann, Helmuth

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are of great importance for preventing oxidative stress that may cause several degenerative diseases. Studies have indicated phytochemicals have high free-radical scavenging activity, which helps to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. The aim of the present study is the determination of antioxidant properties, polyphenolic content and multidrug resistant bacteria of Salvia verticcilata L. Methanol was used as the extraction solvent. The total phenolic content was calculated using Folin-Ciocalteau method and phenolic composition was determined by HPLC. The radical scavenging activity of plant was evaluated in vitro based on the reduction of the stable DPPH free radical. The reducing capacity was identified by using the FRAP method. The ability of Salvia verticcilata L. to increase the permeability of multidrug resistant bacterial cells was conducted by flow cytometric assay on Listeria innocua and E-coli. The amount of total phenolics was found to be 347.5 mg GA/g extract. The IC50 value and FRAP assay are 0.61, and 0.944 respectively, Free radical scavenging effect and FRAP values are less than synthetic antioxidant compounds (BHA and BHT). Eight phenolic compounds were found in Salvia verticcilata L. Intense concentration of S. verticcilata L. has destroyed 97 % of living cells for Listeria innocua and 94.86% for E-coli. This study shows that methanolic extracts of Salvia verticcilata L. is a potential source of natural antioxidants and antimicrobial agent and can form the basis for pharmacological studies.

  9. The inhibition the Tet(K) efflux pump of tetracycline resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis by essential oils from three Salvia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovanová, R; Mezovská, J; Vaverková, Š; Mikulášová, M

    2015-07-01

    The inhibition of efflux pumps is an attractive and powerful response to the emergence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Essential oils (EOs) from Salvia fruticosa, Salvia officinalis and Salvia sclarea reduce the minimal inhibition concentration of tetracycline, decrease efflux of antibiotic and decrease the expression of tet(K) gene in tetracycline resistant clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis. In all the cases S. fruticosa was the best one. By using checkerboard and time-killing methods, we found synergistic interactions of EOs with tetracycline. Our data from molecular and functional analyses of inhibitory effect of Salvia's essential oils, namely from S. fruticosa, on Tet(K) pump of Staphylococcus epidermidis and from modulatory studies may be the starting point for consecutive study of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters and their perspective use in combination therapy. Combination of antibiotic with efflux pump inhibitor would be expected to re-establish susceptibility of the bacteria to antibiotics that became no longer effective due to bacterial resistance through the efflux pumps. The inhibition of an efflux pump can potentially improve the clinical efficacy of an antibiotic and simultaneously decrease the selection of resistant mutants. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Potential use of DNA barcoding for the identification of Salvia based on cpDNA and nrDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zhao, Hong-Xia; Wang, Long; Wang, Tao; Yang, Rui-Wu; Wang, Xiao-Li; Zhou, Yong-Hong; Ding, Chun-Bang; Zhang, Li

    2013-10-10

    An effective DNA marker for authenticating the genus Salvia was screened using seven DNA regions (rbcL, matK, trnL-F, and psbA-trnH from the chloroplast genome, and ITS, ITS1, and ITS2 from the nuclear genome) and three combinations (rbcL+matK, psbA-trnH+ITS1, and trnL-F+ITS1). The present study collected 232 sequences from 27 Salvia species through DNA sequencing and 77 sequences within the same taxa from the GenBank. The discriminatory capabilities of these regions were evaluated in terms of PCR amplification success, intraspecific and interspecific divergence, DNA barcoding gaps, and identification efficiency via a tree-based method. ITS1 was superior to the other marker for discriminating between species, with an accuracy of 81.48%. The three combinations did not increase species discrimination. Finally, we found that ITS1 is a powerful barcode for identifying Salvia species, especially Salvia miltiorrhiza. © 2013.

  11. Chemical composition and antifungal activities of essential oils of Satureja thymbra L. and Salvia pomifera ssp. calycina (Sm.) Hayek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glamoclija, J.; Sokovic, M.; Vukojevic, J.; Milenkovic, I.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2006-01-01

    This work covers the chemical composition and antifungal activities of essential oils isolated from savory (Satureja thymbra) and sage (Salvia pomifera ssp. calycina) analyzed using GC/MS. The main components of S. thymbra oil were gamma-terpinene (23.2%) and carvacrol (48.5%). The main components

  12. Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Activities of Salvia Officinalis L. Extract on Human Lymphoma and Leukemia Cells by Induction of Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Azadmehr

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Salvia officinalis L., also known as Maryam Goli, is one of the native plants used to Persian medicinal herbs. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activities of a standardized crude methanol extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L., on a non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma (Raji and human leukemic monocyte lymphoma (U937, Human acute myelocytic leukemia (KG-1A and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial (HUVEC cell lines. Methods: The effect of methanolic extract on the inhibition of cell proliferation and cytotoxic activity was evaluated by Dye exclusion and Micro culture tetrazolium test (MTT cytotoxicity assay. Cell death ELISA was employed to quantify the nucleosome production result from nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and determined whether the mechanism involves induction of apoptosis or necrosis. Results: The present results demonstrated that methanolic extract at 50 to 800 μg/ml dose and time-dependently suppressed the proliferation of KG-1A, U937 and Raji cells by more than 80% (p800 Ag/ml. Nucleosome productions in KG-1A, Raji and U937 cells were significantly increased respectively upon the treatment of Salvia officinalis L. extract. Conclusion: The Salvia officinalis L. extract was found dose and time-dependently inhibits the proliferation of lymphoma and leukemic cells possibly via an apoptosis-dependent pathway.

  13. Inhibitory and cytotoxic activities of salvia officinalis L. Extract on human lymphoma and leukemia cells by induction of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Shahneh, Fatemeh; Valiyari, Samira; Baradaran, Behzad; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Bandehagh, Ali; Azadmehr, Abass; Hajiaghaee, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Salvia officinalis L., also known as Maryam Goli, is one of the native plants used to Persian medicinal herbs. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activities of a standardized crude methanol extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L., on a non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma (Raji) and human leukemic monocyte lymphoma (U937), Human acute myelocytic leukemia (KG-1A) and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial (HUVEC) cell lines. The effect of methanolic extract on the inhibition of cell proliferation and cytotoxic activity was evaluated by Dye exclusion and Micro culture tetrazolium test (MTT) cytotoxicity assay. Cell death ELISA was employed to quantify the nucleosome production result from nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and determined whether the mechanism involves induction of apoptosis or necrosis. The present results demonstrated that methanolic extract at 50 to 800 μg/ml dose and time-dependently suppressed the proliferation of KG-1A, U937 and Raji cells by more than 80% (p800 Ag/ml). Nucleosome productions in KG-1A, Raji and U937 cells were significantly increased respectively upon the treatment of Salvia officinalis L. extract. The Salvia officinalis L. extract was found dose and time-dependently inhibits the proliferation of lymphoma and leukemic cells possibly via an apoptosis-dependent pathway.

  14. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content in Different Salvia officinalis L. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Viorica Pop (Cuceu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants to improve health is an ancient practice and in recent years it has been observed an increasing interest of scientific researchers for the study of plants with biological properties and active principles responsible for their therapeutic effects. Salvia officinalis L. is considered the queen of herbs and belongs to the Lamiaceae (Labiatae family. Due to the increasing interest in plants health benefits, the aim of the present study was to characterize various extracts of Romanian sage regarding their content in compounds with antioxidant activity. Three different techniques and five solvents were used for extraction of bioactive compounds from Salvia officinalis L. The total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of plant extract were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method and respectively by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Methanolic extract exhibited the highest content in phenolic compound (1974.89 mg GAE/100g dw as well ass the strongest antioxidant capacity (85.12%.

  15. Phytochemical Characterization and Biological Evaluation of the Aqueous and Supercritical Fluid Extracts from Salvia sclareoides Brot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batista Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants belonging to the genus Salvia (Lamiaceae are known to have a wide range of biological properties. In this work, extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Salvia sclareoides Brot. were evaluated to investigate their chemical composition, toxicity, bioactivity, and stability under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions. The composition of the supercritical fluid extract was determined by GC and GC-MS, while the identification of the infusion constituents was performed by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS. The in vitro cytotoxicity of both extracts (0-2 mg/mL was evaluated in Caco-2 cell lines by the MTT assay. The anti-inflammatory and anticholinesterase activities were determined through the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and acetylcholinesterase enzymes, while β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching test and the DPPH assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. The infusion inhibited cyclooxygenase-1 (IC50 = 271.0 μg/mL, and acetylcholinesterase (IC50 = 487.7 μg/ mL enzymes, also demonstrated significant antioxidant properties, as evaluated by the DPPH (IC50 = 10.4 μg/mL and β-carotene/linoleic acid (IC50 = 30.0 μg/mL assays. No remarkable alterations in the composition or in the bioactivities of the infusion were observed after in vitro digestion, which supports the potential of S. sclareoides as a source of bioactive ingredients with neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

  16. [SIC algorithm based model updating for near infrared analysis of Salvia miltiorrhiza alcohol extraction process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shuai-Yun; Xu, Bing; Yang, Chan; Cui, Xiang-Long; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2016-03-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for offline monitoring of alcohol extraction process of Salvia miltiorrhiza was investigated, with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of value for reference. The partial least squares method was adopted to establish the tanshinone ⅡA quantitative calibration model, so as to detect extraction process of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Because the differences between batches of raw materials may endanger the robustness of the original model, the simple interval calculation (SIC) was applied in updating the near-infrared quantitative model for traditional Chinese medicine extraction process for the first time, and compared with Random Selection (RS) method. SIC's final updating results showed that root mean square with cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and residual predictive deviation (RPD) of tanshinone ⅡA were 0.006 8 g•L⁻¹, 0.005 4 g•L⁻¹ and 3.14, respectively; but RS' final updating results showed that RMSECV, RMSEP and RPD were 0.006 4 g•L⁻¹, 0.006 8 g•L⁻¹ and 2.50, respectively. This study suggested that SIC is superior to RS, and provided a research foundation for quality control and monitoring of S. miltiorrhiza extraction process in the future. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Triterpenoids from Salvia argentea var. aurasiaca (Pomel) Batt. & Trab. and their chemotaxonomic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhal, Hichem; Kabouche, Ahmed; Alabdul Magid, Abdulmagid; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Harakat, Dominique; Kabouche, Zahia

    2014-06-01

    Ten triterpenoids were isolated from the exudate of Salvia argentea L. var. aurasiaca (Pomel) Batt. & Trab. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS analyses as 11α-methoxyurs-12-ene-1β,3β,15α-triol (1), urs-12-ene-1β,3β,11α,15α-tetraol (2), 11α-methoxyurs-12-ene-1β,3β-diol (3), 1β,3β,15α-trihydroxy-11α-methoxyurs-12-en-28-al (4), 1β,3β,15α-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-al (5), urs-12-ene-1β,3β,15α,28-tetraol (6), 11α-methoxyurs-12-ene-1β,3β,28-triol (7), 13β,28-epoxyurs-12-ene-1β,3β-diol (8), urs-12-ene-3β,7β,15α,28-tetraol (9) and olean-12-ene-3β,7β,15α,28-tetraol (10). A chemotaxonomic survey of the triterpenoids of Salvia species show that triterpenoids from the exudate of S. argentea var. aurasiaca (Pomel) Batt. & Trab., provide some features, such as hydroxylation at C-15, and hydroxylation at C-7. On this basis, S. argentea L. var. aurasiaca (Pomel) Batt. & Trab., is quite different from S. argentea L. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of dexamethasone and Salvia miltiorrhiza on multiple organs in rats with severe acute pancreatitis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jing-min; Zhang, Xi-ping; Wu, Cheng-jun; Wu, Di-jiong; Yan, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of action of dexamethasone and Salvia miltiorrhiza on multiple organs in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Methods: The rats were divided into sham-operated, model control, dexamethasone treated, and Salvia miltiorrhiza treated groups. At 3, 6, and 12 h after operation, the mortality rate of different groups, pathological changes, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) protein expression levels in multiple organs (the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and lungs), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) protein levels (only in the liver), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) protein levels (only in the lung), and terminal deoxynucleotidy transferase mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining expression levels, as well as the serum contents of amylase, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine (CREA) were observed. Results: The mortality rate of the dexamethasone treated group was significantly lower than that of the model control group (PSalvia miltiorrhiza treated group (PSalvia miltiorrhiza treated group were significantly lower than those in the dexamethasone treated group (PSalvia miltiorrhiza can reduce the inflammatory reaction, regulate apoptosis, and thus protect multiple organs of rats with SAP. PMID:23125085

  19. Salvia miltiorrhiza: A Potential Red Light to the Development of Cardiovascular 
Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Ma, Rufeng; Liu, Chenyue; Liu, Haixia; Zhu, Ruyuan; Guo, Shuzhen; Tang, Minke; Li, Yu; Niu, Jianzhao; Fu, Min; Gao, Sihua; Zhang, Dongwei

    2017-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, also known as Danshen in Chinese, has been widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in China and other Asia countries. Here, we summarize literatures of the historical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) interpretation of the action of Salvia miltiorrhiza, its use in current clinical trials, its main phytochemical constituents and its pharmacological findings by consulting Pubmed, China Knowledge Resource Integrated, China Science and Technology Journal, and the Web of Science Databases. Since 2000, 39 clinical trials have been identified that used S. miltiorrhiza in TCM prescriptions alone or with other herbs for the treatment of patients with CVD. More than 200 individual compounds have been isolated and characterized from S. miltiorrhiza, which exhibited various pharmacological activities targeting different pathways for the treatment of CVD in various animal and cell models. The isolated compounds may provide new perspectives in alternative treatment regimes and reveal novel chemical scaffolds for the development of anti-CVD drugs. Meanwhile, there are also some rising concerns of the potential side effects and drug-drug interactions of this plant. The insights gained from this study will help us to better understanding of the actions of this herb for management of cardiovascular disorders. As an herb of red root, S. miltiorrhiza will act as a potential red light to prevent the development of CVD. PMID:27748194

  20. Apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects of Salvia triloba extract in prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Harika; Bozkurt, Emir

    2016-03-01

    Plants, due to their remarkable composition, are considered as natural resources of bioactive compounds with specific biological activities. Salvia genus (Lamiaceae) has been used around the world in complementary medicine since ancient times. We investigated the cytotoxic, apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects of methanolic Salvia triloba extract (STE) in prostate cancer cells. Cell viability was evaluated by XTT; apoptosis was investigated by DNA fragmentation and caspase 3/7 activity assays. Changes in the angiogenic cytokine levels were investigated by human angiogenesis antibody array. Scratch assay was used to determine the cell motility. STE induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner in both cancer cells; however, it was not cytotoxic to normal cells. Cell motility was reduced in PC-3, DU-145 and HUVEC cells by STE treatment. ANG, ENA-78, bFGF, EGF, IGF-1 and VEGF-D levels were significantly decreased by -2.9, -3.7, -1.7, -1.7, -2.0 and -1.8 fold in STE-treated DU-145 cells, however, ANG, IL-8, LEP, RANTES, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and VEGF levels were significantly decreased by -5.1, -2.0, -2.4, -3.1, -1.5, -2.0 and -2.5 fold in PC-3 cells. These data suggest that STE might be a promising candidate for anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic treatment of prostate cancer.

  1. [Poisoning with oleander leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, G A; Mombelli, G

    1990-04-21

    After ingestion of seven leaves of oleander (Nerium oleander) in a suicide attempt, a 37-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with symptoms of digitalis intoxication. The serum digoxin level on arrival was 5.69 nmol/l. The course was uneventful. The usefulness of digoxin radioimmunoassay to demonstrate poisoning with oleander (but not to predict the degree of toxicity) and the potential use of digoxin-specific Fab-antibody fragments in this situation are discussed.

  2. Chemical classification of the essential oils of the Iranian Salvia species in comparison with their botanical taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassbi, Amir Reza; Asadollahi, Mojtaba; Masroor, Mahdi; Schuman, Meredith C; Mehdizadeh, Zeynab; Soleimani, Mahboobeh; Miri, Ramin

    2012-07-01

    The essential oils of eight Salvia species collected from different localities in Iran were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The analytical results were compared with those previously published for related Iranian sage species in order to identify chemical markers for these species. Salvia eremophila, S. hypoleuca, and S. reuteriana are endemic, while S. atropatana, S. chloroleuca, S. santolinifolia, S. aegyptiaca, and S. macrosiphon also grow wild in neighboring countries. We categorized the Iranian Salvia species into four main chemotypes according to their essential-oil constituents: those which are dominated by 1) monoterpenes, 2) mono- and sesquiterpenes, or 3) sesquiterpenes as the major constituents, and 4) those containing low-molecular-weight acids, aldehydes, and esters, and green-leaf volatiles (GLVs). Likely due to the chemical diversity of different Salvia chemotypes, this categorization was supported by principal component analysis (PCA) for the group sampled here, but not for the values reported in the literature. We identified the following chemical markers: α-pinene, β-pinene, 1,8-cineol, linalool, and borneol in monoterpene-rich species, or β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, spathulenol, and caryophyllene oxide in sesquiterpene-rich species. Among these, α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and germacrene D are the most common and abundant in the Salvia species investigated. In accordance with their close biological taxonomy, the chemical similarity of the essential oils of S. santolinifolia and S. eremophila is so high that we may consider them chemically identical. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  3. Comparison of protocatechuic aldehyde in Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and corresponding pharmacological sera from normal and fibrotic rats by high performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tao; Yao, Xi-Xian

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effect of protocatechuic aldehyde on the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Then normal and fibrotic drug sera were extracted from rats. The effects of protocatechuic aldehyde, raw Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and drug sera of Salvia miltiorrhiza on HSC growth were determined by CCK-8. The protocatechuic aldehyde was separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in a Alltima C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-4% glacial acetic acid solution (gradient elution) at the wavelength of 281 nm. RESULTS: Protocatechuic aldehyde, raw Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and drug sera of Salvia miltiorrhiza were found to have inhibitory effects on proliferation of rat HSCs. Raw Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza had a stronger inhibitory effect than the drug sera. The fibrotic drug sera showed a higher suppressive effect than the normal drug sera (P Salvia miltiorrhiza and its corresponding drug sera. The average recovery (n = 6) was 110.5% for raw Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge, 102% for normal drug sera and 105.2% for fibrotic drug sera. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 0.37%, 1.96% and 1.51%, respectively (n = 6). The contents of protocatechuic aldehyde were 0.22%, 0.15% and 0.19%, respectively (n = 6) (P Salvia miltiorrhiza, normal drug sera and fibrotic drug sera, respectively. The samples were stable for 6 d. CONCLUSION: Protocatechuic aldehyde can inhibit the growth of HSCs. HPLC is suitable for the determination of virtual bioactive components of Chinese herbal medicines in vitro. PMID:16610020

  4. Diversidad y distribución del género Salvia (Lamiaceae en Michoacán, México Diversity and distribution of the genus Salvia (Lamiaceae in Michoacan, Mexico

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    Guadalupe Cornejo-Tenorio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la riqueza y distribución de las especies de Salvia en los municipios del estado de Michoacán con datos florísticos y ecológicos para cada especie. Con base en trabajo de campo y revisión de ejemplares depositados en los herbarios CIMI, EBUM, ENCB, F, IEB, INIF, MEXU y MO, se registraron 64 especies nativas de Salvia en Michoacán. El 67.2% de éstas son endémicas de México y 4 (6.2% del área de estudio. Salvia iodantha Fernald y S. mexicana L. fueron las especies con más ejemplares herborizados (140 y 134, respectivamente. Los bosques que albergan el mayor número de especies (40 fueron el de Pinus-Quercus y el de Quercus, en un intervalo altitudinal de 1 500 a 3 000 m. Morelia fue el municipio con más especies registradas (34. En cuanto a las formas de crecimiento, predominan las hierbas perennes o arbustos (86%. El 76.5% de las especies tiene flores azules y/o moradas. La floración se presenta todo el año, con una actividad máxima en octubre. Se sugiere que en un futuro cercano se incremente la exploración florística del género Salvia en Michoacán, especialmente en sus áreas protegidas y en la sierra Madre del Sur.This paper presents the richness and distribution by municipality of Salvia species in the state of Michoacán, floristic and ecological data are included. Based on herbarium specimens deposited in CIMI, EBUM, ENCB, F, IEB, INIF, MEXU, and MO, as well as collecting trips, 64 native species of Salvia were recognized in the study area. Endemic species to Mexico and Michoacán reached 67.2% and 6.2%, respectively. Salvia iodantha Fernald and S. mexicana L. were species with most herbarium specimens (140 and 134, respectively. The vegetation types with most species (40 were Pinus-Quercus and Quercus forests. The highest number of species occurred between 1 500 and 3 000 m. The municipality with the most Salvia species recorded was Morelia (34 species. Perennial herbs and shrubs were the most common growth

  5. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2002-01-01

    Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'*) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that, since last year, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2002 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they are still participants in the schem...

  6. Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22 B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the ...

  7. Sabbatical Leaves in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, August W.; Thompson, Robert E.

    This document presents a status report of various sabbatical leave policies and plans at 386 higher education institutions across the U.S. The report provides information that can serve as a guide for institutions that do not presently provide sabbatical leaves of absence or that can be compared with existing sabbatical leave plans. It was found…

  8. Salvia officinalis L. extract and its new food antioxidant formulations induce apoptosis through mitochondrial/caspase pathway in leukemia L1210 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantová, Soňa; Hudec, Roman; Sekretár, Stanislav; Kučerák, Juraj; Melušová, Martina

    2014-09-01

    Salvia officinalis, L. (Lamiaceae) is one of the most widespread herbal species used in the area of human health and in the food-processing industry. Salvia and its extracts are known to be a rich source of antioxidants. As shown previously, the crude ethanolic extract of salvia (SE) exerts lower anti-oxidative properties in lard compared to the new salvia food formulations No. 1 (SF1; 32% of SE + 68% of the emulsifier Dimodan S-T) and No. 2 (SF2; 32% of SE + 68% of the emulsifier Topcithin 50). The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effects of the SE and its food formulations SF1 and SF2 on the toxicity and/or proliferation of L1210 leukemia cells. We found that SE and both SF1 and SF2 demonstrated different concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxic/antiproliferative cellular effects already within the first 24 h of the treatment. However, SE was nearly 10 times more effective than the new salvia food formulations SF1 and SF2. We investigated partially also the molecular mechanisms lying behind the action of SE, SF1 and SF2 induced apoptosis in our cell model. We found an apparent involvement of the mitochondrial/caspase-dependent pathway in the described processes. Nevertheless, further investigation is needed before salvia extract and its new antioxidant formulations can be included among the potential food antioxidants with protective properties against cancer.

  9. Antihypertensive activity of Salvia elegans Vahl. (Lamiaceae): ACE inhibition and angiotensin II antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Badillo, Fidel Hernández; González-Cortazar, Manases; Tortoriello, Jaime; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel

    2010-07-20

    Salvia elegans Vahl. (Lamiaceae), recognized with the popular name of "mirto" is widely used in Mexico for healing purposes, and also them as antihypertensive treatment. The high prevalence of this illness and the side effects of antihypertensive drugs conducted us to the evaluation of the Salvia elegans extract on angiotensin II action. The acute response of blood pressure to angiotensin II administration was measured in mice. We also tested in vitro the inhibitory effect on angiotensin convertase enzyme. Additionally, characterization of the pharmacological effect of the extract fraction was obtained. We obtained dose-response curve for the administration of complete extract and extract fractions. Due to the hydroalcoholic extract (SeHA) treatment blood pressure decreased significantly from systolic dose of 0.75 mg kg(-1) (p<0.05) and even had an antihypertensive effect that was greater than that treatment with losartan. SeHA extract decreased the E(max) of the AG II hypertensive effect by about 20% in both systolic and diastolic pressures, treatment with losartan also decreased the same parameter between 6% and 8% for systolic and diastolic pressures, respectively. Fractions SeF8 and SeF8-8 showed similar levels of AG II ED(50) for both pressures compared with losartan, these fractions showed major compounds with maximum absorbance peaks at 221, 289 and 330 nm typical of flavonoids. In the inhibition assay the activity of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), the extract SeHA showed percentage inhibition (%IACE) of 50.27+/-5.09% (n=5). SeBuOH fraction is found to have greater inhibitory capacity of achieving a IACE 78.40+/-2.24% (n=5), which was similar to the values obtained in the presence of the SeF8-22 fraction (82.61+/-1.74%) and lisinopril (87.18+/-1.16%). The changes in the value of K(M) suggest that components of the extracts and fractions were recognized by the enzyme's active site. The main compounds of the fractions SeBuOH, SeF8-22 were by flavonoid

  10. The Effects of Medicinal Plants of Melissa officinalis and Salvia officinalis on Primary Dysmenorrhea

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    R. Kalvandi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the common problems in women, especially in young women. Although dysmenorrhea is not life threatening , it can have ad-verse effect on quality of life and cause disability or ineffectiveness. With regard to the young society suffering from it, various treatments are offered for dysmenorrhea one of which is medicinal plants. This study investigated the effect of Melissa officinalis and Salvia officinalis on primary dysmenorrhea Materials & Methods: This study was a clinical trial study performed on 50 girls with dys-menorrheal taking Salvia officinalis as infusion for five days before menstruation and five days during the menstruation. The consumption of the plants was repeated in the next two periods in the same way. Severity of pain, blooding duration and dysmenorrhea duration were evaluated with VAS (Visual Analog Scale Questionnaire in their next two cycles. Data were analyzed by chi-square, t-test and WILCOXON statistical test. Results: The results of this study showed that after using the plants, pain severity and pain duration significantly reduced P<0.01so that pain severity decreased from 6.30 to 3.94 and 3.24, (on a scale of 1 to 10 after taking the plants in the first and second periods ,respectively. The maximum pain duration before the treatment was 1 to 6 h (28.6% and this number reduced to less than 1 h after using these medicinal plants (38.0%. Mean of blooding duration was 6.36 days before the treatment. After the first and second duration, this value reached 6.48 and 6.34 days, respectively. It was determined that taking oral seda-tives reduced from 56% to 26% and 22% after the first and second periods, respectively. Fi-nally, after the second period, 42% of the girls reported high rates of satisfaction because of using the medicinal plants. Conclusion: Generally, it was showed that Melissa officinalis and Salvia officinalis signifi-cantly reduced pain severity and pain

  11. Terpenoids, flavonoids and caffeic acid derivatives from Salvia viridis L. cvar. Blue Jeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungsimakan, Supattra; Rowan, Michael G

    2014-12-01

    Three diterpenoids, 1-oxomicrostegiol (1), viroxocin (2), viridoquinone (3), were isolated from the roots of Salvia viridis L. cvar. Blue Jeans. Five known diterpenoids, microstegiol (4), 7α-acetoxy-14-hydroxy-8,13-abietadiene-11,12-dione (5; 7-O-acetylhorminone tautomer), 7α,14-dihydroxy-8,13-abietadiene-11,12-dione (6; horminone tautomer), ferruginol and salvinolonyl 12-methyl ether (7) were also found in the roots together with 1-docosyl ferulate (8), and a mixture of 2-(4'-alkoxyphenyl) ethyl alkanoates (9). Two lupane triterpenoids, 2α-acetoxy-lup-20(29)-en-3β-ol (10), and 3β-acetoxy-lup-20(29)-en-2α-ol (11) were found in the aerial parts together with known compounds, lup-20(29)-ene-2α,3β-diol (12), ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol glucoside. A known phenylpropanoid, trans-verbascoside (or acteoside; 13), was the main constituent in the polar fraction of the aerial part, and it is now reported in the genus Salvia for the first time. Other polyphenolic compounds were cis-verbascoside (14), leucosceptoside A (15), martynoside (16), caffeic acid, 6-O-caffeoyl-glucose (18), rosmarinic acid, salidroside, luteolin-7-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-galactopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-galactopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside, and apigenin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside. The structures were determined by 1D-, 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS techniques. Compounds 6, 10, ferruginol, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid exhibited antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 775) with MIC 50 μM, 25 μM, 50 μM, 12.5 μM, 12.5 μM respectively. Ferruginol, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were also active against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6571), and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 2599) with MIC 12.5-50 μM. 4 was also active against S.aureus (ATCC 6571) with MIC 50 μM. These values are consistent with previous studies on the antimicrobial activity of Salvia diterpenoids. Copyright

  12. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L.) Gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi; Ciau-Solís, Norma; Rosado-Rubio, Gabriel; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2014-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submitted to fat extraction, producing two fractions: gum with fat (FCG) and gum partly defatted (PDCG). Proximal composition and physicochemical characterization showed these fractions to be different (P pseudoplastic type. PDCG had more viscosity than FCG. Chia seed is an excellent natural source of gum with good physicochemical and functional qualities, and is very promising for use in food industry. PMID:26904622

  13. Micropropagation of Salvia wagneriana Polak and hairy root cultures with rosmarinic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffoni, Barbara; Bertoli, Alessandra; Pistelli, Laura; Pistelli, Luisa

    2016-01-04

    Salvia wagneriana Polak is a tropical species native to Central America, well adapted to grow in the Mediterranean basin for garden decoration. Micropropagation has been assessed from axillary shoots of adult plants using a Murashige and Skoog basal medium, with the addition of 1.33-μM 6-benzylaminopurine for shoot proliferation; the subsequent rooting phase occurred in plant growth regulator-free medium. The plants were successfully acclimatised with high survival frequency. Hairy roots were induced after co-cultivation of leaf lamina and petiole fragments with Agrobacterium rhizogenes and confirmed by PCR. The establishment and proliferation of the selected HRD3 line were obtained in hormone-free liquid medium and the production of rosmarinic acid (RA) was evaluated after elicitation. The analysis of RA was performed by LC-ESI-DAD-MS in the hydroalcoholic extracts. The addition of casein hydrolysate increased the RA production, whereas no enrichment was observed after the elicitation with jasmonic acid.

  14. The anticancer properties of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuping; Guo, Jiajie; Bao, Jiaolin; Lu, Jinjian; Wang, Yitao

    2014-07-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen in Chinese) is a classical Huoxue Huayu (a traditional Chinese medical term means promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis) herb with 1000 years of clinical application. It mainly contains two groups of ingredients: the hydrophilic phenolic acids and the lipophilic tanshinones. Both groups have demonstrated multiple bioactivities, such as antioxidative stress, antiplatelet aggregation, anti-inflammation, among others. Recent data have demonstrated that its lipophilic compounds, especially the tanshinones, show potent anticancer activities both in vitro and in vivo. The anticancer effects of the hydrophilic phenolic acids have also been reported. Furthermore, tanshinones provide structural skeletons for chemical modifications, allowing for a series of derivatives of interests. This review provides a systematic summary of the anticancer profile and the underlying mechanisms of the bioactive compounds isolated from Danshen with special emphasis on tanshinones, aiming to bring new insights for further research and development of this ancient herb. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Chemical Analysis of the Herbal Medicine Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Danshen

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    Hanqing Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae et Rhizoma, known as Danshen in China, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines. Recently, there has been increasing scientific attention on Danshen for its remarkable bioactivities, such as promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, and clearing away heat. This review summarized the advances in chemical analysis of Danshen and its preparations since 2009. Representative established methods were reviewed, including spectroscopy, thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography (LC, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS, capillary electrophoresis, electrochemistry, and bioanalysis. Especially the analysis of polysaccharides in Danshen was discussed for the first time. Some proposals were also put forward to benefit quality control of Danshen.

  16. Volatile metabolites from Salvia fruticosa as antifungal agents in soilborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarokili, Danae; Tzakou, Olga; Loukis, Anargyros; Harvala, Catherine

    2003-05-21

    The volatile metabolites of Salvia fruticosa plants, growing wild in 15 localities scattered across Greece, were analyzed by means of GC and GC-MS. The essential oil content ranged from 0.69 to 4.68%, and the results of the analyses showed a noticeable variation in the amounts of the five main components [1,8-cineole, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone, camphor, and (E)-caryophyllene]. The antifungal activities of the essential oils from two localities, belonging in two different groups of cluster and principal component analysis, and their main components (1,8-cineole and camphor) were evaluated in vitro against five phytopathogenic fungi. Both oils were slightly effective against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi and Fusarium proliferatum, whereas against Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae the oils exhibited high antifungal activities.

  17. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oniga, Ilioara; Oprean, R; Toiu, Anca; Benedec, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative analysis of essential oils obtained from Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) cultivated in Romania is reported in this paper. The essential oils were obtained from fresh and dried material harvested from plants cultivated in Cluj (Romania) and from 2 commercial samples, by hydrodistillation. The essential oils were analysed by GS-MS. 12 compounds were found in each oil, 9 of them being common in all samples. The alpha-thujone was the major compound in all analysed oils (31.23-52.86%), followed by camphor and viridiflorol. Chemically, the oxygenated monoterpenes are present in highest quantity (49.78-79.2%). The monoterpenoid ketones' presence (á-thujone, â-thujone, camphor) in high amounts in the essential oils of Romanian sage may develop toxicity for these products and may limit their medicinal use.

  18. Application of enzymatic methods for chia (Salvia hispanica L oil extraction

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    Norma Ciau-Solís

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim was to evaluate the use of different enzymatic treatments on the oil extraction yield from Chia (Salvia hispanica L. seeds Methods. Enzymatic extraction was performed by treating of whole and degummed chia flours with different conditions of enzyme concentration, pH and temperature. Commercial enzymes were employed: Viscozyme LTM (endo-1,3 (4-betaglucanase derived from Aspergillus aculeatus, with 100 FBG g (Beta Glucanase-unit Fungal and Neutrase0.8LTM, neutral protease with 0.8 AU-NH/g of activity, derived from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Results. All treatments of enzymatic oil extraction were different (P <0.05 and the maximum oil yield obtained was 9.35%. Conclusion. Oil extraction using enzymatic methods is not a viable for chia seed

  19. Phoma glomerata D14: An Endophytic Fungus from Salvia miltiorrhiza That Produces Salvianolic Acid C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuqing; Zhai, Xin; Shu, Zhiheng; Dong, Ruifang; Ming, Qianliang; Qin, Luping; Zheng, Chengjian

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, more and more researches focus on endophytic fungi derived from important medicinal plants, which can produce the same bioactive metabolites as their host plants. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is a traditional medicinal plant with versatile pharmacological effects. But the wild plant resource has been in short supply due to the overcollection for bioactive metabolites. Our study was therefore conducted to isolate endophytic fungi from S. miltiorrhiza and get candidate strains that produce the same bioactive compounds as the plant. As a result, an endophyte that produces salvianolic acid C was obtained and identified as Phoma glomerata D14 based on its morphology and internal transcribed spacer analysis. Salvianolic acid C was found present in both the mycelia and fermentation broth. Our study indicates that the endophytic fungus has significant industrial potential to meet the pharmaceutical demands for salvianolic acid C in a cost-effective, easily accessible, and reproducible way.

  20. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activities of the Essential Oil of Salvia chrysophylla Staph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Duru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the aerial parts of Salvia chrysophylla Staph (Lamiaceae, endemic to Turkey, was investigated by using GC and GC-MS. Fifty-four of 55 components, represented 99.52% of the total oil were identified. The major components of the essential oil were found to be α-terpinenyl acetate (36.31%, β-caryophyllene (15.29%, linalool (8.12% and β-elemene (4.26%. The antioxidant activity of the oil was investigated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid tests. Anticholinesterase activity was screened against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase which are the chief enzymes of Alzheimer’s diseases. The essential oil showed weak antioxidant activity. However, at 1 mg/mL concentration, the essential oil exhibited mild acetylcholinesterase (52.5±2.0% and modarate butyrylcholinesterase (76.5±2.7% inhibitory activity.

  1. [Effects of plant growth regulator uniconazole on plant morphology and biomass allocation of Salvia miltiorrhiza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-rui; Zhao, Zhi-gang; Hou, Jun-ling; Wang, Wen-quan; Song, Yan; Yan, Bin-bin; Jin, Yan-qing

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we use pot experiment to evaluate the effect of plant growth regulator on plant morphology and biomass allocation of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Different concentrations of uniconazole were supplied to S. miltioohiza by means of foliar spray. Height, breadth and stem diameter were measured dynamically, the biomass of leaf, stem, flower and fruit, root biomass and biomass ratio were also examined at the harvest time. Owing to the treatment, plant morphology showed significant changes, the height had been greatly reduced and the breadth decreased largely. Meanwhile, the biomass allocation changed too. The biomass ratio of leaf and stem had been notably reduced while the biomass ratio of root had been increased remarkably. It appears that foliar application of uniconazole during vigorous growth period in S. miltioohiza has dramatic effect on dwarfing plant and improving resistant to lodging. This measure could also be applied to condensed cultivation of S. miltioohiza to increase production.

  2. Bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebel R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the chemical investigation and cytotoxic activity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco. This plant was collected from the Beni-Mellal Mountain in Morocco and belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is named in Morocco “Salmia”. The endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. was isolated from the tissues of the stem of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by PCR. The crude organic extract of the fungal strain was proven to be active when tested for cytotoxicity against L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Chemical investigation of the secondary metabolites showed that cochliodinol is the main component beside isocochliodinol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined on the basis of NMR analysis (1H, 13C, COSY and HMBC as well as by mass spectrometry using ESI (Electron Spray Ionisation as source.

  3. Extracellular localization of the diterpene sclareol in clary sage (Salvia sclarea L., Lamiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Caissard

    Full Text Available Sclareol is a high-value natural product obtained by solid/liquid extraction of clary sage (Salvia sclarea L. inflorescences. Because processes of excretion and accumulation of this labdane diterpene are unknown, the aim of this work was to gain knowledge on its sites of accumulation in planta. Samples were collected in natura or during different steps of the industrial process of extraction (steam distillation and solid/liquid extraction. Samples were then analysed with a combination of complementary analytical techniques (gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer, polarized light microscopy, environmental scanning electron microscopy, two-photon fluorescence microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy. According to the literature, it is hypothesized that sclareol is localized in oil pockets of secretory trichomes. This study demonstrates that this is not the case and that sclareol accumulates in a crystalline epicuticular form, mostly on calyces.

  4. NMR analysis and crystal structure of hydroxyclerodanes from Mexican Salvia species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alfredo; Ortiz-Pastrana, Naytzé; Bedolla-García, Brenda Y.; Toscano, Rubén A.; Bautista, Elihú

    2017-08-01

    NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of seven clerodanes from Mexican Salvia species was performed. We focused on clerodanes with tertiary hydroxyl group at C-4, C-8, and C-10, in which the establishment of absolute configuration around these chiral centers is nontrivial and the 13C NMR signals can be misassigned. In addition, the analysis by 1H NMR in aprotic solvent allowed us to establish a common pattern that correlates the chemical shift with the position of the hydroxyl groups, which constitute a good methodology for future structural elucidation of these kinds of compounds. The obtained data allowed us to establish the absolute configuration of five of these diterpenes and the structural revision of salvimicrophyllin D (7).

  5. In vitro cultures of Salvia officinalis L. as a source of antioxidant compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Grzegorczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of carnosic acid, carnosol and rosmarinic acid in different materials from differentiated (multiple shoot cultures and regenerated plants and undifferentiated (callus and cell suspension in vitro cultures of Salvia officinalis were determined by HPLC. The results suggested that diterpenoid (carnosic acid and carnosol production is closely related to shoot differentiation. The highest diterpenoid yield (11.4 mg g-1 for carnosic acid and 1.1 mg g-1 for carnosol was achieved in shoots of 10-week-old micropropagated plants. The levels were comparable to those found in shoots of naturally growing plants. Undifferentiated callus and cell suspension cultures produced only very low amounts of carnosol (ca. 0.05 mg g-1 of dry weight. In contrast, content of rosmarinic acid in callus and suspension cultures as well as shoots growing in vitro and in vivo was similar and ranged between 11.2 and 18.6 mg g-1 of dry weight.

  6. The roots of Salvia rhytidea: a rich source of biologically active diterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassbi, Amir Reza; Eghtesadi, Farrokh; Hazeri, Nourallah; Ma'sumi, Hashem; Valizadeh, Jafar; Chandran, Jima N; Schneider, Bernd; Baldwin, Ian T

    2017-02-01

    Sahandinone (1), 12-deoxysalvipisone (2), miltirone (3), 7α-acetoxyroyleanone (4), and labda-7,14-dien-13-ol (5) were isolated from the roots of Salvia rhytidea Benth. (Lamiaceae). Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic analyses including EIMS and NMR. The 13C NMR spectroscopic data were revised for the quaternary carbons of both 1 and 3 with the help of HMBC spectra in respect to the spectral data previously reported in the literature. Compounds 1 and 3, two very potent anticancer agents, were isolated in high yields from the roots of the plant. The biological activities of the plants' constituents were reported in the literature as antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antimalarial are discussed in this article.

  7. Analysis of Active Components in Salvia Miltiorrhiza Injection Based on Vascular Endothelial Cell Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Jie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation analysis based on chromatograms and pharmacological activities is essential for understanding the effective components in complex herbal medicines. In this report, HPLC and measurement of antioxidant properties were used to describe the active ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza injection (SMI. HPLC results showed that tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, protocatechuic acid and their metabolites in rat serum may contribute to the efficacy of SMI. Assessment of antioxidant properties indicated that differences in the composition of serum powder of SMI caused differences in vascular endothelial cell protection. When bivariate correlation was carried out it was found that salvianolic acid B, tanshinol and protocatechuic aldehyde were active components of SMI because they were correlated to antioxidant properties.

  8. New microsatellite markers for Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) and cross-amplification in closely related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosavljević, Ivan; Jakse, Jernej; Javornik, Branka; Satovic, Zlatko; Liber, Zlatko

    2011-11-01

    Microsatellite primers were identified to study the genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and relationships of common sage and closely related species. Nine novel polymorphic trinucleotide microsatellite loci were identified for Salvia officinalis. A total of 127 alleles were observed. The observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.375 to 0.880 and from 0.624 to 0.931, respectively. Nine new and 11 previously published microsatellite primers were tested for cross-amplification. The species with the most successful cross-amplification was S. fruticosa. The nine new microsatellite markers will be useful in genetic studies of wild and cultivated populations of common sage and are potentially useful in genetic studies of closely related species.

  9. Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in Algeria: Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serakta, M; Djerrou, Z; Mansour-Djaalab, H; Kahlouche-Riachi, F; Hamimed, S; Trifa, W; Belkhiri, A; Edikra, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were compared with three controls : CRL1 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes, CRL2 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of hydroalcoholic solvent, CRL3 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of Glucantim as a reference drug in the management of leishmaniasis. The results showed that both J. regia and L. inermis extracts reduced the promastigotes number significantly (Pofficinalis showed a total inhibition of the Leishmania major growth.

  10. Salvia fruticosa Induces Vasorelaxation In Rat Isolated Thoracic Aorta: Role of the PI3K/Akt/eNOS/NO/cGMP Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M Akhtar; Samaha, Ali A; Ballan, Samar; Saleh, Alaaeldin I; Iratni, Rabah; Eid, Ali H

    2017-04-06

    Salvia fruticosa (SF) Mill. is traditionally used for its antihypertensive actions. However, little is known about its pharmacologic and molecular mechanisms of action. Here we determined the effects of an ethanolic extract of SF leaves on rings of isolated thoracic aorta from Sprague-Dawley rats. Our results show that SF extract increased nitric oxide production and relaxed endothelium-intact rings in a dose-dependent (0.3 µg/ml-1 mg/ml) manner, and the maximum arterial relaxation (Rmax) was significantly reduced with endothelium denudation. Pretreatment of endothelium-intact rings with L-NAME (a non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, 100 µM), or ODQ (an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase, 10 µM) significantly diminished SF-mediated vasorelaxation. Furthermore, SF induced Akt phosphorylation as well as increased cGMP levels in rings treated with increasing doses of SF. Prior exposure to PI3K inhibitors, wortmannin (0.1 µM) or LY294002 (10 µM), decreased cGMP accumulation and attenuated the SF-induced vasorelaxation by approximately 50% (Rmax). SF-evoked relaxation was not affected by indomethacin, verapamil, glibenclamide, tetraethylammonium, pyrilamine or atropine. Taken together, our results indicate that SF induces endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation through the PI3K/Akt/eNOS/NO/sGC/cGMP signaling pathway. Our data illustrate the health-orientated benefits of consuming SF which may act as an antihypertensive agent to reduce the burden of cardiovascular complications.

  11. Improved glycemic control and lipid profile in hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic patients consuming Salvia officinalis L. leaf extract: a randomized placebo. Controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianbakht, S; Dabaghian, F Hashem

    2013-10-01

    Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) leaf extract in the treatment of hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic patients. Randomized placebo-controlled parallel group study. Diabetes Clinic (Karaj City, Alborz Province of Iran). The efficacy and safety of taking S. officinalis leaf extract (one 500 mg capsule t.i.d. for 3 months) in treatment of 40 hyperlipidemic (hypercholesterolemic and/or hypertriglyceridemic) type 2 diabetic patients were evaluated and compared with the placebo group (n=40). Fasting blood levels of glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C (low density lipoprotein cholesterol), HDL-C (high density lipoprotein cholesterol), SGOT (serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase), SGPT (serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase) and creatinine. The extract lowered fasting glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C but increased HDL-C compared to baseline at endpoint. Percent difference mean (95% confidence interval) between the extract and placebo groups in terms of effects on fasting glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and HDL-C at endpoint were 32.2 (26.5, 37.9), 22.7 (16.8, 28.6), 16.9 (9.7, 24.1), 56.4 (36.1, 76.7), 35.6 (29.9, 41.3) and 27.6 (15.8, 39.4) (P=0.001, P=0.01, P=0.01, P=0.009, P0.05). No adverse effects were reported. S. officinalis leaves may be safe and have anti-hyperglycemic and lipid profile improving effects in hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploring triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway in developing seeds of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.): a transcriptomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R V, Sreedhar; Kumari, Priya; Rupwate, Sunny D; Rajasekharan, Ram; Srinivasan, Malathi

    2015-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.), a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), is a rediscovered crop with great importance in health and nutrition and is also the highest known terrestrial plant source of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA). At present, there is no public genomic information or database available for this crop, hindering research on its genetic improvement through genomics-assisted breeding programs. The first comprehensive analysis of the global transcriptome profile of developing Salvia hispanica L. seeds, with special reference to lipid biosynthesis is presented in this study. RNA from five different stages of seed development was extracted and sequenced separately using the Illumina GAIIx platform. De novo assembly of processed reads in the pooled transcriptome using Trinity yielded 76,014 transcripts. The total transcript length was 66,944,462 bases (66.9 Mb), with an average length of approximately 880 bases. In the molecular functions category of Gene Ontology (GO) terms, ATP binding and nucleotide binding were found to be the most abundant and in the biological processes category, the metabolic process and the regulation of transcription-DNA-dependent and oxidation-reduction process were abundant. From the EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups of proteins (KOG) classification, the major category was "Metabolism" (31.97%), of which the most prominent class was 'carbohydrate metabolism and transport' (5.81% of total KOG classifications) followed by 'secondary metabolite biosynthesis transport and catabolism' (5.34%) and 'lipid metabolism' (4.57%). A majority of the candidate genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and oil accumulation were identified. Furthermore, 5596 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified. The transcriptome data was further validated through confirmative PCR and qRT-PCR for select lipid genes. Our study provides insight into the complex transcriptome and will contribute to further genome-wide research and

  13. Study of Salvia Officinalis Hydroethanolic Extract on Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Hypothyroid Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mirazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Medicinal plants are widely used throughout the world. Hypothyroid-ism is an important hormonal disease that causes some disorders in body organs. Salvia offi-cinalis has been known as a medicinal plant since ancient times. In this study the Salvia offi-cinalis extract (SOE effects on thyroid hormones and TSH in hypothyroid rats have been investigated. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study the SOE extract was prepared and 40 male rats were randomly divided in five groups. Control, propylthiouracil (PTU in 4 groups + SOE. The animals were induced hypothyroidism by administration of PTU 0.1% orally in tap water for 14 days. The blood samples were collected and T3 & T4 and TSH hormones were analyzed. Hypothyroid groups were divided into 4 groups and received (PTU+ SOE 40 mg/kg +levothyroxine sodium, 15mcg/kg, orally in tap water and LV+ SOE. All test groups were treated with SOE and levothyroxine sodium for one week. The blood samples were col-lected and for T3 & T4 and TSH hormones were analyzed at the end of the 3rd week. All data were expressed as mean ± SEM and all statistical procedures were performed by MANOVA test.Results: Our results showed that the T3 & T4 plasma levels in hypothyroid animals treated by SOE had significant differences (P<0.05 compared with the control group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the SOE has stimulatory effect on thyroid gland func-tion and raises plasma T3 & T4 levels.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:27-35

  14. Salvia macrosiphon seeds and seed oil: pharmacognostic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamedi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Wild Sage(Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. known as “Marvak” in Persian is one of the polymorphic and abundant plants of Lamiaceae. The plants whole seeds usually soaked or boiled in hot water are widely used for inflammatory ailments in folk medicine. Documents have shown that there is scant information on the chemical constituents of this plant seeds. The current study was carried out to assess the phytochemical constituents of Salvia macrosiphon seeds as well as anti-inflammatory activities. Methods: The seed oil extracted via a Soxhlet extractor was subjected to pharmacognostic assays using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC, Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis of fatty acids and sterols as well as evaluation of the possible anti-inflammatory activities in rats. Results: Total ash, acid insoluble and water soluble ash values were determined as 51.67±7.53, 10.00±0.02 and 30.01±5.01 mg/g, respectively. HPTLC assessment revealed the presence of different steroids, triterpenes and fatty acids. Amount of sterols in oil was found 2.44, 24.92 and 4.60 mg/g for esterified β-sitosterol, free β-sitosterol and free stigmasterol, respectively. The α-linolenic acid (77.69±6.10% was the principal fatty acid. Regarding the anti-inflammatory activity, the seed oil showed low activity in the early phase of formalin test; however, could not significantly inhibit the neutrophil-induced damage by reducing MPO activity in the paws of the rat. Conclusion: The seed oil did not exhibit satisfactory effects on acute inflammation in this study but considering the rich phytosterols content, the seed and its oil can be introduced as useful dietary supplements.

  15. Floral Diversity and Pollen Transfer Mechanisms in Bird-pollinated Salvia Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Petra; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Bird-pollinated (ornithophilous) Salvia species (sages) transfer pollen either by means of a staminal lever mechanism or by immovable stamens. As the distribution of the two modes within the genus is not known, we present a survey of all ornithophilous sages. The main focus is given to floral diversity especially with respect to functional lever morphology. Thereby the hypothesis is tested that, due to a pollinator shift from bees to birds, the lever mechanism became unnecessary. Methods To get a general idea about the diversity of pollen transfer mechanisms, 186 ornithophilous Salvia species were classified according to the functional morphology of the stamen and the need for a lever movement. To test the functionality of the staminal levers and the fitting between flowers and birds the process of pollen transfer was examined by pollinator observations and tested by inserting museum skins and metal rods into fresh flowers. Key Results The diversity of pollen transfer mechanisms is represented by eight case studies illustrating three main groups. In group I (approx. 50 %) the staminal lever mechanism is necessary to open access to nectar and to enable the transfer of pollen that is hidden in the upper lip. In group II (approx. 34 %) pollen is freely accessible and the lever mechanism is reduced in different ways and to different degrees. In group III (approx. 4 %) the lever works as in group I, but pollen is freely accessible as in II. The remaining approx. 13 % are not clearly classified. Conclusions It is considered that the driving force behind the diverse modes of reduction is the necessity to increase the distance between nectar and pollen, thereby ensuring pollen deposition on the bird's feathered head. This is achieved several times in parallel by corolla elongation and/or exposure of the pollen-sacs. As soon as pollen is freely accessible, the lever movement loses its significance for pollination. PMID:17522077

  16. Evaluation of antifungal activity of standardized extract of Salvia rhytidea Benth. (Lamiaceae) against various Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, S; Bakhshi, T; Sharififar, F; Naseri, A; Ghasemi Nejad Almani, P

    2016-12-01

    Salvia species have long been described in traditional medicine for various indications. Owing to the widespread use of this genus by ethnic populations, especially for various infections ranging from skin disease to gastrointestinal disorders, we were encouraged to determine whether Salvia rhytidea could be effective against fungal infections. Given the increased incidence of candidiasis in the past decade, limits on the use of antifungal drugs, emergence of azole-resistant Candida species and increased incidence of treatment failures, it is necessary to identify a novel agent with antifungal properties. Aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of S. rhytidea against various Candida isolates. In this study, at first rosmarinic acid content of plant extract was determined. A total of 96 Candida isolates were tested, including the following species: Candida albicans (n=42), Candida glabrata (n=16), Candida tropicalis (n=11), Candida krusei (n=9), Candida parapsilosis (n=9), Candida lusitaniae (n=7) and Candida guilliermondii (n=2). The in vitro antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of S. rhytidea Benth. was evaluated against Candida isolates and compared with that of the standard antifungal drug nystatin by using a broth microdilution method, according to CLSI. Phytochemical screening results showed that the methanolic extract of S. rhytidea Benth. was rich in flavonoids and tannins. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of S. rhytidea Benth. ranged from 3.125 to>100μg/ml and 6.25 to>100μg/ml respectively. The growth inhibition value displayed that C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. albicans isolates were most susceptible to S. rhytidea. Findings show that S. rhytidea possesses an antifungal effect against Candida isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Salvia officinalis for hot flushes: towards determination of mechanism of activity and active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahte, Sinikka; Evans, Richard; Eugster, Philippe J; Marcourt, Laurence; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2013-06-01

    Herbal medicinal products are commonly used in alternative treatment of menopausal hot flushes. In a recent clinical study, Salvia officinalis tincture was found to reduce hot flush frequency and intensity. The aim of the current study was the investigation of the mechanism(s) responsible for the anti-hot flush activity of S. officinalis and determination of its active principle(s). The 66% ethanolic tincture, as well as the n-hexane, CHCl₃, and aqueous ethanolic subextracts obtained from the tincture were studied in vitro for two of the most relevant activities, estrogenicity and selective serotonin reuptake inhibition. Because of an increased risk of menopausal women to suffer from Alzheimer's disease, an in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay was also employed. No activity was observed in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibition or the acetylcholinesterase inhibition assays at the highest test concentrations. The tincture showed no estrogenic effects whereas the aqueous ethanolic subextract exhibited estrogenicity in the ERLUX assay with an EC₅₀ value of 64 µg/mL. Estrogenic activity-guided fractionation of the aqueous ethanolic subextract by a combination of reverse-phase vacuum liquid chromatography and gel chromatography identified luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (EC₅₀ 129 µg/mL) as the active component of the vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 4 (EC₅₀ 69 µg/mL). Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified as the putative estrogenic principle of the most potent minor fraction (7.6.7.6, EC₅₀ 0.7 µg/mL) obtained from the initial vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 7 (EC₅₀ 3 µg/mL). This study suggests the involvement of common and ubiquitous estrogenic flavonoids in the anti-hot flush effect of Salvia officinalis, a safe and commonly used herbal medicinal product during the menopause. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Fatty acids characterization, oxidative perspectives and consumer acceptability of oil extracted from pre-treated chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Imran, Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad; Manzoor, Muhammad Faisal; Javed, Amna; Ali, Zafar; Akhtar, Muhammad Nadeem; Ali, Muhammad; Hussain, Yasir

    2016-01-01

    Background Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds have been described as a good source of lipids, protein, dietary fiber, polyphenolic compounds and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The consumption of chia seed oil helps to improve biological markers related to metabolic syndrome diseases. The oil yield and fatty acids composition of chia oil is affected by several factors such as pre-treatment method and size reduction practices. Therefore, the main mandate of present investigate was to study ...

  19. Leave and professional development benefits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martyniak, Cathleen; Keith, Brian

    2009-01-01

    ...; and professional development leaves such as dedicated research time and sabbaticals. Other professional development topics include financial support and relief from duties for conference attendance...

  20. Phytochemical composition of fractions isolated from ten Salvia species by supercritical carbon dioxide and pressurized liquid extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulniūtė, Vaida; Pukalskas, Audrius; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas

    2017-06-01

    Ten Salvia species, S. amplexicaulis, S. austriaca, S. forsskaolii S. glutinosa, S. nemorosa, S. officinalis, S. pratensis, S. sclarea, S. stepposa and S. verticillata were fractionated using supercritical carbon dioxide and pressurized liquid (ethanol and water) extractions. Fifteen phytochemicals were identified using commercial standards (some other compounds were identified tentatively), 11 of them were quantified by ultra high pressure chromatography (UPLC) with quadruple and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q/TOF, TQ-S). Lipophilic CO 2 extracts were rich in tocopherols (2.36-10.07mg/g), while rosmarinic acid was dominating compound (up to 30mg/g) in ethanolic extracts. Apigenin-7-O-β-d-glucuronide, caffeic and carnosic acids were quantitatively important phytochemicals in the majority other Salvia spp. Antioxidatively active constituents were determined by using on-line high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis combined with 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay (HPLC-DPPH). Development of high pressure isolation process and comprehensive characterisation of phytochemicals in Salvia spp. may serve for their wider applications in functional foods and nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Taxonomic study on Japanese Salvia (Lamiaceae): Phylogenetic position of S. akiensis, and polyphyletic nature of S. lutescens var. intermedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Atsuko

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Both Salvia akiensis and S. lutescens (Lamiaceae) are endemic to Japan. Salvia akiensis was recently described in 2014 in the Chugoku (= SW Honshu) region, and each four varieties of S. lutescens distributed allopatrically. Among varieties in S. lutescens, var. intermedia show a disjunctive distribution in the Kanto (=E Honshu) and Kinki (= W Honshu) regions. Recent field studies of S. lutescens var. intermedia revealed several morphological differences between the Kanto and Kinki populations. Here, I evaluated these differences among Salvia lutescens var. intermedia and its allies with morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA (internal and external transcribed spacer regions) and plastid DNA (ycf1-rps15 spacer, rbcL, and trnL-F) sequences. Both morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that S. lutescens var. intermedia from the Kinki region and var. lutescens were closely related to each other. However, var. intermedia from the Kanto region exhibited an association with S. lutescens var. crenata and var. stolonifera, which also grew in eastern Japan, rather than var. intermedia in the Kinki region. These results indicated that S. lutescens var. intermedia is not a taxon with a disjunctive distribution, but a combination of two or more allopatric taxa. Present study also suggested that S. akiensis was most closely related to S. omerocalyx. PMID:28781560

  2. Antiamoebic and Antigiardial Activity of Clerodane Diterpenes from Mexican Salvia Species Used for the Treatment of Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Fernando; Bautista, Elihú; Yépez-Mulia, Lilian; García-Hernandez, Normand; Ortega, Alfredo

    2015-10-01

    Terpenoids from Salvia species have been identified to possess biological properties as antiprotozoal agents. Here, we evaluated the antiamoebic and antigiardial activities of 14 known clerodane and modified clerodane-type diterpenes isolated from five Mexican Salvia species against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia, and analyzed the effects of the functionalities in decalin ring or in the whole clerodane framework to visualize the structural requirements necessary to produce an antiprotozoal activity. Among these, linearolactone was the most active clerodane diterpene against both protozoa with IC50 values of 22.9 μM for E. histolytica and of 28.2 μM in the case of G. lamblia. In this context it may be a lead compound for the development of novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. The remaining diterpenes assayed showed moderate to weak activity against both protozoa. These findings give support to the use of Salvia species in the traditional medicine from México for the treatment of diarrhea. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Parental Leave Policies and Parents' Employment and Leave-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time span is one…

  4. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2)Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the interest of all parties concerned. This automatic transfer procedure has a number of advantages for participants in the SLS scheme. First, staff members will no longer have to take any administrative steps. Secondly, the new proced...

  5. Family Leave: It's the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jean B.

    1993-01-01

    The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) gives employees the right to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave a year for medical or family reasons. Provides key provisions of FMLA as they apply to schools and advises districts to consult school attorneys to help ensure compliance with the act and with the interim regulations issued last summer. (MLF)

  6. Comprehensive Evaluation of Antioxidant Potential of 10 Salvia Species Using High Pressure Methods for the Isolation of Lipophilic and Hydrophilic Plant Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulniūtė, Vaida; Ragažinskienė, Ona; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas

    2016-03-01

    Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is a well-known source of antioxidants and other bioactive compounds, while many other species within the Salvia genus have been poorly studied. The total content of phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity indicators were evaluated for the extracts of 10 Salvia spp. consecutively isolated by supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2) and pressurized liquid extraction with ethanol and water. Antioxidant properties of solid plant material were evaluated by the direct antioxidant capacity measurement by the so-called QUENCHER method. Total antioxidant capacity values were calculated by integrating the results obtained for all extracts and the whole plant material. TPC and antioxidant capacity of the extracts were greatly dependent on the plant species and extraction solvent. Ethanol extracts possessed significantly higher antioxidant capacity and TPC comparing to the extracts isolated with other solvents. In general, all studied Salvia species demonstrated strong antioxidant capacity; however, the antioxidant potential of such species as S. forsskaolii and S. verticillata was the highest and comparable with that of S. officinalis. The majority of studied Salvia species may be considered as promising sources of functional ingredients to be used in human nutrition for functional food and nutraceutical formulations.

  7. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance with...

  8. Exploring triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway in developing seeds of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.: a transcriptomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedhar R V

    Full Text Available Chia (Salvia hispanica L., a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae, is a rediscovered crop with great importance in health and nutrition and is also the highest known terrestrial plant source of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA. At present, there is no public genomic information or database available for this crop, hindering research on its genetic improvement through genomics-assisted breeding programs. The first comprehensive analysis of the global transcriptome profile of developing Salvia hispanica L. seeds, with special reference to lipid biosynthesis is presented in this study. RNA from five different stages of seed development was extracted and sequenced separately using the Illumina GAIIx platform. De novo assembly of processed reads in the pooled transcriptome using Trinity yielded 76,014 transcripts. The total transcript length was 66,944,462 bases (66.9 Mb, with an average length of approximately 880 bases. In the molecular functions category of Gene Ontology (GO terms, ATP binding and nucleotide binding were found to be the most abundant and in the biological processes category, the metabolic process and the regulation of transcription-DNA-dependent and oxidation-reduction process were abundant. From the EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups of proteins (KOG classification, the major category was "Metabolism" (31.97%, of which the most prominent class was 'carbohydrate metabolism and transport' (5.81% of total KOG classifications followed by 'secondary metabolite biosynthesis transport and catabolism' (5.34% and 'lipid metabolism' (4.57%. A majority of the candidate genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and oil accumulation were identified. Furthermore, 5596 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were identified. The transcriptome data was further validated through confirmative PCR and qRT-PCR for select lipid genes. Our study provides insight into the complex transcriptome and will contribute to further genome-wide research

  9. Increasing the synthesis of bioactive abietane diterpenes in Salvia sclarea hairy roots by elicited transcriptional reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, M C; Mariaevelina, A; Malafronte, N; De Tommasi, N; Leone, A

    2017-02-01

    Transcriptional activation of genes belonging to the plastidial MEP-derived isoprenoid pathway by elicitation with methyl jasmonate and coronatine enhanced the content of bioactive abietane diterpenes in Salvia sclarea hairy roots. We have shown that aethiopinone, an abietane diterpene synthesized in Salvia sclarea roots is cytotoxic and induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells. To develop a production platform for this compound and other abietane diterpenes, hairy root technology was combined with the elicitation of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or the phytotoxin coronatine (Cor). Both MeJA and Cor induced a significant accumulation of aethiopinone, but prolonged exposure to MeJA irremediably caused inhibition of hairy root growth, which was unaffected by Cor treatment. Considering together the fold increase in aethiopinone content and the final hairy root biomass, the best combination was a Cor treatment for 28 days, which allowed to obtain up to 105.34 ± 2.30 mg L-1 of this compound to be obtained, corresponding to a 24-fold increase above the basal content in untreated hairy roots. MeJA or Cor elicitation also enhanced the synthesis of other bioactive abietane-quinone diterpenes. The elicitor-dependent steering effect was due to a coordinated transcriptional activation of several biosynthetic genes belonging to the plastidial MEP-derived isoprenoid pathway. High correlations between aethiopinone content and MeJA or Cor-elicited level of gene transcripts were found for DXS2 (r 2 = 0.99), DXR (r 2 = 0.99), and GGPPS (r 2 = 0.98), encoding enzymes acting upstream of GGPP, the common precursor of diterpenes and other plastidial-derived terpenes, as well as CPPS (r 2 = 0.99), encoding the enzyme involved in the first cyclization steps leading to copalyl-diphosphate, the precursor of abietane-like diterpenes. These results point to these genes as possible targets of metabolic engineering approaches to establish a more efficient production platform for such

  10. New statement of leave format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the communication of the Standing Concertation Committee published in Weekly Bulletin No. 18-19 of 27 April 2009, the current statement of leave on monthly pay slips has been replaced with the EDH Leave Transactions report that displays the up-to-date situation of individual leave balances at all times. The report is available on EDH. Additionally, the layout of the pay slip has been modernised. The new version of the pay slip will be send out from September 2009 onwards. Finance and Purchasing Department, Personnel Accounting Human Resources Department, Organisation and Procedures General Infrastructure Services Department, Administrative Information Services

  11. Key Obama officials leave administration

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    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  12. Effect of Salvia chorassanica Root Aqueous, Ethanolic and Hydro Alcoholic Extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli

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    Azam Mehraban

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Nowadays, through the previous researches, it has become clear that Salvia has important health benefits. Salvia chorassanica is one of the valuable native Iranian species which only grows in Khorasan province, Iran. Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Salvia chorassanica root aqueous, ethanolic and hydro alcoholic extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Methods In this experimental study, maceration method was used to prepare extracts. Study setup was conducted in March 2014.The duration of study setup took for two months. The micro dilution method by ELISA was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of aqueous, ethanolic and hydro alcoholic extracts of root of Salvia chorassanica against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. The antibacterial effect also was evaluated using agar diffusion method. The inhibition zones of growth against the extracts were measured in comparison to standards antibiotics. Chloramphenicol as positive control on Enterococcus faecalis, Tetracycline on Staphylococcus aureus, Gentamicin on Escherichia coli and Neomycin on Salmonella typhimurium. The data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA with SPSS version 16. Results The highest inhibition zone in diffusion method was related to ethanolic extract of Salvia chorassanica root against Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The calculated MIC in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of root for Staphylococcus aureus was 240 and 120 mg/mL, for Enterococcus faecalis was 120 and 60 mg/mL respectively, and for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium was equal to 240 mg/mL. The amount in hydro alcoholic extracts for Gram-positive bacteria was 60 mg/mL and for Gram-negative bacteria was 120 mg/mL. The

  13. The Effect of Salvia Rhytidea Extract on the Number of Cells of Different Layers of Cerebellar Cortex Following Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

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    M Farahmand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Salvia has anti-oxidant oxygen free radicals which are generated during the interruption and reestablishment of ischemia reperfusion.  The aim of study was to investigate the effect of Salvia Rhytidea extract on the number of cells of different layers of cerebellar cortex following ischemia reperfusion in rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, 35 adult male rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 5: Group 1 (control-: Sampling without ischemia. Group 2 (control +: Cerebellar ischemia with administration of normal saline. Group 3(sham: Manipulation without ischemia with normal saline administration. Group 4   received (3.2 mg/kg aqueous and alcoholic Salvia extract 2 hours after ischemia. Group 5 received 50 mg/kg silymarin drug, 2 hours after ischemia. Group 6 received 3.2 mg/kg aqueous and alcoholic Salvia extract 72, 48, 24 and 0 h before ischemia and group 7 received silymarin drug (50 mg/kg, 0, 24, 48, and 72, hrs. before ischemia. 24 hrs. following reperfusion, the rats were euthanized and samples of the cerebellum were obtained. By using routine histological technique, the sections were stained by H&E. The measurement of cell count in cerebellar cortex were accomplished. Data were evaluated with One-Way ANOVA and Tukey diagnostic tests. Results: A significant decrease was observed in the number of neural cells in granular layer in the non-treated ischemia group and in the groups which received Salvia extract and silymarin, two hours after the ischemia (p< 0.05. No significant decrease was observed in the number of cells of this layer in the groups which received salvia extract before ischemia. But regarding the cell number of molecular and purkinje layers in above groups, no significant difference was observed compared to the control group (P˃0.05. However, no significant differences was seen in the number of cells layers compared to the control group (P˃0.05. Conclusion: Finally, administration of

  14. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Medical Leave Act § 825.202 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. (a) Definition. FMLA... period of six months, such as for chemotherapy. A pregnant employee may take leave intermittently for...

  15. Antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) under different cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Kang, Young-Hwa

    2014-03-12

    An adaptation of cultural management to the specific cultural system, as well as crop demand, can further result in the improvement of the quality of horticultural products. Therefore, this study focused on the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Plebeian herba (Salvia plebeia R. Br.) grown in hydroponics in comparison with those of the plant grown in soil. The antioxidant activities of Plebeian herba extract were measured as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities as well as the reducing power by decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in vitro. Interestingly, by comparison with hydroponics and traditional cultivation, Plebeian herba cultivated in nutrition-based soil improved inhibitory effect on free radicals of DPPH, ABTS, and NO and increased the contents of phenolics such as caffeic acid (1), luteolin-7-glucoside (2), homoplantaginin (3), hispidulin (4), and eupatorin. Free radical scavenging and SOD activity, as well as α-glucosidase inhibitory effect, were higher in Plebeian herba grown in nutrition-based soil than in plants grown in hydroponics and traditional condition.

  16. Whole and crushed nutlets of chia (Salvia hispanica from Mexico as a source of functional gums

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    Maira Segura-Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and functional properties of Mexican chia (Salvia hispanica gums extracted from defatted whole and crushed nutlets using the Soxhlet and SFE-CO2 methods. Chia gums have interesting chemical and functional properties for the food industry. The oil and gum yields were in the range of 1.98-16.42% and 5.81-12.60%, respectively. The defatting procedure did not affect significantly the oil and gum extraction; the nutlet type (whole or crushed was the only parameter influencing the yield. The proximate composition and the protein and fiber contents of chia gum were evaluated. Low contents of protein and fiber and high NFE levels were found in whole nutlet gums. The functional properties of chia gum extracted from whole and crushed nutlets with the Soxhlet and SFE-COs methods showed the following ranges of water absorption capacity of 62.64 to 143.66 g/g, water adsorption capacity of 0.69 to 1.35 g/g, and water and oil holding capacity of 100 to 149.28 g/g and19.5 to 40.4 g/g, respectively. The rheological behavior exhibited by the gums was pseudoplastic or shear thinning. From a functional perspective, chia gum is an important food component due its emulsifier and stabilizer potentials.

  17. Evaluation of replacing wheat flour with chia flour (Salvia hispanica L. in pasta

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    Matheus Rodrigues Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, chia (Salvia hispanica L. has become increasingly more prevalent in the Brazilian diet and has triggered the interests of many researchers due to its functional properties and associated health benefits. The objective of this study was to develop pasta with different percentages of chia flour in lieu of wheat flour, and to evaluate the impact of chia on the nutritional, technological, and sensory properties of pasta. Pastas were prepared by replacing 7.5% (T1, 15% (T2, and 30% (T3 of wheat flour with chia flour relative to the control formulation (C. The quality of the pastas were evaluated through cooking tests (increase in weight and volume, cooking time, and loss of solids in the cooking water, chemical composition (moisture, fat, fiber, protein, ash, and carbohydrates, and color, using a Minolta colorimeter and sensory analysis by means of acceptance testing. Pasta made with chia flour had higher nutritional value and superior technological characteristics than did the control. Sensory analysis results showed that pasta with 7.5% chia flour had higher rates of acceptability in terms of the flavor, while the control pasta prevailed in terms of color and texture.

  18. Characterization, antioxidant and antitumor activities of polysaccharides from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Long; Zhang, Li; Wang, Tao; Yu, Lin; Ding, Chun-bang; Yang, Rui-wu; Wang, Xiao-li; Zhou, Yong-hong

    2014-09-01

    Polysaccharides were extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge using response surface methodology (RSM) with ultrasonication. A Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the extraction parameters to maximize the polysaccharide extraction yield. The polysaccharide SMP-U1 was isolated and characterized; then the antioxidant and antiproliferation activities were evaluated in vitro. The modified optimal conditions were an ultrasonic power of 180 W, an extraction temperature of 54°C, and an extraction time of 32 min, achieving an extraction yield of 40.54±0.25%. The results indicate that SMP-U1 has significant antioxidant activity, scavenging the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. It has also exhibited effect on the proliferation of human breast carcinoma cells Bcap-37 and human esophageal carcinoma cells Eca-109, especially at a concentration of 0.30 mg/mL. In conclusion, SMP-U1 has remarkable in vitro antioxidant and antiproliferation activity, and has potential for application as a natural antioxidant or antitumor agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of caffeic acid derivatives isolated from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Gyu; Tran, Phuong Thao; Lee, Jeong-Hyung; Min, Byung Sun; Kim, Jeong Ah

    2017-11-09

    Ten caffeic acid derivatives (1-10) were isolated from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza by using various chromatographic methods and their chemical structures were spectroscopically elucidated. The absolute configurations of chiral centers were determined by comparison with reported coupling constants, optical rotation values, and CD techniques. Anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated using nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibition assays, and by determining the expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1. Two new caffeic acid derivatives, 8-epiblechnic acid 9-methyl ester (4) and 8-epiblechnic acid 9'-methyl ester (5), and eight known derivatives, caffeic acid methyl ester (1), shimobashiric acid B (2), rosmarinic acid methyl ester (3), salvianolic acid C (6), methyl salvianolate C (7), lithospermic acid monomethyl ester (8), lithospermic acid dimethyl ester (9), and dimethyl lithospermate B (10), were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of S. miltiorrhiza. All caffeic acid derivatives were evaluated for their inhibitory effect on NO production. Compounds 2 and 3 inhibited NO production with IC50 values of 1.4 and 0.6 μM, respectively. These compounds also strongly inhibited the production of iNOS and COX-2. In addition, compound 3 induced the expression HO-1 in a concentration-dependent manner at 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μM.

  20. Effect of Genotype and Environment on Salvia miltiorrhiza Roots Using LC/MS-Based Metabolomics

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    Qi Zhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza (S. miltiorrhiza Bunge is broadly used as herbal medicine for the clinical treatments of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Despite its commercial and medicinal values, few systematic studies on the metabolome of S. miltiorrhiza roots have been carried out so far. We systematically described the metabolic profiles of S. miltiorrhiza using high pressure liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS in conjunction with multivariate statistical analyses, aimed at monitoring their biological variations of secondary metabolites related to three locations and four S. miltiorrhiza genotypes. A total of 40 bioactive constituents were putatively annotated in S. miltiorrhiza root samples. This study found that both the same S. miltiorrhiza genotype growing at three different locations and four S. miltiorrhiza genotypes growing at the same location had significant metabonomic differences identified by the principal component analysis (PCA approach. By using orthogonal projection to latent structure with discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA, 16 and 14 secondary metabolites can be used as potential location-specific and genotype-specific markers in S. miltiorrhiza, respectively. The specificity of LC/MS profiles offered a powerful tool to discriminate S. miltiorrhiza samples according to genotypes or locations.

  1. Hybrid de novo genome assembly of the Chinese herbal plant danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanghui; Tian, Yang; Zhang, Jing; Shu, Liping; Yang, Shengchao; Wang, Wen; Sheng, Jun; Dong, Yang; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge), also known as Chinese red sage, is a member of Lamiaceae family. It is valued in traditional Chinese medicine, primarily for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Because of its pharmacological potential, ongoing research aims to identify novel bioactive compounds in danshen, and their biosynthetic pathways. To date, only expressed sequence tag (EST) and RNA-seq data for this herbal plant are available to the public. We therefore propose that the construction of a reference genome for danshen will help elucidate the biosynthetic pathways of important secondary metabolites, thereby advancing the investigation of novel drugs from this plant. We assembled the highly heterozygous danshen genome with the help of 395 × raw read coverage using Illumina technologies and about 10 × raw read coverage by using single molecular sequencing technology. The final draft genome is approximately 641 Mb, with a contig N50 size of 82.8 kb and a scaffold N50 size of 1.2 Mb. Further analyses predicted 34,598 protein-coding genes and 1,644 unique gene families in the danshen genome. The draft danshen genome will provide a valuable resource for the investigation of novel bioactive compounds in this Chinese herb.

  2. Optimization of extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Long; Zhang, Li; Wang, Tao; Zhou, Yonghong; Ding, Chunbang; Yang, Ruiwu; Wang, Xiaoli; Yu, Lin

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the process of extracting polysaccharides from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge residue was optimized by using a Box-Behnken design. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the linear and quadratic terms of the three variables of the extraction process had significant effects. The optimal conditions are as follows: extracting time of 2.6 h, extraction temperature of 89 °C, and ratio of water to raw material of 32 mL/g. Moreover, a new polysaccharide with antioxidant activity [i.e., SMWP-1 (∼5.27×10(5) Da)] was isolated from S. miltiorrhiza residue. The carbohydrate, uronic acid, and protein contents of SMWP-1 were 90.11%, 0.13%, and 0.53%, respectively. The SMWP-1 is composed of glucose, xylose, mannose, and galactose. The preliminary structural characterization of SMWP-1 was determined via Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. This polysaccharide exhibited strong reducing power and free-radical scavenging activities in vitro against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl. Therefore, SMWP-1 can be investigated further as a novel natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Concentrical coils counter-current chromatography for natural products isolation: Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge as example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihong; Wang, Yanyan; Guo, Xiuyun; Wu, Shihua

    2017-03-31

    Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is an efficient separation technique without the solid support matrix, largely depending on the partition of two-immiscible liquid phases in the separation column. Since the helical coil planet centrifuge was invented in early 1970s by Yoichiro Ito, a series of coils columns, including spiral coils and conical coils columns have been developed for CCC separation. In this work, we introduced a new simple and efficient concentrical coils column for CCC separation, which was prepared by winding the whole polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tube into the circular grooves from the rotation axis in the same direction. Once the PTFE tube filled in all space of one round of the circular groove, it was jumped into the nearby outer circular groove through the gap and until the whole groove was filled. The three same concentrical coils distributed on three disc-shaped holders were connected by the same PTFE tube to form concentrical coils separation column. The separation capacity was further investigated using ten tanshinones of the extracts of a Traditional Chinese Medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge as a model natural product. All results indicated that the concentrical coils column could hold satisfactory retention of the stationary phase, higher theoretical plate number and better resolution for CCC separation of more than ten tanshinones. It may be an alternative CCC column for non-targeted and targeted isolation of bioactive natural products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Protective effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge on 5-fluorouracil-induced oral mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Rim; Kim, Jinsung; Oh, Ja Young; Kim, Ha Young; Kim, Young Joo; Chang, Mun Seog

    2017-07-01

    Oral mucositis is a common side-effect caused by chemotherapy or radiotherapy occurring in the majority of cancer patients and is characterized by inflammation and ulcers in the oral mucosa. In the present study, we examined the protective effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (SM) on oral mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in human pharyngeal cells and golden Syrian hamsters. We investigated the proliferation and antioxidant abilities of SM using MTT, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays in vitro. Additionally, TUNEL assay was performed, and the expression levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), caspase-3 and proinflammatory cytokines were assessed by immunoblotting. The results showed that SM increased the cell proliferation rate in human pharyngeal cells up to 128.97±9.7% compared with this rate in the untreated cells and exerted protective effects on mucosal injury caused by 5-FU treatment. In addition, all concentrations of SM increased DPPH scavenging ability and blocked ROS generation in the treated cells. Taken together, following SM treatment, expression of NF-κB and cleaved caspase-3 were significantly decreased followed by inhibition of cell death. These data suggest that SM could be used for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis caused by cancer therapies.

  5. Oxidative Stress and Salvia miltiorrhiza in Aging-Associated Cardiovascular Diseases

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    Cheng-Chieh Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging-associated cardiovascular diseases (CVDs have some risk factors that are closely related to oxidative stress. Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM has been used commonly to treat CVDs for hundreds of years in the Chinese community. We aimed to explore the effects of SM on oxidative stress in aging-associated CVDs. Through literature searches using Medicine, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, CINAHL, and Scopus databases, we found that SM not only possesses antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects but also exerts angiogenic and cardioprotective activities. SM may reduce the production of reactive oxygen species by inhibiting oxidases, reducing the production of superoxide, inhibiting the oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins, and ameliorating mitochondrial oxidative stress. SM also increases the activities of catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and coupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase. In addition, SM reduces the impact of ischemia/reperfusion injury, prevents cardiac fibrosis after myocardial infarction, preserves cardiac function in coronary disease, maintains the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, and promotes self-renewal and proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells in stroke. However, future clinical well-designed and randomized control trials will be necessary to confirm the efficacy of SM in aging-associated CVDs.

  6. Essential oil composition of Salvia fruticosa Mill. populations from Balkan Peninsula

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    Ivana Cvetkovikj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the yield and chemical composition of the essential oil (EO isolated from 19 different populations of Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Greek sage, Lamiaceae from nine different regions of Albania and Greece. The EO yield ranged from 0.25% to 4.00%. Eighteen of the total analyzed populations met the Ph.Eur.8.0 minimal requirements concerning the essential oil yield. Performing GC/FID/MS analyses, a total of 75 components were detected, representing 79.15-97.83% of the oils. Thirteen components (α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, 1,8-cineole, γ-terpinene, cis-thujone, trans-thujone, camphor, terpinene-4-ol, trans-(E-caryophyllene, aromadendrene and α-humulene were identified in all samples, with 1,8-cineole as a predominant constituent. Statistical analysis showed that the geographical origin of plants did not have significant influence on the variation in chemical composition of the Greek sage essential oil.

  7. Chemical description and essential oil yield variability of different accessions of Salvia lavandulifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usano-Alemany, Jaime; Palá-Paúl, Jesús; Rodríguez, Manuel Santa-Cruz; Herraiz-Peñalver, David

    2014-02-01

    The amount and chemical composition of essential oils are crucial for the modulation of the flavor, scent and therapeutic properties of aromatic and medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of phenology and weather conditions on the essential oil yield obtained from the aerial parts of Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl. Besides, we tried to carry out an approach to the chemical composition at the time of full bloom. Essential oil production of several accessions was monitored throughout the whole phenological cycle, both, at the original location growing wild and at the experimental plot as cultivated plants. Local pedoclimatic conditions seem to be crucial for the plant essential oil production. Our results showed high conditioning rates from both yearly climatic conditions and developmental stage of the plants. Maximum yield production was reported at the full seed maturation stage (average 1.74%) and after a slight dry period (average 2.16%). Phytochemical differences were maintained when plants were forced to grow under common pedoclimatic conditions. Thereby, essential oil analysis showed some populations formed by clearly distinct individuals while others had more homogenous plants. Compounds such alpha-pinene, beta-pinene + myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineol, camphor and beta-caryophyllene were the main compounds of the essential oils of S. lavandulifolia.

  8. Roles of Reactive Oxygen Species in Anticancer Therapy with Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge

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    Yu-Chiang Hung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. We aim to provide a systematic review about the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS in anticancer therapy with Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen. Danshen, including its lipophilic and hydrophilic constituents, is potentially beneficial for treating various cancers. The mechanisms of ROS-related anticancer effects of Danshen vary depending on the specific type of cancer cells involved. Danshen may enhance TNF-α-induced apoptosis, upregulate caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, endoplasmic reticulum stress, P21, P53, Bax/Bcl-2, DR5, and AMP-activated protein kinase, or activate the p38/JNK, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and FasL signaling pathways. Conversely, Danshen may downregulate human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA, telomerase, survivin, vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, CD31, NF-κB, Erk1/2, matrix metalloproteinases, microtubule assembly, and receptor tyrosine kinases including epidermal growth factor receptors, HER2, and P-glycoprotein and inhibit the PI3K/Akt/mTOR or estrogen receptor signaling pathways. Therefore, Danshen may inhibit cancer cells proliferation through antioxidation on tumor initiation and induce apoptosis or autophagy through ROS generation on tumor progression, tumor promotion, and tumor metastasis. Based on the available evidence regarding its anticancer properties, this review provides new insights for further anticancer research or clinical trials with Danshen.

  9. Climatic zoning of chia (Salvia hispanica L. in Chile using a species distribution model

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    Daniela Cortés

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Salvia hispanica L., known as chia, is a plant species originally from tropical and subtropical Mesoamerica. It is economically important because its seeds produce omega-3, thus its demand has increased in Chile and internationally. As there is no commercial production in Chile, we investigated the places in the country where this species could be cultivated in order to satisfy at the least the national demand. The aim of the study was to quantify the main climatic requirements of chia and to produce a climatic aptitude map for chia cultivation in Chile. The methodology was based on the Maxent species distribution model. We used 78 georeferenced data points where chia is grown throughout the world, mostly from the GBIF database, along with raster climatic layers from the Worldclim project. We estimated the performance curves of annual precipitation and temperature along with their respective optimal and critical values, in analogy with the Ecocrop method. The maps used two scenarios for crops in different conditions, with and without irrigation. The results indicated that the intermediate depression and coastal edge of mainly the Arica y Parinacota, Tarapacá, Antofagasta and Atacama regions have optimum conditions for irrigated crops, but it would be impossible in rainfed conditions. We conclude that chia’s cultivation niche is reduced due to its tropical climate requirements; however, it can be cultivated under irrigation in northern Chile.

  10. Isolation and characterization of a copalyl diphosphate synthase gene promoter from Salvia miltiorrhiza

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    Piotr Szymczyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The promoter, 5' UTR, and 34-nt 5' fragments of protein encoding region of the Salvia miltiorrhiza copalyl diphosphate synthase gene were cloned and characterized. No tandem repeats, miRNA binding sites, or CpNpG islands were observed in the promoter, 5' UTR, or protein encoding fragments. The entire isolated promoter and 5' UTR is 2235 bp long and contains repetitions of many cis-active elements, recognized by homologous transcription factors, found in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species. A pyrimidine-rich fragment with only 6 non-pyrimidine bases was localized in the 33-nt stretch from nt 2185 to 2217 in the 5' UTR. The observed cis-active sequences are potential binding sites for trans-factors that could regulate spatio-temporal CPS gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Obtained results are initially verified by in silico and co-expression studies based on A. thaliana microarray data. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the entire 2269-bp copalyl diphosphate synthase gene fragment has the promoter activity. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis was used to study changes in CPS promoter activity occurring in response to the application of four selected biotic and abiotic regulatory factors; auxin, gibberellin, salicylic acid, and high-salt concentration.

  11. Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza injection suppresses kidney injury induced by iron overload in mice.

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    Shengjiang Guan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Excessive iron can accumulate in the kidney and induce tissue damage. Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza injection is a traditional Chinese medicinal preparation used for preventing and treating chronic renal failure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with Danshen injection on iron overload-induced kidney damage. METHODS: Mice were mock-treated with saline (control group or given a single dose of iron dextran without treatment (iron overload group, 50 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks or with daily treatments of low-dose Danshen (3 g/kg/day, high-dose Danshen (6 g/kg/day or deferoxamine (100 mg/kg/day. RESULTS: Treatment of iron-overloaded mice with Danshen injection led to significant improvements of body weight and decreased iron levels in the kidney. Danshen injection treatment also reduced concentrations of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and malondialdehyde and enhanced glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Histopathological examinations showed that Danshen injection ameliorated pathological changes and reduced iron deposition in kidneys of iron overloaded mice. Furthermore, the treatment was demonstrated to suppress apoptosis in nephrocytes. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that Danshen injection exerted significant renal protective effects in iron-overloaded mice, which were closely associated with the decrease of iron deposition and suppression of lipid peroxidation and apoptosis in the kidney.

  12. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L. Gum

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    Maira Rubi Segura-Campos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chia (Salvia hispanica L. constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submitted to fat extraction, producing two fractions: gum with fat (FCG and gum partly defatted (PDCG. Proximal composition and physicochemical characterization showed these fractions to be different (P<0.05. The PDCG had higher protein, ash, and carbohydrates content than the FCG, in addition to higher water-holding (110.5 g water/g fiber and water-binding capacities (0.84 g water/g fiber. The FCG had greater oil-holding capacity (25.7 g oil/g fiber and water absorption capacity (44 g water/g fiber. In dispersion trials, the gums exhibited a non-Newtonian fluid behavior, specifically shear thinning or pseudoplastic type. PDCG had more viscosity than FCG. Chia seed is an excellent natural source of gum with good physicochemical and functional qualities, and is very promising for use in food industry.

  13. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L.) Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi; Ciau-Solís, Norma; Rosado-Rubio, Gabriel; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2014-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submitted to fat extraction, producing two fractions: gum with fat (FCG) and gum partly defatted (PDCG). Proximal composition and physicochemical characterization showed these fractions to be different (P oil-holding capacity (25.7 g oil/g fiber) and water absorption capacity (44 g water/g fiber). In dispersion trials, the gums exhibited a non-Newtonian fluid behavior, specifically shear thinning or pseudoplastic type. PDCG had more viscosity than FCG. Chia seed is an excellent natural source of gum with good physicochemical and functional qualities, and is very promising for use in food industry.

  14. Chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel can be used as egg or oil replacer in cake formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borneo, Rafael; Aguirre, Alicia; León, Alberto E

    2010-06-01

    This study determined the overall acceptability, sensory characteristics, functional properties, and nutrient content of cakes made using chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel as a replacement for oil or eggs. Chia gel was used to replace 25%, 50%, and 75% of oil or eggs in a control cake formulation. Seventy-five untrained panelists participated in rating cakes on a seven-point hedonic scale. Analysis of variance conducted on the sensory characteristics and overall acceptability indicated a statistically significant effect when replacing oil or eggs for color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (Pcakes were not significantly different from the control for color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability. The 50% oil substituted (with chia gel) cake, compared to control, had 36 fewer kilocalories and 4 g less fat per 100-g portion. Cake weight was not affected by chia gel in the formulation, although cake volume was lower as the percentage of substitution increased. Symmetry was generally not affected. This study demonstrates that chia gel can replace as much as 25% of oil or eggs in cakes while yielding a more nutritious product with acceptable sensory characteristics. 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibition of bone resorption by Tanshinone VI isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge

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    V. Nicolin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, a more detailed knowledge of molecular mechanisms involved in osteoclastogenesis has driven research efforts in the development and screening of compound libraries of several small molecules that specifically inhibit the pathway involved in the commitment of the osteoclast precursor cells. Natural compounds that suppress osteoclast differentiation may have therapeutic value in treating osteoporosis and other bone erosive diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or metastasis associated with bone loss. In ongoing investigation into anti-osteoporotic compounds from natural products we have analyzed the effect of Tanshinone VI on osteoclasts differentiation, using a physiologic three-dimensional osteoblast/bone marrow model of cell co-culture. Tanshinone VI is an abietane diterpene extracted from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Labiatae, a Chinese traditional crude drug, ‘’Tan-Shen’’. Tashinone has been widely used in clinical practice for the prevention of cardiac diseases, arthritis and other inflammation-related disorders based on its pharmacological actions in multiple tissues. Although Tanshinone VI A has been used as a medicinal agent in the treatment of many diseases, its role in osteoclast-related bone diseases remains unknown. We showed previously that Tanshinone VI greatly inhibits osteoclast differentiation and suppresses bone resorption through disruption of the actin ring; subsequently, we intended to examine the precise inhibitory mechanism of Tanshinone VI on osteoclast differentiating factor. This study shows, for the first time, that Tanshinone VI prevents osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting RANKL expression and NFkB induction.

  16. The Biosynthetic Pathways of Tanshinones and Phenolic Acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza

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    Xiao-Hui Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites from plants play key roles in human medicine and chemical industries. Due to limited accumulation of secondary metabolites in plants and their important roles, characterization of key enzymes involved in biosynthetic pathway will enable metabolic engineering or synthetic biology to improve or produce the compounds in plants or microorganisms, which provides an alternative for production of these valuable compounds. Salvia miltiorrhiza, containing tanshinones and phenolic acids as its active compounds, has been widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The biosynthetic analysis of secondary metabolites in S. miltiorrhiza has made great progress due to the successful genetic transformation system, simplified hairy roots system, and high-throughput sequencing. The cloned genes in S. miltiorrhiza had provided references for functional characterization of the post-modification steps involved in biosynthesis of tanshinones and phenolic acids, and further utilization of these steps in metabolic engineering. The strategies used in these studies could provide solid foundation for elucidation of biosynthetic pathways of diterpenoids and phenolic acids in other species. The present review systematically summarizes recent advances in biosynthetic pathway analysis of tanshinones and phenolic acids as well as synthetic biology and metabolic engineering applications of the rate-limiting genes involved in the secondary metabolism in S. miltiorrhiza.

  17. Oxidative Stress and Salvia miltiorrhiza in Aging-Associated Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Chun; Hu, Wen-Long; Hung, Yu-Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Aging-associated cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have some risk factors that are closely related to oxidative stress. Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) has been used commonly to treat CVDs for hundreds of years in the Chinese community. We aimed to explore the effects of SM on oxidative stress in aging-associated CVDs. Through literature searches using Medicine, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, CINAHL, and Scopus databases, we found that SM not only possesses antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects but also exerts angiogenic and cardioprotective activities. SM may reduce the production of reactive oxygen species by inhibiting oxidases, reducing the production of superoxide, inhibiting the oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins, and ameliorating mitochondrial oxidative stress. SM also increases the activities of catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and coupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase. In addition, SM reduces the impact of ischemia/reperfusion injury, prevents cardiac fibrosis after myocardial infarction, preserves cardiac function in coronary disease, maintains the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, and promotes self-renewal and proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells in stroke. However, future clinical well-designed and randomized control trials will be necessary to confirm the efficacy of SM in aging-associated CVDs.

  18. Efecto diurético de la especie Salvia scutellarioides en ratas.

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    Jorge Hernán Ramírez

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. En la medicina tradicional colombiana se usa la infusión de toda la planta llamada ""mastranto"" u ""oreja de perro"" (Salvia scutellarioides por sus efectos antihipertensivos y diuréticos. Hasta ahora no se han hecho estudios experimentales para validar los efectos reportados. Objetivos. Determinar el efecto de S. scutellarioides en la diuresis y concentración de electrolitos urinarios utilizando un modelo en ratas. Materiales y métodos. Veinticuatro ratas Sprague-Dawley machos fueron repartidas al azar en cuatro grupos homogéneos: el grupo 1 recibió solución salina normal; el grupo 2, furosemida (10 mg/kg, y los grupos 3 y 4, S. scutellarioides (1 g/kg y 2 g/kg, respectivamente. Todos los tratamientos se administraron en un volumen de 25 ml/kg de peso del animal. Las ratas se colocaron en una jaula metabólica durante seis horas, y se cuantificó la excreción urinaria y los electrolitos en orina. Resultados. La administración de S. scutellarioides en dosis de 1 y 2 g/kg produjo un aumento significativo de la diuresis comparado con la del grupo control (p

  19. The influence of cultivation method on the flowering of Salvia horminum L. 'Oxford Blue'

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    Elżbieta Pogroszewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Salvia horminum L. 'Oxford Blue' was grown from transplants or it was direct seeded. Four sowing dates were applied: 15 March or 30 March - in a greenhouse, in order to obtain transplants, 13 April, 27 April and 11 May - sown directly into the ground. Three plant densities were applied: 25 plants×m2, 16 plants×m2, 12 plants×m2. It was found that Horminum sage can be grown from transplants or direct seeded. The cultivation from transplants is more advantageous due to the earlier flowering of plants, by about two weeks, and a better quality of inflorescences evaluated in terms of their length and size of bracteoles. Direct sowing of Horminum sage at two-week intervals from the 2nd decade of April till the 2nd decade of May ensures that by the end of August mature inflorescence stems are obtained, ready for cutting. A delay in the date of sowing results in the development of significantly shorter inflorescence stems, irrespective of the plant density. Plant density does not affect significantly the length of the period of inflorescence formation and the date of flowering, but a larger spacing is favourable to plants growing big, what results in a larger fresh weight of the above-ground portion. Sage grown from transplants responses to favourable climatic conditions by the development of bigger inflorescences.

  20. [Diuretic effect of an infusion of the herbal plant, Salvia scutellarioides, in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Jorge Hernán; Palacios, Mauricio; Gutiérrez, Oscar

    2006-03-01

    In the Colombian traditional medicine, an infusion made of the entire plant Salvia scutellarioides (known locally as mastranto or oreja de perro (dog's ear)) is used for its antihypertensive and diuretic effects. However, experimental studies have never been done to validate the reported effects. In the current study, a rat model was used to determine the effect of S. scutellarioides on rat diuresis and urinary electrolytes concentration. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed in four groups: Group 1--normal saline solution, Group 2--furosemide (10 mg/kg), Groups 3 and 4 with S. scutellarioides infusion, 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg respectively. All treatments were administered in a volume of 25 ml/kg of rat weight. After treatment, the rats were placed in a metabolic cage for 6 hours. During this period, urinary excretion was monitored and quantified. At the end of 6 hours, the urinary electrolyte concentrations were measured. The administration of S. scutellarioides at doses of 1 and 2 g/kg produced a significant increase in diuresis when compared to the control group (p < 0.01). The administration of S. scutellarioides at these doses also increased the urinary excretion of potassium and chloride. These results corroborate the apparent diuretic activity of S. scutellarioides described by traditional herbalists and possibly explains its reported antihypertensive effect. Further studies are required to determine the pharmacological and toxicological profile of the plant.

  1. Identification of a Novel (--5-Epieremophilene Synthase from Salvia miltiorrhiza via Transcriptome Mining

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    Lei Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza, a medicinal plant in China, has been used for thousands of years to treat coronary heart diseases. Although biosynthesis of tanshinones, a group of diterpenoids in S. miltiorrhiza, has been extensively investigated, to date we know little about the formation of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in this medicinal plant. Here, we report the characterization of three sesquiterpene synthases, named SmSTPS1, SmSTPS2, and SmSTPS3, which catalyzed the formation of a new compound, (--5-epieremophilene. Additionally, the (--5-epieremophilene biosynthesis activity of SmSTPS1 was confirmed by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Despite the similar enzyme activities of SmSTPS1, SmSTPS2, and SmSTPS3, the three (--5-epieremophilene synthase genes displayed different spatial expression patterns and responded differently to hormone treatments, implicating their specific roles in plant-environment interactions. Our results provide valuable data to understanding the biosynthesis and composition of terpenes in plant.

  2. Pathway engineering for phenolic acid accumulations in Salvia miltiorrhiza by combinational genetic manipulation.

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    Zhang, Yuan; Yan, Ya-Ping; Wu, Yu-Cui; Hua, Wen-Ping; Chen, Chen; Ge, Qian; Wang, Zhe-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    To produce beneficial phenolic acids for medical and commercial purposes, researchers are interested in improving the normally low levels of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) produced by Salvia miltiorrhiza. Here, we present a strategy of combinational genetic manipulation to enrich the precursors available for Sal B biosynthesis. This approach, involving the lignin pathway, requires simultaneous, ectopic expression of an Arabidopsis Production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1 transcription factor (AtPAP1) plus co-suppression of two endogenous, key enzyme genes: cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (SmCCR) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (SmCOMT). Compared with the untransformed control, we achieved a greater accumulation of Sal B (up to 3-fold higher) along with a reduced lignin concentration. This high-Sal B phenotype was stable in roots during vegetative growth and was closely correlated with increased antioxidant capacity for the corresponding plant extracts. Although no outward change in phenotype was apparent, we characterized the molecular phenotype through integrated analysis of transcriptome and metabolome profiling. Our results demonstrated the far-reaching consequences of phenolic pathway perturbations on carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, photo-respiration, and stress responses. This report is the first to describe the production of valuable end products through combinational genetic manipulation in S. miltiorrhiza plants. Our strategy will be effective in efforts to metabolically engineer multi-branch pathway(s), such as the phenylpropanoid pathway, in economically significant medicinal plants. © 2013 International Metabolic Engineering Society Published by International Metabolic Engineering Society All rights reserved.

  3. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of Salvia tomentosa Mill. essential oil

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    ANDREY MARCHEV

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and bioactivity of essential oil from Salvia tomentosa Mill. natively grown in Bulgaria were investigated. GC-MS analysis identified 60 compounds which represented 98% of the oil constituents. The prevalent constituents were monoterpenes with eight dominant compounds being identified: borneol (10.3%, β-pinene (9%, camphor (7.9%, α-pinene (6%, camphene (4%, 1.8-cineole (3.8%, α-limonene (3.5% and β-caryophyllene (3%. The essential oil showed considerable acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (IC50=0.28±0.06 µg/mL, comparable with that of galanthamine. Study of antioxidant activity strongly suggested that the hydrogen atom transfer reaction was preferable over the electron transfer (ORAC=175.0±0.40 µM Trolox equivalents/g oil and FRAP=1.45±0.21 mM Trolox equivalents/g oil. The essential oil showed moderate antifungal and antibacterial activities against Candida albicans and Gram-positive bacteria, whereas it was almost inactive against the investigated Gram-negative strains. The results suggested that the essential oil of Bulgarian S. tomentosa could be considered as a prospective active ingredient for prevention of oxidative stress-related and neurodegenerative disorders in aromatherapy. Because of the high antioxidant capacity, the oil could be considered as natural supplement or antioxidant in cosmetics and food products.

  4. HPLC/DAD determination of rosmarinic acid in Salvia officinalis: sample preparation optimization by factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina B. de [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Oliveira, Bras H. de, E-mail: bho@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2013-01-15

    Sage (Salvia officinalis) contains high amounts of the biologically active rosmarinic acid (RA) and other polyphenolic compounds. RA is easily oxidized, and may undergo degradation during sample preparation for analysis. The objective of this work was to develop and validate an analytical procedure for determination of RA in sage, using factorial design of experiments for optimizing sample preparation. The statistically significant variables for improving RA extraction yield were determined initially and then used in the optimization step, using central composite design (CCD). The analytical method was then fully validated, and used for the analysis of commercial samples of sage. The optimized procedure involved extraction with aqueous methanol (40%) containing an antioxidant mixture (ascorbic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)), with sonication at 45 deg C for 20 min. The samples were then injected in a system containing a C{sub 18} column, using methanol (A) and 0.1% phosphoric acid in water (B) in step gradient mode (45A:55B, 0-5 min; 80A:20B, 5-10 min) with flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1 and detection at 330 nm. Using this conditions, RA concentrations were 50% higher when compared to extractions without antioxidants (98.94 {+-} 1.07% recovery). Auto-oxidation of RA during sample extraction was prevented by the use of antioxidants resulting in more reliable analytical results. The method was then used for the analysis of commercial samples of sage. (author)

  5. The effect of gamma radiation on Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) edible film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chierentin, Gabriel S.; Teixeira, Bruna S.; Del Mastro, Nélida L., E-mail: gabrielsouza.ch@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Edible films and coatings have received considerable attention in recent years for their advantages over synthetic films for edible packaging materials. Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) have functional and important nutritional values: protein content (15 - 25%), fats (30 - 33%), carbohydrates (26 - 41%), dietary fiber (18 - 30%), and ash (4-5%). It also contains a high amount of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Mucilage of chia, a natural exudates from chia seeds, is mainly composed of xylose, glucose and glucuronic acid forming a branched polysaccharide. In the present preliminary work whole chia seeds were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co source Gammacell 220 (AECL) with doses of 0, 5 and 10 kGy, dose rate about 0.8 kGy h{sup -1}. The irradiated seeds were crushed and soaked in an aqueous solution (6% w/w) together with glycerol (1% w/w), under magnetic stirring for 15 minutes at room temperature and poured into casting plates. The plates were placed in an oven with forced air circulation at 35 °C for at least 20 h. Water uptake, moisture, solubility and water activity of the films were established. The most expressive result was a decrease in water uptake with the increase of the radiation dose. Solubility remained almost unaffected by radiation in doses of 5kGy and moisture analysis showed also a decrease with dose. (author)

  6. Isolation and characterization of proteins from chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Oliveros, María R; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2013-01-09

    Chia ( Salvia hispanica L.) is a plant that produces seeds rich in some nutraceutical compounds with high protein content, but little is known about them; for this reason the aim of this study was to characterize the seed storage proteins. Protein fractions were extracted from chia seed flour. The main protein fraction corresponded to globulins (52%). Sedimentation coefficient studies showed that the globulin fraction contains mostly 11S and 7S proteins. The molecular sizes of all the reduced fractions were about 15-50 kDa. Electrophoretic experiments under native conditions exhibited four bands of globulins in the range of 104-628 kDa. The denaturation temperatures of crude albumins, globulins, prolamins, and glutelins were 103, 105, 85.6, and 91 °C, respectively; albumins and globulins had relatively good thermal stability. Selected globulin peptides by mass spectrometry showed homology to sesame proteins. A good balance of essential amino acids was found in the seed flour and globulins, especially of methionine+cysteine.

  7. Assessing gelling properties of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) flour through rheological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Susana; Fradinho, Patrícia; Mata, Paulina; Raymundo, Anabela

    2017-04-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds are considered a promising ingredient for the development of functional products owing to their high nutritional value: 343 g kg(-1) lipids, 251 g kg(-1) protein and 226 g kg(-1) fibre. Considering chia's technological capacities, mainly the ability to swell when absorbing water and gel-forming properties, its addition to a food matrix can affect texture and rheological behaviour, acting as a texturing and stabilizing agent. The aim of the present work was to assess the gelling properties of chia flour through the rheological characterization of 100, 130 and 150 g kg(-1) chia flour gels. According to the mechanical spectra, all gels presented weak gel-like structures, as G' was always less than a decade higher than G″, but higher chia flour concentrations showed a considerable increase in viscoelastic moduli. The gels had relatively low maturation times, almost instantaneous for lower concentrations, but the cooling rate affected the dynamics of formation of the gel structure. Based on texture and rheological properties, gels with 130 g kg(-1) of chia flour processed at 90 °C for 30 min showed the most suitable characteristics for use in the development of new food applications. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Butyryl- and acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitory activities in essential oils of Salvia species and their constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelev, Sergey U; Okello, Edward J; Perry, Elaine K

    2004-04-01

    Extracts of Salvia (sage) species have been reported to have cholinergic activities relevant to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. A lack of information on the inhibition of the enzyme butyrylcholinesterase, also considered to be a target in the treatment of the disease, prompted this in vitro investigation of the essential oils of S. fruticosa, S. lavandulaefolia, S. of ficinalis and S. of ficinalis var. purpurea for anti-butyrylcholinesterase activity. Dose-dependent inhibition of human cholinesterases by the extracts and constituents was determined using the method of Ellman. A time dependent increase in the inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase by the oils of S. fruticosa and S. of ficinalis var. purpurea was evident. IC(50) values decreased from 0.15 +/- 0.007 and 0.14 +/- 0.007 mg/mL after 5 min to 0.035 +/- 0.016 and 0.06 +/- 0.018 mg/mL after 90 min incubation time respectively. The slow onset of inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase was also shown by individual constituents, such as 3-carene and beta-pinene. Analyses of the chemical composition of the oils and anti-butyrylcholinesterase activity of their constituents revealed that none of the compounds tested would account for the total activity of the oils and that synergy is likely. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Hepatoprotective effect of cryptotanshinone from Salvia miltiorrhiza in D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Quan; Jiang, Shuang; Wu, Yan-Ling; Bai, Ting; Yang, Yong; Jin, Xuejun; Lian, Li-Hua; Nan, Ji-Xing

    2014-01-15

    Cryptotanshinone from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge was investigated for hepatoprotective effects in d-galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fulminant hepatic failure. Cryptotanshinone (20 or 40 mg/kg) was orally administered 12 and 1h prior to GalN (700 mg/kg)/LPS (10 μg/kg) injection. The increased mortality and TNF-α levels by GalN/LPS were declined by cryptotanshinone pretreatment. In addition, cryptotanshinone attenuated GalN/LPS-induced apoptosis, characterized by the blockade of caspase-3, -8, and -9 activation, as well as the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. In addition, cryptotanshinone significantly suppressed JNK, ERK and p38 phosphorylation induced by GalN/LPS, and phosphorylation of TAK1 as well. Furthermore, cryptotanshinone significantly inhibited the activation of NF-κB and suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines. These findings suggested that hepatoprotective effect of cryptotanshinone is likely associated with its anti-apoptotic activity and the down-regulation of MAPKs and NF-κB associated at least in part with suppressing TAK1 phosphorylation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of a diterpenoid from Salvia cinnabarina on arterial blood pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Alessio; Maione, Francesco; Bisio, Angela; Romussi, Giovanni; Mascolo, Nicola; Cicala, Carla

    2007-07-01

    The effect of a diterpenoid isolated from Salvia cinnabarina, 3,4-seicosopimar-4(18),7,15-triene-3-oic acid (SCB), on arterial blood pressure was evaluated in anaesthetized rats. Male Wistar rats, anaesthetized with urethane (sol. 10% p/v; 10 mL/kg), underwent surgery for continuous monitoring of arterial blood pressure. After preliminary experiments to evaluate the dose response (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg i.v.) of SCB, a dose of 3 mg/kg was chosen for all successive experiments. On different groups of rats treated with the ganglion-blocking agent chlorisondamine (2.5 mg/kg i.p.) the effect of SCB (3 mg/kg i.v.) was evaluated before and following an infusion of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (0.3 mg/kg/min i.v.). Intravenous administration of SCB at doses of 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg led to a fall in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) of 14.75 +/- 1.44 mmHg, 36.60 +/- 31.40 mmHg and 31.40 +/- 6.28 mmHg, respectively (n = 4-5), that was not modified by treatment of the rat with chlorisondamine nor with L-NAME. The results demonstrate a hypotensive effect of SCB - due to a peripheral mechanism but independent of endothelial nitric oxide release. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Overexpression of SmMYC2 Increases the Production of Phenolic Acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza

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    Na Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available MYC2 is a core transcription factor in the plant response to jasmonates. It also functions in secondary metabolism and various processes for growth and development. However, the knowledge about its role in Salvia miltiorrhiza is still very limited. We determined that the biosynthesis of salvianolic acid B (Sal B was strongly induced in 2-month-old transgenic plants that over-expressed SmMYC2. In the roots of transgenic line 12 that over-expressed SmMYC2 (OEM-12, the Sal B concentration was as high as 5.95 ± 0.07 mg g-1, a level that was 1.88-fold higher than that in control plants that had been transformed with an empty vector. Neither tanshinone IIA nor cryptotanshinone was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography in any of the genotypes. Global transcriptomic analysis using RNA sequencing revealed that most enzyme-encoding genes for the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway were up-regulated in the overexpression lines. Furthermore, both the phenylalanine and tyrosine biosynthesis pathways were activated in those transgenics. Our data demonstrate that overexpression of SmMYC2 promotes the production of phenolic acids by simultaneously activating both primary and secondary pathways for metabolism in S. miltiorrhiza.

  12. [Study on pharmaceutical screening of representative components of Salvia miltiorrhiza diterpene quinones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan-Hong; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Song, Jie; Shi, Ya-Qin; Xiao, Wei

    2013-06-01

    To screen out the main components with no significant difference with Salvia miltiorrhiza diterpene quinones pharmacological action, in order to determine the compatible form of representative components that can describe the overall property of S. miltiorrhiza diterpene quinones. According to the results of the in vitro pharmacological experiment, the myocardial ischemia model of rats was induced through intraperitoneal injection of isoproterenol. The pharmacologic effects of S. miltiorrhiza diterpene quinones, combination with principal component A and combination with principal component B were compared in electrocardiogram (changes in J point), enzymology indicators (SOD, MDA, CK, LDH) and pathology (myocardial histological changes), so as to screen out the compatible form of representative components that can describe the overall property of S. miltiorrhiza diterpene quinones. The S. miltiorrhiza diterpenoid quinone high-dose group and the B high-dose group were similar in all pharmacological effects, with equal efficacy but no significant difference. The S. miltiorrhiza diterpenoid quinone high-dose group and the B high-dose group showed a certain therapeutic effect on ISO-induced myocardial ischemia. Therefore, the four components in the B high-dose group can be used as representative components of S. miltiorrhiza diterpene quinones.

  13. Salvia miltiorrhiza Roots against Cardiovascular Disease: Consideration of Herb-Drug Interactions

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    Feng Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza root (Danshen is widely used in Asia for its cardiovascular benefits and contains both hydrophilic phenolic acids and lipophilic tanshinones, which are believed to be responsible for its therapeutic efficacy. This review summarized the effects of these bioactive components from S. miltiorrhiza roots on pharmacokinetics of comedicated drugs with mechanic insights regarding alterations of protein binding, enzyme activity, and transporter activity based on the published data stemming from both in vitro and in vivo human studies. In vitro studies indicated that cytochrome P450 (CYP450, carboxylesterase enzyme, catechol-O-methyltransferase, organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1 and OAT3, and P-glycoprotein were the major targets involved in S. miltiorrhiza-drug interactions. Lipophilic tanshinones had much more potent inhibitory effects towards CYPs activities compared to hydrophilic phenolic acids, evidenced by much lower Ki values of the former. Clinical S. miltiorrhiza-drug interaction studies were mainly conducted using CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 probe substrates. In addition, the effects of coexisting components on the pharmacokinetic behaviors of those noted bioactive compounds were also included herein.

  14. Identification of Salvia haenkei as gerosuppressant agent by using an integrated senescence-screening assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matic, Ivana; Revandkar, Ajinkya; Chen, Jingjing; Bisio, Angela; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Cocetta, Veronica; Brun, Paola; Mancino, Giorgio; Milanese, Martina; Mattei, Maurizio; Montopoli, Monica; Alimonti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a stable cell cycle arrest that is the causative process of aging. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is implicated in the control of cellular senescence and inhibitors of this pathway have been successfully used for life span prolongation experiments in mammals. PTEN is the major regulator of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and loss of PTEN promotes a senescence response termed PICS. Here we report a novel-screening assay, for the identification of compounds that block different types of senescence response. By testing a library of more than 3000 natural and chemical compounds in PTEN deficient cells we have found that an extract from Salvia haenkei (SH), a native plant of Bolivia is a potent inhibitor of PICS. SH also decreases replicative and UV-mediated senescence in human primary fibroblasts and in a model of in vitro reconstructed human epidermis. Mechanistically, SH treatment affects senescence driven by UV by interfering with IL1-ɑ signalling. Pre-clinical and clinical testing of this extract by performing toxicity and irritability evaluation in vitro also demonstrate the safety of SH extract for clinical use as anti-aging skin treatment. PMID:27922821

  15. Antibacterial evaluation of Salvia miltiorrhizae on Escherichia coli by microcalorimetry coupled with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Guangyao; Zhang, Shanshan; Hu, Yuli; Yang, Meihua; Chen, Ping; Wu, Xiaoru; Guo, Weiying; Kong, Weijun

    2017-12-01

    For seeking novel antibacterial agents with high efficacy and low toxicity to deal with drug resistance, the effects of Salvia miltiorrhizae from various sources on Escherichia coli were evaluated by microcalorimetry coupled with chemometrics. Firstly, the heat-flow power-time curves of E. coli growth affected by different S. miltiorrhizae samples were recorded. Then, some crucial quantitative thermo-kinetic parameters including growth rate constant, heat-flow power and heat output, etc. were obtained from theses curves and were further investigated by some powerful chemometric techniques including similarity analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, hierarchical clustering analysis and principle component analysis. By analyzing the principle parameters, growth rate constant of the second exponential phase (k 2) and the heat-flow output powers of the second highest peak (P 2), together with the derived parameter inhibitory ratio (I,  %), it could be quickly concluded that the tested S. miltiorrhizae samples from different sources in China exhibited strong antibacterial effects on E. coli and the samples from Beijing city exhibited the strongest anti-E. coli effects, which might be used as novel and underlying antibacterial candidates for the resistance of E. coli to the existing drugs in practice. This study provides a useful tool and helpful idea to accurately and rapidly evaluate the antibacterial effects of some complex matrices, offering some references for exploring new antibacterial agents.

  16. Modulating AtDREB1C Expression Improves Drought Tolerance in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tao; Deng, Kejun; Zhang, Qingxia; Gao, Yonghong; Liu, Yu; Yang, Meiling; Zhang, Lipeng; Zheng, Xuelian; Wang, Chunguo; Liu, Zhiwei; Chen, Chengbin; Zhang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Dehydration responsive element binding proteins are transcription factors of the plant-specific AP2 family, many of which contribute to abiotic stress responses in several plant species. We investigated the possibility of increasing drought tolerance in the traditional Chinese medicinal herb, Salvia miltiorrhiza, through modulating the transcriptional regulation of AtDREB1C in transgenic plants under the control of a constitutive (35S) or drought-inducible (RD29A) promoter. AtDREB1C transgenic S. miltiorrhiza plants showed increased survival under severe drought conditions compared to the non-transgenic wild-type (WT) control. However, transgenic plants with constitutive overexpression of AtDREB1C showed considerable dwarfing relative to WT. Physiological tests suggested that the higher chlorophyll content, photosynthetic capacity, and superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase activity in the transgenic plants enhanced plant drought stress resistance compared to WT. Transcriptome analysis of S. miltiorrhiza following drought stress identified a number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the AtDREB1C transgenic lines and WT. These DEGs are involved in photosynthesis, plant hormone signal transduction, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, ribosome, starch and sucrose metabolism, and other metabolic pathways. The modified pathways involved in plant hormone signaling are thought to be one of the main causes of the increased drought tolerance of AtDREB1C transgenic S. miltiorrhiza plants. PMID:28174590

  17. Functional implications of the staminal lever mechanism in Salvia cyclostegia (Lamiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Sun, Shan; Luo, Yan-Jiang; Li, Qing-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Flower morphology and inflorescence architecture affect pollinator foraging behaviour and thereby influence the process of pollination and the reproductive success of plants. This study explored possible ecological functions of the lever-like stamens and the floral design in Salvia cyclostegia. Methods Flower construction was experimentally manipulated by removing either the lower lever arms or the upper fertile thecae of the two stamens from a flower. The two types of manipulated individuals were intermixed with the control ones and randomly distributed in the population. Key Results Removing the sterile lower lever arms significantly reduced handling time per flower of the main pollinator, Bombus personatus. Interestingly, this manipulation did not increase the number of flowers probed per plant visit, but instead reduced it, i.e. shortened the visit sequence of the bumble-bees. Both loss of staminal lever function by removing lower lever arms and exclusion of self pollen by removing upper fertile thecae significantly reduced seed set per flower and seed set per plant. Both the manipulations interacted significantly with inflorescence size for the effect on female reproductive output. Conclusions Though the intact flowers demand a long handling time for pollinators, the reversible staminal lever is of advantage by promoting dispersal of pollen and thus the male function. The particular floral design in S. cyclostegia contributes to the floral constancy of B. personatus bumble-bees, with the lower lever arms acting as an optical cue for foraging cognition. PMID:21292677

  18. Effect of Salvia leriifolia Benth. root extracts on ischemia-reperfusion in rat skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Hosseini, Azar; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Sadeghnia, Hamid-Reza

    2007-01-01

    Background Salvia leriifolia have been shown to decrease ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in brain tissues. In this study, the effects of S. leriifolia aqueous and ethanolic extracts were evaluated on an animal model of I/R injury in the rat hind limb. Methods Ischemia was induced using free-flap surgery in skeletal muscle. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of S. leriifolia (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) root and normal saline (10 ml/kg) were administered intraperitoneally 1 h prior reperfusion. During preischemia, ischemia and reperfusion conditions the electromyographic (EMG) potentials in the muscles were recorded. The markers of oxidative stress including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total sulfhydryl (SH) groups and antioxidant capacity of muscle (using FRAP assay) were measured. Results In peripheral ischemia, the average peak-to-peak amplitude during ischemic-reperfusion was found to be significantly larger in extracts groups in comparison with control group. Following extracts administration, the total SH contents and antioxidant capacity were elevated in muscle flap. The MDA level was also declined significantly in test groups. Conclusion It is concluded that S. leriifolia root extracts have some protective effects on different markers of oxidative damage in muscle tissue injury caused by lower limb ischemia-reperfusion. PMID:17617916

  19. Geoarchaeological results from geophysical prospections at the Roman city of Urbs Salvia, central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Antonio; Perna, Roberto; Pierantoni, Pietro Paolo; Ghezzi, Annalisa; Tassi, Luca; Cingolani, Sofia

    2017-04-01

    We report on a combined magnetic-GPR survey performed in 2015 and 2016 at the ancient Roman city of Urbs Salvia, located in central Italy. The main objective of this survey was to reconstruct the urban organization of the city forum and determine possible sites of future excavations. We found a complex pattern of buried structures, possibly resulting from the coexistence of republican and imperial artifacts and burned structures. A test excavation at the location where we detected a long linear structure characterized by strong magnetic signal revealed the presence of thermal baths. GPR data were acquired in areas characterized by high magnetic noise induced by metallic infrastructures (e.g., fences), which prevented a correct acquisition of archaeological anomalies. These data not only allowed to overcome the magnetic noise, but provided interesting 3D reconstructions of the buried structures. A detailed GPR survey in the theatre area was also performed, with the aim to investigate the plan of the porticus post scaenam. This survey allowed to identify some interesting structures related to different chronological phases and confirms the epigraphic data related to the development of the monument.

  20. An abietane diterpene from Salvia cuspidata and some new derivatives are active against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, E S; Spina, R M; Tonn, C E; Sosa, M A; Cifuente, D A

    2015-12-01

    The Plant Kingdom is an excellent source for obtaining natural compounds with antiprotozoal activity. In the present work, we studied the effect of the diterpene 12-hydroxy-11,14-diketo-6,8,12-abietatrien-19,20-olide (HABTO) obtained from the aerial parts of Salvia cuspidata on Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. This compound was found to inhibit parasite growth even at low concentrations (IC50 5 μg/mL) and with low toxicity on mammalian cells. In addition, this diterpene induced an intense vacuolization within the parasites. In order to obtain analogs with greater lipophilicity, chemical modifications on the enol moiety were carried out to obtain the acetyl (AABTO), the sylil (SABTO) and the allyl (ALLABTO) derivatives. We observed that the SABTO was the most effective one on the parasites, and the effect could be attributed to a greater lipophilicity of this compound. Taking into account these data we conclude that the increase of lipophilicity by chemical modifications is an adequate strategy for improving the trypanocidal activity of this kind abietane diterpenes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Vegetation patches improve the establishment of Salvia mexicana seedlings by modifying microclimatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Hernández, Pedro E.; Rosete-Rodríguez, Alejandra; Sánchez-Coronado, María E.; Orozco, Susana; Pedrero-López, Luis; Méndez, Ignacio; Orozco-Segovia, Alma

    2014-07-01

    Human disturbance has disrupted the dynamics of plant communities. To restore these dynamics, we could take advantage of the microclimatic conditions generated by remaining patches of vegetation and plastic mulch. These microclimatic conditions might have great importance in restoring disturbed lava fields located south of Mexico City, where the rock is exposed and the soil is shallow. We evaluated the effects of both the shade projected by vegetation patches and plastic mulch on the mean monthly soil surface temperature ( T ss) and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and on the survival and growth of Salvia mexicana throughout the year. This species was used as a phytometer of microsite quality. Shade reduced the T ss to a greater extent than mulch did. Both survival and growth were enhanced by shade and mulch, and the PPFD was related with seedling growth. During the dry season, plant biomass was lost, and there was a negative effect of PPFD on plant growth. At micro-meteorological scales, the use of shade projected by patches of vegetation and mulch significantly reduced the mortality of S. mexicana and enhanced its growth. Survival and growth of this plant depended on the environmental quality of microsites on a small scale, which was determined by the environmental heterogeneity of the patches and the landscape. For plant restoration, microsite quality must be evaluated on small scales, but on a large scale it may be enough to take advantage of landscape shade dynamics and the use of mulch to increase plant survival and growth.

  2. Chemical Diversity and Antimicrobial Activity of Salvia multicaulis Vahl Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahed, Layal; Stien, Didier; Ouaini, Naïm; Eparvier, Véronique; El Beyrouthy, Marc

    2016-05-01

    The chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs) of aerial parts of Salvia multicaulis Vahl, collected during the same week from two different Lebanese regions, were investigated. The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and characterized by GC and GC/MS analyses. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of these EOs were determined against one Gram-negative and two Gram-positive bacteria, one yeast, and five dermatophytes using the broth microdilution technique. One EO was notably active against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and all of the Trichophyton species tested. Nerolidol was found to be the major compound in the active oil; nerolidol was also absent from the inactive oil. This study demonstrated that nerolidol shows antimicrobial activity and therefore significantly contributes to the antimicrobial potential of the oil. The chemical diversity of worldwide S. multicaulis EOs was analyzed, revealing that the EOs of this study belong to two different chemotypes found in the literature. The nerolidol chemotype appears to be restricted to Lebanon, and it can be used as antimicrobial agent against external bacterial and fungal infections. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  3. Identification of Salvia haenkei as gerosuppressant agent by using an integrated senescence-screening assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matic, Ivana; Revandkar, Ajinkya; Chen, Jingjing; Bisio, Angela; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Cocetta, Veronica; Brun, Paola; Mancino, Giorgio; Milanese, Martina; Mattei, Maurizio; Montopoli, Monica; Alimonti, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Cellular senescence is a stable cell cycle arrest that is the causative process of aging. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is implicated in the control of cellular senescence and inhibitors of this pathway have been successfully used for life span prolongation experiments in mammals. PTEN is the major regulator of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and loss of PTEN promotes a senescence response termed PICS. Here we report a novel-screening assay, for the identification of compounds that block different types of senescence response. By testing a library of more than 3000 natural and chemical compounds in PTEN deficient cells we have found that an extract from Salvia haenkei (SH), a native plant of Bolivia is a potent inhibitor of PICS. SH also decreases replicative and UV-mediated senescence in human primary fibroblasts and in a model of in vitro reconstructed human epidermis. Mechanistically, SH treatment affects senescence driven by UV by interfering with IL1-α signalling. Pre-clinical and clinical testing of this extract by performing toxicity and irritability evaluation in vitro also demonstrate the safety of SH extract for clinical use as anti-aging skin treatment.

  4. The evolution of signal–reward correlations in bee- and hummingbird-pollinated species of Salvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Vieyra, Santiago; Fornoni, Juan; Pérez-Alquicira, Jessica; Boege, Karina; Domínguez, César A.

    2014-01-01

    Within-individual variation in floral advertising and reward traits is a feature experienced by pollinators that visit different flowers of the same plant. Pollinators can use advertising traits to gather information about the quality and amount of rewards, leading to the evolution of signal–reward correlations. As long as plants differ in the reliability of their signals and pollinators base their foraging decisions on this information, natural selection should act on within-individual correlations between signals and rewards. Because birds and bees differ in their cognitive capabilities, and use different floral traits as signals, we tested the occurrence of adaptive divergence of the within-individual signal–reward correlations among Salvia species that are pollinated either by bees or by hummingbirds. They are expected to use different floral advertising traits: frontal traits in the case of bees and side traits in the case of hummingbirds. We confirmed this expectation as bee- and hummingbird-pollinated species differed in which specific traits are predominantly associated with nectar reward at the within-individual level. Our findings highlight the adaptive value of within-individual variation and covariation patterns, commonly disregarded as ‘environmental noise’, and are consistent with the hypothesis that pollinator-mediated selection affects the correlation pattern among floral traits. PMID:24648219

  5. High diversity of indigenous populations of dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in essential-oil composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jug-Dujaković, Marija; Ristić, Mihailo; Pljevljakušić, Dejan; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Liber, Zlatko; Hančević, Katarina; Radić, Tomislav; Satović, Zlatko

    2012-10-01

    Essential oils of 25 indigenous populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) that represent nearly half of native distribution area of the species were analyzed. Plantlets collected from wild populations were grown in the same field under the same environmental conditions and then sampled for essential-oil analysis. The yield of essential oil ranged from 1.93 to 3.70% with average of 2.83%. Among the 62 compounds detected, eight (cis-thujone, camphor, trans-thujone, 1,8-cineole, β-pinene, camphene, borneol, and bornyl acetate) formed 78.13-87.33% of essential oils of individual populations. Strong positive correlations were observed between camphor and β-pinene, β-pinene and borneol, as well as between borneol and bornyl acetate. The strongest negative correlation was detected between camphor and trans-thujone. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of eight main compounds showed that first main component separated populations with high thujone content, from those rich in camphor, while the second component separated populations rich in cis-thujone from those rich in trans-thujone. Cluster analysis (CA) led to the identification of three chemotypes of S. officinalis populations: cis-thujone; trans-tujone, and camphor/β-pinene/borneol/bornyl acetate. We propose that differences in essential oils of 25 populations are mostly genetically controlled, since potential environmental factors were controlled in this study. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  6. Influence of rosmarinic acid and Salvia officinalis extracts on melanogenesis of B16F10 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina B. Oliveira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is a photoprotective skin pigment, and pathologies characterized by hypo or hyperpigmentation are common. New compounds that regulate melanogenesis are, therefore, opportune, and many natural products with this property, as polyphenols, have been described. Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is a widely used food spice that contains high amounts of phenol derivates, including rosmarinic acid. The aim of this work was to evaluate the contribution of rosmarinic acid in the melanogenic activity of sage extracts. Fluid and aqueous extracts of sage and purified rosmarinic acid were assayed for B16F10 cytotoxicity and, then, evaluated on melanin production and tyrosinase activity. While sage extracts showed a concentration-dependent ability to significantly increase melanin production without necessarily changing the enzymatic activity, rosmarinic acid showed a dual behavior on melanogenesis, increasing melanin biosynthesis and tyrosinase activity at low concentrations and decreasing it at higher levels. Rosmarinic acid may collaborate with sage extracts activity on melanogenesis, although other compounds may be involved. This is the first time that a dual action of rosmarinic acid on melanogenesis is reported, which may be useful in further studies for therapeutic formulations to treat skin pigmentation disorders.

  7. Evaluation of bioactive properties and phenolic compounds in different extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-03-01

    The therapeutic benefits of medicinal plants are well known. Nevertheless, essential oils have been the main focus of antioxidant and antimicrobial studies, remaining scarce the reports with hydrophilic extracts. Thus, the antioxidant and antifungal activities of aqueous (prepared by infusion and decoction) and methanol/water (80:20, v/v) extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were evaluated and characterised in terms of phenolic compounds. Decoction and methanol/water extract gave the most pronounced antioxidant and antifungal properties, being positively related with their phenolic composition. The highest concentration of phenolic compounds was observed in the decoction, followed by methanol/water extract and infusion. Fungicidal and/or fungi static effects proved to be dependent on the extracts concentration. Overall, the incorporation of sage decoction in the daily diet or its use as a complement for antifungal therapies, could provide considerable benefits, also being an alternative to sage essential oils that can display some toxic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of rosmarinic acid and Salvia officinalis extracts on melanogenesis of B16F10 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina B. Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is a photoprotective skin pigment, and pathologies characterized by hypo or hyperpigmentation are common. New compounds that regulate melanogenesis are, therefore, opportune, and many natural products with this property, as polyphenols, have been described. Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is a widely used food spice that contains high amounts of phenol derivates, including rosmarinic acid. The aim of this work was to evaluate the contribution of rosmarinic acid in the melanogenic activity of sage extracts. Fluid and aqueous extracts of sage and purified rosmarinic acid were assayed for B16F10 cytotoxicity and, then, evaluated on melanin production and tyrosinase activity. While sage extracts showed a concentration-dependent ability to significantly increase melanin production without necessarily changing the enzymatic activity, rosmarinic acid showed a dual behavior on melanogenesis, increasing melanin biosynthesis and tyrosinase activity at low concentrations and decreasing it at higher levels. Rosmarinic acid may collaborate with sage extracts activity on melanogenesis, although other compounds may be involved. This is the first time that a dual action of rosmarinic acid on melanogenesis is reported, which may be useful in further studies for therapeutic formulations to treat skin pigmentation disorders.

  9. Salvia officinalis L. induces alveolar bud growing in adult female rat mammary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsefi, Malihezaman; Abedian, Mehrnaz; Azarbahram, Zahra; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    In traditional medicine Salvia officinalis (sage) has been used as menstrual cycle regulator. In the present study the effects of sage extract on breast tissue were examined. Fourteen female rats were divided into two groups: 1) Distilled water-treated rats (Con) that were gavaged with 1ml distilled water and 2) Saliva officinalis hydroalcoholic extract (SHE)-treated rats that were gavaged with 30mg/kg/body weight of sage extract for 30 days. The estrus cycle changes were monitored by daily examination of vaginal smear. Whole mounts of right pelvic breast were spread on the slide and stained by carmine. The number of alveolar buds (ABs) type 1 and 2 and lobules of mammary gland were scored. Tissue sections of left pelvic mammary gland were prepared and its histomorphometrical changes were measured. Blood samples were taken from dorsal aorta and estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. Estrous cycles decreased significantly in SHE-treated animals. The number of alveolar buds and lobules in mammary gland whole mount of SHE-treated group were higher than the Con group. The number and diameter of ducts in histological section of mammary gland in SHE-treated group increased as compared to the Con group. Sage promotes alveologenesis of mammary glands and it can be used as a lactiferous herb.

  10. Influence of storage media containing Salvia officinalis on survival of periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozan, Fatih; Polat, Zübeyde Akin; Tepe, Bektaş; Er, Kürşat

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of Salvia officinalis (S. officinalis) extracts to serve as a storage medium for the maintenance of periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability of avulsed teeth. PDL cells were obtained from healthy third molars and cultured in Dulbecco's Modi?ed Eagle's Medium (DMEM). Cultures were subjected to 4, 2.5, 1.5, and 0.5% S. officinalis solutions, Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and tap water. Tissue culture plates were incubated with experimental media at 37 masculineC for 1, 3, 6, 12 or 24 hours. PDL cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) complemented by the Tukey's test. The level of significance was 5% (pofficinalis was a more effective storage medium than the other experimental solutions (pofficinalis and HBSS. At 24 hours, 2.5% S. officinalis was found to be significantly better than the other solutions tested. S. officinalis can be recommended as a suitable transport medium for avulsed teeth. The findings of this study support the use of S. officinalis as another option for clinicians to use to store and transport avulsed teeth until reimplantation procedures can be done.

  11. Chemical composition and biological activities of Salvia officinalis essential oil from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedher, Med Raâfet Ben; Khedher, Saoussen Ben; Chaieb, Ikbal; Tounsi, Slim; Hammami, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial, insecticidal and allelopathic activities of Tunisia Salvia officinalis essential oil (SoEO). The SoEO was characterized by the presence of 49 components with camphor (25.14 %), α-thujone (18.83 %), 1,8-cineole (14.14 %), viridiflorol (7.98 %), β-thujone (4.46 %) and β-caryophyllene (3.30 %) as the major components, determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The level of antioxidant activity, determined by complementary tests, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging (IC50= 6.7 mg/mL), linoleic acid peroxidation (IC50= 9.6 mg/mL) and ferric reducing assays (IC50= 28.4 mg/mL), was relatively moderate. The SoEO was also screened for its antimicrobial activity. Good to moderate inhibitions were recorded for most of tested microorganisms. It also exhibited important insecticidal activity against Spodoptera littoralis larvae and Tribolium castaneum adults with LC50 values of 55.99 and 97.43 µl/L air, respectively. The effect of the SoEO on seeds germination and growth showed different activities against radical and hypocotyl elongation of the tested species. These results suggest the potential use of the SoEO as natural antimicrobial preservative in cosmetic, pharmaceutical industry and in pest management.

  12. An arabino(glucurono)xylan isolated from immunomodulatory active hemicellulose fraction of Salvia officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capek, P; Matulová, M

    2013-08-01

    From the aerial parts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) an arabino-(4-O-methyl-glucurono)-xylan (AGX) was isolated by alkaline extraction followed by precipitation with barium hydroxide solution. Polymer was isolated from sage as a light brown polysaccharide material of molecular mass (Mp) 84,000. Compositional analyses of sage AGX revealed xylose (81%), arabinose (10%), glucuronic acid (8%) and small amounts of hexoses (1%). Linkage sugar analyses showed the (1→4)-linked xylopyranosyl backbone with low degree of substitution (9-10%) at O-2 and O-3. Arabinofuranose residues were found as the terminal, 1,3-, 1,5- and 1,3,5-linked. NMR structural analyses of acidic oligomers, generated by partial acidic hydrolysis of AGX, confirmed a substitution of xylose residues by glucuronic acid and its 4-O-methyl derivate at O-2 at an average on every fourteenth xylose residue. NMR and FT-IR measurements, as well as a high negative optical rotation confirmed the β configuration of glycosidic linkages in AGX backbone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Manool, a Salvia officinalis diterpene, induces selective cytotoxicity in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Munari, Carla Carolina; Nicolella, Heloiza Diniz; Veneziani, Rodrigo Cassio Sola; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2016-10-01

    Manool, a diterpene isolated from Salvia officinalis, was evaluated by the XTT colorimetric assay for cytotoxicity and selectivity against different cancer cell lines: B16F10 (murine melanoma), MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HeLa (human cervical adenocarcinoma), HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), and MO59J, U343 and U251 (human glioblastoma). A normal cell line (V79, Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts) was used to compare the selectivity of the test substance. Manool exhibited higher cytotoxic activity against HeLa (IC50 = 6.7 ± 1.1 µg/mL) and U343 (IC50 = 6.7 ± 1.2 µg/mL) cells. In addition, in the used experimental protocols, the treatment with manool was significantly more cytotoxic for different tumor cell lines than for the normal cell line V79 (IC50 = 49.3 ± 3.3 µg/mL), and showed high selectivity. These results suggest that manool may be used to treat cancer without affecting normal cells.

  14. Salvia officinalis L. Essential Oils from Spain: Determination of Composition, Antioxidant Capacity, Antienzymatic, and Antimicrobial Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillas, Ana-Belen; Carrasco, Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2017-08-01

    Four essential oils (EOs) from Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Spain (Murcia Province) were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to determine their relative and absolute compositions. The main components were α-thujone (22.8 - 41.7%), camphor (10.7 - 19.8%), 1,8-cineole (4.7 - 15.6%), and β-thujone (6.1 - 15.6%). Enantioselective gas chromatography identified (-)-α-thujone and (+)-camphor as the main enantiomers in all the analyzed EOs. Furthermore, when the EOs were tested to determine their antioxidant activity against free radicals and as ferric reducing and ferrous chelating agents, all were seen to have moderate activity due to the compounds they contained, such as linalool or terpinene. Because of their known relation with inflammatory illnesses and Alzheimer's disease, respectively, the inhibition of lipoxygenase and acetylcholinesterase was studied using the EOs. Some individual compounds also inhibited these enzymes. In addition, the studied EOs were able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. The characterization carried out increases our awareness of the possible uses of S. officinalis EO as natural additives in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  15. Synthesis and κ-Opioid Receptor Activity of Furan-Substituted Salvinorin A Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The neoclerodane diterpene salvinorin A, found in the leaves of Salvia divinorum, is a potent κ-opioid receptor agonist, making it an attractive scaffold for development into a treatment for substance abuse. Although several successful semisynthetic studies have been performed to elucidate structure–activity relationships, the lack of analogues with substitutions to the furan ring of salvinorin A has prevented a thorough understanding of its role in binding to the κ-opioid receptor. Herein we report the synthesis of several salvinorin A derivatives with modified furan rings. Evaluation of these compounds in a functional assay indicated that sterically less demanding substitutions are preferred, suggesting the furan ring is bound in a congested portion of the binding pocket. The most potent of the analogues successfully reduced drug-seeking behavior in an animal model of drug-relapse without producing the sedation observed with other κ-opioid agonists. PMID:25426797

  16. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. 630.1204 Section 630.1204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule...

  17. [Disability leave and sick leave in Spain. 2016 legislative update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; Terradillos-García, María Jesús; Capdevila-García, Luisa M; Ramírez-Íñiguez de la Torre, María Victoria; Aguilar-Jiménez, Encarna; Aguado-Benedí, María José; López-González, Angel Arturo; Torres-Alberich, José Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    In Spanish, the concepts of discapacidad (disability leave) and incapacidad (sick leave) jointly refer to the impairment of a person due to injuries, diseases or deficiencies that limit their activity in a social, personal or occupational field. However, this common link does not imply that both concepts are the same. Statistical data from INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística: Statistic National Institute) show that Spain had in 2015 3.85 million persons with a disability (59.8% were women). Statistical data from 2015 from INSS (Instituto Nacional de Seguridad Social: Social Security National Institute) show high levels in the number of processes and in workers affected by temporary sick leave, with social costs to the social security system. Both concepts have been updated: about disability leave, Law 39/2006 adjusted terminology by avoiding the use of concepts with discriminating or pejorative connotation. Regarding sick leave, the Ley General de Seguridad Social (General Social Security Law)has been amended and came into effect in January, 2016. It is necessary to know and distinguish these aspects for a better administrative management, and a more oriented information to the affected patient.

  18. Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Zhiyi; Ye, Zhong; Hauck, Cathy; Murphy, Patricia A; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P; Reddy, Manju B; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2011-10-11

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general. To investigate the permeabilities of RA and UA as pure compounds and in Prunella vulgaris and Salvia officinalis ethanol extracts across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. The permeabilities and phase II biotransformation of RA and UA as pure compounds and in herbal extracts were compared using Caco-2 cells with HPLC detection. The apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) for RA and RA in Prunella vulgaris extracts was 0.2 ± 0.05 × 10(-6)cm/s, significantly increased to 0.9 ± 0.2 × 10(-6)cm/s after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment. P(app) for UA and UA in Salvia officinalis extract was 2.7 ± 0.3 × 10(-6)cm/s and 2.3 ± 0.5 × 10(-6)cm/s before and after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment, respectively. Neither compound was affected in permeability by the herbal extract matrix. RA and UA in herbal extracts had similar uptake as that found using the pure compounds, which may simplify the prediction of compound efficacy, but the apparent lack of intestinal glucuronidation/sulfation of UA is likely to further enhance the bioavailability of that compound compared with RA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lactic Acid Fermentation Improved Textural Behaviour, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Dough

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Yanina Bustos; Carla Luciana Gerez; Lina Goumana Mohtar Mohtar; Verónica Irene Paz Zanini; Mónica Azucena Nazareno; María Pía Taranto; Laura Beatriz Iturriaga

    2017-01-01

    In this work, autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from chia (Salvia hispanica L.) dough and selected on the basis of the kinetics of acidifi cation and proteolytic activity. Strain no. C8, identifi ed as Lactobacillus plantarum C8, was selected and used as starte r to obtain chia sourdough. Lactic acid fermentation increased the organic acid mass fractions (lactic, acetic and phenyl lactic acids to 12.3 g, 1.0 g and 23.8 μg per kg of dough respectively), and antioxidant act...

  20. Amino acids and fatty acids profile of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed

    OpenAIRE

    Soňa Nitrayová; Matej Brestenský; Jaroslav Heger; Peter Patráš; Ján Rafay; Alexander Sirotkin

    2014-01-01

    The seeds of most plants are rich in various nutrients and can provide a lot of useful health benefits. The objective of this study was to determine and compare differences in fat, fatty acids, crude protein and amino acids concentrations for chia and flax seeds. Study was carried out using brown and gold seeds of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and Chia (Salvia hispanica L.). The mean protein content in tested seeds ranged from 211.8 to 252.5 g/kg dry matter and in chia seed was about 13.10% h...